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1

GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

2

Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change  

E-print Network

Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change anomaly. climate change climate cycles elasticity crustal motion geodesy The Greenland GPS Network a new means to measure the impact of climate cycles and climate change on ice mass balance in the world

Howat, Ian M.

3

Evolution of hydrological and carbon cycles under a changing climate  

E-print Network

Evolution of hydrological and carbon cycles under a changing climate Qiaozhen Mu,* Maosheng Zhao, University of Montana, 32 Campus Drive, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA Abstract: Hydrological and carbon cycles cycling). In this article, we first reviewed the concepts of hydrological and carbon cycles

Montana, University of

4

Positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change due to increased atmospheric CO2 may affect land and ocean efficiency to absorb atmospheric CO2. Here, using climate and carbon three-dimensional models forced by a 1% per year increase in atmospheric CO2, we show that there is a positive feedback between the climate system and the carbon cycle. Climate change reduces land and ocean uptake of CO2,

Pierre Friedlingstein; Laurent Bopp; Philippe Ciais; Jean-Louis Dufresne; Laurent Fairhead; Hervé LeTreut; Patrick Monfray; James Orr

2001-01-01

5

Climate Change and Expected Impacts on the Global Water Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

How the elements of the global hydrologic cycle may respond to climate change is reviewed, first from a discussion of the physical sensitivity of these elements to changes in temperature, and then from a comparison of observations of hydrologic changes over the past 100 million years. Observations of current changes in the hydrologic cycle are then compared with projected future changes given the prospect of global warming. It is shown that some of the projections come close to matching the estimated hydrologic changes that occurred long ago when the earth was very warm.

Rind, David; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

6

Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas.  

PubMed

Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas. PMID:25626569

Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús

2015-02-01

7

Global response of the terrestrial biosphere to CO2 and climate change using a coupled climate-carbon cycle model  

E-print Network

feedback in the climate-carbon cycle system. INDEX TERMS: 0315 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Impact phenomena; KEYWORDS: climate change impact, terrestrial carbon cycle Citation: Berthelot, M., P of the terrestrial biosphere to CO2 and climate change using a coupled climate-carbon cycle model, Global Biogeochem

Dufresne, Jean-Louis

8

On the magnitude of positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle  

E-print Network

On the magnitude of positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle J CO 2 will be 18% higher due to the climate change impact on the carbon cycle. Such a positive. They found a very large negative im- pact of climate change on land carbon cycle with a de- cline of tropical

Dufresne, Jean-Louis

9

CHANGING CLIMATE AND PHOTOBIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Global biogeochemistry plays a critical role in controlling life processes, climate and their interactions, including effects on atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Recent evidence indicates that the light-driven part of aquatic biogeochemical cycles is being altered by in...

10

Complex Life Cycles and the Responses of Insects to Climate Change  

E-print Network

to the Response of Organisms to Climate Change: The Role of Thermal Adaptation'' presented at the annual meetingSYMPOSIUM Complex Life Cycles and the Responses of Insects to Climate Change Joel G. Kingsolver,1 and evolutionary responses of organisms to climate change? We address this question by exploring several recent

11

Carbon Cycling in Grasslands: Effects of Climate Change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large amounts of carbon are stored in grassland soils, which can potentially buffer or exacerbate climate change depending on interacting climate factors. Here we discuss results from several grassland field studies examining the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and/or temperature rise on carbo...

12

Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.  

PubMed

The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global warming in hare-lynx system. PMID:23846828

Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

2013-11-01

13

Incorporating climate-system and carbon-cycle uncertainties in integrated assessments of climate change. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of integrated assessment draws from a large body of knowledge across a range of disciplines to gain robust insights about possible interactions, trade-offs, and synergies. Integrated assessment of climate change, for example, uses knowledge from the fields of energy system science, economics, geophysics, demography, climate change impacts, and many others. Each of these fields comes with its associated caveats and uncertainties, which should be taken into account when assessing any results. The geophysical system and its associated uncertainties are often represented by models of reduced complexity in integrated assessment modelling frameworks. Such models include simple representations of the carbon-cycle and climate system, and are often based on the global energy balance equation. A prominent example of such model is the 'Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change', MAGICC. Here we show how a model like MAGICC can be used for the representation of geophysical uncertainties. Its strengths, weaknesses, and limitations are discussed and illustrated by means of an analysis which attempts to integrate socio-economic and geophysical uncertainties. These uncertainties in the geophysical response of the Earth system to greenhouse gases remains key for estimating the cost of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios. We look at uncertainties in four dimensions: geophysical, technological, social and political. Our results indicate that while geophysical uncertainties are an important factor influencing projections of mitigation costs, political choices that delay mitigation by one or two decades a much more pronounced effect.

Rogelj, J.; McCollum, D. L.; Reisinger, A.; Knutti, R.; Riahi, K.; Meinshausen, M.

2013-12-01

14

Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles in the Gulf of Mexico: A Clue to Abrupt Climate Change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that low-latitude climate variability plays a significant role in abrupt climate change during the last glacial cycle, particularly during the deglaciation. However, there have been few low-latitude marine records that cover the abrupt climate transitions known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles that occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3; 24-57 ka). Defining the extent of D-O cyclicity

H. W. Hill; B. P. Flower; T. M. Quinn

2003-01-01

15

How positive is the feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change induced by atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases is believed to have a large impact on the global carbon cycle. Several offline studies focusing either on the marine or on the terrestrial carbon cycle highlighted such potential effects. Two recent online studies, using ocean-atmosphere general circulation models coupled to land and ocean carbon cycle models, in- vestigated in

P. FRIEDLINGSTEIN; J.-L. DUFRESNE; P. M. COX; P. RAYNER

2003-01-01

16

How does complex terrain influence responses of carbon and water cycle processes to climate variability and climate change?  

EPA Science Inventory

We are pursuing the ambitious goal of understanding how complex terrain influences the responses of carbon and water cycle processes to climate variability and climate change. Our studies take place in H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, an LTER (Long Term Ecological Research) site...

17

Effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: Interactions and feedbacks  

SciTech Connect

Solar UV radiation, climate and other drivers of global change are undergoing significant changes and models forecast that these changes will continue for the remainder of this century. Here we assess the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles and the interactions of these effects with climate change, including feedbacks on climate. Such interactions occur in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. While there is significant uncertainty in the quantification of these effects, they could accelerate the rate of atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase and subsequent climate change beyond current predictions. The effects of predicted changes in climate and solar UV radiation on carbon cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are expected to vary significantly between regions. The balance of positive and negative effects on terrestrial carbon cycling remains uncertain, but the interactions between UV radiation and climate change are likely to contribute to decreasing sink strength in many oceanic regions. Interactions between climate and solar UV radiation will affect cycling of elements other than carbon, and so will influence the concentration of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases. For example, increases in oxygen-deficient regions of the ocean caused by climate change are projected to enhance the emissions of nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse and ozone-depleting gas. Future changes in UV-induced transformations of aquatic and terrestrial contaminants could have both beneficial and adverse effects. Taken in total, it is clear that the future changes in UV radiation coupled with human-caused global change will have large impacts on biogeochemical cycles at local, regional and global scales.

Erickson III, David J [ORNL

2011-01-01

18

Effects of Solar UV Radiation and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycling: Interactions and Feedbacks  

EPA Science Inventory

Solar UV radiation, climate and other drivers of global change are undergoing significant changes and models forecast that these changes will continue for the remainder of this century. Here we assess the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles and the interactions...

19

Long-term climate change and the geochemical cycle of carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of the coupled climate-geochemical system to changes in paleography is examined in terms of the biogeochemical carbon cycle. The simple, zonally averaged energy balance climate model combined with a geochemical carbon cycle model, which was developed to study climate changes, is described. The effects of latitudinal distributions of the continents on the carbon cycle are investigated, and the global silicate weathering rate as a function of latitude is measured. It is observed that a concentration of land area at high altitudes results in a high CO2 partial pressure and a high global average temperature, and for land at low latitudes a cold globe and ice are detected. It is noted that the CO2 greenhouse feedback effect is potentially strong and has a stabilizing effect on the climate system.

Marshall, Hal G.; Walker, James C. G.; Kuhn, William R.

1988-01-01

20

Trophic Interaction Cycles in Tundra Ecosystems and the Impact of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the impact of climate change on tundra. While population cycles are geographically widespread, it is on arctic tundra that such cycles appear to be most influential for the functioning of the whole ecosystem. We give an overview of tundra species that exhibit population cycles and describe what are currently believed to be the causal mechanisms. Population cycles most likely originate from trophic interactions within the plant-based tundra food web, where lemmings, either as prey for carnivores or as consumers of plants, play the key role. The predominance of trophic interaction cycles at northern latitudes is ultimately related to climate, and such cycles should therefore be vulnerable to climate change. Recent evidence indicates that changes have already taken place in the dynamics of some key herbivores and their predators, consistent with the expected impacts of climate change. There is a strong need for large-scale integrated monitoring and research efforts to further document such changes and their ecosystem consequences.

ROLF A. IMS and EVA FUGLEI (;)

2005-04-01

21

Climate Change and Macro-Economic Cycles in Pre-Industrial Europe  

PubMed Central

Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales. PMID:24516601

Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Lee, Harry F.; Li, Guodong

2014-01-01

22

From Spring to Fall: Life Cycle Responses of Plant Species and Communities to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shifting life cycles of plants in response to environmental changes are well-documented. However, our understanding of the reasons for the shifts remains insufficient for prediction. Complex data sets that include season-long responses of plant species and communities to climate, including extreme climate years and experimental manipulations, are needed to address the gaps in our understanding. Using near-surface sensing technologies and observations of individual species' and plant community responses, we identified season-long shifts of plant life cycles to observed and experimental climate variation. Changes to plant life cycles often included shifts in the timing of spring and fall events for individual species and plant communities, leading to a longer growing season. Community patterns were more predictable than species' responses, although non-native species' responses led to less predictable community patterns. Seasonal patterns of snow cover and water availability influenced the effect of temperature on species' and community life cycles. Multi-factor climate change experiments and data during extreme climate years are essential to determine thresholds by which snow cover and soil water content influence species and community responses to climate warming.

Steltzer, H.; Chong, G.; Weintraub, M. N.

2013-12-01

23

Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

24

Northern Iberian abrupt climate change dynamics during the last glacial cycle: A view from lacustrine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a palaeoclimatic reconstruction of the last glacial cycle in Iberia (ca. 120,000–11,600cal yrs BP) based on multi-proxy reconstructions from lake sediments with robust chronologies, and with a particular focus on abrupt climate changes. The selected lake sequences provide an integrated approach from northern Iberia exploring temperature conditions, humidity variations and land-sea comparisons during the most relevant climate transitions

Ana Moreno; Penélope González-Sampériz; Mario Morellón; Blas L. Valero-Garcés; William J. Fletcher

2010-01-01

25

Interactive Effects of Urban Land Use and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycles (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban land-use change can affect biogeochemical cycles through altered disturbance regimes, landscape management practices (e.g., irrigation and fertilization), built structures, and altered environments (heat island effect, pollution, introduction of non-native species, loss of native species). As a result, the conversion of native to urban ecological systems has been shown to significantly affect carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles at local, regional, and global scales. These changes have created novel habitats and ecosystems, which have no analogue in the history of life. Nonetheless, some of the environmental changes occurring in urban areas are analogous to the changes expected in climate by the end of the century, e.g. atmospheric increase in CO2 and an increase in air temperatures, which can be utilized as a “natural experiment” to investigate global change effects on large scale ecosystem processes. Moreover, as analogues of expected future environments, urban ecological systems may act as reservoirs of plant and animal species for adjoining landscapes that are expected to undergo relatively rapid climate changes in the next 100 years. Urban land-use change by itself may contribute to changes in regional weather patterns and long-term changes in global climate, which will depend on the net effect of converting native systems to urban systems and the comparison of per capita “footprints” between urban, suburban, and rural inhabitants. My objectives are to 1) assess the impact of changes in urban land-use on climate change and in turn how climate change may affect urban biogeochemical cycles and 2) discuss the potential for urban ecosystems to mitigate green house gas emissions.

Pouyat, R. V.

2009-12-01

26

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of ozone depletion on global biogeochemical cycles, via increased UV-B radiation at the Earth's surface, have continued to be documented over the past 4 years. In this report we also document various effects of UV-B that interact with global climate change because the...

27

Spatial modelling of mountainous basins; An integrated analysis of the hydrological cycle, climate change and agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the most essential substance on earth and a changing climate has an important impact on the temporal and spatial distribution of water availability. Mountain ranges provide an important “water tower' function and over 20% of the global population depends on fresh water resources provided by the Himalayan range in critical periods of the year. The hydrological cycle is

W. W. Immerzeel

2008-01-01

28

Vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change: a life cycle perspective using expert judgments.  

PubMed

Fraser River sockeye salmon have been the basis for a major commercial fishery shared by Canada and the United States, and an important cultural foundation for many aboriginal groups; they are also of huge ecological significance throughout the Fraser Basin. The potential for altered aquatic habitat and temperature regimes due to climate change is an important concern for Fraser River sockeye salmon. This paper characterizes the vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to future climate change using an approach that is novel on three counts. First, previous efforts to assess the vulnerability of salmon to climate change have largely focused on only part of the life cycle, whereas we consider climate vulnerability at all stages in the life cycle. Second, we use the available scientific literature to provide a basis for structuring and eliciting judgments from fisheries science and management experts who research and manage these systems. Third, we consider prospects for mitigating the effects of climate change on sockeye salmon. Tests showed that participants' judgments differentiated in statistically significant ways among questions that varied in terms of life stages, spawning regions and climate scenarios. The consensus among participants was that Fraser River sockeye are most vulnerable to climate change during the egg and returning adult stages of the life cycle. A high temperature scenario was seen as imposing the greatest risk on sockeye stocks, particularly those that migrate to the upper reaches of the Fraser River system and spawn earlier in the summer. The inability to alter water temperature and the highly constrained nature of sockeye management, with competing gear types and sequential fisheries over a long distance, suggest the potential to mitigate adverse effects is limited. Fraser River sockeye already demonstrate a great deal of adaptive capacity in utilizing heterogeneous habitats in different river sub-basins. This adaptability points to the potential value of policies to make stocks more resilient to uncertain futures. PMID:20810206

McDaniels, Tim; Wilmot, Sarah; Healey, Michael; Hinch, Scott

2010-12-01

29

Synchronized Northern Hemisphere climate change and solar magnetic cycles during the Maunder Minimum.  

PubMed

The Maunder Minimum (A.D. 1645-1715) is a useful period to investigate possible sun-climate linkages as sunspots became exceedingly rare and the characteristics of solar cycles were different from those of today. Here, we report annual variations in the oxygen isotopic composition (?(18)O) of tree-ring cellulose in central Japan during the Maunder Minimum. We were able to explore possible sun-climate connections through high-temporal resolution solar activity (radiocarbon contents; ?(14)C) and climate (?(18)O) isotope records derived from annual tree rings. The tree-ring ?(18)O record in Japan shows distinct negative ?(18)O spikes (wetter rainy seasons) coinciding with rapid cooling in Greenland and with decreases in Northern Hemisphere mean temperature at around minima of decadal solar cycles. We have determined that the climate signals in all three records strongly correlate with changes in the polarity of solar dipole magnetic field, suggesting a causal link to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). These findings are further supported by a comparison between the interannual patterns of tree-ring ?(18)O record and the GCR flux reconstructed by an ice-core (10)Be record. Therefore, the variation of GCR flux associated with the multidecadal cycles of solar magnetic field seem to be causally related to the significant and widespread climate changes at least during the Maunder Minimum. PMID:21076031

Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyahara, Hiroko; Sho, Kenjiro; Nakatsuka, Takeshi

2010-11-30

30

Winter climate change effects on soil C and N cycles in urban grasslands.  

PubMed

Despite growing recognition of the role that cities have in global biogeochemical cycles, urban systems are among the least understood of all ecosystems. Urban grasslands are expanding rapidly along with urbanization, which is expected to increase at unprecedented rates in upcoming decades. The large and increasing area of urban grasslands and their impact on water and air quality justify the need for a better understanding of their biogeochemical cycles. There is also great uncertainty about the effect that climate change, especially changes in winter snow cover, will have on nutrient cycles in urban grasslands. We aimed to evaluate how reduced snow accumulation directly affects winter soil frost dynamics, and indirectly greenhouse gas fluxes and the processing of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during the subsequent growing season in northern urban grasslands. Both artificial and natural snow reduction increased winter soil frost, affecting winter microbial C and N processing, accelerating C and N cycles and increasing soil : atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange during the subsequent growing season. With lower snow accumulations that are predicted with climate change, we found decreases in N retention in these ecosystems, and increases in N2 O and CO2 flux to the atmosphere, significantly increasing the global warming potential of urban grasslands. Our results suggest that the environmental impacts of these rapidly expanding ecosystems are likely to increase as climate change brings milder winters and more extensive soil frost. PMID:23630015

Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M

2013-09-01

31

Sensitivity of the terrestrial biosphere to climatic changes: impact on the carbon cycle.  

PubMed

The biosphere is a major pool in the global carbon cycle; its response to climatic change is therefore of great importance. We developed a 5 degrees x 5 degrees longitude-latitude resolution model of the biosphere in which the global distributions of the major biospheric variables, i.e. the vegetation types and the main carbon pools and fluxes, are determined from climatic variables. We defined nine major broad vegetation types: perennial ice, desert and semi-desert, tundra, coniferous forest, temperate deciduous forest, grassland and shrubland, savannah, seasonal tropical forest and evergreen tropical forest. Their geographical repartition is parameterized using correlations between observed vegetation type, precipitation and biotemperature distributions. The model computes as a function of climate and vegetation type, the variables related to the continental biospheric carbon cycle, i.e. the carbon pools such as the phytomass, the litter and the soil organic carbon; and carbon fluxes such as net primary production, litter production and heterotrophic respiration. The modeled present-day biosphere is in good agreement with observation. The model is used to investigate the response of the terrestrial biosphere to climatic changes as predicted by different General Circulation Models (GCM). In particular, the impact on the biosphere of climatic conditions corresponding to the last glacial climate (LGM), 18 000 years ago, is investigated. Comparison with results from present-day climate simulations shows the high sensitivity of the geographical distribution of vegetation types and carbon content as well as biospheric trace gases emissions to climatic changes. The general trend for LGM compared to the present is an increase in low density vegetation types (tundra, desert, grassland) to the detriment of forested areas, in tropical as well as in other regions. Consequently, the biospheric activity (carbon fluxes and trace gases emissions) was reduced. PMID:15091760

Friedlingstein, P; Müller, J F; Brasseur, G P

1994-01-01

32

Responses of ecosystem carbon cycling to climate change treatments along an elevation gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Global temperature increases and precipitation changes are both expected to alter ecosystem carbon (C) cycling. We tested responses of ecosystem C cycling to simulated climate change using field manipulations of temperature and precipitation across a range of grass-dominated ecosystems along an elevation gradient in northern Arizona. In 2002, we transplanted intact plant–soil mesocosms to simulate warming and used passive interceptors and collectors to manipulate precipitation. We measured daytime ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem C exchange throughout the growing season in 2008 and 2009. Warming generally stimulated ER and photosynthesis, but had variable effects on daytime net C exchange. Increased precipitation stimulated ecosystem C cycling only in the driest ecosystem at the lowest elevation, whereas decreased precipitation showed no effects on ecosystem C cycling across all ecosystems. No significant interaction between temperature and precipitation treatments was observed. Structural equation modeling revealed that in the wetter-than-average year of 2008, changes in ecosystem C cycling were more strongly affected by warming-induced reduction in soil moisture than by altered precipitation. In contrast, during the drier year of 2009, warming induced increase in soil temperature rather than changes in soil moisture determined ecosystem C cycling. Our findings suggest that warming exerted the strongest influence on ecosystem C cycling in both years, by modulating soil moisture in the wet year and soil temperature in the dry year.

Wu, Zhuoting; Koch, George W.; Dijkstra, Paul; Bowker, Matthew A.; Hungate, Bruce A.

2011-01-01

33

Interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling.  

PubMed

This report assesses research on the interactions of UV radiation (280-400 nm) and global climate change with global biogeochemical cycles at the Earth's surface. The effects of UV-B (280-315 nm), which are dependent on the stratospheric ozone layer, on biogeochemical cycles are often linked to concurrent exposure to UV-A radiation (315-400 nm), which is influenced by global climate change. These interactions involving UV radiation (the combination of UV-B and UV-A) are central to the prediction and evaluation of future Earth environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that elevated UV-B radiation has significant effects on the terrestrial biosphere with implications for the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements. The cycling of carbon and inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen can be affected by UV-B-mediated changes in communities of soil organisms, probably due to the effects of UV-B radiation on plant root exudation and/or the chemistry of dead plant material falling to the soil. In arid environments direct photodegradation can play a major role in the decay of plant litter, and UV-B radiation is responsible for a significant part of this photodegradation. UV-B radiation strongly influences aquatic carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and metals cycling that affect a wide range of life processes. UV-B radiation changes the biological availability of dissolved organic matter to microorganisms, and accelerates its transformation into dissolved inorganic carbon and nitrogen, including carbon dioxide and ammonium. The coloured part of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) controls the penetration of UV radiation into water bodies, but CDOM is also photodegraded by solar UV radiation. Changes in CDOM influence the penetration of UV radiation into water bodies with major consequences for aquatic biogeochemical processes. Changes in aquatic primary productivity and decomposition due to climate-related changes in circulation and nutrient supply occur concurrently with exposure to increased UV-B radiation, and have synergistic effects on the penetration of light into aquatic ecosystems. Future changes in climate will enhance stratification of lakes and the ocean, which will intensify photodegradation of CDOM by UV radiation. The resultant increase in the transparency of water bodies may increase UV-B effects on aquatic biogeochemistry in the surface layer. Changing solar UV radiation and climate also interact to influence exchanges of trace gases, such as halocarbons (e.g., methyl bromide) which influence ozone depletion, and sulfur gases (e.g., dimethylsulfide) that oxidize to produce sulfate aerosols that cool the marine atmosphere. UV radiation affects the biological availability of iron, copper and other trace metals in aquatic environments thus potentially affecting metal toxicity and the growth of phytoplankton and other microorganisms that are involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Future changes in ecosystem distribution due to alterations in the physical and chemical climate interact with ozone-modulated changes in UV-B radiation. These interactions between the effects of climate change and UV-B radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic systems may partially offset the beneficial effects of an ozone recovery. PMID:17344963

Zepp, R G; Erickson, D J; Paul, N D; Sulzberger, B

2007-03-01

34

Climate Change Impacts on the Organic Carbon Cycle at the Land-Ocean Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have modified estuaries across the globe by altering the delivery of water, sediments and elements such as carbon and nitrogen that play important roles in biogeochemical processes. These activities have caused declines in the health and quality of estuarine ecosystems globally and this trend will likely continue due to increasing population growth in coastal regions, expected changes associated with climate change, and their interaction with each other, leading to serious consequences for the ecological and societal services they provide. A key function of estuaries is the transfer and transformation of carbon and biogenic elements between land and ocean systems. The anticipated effects of climate change on biogeochemical processes in estuaries are likely to be both numerous and complex but are poorly understood. Climate change has the potential to influence the carbon cycle in estuaries through anticipated changes to organic matter production, transformation, burial and export. Estuarine biogeochemical processes will likely be altered by: 1) sea level rise and increased storm intensity which will amplify the erosion and transfer of terrigenous materials, 2) increases in water temperatures which will enhance the rates of biological and biogeochemical processes (e.g., enzyme kinetics, decomposition rates, and remineralization), while simultaneously decreasing the concentration of dissolved oxygen, 3) changes in particle (or sediment) loadings in response to altered patterns of precipitation and river runoff, and 4) altered inputs of nutrients and dissolved organic materials to coastal waters, also resulting from changing precipitation and runoff. In this presentation, we review the effects of climate change on the carbon cycle in estuaries, with a focus on the temperate estuaries of North America.

Canuel, E. A.; Cammer, S. S.; McIntosh, H.; Pondell, C. R.

2012-12-01

35

Effects of global climate change and organic pollution on nutrient cycling in marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing ocean temperature due to climate change is an important anthropogenic driver of ecological change in coastal systems, where sediments play a major role in nutrient cycling. Our ability to predict ecological consequences of climate change is enhanced by simulating real scenarios especially when the interactions among drivers may not be just additive. Based on predicted climate change scenarios, we tested the effect of temperature and organic pollution on nutrient release from coastal sediments to the water column in a mesocosm experiment. PO43- release rates from sediments followed the same trends as organic matter mineralization rates, and increased linearly with temperature and were significantly higher under organic pollution than under non-polluted conditions. NH4+ release only increased significantly when the temperature rise was above 6 °C, and was significantly higher in organic polluted compared to non-polluted sediments. Nutrient release to the water column was only a fraction from the mineralized organic matter, suggesting PO43- retention and NH4+ oxidation in the sediment. Bioturbation and bioirrigation appeared to be key processes responsible of this behaviour. Considering that the primary production of most marine basins is N-limited, the excess release of NH4+ at temperature rise >6 ° could enhance water column primary productivity, which may lead to the deterioration of the environmental quality. Climate change effects are expected to be accelerated in areas affected by organic pollution.

Sanz-Lázaro, C.; Valdemarsen, T.; Holmer, M.

2015-01-01

36

USA National Phenology Network: Plant and Animal Life-Cycle Data Related to Climate Change  

DOE Data Explorer

Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenology affects nearly all aspects of the environment, including the abundance and diversity of organisms, their interactions with one another, their functions in food webs, and their seasonable behavior, and global-scale cycles of water, carbon, and other chemical elements. Phenology records can help us understand plant and animal responses to climate change; it is a key indicator. The USA-NPN brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators, and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. The network harnesses the power of people and the Internet to collect and share information, providing researchers with far more data than they could collect alone.[Extracts copied from the USA-NPN home page and from http://www.usanpn.org/about].

37

Insolation-driven 100 kyr glacial cycles and millennial climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waxing and waning of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets over the past one million years is dominated by an approximately 100-kyr periodicity and a sawtooth pattern (gradual growth and fast termination). Milankovitch theory proposes that summer insolation at high northern latitudes drives the glacial cycles, and statistical tests demonstrated that the glacial cycles are indeed linked to eccentricity, obliquity and precession cycles. However, insolation alone cannot explain the strong 100 kyr cycle which presumably arises through internal climatic feedbacks. Prior work with conceptual models, for example, showed that glacial terminations are associated with the build-up of Northern Hemisphere 'excess ice', but the physical mechanisms of 100-kyr cycle at work remain unclear. Here, using comprehensive climate and ice sheet models, we show that the ~100-kyr periodicity is explained by insolation and internal feedback amongst the climate, ice sheet and lithosphere/asthenosphere system (reference). We found that equilibrium states of ice sheets exhibit hysteresis responses to summer insolation, and that the shape and position of the hysteresis loop play a key role in determining the periodicities of glacial cycles. The hysteresis loop of the North American ice sheet is such that, after its inception, the ice sheet mass balance remains mostly positive or neutral through several precession cycles whose amplitude decreases towards an eccentricity minimum. The larger the ice sheet grows and extends towards lower latitudes, the smaller is the insolation required to turn the mass balance to negative. Therefore, once the large ice sheet is established, only a moderate increase in insolation can trigger a negative mass balance, leading to a complete retreat within several thousand years, due to the delayed isostatic rebound. The effect of ocean circulation and millennial scale climate change are not playing the dominant role for determing the 100kyr cycle, but are effective for modifying the speed and geographical pattern of the waxing and waning of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and their melt water. (reference of the basic results: Abe-Ouchi et al, 2013, Insolation-driven 100,000 year glacial cycles and hysteresis of ice-sheet volume, Nature, 500, 190-193.)

Abe-Ouchi, A.; Saito, F.; Kawamura, K.; Raymo, M. E.; Okuno, J.; Takahashi, K.; Blatter, H.

2013-12-01

38

Impact of climate change on the northwestern Mediterranean Sea pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) is biologically one of the most productive Mediterranean regions. NWMS pelagic planktonic ecosystem is strongly influenced by hydrodynamics, in particular by deep convection that could significantly weaken under the influence of climate change. Here we investigate the response of this ecosystem and associated carbon cycle to the long-term evolution of oceanic and atmospheric circulations. For that we developed a tridimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical model and performed two groups of annual simulations under the climate conditions of respectively the 20th and the end of 21st centuries. Our results suggest that the evolution of oceanic and atmospheric circulations does not modify the NWMS pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle at a first order. However, differences mainly induced by the deep convection weakening and the surface warming are obtained at a second order. The spring bloom occurs 1 month earlier. Resulting from the decrease in nutrients availability, the bottom up control of phytoplankton development and bacteria growth by the nitrogen and phosphorus availability strengthens and the microbial loop intensifies as the small-sized plankton biomass increases. Carbon net fixation and deep export do not change significantly. The choice of the biogeochemical initial and boundary conditions does not change the representation of the ecosystem seasonal cycle, but the associated uncertainty range can be one order of magnitude larger than the predicted interannual and long-term variabilities. The uncertainty range of long-term trends associated with the physical forcing (hydrological, atmospheric, hydrodynamical, and socioeconomic) is much smaller (<10%).

Herrmann, Marine; Estournel, Claude; Adloff, Fanny; Diaz, Frédéric

2014-09-01

39

A simple explanation for the sensitivity of the hydrologic cycle to global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global hydrologic cycle is likely to increase in strength with global warming, although some studies indicate that warming due to solar absorption may result in a different sensitivity than warming due to an elevated greenhouse effect. Here we show that these sensitivities of the hydrologic cycle can be derived analytically from an extremely simple surface energy balance model that is constrained by the assumption that vertical convective exchange within the atmosphere operates at the thermodynamic limit of maximum power. Using current climatic mean conditions, this model predicts a sensitivity of the hydrologic cycle of 2.2 % K-1 to greenhouse-induced surface warming which is the sensitivity reported from climate models. The sensitivity to solar-induced warming includes an additional term, which increases the total sensitivity to 3.2 % K-1. These sensitivities are explained by shifts in the turbulent fluxes in the case of greenhouse-induced warming, which is proportional to the change in slope of the saturation vapor pressure, and in terms of an additional increase in turbulent fluxes in the case of solar radiation-induced warming. We illustrate an implication of this explanation for geoengineering, which aims to undo surface temperature differences by solar radiation management. Our results show that when such an intervention compensates surface warming, it cannot simultaneously compensate the changes in hydrologic cycling because of the differences in sensitivities for solar vs. greenhouse-induced surface warming. We conclude that the sensitivity of the hydrologic cycle to surface temperature can be understood and predicted with very simple physical considerations but this needs to reflect on the different roles that solar and terrestrial radiation play in forcing the hydrologic cycle.

Kleidon, Axel; Renner, Maik

2014-05-01

40

The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change  

PubMed Central

The ocean's nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification. Dinitrogen is the most abundant form of nitrogen in sea water but only accessible by nitrogen-fixing microbes. Denitrification and nitrification are both regulated by oxygen concentrations and potentially produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a climate-relevant atmospheric trace gas. The world's oceans, including the coastal areas and upwelling areas, contribute about 30 per cent to the atmospheric N2O budget and are, therefore, a major source of this gas to the atmosphere. Human activities now add more nitrogen to the environment than is naturally fixed. More than half of the nitrogen reaches the coastal ocean via river input and atmospheric deposition, of which the latter affects even remote oceanic regions. A nitrogen budget for the coastal and open ocean, where inputs and outputs match rather well, is presented. Furthermore, predicted climate change will impact the expansion of the oceans' oxygen minimum zones, the productivity of surface waters and presumably other microbial processes, with unpredictable consequences for the cycling of nitrogen. Nitrogen cycling is closely intertwined with that of carbon, phosphorous and other biologically important elements via biological stoichiometric requirements. This linkage implies that human alterations of nitrogen cycling are likely to have major consequences for other biogeochemical processes and ecosystem functions and services. PMID:23713119

Voss, Maren; Bange, Hermann W.; Dippner, Joachim W.; Middelburg, Jack J.; Montoya, Joseph P.; Ward, Bess

2013-01-01

41

How does complex terrain influence responses of carbon and water cycle processes to climate variability and climate change? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are pursuing the ambitious goal of understanding how complex terrain influences the responses of carbon and water cycle processes to climate variability and climate change. Our studies take place in H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, an LTER (Long Term Ecological Research) site situated in Oregon’s central-western Cascade Range. Decades of long-term measurements and intensive research have revealed influences of topography on vegetation patterns, disturbance history, and hydrology. More recent research has shown surprising interactions between microclimates and synoptic weather patterns due to cold air drainage and pooling in mountain valleys. Using these data and insights, in addition to a recent LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) reconnaissance and a small sensor network, we are employing process-based models, including “SPA” (Soil-Plant-Atmosphere, developed by Mathew Williams of the University of Edinburgh), and “VELMA” (Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Alternatives, developed by Marc Stieglitz and colleagues of the Georgia Institute of Technology) to focus on two important features of mountainous landscapes: heterogeneity (both spatial and temporal) and connectivity (atmosphere-canopy-hillslope-stream). Our research questions include: 1) Do fine-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity result in emergent properties at the basin scale, and if so, what are they? 2) How does connectivity across ecosystem components affect system responses to climate variability and change? Initial results show that for environmental drivers that elicit non-linear ecosystem responses on the plot scale, such as solar radiation, soil depth and soil water content, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity may produce unexpected emergent properties at larger scales. The results from such modeling experiments are necessarily a function of the supporting algorithms. However, comparisons based on models such as SPA and VELMA that operate at much different spatial scales (plots vs. hillslopes) and levels of biophysical organization (individual plants vs. aggregate plant biomass) can help us to understand how and why mountainous ecosystems may have distinctive responses to climate variability and climate change.

Bond, B. J.; Peterson, K.; McKane, R.; Lajtha, K.; Quandt, D. J.; Allen, S. T.; Sell, S.; Daly, C.; Harmon, M. E.; Johnson, S. L.; Spies, T.; Sollins, P.; Abdelnour, A. G.; Stieglitz, M.

2010-12-01

42

Climate change changing hazards?  

E-print Network

Climate change ­ changing hazards? Andreas Sterl Geert Lenderink, Sarah Kew KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands Climate system change modelling extremes #12;21.03.2012 Andreas Sterl, Insurance Strategy, Brussels Climate ­ what's that? Climate = statistics of weather Weather = state of atmosphere

Stoffelen, Ad

43

Mars: History of Climate Change and Evolution of the Water Cycle (Runcorn-Florensky Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric general circulation models are becoming more and more sophisticated and can now be analyzed at various scales, and include variations in atmospheric water vapor content, orbital parameters and surface properties. A wide variety of geological evidence indicates that the climate on Mars has changed during its past history. We are now approaching the time when synergism is developing between studies of the observed geological record and predictions and results of climate models. Geological evidence for climate change ranges in physical scale from layering in the polar caps and sediments, to meters-thick ice-rich layers extending from high to mid-latitudes, to kilometers-thick polar and circumpolar deposits. Clear temporal changes in the mineralogy and alteration style of surface and subsurface materials signal long-term climate change. Evidence is found throughout the geologic record of Mars, ranging from interpreted Amazonian tropical mountain glaciers to much longer term trends implied by the temporal distribution of geological features such as valley networks and outflow channels. Furthermore, there is strong evidence for changes in the hydrological cycle of Mars that reflect long-term climate change. For the last ~80% of its history (the Hesperian and Amazonian) Mars appears to have been a very cold, hyper-arid polar desert, similar to the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. During this time, the hydrologic system on Mars has been horizontally layered, with the near-surface hydrologic cycle involving water movement between the atmosphere, polar caps, the surface and regolith at various latitudes; variations in spin-axis orbital parameters caused significant surface redistribution of ice and dust, and abundant ice has been sequestered beneath glacial debris-cover in the mid-latitudes for several hundred million years. Existing groundwater is sequestered below a globally continuous cryosphere; liquid water occasionally emerged to the surface during magmatic events that cracked or melted the cryosphere, forming outlet channels. In contrast, many believe that Mars was "warm and wet" during the first 20% of its history (the Noachian); in this scenario, there was no global cryosphere, and the hydrological cycle was vertically integrated. Geological evidence for this includes extensive valley network systems, hundreds of closed-basin and open-basin lakes, depositional fans and deltas, and integrated systems that extend for thousands of kilometers across the surface. Major outstanding questions include the causes and the duration of these more clement conditions in the Noachian, whether they led to the formation and evolution of life, why they changed in the late Noachian-Hesperian, the duration of the change, how the climate stabilized to its current state, whether any early-evolving life could survive this transition, and if so, where such life might reside today. The questions raised by the long-term climate history of Mars provide a compelling framework for future robotic and human exploration.

Head, James W.

2010-05-01

44

Effects of Past Climate Changes on Ecosystem Biogeochemical Cycles in Rocky Mountain Forests and Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing climate trends will likely alter how forest ecosystems produce important goods and services, in part, by changing ecosystem responses to disturbances, such as fires and land-use. Disturbances induce forest succession and thus dramatically change the flow of water and nutrients through a given ecosystem. However, long-term ecosystem responses to disturbance, especially regarding nutrient pools and cycling rates, are poorly documented, and less is known about the effects of century-scale climate trends on these responses especially with respect to moisture. Here, we show biogeochemical responses to repeated (>20) episodes of disturbance and succession in a single ecosystem under a range of climatic conditions over 2000 years. Our lake sediment record shows regular fluctuations in the flux of base cations and other macronutrients from lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) forests in northern Colorado following catastrophic stand-replacing fires. Post-fire elemental fluctuations are consistent with ecosystem theory regarding the re-equilibration of biomass and nutrient pools during succession, but show systematic variation that has been previously undocumented. The time span of post-fire re-equilibration correlates positively with measures of fire severity, which is consistent with hypotheses that seed dispersal and soil recovery likely slow re-growth after large or severe fires. Likewise, dry conditions during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA, 1200-500 yrs BP) altered elemental fluctuations and, thus, generated post-fire pulses of lake eutrophication that were not evident during other periods. The interaction of climate and disturbance, therefore, has important consequences for ecosystem function and services, including the quality of aquatic environments.

Shuman, B.; Mechenich, M. F.; Stefanova, I.; Henderson, A.; Donnelly, J. P.

2007-12-01

45

Carbon cycle and climate change, a tale of increasing emissions and uncertain future sinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 has increased by 40% in the atmosphere above pre-industrial levels, and is reaching close to 400 ppm. It's a fact that the increase of CO2 is due to human-caused emissions from land use change and fossil fuel use. Yet, an average of 54% of these human emissions was removed from the atmosphere by CO2 sinks in the ocean and the land biosphere. In the IPCC AR5 report, an update of the global carbon budget is provided, together with CH4 sources and sinks, over the last 3 decades. The first finding is the recent acceleration of fossil fuel CO2 emissions during the last decade, and the fact that sinks have increased proportionally with emissions. Future projections of the coupled climate-carbon cycle system using CMIP5 models, translated into compatible emissions for each RCP pathway radiative forcing trajectory will be presented. When the carbon cycle is coupled to simulations of climate change, the sinks weaken, causing a positive feedback on warming, but uncertainties on the magnitude of this feedback and on the role of each regions, remain very high, as shown by the large spread between models. The second finding concerns additional feedbacks, most likely of positive sign, such as CO2 and CH4 emissions from thawed permafrost and nutrient limitations on land carbon storage. These feedbacks were not included in the CMIP5 models and represent a large (but uncertain) source of extra warming for any given economic scenario of anthropogenic emissions

Ciais, P.; Sabine, C. L.

2013-12-01

46

Dynamics of global carbon and water cycles under the climate change by a set of closed coupled models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study impact of climate change on the Earth biogeochemical cycles functioning a set of zero-dimensional closed models of combined global carbon and water cycles is suggested. Each model consists of three to seven reservoirs and matter flows between them. Any flow connecting two reservoirs depends only on storages in them either linearly, or in a bi-linear Volterra

N. N. Zavalishin

2009-01-01

47

Climate Change Collection (CCC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Climate Change Collection (CCC) provides access to high quality, digital materials relating to natural and human induced climate change and variability, including scientific, economic and policy issues of climate change. The collection focuses on background resources and learning activities that communicate the principles that underlie climate change and variability, including the differences and links between weather and climate; the basics of the climate system including the greenhouse effect and energy balance; climatic processes that occur at varying time scales, including orbital cycles and forcing; how scientific research is conducted relative to measuring change and variability; and how human activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and changes of land cover, impact the climate system. The resources have been reviewed for scientific accuracy and currency, and annotated with comments and suggestions relating to their potential value to Earth system science teachers and their students, particularly at the middle school level.

48

Climatic Change, Wars and Dynastic Cycles in China Over the Last Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the phenomenon of global warming and its implications for the future of the human race have been intensively studied. In contrast, few quantitative studies have been attempted on the notable effects of past climatic changes upon human societies. This study explored the relationship between climatic change and war in China by comparing high-resolution paleo-climatic reconstructions with known

David D. Zhang; C. Y. Jim; George C-S Lin; Yuan-Qing He; James J. Wang; Harry F. Lee

2006-01-01

49

Climate change and sectors of the surface water cycle In CMIP5 projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from 10 global climate change models are synthesized to investigate changes in extremes, defined as wettest and driest deciles in precipitation, soil moisture and runoff based on each model's historical 20th century simulated climatology. Under a moderate warming scenario, regional increases in drought frequency are found with little increase in floods. For more severe warming, both drought and flood become much more prevalent, with nearly the entire globe significantly affected. Soil moisture changes tend toward drying, while runoff trends toward flood. To determine how different sectors of society dependent on various components of the surface water cycle may be affected, changes in monthly means and interannual variability are compared to data sets of crop distribution and river basin boundaries. For precipitation, changes in interannual variability can be important even when there is little change in the long-term mean. Over 20% of the globe is projected to experience a combination of reduced precipitation and increased variability under severe warming. There are large differences in the vulnerability of different types of crops, depending on their spatial distributions. Increases in soil moisture variability are again found to be a threat even where soil moisture is not projected to decrease. The combination of increased variability and greater annual discharge over many basins portends increased risk of river flooding, although a number of basins are projected to suffer surface water shortages.

Dirmeyer, P. A.; Fang, G.; Wang, Z.; Yadav, P.; Milton, A.

2014-12-01

50

Impact of land use change on the diurnal cycle climate of the Canadian Prairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

paper uses hourly observations from 1953 to 2011 of temperature, relative humidity, and opaque cloud cover from 14 climate stations across the Canadian Prairies to analyze the impact of agricultural land use change on the diurnal cycle climate, represented by the mean temperature and relative humidity and their diurnal ranges. We show the difference between the years 1953-1991 and 1992-2011. The land use changes have been largest in Saskatchewan where 15-20% of the land area has been converted in the past four decades from summer fallow (where the land was left bare for 1 year) to annual cropping. During the growing season from 20 May to 28 August, relative humidity has increased by about 7%. During the first 2 months, 20 May to 19 July, maximum temperatures and the diurnal range of temperature have fallen by 1.2°C and 0.6°C, respectively, cloud cover has increased by about 4%, reducing surface net radiation by 6 W m-2, and precipitation has increased. We use the dry-downs after precipitation to separate the impact of cloud cover and show the coupling between evapotranspiration and relative humidity. We estimate, using reanalysis data from ERA-Interim, that increased transpiration from the larger area of cropland has reduced the surface Bowen ratio by 0.14-0.2. For the month on either side of the growing season, cloud cover has fallen slightly; maximum temperatures have increased, increasing the diurnal temperature range and the diurnal range of humidity.

Betts, Alan K.; Desjardins, Raymond; Worth, Devon; Cerkowniak, Darrel

2013-11-01

51

North atlantic deepwater temperature change during late pliocene and late quaternary climatic cycles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Variations in the ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) in fossil ostracodes from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 607 in the deep North Atlantic show that the change in bottom water temperature during late Pliocene 41,000-year obliquity cycles averaged 1.5??C between 3.2 and 2.8 million years ago (Ma) and increased to 2.3??C between 2.8 and 2.3 Ma, coincidentally with the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. During the last two 100,000-year glacial-to-interglacial climatic cycles of the Quaternary, bottom water temperatures changed by 4.5??C. These results show that glacial deepwater cooling has intensified since 3.2 Ma, most likely as the result of progressively diminished deep-water production in the North Atlantic and of the greater influence of Antarctic bottom water in the North Atlantic during glacial periods. The ostracode Mg/Ca data also allow the direct determination of the temperature component of the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope record from Site 607, as well as derivation of a hypothetical sea-level curve for the late Pliocene and late Quaternary. The effects of dissolution on the Mg/Ca ratios of ostracode shells appear to have been minimal.

Dwyer, G.S.; Cronin, T. M.; Baker, P.A.; Raymo, M.E.; Buzas, J.S.; Correge, T.

1995-01-01

52

Using Elemental Budgets to Determine Effects of Simulated Climate Change on Phosphorus Cycling in a Grassland Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment is to find out the effects of climate change on a terrestrial grassland ecosystem. The different treatments include increased carbon dioxide, nitrogen deposition, temperature, and precipitation. A portion of the above ground biomass of each plot was harvested, and an abundant species chosen to analyze. The goal of this project was to investigate the effects of climate change on phosphorus cycling in the grassland vegetation. Total phosphorus content of each sample was determined by combustion and acid digestion along with optical emission spectrometry. Total nitrogen and carbon was determined via flash combustion in an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. This information was combined to evaluate the limitation of phosphorus in each treatment and better understand how climate change may affect phosphorus cycling in terrestrial grasslands.

Yoo, S.; Paytan, A.; Mellett, T.

2013-12-01

53

Natural and anthropogenic climate change: incorporating historical land cover change, vegetation dynamics and the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores natural and anthropogenic influences on the climate system, with an emphasis on the biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of historical land cover change. The biogeophysical effect of land cover change is first subjected to a detailed sensitivity analysis in the context of the UVic Earth System Climate Model, a global climate model of intermediate complexity. Results show a

H. D. Matthews; A. J. Weaver; K. J. Meissner; N. P. Gillett; M. Eby

2004-01-01

54

Mechanisms for Annual Cycle Changes in Monsoons in a Warming Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) experiments show that the global monsoon is expected to increase in area, precipitation, and intensity as the climate system responds to anthropogenic forcing. Concurrently, detailed analyses for several individual monsoons indicate a re-distribution of rainfall from early to late in the rainy season. This presentation will further examine CMIP5 projected changes in the annual cycle of precipitation in monsoon regions, and use a moist static energy framework to evaluate competing mechanisms identified to be important in precipitation changes over land. In the presence of sufficient surface moisture, the local response to the increase in downwelling energy is characterized by increased evaporation, increased low-level moist static energy, and decreased stability with consequent increases in precipitation. A remote mechanism begins with warmer oceans and operates on land regions via a warmer tropical troposphere, increased stability, and decreased precipitation. The remote mechanism controls the projected changes during winter, and the local mechanism appears to control the switch to increased precipitation during summer in several monsoon regions. During the early summer transition, regions where boundary layer moisture availability is reduced due to decreases in evaporation and moisture convergence experience an enhanced convective barrier. This enhanced convective barrier leads to a redistribution of rainfall from early to late summer, and is robust in the American and African monsoons but not seen in Asia.

Seth, Anji

2014-05-01

55

Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change.  

PubMed

The Greenland GPS Network (GNET) uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure the displacement of bedrock exposed near the margins of the Greenland ice sheet. The entire network is uplifting in response to past and present-day changes in ice mass. Crustal displacement is largely accounted for by an annual oscillation superimposed on a sustained trend. The oscillation is driven by earth's elastic response to seasonal variations in ice mass and air mass (i.e., atmospheric pressure). Observed vertical velocities are higher and often much higher than predicted rates of postglacial rebound (PGR), implying that uplift is usually dominated by the solid earth's instantaneous elastic response to contemporary losses in ice mass rather than PGR. Superimposed on longer-term trends, an anomalous 'pulse' of uplift accumulated at many GNET stations during an approximate six-month period in 2010. This anomalous uplift is spatially correlated with the 2010 melting day anomaly. PMID:22786931

Bevis, Michael; Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat A; Madsen, Finn Bo; Brown, Abel; Willis, Michael; Kendrick, Eric; Knudsen, Per; Box, Jason E; van Dam, Tonie; Caccamise, Dana J; Johns, Bjorn; Nylen, Thomas; Abbott, Robin; White, Seth; Miner, Jeremy; Forsberg, Rene; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Jian; Wilson, Terry; Bromwich, David; Francis, Olivier

2012-07-24

56

Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change  

PubMed Central

The Greenland GPS Network (GNET) uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure the displacement of bedrock exposed near the margins of the Greenland ice sheet. The entire network is uplifting in response to past and present-day changes in ice mass. Crustal displacement is largely accounted for by an annual oscillation superimposed on a sustained trend. The oscillation is driven by earth’s elastic response to seasonal variations in ice mass and air mass (i.e., atmospheric pressure). Observed vertical velocities are higher and often much higher than predicted rates of postglacial rebound (PGR), implying that uplift is usually dominated by the solid earth’s instantaneous elastic response to contemporary losses in ice mass rather than PGR. Superimposed on longer-term trends, an anomalous ‘pulse’ of uplift accumulated at many GNET stations during an approximate six-month period in 2010. This anomalous uplift is spatially correlated with the 2010 melting day anomaly. PMID:22786931

Bevis, Michael; Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Madsen, Finn Bo; Brown, Abel; Willis, Michael; Kendrick, Eric; Knudsen, Per; Box, Jason E.; van Dam, Tonie; Caccamise, Dana J.; Johns, Bjorn; Nylen, Thomas; Abbott, Robin; White, Seth; Miner, Jeremy; Forsberg, Rene; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Jian; Wilson, Terry; Bromwich, David; Francis, Olivier

2012-01-01

57

Climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

But there are many reasons to question the wisdom of the Kyoto Protocol's approach to climate change policy, including questions about the scientific grounding of the protocol; questions about the feasibility of the proposed implementation mechanisms; questions about the efficacy of those measures; questions about the adverse consequences of diverting resources to address highly uncertain risks using tools with uncertain

Staffordshire County Council; Anthony J. Richardson; RICHARD MCCANN; HOWARD AYLESWORTH; MARY L. VIGILANTE

1974-01-01

58

Effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, solar UV radiation, and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: interactions and feedbacks.  

PubMed

Climate change modulates the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, particularly for carbon cycling, resulting in UV-mediated positive or negative feedbacks on climate. Possible positive feedbacks discussed in this assessment include: (i) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of above ground litter due to aridification; (ii) enhanced UV-induced mineralisation of photoreactive dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic ecosystems due to changes in continental runoff and ice melting; (iii) reduced efficiency of the biological pump due to UV-induced bleaching of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in stratified aquatic ecosystems, where CDOM protects phytoplankton from the damaging solar UV-B radiation. Mineralisation of organic matter results in the production and release of CO2, whereas the biological pump is the main biological process for CO2 removal by aquatic ecosystems. This paper also assesses the interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on the biogeochemical cycling of aerosols and trace gases other than CO2, as well as of chemical and biological contaminants. Interacting effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycles are particularly pronounced at terrestrial-aquatic interfaces. PMID:25380348

Erickson Iii, David J; Sulzberger, Barbara; Zepp, Richard G; Austin, Amy T

2014-12-18

59

Effect of long-term snow climate change on C and N cycling in the Great Basin Desert, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowfall is the dominant hydrologic input for high elevations and latitudes of the arid- and semi-arid western United States. Sierra Nevada snowpack provides numerous important services for California, but is vulnerable to anthropogenic forcing of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Fundamental ecological models envision migrations of species to higher elevations under a warmer climate, altered water cycling patterns, changes in carbon

Michael Loik

2010-01-01

60

Environmental and climatic changes during Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) perturbations of the carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a long-lasting period of relatively stable conditions during the late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous, the Valanginian was a time of climatic and environmental perturbations. Proposed changes include fluctuations in atmospheric pCO2, an accelerated hydrologic cycling, a cooling phase, and changes in composition and abundances of the marine fauna. A prominent perturbation of the global carbon cycle is documented in a globally recorded positive ?13C shift. Widespread storage of Corg-rich sediments in ocean basins, probably accompanied by anoxic conditions has long been supposed to explain for the positive carbon isotope anomaly. However, no widespread deposition of black shales has been shown for the Valanginian. Research on the Valanginian carbon cycle has focused on marine environmental changes, while studies on continental archives are scarce. This study deals with stable isotope chemostratigraphy, spore-pollen assemblages, palynofacies, and organic geochemistry of two successions located in the northwestern Tethyan realm (Vocontian Basin, SE France) and the Carpathian seaway (Polish Trough, central Poland). For both sites no evidence for anoxic conditions in the form of the occurrence of specific biomarkers like isoreniratene are found. Spore-pollen assemblages from both localities show many similarities in terms of composition, diversity and abundances of taxa. Both are dominated by conifer pollen and fern spores. During the initial phase of the ?13C shift the palynological compositions of both sites are quite diverging. Here, the French site is characterized by a decrease in spore abundances not being observed for the Polish site. This is followed by a peak in fern spores for both sites. Bulk Corg and algal-derived pristane and phytane follow the positive isotope shift of Ccarb with a lead of ~200 kyrs. Land plant derived long chain C27 n-alkanes for the Vocontian Basin as well show this positive shift while for the site at the Carpathian seaway the coeval shift is negative. PCO2 reconstructions based on the ?? record point to an increase in atmospheric pCO2 for this time interval. Results are interpreted to reflect an increase in aridity at the French site, whereas conditions become more humid in the hinterland of the Carpathian seaway during the initiation of the carbon cycle perturbation. This would explain for diverging compositions of vegetation and the negative shift in C27 n-alkanes of the Polish site, since an increase in humidity enhances discrimination in land plants and therewith the amount of implemented 12C. The subsequent peak in fern spores may point to supra-regional hostile conditions favoring massive appearance of fern plants, coinciding with pCO2 drawdown, arid conditions, and the initiation of a cooling phase during the plateau-phase of the carbon isotope excursion. Results point to an important role of continental environments during the complex pattern of environmental and climatic changes accompanying and/or causing the Valanginian carbon isotope anomaly.

Kujau, A.; Heimhofer, U.; Hochuli, P. A.; Schouten, S.; Thierry, A.; Morales, C.; Mutterlose, J.

2011-12-01

61

Climate-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in the rapidly warming Antarctic coastal ocean   

E-print Network

The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a hotspot of climatic and oceanographic change, with a 6°C rise in winter atmospheric temperatures and >1°C warming of the surface ocean since the 1950s. These trends are having ...

Henley, Sian Frances

2013-07-01

62

Transient Climate Change Simulations with a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean GCM Including the Tropospheric Sulfur Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-dependent climate response to changing concentrations of greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols is studied using a coupled general circulation model of the atmosphere and the ocean (ECHAM4\\/OPYC3). The concentrations of the well-mixed greenhouse gases like CO2, CH4, N2O, and CFCs are prescribed for the past (1860-1990) and projected into the future according to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

E. Roeckner; L. Bengtsson; J. Feichter; J. Lelieveld; H. Rodhe

1999-01-01

63

Impact of climate change on forests, forest products and the carbon cycle in the Congo Basin.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Africa is widely seen as the continent most vulnerable to climate change. Current climate variability already has a large impact on the economies of developing countries. Large parts of African economies are highly climate sensitive, in particular agriculture, infrastructure and water sector. In this study we performed an analysis of climate change impacts in the Congo Basin on Forest ecosystem functioning and carbon storage. We emphasise the methodologies and validation involved in modelling the basin-wide carbon budgets. We also studied the potential shifts in broad classes of vegetation types, resulting from climate change. Finally, we compared annual productivity of the Congo forests with statistics of wood fuel and charcoal use for each of the countries in the region. The model simulations suggest that the region's forests will see increasing productivity under future climate, however, the effect of rising CO2 concentrations, stimulating growth, is highly uncertain. From these findings it follows that the potential in the region to implement UNFCCC-REDD+ projects is still very uncertain, but probably sustainable and feasible. The analysis shows that, averaged over 10 years, wood fuel and charcoal use amount to 50% and in some countries up to 100% or even more of the yearly vegetation carbon increase. These percentages generally increases with population density.

Kruijt, Bart; Jans, Wilma; Franssen, Wietse; Ludwig, Fulco

2014-05-01

64

Vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change: A life cycle perspective using expert judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fraser River sockeye salmon have been the basis for a major commercial fishery shared by Canada and the United States, and an important cultural foundation for many aboriginal groups; they are also of huge ecological significance throughout the Fraser Basin. The potential for altered aquatic habitat and temperature regimes due to climate change is an important concern for Fraser River

Tim McDaniels; Sarah Wilmot; Michael Healey; Scott Hinch

2010-01-01

65

GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE: RESPONSES AND FEEDBACKS FROM BELOW-GROUND SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

According to most global climate models, a continued build-up of OC2 and other greenhouse gases will lead to significant changes in temperature and precipitation patterns over large parts of the Earth. elow-ground processes will strongly influence the response of the biosphere to...

66

How robust are responses of carbon-nitrogen cycle models to increasing atmospheric [CO2] and climatic changes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of recent studies have demonstrated the importance of considering nitrogen dynamics for projecting the responses to the terrestrial carbon cycle to increasing atmospheric [CO2] and climatic changes [1-4]. However, there are considerable differences in the global and regional responses of individual models concerning the strength and even the sign of the effect of N dynamics of the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Here, the implications of alternative hypotheses on key nitrogen cycle characteristics that determine vegetation responses are tested to assess the reliability of the modelled responses. For this purpose, the terrestrial biosphere model O-CN model, derived from the land-surface scheme ORCHIDEE of the IPSL Earth system model, is used in different configurations, namely the elasticity of the plant's C:N stoichiometry, and the capacity of vegetation to increase biological nitrogen fixation as a function of N demand and C excess. The alternative hypotheses result in substantially different projected land C storage by the year 2100. However, they do not prevent i) that there is a significant reduction of the net land C storage resulting from CO2 fertilisation compared to the model version not accounting for terrestrial N dynamics; and ii) that on the global scale the limiting effect of N dynamics on the CO2 fertilisation response is stronger than the stimulating effect of increased N release from soil organic matter decomposition in a future warmer climate. References: 1. Sokolov, A.P., et al., Consequences of considering carbon-nitrogen interactions on the feedbacks between climate and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Journal of Climate, 2008. 21(15): p. 3776-3796. 2. Jain, A., et al., Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2009. 23: p. GB4028, doi:10.1029/2009GB003519. 3. Thornton, P.E., et al., Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Biogeosciences, 2009. 6: p. 2099-2120. 4. Zaehle, S., P. Friedlingstein, and A. Friend, Terrestrial nitrogen feedbacks may accelerate future climate change. Geophysical Research Letters, 2010. 37: p. L01401, doi:10.1029/2009GL041345.

Zaehle, Sönke; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Friend, Andrew D.

2010-05-01

67

Rapid climate change  

SciTech Connect

Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

Morantine, M.C. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

68

Solar Cycle Variability, Ozone, and Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a global climate model including an interactive parameterization of stratospheric chemistry show how upper stratospheric ozone changes may amplify observed, 11-year solar cycle irradiance changes to affect climate. In the model, circulation changes initially induced in the stratosphere subsequently penetrate into the troposphere, demonstrating the importance of the dynamical coupling between the stratosphere and troposphere. The model reproduces

Drew Shindell; David Rind; Nambeth Balachandran; Judith Lean; Patrick Lonergan

1999-01-01

69

Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon to Climate Change: Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thawing permafrost and the resulting microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon (C) is one of the most significant potential feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a changing climate. In this article we present an overview of the global permafrost C pool and of the processes that might transfer this C into the atmosphere, as well as the associated ecosystem changes that occur with thawing. We show that accounting for C stored deep in the permafrost more than doubles previous high-latitude inventory estimates, with this new estimate equivalent to twice the atmospheric C pool. The thawing of permafrost with warming occurs both gradually and catastrophically, exposing organic C to microbial decomposition. Other aspects of ecosystem dynamics can be altered by climate change along with thawing permafrost, such as growing season length, plant growth rates and species composition, and ecosystem energy exchange. However, these processes do not appear to be able to compensate for C release from thawing permafrost, making it likely that the net effect of widespread permafrost thawing will be a positive feedback to a warming climate.

Edward A. G. Schuur (University of Florida;)

2008-09-01

70

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a brief overview of processes and properties associated with global climate change and its rate of change, which is of current concern to scientists. The carbon cycle is discussed including its sources, sinks, and release agents along with the fact that it is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth. The information at this site should lead students to an understanding of carbon dioxide and the other major greenhouse gases, which is necessary to identify the current trends in atmospheric concentrations and climate change. Three other concepts addressed at this site include the profound effects living organisms in an ecosystem can have upon the local atmosphere, profound effects changes in vegetation can have upon wind speed, and the link of human activity to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This section serves as a reference for and includes links to seven classroom activities.

2011-01-13

71

Climate change action plan  

E-print Network

Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

72

Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather is notoriously unpredictable; however, climate descriptions, which identify average and normal temperatures and precipitation levels, tend to be perceived as stable, at least over time scales that humans can easily relate to. New evidence suggests that hasn't always been the case. This video segment describes climate data, obtained from ice cores drilled into the Greenland Ice Sheet, that suggest the Earth has undergone dramatic climate shifts in relatively short spans of time. The segment is five minutes forty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-03-14

73

Droughts and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is a complex phenomenon whose central characteristic is the notion of water deficit. Droughts and desertification are intimately linked to specific components of the hydrologic cycle and thus their occurrence as well as their intensity in time and space can be greatly influenced by climatic changes. The primary forcing factors are changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration. They cause alterations not only in the mean conditions of water availability but very importantly also in the variability and seasonality of supply (and demand) of the resource. In addition to these direct effects, climatically induced changes in vegetation may have a considerable impact on the hydrologic cycle. As a feedback effect, the storage of heat and moisture in the soil is a key factor in determining the spatial and temporal character of climate. The strong coupling between the forcing factors and the soil moisture conditions over large spatial scales may undergo shifts and alterations of pronounced character as a result of climatic changes. The consequences of such changes can be of great importance for the persistence of droughts and the occurrence of desertification conditions.

Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

1992-06-01

74

Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.  

PubMed

As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally, other organisms. Life stages that are cryptic or difficult to study should not be forsaken as they may be key determinants in the overall response to climate change, as we found with overwintering Boloria eunomia larvae. PMID:22924795

Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

2013-01-01

75

Current Climate Variability & Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and climate change. The next section guides students through the exploration of temporal changes in global temperature from the surface to the lower stratosphere. Students discover that there has been global warming over the past several decades, and the subsequent section allows them to consider solar radiation and greenhouse gases as possible causes of this warming. Students then zoom in on different latitudinal zones to examine changes in temperature for each zone and hypothesize about why one zone may have warmed more than others. The final section, prior to the answering of the essential questions, is an examination of the following effects of the current change in temperatures: loss of sea ice; rise of sea level; loss of permafrost loss; and moistening of the atmosphere. The lab addresses 14 climate-literacy concepts and all seven climate-literacy principles through data and images that are mainly NASA products. It focuses on the satellite era of climate data; therefore, 1979 is the typical starting year for most datasets used by students. Additionally, all time-series analysis end with the latest year with full-year data availability; thus, the climate variability and trends truly are 'current.'

Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

2013-12-01

76

CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE CERTAINTIES AND UNCERTAINTIES  

E-print Network

CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE CERTAINTIES AND UNCERTAINTIES Stephen E. Schwartz http concentrations of "greenhouse gases" · Radiative forcing of climate change · Climate system response: Observations of temperature change on various time scales · Climate system sensitivity: Models and Observations

Schwartz, Stephen E.

77

Global Studies of the Sulfur Cycle Including the Influence of DMS and Fossil Fuel Sulfur on Climate and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosols, wherein aerosol particles are thought to increase cloud droplet concentrations and cloud lifetime, is the most uncertain component of climate forcing over the past 100 years. Here, for the first time, we use a mechanistic treatment of droplet nucleation and a prognostic treatment of the number of cloud droplets to study the indirect aerosol effect from changes in carbonaceous and sulfate aerosols. Cloud droplet nucleation is parameterized as a function of total aerosol number concentration, updraft velocity and a shape parameter, which takes into account the mechanism, of sulfate aerosol formation, while cloud droplet number depends on the nucleation as well as on droplet sinks. Whereas previous treatments have predicted annual average indirect effects between -1 and -2 W/sq m, we obtain an indirect aerosol effect between -0.14 W/sq m and -0.42 W/sq m in the global mean.

Penner, Joyce E.

1998-01-01

78

Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

Pan, Feifei

79

Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on  

E-print Network

Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on Forests of the Northeastern 2012 Email: nrspubs@fs.fed.us Abstract Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect to climate for thousands of years. However, current human-accelerated climate change is much more rapid

80

Climate Change Schools Project...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

McKinzey, Krista

2010-01-01

81

Climate Change and Transportation  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change and Transportation Addressing Climate Change in the Absence of Federal Guidelines;6 WSDOT Efforts · Climate Change Team · Project Level GHG Approach · Planning Level GHG Approach · Alternative Fuels Corridor · Recent legislation and research #12;7 WSDOT Efforts: Climate Change Team

Minnesota, University of

82

Implications for the hydrologic cycle under climate change due to the expansion of bioenergy crops in the Midwestern United States  

PubMed Central

To meet emerging bioenergy demands, significant areas of the large-scale agricultural landscape of the Midwestern United States could be converted to second generation bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass. The high biomass productivity of bioenergy crops in a longer growing season linked tightly to water use highlight the potential for significant impact on the hydrologic cycle in the region. This issue is further exacerbated by the uncertainty in the response of the vegetation under elevated CO2 and temperature. We use a mechanistic multilayer canopy-root-soil model to (i) capture the eco-physiological acclimations of bioenergy crops under climate change, and (ii) predict how hydrologic fluxes are likely to be altered from their current magnitudes. Observed data and Monte Carlo simulations of weather for recent past and future scenarios are used to characterize the variability range of the predictions. Under present weather conditions, miscanthus and switchgrass utilized more water than maize for total seasonal evapotranspiration by approximately 58% and 36%, respectively. Projected higher concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (550 ppm) is likely to decrease water used for evapotranspiration of miscanthus, switchgrass, and maize by 12%, 10%, and 11%, respectively. However, when climate change with projected increases in air temperature and reduced summer rainfall are also considered, there is a net increase in evapotranspiration for all crops, leading to significant reduction in soil-moisture storage and specific surface runoff. These results highlight the critical role of the warming climate in potentially altering the water cycle in the region under extensive conversion of existing maize cropping to support bioenergy demand. PMID:21876137

Le, Phong V. V.; Kumar, Praveen; Drewry, Darren T.

2011-01-01

83

Implications for the hydrologic cycle under climate change due to the expansion of bioenergy crops in the Midwestern United States.  

PubMed

To meet emerging bioenergy demands, significant areas of the large-scale agricultural landscape of the Midwestern United States could be converted to second generation bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass. The high biomass productivity of bioenergy crops in a longer growing season linked tightly to water use highlight the potential for significant impact on the hydrologic cycle in the region. This issue is further exacerbated by the uncertainty in the response of the vegetation under elevated CO(2) and temperature. We use a mechanistic multilayer canopy-root-soil model to (i) capture the eco-physiological acclimations of bioenergy crops under climate change, and (ii) predict how hydrologic fluxes are likely to be altered from their current magnitudes. Observed data and Monte Carlo simulations of weather for recent past and future scenarios are used to characterize the variability range of the predictions. Under present weather conditions, miscanthus and switchgrass utilized more water than maize for total seasonal evapotranspiration by approximately 58% and 36%, respectively. Projected higher concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) (550 ppm) is likely to decrease water used for evapotranspiration of miscanthus, switchgrass, and maize by 12%, 10%, and 11%, respectively. However, when climate change with projected increases in air temperature and reduced summer rainfall are also considered, there is a net increase in evapotranspiration for all crops, leading to significant reduction in soil-moisture storage and specific surface runoff. These results highlight the critical role of the warming climate in potentially altering the water cycle in the region under extensive conversion of existing maize cropping to support bioenergy demand. PMID:21876137

Le, Phong V V; Kumar, Praveen; Drewry, Darren T

2011-09-13

84

Expansion of bioenergy crops in the Midwestern United States: Implications for the hydrologic cycle under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet emerging bioenergy demands, significant areas of the large-scale agricultural landscape of the Midwestern United States could be converted to 2nd generation bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass. Their high biomass productivity in a longer growing season linked tightly to water use highlight the potential for significant impact on the hydrologic cycle in the region. This issue is further exacerbated by the uncertainty in the response of the vegetation under elevated CO2 and temperature. We use a mechanistic multilayer canopy-root-soil model to (i) capture the eco-physiological acclimations of bioenergy crops under climate change, and (ii) predict how hydrologic fluxes are likely to be altered from their current magnitudes. Observed data and Monte Carlo simulations of weather for recent past and future scenarios are used to characterize the variability range of the predictions. Under present weather conditions, miscanthus and switchgrass utilized more water than maize for total seasonal evapotranspiration by approximately 58% and 36%, respectively. Projected higher concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (550 ppm) is likely to decrease water used for evapotranspiration of miscanthus, switchgrass, and maize by 12%, 10%, and 11%, respectively. However, when climate change with projected increases in air temperature and reduced summer rainfall are also considered, there is a net increase in evapotranspiration for all crops, leading to significant reduction in soil-moisture storage and specific surface runoff. These results highlight the critical role of the warming climate in potentially altering the water cycle in the region under extensive conversion of existing maize cropping to support bioenergy demand.

Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Drewry, D. T.

2011-12-01

85

Corporate Climate Change Adaptation.  

E-print Network

?? On-going and future climate change is universally acknowledged. Climate changeincorporating global mean temperature rise, impacts on global hydrology and ecosystems willaffect human society and… (more)

Herbertsson, Nicole

2010-01-01

86

Combating climate change.  

E-print Network

?? Level:                           Master thesis in Business administration with concentration towards Ecological economics   Title:             Combating climate change – a case study of Statoil’s climate strategy… (more)

Jönsson, Josefin

2008-01-01

87

Impact of climate change on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle  

E-print Network

and associated carbon cycle M. Herrmann, C. Estournel, F. Diaz, F. Adloff ; LEGOS, LA, MIO, CNRM The northwestern and associated carbon cycle to the long-term evolution of oceanic and atmospheric circulations. For that we planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle at a first order. However, differences mainly induced

88

programs in climate change  

E-print Network

existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change

89

Potential climate change impacts on microbial distribution and carbon cycling in the Australian Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in oceanic circulation and physiochemical parameters due to climate change may alter the distribution, structure and function of marine microbial communities, thereby altering the action of the biological carbon pump. One area of current and predicted future change is the sub-Antarctic zone (SAZ) to the southeast of Tasmania, Australia, where a southward shift in westerly winds appears to be forcing warmer and macronutrient-poor subtropical waters into the sub-Antarctic zone (SAZ). We investigated the impact of these subtropical waters on the microbial community of the SAZ on the SAZ-Sense cruise during the austral summer of 2007. The abundance of pico- and nanoeukaryotic algae, cyanobacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, bacteria and viruses was determined by flow cytometry at stations in the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ), the SAZ and in Subtropical Zone (STZ). Using cluster and similarity profile analyses on integrated microbial abundances over the top 200 m, we found that microbial communities located in the potential future SAZ to the southeast of Tasmania formed two distinct groups from those of the remainder of the SAZ and the PFZ. In the waters of the potential future SAZ, shallow mixed layers and increased iron concentrations elevated cyanobacterial, bacterial and viral abundances and increased percentage high DNA bacteria, resulting in communities similar to those of subtropical waters. Conversely, waters of the PFZ exhibited relatively low concentrations of autotrophic and heterotrophic microbes and viruses, indicative of the iron limitation in this region. A Distance Based Linear Model determined that salinity and nitrogen availability (nitrate, nitrite and ammonia concentrations) were the most influential environmental parameters over the survey, explaining 72% of the variation in microbial community structure. The microbial community of the potential future SAZ showed a shift away from particulate carbon export from the photic zone towards increased production by smaller cells, increased significance of the microbial loop and viral lysis. These changes would promote carbon recycling within the photic zone, thereby potentially decreasing the capacity of the future SAZ to absorb CO 2.

Evans, Claire; Thomson, Paul G.; Davidson, Andrew T.; Bowie, Andrew R.; van den Enden, Rick; Witte, Harry; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

2011-11-01

90

Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research uses Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) to better understand the energy and environmental performance for two electricity generation systems, a 620 MW combined-cycle natural gas plant, and an 8kW building-integrated photovoltaic system. The results of the LCA are used to provide an effective and accurate means for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies for U.S. electricity generation. The modern combined-cycle

Paul Joseph Meier

2002-01-01

91

Temporal changes in the isotope composition of Sierra spring water: Implications for recent climatic changes and carbon cycling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs are natural windows into groundwater systems, which are good archives of signals inherited at the time of recharge, as well as those gained during subsequent groundwater flow. These signals are influenced by water rock interactions and temporal variations of external forcing often related to climatic, anthropogenic, and ecological changes. Spring water piston flow ages as determined from environmental tracers (CFCs, tritium, SF6) range between <1 yr to 50 yr and differ depending on which tracer is used. Using a 13-yr data set, Manning et al. (J Hydro., 460/61, 13-28, 2012) found that a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (<50 yr), best explained the age data. Here, we will present spring apparent ages using the CFC piston flow model. Many parameters, including major cations, stable isotopes of water, 14C, and caddisfly species diversity correlate with CFC apparent ages. Cation concentrations, pH, and caddisfly species diversity increase while stable isotope compositions and 14C contents decrease with increasing apparent CFC ages. From waters recharging in 1960 to waters recharging in 1990, there is a 1.2‰ and 11‰ increase in ?18O and ?D, respectively. Historic temperature records from surrounding areas show about a 2°C mean winter temperature increase over the same period. This temperature change alone is not great enough to explain the observed increase in ?18O. We suggest that changes in atmospheric circulation patterns or changes in snow melt processes account for the remaining offset in ?18O. Spring 14C content ranged between 85 and 110 pmc and vary with apparent age, whereby the youngest groundwater has the highest radiocarbon values. The spring 14C is set by the soil pCO2 because the aquifer contains little carbonate, and its trend can be best described assuming the soil CO2 is composed of a 50:50 mix of young (15-25 years) and old (4000 years) soil carbon reservoir sources for the early part of the record and a 33:67 mix for the later portion. These results are consistent with previous soil carbon studies and demonstrate that soil carbon dynamics are variable within the watershed. The timescale of these geochemical changes recorded in the hydrologic records is short (decadal scale) and suggests that the geochemistry of groundwater is a useful tool for studying climate and other watershed changes over these intervals.

Clark, J. F.; Rademacher, L. K.; Manning, A. H.; Blumhagen, E. D.

2013-12-01

92

Designing Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

2012-12-01

93

The role of the hydrological cycle and the ocean`s thermohaline circulation in climate change: A multicomponent climate model study. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect

Global ocean-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere-continental ice sheet models are developed to address the question of feedbacks between the hydrological cycle and the global thermohaline circulation capable of explaining the climate changes seen in paleoclimate records of the late Pleistocene and the last deglaciation. The ocean-atmosphere model climate system displays two distinct stable equilibria controlled by latitudinal water vapor transport and the net flux of water vapor from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. If the inter-basin transport is sufficiently large, small changes in water vapor transport over the North Atlantic can effect bifurcation; maximum difference between the modes occurs in the North Atlantic. If the inter-basin transport is from the Pacific to the Atlantic and sufficiently large, latitudinal vapor transport in the North Pacific controls the bifurcations, with maximum changes occurring in the North Pacific. For intermediate values of inter-basin transport, no rapid transitions occur in either basin. In the regime with vapor flux from the Atlantic to the Pacific, one mode has strong production of deep water in the North Atlantic and a large flux of heat to the atmosphere from the high latitude North Atlantic. The other has strong deep water production in the Southern Ocean and weak production in the North Pacific and small heat transport to high-latitude North Atlantic. The ocean-atmosphere-ice sheet system displays feedbacks which produce century/millennium time scale oscillations. The thermohaline circulation plays a central role in these feedbacks because of its transport of both heat and salt. The feedbacks could potentially play a causal role in the century/milliennium climate change seen in the paleoclimate record.

Wang, Huaxiao

1993-12-31

94

"Managing Department Climate Change"  

E-print Network

"Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

Sheridan, Jennifer

95

The Carbon Cycle and its Role in Climate Change: Activity 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the human influences on the carbon cycle and examine how fossil fuels release carbon. Learners role play as miners, power plant operators, car drivers, and home owners in a city. Learners will act out how each member of society contributes to the carbon cycle and then create a classroom mural depicting the path of carbon. Learners can reflect on this process as well as brainstorm ways to lower their carbon footprints. This activity is the third in a series of three activities that introduce learners to the carbon cycle (see related sources), although it is not mandatory that all three activities are completed as a set.

US Bureau of Land Management

2009-01-01

96

Kiavallakkikput Agviq (Into the Whaling Cycle): Cetaceousness and Climate Change Among the Iñupiat of Arctic Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iñupiat of Arctic Alaska identify themselves as the “People of the Whales.” The flesh of the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) is high in vitamins and other components that traditionally sustained human physiology in a climate that is unsuitable for agriculture. Not surprisingly, the People of the Whales depend on the bowhead for sustenance and cultural meaning. The bowhead remains

Chie Sakakibara

2010-01-01

97

Climate Change and Biodiverstiy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes climate change due to human activities and natural factors; future scenarios due to global warming; and how climate change will impact ecosystems and biodiversity. It includes information on political activity such as avoidance, mitigation and adaptation as a response to climate change. Current projects of the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre( UNEP-WCMC) involving involving climate change migration and adaptation and impact on the ecosystem services.

98

Marine viruses and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-surface warming, sea-ice melting and related freshening, changes in circulation and mixing regimes, and ocean acidification induced by the present climate changes are modifying marine ecosystem structure and function and have the potential to alter the cycling of carbon and nutrients in surface oceans. Changing climate has direct and indirect consequences on marine viruses, including cascading effects on biogeochemical cycles,

R. Danovaro; C. Corinaldesi; A. Dell'Anno; J. A. Fuhrman; J. J. Middelburg; R. T. Noble; C. A. Suttle

2011-01-01

99

Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CAMPUS Southwestern Pennsylvania Program review and input from scholars with expertise in climate change and communication. #12; Welcome Thank you

Attari, Shahzeen Z.

100

The Changing Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the global change of climate. Presents the trend of climate change with graphs. Describes mathematical climate models including expressions for the interacting components of the ocean-atmosphere system and equations representing the basic physical laws governing their behavior. Provides three possible responses on the change. (YP)

Schneider, Stephen H.

1989-01-01

101

Forest Research: Climate Change  

E-print Network

Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

102

Climate Change Workshop 2007  

E-print Network

1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

103

Abrupt Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur for many reasons, it is conceivable that human forcing of climate change is increasing the probability of large, abrupt events. Were such an event to recur, the economic and ecological impacts

R. B. Alley; J. Marotzke; W. D. Nordhaus; J. T. Overpeck; D. M. Peteet; R. A. Pielke Jr; R. T. Pierrehumbert; P. B. Rhines; T. F. Stocker; L. D. Talley; J. M. Wallace

2003-01-01

104

The Mathematics Climate Change  

E-print Network

The Mathematics of Climate Change Graciela Chichilnisky UNESCO Professor of Mathematics January 7 & 8, 2008 #12;Climate Change is a New Phenomenon Notoriously di cult to model mathematically;Evaluating global warming #12;The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) nds that human - induced

Zeeman, Mary Lou

105

Population and climate change  

E-print Network

Population and climate change: a proposal Eugenia Kalnay University of Maryland with deep gratitude) Impact of land use and land-use change on climate (Observations minus Reanalysis): over the last 30 years and Mars data assimilation 2) Impact of land use and land-use change on climate (Observations minus

Kalnay, Eugenia

106

From Fall to Spring, or Spring to Fall? Seasonal Cholera Transmission Cycles and Implications for Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cholera remains a major public health threat in many developing countries around the world. The striking seasonality and the annual recurrence of this infectious disease in endemic areas continues to be of considerable interest to scientists and public health workers. Despite major advances in the ecological, and microbiological understanding of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent, the role of underlying macro-scale hydroclimatic processes in propagating the disease in different seasons and years is not well understood. The incidence of cholera in the Bengal Delta region, the ‘native homeland’ of cholera, shows distinct biannual peaks in the southern floodplains, as opposed to single annual peaks in coastal areas and the northern parts of Bangladesh, as well as other cholera-endemic regions in the world. A coupled analysis of the regional hydroclimate and cholera incidence reveals a strong association of the spatio-temporal variability of incidence peaks with seasonal processes and extreme events. At a seasonal scale, the cycles indicate a spring-fall transmission pattern, contrary to the prevalent notion of a fall-spring transmission cycle. We show that the asymmetric seasonal hydroclimatology affects regional cholera dynamics by providing a coastal growth environment for bacteria in spring, while propagating transmission to fall by flooding. This seasonal interpretation of the progression of cholera has important implications, for formulating effective cholera intervention and mitigation efforts through improved water management and understanding the impacts of changing climate patterns on seasonal cholera transmission. (Water Environental Research Education Actionable Solutions Network)

Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R.; Islam, S.; WE Reason

2010-12-01

107

Earth's Orbit and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this self-paced tutorial, learners examine data to determine the relative contribution of what we call natural climate cycles and that of human-caused greenhouse gases to contemporary climate change. Changes in the Earth-Sun geometry over time are explored using interactive digital applets. A section supporting pedagogical techniques that begin with student prior conceptions and a list of common Earth science student misconceptions are included. Vocabulary terms are hot linked to a glossary. This is the sixth of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

108

The Carbon Cycle and its Role in Climate Change: Activity 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 1), learners role play as atoms to explore how atoms can be rearranged to make different materials. Learners group together and link arms or hold hands to form chemical bonds and act out the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Use this activity to introduce the carbon cycle and follow this activity with two associated activities from the same resource.

2014-05-29

109

Uncertainty in Predicting the Effect of Climatic Change on the Carbon Cycling of Canadian Peatlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern peatlands play an important role globally in the cycling of C, through the exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere, the emission of CH4, the production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the storage of C. Under 2 × CO2 GCM scenarios, most Canadian peatlands will be exposed to increases in mean annual temperature ranging between 2 and

T. R. Moore; N. T. Roulet; J. M. Waddington

1998-01-01

110

Solar cycle 24: Implications for energetic particles and longterm space climate change  

E-print Network

cycle 24 (SC24) continue to show a relatively low heliospheric magnetic field strength and sunspot. Similarly, we estimate the heliospheric magnetic field strength will peak around 6nT. We estimate magnetic field, B [Lockwood et al., 2009a, 2009b] and a significant reduction in the solar wind speed

Lockwood, Mike

111

Dampening prey cycle overrides the impact of climate change on predator population dynamics: a long-term demographic study on tawny owls  

PubMed Central

Predicting the dynamics of animal populations with different life histories requires careful understanding of demographic responses to multifaceted aspects of global changes, such as climate and trophic interactions. Continent-scale dampening of vole population cycles, keystone herbivores in many ecosystems, has been recently documented across Europe. However, its impact on guilds of vole-eating predators remains unknown. To quantify this impact, we used a 27-year study of an avian predator (tawny owl) and its main prey (field vole) collected in Kielder Forest (UK) where vole dynamics shifted from a high- to a low-amplitude fluctuation regime in the mid-1990s. We measured the functional responses of four demographic rates to changes in prey dynamics and winter climate, characterized by wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (wNAO). First-year and adult survival were positively affected by vole density in autumn but relatively insensitive to wNAO. The probability of breeding and number of fledglings were higher in years with high spring vole densities and negative wNAO (i.e. colder and drier winters). These functional responses were incorporated into a stochastic population model. The size of the predator population was projected under scenarios combining prey dynamics and winter climate to test whether climate buffers or alternatively magnifies the impact of changes in prey dynamics. We found the observed dampening vole cycles, characterized by low spring densities, drastically reduced the breeding probability of predators. Our results illustrate that (i) change in trophic interactions can override direct climate change effect; and (ii) the demographic resilience entailed by longevity and the occurrence of a floater stage may be insufficient to buffer hypothesized environmental changes. Ultimately, dampened prey cycles would drive our owl local population towards extinction, with winter climate regimes only altering persistence time. These results suggest that other vole-eating predators are likely to be threatened by dampening vole cycles throughout Europe. PMID:24634279

Millon, Alexandre; Petty, Steve J; Little, Brian; Gimenez, Olivier; Cornulier, Thomas; Lambin, Xavier

2014-01-01

112

Dampening prey cycle overrides the impact of climate change on predator population dynamics: a long-term demographic study on tawny owls.  

PubMed

Predicting the dynamics of animal populations with different life histories requires careful understanding of demographic responses to multifaceted aspects of global changes, such as climate and trophic interactions. Continent-scale dampening of vole population cycles, keystone herbivores in many ecosystems, has been recently documented across Europe. However, its impact on guilds of vole-eating predators remains unknown. To quantify this impact, we used a 27-year study of an avian predator (tawny owl) and its main prey (field vole) collected in Kielder Forest (UK) where vole dynamics shifted from a high- to a low-amplitude fluctuation regime in the mid-1990s. We measured the functional responses of four demographic rates to changes in prey dynamics and winter climate, characterized by wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (wNAO). First-year and adult survival were positively affected by vole density in autumn but relatively insensitive to wNAO. The probability of breeding and number of fledglings were higher in years with high spring vole densities and negative wNAO (i.e. colder and drier winters). These functional responses were incorporated into a stochastic population model. The size of the predator population was projected under scenarios combining prey dynamics and winter climate to test whether climate buffers or alternatively magnifies the impact of changes in prey dynamics. We found the observed dampening vole cycles, characterized by low spring densities, drastically reduced the breeding probability of predators. Our results illustrate that (i) change in trophic interactions can override direct climate change effect; and (ii) the demographic resilience entailed by longevity and the occurrence of a floater stage may be insufficient to buffer hypothesized environmental changes. Ultimately, dampened prey cycles would drive our owl local population towards extinction, with winter climate regimes only altering persistence time. These results suggest that other vole-eating predators are likely to be threatened by dampening vole cycles throughout Europe. PMID:24634279

Millon, Alexandre; Petty, Steve J; Little, Brian; Gimenez, Olivier; Cornulier, Thomas; Lambin, Xavier

2014-06-01

113

The Carbon Cycle and its Role in Climate Change: Activity 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 7), learners explore the meaning of a "carbon sink." Using simple props, learners and/or an educator demonstrate how plants act as carbon sinks and how greenhouse gases cause global warming. This activity is the second in a series of three activities that introduce learners to the carbon cycle (see related sources), although it is not mandatory that all three activities are completed as a set.

2014-05-29

114

IISDnet: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) provides this site to present its knowledge base for climate change and adaptation. The knowledge base includes links to global projects on climate change, policy documents and research reports. The e-newsletter, Climate Canada, is accessible from this site as well.

115

Global Climatic Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed.

Richard A. Houghton; George M. Woodwell

1989-01-01

116

Is Climate Change Happening?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this lesson, the guiding Concept Question is: What is climate change and how does climate relate to greenhouse gas concentrations over time? This activity is the second lesson in a nine-lesson module 'Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change' produced by the International Year of Chemistry project (2011).

Science, King'S C.

117

Sustainable Development (20 credits) The carbon cycle, its impact on climate, and the need to change this by introducing  

E-print Network

Sustainable Development (20 credits) The carbon cycle, its impact on climate, and the need of Government legislation on technology and the growth of sustainable businesses will be emphasised and building sustainable hydrogen industries. · Metals recycling. · Mass and energy balances on human

Miall, Chris

118

The effects of global climate change on the cycling and processes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fate and cycling of two selected legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), PCB 153 and ?-HCH, in the North Sea in the 21st century have been modelled with combined hydrodynamic and fate and transport ocean models (HAMSOM and FANTOM, respectively). To investigate the impact of climate variability on POPs in the North Sea in the 21st century, future scenario model runs for three 10-year periods to the year 2100 using plausible levels of both in situ concentrations and atmospheric, river and open boundary inputs are performed. This slice mode under a moderate scenario (A1B) is sufficient to provide a basis for further analysis. For the HAMSOM and atmospheric forcing, results of the IPCC A1B (SRES) 21st century scenario are utilized, where surface forcing is provided by the REMO downscaling of the ECHAM5 global atmospheric model, and open boundary conditions are provided by the MPIOM global ocean model. Dry gas deposition and volatilization of ?-HCH increase in the future relative to the present by up to 20% (in the spring and summer months for deposition and in summer for volatilization). In the water column, total mass of ?-HCH and PCB 153 remain fairly steady in all three runs. In sediment, ?-HCH increases in the future runs, relative to the present, while PCB 153 in sediment decreases exponentially in all three runs, but even faster in the future, due to the increased number of storms, increased duration of gale wind conditions and increased water and air temperatures, all of which are the result of climate change. Annual net sinks exceed sources at the ends of all periods. Overall, the model results indicate that the climate change scenarios considered here generally have a negligible influence on the simulated fate and transport of the two POPs in the North Sea, although the increased number and magnitude of storms in the 21st century will result in POP resuspension and ensuing revolatilization events. Trends in emissions from primary and secondary sources will remain the key driver of levels of these contaminants over time.

O'Driscoll, K.; Mayer, B.; Su, J.; Mathis, M.

2014-05-01

119

Messaging climate change uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is full of uncertainty and the messengers of climate science are not getting the uncertainty narrative right. To communicate uncertainty one must first understand it, and then avoid repeating the mistakes of the past.

Cooke, Roger M.

2015-01-01

120

Climate change portal established  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Bank has developed a Climate Change Knowledge Portal as a kind of “onestop shop” for climate-related information, data, and tools. The portal provides access to global, regional, and national data and reports with an aim to providing a resource for learning about climate information and increasing knowledge on climate change—related actions. For more information, see http://sdwebx.worldbank.org/climateportal/.

Showstack, Randy

2011-12-01

121

Role of Natural Cycles in the Global Climate Change M.A. Vukcevic MSc  

E-print Network

of a vigorous debate, and finally there is the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation or AMO, with relatively regular between the estimates of the average land temperature Tav and AMO, the Atlantic Multidecadal oscillation oscillations emanating from the liquid part of the Earth's core, as detected in the secular changes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Expansion of Bioenergy Crops in the Midwestern United States: Implications for the Hydrologic Cycle under Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the emerging bioenergy production demands, the agricultural Midwestern United States is likely to see large-scale land use conversions to accommodate expansion of perennial bioenergy crops such as Miscanthus (Miscanthus X giganteus) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). This leads to open questions regarding the impact on the hydrologic cycle in the region. To address these, a mechanistic model MLCan (Multi-Layer Canopy model, Drewry et al. 2010) is applied to analyze and predict: (i) the eco-physiological adaptations in the two most promising perennial bioenergy C4 crops in the Midwest, viz. Miscanthus and Switchgrass; and (ii) the impact on soil-water use. Model validation is performed using recent 2005 observations and then projections under climate change for 2050 are analyzed. The result indicates that compared with corn (Zea mays L.), another C4 but annual crop, Miscanthus and Switchgrass utilize more water for total seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) by approximately 58% to 36%, respectively, due to their higher leaf area and longer growing season. Under projected 2050 scenario of elevated atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) [550 ppm], Miscanthus, Switchgrass, and corn are likely to decrease water use for ET by approximately 16%, 15%, 13% for respectively. However, when projected increase in air temperature is also considered, it results in an increase in ET. Air temperature sensitivity to water use of each crop under environmental changes is examined. Meanwhile, spatial extent and distribution of land-use change and bioenergy crop production is driven by economics and policy. Based on economic projections and the corresponding expansion of land area predicted for bioenergy crop production an analysis is conducted to assess the spatial impacts on hydrology. It is predicted that, based on projected elevated CO2 and air temperature increases, the total additional amount of water use in one growing season for these bioenergy crops in the Midwest may vary approximately from 5 to 35 (bil. m3), mostly contributed from the southern States.

Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Drewry, D.

2010-12-01

123

Global Climate Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent changes in the Earth's climate. Summarizes reports on changes related to carbon dioxide, temperature, rain, sea level, and glaciers in polar areas. Describes the present effort to measure the changes. Lists 16 references. (YP)

Hall, Dorothy K.

1989-01-01

124

Comprehensive Scenarios of Millennial Timescale Carbon Cycle and Climate  

E-print Network

by prior beliefs and climate observations Data assimilated World Ocean Atlas temperature and salinity NCEP uncertainty in ocean circulation and spatial surface climate pattern but not climate sensitivity or carbonComprehensive Scenarios of Millennial Timescale Carbon Cycle and Climate Change in a new Earth

Williamson, Mark

125

Solar cycle variability, ozone, and climate  

PubMed

Results from a global climate model including an interactive parameterization of stratospheric chemistry show how upper stratospheric ozone changes may amplify observed, 11-year solar cycle irradiance changes to affect climate. In the model, circulation changes initially induced in the stratosphere subsequently penetrate into the troposphere, demonstrating the importance of the dynamical coupling between the stratosphere and troposphere. The model reproduces many observed 11-year oscillations, including the relatively long record of geopotential height variations; hence, it implies that these oscillations are likely driven, at least in part, by solar variability. PMID:10195893

Shindell; Rind; Balachandran; Lean; Lonergan

1999-04-01

126

Responding to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the ninth and final lesson in a series of lessons about climate change. This lesson focuses on the various activities that humans can do to mitigate the effects of climate change. This includes information on current and predicted CO2 emission scenarios across the globe, alternative energy sources, and how people are currently responding to climate change. Importantly, this lesson is motivating in showing students that they can make a difference.

Science, King'S C.

127

Climate Change Economics and Policy  

E-print Network

AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

Romano, Daniela

128

Our Changing Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

Newhouse, Kay Berglund

2007-01-01

129

Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary,  

E-print Network

1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes of competing models have been proposed. The fractional Gaussian noises and their discrete time counter

Reale, Marco

130

Communicating Urban Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of models for community programming and this session will present early results of these efforts while engaging participants in exploring approaches to connecting urban communities and their local concerns to the issues of global climate change.

Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership

2011-12-01

131

Climate Change on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today, Mars is cold and dry. With a 7 mbar mean surface pressure, its thin predominantly CO2 atmosphere is not capable of raising global mean surface temperatures significantly above its 217K effective radiating temperature, and the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is equivalent to a global ocean only 10 microns deep. Has Mars always been in such a deep freeze? There are several lines of evidence that suggest it has not. First, there are the valley networks which are found throughout the heavily cratered terrains. These features are old (3.8 Gyr) and appear to require liquid water to form. A warm climate early in Mars' history has often been invoked to explain them, but the precise conditions required to achieve this have yet to be determined. Second, some of the features seen in orbiter images of the surface have been interpreted in terms of glacial activity associated with an active hydrological cycle some several billion years ago. This interpretation is controversial as it requires the release of enormous quantities of ground water and enough greenhouse warming to raise temperatures to the melting point. Finally, there are the layered terrains that characterize both polar regions. These terrains are geologically young (10 Myr) and are believed to have formed by the slow and steady deposition of dust and water ice from the atmosphere. The individual layers result from the modulation of the deposition rate which is driven by changes in Mars' orbital parameters. The ongoing research into each of these areas of Martian climate change will be reviewed, and similarities to the Earth's climate system will be noted.

Haberle, R. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

132

Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)

2007-07-01

133

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

Hulme, Mike

134

Abrupt Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores how scientific knowledge changes in the context of abrupt climate change. Until a few years ago, it was believed that climate changes gradually on Earth. But results from ice cores and other geologic records of past temperature changes indicate that this is not necessarily the case and that abrupt climate changes may be the norm rather than the exception. Using this issue, students will be given a glimpse into the process by which scientific knowledge is developed and refined by new data.

135

Rapid changes in temperature and hydrology in the western Mediterranean during the last climatic cycle from the high resolution record ODP Site 976 (Alboran Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution pollen record, pollen-inferred climate reconstructions and clay mineralogy records were performed over the last climatic cycle from the ODP Site 976 located in the Alboran Sea Continental paleoenvironment proxies were provided on the same samples to depict the short and long term variability of Mediterranean vegetation and climate during the two last terminations and the last two interglacials. Pollen record highlights the vegetation changes associated to climate variability while clay mineralogy informs about the terrigenous inputs related to wind and/or river transport. During the last cycle, both vegetation and clay minerals data have recorded the response of continental ecosystems to all the climate events which characterized the last 135000 years. The Dansgaard/Oeschger oscillations and the rapid cold events evidenced in the North Atlantic (Bond et al., 1993; McManus et al., 1994) are well evidenced in the ODP sequence. Thus, warm interstadials show a strong colonisation of temperate Mediterranean forest while cold events are particularly well expressed by correlative increases in dry steppic to semi-desert formation with enhanced input from African desert dust (Bout-Roumazeilles et al, 2007 and in progress). A special attention has been paid on the two last glacial/interglacial transitions 1 and 2 that occurred before the interglacial inception in order to better understand what happened during these key-periods in continental areas and also better understand how reacts the Mediterranean climate regime through these two periods. The two high resolution records from the Terminaison 2/ Stage 5 and Terminaison 1/ Holocene are compared especially with regards to the wind regime modifications through atmospheric supply, and to hydrological and temperature changes reconstructed from pollen data. Therefore for these two key-periods, we aim to produce a robust climate reconstruction pollen-inferred precipitation and temperature from the 0DP 976 marine Mediterranean core which also can be compared to climate estimates based on other marine cores (Peyron et al., in progress).

Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Peyron, Odile; Bout-Roumazeille, Viviane

2013-04-01

136

Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats  

E-print Network

Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats B A C K G R O U DN C H E C K ! Habitat, Food, Water the potential to affect plants,animals and humans around the globe. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 158 Habitat out in shapes of hills, waves, leaves, and berries. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 159 PROCEDURE

Gunawardena, Arunika

137

Coastal Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As climate changes, dynamic coastal regions are experiencing a wide range of impacts. Sea levels, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, ocean heat, and ocean circulation have all been changing in ways unseen for thousands of years. Arctic sea ice melted significantly more during summers in the last 30 years, and storms are intensifying. Coastal ecosystems stand to be damaged, and coasts will likely erode from rising sea levels, intensified storm surges, and flooding that climate change may amplify. Coastal communities will need to prepare adaptation strategies to cope, and many who live or work in coastal regions are wondering what climate change might mean for them. This module provides an overview of the impacts coastal regions are experiencing and may continue to experience as a result of Earthâs changing climate. A video series within the module demonstrates effective strategies for communicating climate science.

Comet

2011-05-31

138

Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

Hildebrand, Peter H.

2011-01-01

139

Non-linear feedbacks between climate change, hydrologic partitioning, plant available water, and carbon cycling in montane forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in both temperature and the amount and timing of precipitation have the potential to profoundly impact water balance in mountain ecosystems. Although changes in the amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are widely considered in climate change scenarios, less attention has been given to how changes in climate or land cover may affect hydrologic partitioning and plant available water. The focus of this presentation is on how spatial transitions in ecosystem structure and temporal transitions in climate affect the fraction of precipitation potentially available to vegetation. In most temperate mountain environments winter snows are a significant fraction of annual precipitation and understanding the partitioning of snow and snow melt is critical for predicting both ecosystem water availability and stream flow under future climate scenarios. Spatial variability in net snow water input is a function of the interaction of snowfall, wind, and solar radiation with topography and vegetation structure. Integrated over larger scales these interactions may result in between 0% and 40% sublimation of winter snowfall before melt, effectively excluding this water from growing season water balance. Once melt begins, variability in the partitioning of snowmelt is driven by the rate of melt, and somewhat less intuitively, by the timing of snow accumulation the previous fall. Early accumulating snowpacks insulate soils and minimize soil frost increasing infiltration of melt the following spring. In contrast, later snowfall results in colder soils, more soil frost, reduced infiltration, increased runoff during melt, and reduced plant available water during the following growing season. This change in hydrologic partitioning, mediated by the timing of snowpack accumulation, results in lower evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) the following spring. These findings suggest that abiotic controls on the partitioning of precipitation may exacerbate or attenuate the effects of climate change on mountain water balance.

Brooks, P. D.; Litvak, M. E.; Harpold, A. A.; Molotch, N. P.; McIntosh, J. C.; Troch, P. A.; Zapata, X.

2011-12-01

140

Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

141

Global Biogeochemical Cycles and the Physical Climate System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module focuses on the biogeochemical cycles of five of the major elements important to life - carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen - and their role in climatic change. The chapters include: Biogeochemical Processes, Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate, The Modern Coupled C-N-P-S-O System, Carbon Cycles, The Important Nutrient Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur, and The Water Cycle. Study questions and answers are also available.

Mackenzie, Fred

1999-01-01

142

CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND FOR INFORMED DECISION-MAKING Stephen E. Schwartz in climate change. Global mean surface temperature is higher today than it's been for at least a millennium Climate Research Unit, East Anglia UK #12;INDICATIONS OF SYSTEMATIC WARMING IN RECENT YEARS The 1990s were

Schwartz, Stephen E.

143

Climate change and skin.  

PubMed

Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

2013-02-01

144

OECD: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate change is something that is on the minds of many major non-governmental organizations and international think tanks. It has certainly not escaped the attention of the Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), which has had a climate change group as part of their environment directorate for a number of years. Their work is meant "to assist countries to implement effective and efficient policies to address climate change by conducting policy-relevant research and analysis." Visitors can gather relevant statistics, read news, browse content by country and more.

145

Climate Change Education .org  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate Change Education .org is a volunteer organization made up primarily of docents and interns at California science centers and museums, along with students, scientists, and staff at the University of California, Berkeley. The organization specializes in hands-on science demonstrations relevant to climate change and other topics, and the encouragement of partnerships in education. The group's two portal web sites, Climate Change Education .org and Global Warming California .net, direct visitors to hundreds of links to great resources on subjects of interest.

146

Climate Change and the Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity covers the role that the oceans may play in climate change and how climate change may affect the oceans. It is lesson 8 in a nine-lesson module Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change.

Science, The K.

147

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,  

E-print Network

MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

148

Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises  

E-print Network

Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

149

Conservation and Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

Landweber, Laura

150

Climate Change: An Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

Lewis, Garry

1995-01-01

151

Climate Change Adaptation Planning  

E-print Network

hazard) Is drought having an impact? (climate hazard) #12;Phase 2: Vulnerability and Risk Assessments Report Western Water Assessment NIDIS (National Integrated Drought Information System) The University of Colorado Law School #12;What is Climate Change Adaptation? "Adjustment in natural or human systems

Neff, Jason

152

Challenges for understanding the combined impacts of climate change and the 2001-2010 fires on carbon cycling in Alaskan boreal forests (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 2000s, Alaska's boreal forest experienced more wildland fire than any decade in recorded history (since 1940). Examination of charcoal data suggests that the level of burning over the past decade surpasses that observed over the past 10,000 years in the Yukon River Flats(Kelly et al. 2013). Here, we will review recent research directed towards understanding how fire and climate interact to control carbon cycling in Alaska's boreal forest. In particular, we will focus on fire-climate-permafrost-ecosystem interactions as the key drivers of changes to carbon cycling in this biome. Topics covered in this presentation will include: (a) recent changes to Alaska's fire regime; (b) factors controlling the burning of surface organic layers in Alaskan boreal forests; (c) factors controlling changes in permafrost following fire; (d) how variations in fire severity and changes in permafrost control patterns of tree seedling recruitment and growth; and (e) integrated assessments (including modeling) of the impacts of these processes on carbon cycling. Reference: Kelly, R. et al. PNAS, doi/10.1073/ pnas.1305069110, 2013.

Kasischke, E. S.; Alexander, H. D.; Barrett, K.; Genet, H.; Goetz, S. J.; Harden, J. W.; Hoy, E.; Johnstone, J. F.; Jorgenson, T.; Kane, E. S.; Kavenskiy, M.; Mack, M. C.; McGuire, A. D.; Mitchell, S. R.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Turetsky, M.

2013-12-01

153

Climate Processes and Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1997 Kyoto summit on climate change demonstrates the world community's desire to protect future generations from harmful effects induced by the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. On the other hand, the worldwide impacts of the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event serve as a reminder of how natural variability can strongly influence weather. In this book, Bryant provides a bird's-eye view of natural climate change over the last 2 million years, rather than the fish's-eye view of the more recent possible anthropogenic global warming.The key feature that sets this text apart is the perspective of climate change on a larger timescale. The author recognizes that climate is not constant, and that only small perturbations are necessary to shift climate into an extreme state. If this is the case, however, anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing may also produce extreme climate change. Climate Processes and Change also differs from other texts by raising the awareness of uncertainties in historical observations, trends, and the complex and nonlinear relationships between observations and theory.

Jenkins, Gregory S.

154

Global climate change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases.

Levine, Joel S.

1991-01-01

155

Climate Change and Health  

MedlinePLUS

... can result in improved health, particularly through reduced air pollution. Climate change Over the last 50 years, human ... carbon emissions, and cut the burden of household air pollution, which causes some 4.3 million deaths per ...

156

Global Climatic Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cites some of the evidence which suggests that the production of carbon dioxide and methane from human activities has begun to change the climate. Describes some measures which should be taken to stop or slow this progression. (RT)

Houghton, Richard A.; Woodwell, George M.

1989-01-01

157

Climate Change: Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... and ongoing rise in global average temperature near Earth's surface. It is caused mostly by increasing concentrations ... decades or longer. Climate change is happening Our Earth is warming. Earth's average temperature has risen by ...

158

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GROUNDWATER RESOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change poses uncertainties to the supply and management of water resources. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.6 ± 0.2 o C since 1861, and predicts an increase of 2 to 4 o C over the next 100 years. Temperature increases also affect the hydrologic cycle by directly increasing

R. D. Singh; C. P. Kumar

2010-01-01

159

Global climatic change  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

1989-04-01

160

Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for  

E-print Network

Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for the State of Indiana Prepared for: The Honorable Richard G. Lugar Prepared by: The Purdue Climate Change Research Center February 2008 #12;1 Executive Summary We have analyzed the potential "no-action" impacts of climate change

161

Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management  

E-print Network

Climate ChangeClimate Change and Runoff Managementand Runoff Management in Wisconsinin Wisconsin NASECA February 3, 2011 David S. Liebl #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts · Adaptation strategies #12;Visible Light Energy in = Energy out Absorbed

Sheridan, Jennifer

162

Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature  

SciTech Connect

The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

NONE

2006-04-15

163

Predicting impacts of increased CO? and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA.  

PubMed

Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO(2) concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO(2), precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO(2) concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO(3)-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO(3)-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. PMID:22641243

Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Gallant, Alisa L

2012-07-15

164

The dating of dipterocarp tree rings: establishing a record of carbon cycling and climatic change in the tropics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a first step to obtain a proxy record of past climatic events (including the El Niño-Southern Oscillation) in the normally aseasonal tropical environment of Sabah, a radial segment from a recently fallen dipterocarp (Shorea superba) was radiocarbon dated and subjected to carbon isotope analysis. The high-precision radiocarbon results fell into the ambiguous modern plateau where several calibrated dates can exist for each sample. Dating was achieved by wiggle matching using a Bayesian approach to calibration. Using the defined growth characteristics of Shorea superba, probability density distributions were calculated and improbable dates rejected. It was found that the tree most likely started growing around AD 1660-1685. A total of 173 apparent growth increments were measured and, therefore, it could be determined that the tree formed one ring approximately every two years. Stable carbon isotope values were obtained from resin-extracted wholewood from each ring. Carbon cycling is evident in the juvenile effect, resulting from the assimilation of respired carbon dioxide and lower light levels below the canopy, and in the anthropogenic effect caused by increased industrial activity in the late-nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This study demonstrates that palaeoenvironmental information can be obtained from trees growing in aseasonal environments, where climatic conditions prevent the formation of well-defined annual rings. Copyright

Robertson, I.; Froyd, C. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Newbery, D. M.; Woodborne, S.; Ong, R. C.

2004-10-01

165

Avoiding dangerous climate change  

SciTech Connect

In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

2006-02-15

166

Solar Influence: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video, the sixth in the National Academies Climate Change, Lines of Evidence series, explores the hypothesis that changes in solar energy output may be responsible for observed global surface temperature rise. Several lines of evidence, such as direct satellite observations, are reviewed.

Council, National R.; Academies, The N.

167

Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.

2014-09-18

168

Climate Change and Runoff Management  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Runoff Management in Wisconsin Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance May 10, 2011 David S of Engineering #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts of a changing climate J. Magnuson Source: IPCC 2007 Potter, et al. A longer record is better! #12;What about

Sheridan, Jennifer

169

Life cycle assessment of integrated municipal solid waste management systems, taking account of climate change and landfill shortage trade-off problems.  

PubMed

Steps taken to counter the climate change problem have a significant impact on the municipal solid waste management (MSW) sector, which must tackle regional environmental problems such as the shortage of sanitary landfills, especially in Japan. Moreover, greenhouse gas emissions and final disposal have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, alleviation of both these environmental problems is difficult, and Japanese local municipalities are anxious for action to solve these problems and reduce treatment costs. Although ambitious waste management measures have been enacted in many countries, they appear to lack a holistic view and do not adopt a life cycle approach. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct the MSW management system, taking into account environmental and economic aspects. In the present study, life cycle assessment and mathematical modelling were used to seek ways of redesigning the MSW management system in order to minimize environmental impacts and/or reduce treatment costs. One economic block was selected as the study area (Iwate Prefecture in Japan). The life cycle inventory and costs data for every MSW transportation and treatment process in this region were collected and processed. Then, taking account of geographic information, an optimal solution for the minimization of environmental impact or treatment costs was derived. To solve the trade-off problem, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to find optimal reduction targets for climate change and final disposal. PMID:20699290

Tabata, Tomohiro; Hishinuma, Tatsuo; Ihara, Tomohiko; Genchi, Yutaka

2011-04-01

170

Debating Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2009-11-01

171

International Finance and Climate Change  

E-print Network

and adapt to climate change. Miller has authored reports on climate financing, climate policy and environmental regulation. Stenek leads the IFC's Climate Risk and Adaptation Program, along with otherInternational Finance and Climate Change Thursday, October 17, 2013 Breakfast ­ 8:30 a

Zhang, Junshan

172

EPA's Climate Change Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides this site in order to present or direct users to accurate and timely social, scientific, and logistic information on the very broad issue of climate change and global warming in a way that is accessible and meaningful to all parts of society. The subtopics covered are climate - which includes information on global warming or The Greenhouse Effect -, emissions - with information on the Greenhouse Gases -, impacts, and actions, including what you can do to help with the problem of global warming. Specific information is presented for Concerned Citizens, Kids and Educators, Small Business and Industry and how they can help with the issue of global warming, Public Decision makers, International, Coastal Residents, Health Professionals, Meteorologists, and Wildlife Advocates. Some features are News, Calendar, Publications, Presentations (slide shows), Online tools (including software, calculators, case studies, and document searches), Science Frequently Asked Questions, Uncertainties, Glossary, and Links. The United States has based its climate change policies on the conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which has provided an authoritative international consensus on the science of climate change.

173

Climate-change scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1991, the United States Congress passed the Global Change Research Act directing the Executive Branch of government to assess the potential effects of predicted climate change and variability on the nation. This congressional action followed formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 by the United Nations Environmental Program and World Meteorological Organization. Some 2,000 scientists from more than 150 nations contribute to the efforts of the IPCC. Under coordination of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the congressionally ordered national assessment has divided the country into 19 regions and five socio-economic sectors that cut across the regions: agriculture, coastal and marine systems, forests, human health, and water. Potential climate-change effects are being assessed in each region and sector, and those efforts collectively make up the national assessment. This document reports the assessment of potential climate-change effects on the Rocky Mountain/Great Basin (RMGB) region which encompasses parts of nine western states. The assessment began February 16-18, 1998 with a workshop in Salt Lake City co-convened by Frederic H. Wagner of Utah State University and Jill Baron of the U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (BRD). Invitations were sent to some 300 scientists and stakeholders representing 18 socio-economic sectors in nine statesa?|

Wagner, F.H.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Baldwin, C.K.; Mearns, L.O.

2003-01-01

174

Software research and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This workshop explored the contributions that software research can make to the challenge of climate change. Climate change is likely to be the defining issue of the 21st Century. Recent studies indicate that climate change is accelerating, confirming the most pessimistic of scenarios identified by climate scientists. Our past use of fossil fuels commit the world to around 2°C average

Steve M. Easterbrook; Michael Glenn; Jorge Aranda; Jon Pipitone

2009-01-01

175

Biological Impacts of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may

McCarty, John P.

176

Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture  

E-print Network

7/23/2009 1 Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture Dev Niyogi Indiana State Climatologist it l d f d i li tWebsite: landsurface.org and iclimate.org What is Climate Change? (and...... what generally to large scale weather patterns in time or space, i.e. a tropical climate. Climate Change & Global

177

Understanding and Attributing Climate Change  

E-print Network

9 Understanding and Attributing Climate Change Coordinating Lead Authors: Gabriele C. Hegerl (USA. Nicholls, J.E. Penner and P.A. Stott, 2007: Under- standing and Attributing Climate Change. In: Climate of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M

Box, Jason E.

178

Climate change and groundwater: a short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: There is a general consensus that climate change is an ongoing phenomenon. This will inevitably bring about numerous environmental problems, including alterations to the hydrolo- gical cycle, which is already heavily influenced by anthropogenic activity. The available climate scenarios indicate areas where rainfall may increase or diminish, but the final outcome with respect to man and environment will, generally,

W. Dragoni; B. S. Sukhija

2008-01-01

179

Increase of Carbon Cycle Feedback with Climate Sensitivity: Results from a coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model  

SciTech Connect

Coupled climate and carbon cycle modeling studies have shown that the feedback between global warming and the carbon cycle, in particular the terrestrial carbon cycle, could accelerate climate change and result in larger warming. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of this feedback for year-2100 global warming in the range of 0 K to 8 K. Differing climate sensitivities to increased CO{sub 2} content are imposed on the carbon cycle models for the same emissions. Emissions from the SRES A2 scenario are used. We use a fully-coupled climate and carbon cycle model, the INtegrated Climate and CArbon model (INCCA) the NCAR/DOE Parallel Coupled Model coupled to the IBIS terrestrial biosphere model and a modified-OCMIP ocean biogeochemistry model. In our model, for scenarios with year-2100 global warming increasing from 0 to 8 K, land uptake decreases from 47% to 29% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. Due to competing effects, ocean uptake (16%) shows almost no change at all. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration increases were 48% higher in the run with 8 K global climate warming than in the case with no warming. Our results indicate that carbon cycle amplification of climate warming will be greater if there is higher climate sensitivity to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} content; the carbon cycle feedback factor increases from 1.13 to 1.48 when global warming increases from 3.2 to 8 K.

Govindasamy, B; Thompson, S; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Caldeira, K; Delire, C

2004-04-01

180

Confronting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage…

Roach, Ronald

2009-01-01

181

What is Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is offered by Canada's Natural Resources Department. The main page describes the basics of the phenomenon, while the links tell about the impact of climate change on health and safety, communities, land resources, water resources, and coastal regions. Although specific to Canadian regions, the site will give visitors from all over a good introduction to the potential problems of global warming.

182

Climate Change? When? Where?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city. The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is…

Boon, Helen

2009-01-01

183

Predicting climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few scientific topics evoke such general interests and public discussion as climate change. It is a subject that has been highly politicized. New results enter the environmental debate as evidence supporting a position. Usually the qualifiers, the background, and perspective needed to understand the result have been stripped away to form an appropriate sound bite. The attention is understandable given

Drake

1995-01-01

184

Climate Kids: What is Global Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A question and answer format is used to differentiate between weather and climate, and to provide a brief overview of global warming. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

185

Status of Climate Change  

E-print Network

no change in Projections except Sea Level Change expected higher than #4 • No Change for Hurricanes, Severe Weather – still very uncertain • Ocean Acidification more certain, probably more serious ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy...-18 IPCC #5 future Climate Change ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Oceans become More Acidic due to Dissolving CO2 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

North, G.

2013-01-01

186

Climate driven changes in hydrology, nutrient cycling, and food web dynamics in surface waters of the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ecosystems are changing rapidly as a result of a warming climate. While many areas of the arctic are expected to dry as a result of warming, the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska, which extends from the Brooks Range north to the Beaufort Sea will likely become wetter, because subsurface hydrologic fluxes are constrained by thick, continuous permafrost. This landscape is characterized by large, oriented lakes and many smaller ponds that form in the low centers and troughs/edges of frost polygons. This region provides important breeding habitat for many migratory birds including loons, arctic terns, eiders, shorebirds, and white-fronted geese, among others. Increased hydrologic fluxes may provide a bottom-up control on the success of these species by altering the availability of food resources including invertebrates and fish. This work aimed to 1) characterize surface water fluxes and nutrient availability in the small streams and lake types of two study regions in the ACP, 2) predict how increased hydrological fluxes will affect the lakes, streams, and water chemistry, and 3) use nutrient additions to simulate likely changes in lake chemistry and invertebrate availability. Initial observations suggest that increasing wetland areas and availability of nutrients will result in increased invertebrate abundance, while the potential for drainage and terrestrialization of larger lakes may reduce fish abundance and overwintering habitat. These changes will likely have positive implications for insectivores and negative implications for piscivorous waterfowl.

Koch, J. C.; Wipfli, M.; Schmutz, J.; Gurney, K.

2011-12-01

187

The IAHR project CCHE-Climate Change impact on the Hydrological cycle, water management and Engineering: an overview and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IAHR, the International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research launched a research Project called Climate Change impact on the Hydrological cycle, water management and Engineering (IAHR CCHE Project). It was motivated by the fact that, although it is now well accepted that, in the light of the recent IPCC reports the vast majority of members of the scientific community are convinced that the climate is changing or at least will experience a significant fluctuation already during the current century, it is perceived that some hydrologists, water experts and hydraulic engineers are not yet ready to incorporate climate change scenarios in their designs for such projects as: - flood protection and river training, - dam rehabilitation, - water resources management under water scarcity and changes in the hydrological regimes. The objective of the project is to encourage a close co-operation between the scientific and engineering communities in taking appropriate and timely action in response to the impact of climate change on the hydrological regime and on water resource projects. The project aims at reporting on (a) the current state of knowledge as regards the impact of projected climate change on the hydrological regime in different regions of the world, where these regions are defined not just in geographic terms but also on the basis of their level of economic and water resources development; (b) the extent to which these impacts are recognized and taken into account by national water authorities, engineering organizations and other regulating bodies in setting their standard practices and procedures for the planning, design and operation of water works. These adaptation measures will include both "hard" responses, such as the construction or enlargement of engineering structures, and "soft" responses, such as changes in legislation or the operating rules of existing structures. An overview of the project and preliminary results extracted from of an Inventory of existing studies and projects considering observed and projected trends in the hydrological regimes of riverbasins and adaptation measures of the structural and non-structural type in Europe, Africa, America, Asia and Oceania and are presented.

Ranzi, Roberto; Kojiri, T.; Mynett, A.; Barontini, S.; van de Giesen, N.; Kolokytha, E.; Ngo, L. A.; Oreamuno, R.; Renard, B.; Sighomnou, D.; Vizina, A.

2010-05-01

188

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan  

E-print Network

Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change

189

Climate Change in Chris Brierley  

E-print Network

Climate Change in HadCM3 Chris Brierley Chapa Club - 21/06/06 #12;Increase in CO2 A climate forcing References Climate Change SRES Scenarios - T. C. Johns, J. M. Gregory,W. J. Ingram, C. E. Johnson, A. Jones leads to a change in the energy balance of earth. Earth responds by changing its characteristics

Jones, Peter JS

190

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering  

E-print Network

Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate Engineering Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States 2 Response Strategies to ClimateResponse Strategies to Climate ChangeChange

Polz, Martin

191

Climate extremes and the carbon cycle (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Ongoing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that rare climate extremes can lead to a decrease in ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate the expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle, and propose a pathway to improve our understanding of present and future impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon budget. In addition to direct impact on the carbon fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration via extreme temperature and (or) drought, effects of extreme events may also lead to lagged responses, such as wildfires triggered by heat waves and droughts, or pest and pathogen outbreaks following wind-throw caused by heavy storms, reduced plant health due to drought stress or due to less frequent cold extremes in presently cold regions. One extreme event can potentially override accumulated previous carbon sinks, as shown by the Western European 2003 heat wave.. Extreme events have the potential to affect the terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance through a single factor, or as a combination of factors. Climate extremes can cause carbon losses from accumulated stocks, as well as long-lasting impacts on (e.g. lagged effects) on plant growth and mortality, extending beyond the duration of the extreme event itself. The sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems and their carbon balance to climate change and extreme events varies according to the type of extreme, the climatic region, the land cover, and the land management. Extreme event impacts are very relevant in forests due to the importance of lagged and memory effects on tree growth and mortality, the longevity of tree species, the large forest carbon stocks and their vulnerability, as well as the long recovery time to re-gain the stock level previous to the extreme event impact. Given shorter regrowth times, grasslands are expected to recover more quickly from extremes than forests. Yet, degradation feedbacks come into play, where drought triggers loss of vegetation and heavy rain or wind causes subsequent erosion. Thus, an increase in the frequency of extreme events in some regions may contribute to e.g. desertification of semi-arid to arid grassland, in particular when (over-) grazing is an additional pressure. Croplands are also exposed to extremes with impacts on carbon cycling that are harder to disentangle as negative effects can be mitigated through evasive and adaptive farm management actions provided that sufficient resources are available. In most climatic zones, productivity and carbon sequestration potential of terrestrial ecosystems are strongly influenced by droughts that are a main source of inter-annual variation in terrestrial carbon sequestration. The expected regional impact of future climate extremes depends on changes in the occurrence probability of extremes, the compounded effects and timing of different extremes, the vulnerability of each land-cover type, the current mean climate in relation to the functioning of the ecosystem under consideration, and the ability to apply adaptive management.

Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Ciais, P.; Mahecha, M. D.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Zscheischler, J.

2013-12-01

192

Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21st century simulations with interactive carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeophysical (BGP) and biogeochemical (BGC) effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC) are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO2 simulations for the 21st century. Results from four Earth System models (ESMs) are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC) contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts (LUCID) project. Over the period, 2006-2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC-induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between -0.47 and 0.10 K). Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO2-fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g. whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly) and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially, when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC.

Boysen, L. R.; Brovkin, V.; Arora, V. K.; Cadule, P.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Kato, E.; Pongratz, J.; Gayler, V.

2014-04-01

193

Health Effects of Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...

194

Climate Change and Citizen Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how citizen observations can document the impact of climate change on plants and animals. It introduces the topic of phenology and data collection, the impact of climate change on phenology, and how individuals can become citizen scientists.

Citizen Science Central, Cornell L.

195

Forests / Climate change persp ctive  

E-print Network

Z Forests / Climate change persp ctive e 18Zoonotic diseases cause 2.2 million deaths and 2: in an interconnected world that is undergo- ing considerable climate and environmental change, human, animal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Effect of climate and environmental changes on plankton biodiversity and bigeochemical cycles of the Dongsha (Pratas) Atoll, South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dongsha (Pratas) Atoll, the so called "Pearl Crown of South China Sea", is a well-developed atoll with a total area of 80000 hectares. It possesses various ecosystems and has very high biodiversity, but it is very sensitive to climate change and physical processes. According to our investigation within the shallow semi-enclosed atoll in April, July, and October, 2011 (i.e., spring, summer, and autumn, respectively), we found that plankton assemblages and hydrographical conditions exhibited clear seasonal and spatial variations. Colder and higher salinity water was observed in April, while warmer water in July and lower salinity water in October, respectively. Nutrient concentration within the atoll was similar to that of the oligotrophic South China Sea waters and seemed to be in nitrogen-limit situation, while the distribution pattern of DOC and POC was mainly attributed to Chla and imported detritus matters. Carbon deposition flux also showed significant seasonal changes, but POC/PN value was near Redfield ratio, implying mostly due to biogenic factors; however it could still be classified as a typical coral ecosystem, since CaCO3 sinking flux generally was 30 times higher than that of organic matter. Plankton biodiversity was quite high in the atoll, and preformed apparent seasonal succession; in total, 82 phytoplankton species and 67 copepod species were recorded; furthermore, crab zoea (17.3% of the total zooplankton by number), fish eggs (12.5%), and shrimp larvae (4.2%), were relatively abundant in zooplankton community, revealed that atoll might be a good hatching ground. We deduced that the seasonal patterns of chemical and biological variables were mainly influenced by monsoons and precipitation, while small scales of temporal and spatial variations could be ascribed to internal wave and tide in this study area.

Lo, Wen-tseng; Hsu, Pei-Kai; Hunag, Jia-Jang; Wang, Yu-Huai

2013-04-01

197

4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 2875­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Climate change impact­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Climate Change Action Plan Report  

E-print Network

Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS

Hansen, Andrew J.

199

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

200

Climate Change The Physical Background  

E-print Network

Climate Change ­ The Physical Background Andreas Sterl KNMI · Basics of the climate system/18) #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11.10.2007 Observed climate change #12;Andreas Sterl · Anthropogenic influence · Projected changes & impact #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11

Haak, Hein

201

Surviving climate change in the  

E-print Network

Surviving climate change in the property & casualty industry by growing customer advocacy Insurance build a sustainable competitive advantage. Surviving climate change in the property & casualty industry by growing customer advocacy By Andrea Eichhorn and Bob Heffernan Surviving climate change in the P

202

Past and Current Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1837 the Swiss geologist and palaeontologist Louis Agassiz was the first scientist to propose the existence of an ice age in the Earth's past. Nearly two centuries after discussing global glacial periods... while the average global temperature is rising very quickly because of our economic and industrial model. In tribute to these pioneers, we have selected a major climate change of the past as the Snowball Earth and, through various activities in the classroom, compared to the current anthropogenic climate change. First, we include multiple geological processes that led to a global glaciation 750 million years ago as the decrease in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4, the effect of climate variations in solar radiation due to emissions of volcanic dust and orbital changes (Milankovitch cycles), being an essential part of this model the feedback mechanism of the albedo of the ice on a geological scale. Moreover, from simple experiments and studies in the classroom this time we can compare the past with the current anthropogenic global warming we are experiencing and some of its consequences, highlighting that affect sea level rise, increased extreme and effects on health and the biosphere weather.

Mercedes Rodríguez Ruibal, Ma

2014-05-01

203

Earth's Climate Changes: Virtual Bookshelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of carefully selected books for grades K-5 highlights nonfiction about climate proxies, those preserved physical characteristics, such as fossils, that scientists use to reconstruct past climates. Also highlighted are a few books that provide information about two past climatic events -- the last ice age and the Dust Bowl. In each issue of the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, the virtual bookshelf recommends books that accurately portray the theme drawn from the principles of climate sciences.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

204

Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21st century simulations with interactive carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeophysical (BGP) and biogeochemical (BGC) effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC) are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO2 simulations for the 21st century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs) are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC), contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts (LUCID) project. Over the period 2006-2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC-induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between -0.47 and 0.10 K). Modifications of the land carbon pool by LULCC are disentangled in accordance with processes that can lead to increases and decreases in this carbon pool. Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO2-fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g., whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly) and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC.

Boysen, L. R.; Brovkin, V.; Arora, V. K.; Cadule, P.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Kato, E.; Pongratz, J.; Gayler, V.

2014-09-01

205

Climate Variability and Change in a Eutrophic Great Lakes Freshwater Embayment: Shifting Hydrodynamics and the Potential for Indirect Impacts on Biogeochemical Processes, Carbon Cycling and Hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future changes in the climatic regime of the Great Lakes region have the potential to induce a variety of both direct (e.g. thermal) and indirect (e.g. biogeochemical) alterations in ecosystem function. In the case of the later, we have identified a statistically significant shift in wind direction of the average wind field over the Great Lakes basin that is consistent with a southward migration of the dominant summer storm track. In Green Bay (NW Lake Michigan), we have shown that the new wind field has most likely resulted in periods of decreased thermal stratification and an overall decrease in water mass exchange with Lake Michigan. In subsequent studies, aimed at determining the impact of these shifts in the physical climate regime, time series measurements of currents, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and the Be-7 activity of particulates in bottom sediments, sediment traps, and suspended particulates have been made over a 3 year period. A tracer of short term particle dynamics, Be-7 (half life 53 d) is useful in estimating particle residence times in the water column, along with episodic sediment deposition and erosion rates, and the average number of deposition/erosion cycles a particle experiences prior to permanent burial in the sediments. Be-7 derived estimates of the age of particulate organic carbon cycling between surface sediments and the overlying waters are on the order of months, and are dependent upon resuspension frequency. Remineralization of organic carbon within this actively resuspended pool of material results in estimated decomposition rates for POC ranging 0.08 to 0.04% per day, a rate intermediate between the rapid remineralization of fresh algal material and post-depositional diagenesis. Comparisons between 1989-90 and 2004-06 show a decrease in resuspension frequency, possibly in response to shifts in regional climatic scale dynamics. This appears to result in an increase in the efficiency of trapping of organic matter in the bay and a significant increase in the organic carbon content of suspended particulates within the resuspension reactor. Measured sedimentation rates determined via Pb-210 and Cs-137 also indicate increased sediment accumulation over this interval. Combined with the wind shift induced reduction in water mass exchange, these climatic changes have the potential to increase hypoxia via enhancing benthic oxygen demand - a common feature of lower Green Bay that recent evidence suggests may be exacerbated, triggering severe oxygen depletion and fish kills.

Klump, J. V.; Waples, J. T.

2008-12-01

206

Agriculture and climate change  

SciTech Connect

How will increases in levels of CO{sub 2} and changes in temperature affect food production A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO{sub 2} but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO{sub 2} from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO{sub 2} by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops.

Abelson, P.H.

1992-07-03

207

Free Podcasts on Climate and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In partnership with the National Science Digital Library and Apple, NCAR and UCAR offer podcasts that provide a brief and accessible overview on climate and climate change. These podcasts, short 5-8 minute videos you can download on your computer or iPod, are a part of the NSDL on iTunes U collection.

Payo, Robert

208

Insects and climate change  

SciTech Connect

In this article the author describes some of the significant late glacial and Holocene changes that occurred in the Rocky Mountains, including the regional extirpation of certain beetle species. The fossil data presented here summarize what is known about regional insect responses to climate change in terms of species stability and geographic distribution. To minimize potential problems of species interactions (i.e., insect-host plant relationships, host-parasite relationships, and other interactions that tie a particular insect species' distribution to that of another organism), only predators and scavengers are discussed. These insects respond most rapidly to environmental changes, because for the most part they are not tied to any particular type of vegetation.

Elias, S.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1991-09-01

209

Climate Change: Prospects for Nature  

SciTech Connect

Thomas Lovejoy, President of The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, explores the impact of climate change on the natural world. He also discusses the implications of climate change for climate policy and natural resource management.

Thomas Lovejoy

2008-03-12

210

Climate Change and Regional Impacts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short module is an overview of the different effects climate change produces in different regions of the United States. In addition to discussing impacts already being experienced, the module presents information on how climate scientists use specialized models and statistical techniques to estimate how regional climates are likely to change in the future.

COMET

2012-08-14

211

Climate Change Workshop Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is a collection of useful Web links to climate change resources. Only a few resources here right now, but you get the idea... NIERRS Water quality monitoring data page NERRS - Water quality monitoring data This is a great site for water stuff. GOMOOS Site -- buoy monitoring data GOMOOS - Weather and water data (real-time) from Gulf of Maine buoys This is a great site for ocean temperatures and wind speed, etc. Coastal Ocean Observing Center Here\\'s another: The COOLroom ...

Deb and Chad

2007-11-20

212

Contrails and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, learners analyze the role of condensation trails from jets, or contrails, and their role in climate change. Contrails are thin ice clouds that form from the burning of jet fuel and release of water vapor. The issue with contrails is that narrow trails can spread and coalesce to form significant banks of cirrus-type clouds. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

213

Prehistoric Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners use fossils to infer temperatures 55 million years ago, at the sites where the fossils were found. Using their observation skills, learners examine fossils of tree leaves and sort them into "smooth" and "toothed" leaves. Learners follow the process founded by Smithsonian paleontologist Scott Wing (featured in a video) to determine the temperature at the site where the fossils were found. Learners are challenged to: distinguish between smooth and toothed leaves using a scientific method called "leaf-margin analysis"; calculate the smooth-leaf percentage; calculate average annual temperature at two fossil sites; compare calculations between sites; and consider how prehistoric climate change matters today.

Institution, Smithsonian

2009-01-01

214

Climate Variability and Change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on climate variability and change and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

215

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National  

E-print Network

UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National Adaptation Programme Meg Patel Defra #12 change #12;Weather & climate impacts - economic, societal, environmental Water consumption per capita;Legislative Framework Climate Change Act 2008 Adaptation Reporting Power 2011 Climate Change Risk Assessment

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

216

Carbon cycling in a rapidly changing High Arctic: Results from long-term climate experiments and observations of interannual variability in NW Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Arctic, a region dominated by polar semi-deserts underlain with continuous permafrost, is experiencing dramatic changes in climate associated with the loss of sea ice, including warming and shifts in precipitation regimes (i.e. wetting and changing snow cover). Here, we present findings from a set of studies that are addressing the sign and strength of the High Arctic's summertime carbon (C) cycle feedback. We explored magnitudes, patterns and sources of C losses through CO2 and CH4 fluxes and via leaching as dissolved organic C (DOC) and particulate organic C (POC) along with measurements of net ecosystem exchange and plant C uptake. From studying long-term summertime experimental warming and/or watering and interannual weather patterns we find that in polar semi-deserts: a) Summer precipitation regime is the key driver of current summertime C budgets. Warming plus wetting results in increased ecosystem C sequestration and reduced losses of older C as CO2, while warming alone decreases C uptake and increases losses of older soil C as CO2. The system is a sink for CH4, but the sink strength will decline with increasing soil moisture. Thus, the High Arctic has the potential to remain a strong summertime C sink even as the rest of the permafrost region transitions to a net C source to the atmosphere as climate continues to warm. b) Old C is diffusing out of the High Arctic landscape into the atmosphere. This C loss is especially evident in the spring before vegetation pumps fresh C into the soil system. Further, loss of older C from the deeper active layer is highly episodic and dominates C emissions during small precipitation events. c) Precipitation regime is also the key driver of that ancient C export from the land surface as DOC, higher precipitation in the later part of the growing season (July-August), when the active layer is deeper, results in a greater fraction of old C transported to the nearshore Arctic Ocean. Collectively these findings represent a comprehensive picture of C cycle-climate interactions in the High Arctic and provide benchmark datasets critically needed to assess simulations of a changing Arctic.

Czimczik, C. I.; Lupascu, M.; Csank, A. Z.; Seibt, U. H.; Maseyk, K. S.; Xu, X.; Welker, J. M.

2013-12-01

217

Ruminants, climate change and climate policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from ruminant meat production are significant. Reductions in global ruminant numbers could make a substantial contribution to climate change mitigation goals and yield important social and environmental co-benefits.

Ripple, William J.; Smith, Pete; Haberl, Helmut; Montzka, Stephen A.; McAlpine, Clive; Boucher, Douglas H.

2014-01-01

218

Climate Kids: Birds and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some bird species appear to respond to extreme weather changes in their native habitat by moving to more hospitable environments. This article discusses the role of NASA satellites, along with field and citizen scientists, in studying that movement. The article also includes an activity on constructing a bird feeder. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

219

Effects of extreme climate change on the erosion of non glaciated Alpine catchments during a glacial cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Alps were largely covered by ice during full glacial conditions of the Pleistocene. Nevertheless, large parts of the southwestern and eastern Alps remained unglaciated or covered only by small valley glaciers during glacials. The impact of a climatic decline of such a dimension on fluvially dominated catchments is not clear so far. Lake infillings may give precise information

Bernhard Salcher; Johanna Lomax; Florian Kober; Michael Wagreich

2010-01-01

220

Abrupt climate change revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taken together, evidence from east Greenland's mountain moraines and results from atmospheric models appear to provide the answer to a question which has long dogged abrupt climate change research: namely, how were impacts of the Younger Dryas (YD), Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) and Heinrich (H) events transmitted so quickly and efficiently throughout the northern hemisphere and tropics? The answer appears to lie in extensive winter sea ice formation which created Siberian-like conditions in the regions surrounding the northern Atlantic. Not only would this account for the ultra cold conditions in the north, but, as suggested by models, it would have pushed the tropical rain belt southward and weakened the monsoons. The requisite abrupt changes in the extent of sea ice cover are of course best explained by the turning on and turning off of the Atlantic's conveyor circulation.

Broecker, Wallace S.

2006-12-01

221

Evolution, Abundance and Biocalcification of Calcareous Nannoplankton During the Aptian (Early Cretaceous): Causes and Consequences for C Isotopic Anomalies, Climate Changes and the Carbon Cycle.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mid Cretaceous is marked by extreme greenhouse conditions, coeval with emplacement of large igneous provinces, C isotopic anomalies, major changes in structure and composition of the oceans, and accelerated rates in the evolutionary history of calcareous plankton. The Aptian is a crucial interval to decipher links between biotic evolution and environmental pressure: it is appealing for understanding nannofloral biocalcification and feedbacks in the carbonate system and in the global carbon cycle. Ontong Java, Manihiki and Kerguelen Plateaus formed in the Aptian affecting the ocean-atmosphere system with excess CO2, changes in Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations, and varying nutrient cycling. Two large C isotopic anomalies are associated with episodes of prolonged high primary productivity, changes in alkality, global warming and cooling, anoxia, speciations and extinctions in planktonic communities. Nannofossil diversity, abundance and biocalcification are quantified in continuous, complete, pelagic sections to derive biosphere-geosphere interactions at short and long time scales. The early Aptian C isotopic anomaly interrupts a speciation episode in calcareous nannoplankton paralleled by a drastic reduction in nannofossil paleofluxes culminating in the nannoconid crisis preceding the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a and the negative C isotopic spike linked to clathrate melting presumably triggered by the thermal maximum at the onset of the mid Cretaceous greenhouse climate. No extinctions are recorded. In the early late Aptian resumption of nannoconid production and appearance of several taxa are coeval with a return to normal C isotopic values. The occurrence of calpionellids and diversified planktonic foraminifers indicate successful biocalcification and restoration of the thermocline. In the late Aptian a drop in nannofossil abundance and accelerated extinction rates are associated with another C isotopic excursion under cool conditions possibly due to a prolonged volcanic winter or reversed greenhouse conditions resulting from a draw-down of carbon dioxide after accelerated weathering and massive burial of organic carbon-rich sediments in the oceans.

Erba, E.

2005-12-01

222

Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

Change, Project A.; University, Purdue

223

Climate change & street trees project  

E-print Network

Climate change & street trees project Social Research Report The social and cultural values Group as part of the Climate change and street trees project, funded by the Forestry Commission with changing socio-economics and/or demographics, but little evidence exists relating

224

Hurricanes-Climate Change Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page focuses on recent natural disasters and the latest climate change research to engage students with topical issues and help them understand the larger issue of climate change. Includes resources and visualizations of recent storms such as Katrina and changing coastlines worldwide.

225

TOWARD AN ECOLOGY OF CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

TOWARD AN ECOLOGY OF CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz Upton, Long Island, NY, USA climate change First principles climate modeling Earth's energy balance and perturbations Climate system models Summary and conclusions #12;SOME SIMPLE QUESTIONS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE How much has Global Mean

Schwartz, Stephen E.

226

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

227

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation  

E-print Network

BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

Pedersen, Tom

228

A Record of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hydrologic cycle is a very basic scientific principle. In this article, background information is presented on how the hydrologic cycle provides scientists with clues to understanding the history of Earth's climate. Also detailed is a web-based activity that allows students to learn about how scientists are able to piece together a record of…

Smith, Zach

2007-01-01

229

Global Climate Change: Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains how climate change affects everything from stratospheric temperatures to the golden toad of Costa Rica. Graphs, articles, and maps monitor humankind's impact on the planet. The site features five thumbnails including two maps showing Global Outgoing Longwave Heat Radiation, and Global Reflected Shortwave Solar Radiation and three graphs entitled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii (1958 - 2000), Global Average Near-Surface Temperatures - Monthly Anomalies (1961 - 2002), and Global Stratospheric and Tropospheric Temperature Anomalies (1979 - 2001). Each of these provides a link to a larger version of the visual and a detailed explanation. Each section has links to a glossary as well as links to questions about each section and additional references.

230

Potential global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Global economic integration and growth contribute much to the construction of energy plants, vehicles and other industrial products that produces carbon emission and in effect cause the destruction of the environment. A coordinated policy and response worldwide to curb emissions and to effect global climate change must be introduced. Improvement in scientific understanding is required to monitor how much emission reduction is necessary. In the near term, especially in the next seven years, sustained research and development for low carbon or carbon-free energy is necessary. Other measures must also be introduced, such as limiting the use of vehicles, closing down inefficient power plants, etc. In the long term, the use of the electric car, use solar energy, etc. is required. Reforestation must also be considered to absorb large amounts of carbon in the atmosphere.

NONE

1994-09-01

231

Hearing Examines Climate Change Economics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has released its summary report on the science of climate change and will release subsequent reports on impacts and response strategies in coming months (see Eos 88(7), 2007). With this as backdrop, attention to issues related to climate change policy has been growing, particularly within the U.S. government where House and Senate committees continue to hold hearings each week on various aspects of climate change. One of these hearings, held 28 February by the House Ways and Means Committee, focused on the economic issues related to strategies for reducing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

2007-03-01

232

Ecosystem services, resilience and our changing climate  

E-print Network

Ecosystem services, resilience and our changing climate Craig R. Allen Nebraska Cooperative Fish ecosystems for critical services #12;What Do Species Do? · regulate biogeochemical cycles ­ e.g., moose.g., predation / herbivory · provide ecological services ­ e.g., pollination #12;Ecosystem Services - Supporting

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

233

Uncertainty, Climate Change and Nuclear Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long time-horizon environmental risks with potential for global impacts have increased in visibility over the past several decades. Such issues as climate change, the nuclear fuel cycle, persistent synthetic chemicals, and stratospheric ozone depletion share some characteristics, including inter generational impacts, strongly decoupled incidence of risks and benefits, substantial decision stakes and extreme uncertainty. What is not well understood are

David M. Hassenzahl

2006-01-01

234

Can ice sheets trigger abrupt climatic change?  

SciTech Connect

The discovery in recent years of abrupt climatic changes in climate proxy records from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment cores, and from other sites around the world, has diverted attention from gradual insolation changes caused by Earth`s orbital variations to more rapid processes on Earth`s surface as forcing Quaternary climatic change. In particular, forcing by ice sheets has been quantified for a major ice stream that drained the Laurentide Ice Sheet along Hudson Strait. The history of these recent discoveries leading to an interest in ice sheets is reviewed, and a case is made that ice sheets may drive abrupt climatic change that is virtually synchronous worldwide. Attention is focused on abrupt inception and termination of a Quaternary glaciation cycle, abrupt changes recorded as stadials and interstadials within the cycle, abrupt changes in ice streams that trigger stadials and interstadials, and abrupt changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet linked to effectively simultaneous abrupt changes in its ice streams. Remaining work needed to quantify further these changes is discussed. 90 refs., 14 figs.

Hughes, T. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

1996-11-01

235

Climate Change and National Security  

SciTech Connect

Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

Malone, Elizabeth L.

2013-02-01

236

The Atlantic Climate Change Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include 1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the

Robert L. Molinari; David Battisti; Kirk Bryan; John Walsh

1994-01-01

237

1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate  

E-print Network

Ange And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011Alysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;4 DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE. Deforestation, land use change and climate...................................................... 43 4. Summary

238

Teaching about Global Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

2011-01-01

239

Generating Arguments about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.…

Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

2012-01-01

240

Generating Arguments About Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article from the NSTA Press Journal, Science Scope, students participate in a unit on global climate change by engaging in the process of scientific argumentation. The lessons presented in this article were created using the generate-an-argument model to help students understand climate change science. The article is free to both NSTA members and nonmembers.

Barry Golden

241

Idea Bank: Climate Change Inquiries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can students engage in authentic inquiry on global climate change if they are not able to do the actual experiments? Many questions about climate change emerge over large areas and long periods of time. The good news is that much of the data from thes

Ryan Bowman

2010-02-01

242

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This organization was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change. The website contains reports, publications, technical papers, press releases, and official documents related to climate change.

World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme

243

Take Aim At Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This music video features a rap song about some of the causes and effects of climate change with the goal of increasing awareness of climate change and how it will impact nature and humans. The website also includes links to short fact sheets with lyrics to the song that are annotated with the sources of the information in the lyrics.

Polar Palooza.com

244

Ground Water and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

2013-01-01

245

AAAS - Global Climate Change Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS); Aaas

246

Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Whether the characteristics of tropical cyclones have changed or will change in a warming climate — and if so, how — has been the subject of considerable investigation, often with conflicting results. Large amplitude ...

Knutson, Thomas R.

247

Implications of abrupt climate change.  

PubMed Central

Records of past climates contained in ice cores, ocean sediments, and other archives show that large, abrupt, widespread climate changes have occurred repeatedly in the past. These changes were especially prominent during the cooling into and warming out of the last ice age, but persisted into the modern warm interval. Changes have especially affected water availability in warm regions and temperature in cold regions, but have affected almost all climatic variables across much or all of the Earth. Impacts of climate changes are smaller if the changes are slower or more-expected. The rapidity of abrupt climate changes, together with the difficulty of predicting such changes, means that impacts on the health of humans, economies and ecosystems will be larger if abrupt climate changes occur. Most projections of future climate include only gradual changes, whereas paleoclimatic data plus models indicate that abrupt changes remain possible; thus, policy is being made based on a view of the future that may be optimistic. PMID:17060975

Alley, Richard B.

2004-01-01

248

Climate change and potential natural vegetation  

E-print Network

Climate change and potential natural vegetation Kuchler 1964 #12;Climate change: An attack Ecological forecasting? #12;Incorporate climate drivers in state & transition models? Briske et al. 2005 #12;Line-up Wolter Climate variability Jackson Paleoecology Miller Paleoecology Knapp Experiments

249

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND ECOSYSTEM CHANGE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems is understanding where transitions

250

Adaptation to Climate Change; from Resilience to Transformation  

E-print Network

Adaptation to Climate Change; from Resilience to Transformation · Transformation and incremental transformative space opened post-Dean with an organisational expression. Playa: Climate change remains external change towards resilience · The adaptive cycle heuristic · Applying the heuristic in Mexico · A journey

Botea, Adi

251

Climate Change to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Expanding the spectral (14)CO(2) database for non-AMS Field Measurement Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is well known and universally employed for radiocarbon analysis but is not adaptable to in-situ field measurements limiting applications. 14CO2 is a key tracer for fossil fuel CO2 as well as for release of enriched 14CO2 characteristic of the nuclear fuel cycle with ?14CO2 values ranging from -1000 to ˜+500 per mil. However, to exploit the full value of in situ 14CO2 data in diverse climate change and nuclear fuel cycle applications, high data rate temporal and spatial field measurement sensors and systems are required. The development of non-AMS methods based on quantum cascade laser, cavity ring down and optogalvanic spectroscopy are emerging applications but not fully developed for field use or widely accepted. Spectral data for lasing transitions for 14CO2 are lacking in contrast to HITRAN data available for 12CO2 (626) and 13CO2 (636) (among other isotopologues 628, 638, etc.) in the spectral databases limiting development and innovation in non-AMS 14CO2 sensors and systems. We review the corpus of 14CO2 spectral data available in the literature and document grating tuned isotopic lasers (e.g., Freed 19901; Bradley et al., 19862), well suited for expanded spectral studies of 14CO2 and inclusion in the HITRAN database. Non-AMS 14CO2 approaches are reviewed with suggestions for future work to support field systems for 14CO2 measurements. Available isotopic lasers for 14CO2 collaborative studies are described.

Marino, B. D. V.; Odonnell, R. G.; Tolliver, D. E.

2014-06-01

252

Global climate change: Implications, challenges and mitigation measures  

SciTech Connect

The present volume discusses topics in the fields of natural climatic fluctuations, the greenhouse effect, climate modeling, the biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of climate change, climate-change effect mitigation and adaptation strategies, and domestic (US) and international perspectives on regulation of climate-affecting activities. Attention is given to past climates as a guide to the future, the certainty of contemporary global warming, the physics of the greenhouse effect, the global carbon cycle, general circulation model studies of global warming, the implications of sea-level rise, forests' role in global climate change, the ecological effects of rapid climate change, predicted effects of climate change on agriculture, the impact of global warming on human health, energy supply technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the U.N.'s 1992 Earth Summit Conference.

Majumdar, S.K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Yarnal, B.M.; Miller, E.W.; Rosenfeld, L.M.

1992-01-01

253

Climate Kids: How Do We Know the Climate Is Changing?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This question is addressed through a series of questions and answers, each providing related introductory information such as how climate change is studied, the history of Earthâs climate, and the effects of climate change on Earthâs geology and biology. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

254

CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction Richard Allan, Department of Meteorology r.p.allan@reading.ac.uk #12;Text Books and References · Henson, B., Rough Guide to Climate Change http://www.amazon.co.uk/Climate-Change-Guides-Reference- Titles/dp/1858281059 · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007, www

Allan, Richard P.

255

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government  

E-print Network

Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

Pedersen, Tom

256

Climate Change Impacts in the United States  

E-print Network

Climate Change Impacts in the United States U.S. National Climate Assessment U.S. Global Change Research Program #12;i CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE UNITED STATES Members of the National Guard lay climate change. Climate change is contributing to an increase in wildfires across the U.S. West. Solar

Debinski, Diane M.

257

Climate change Physics, dynamics and some misconceptions  

E-print Network

the tropical Atlantic to the polar areas Climate change ­ p.9 #12;Climate change drivers - Green House Gasses Climate change ­ p.10 #12;Climate change drivers - Green House Gasses GHG warm our planet and act like volcanic eruptions emit vast amounts of dust in the atmosphere, cooling the planet Climate change ­ p.13

Schrier, Gerard van der

258

Climate change and dead zones.  

PubMed

Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

2014-11-10

259

Historical Landcover changes and global climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent modelling studies have shown a significant effect on global climate due to human alterations of surface vegetation characteristics. Because observed vegetation changes appear to alter large scale circulations such as the Hadley and Walker cells, the effects of vegetation changes are non-localized and global in extent. Circulation changes are responsible for a large portion of the observed surface warming in recent decades suggesting that landcover changes may be responsible for part of that warming. Changes in surface tempearture due to landcover changes can be of the same size as those due to present day levels of atmospheric CO2 and so represent a significant and confounding influence on attribution of anthropogenic climate change. Climate change predictions made by state of the art general circulation models for several key variables have not been confirmed in observational data. For example, accelerated warming in the free troposphere relative to the surface predicted in simulations of increasing CO2 has not occurred. Tropical monsoon circulations appear to have diminished in intensity over the last 50 years despite predictions of a more intense hydrological cycle. It is possible that the effect of landcover changes may explain some part of the discrepancy between climate change simulations and observations.

Chase, T.

2003-04-01

260

Atmospheric Composition Change: Climate-Chemistry Interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds such as methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds such as ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds such as O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future changes. Reported results include new estimates of radiative forcing based on extensive model studies of chemically active climate compounds such as O3, and of particles inducing both direct and indirect effects. Through EU projects such as ACCENT, QUANTIFY, and the AEROCOM project, extensive studies on regional and sector-wise differences in the impact on atmospheric distribution are performed. Studies have shown that land-based emissions have a different effect on climate than ship and aircraft emissions, and different measures are needed to reduce the climate impact. Several areas where climate change can affect the tropospheric oxidation process and the chemical composition are identified. This can take place through enhanced stratospheric-tropospheric exchange of ozone, more frequent periods with stable conditions favouring pollution build up over industrial areas, enhanced temperature-induced biogenic emissions, methane releases from permafrost thawing, and enhanced concentration through reduced biospheric uptake. During the last 510 years, new observational data have been made available and used for model validation and the study of atmospheric processes. Although there are significant uncertainties in the modelling of composition changes, access to new observational data has improved modelling capability. Emission scenarios for the coming decades have a large uncertainty range, in particular with respect to regional trends, leading to a significant uncertainty range in estimated regional composition changes and climate impact.

Isaksen, I.S.A.; Granier, C.; Myhre, G.; Bernsten, T. K.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Gauss, S.; Klimont, Z.; Benestad, R.; Bousquet, P.; Collins, W.; Cox, T.; Eyring, V.; Fowler, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Jockel, P.; Laj, P.; Lohmann, U.; Maione, M.; Monks, T.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Raes, F.; Richter, A.; Rognerud, B.; Schulz, M.; Shindell, D.; Stevenson, D. S.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, W.-C.; vanWeele, M.; Wild, M.; Wuebbles, D.

2011-01-01

261

In situ permafrost thaw due to climate change drives holistic microbial community shifts with implications for methane cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thawing permafrost is a potentially significant source of radiative forcing feedback due to increased emissions of methane, a biogenic greenhouse gas (GHG). This study investigated changes in the microbial community along a permafrost thaw gradient at Stordalen Mire, Sweden using 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic methods. In situ measurements of geochemical parameters, including CH4 and C isotopes, enabled linkage of community dynamics to significant shifts in C balance. The thaw gradient ranged from intact at a palsa (low productivity and GHG emissions), through partially thawed in a bog (high productivity, low GHG emissions) to a completely thawed fen (high productivity and GHG emissions). Microbial assemblages in both the palsa and fen were highly diverse (in both richness and evenness), consistent with climax communities. The microbial community in the bog had distinctly lower diversity, characteristic of ecosystem disturbance. The palsa community was dominated by Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria, as is typical of a range of soils including permafrost. Methanogens dominated both the bog and fen and were most abundant within the zone of water table fluctuation. Inferring methanogens' production pathway from phylogeny showed a shift from mostly hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the bog towards acetotrophic methanogens in the fen. This corroborated porewater and flux emitted CH4 and CO2 carbon isotopic 13C signatures of CH4 and CO2. The fen, where the highest CH4 flux was recorded, was significantly richer in methanogenic archaea. A novel archaea, Candidatus Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis, was present at up to 70% relative abundance in the bog, enabling recovery of a population genome. The genome (and associated metaproteome) of 'M. stordalenmirensis' indicates that hydrogenotrophic methane production is its main energy conservation pathway. 'Methanoflorens' may be an indicator species of permafrost thaw, it is globally ubiquitous, and appears a major contributor to global methane production. Our results revealed a distinct difference in the microbial community structure and membership at each site, which can be directly associated with increasing methane emission and thaw state.

Mondav, Rhiannon; McCalley, Carmody; Hodgkins, Suzanne; Rich, Virginia; Frolking, Steve; Saleska, Scott; Barnes, Andrew; Chanton, Jeff; Crill, Patrick

2014-05-01

262

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

263

Deep solar minimum and global Climate Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its likely impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 100 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activities are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Abdel Hady, Ahmed

2012-07-01

264

Deep solar minimum and global climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

Hady, Ahmed A.

2013-05-01

265

Earth's Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1896, Svante Arrhenius published the first model of the effects of industrial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on Earth's climate. Since the days of Arrhenius, scientists have moved from pencils to supercomputers. Calculations take hours or days instead

Juanita Constible

2008-10-01

266

Climate Change and Water Resources Management: A Federal Perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many challenges, including climate change, face the Nation's water managers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has provided estimates of how climate may change, but more understanding of the processes driving the changes, the sequences of the changes, and the manifestation of these global changes at different scales could be beneficial. Since the changes will likely affect fundamental drivers of the hydrological cycle, climate change may have a large impact on water resources and water resources managers. The purpose of this interagency report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating, and responding to climate change. This report describes the existing and still needed underpinning science crucial to addressing the many impacts of climate change on water resources management.

Brekke, Levi D.; Kiang, Julie E.; Olsen, J. Rolf; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Raff, David A.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Webb, Robert S.; White, Kathleen D.

2009-01-01

267

Climate change, wine, and conservation  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

2013-01-01

268

Climate change, wine, and conservation.  

PubMed

Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

2013-04-23

269

Regional Agreements, Adaptation, and Climate Change  

E-print Network

1 Regional Agreements, Adaptation, and Climate Change: New Approaches to FERC Licensing...................................28 Sierra's highelevation hydropower and climate change: Temperature simulation..................88 Alteration and susceptibility of stream physical habitat to climate change

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

270

BTO Research Report 414 Climate Change and  

E-print Network

..........................................................................39 1.3. Biological Adaptation to Climate ChangeBTO Research Report 414 Climate Change and Migratory Species Authors Robert A. Robinson1 , Jennifer ..........................................................................................................38 1.2. Certainty in Climate Change Impacts

Pierce, Graham

271

Oceans and Human Health (and climate change)  

E-print Network

Oceans and Human Health (and climate change) Tracy K. Collier Science Dimensions and Ocean Health in a Changing Climate, USC March 12, 2013 1 #12 use Climate change Closes the loop in understanding connections between ocean health and human health

Rohs, Remo

272

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial

273

Climate Change and Tourism Dr David Viner  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Tourism éCLAT Dr David Viner Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia d.viner@uea.ac.uk Tourism has a strong international dimension and is sensitive to any changes of climate that alter to attract visitors are likely to be vulnerable to climate change and the implementation of climate change

Feigon, Brooke

274

Ground water and climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

275

Potential Impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE. 1. Transportation--Climatic factors--United States. 2. Transportation engineering--United States. 3. Climatic changes--Government policy--United States. 4. Global warming-- Environmental aspects. I. National

Sheridan, Jennifer

276

Extinction risk from climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change over the past ~30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of

Chris D. Thomas; Alison Cameron; Rhys E. Green; Michel Bakkenes; Linda J. Beaumont; Yvonne C. Collingham; Barend F. N. Erasmus; Marinez Ferreira de Siqueira; Alan Grainger; Lee Hannah; Lesley Hughes; Brian Huntley; Albert S. van Jaarsveld; Guy F. Midgley; Lera Miles; Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta; A. Townsend Peterson; Oliver L. Phillips; Stephen E. Williams

2004-01-01

277

Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Climate variation affects surface ocean processes and the production of organic carbon, which ultimately comprises the primary food supply to the deep-sea ecosystems that occupy ?60% of the Earth's surface. Warming trends in atmospheric and upper ocean temperatures, attributed to anthropogenic influence, have occurred over the past four decades. Changes in upper ocean temperature influence stratification and can affect the availability of nutrients for phytoplankton production. Global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing. Research also suggests that such reduced mixing will enhance variability in primary production and carbon export flux to the deep sea. The dependence of deep-sea communities on surface water production has raised important questions about how climate change will affect carbon cycling and deep-ocean ecosystem function. Recently, unprecedented time-series studies conducted over the past two decades in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic at >4,000-m depth have revealed unexpectedly large changes in deep-ocean ecosystems significantly correlated to climate-driven changes in the surface ocean that can impact the global carbon cycle. Climate-driven variation affects oceanic communities from surface waters to the much-overlooked deep sea and will have impacts on the global carbon cycle. Data from these two widely separated areas of the deep ocean provide compelling evidence that changes in climate can readily influence deep-sea processes. However, the limited geographic coverage of these existing time-series studies stresses the importance of developing a more global effort to monitor deep-sea ecosystems under modern conditions of rapidly changing climate. PMID:19901326

Smith, K. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Bett, B. J.; Billett, D. S. M.; Lampitt, R. S.; Kaufmann, R. S.

2009-01-01

278

Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication  

E-print Network

Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour;1 Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour? Thomas D. Lowe 1 these kinds of messages (which have recently been dubbed `climate porn' (Ereaut and Segnit, 2006)), can

Watson, Andrew

279

Climate Change and Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, students explore, at their own pace, how global climate change may affect health issues. Issues include airborne diseases, developmental disorders, mental health disorders, vector-borne diseases and waterborne diseases.

Sciences, National I.; Domain, Teachers'

280

Taking Action on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Government of Canada website, visitors can "learn about the science, impacts and adaptation to climate change and how individuals, governments, businesses, industry and communities take action by reducing greenhouse gas emissions." Through maps, graphs, and clear text, users can learn the basics of climate change and the greenhouse gases. The website details many of the ecological, economic, and global impacts of climate change. Users can find out about the One-Tonne Challenge, which encourages everyone to reduce their emissions. Teachers can find questions and activities to educate their students about climate change. The website also offers a calculator to estimate a user's current emissions, a series of videos instructing individuals how to create an energy efficient home and car, as well as publications and media resources. This site is also reviewed in the March 18, 2005 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

281

NASA Climate Change Resource Reel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of resources from NASA includes animations and still shots covering a wide range of topics in climate, including the cryosphere, ocean sciences, changes on land, the atmosphere, and satellite images.

NASA

282

Global Climate Change Key Indicators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

283

Understanding and Communicating Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is designed for a four week elective class on the local impacts of climate change. The lessons incorporate current data and information from a variety of sources, are designed to keep student engagement high, and include a variety of instructional approaches, from jigsaw readings to online interactives to hands-on simulated ice core analysis. The unit is themed around countering skeptics' statements, and the final product emphasizes clear written communication around climate change and its impacts.

2012-01-01

284

Global Climate Change Briefing Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents general resources and legislative issues related to global climate change. The site includes greenhouse gas sources, trends and effects on the environment, the text of the Kyoto Protocol, and a glossary with acronyms. Other topics such as legal, economic and energy issues are also covered, and links to the latest updates on climate change from the White House and the National Academy of Sciences are found here.

Congressional Research Service

285

RECENT STUDIES ON IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GROUNDWATER RESOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are in a period of climate change brought about by increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have continually increased since the 1950s. The continuation of this phenomenon may significantly alter global and local climate characteristics, including temperature and precipitation. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation have important implications for all aspects of the hydrologic cycle.

C. P. Kumar

2013-01-01

286

The role of carbon in climate change: a lifecyclethinking approach to a complex issue  

E-print Network

2, CH4, N2O, ... #12;The Carbon Cycle 5 UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change #12 carbonate rock forma>on (largely biogenic) The Carbon Cycle 6 UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle Anthropogenic carbon emissions #12;Fossil fuel burning 12 UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate

287

Climate Change: The Sun's Role  

E-print Network

The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

Gerald E. Marsh

2007-06-23

288

Climate Change: The Sun's Role  

E-print Network

The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

Marsh, Gerald E

2007-01-01

289

Global Climate Change Policy Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website summarizes the current administration's approach to global climate change, including the President's Program of Domestic and International Initiatives. These include a national goal to reduce emissions growth by 18 percent in the next ten years, substantially improve the emission reduction registry, protect and provide transferable credits for emissions reduction, increase funding for America's commitment to climate change, take action on the Science and Technology Review and a range of international climate initiatives. Descriptions of these programs, as well as their costs, are included.

House, The W.

290

Terrestrial carbon-cycle feedback to climate warming: experimental evidence on plant regulation and impacts of biofuel feedstock harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feedback between global carbon (C) cycles and climate change is one of the major uncertainties in projecting future global warming. Coupled carbon-climate models all demonstrated a positive feedback between terrestrial C cycle and climate warming. The positive feedback results from decreased net primary production (NPP) in most models and increased respiratory C release by all the models under climate warming.

YIQI LUO; REBECCA SHERRY; XUHUI ZHOU; SHIQIANG WAN

2009-01-01

291

The Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder: Tools for Climate Change Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While originally designed for wind measurement over the ocean, scatterometers have proven to be very effective in monitoring land cover and ice conditions as well. Scatterometer data is being operationally used for iceberg tracking and sea ice extent mapping. The frequent, global measurements make the instrument particularly well suited for global monitoring and the long-time series of scatterometer measurements dating back to SASS provide a valuable baseline for studies of climate change. For this reason the NASA Scatterometer Climate Record Pathfinder (SCP) project is generating a climate data record from the series of historic and ongoing, and approved scatterometer missions. Selected data is currently available from the SCP at URL http://www.scp.byu.edu/ in the form of resolution-enhanced backscatter image time series. A variety of tools for analyzing the image time series have been developed. The application of QuikSCAT data to climate change in Greenland and sea ice motion in the Arctic is illustrated. By comparing QuikSCAT with NSCAT and SASS data, long-term scatterometer-observed changes in Greenland are related to annual variations in melt extent and snow accumulation. Qu ikSCAT sampling enables high spatial resolution evaluation of the diurnal melt cycle. We demonstrate the value of the scatterometer data to augment passive microwave measurements by using PCA. The scatterometer data plays a key role in helping to discriminate physical changes in the Greenland firn from surface temperature effects.

Long, D. G.; Jensen, M. A.

2001-12-01

292

Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

Armstrong, Jennifer

2014-05-01

293

IN THIS ISSUE Regional Climate Change..............1  

E-print Network

IN THIS ISSUE · Regional Climate Change..............1 · From the Executive Director...........2 release of new climate change scenarios from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) heralds of the fundamental questions remaining with respect to understanding climate change and even climate variability. And

Hamann, Andreas

294

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012  

E-print Network

Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012 to climate change! May 29­May 31, 2012, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA Conference Web Site: http://www.adaptation.arizona.edu/adaptation, and by UNEP's Programme of Research on Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation (PROVIA

Matthews, Adrian

295

The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change  

E-print Network

1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley · Changes to surface and atmosphere by aerosols · Climate sensitivity to changes in aerosols and CO2 Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central

296

Climate Change: One, or Many? Professor of Climate and Culture  

E-print Network

Climate Change: One, or Many? Mike Hulme Professor of Climate and Culture Department of Geography Presidential Session: `Geographies of Climate Change' AAG Annual Conference, Tampa, Florida, 7-11 April 2014 #12;10 Mary Douglas #12;One Resistance? The dominant singular approach to climate change has fuelled

Hulme, Mike

297

Climate Amenities, Climate Change, and American Quality of Life  

E-print Network

Climate Amenities, Climate Change, and American Quality of Life September, 2011 PRELIMINARY DRAFT "business-as-usual" forecast from the United Nations' International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts assessment that has received comparatively little investigation: the impact of climate change on the amenity

Weiblen, George D

298

Climate Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from the C4MIP Model Intercomparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven coupled climate-carbon cycle models used a common protocol to study the coupling between climate change and the carbon cycle. The models were forced by historical emissions and the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 anthropogenic emissions of CO2 for the 1850-2100 time period. For each model, two simulations were performed in

P. Friedlingstein; P. Cox; R. Betts; L. Bopp; W. von Bloh; V. Brovkin; P. Cadule; S. Doney; M. Eby; I. Fung; G. Bala; J. John; C. Jones; F. Joos; T. Kato; M. Kawamiya; W. Knorr; K. Lindsay; H. D. Matthews; T. Raddatz; P. Rayner; C. Reick; E. Roeckner; K.-G. Schnitzler; R. Schnur; K. Strassmann; A. J. Weaver; C. Yoshikawa; N. Zeng

2006-01-01

299

Climate change and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There is already widespread change in the natural calendars (phenology) of plants and animals, as well as change in some species distributions. Now threshold change (sudden, fundamental change) in ecosystems is beginning to be observed in nature. At minimum, the natural world will experience an equal amount of warming to that which has already taken place. This all suggests

T. Lovejoy

2008-01-01

300

Global lightning activity and climate change  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between global lightning frequencies and global climate change is examined in this thesis. In order to study global impacts of climate change, global climate models or General Circulations Models (GCMs) need to be utilized. Since these models have coarse resolutions many atmospheric phenomena that occur at subgrid scales, such as lightning, need to be parameterized whenever possible. We begin with a simple parameterization used to Simulate total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning frequencies. The parameterization uses convective cloud top height to approximate lightning frequencies. Then we consider a parameterization for simulating cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning around the globe. This parameterization uses the thickness of the cold cloud sector in thunderstorms (0{degrees}C to cloud top) to calculate the proportion of CG flashes in a particular thunderstorm. We model lightning in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. We present two climate change scenarios. One for a climate where the solar constant is reduced by 2% (5.9{degrees}C global cooling), and one for a climate with twice the present concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere (4.2{degrees}C global warming). The results imply a 24%/30% decrease/increase in global lightning frequencies for the cooler/warmer climate. The possibility of using the above findings to monitor future global warming is discussed. The earth`s ionospheric potential, which is regulated by global thunderstorm activity, could supply valuable information regarding global surface temperature fluctuations. Finally, we look at the implications of changes in both lightning frequencies and the hydrological cycle, as a result of global warming, on natural forest fires. In the U.S. the annual mean number of lightning fires could increase by 40% while the area burned may increase by 65% in a 2{times}CO{sub 2} climate. On a global scale the largest increase in lightning fires can be expected in the tropics.

Price, C.G.

1993-12-31

301

Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes ref lect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was 20.12 day per year, an

NINA L. BRADLEY; A. CARL LEOPOLD; J OHN ROSS; WELLINGTON HUFFAKER

1999-01-01

302

A study of long-term climate change in a simple seasonal nonlinear climate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar radiation cycles, earth-orbital changes, and continental drift drive long to very long term (103-106 years) climatic changes. Lin and North used the stationary solutions of a simple energy balance model (EBM) to study the equilibrium climatic stages. In this paper, we study time dependent solutions and, in particular, transition processes. We make use of two time scales: a seasonal

R Q Lin; H Kreiss; W J Kuang; L Y Leung

1991-01-01

303

Climate change and food security  

PubMed Central

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

2005-01-01

304

Climate change impacts on forestry  

SciTech Connect

Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. The authors' review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. They concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand.

Kirilenko, A.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science and Policy; Sedjo, R.A. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

2007-12-11

305

Urban sites in climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the 21st century a significant rise of near surface air temperature is expected from IPCC global climate model simulations. The additional heat load associated with this warming will especially affect cities since it adds to the well-known urban heat island effect. With already more than half of the world's population living in cities and continuing urbanization highly expected, managing urban heat load will become even more important in future. To support urban planners in their effort to maintain or improve the quality of living in their city, detailed information on future urban climate on the residential scale is required. To pursue this question the 'Umweltamt der Stadt Frankfurt am Main' and the 'Deutscher Wetterdienst' (DWD, German Meteorological Service) built a cooperation. This contribution presents estimates of the impact of climate change on the heat load in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, using the urban scale climate model MUKLIMO3 and climate projections from different regional climate models for the region of Frankfurt. Ten different building structures were considered to realistically represent the spatial variability of the urban environment. The evaluation procedure combines the urban climate model simulations and the regional climate projections to calculate several heat load indices based on the exceedance of a temperature threshold. An evaluation of MUKLIMO3 results is carried out for the time period 1971 - 2000. The range of potential future heat load in Frankfurt is statistically analyzed using an ensemble of four different regional climate projections. Future work will examine the options of urban planning to mitigate the enhanced heat load expected from climate change.

Früh, B.; Kossmann, M.

2010-09-01

306

Simulating Climate Change in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Meteorology & Climate Centre at University College Dublin, we are using the CLM-Community's COSMO-CLM Regional Climate Model (RCM) and the WRF RCM (developed at NCAR) to simulate the climate of Ireland at high spatial resolution. To address the issue of model uncertainty, a Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) approach is used. The ensemble method uses different RCMs, driven by several Global Climate Models (GCMs), to simulate climate change. Through the MME approach, the uncertainty in the RCM projections is quantified, enabling us to estimate the probability density function of predicted changes, and providing a measure of confidence in the predictions. The RCMs were validated by performing a 20-year simulation of the Irish climate (1981-2000), driven by ECMWF ERA-40 global re-analysis data, and comparing the output to observations. Results confirm that the output of the RCMs exhibit reasonable and realistic features as documented in the historical data record. Projections for the future Irish climate were generated by downscaling the Max Planck Institute's ECHAM5 GCM, the UK Met Office HadGEM2-ES GCM and the CGCM3.1 GCM from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling. Simulations were run for a reference period 1961-2000 and future period 2021-2060. The future climate was simulated using the A1B, A2, B1, RCP 4.5 & RCP 8.5 greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Results for the downscaled simulations show a substantial overall increase in precipitation and wind speed for the future winter months and a decrease during the summer months. The predicted annual change in temperature is approximately 1.1°C over Ireland. To date, all RCM projections are in general agreement, thus increasing our confidence in the robustness of the results.

Nolan, P.; Lynch, P.

2012-04-01

307

Indigenous health and climate change.  

PubMed

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global-local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

Ford, James D

2012-07-01

308

Indigenous Health and Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Indigenous populations have been identified as vulnerable to climate change. This framing, however, is detached from the diverse geographies of how people experience, understand, and respond to climate-related health outcomes, and overlooks nonclimatic determinants. I reviewed research on indigenous health and climate change to capture place-based dimensions of vulnerability and broader determining factors. Studies focused primarily on Australia and the Arctic, and indicated significant adaptive capacity, with active responses to climate-related health risks. However, nonclimatic stresses including poverty, land dispossession, globalization, and associated sociocultural transitions challenge this adaptability. Addressing geographic gaps in existing studies alongside greater focus on indigenous conceptualizations on and approaches to health, examination of global–local interactions shaping local vulnerability, enhanced surveillance, and an evaluation of policy support opportunities are key foci for future research. PMID:22594718

2012-01-01

309

Inuit Observations on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an overview of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) project at Sachs Harbour on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, an effort to document the problem of Arctic climate change as experienced by the Inuit living there. There is video commentary by Inuit in which they describe changes in daily life for animals and people at Sachs Harbour: banks caving from permafrost melt, seasonal changes and new types of animals appearing as the old familiar animals disappear, ice dangerously opening up, and most importantly, a new unpredictability added to the usual extreme weather conditions in the Arctic region. The video comes in an abbreviated version, 14 minutes in length, as well as the full version, which is 42 minutes in length. There are reports of IISD trips made during different seasons at Sachs Harbour, a teacher guide for the video, and a report on the climate observations discussed in the IISD: Inuit Observations on Climate Change workshop.

310

A signature of persistent natural thermohaline circulation cycles in observed climate  

E-print Network

A signature of persistent natural thermohaline circulation cycles in observed climate Jeff R thermohaline circulation (THC). This relationship suggests we can attempt to reconstruct past THC changes), A signature of persistent natural thermohaline circulation cycles in observed climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32

311

Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge," we conclude the special section by assuming that you have been persuaded by Thompson's paper or other evidence that global warming is real and poses a threat that must be dealt with, and that for now the only way to deal with it is by changing behavior. Then we ask what you, as behavior analysts, can do…

Chance, Paul; Heward, William L.

2010-01-01

312

FY 2002 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

PRA Goal 6: Reducing Global and Transboundary Environmental Risks Objective 6.2: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Sub-Objective 6.2.3: Global Climate Change Research Activity F55 - Assessing the Consequences of Global Change on Ecosystem Health NRMRL R...

313

Invasive species and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

Middleton, Beth A.

2006-01-01

314

Faces of Climate Change: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of three short videos showcasing the dramatic changes in Alaska's marine ecosystems through interviews with scientists and Alaska Natives. This introduction to the impacts of climate change in Alaska includes interviews with Alaska Natives, commentary by scientists, and footage from Alaska's Arctic.

Dugan, Darcy; Noaa Sea Grant, Alaska C.

315

Climate Change: Coastal Dead Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many of the anticipated changes (increased streamflow, warmer temperatures, calmer summer winds, and increased depth due to\\u000a sea-level rise) associated with global climate change would move the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in the direction of worsening\\u000a hypoxia (harmful oxygen depletion).

Donald F. Boesch; Victoria J. Coles; David G. Kimmel; W. David Miller

316

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation  

E-print Network

Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural for taking concrete actions to reduce climate-change impacts. This assessment examines adaptation options

317

Can Science Win Over Climate Change Skeptics?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explaining global warming is complex, making it harder to argue against climate change skeptics. Teaching the nature of science may be a better way to help students and the public understand that climate change is real; highlight the benefits from climate change awareness; and provide concise, direct answers to critics of climate change theory.

Michael Dougherty (The American Society of Human Genetics;)

2009-07-25

318

Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers  

E-print Network

1 Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers in the US and South Korea Pierre Y. Julien Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng. Colorado State University Seoul, South Korea August 11, 2009 Climate Change and Large Rivers 1. Climatic changes have been on-going for some time; 2. Climate changes usually predict

Julien, Pierre Y.

319

An iconic approach to representing climate change  

E-print Network

1 An iconic approach to representing climate change Saffron Jessica O'Neill A thesis submitted-experts to be meaningfully engaged with the issue of climate change. This thesis investigates the value of engaging non-experts with climate change at the individual level. Research demonstrates that individuals perceive climate change

Feigon, Brooke

320

Climate Change and Trout in Wisconsin Streams  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Trout in Wisconsin Streams Photo Matt Mitro W John J. Magnuson Center Climate Change Fishes and Climate Change Adaptation Magnuson Photo #12;The Invisible Present The Invisible in Weather versus Climate Change Magnuson 2009 #12;Magnuson 2006 The Invisible Present The Invisible Place

Sheridan, Jennifer

321

Experimenting with Climate Change  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hilda Smith, biological technician with Canyonlands Research Station, monitors changes in biological soil crusts in response to experimental increases in temperature and altered precipitation patterns....

322

On the timing and mechanism of millennial-scale climate variability during the last glacial cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstration that natural climate vari- ability during the last glacial cycle shifted rapidly be- tween remarkable extremes has dramatically revised the understanding of climate change. To further advance our understanding, research continues into the timings, geographic distribution, and nature of the millennial- scale climate extremes, and into the mechanisms for in- tra- and inter-hemispheric transmission of variability through the

E. J. Rohling; P. Challenor; P. A. Mayewski

2003-01-01

323

Double Exposure: Photographing Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double Exposure, Photographing Climate Change, is a fine-art photography exhibition that examines climate change through the prism of melting glaciers. The photographs are twinned shots of glaciers, taken in the mid-20th century by world-renowned photographer Brad Washburn, and in the past two years by Boston journalist/photographer David Arnold. Arnold flew in Washburn's aerial "footprints", replicating stunning black and white photographs, and documenting one irreversible aspect of climate change. Double Exposure is art with a purpose. It is designed to educate, alarm and inspire its audiences. Its power lies in its beauty and the shocking changes it has captured through a camera lens. The interpretive text, guided by numerous experts in the fields of glaciology, global warming and geology, helps convey the message that climate change has already forced permanent changes on the face of our planet. The traveling exhibit premiered at Boston's Museum of Science in April and is now criss-crossing the nation. The exhibit covers changes in the 15 glaciers that have been photographed as well as related information about global warming's effect on the planet today.

Arnold, D. P.; Wake, C. P.; Romanow, G. B.

2008-12-01

324

Climate Wisconsin: Temperature Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive visualization allows users to compare future projections of Wisconsin's average annual temperature with the actual changes of the last five decades. Text on the web page encourages students to think about the challenges Wisconsin could face if these changes occur.

Ryan, Finn; Pauli, Scott; Interactive, Pitch; Board, Wisconsin E.

325

Climate Change and Fisheries:Climate Change and Fisheries: A Socioeconomic PerspectiveA Socioeconomic Perspective  

E-print Network

, habitat, and ecosystem boundariesries Retrospectively link biological/fishery data to climateRetrospectively link biological/fishery data to climate--driven parametersdriven parameters Adaptations ResearchClimate Change and Fisheries:Climate Change and Fisheries: A Socioeconomic Perspective

Charles, Anthony

326

Renewable Energy and Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) at http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/ (May 2011 electronic version; printed form ISBN 978-1-107-60710-1, 2012). More than 130 scientists contributed to the report.* The SRREN assessed existing literature on the future potential of renewable energy for the mitigation of climate change within a portfolio of mitigation options including energy conservation and efficiency, fossil fuel switching, RE, nuclear and carbon capture and storage (CCS). It covers the six most important renewable energy technologies - bioenergy, direct solar, geothermal, hydropower, ocean and wind, as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It also takes into consideration the environmental and social consequences associated with these technologies, the cost and strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion.

Chum, H. L.

2012-01-01

327

Fisheries and Global Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When populations of harvestable fish start to decline, managers look for explanations of the changes throughout the Earth system. In this activity, the impact of global climate change on marine and Great Lakes fish is considered. First, decline in the striped bass population of the North Atlantic, noted in the Downeaster Alexa song by Billy Joel, is examined with spreadsheet analysis and on-line searches of National Marine Fisheries Service databases. In a second investigation, ArcView generates a model of the Lake Erie depths that could be associated with global climate change (shallower water). Students identify fish species that use nearshore shallows for spawning and nursery areas, and speculate on the impact of the lower water. In both activities, the thermal niche of the species is considered as a factor in where fish populations may migrate with new climate regimes.

Rosanne Fortner

2002-07-31

328

Interactive Quizzes on Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website allows you to test your knowledge on 5 topics. Warm Up: Test your knowledge about global temperature change and its impact on Earth's climate; Freeze Frames: How much do you know about glaciers and ice caps?; Sea Change: Test your knowledge of sea level rise and its effect on global populations; It's A Gas: Test your knowledge of carbon dioxide and why it's so important to climate stability and our quality of life; Each test consists of 10 questions and are immediately scored. The final module, 10 Things You Never Knew About Earth: Discover some amazing and little-known facts about our home planet, allows you to learn facts about the Earth and Climate Change.

329

Preparing for climate change in Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to bring potentially significant changes to Washington State’s natural, institutional, cultural,\\u000a and economic landscape. Addressing climate change impacts will require a sustained commitment to integrating climate information\\u000a into the day-to-day governance and management of infrastructure, programs, and services that may be affected by climate change.\\u000a This paper discusses fundamental concepts for planning for climate change and

Lara C. Whitely Binder; Jennifer Krencicki Barcelos; Derek B. Booth; Meriel Darzen; Marketa McGuire Elsner; Richard Fenske; Thomas F. Graham; Alan F. Hamlet; John Hodges-Howell; J. Elizabeth Jackson; Catherine Karr; Patrick W. Keys; Jeremy S. Littell; Nathan Mantua; Jennifer Marlow; Don McKenzie; Michael Robinson-Dorn; Eric A. Rosenberg; Claudio O. Stöckle; Julie A. Vano

2010-01-01

330

Climate Change and Speciation of Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing and informative interview highlights the keypoints in the climate change/ speciation debate. Whether climate change is a major factor in speciation, the author explains that new species of mammals evolve when significant climate change persists over very long periods of time, when mammals cant move to habitats that provide favorable climate, climate change leads to evolutionary changes or extinction, and fossils provide clues that can help predict effects on species in the current warming trend.

Anthony Barnosky (University of CaliforniaâÃÂÃÂBerkeley;)

2006-03-01

331

Urban Runoff Response due to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change may produce a significant modification in the hydrological response that requires a change in overall water resources planning and management. Climate change particularly the projected change in extreme precipitation is likely to affect the runoff characteristics both regionally and temporally. The research presented here will focus on the changes in flood potential due to climate change, specifically event

A. Acharya; T. C. Piechota

2009-01-01

332

Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

E-print Network

Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change climate extremes and change impacts. Uncertainties in process studies, climate models, and associated

333

Regional long-term climate change (1950-2000) in the midtropical Atlantic and its impacts on the hydrological cycle of Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale climate data for the north tropical Atlantic (NTA) region show that air temperatures have increased during the past 50 years (1955-1959 to 2000-2004) with moderate warming near the Caribbean islands to considerable heating in the northern region. This pattern may be driven by sea surface temperature anomalies in the same region of study that follow relatively small changes in

Daniel E. Comarazamy; Jorge E. González

2011-01-01

334

United Nations Environment Programme: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to information on the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) initiatives on the issue of climate change. Materials include UNEP's areas of focus on addressing climate change (climate, finance, and business; emissions mitigation; carbon sequestration; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change; and others); links to UNEP Climate Change Centres; links to partner organizations; and links to information and media activities. There are also links to multimedia materials (posters, films, and video), printed publications on climate change, maps and graphics, and links to other organizations working on the issue of climate change.

335

Public Engagement on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at judithcurry.com. The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically literate public, many of whom have become increasingly skeptical of climate science the more they investigate the topic. Specific issues that this group has with climate science include concerns that science that cannot easily be separated from risk assessment and value judgments; concern that assessments (e.g. IPCC) have become a Maxwell's daemon for climate research; inadequate assessment of our ignorance of this complex scientific issue; elite scientists and scientific institutions losing credibility with the public; political exploitation of the public's lack of understanding; and concerns about the lack of public accountability of climate science and climate models that are being used as the basis for far reaching decisions and policies. Individuals in this group have the technical ability to understand and examine climate science arguments and are not prepared to cede judgment on this issue to the designated and self-proclaimed experts. This talk will describe my experiences in engaging with this group and what has been learned, both by myself and by participants in the discussion at Climate Etc.

Curry, J.

2011-12-01

336

Changing the intellectual climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calls for more broad-based, integrated, useful knowledge now abound in the world of global environmental change science. They evidence many scientists' desire to help humanity confront the momentous biophysical implications of its own actions. But they also reveal a limited conception of social science and virtually ignore the humanities. They thereby endorse a stunted conception of 'human dimensions' at a time when the challenges posed by global environmental change are increasing in magnitude, scale and scope. Here, we make the case for a richer conception predicated on broader intellectual engagement and identify some preconditions for its practical fulfilment. Interdisciplinary dialogue, we suggest, should engender plural representations of Earth's present and future that are reflective of divergent human values and aspirations. In turn, this might insure publics and decision-makers against overly narrow conceptions of what is possible and desirable as they consider the profound questions raised by global environmental change.

Castree, Noel; Adams, William M.; Barry, John; Brockington, Daniel; Büscher, Bram; Corbera, Esteve; Demeritt, David; Duffy, Rosaleen; Felt, Ulrike; Neves, Katja; Newell, Peter; Pellizzoni, Luigi; Rigby, Kate; Robbins, Paul; Robin, Libby; Rose, Deborah Bird; Ross, Andrew; Schlosberg, David; Sörlin, Sverker; West, Paige; Whitehead, Mark; Wynne, Brian

2014-09-01

337

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE UNITED STATES The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change Foundation Humanity's influence on the global climate will grow in the 21st century. Increasingly, there will be significant climate-related changes that will affect each one of us. We must begin now to consider our

McCarl, Bruce A.

338

4, 289308, 2008 Climate change and  

E-print Network

CPD 4, 289­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title forum of Climate of the Past Recent climate change affecting rainstorm occurrences? A case study in East­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title Page Abstract

Boyer, Edmond

339

Coal in a changing climate  

SciTech Connect

The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J. (and others)

2007-02-15

340

The Atlantic Climate Change Program  

SciTech Connect

The Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) is a component of NOAA's Climate and Global Change Program. ACCP is directed at determining the role of the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean on global atmospheric climate. Efforts and progress in four ACCP elements are described. Advances include (1) descriptions of decadal and longer-term variability in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-ice system of the North Atlantic; (2) development of tools needed to perform long-term model runs of coupled simulations of North Atlantic air-sea interaction; (3) definition of mean and time-dependent characteristics of the thermohaline circulation; and (4) development of monitoring strategies for various elements of the thermohaline circulation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Molinari, R.L. (Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Miami, FL (United States)); Battisti, D. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)); Bryan, K. (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Walsh, J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

1994-07-01

341

Orbital changes and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 41,000-period of orbital tilt, summer insolation forces a lagged response in northern ice sheets. This delayed ice signal is rapidly transferred to nearby northern oceans and landmasses by atmospheric dynamics. These ice-driven responses lead to late-phased changes in atmospheric CO2 that provide positive feedback to the ice sheets and also project ‘late’ 41-K forcing across the tropics and

William F. Ruddiman

2006-01-01

342

ENERGY FLOWS CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

.ecd.bnl.gov/steve #12;CO , Carbon Dioxide2 #12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Global average temperature -19°C or -2 °F Global (2007) 3210-1-2 Forcing, W m-2 CO2 CH4 CFCs N2O Long Lived Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse gas forcing Studies 0.8°C 1.4°F #12;HOW MUCH WARMING IS EXPECTED? Equilibrium change in global mean surface

Schwartz, Stephen E.

343

CLIMATE CHANGE AND N DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This project investigates the potential influence of climate change on wet deposition of reduced nitrogen across the U.S. The concentration of ammonium-nitrogen in precipitation is known to increase with temperature, owing to temperature dependent ammonia source strengths (natur...

344

Impacts of Climate Change Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents one of three animated films for schoolchildren, commissioned by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. An emotive and visual animation conveys the effects climate change will have on marine ecosystems and suggests ways to minimize our impact.

2010-01-01

345

Forensic entomology and climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate

Margherita Turchetto; Stefano Vanin

2004-01-01

346

Climate change - creating watershed resilience  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change is likely to intensify the circulation of water, which will shift spatial and temporal availability of snowmelt and runoff. In addition, drought and floods are likely to be more frequent, severe and widespread. Higher air temperatures will lead to higher ocean temperatures, elevating ...

347

Climate Change Wildlife and Wildlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video focuses on the science of climate change and its impacts on wildlife on land and in the sea, and their habitats in the U.S. There are short sections on walruses, coral reefs, migrating birds and their breeding grounds, freshwater fish, bees, etc. Video concludes with some discussion about solutions, including reduce/recyle/reuse, energy conservation, backyard habitats, citizen scientists.

Service, U. S.; Program, U. S.

348

Global Climate Change Interaction Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)

Fortner, Rosanne W.

1998-01-01

349

Climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen  

PubMed Central

Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer application in the United States have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle, with serious effects on climate change. The climate effects can be short-lived, by impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, or long-lived, by altering ecosystem greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we develop a coherent framework for assessing the climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen emissions, including oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N2O). We use the global temperature potential (GTP), calculated at 20 and 100 y, in units of CO2 equivalents (CO2e), as a common metric. The largest cooling effects are due to combustion sources of oxides of nitrogen altering tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations and enhancing carbon sequestration in forests. The combined cooling effects are estimated at ?290 to ?510 Tg CO2e on a GTP20 basis. However, these effects are largely short-lived. On a GTP100 basis, combustion contributes just ?16 to ?95 Tg CO2e. Agriculture contributes to warming on both the 20-y and 100-y timescales, primarily through N2O emissions from soils. Under current conditions, these warming and cooling effects partially offset each other. However, recent trends show decreasing emissions from combustion sources. To prevent warming from US reactive nitrogen, reductions in agricultural N2O emissions are needed. Substantial progress toward this goal is possible using current technology. Without such actions, even greater CO2 emission reductions will be required to avoid dangerous climate change. PMID:22547815

Pinder, Robert W.; Davidson, Eric A.; Goodale, Christine L.; Greaver, Tara L.; Herrick, Jeffrey D.; Liu, Lingli

2012-01-01

350

Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands  

PubMed Central

Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

2013-01-01

351

Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be combined in various ways to comprise focused, lively, accurate primers to what we all need to know about climate change. With college classrooms as our intended venue, we are looking at such topics as why the weather in your backyard tells you nothing about global climate change-but a good deal about climate; how tiny molecules warm the planet; how snowpack, drought, bark beetles, fire suppression, and wildfire interact as stress complexes; why (and where) women, children, and the poor are especially vulnerable to harm from climate change; what international policy negotiators argue about; what poets and artists can contribute to understanding and solving the climate problem; and why ecologists are worried about changes in the seasonal timing of natural events. We will describe what we have done and how we did it; offer a few tips to others who might wish to do something similar; and introduce our website.

Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team

2011-12-01

352

Ecosystem Responses to Global Climate Change: Moving Beyond Color Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is on the effects of climate change on ecosystems. Current assessments of climate-change effects on ecosystems use two key approaches: (1) empirical synthesis and modeling of species range shifts and life-cycle processes that coincide with recent evidence of climate warming, from which scenarios of ecosystem change are inferred; and (2) experiments examining plant-soil interactions under simulated climate warming. Both kinds of assessment offer indisputable evidence that climate change and its effects on ecosystems are ongoing. However, both approaches often provide conservative estimates of the effects of climate change on ecosystems, because they do not consider the interplay and feedback among higher trophic levels in ecosystems, which may have a large effect on plant species composition and on ecosystem services such as productivity. Understanding the impacts of these top-down processes on ecosystems is critical for determining large-scale ecosystem response to climate change. Using examples of links between climate forcing, trophic interactions, and changes in ecosystem state in selected terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems, we show that the ability to understand and accurately forecast future effects of climate change requires an integrated perspective, linking climate and the biotic components of the ecosystem as a whole.

OSWALD J. SCHMITZ, ERIC POST, CATHERINE E. BURNS, and KEVIN M. JOHNSTON (;)

2003-12-01

353

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change'' is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany CO{sub 2}-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions' exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean's reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced Co{sub 2}, changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 12 months has proceeded in several directions.

Hanson, H.P.

1992-01-01

354

Thermohaline circulations and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses research activities conducted during the period 15 January 1992--14 December 1992. Thermohaline Circulations and Global Climate Change is concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany C0[sub 2]-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions' exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. Because the North Atlantic is the source of much of the global ocean's reservoir of deep water, and because this deep water could sequester large amounts of anthropogenically produced C0[sub 2], changes in the rate of deep-water production are important to future climates. Since deep-water Production is controlled, in part, by the annual cycle of the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic, and since this forcing depends strongly on both hydrological and thermal processes as well as the windstress, there is the potential for feedback between the relatively short-term response of the atmosphere to changing radiative forcing and the longer-term processes in the oceans. Work over the past 11 months has proceeded according to the continuation discussion of last January and several new results have arisen.

Hanson, H.P.

1992-01-01

355

A history of the science and politics of climate change: the role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

In response to growing concern about human-induced global climate change, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed in 1988. Written by its first Chairman, this book is a unique overview of the history of the IPCC. It describes and evaluates the intricate interplay between key factors in the science and politics of climate change, the strategy that has been followed, and the regretfully slow pace in getting to grips with the uncertainties that have prevented earlier action being taken. The book also highlights the emerging conflict between establishing a sustainable global energy system and preventing a serious change in global climate. Contents are: Part I. The Early History of the Climate Change Issue: 1. Nineteenth century discoveries; 2. The natural carbon cycle and life on earth; 3. Global research initiatives in meteorology and climatology; 4. Early international assessments of climate change; Part II. The Climate Change Issue Becomes One of Global Concern: 5. Setting the stage; 6. The scientific basis for a climate convention; 7. Serving the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee; 8. The Second IPP Assessment Report; 9. In the aftermath of the IPCC Second Assessment; 10. The Kyoto Protocol is agreed and a third assessment begun; 11. A decade of hesitance and slow progress; Part III. A Turning Point in Addressing Climate Change?: 12. Key scientific finding of prime political relevance; 13. Climate change and the future global energy supply system; Concluding remarks. 9 figs.

Bolin, B. [University of Stockholm, Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-11-15

356

Engaging the Public in Climate Change Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, currently finishing its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. In anticipation of the 2010 campaign, Project BudBurst has developed and released innovative and exciting projects with a special focus in the field of phenology and climate change. The collaborations between Project BudBurst and other organizations are producing unique campaigns for engaging the public in environmental research. The special project foci include on-the-spot and in-the-field data reporting via mobile phones, an emphasis on urban tree phenology data, as well as monitoring of native gardens across the US National Wildlife Refuge System. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and the new special projects, and share results from 2007-2009. Project BudBurst is managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, the Chicago Botanic Garden, and the University of Montana.

Meymaris, K. K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.; Schwarz Ballard, J.

2009-12-01

357

PICUS v1.6 - enhancing the water cycle within a hybrid ecosystem model to assess the provision of drinking water in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PICUS model is a hybrid ecosystem model which is based on a 3D patch model and a physiological stand level production model. The model includes, among others, a submodel of bark beetle disturbances in Norway spruce and a management module allowing any silvicultural treatment to be mimicked realistically. It has been tested intensively for its ability to realistically reproduce tree growth and stand dynamics in complex structured mixed and mono-species temperate forest ecosystems. In several applications the models capacity to generate relevant forest related attributes which were subsequently fed into indicator systems to assess sustainable forest management under current and future climatic conditions has been proven. However, the relatively coarse monthly temporal resolution of the driving climate data as well as the process resolution of the major water relations within the simulated ecosystem hampered the inclusion of more detailed physiologically based assessments of drought conditions and water provisioning ecosystem services. In this contribution we present the improved model version PICUS v1.6 focusing on the newly implemented logic for the water cycle calculations. Transpiration, evaporation from leave surfaces and the forest floor, snow cover and snow melt as well as soil water dynamics in several soil horizons are covered. In enhancing the model overarching goal was to retain the large-scale applicability by keeping the input requirements to a minimum while improving the physiological foundation of water related ecosystem processes. The new model version is tested against empirical time series data. Future model applications are outlined.

Schimmel, A.; Rammer, W.; Lexer, M. J.

2012-04-01

358

A common-sense climate index: is climate changing noticeably?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than "business-as-usual" scenarios.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Glascoe, J.; Ruedy, R.

1998-01-01

359

Trees: Recorders of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are introduced to tree rings by examining a cross section of a tree, also known as a “tree cookie.” They discover how tree age can be determined by studying the rings and how ring thickness can be used to deduce times of optimal growing conditions. Next they investigate simulated tree rings by applying the scientific method to explore how climatic conditions varied during the Little Ice Age. Use this activity to begin discussions on global warming and climate change. This lesson guide includes background information and handouts. Note: cost of materials does not include cost of purchasing "tree cookies."

2012-03-30

360

Climate Science in a Nutshell: Climate Change Around the World?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video is part of the Climate Science in a Nutshell video series. This short video looks at the effects of climate change happening right now around the globe, including: more extreme weather events, droughts, forest fires, land use changes, altered ranges of disease-carrying insects, and the loss of some agricultural products. It concludes with a discussion of the differences among weather, climate variability and climate change.

Nutshell, Planet; Network, Utah E.

361

Climate Change in the 20th and 21st Centuries  

SciTech Connect

The NCAR Community Climate System Model and Parallel Climate Model have produced one the largest data sets for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its fourth Assessment. There will be some discussion of what is in state-of-art climate models. As a result of this and other climate assessments, most of the climate research science community now believes that mankind is changing the earth's system and that global warming is taking place. The changes are not only reflected in terms of means but also extremes. The new IPCC research findings will be presented along with future computational challenges. It is expected that in the future there will be a need for both terascale and petascale computing, which will allow for higher resolution climate models that have embedded hurricanes and smaller scale weather features as well as viable biogeochemical cycles. Because of concerns of burning fossil fuels there will be special emphasis on better estimates of the Earth's carbon cycle, which is a special concern for the DOE. In order to perform future climate change simulations, the computational methods will necessarily undergo a reexamination. Finally, at the end of talk there will be a discussion of how climate model studies can aid in future policy options, some of which will address 'geoengineering' the climate system.

Washington, Warren (NCAR) [NCAR

2006-04-19

362

On the timing and mechanism of millennial-scale climate variability during the last glacial cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstration that natural climate variability during the last glacial cycle shifted rapidly between remarkable extremes has dramatically revised the understanding of climate change. To further advance our understanding, research continues into the timings, geographic distribution, and nature of the millennial-scale climate extremes, and into the mechanisms for intra- and inter-hemispheric transmission of variability through the climate\\/ocean system. Complementing the

E. J. Rohling; P. Mayewski; P. Challenor

2003-01-01

363

Unit Plans: Earth's Climate Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unit plans for Grades K-2 and 3-5 are a regular feature of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle. The plans draw on articles and resources in a themed issue and are aligned with national science and language arts standards. This unit is designed to provide elementary students with the opportunity to investigate how the annual rings in trees help scientists learn about past climates. It uses hands-on experiences and nonfiction text to answer the unit question: How do trees help scientists learn about the past?

Jessica Fries-Gaither

364

Global Climate Change and Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

Izaurralde, Roberto C.

2009-01-01

365

Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy  

E-print Network

1 Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy Tyson Research Center and International Center et al. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice http of air and water temperatures Losses of ice from Greenland and Antarctica Sea-level rise Energy demands

Subramanian, Venkat

366

Changing feedbacks in the climate- biosphere system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems influence climate through multiple pathways, primarily by changing the energy, water, and green- house-gas balance of the atmosphere. Consequently, efforts to mitigate climate change through modification of one pathway, as with carbon in the Kyoto Protocol, only partially address the issue of ecosystem-climate interactions. For example, the cooling of climate that results from carbon sequestration by plants may be

F F SSttuuaarrtt; CChhaappiinn IIIIII

367

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co of precipitation High water impacts Adaptation strategies #12;1930 2008WI Cooperative Weather Stations We've been changes due to global climate change." ­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Future Climate Change What

Sheridan, Jennifer

368

Challenges and Possibilities in Climate Change Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating and communicating about climate change is challenging. Researchers reported that climate change concepts are often misunderstood. Some people do not believe that climate change will have impacts on their own life. Other challenges may include people's difficulty in perceiving small or gradual environmental changes, the fact that…

Pruneau,, Diane; Khattabi, Abdellatif; Demers, Melanie

2010-01-01

369

Ecological Consequences of Recent Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is frequently considered a major conservation threat. The Earth's climate has already warmed by 0.5 8 C over the past century, and recent studies show that it is possible to detect the ef- fects of a changing climate on ecological systems. This suggests that global change may be a current and fu- ture conservation threat. Changes in

John P. McCarty

2001-01-01

370

Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson

2006-01-01

371

Insect overwintering in a changing climate.  

PubMed

Insects are highly successful animals inhabiting marine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats from the equator to the poles. As a group, insects have limited ability to regulate their body temperature and have thus required a range of strategies to support life in thermally stressful environments, including behavioural avoidance through migration and seasonal changes in cold tolerance. With respect to overwintering strategies, insects have traditionally been divided into two main groups: freeze tolerant and freeze avoiding, although this simple classification is underpinned by a complex of interacting processes, i.e. synthesis of ice nucleating agents, cryoprotectants, antifreeze proteins and changes in membrane lipid composition. Also, in temperate and colder climates, the overwintering ability of many species is closely linked to the diapause state, which often increases cold tolerance ahead of temperature-induced seasonal acclimatisation. Importantly, even though most species can invoke one or both of these responses, the majority of insects die from the effects of cold rather than freezing. Most studies on the effects of a changing climate on insects have focused on processes that occur predominantly in summer (development, reproduction) and on changes in distributions rather than winter survival per se. For species that routinely experience cold stress, a general hypothesis would be that predicted temperature increases of 1 degree C to 5 degrees C over the next 50-100 years would increase winter survival in some climatic zones. However, this is unlikely to be a universal effect. Negative impacts may occur if climate warming leads to a reduction or loss of winter snow cover in polar and sub-polar areas, resulting in exposure to more severe air temperatures, increasing frequency of freeze-thaw cycles and risks of ice encasement. Likewise, whilst the dominant diapause-inducing cue (photoperiod) will be unaffected by global climate change, higher temperatures may modify normal rates of development, leading to a decoupling of synchrony between diapause-sensitive life-cycle stages and critical photoperiods for diapause induction. In terms of climate warming and potential heat stress, the most recent predictions of summer temperatures in Europe of 40 degrees C or higher in 50-75 years, are close to the current upper lethal limit of some insects. Long-term data sets on insect distributions and the timing of annual migrations provide strong evidence for 'positive' responses to higher winter temperatures over timescales of the past 20-50 years in North America, Europe and Asia. PMID:20190123

Bale, J S; Hayward, S A L

2010-03-15

372

America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video production is a part of a four-panel report from the National Academies' America's Climate Choices project. The video maps out the realm of our accumulated knowledge regarding climate change and charts a path forward, urging that research on climate change enter a new era focused on the needs of decision makers.

Academies, National

373

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education  

E-print Network

Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate 1 September 2011) Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize

Niyogi, Dev

374

Climate Change and Civil Violence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore provides an opportunity for targeted proactive measures to mitigate certain classes of future civil violence events.

van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

2009-05-01

375

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING IN  

E-print Network

COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING Columbia must adapt to climate change by preparing for expected and unexpected changes in their communities that planners do not have a high level of knowledge of climate change adaptation. Planners feel that the impacts

Pedersen, Tom

376

Agriculture, Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl  

E-print Network

Agriculture, Climate Change and Climate Change Mitigation Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor Change Happen Let's Avoid Climate Change Mitigation Effects Presented at Texas Recycling and Sustainability Summit San Antonio, Sept 29, 2004 #12;Climate Change has in part a human cause Source http

McCarl, Bruce A.

377

Breaking the climate change communication deadlock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change communication is trapped between the norms that govern scientific practice and the need to engage the public. Overcoming this tension requires new societal institutions where the science and politics of climate change can co-exist.

Corner, Adam; Groves, Christopher

2014-09-01

378

Global Climate Change and the Mitigation Challenge  

EPA Science Inventory

Book edited by Frank Princiotta titled Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Transparent modeling tools and the most recent literature are used, to quantify the challenge posed by climate change and potential technological remedies. The chapter examines forces driving ...

379

RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...

380

Climate Change and the Historical Imagination  

E-print Network

Climate Change and the Historical Imagination Thursday, March 28, 2013 4:30 ­ 6:00 p.m. Wrigley on anthropogenic climate change and its implications for historical thinking, on the history of the idea

Hall, Sharon J.

381

Mitigating Climate Change in China and Ethiopia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Hope in a Changing Climate, learn how an environmentally devastated ecosystem has been restored, benefiting both the local economy and global efforts to fight climate change.

2010-09-23

382

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

383

Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

2011-01-01

384

Teaching Climate Change Through Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

Weiss, P. S.

2007-12-01

385

Climate Change in South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a South Asia, is home to over one fifth of the world’s population and is known to be the most disaster prone region in the world.\\u000a The high rates of ­population growth, and natural resource degradation, with continuing high rates of poverty and food insecurity\\u000a make South Asia one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. In

Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski

386

Climate Change Impact on Forestry in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climate change represents a significant threat to global biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. Climate change is expected\\u000a to have also impacts on forest ecology. It is thus important to make assessments of possible impacts of climate change on\\u000a forests in different regions to allow respective governments and communities to adapt. Climate change is projected to affect\\u000a individual organisms, populations, species distributions

Geetanjali Kaushik; M. A. Khalid

387

Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities  

E-print Network

Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities Jim Crawford Trane jim.crawford@trane.com www.trane.com Abstract Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can... make essentially irreversible changes in the climate of the future. Naysayers dispute whether mankind is even capable of changing the climate. Today we are hearing more from the scientists and less from the naysayers. This presentation will review...

Crawford, J. G.

388

Climate change, environment and allergy.  

PubMed

Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

2012-01-01

389

Communicating Uncertainties on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term of uncertainty in common language is confusing since it is related in one of its most usual sense to what cannot be known in advance or what is subject to doubt. Its definition in mathematics is unambiguous but not widely shared. It is thus difficult to communicate on this notion through media to a wide public. From its scientific basis to the impact assessment, climate change issue is subject to a large number of sources of uncertainties. In this case, the definition of the term is close to its mathematical sense, but the diversity of disciplines involved in the analysis process implies a great diversity of approaches of the notion. Faced to this diversity of approaches, the issue of communicating uncertainties on climate change is thus a great challenge. It is also complicated by the diversity of the targets of the communication on climate change, from stakeholders and policy makers to a wide public. We will present the process chosen by the IPCC in order to communicate uncertainties in its assessment reports taking the example of the guidance note to lead authors of the fourth assessment report. Concerning the communication of uncertainties to a wide public, we will give some examples aiming at illustrating how to avoid the above-mentioned ambiguity when dealing with this kind of communication.

Planton, S.

2009-09-01

390

NASA Nice Climate Change Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: 1 Kaiem Frink, 4 Sherry Crocker, 5 Willie Jones, III, 7 Sophia S.L. Marshall, 6 Anuadha Dujari 3 Ervin Howard 1 Kalota Stewart-Gurley 8 Edwinta Merriweathe Affiliation: 1. Mathematics & Computer Science, Virginia Union University, Richmond, VA, United States. 2. Mathematics & Computer Science, Elizabeth City State Univ, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 3. Education, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 4. College of Education, Fort Valley State University , Fort Valley, GA, United States. 5. Education, Tougaloo College, Jackson, MS, United States. 6. Mathematics, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, United States. 7. Education, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, United States. 8. Education, Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, Huntsville, AL, United States. ABSTRACT: In this research initiative, the 2013-2014 NASA NICE workshop participants will present best educational practices for incorporating climate change pedagogy. The presentation will identify strategies to enhance instruction of pre-service teachers to aligned with K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) standards. The presentation of best practices should serve as a direct indicator to address pedagogical needs to include climate education within a K-12 curriculum Some of the strategies will include inquiry, direct instructions, and cooperative learning . At this particular workshop, we have learned about global climate change in regards to how this is going to impact our life. Participants have been charged to increase the scientific understanding of pre-service teachers education programs nationally to incorporate climate education lessons. These recommended practices will provide feasible instructional strategies that can be easily implemented and used to clarify possible misconceptions and ambiguities in scientific knowledge. Additionally, the presentation will promote an awareness to the many facets in which climate change education can be beneficial to future learners and general public. The main scope is to increase the amount of STEM knowledge throughout the nations scientific literacy as we are using the platform of climate change. Federal entities which may include but not limited to National Security Agency and the Department of Homeland Security and Management will serve as resources partners for this common goal of having a more knowledgeable technological savvy and scientific literate society. The presentation will show that incorporating these best practices into elementary and early childhood education undergraduate programs will assist with increasing a enhance scientific literate society. As a measurable outcome have a positive impact on instructional effectiveness of future teachers. Their successfully preparing students in meeting the standards of the Common Core Initiative will attempt to measure across the curriculum uniformly.

Frink, K.; Crocker, S.; Jones, W., III; Marshall, S. S.; Anuradha, D.; Stewart-Gurley, K.; Howard, E. M.; Hill, E.; Merriweather, E.

2013-12-01

391

A high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record for the South Atlantic: Implications for orbital-scale changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and carbon cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Paleocene and Early Eocene were characterized by warm greenhouse climates, punctuated by a series of rapid warming and ocean acidification events known as “hyperthermals”, thought to have been paced or triggered by orbital cycles. While these hyperthermals, such as the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), have been studied in great detail, the background low-amplitude cycles seen in carbon and oxygen-isotope records throughout the Paleocene-Eocene have hitherto not been resolved. Here we present a 7.7 million year (myr) long, high-resolution, orbitally-tuned, benthic foraminiferal stable-isotope record spanning the late Paleocene and early Eocene interval (?52.5-60.5 Ma) from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1262, South Atlantic. This high resolution (?2-4 kyr) record allows the changing character and phasing of orbitally-modulated cycles to be studied in unprecedented detail as it reflects the long-term trend in carbon cycle and climate over this interval. The main pacemaker in the benthic oxygen-isotope (?18O) and carbon-isotope (?13C) records from ODP Site 1262, are the long (405 kyr) and short (100 kyr) eccentricity cycles, and precession (21 kyr). Obliquity (41 kyr) is almost absent throughout the section except for a few brief intervals where it has a relatively weak influence. During the course of the Early Paleogene record, and particularly in the latest Paleocene, eccentricity-paced negative carbon-isotope excursions (?13C, CIEs) and coeval negative oxygen-isotope (?18O) excursions correspond to low carbonate (CaCO3) and coarse fraction (%CF) values due to increased carbonate dissolution, suggesting shoaling of the lysocline and accompanied changes in the global exogenic carbon cycle. These negative CIEs and ?18O events coincide with maxima in eccentricity, with changes in ?18O leading changes in ?13C by ?6 (±5) kyr in the 405-kyr band and by ?3 (±1) kyr in the higher frequency 100-kyr band on average. However, these phase lags are not constant, with the lag in the 405-kyr band extending from ?4 (±5) kyr to ?21 (±2) kyr from the late Paleocene to the early Eocene, suggesting a progressively weaker coupling of climate and the carbon-cycle with time. The higher amplitude 405-kyr cycles in the latest Paleocene are associated with changes in bottom water temperature of 2-4 °C, while the most prominent 100 kyr-paced cycles can be accompanied by changes of up to 1.5 °C. Comparison of the 1262 record with a lower resolution, but orbitally-tuned benthic record for Site 1209 in the Pacific allows for verification of key features of the benthic isotope records which are global in scale including a key warming step at 57.7 Ma.

Littler, Kate; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Zachos, James C.

2014-09-01

392

Carbon cycle optimism hides climate risks and mitigation needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) projections over the 21st century generally rely on two optimistic assumptions about the natural carbon cycle: 1) that elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will increase plant growth and enhance carbon storage, and 2) that plant migration will be fast relative to climate changes. Neither assumption is well supported by empirical evidence. The long-term implications of CO2 enrichment on global carbon storage in vegetation and soil remain ambiguous, at best, despite nearly two decades of plot-level manipulative field experiments. Similarly, observed rates of tree migration appear slow relative to projected climate changes over the next several decades. This talk will assess the uncertainty in carbon cycle feedbacks due to three key factors: 1) potential constraints on plant migration, 2) CO2 fertilization, and 3) decomposition. The talk will also demonstrate that optimistic assumptions about plant migration and CO2 fertilization hide potentially large carbon losses from the land surface in response to warming. With less optimistic assumptions, simulated carbon losses from the land surface are sufficient to push atmospheric GHG concentrations to levels found in IPCC’s A1FI emission scenario (the highest) even if anthropogenic emissions correspond to B1 emissions (IPCC’s lowest scenario). These results have important implications for societal decisions that relate to climate change because they imply that a given level of human emissions could result in much larger climate changes than we now realize or that stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations at a specific level would require lower human emissions than currently recognized.

Higgins, P. A.

2010-12-01

393

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change  

E-print Network

Distinguished Lecturer Series Understanding Climate Change: Opportunities and Challenges for Data A Climate change is the defining environmental challenge facing our planet, yet there is considerable.Anew and transformative approach is required to understand the potential impact of climate change. Data driven approaches

California at Davis, University of

394

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FLOODING IN WISCONSIN Ken Potter and Zach Schuster flood scenarios in Wisconsin · Potential impact of climate change on Wisconsin flooding · Ongoing #12;WISCONSIN INITIATIVE ON CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS · Partnership between the University of Wisconsin

Sheridan, Jennifer

395

FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

FIRE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA Changes in the Distribution and Frequency of Fire in Climates of the Future and Recent Past (1911­2099) A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012026 Prepared for: California Energy Commission

396

Climate change and poverty in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa is most vulnerable to climate change, although it makes the least contribution to factors that result in global and regional climatic changes. High levels of vulnerability and low adaptive capacity across the continent have been linked to, among other things, poverty. This paper discusses and analyses the relationship between climate change and poverty in Africa. It investigates the relationship

Kempe Ronald Hope Sr

2009-01-01

397

Getting to the Core of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lab about evidence for past climate change as captured in ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. Students investigate climate changes going back thousands of years by graphing and analyzing ice core data from both Greenland and Antarctica. They use information about natural and human-caused changes in the atmosphere to formulate predictions about the Earth's climate.

2005-01-01

398

Can ice sheets trigger abrupt climatic change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery in recent years of abrupt climatic changes in climate proxy records from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment cores, and from other sites around the world, has diverted attention from gradual insolation changes caused by Earth`s orbital variations to more rapid processes on Earth`s surface as forcing Quaternary climatic change. In particular, forcing by ice sheets has

1996-01-01

399

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation  

E-print Network

Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co scenarios for temperature and precipitation Part 2 High water impacts Adaptation strategies #12;1930 2008WI of global climate change­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Projected Climate Change 200-2100 What Global

Sheridan, Jennifer

400

USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan  

E-print Network

USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan #12;2 INTRODUCTIONEXECUTIVE SUMMARY This USACE Adaptation Plan describes activities underway to evaluate the most significant climate change related risks in supporting mainstreaming climate change adaptation has focused on clarifying our adaptation mission and goals

US Army Corps of Engineers

401

Integrating climate change adaptation into forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future climate change will affect society's ability to use forest resources. We take account of climate in forest management and this will help us adapt to the effects of climate change on forests. However, society will have to adjust to how forests adapt by changing expectations for the use of forest resources because management can only influence the timing and

David L. Spittlehouse

2005-01-01

402

Climate change-integrated conservation strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Conservation strategies currently include little consider- ation of climate change. Insights about the biotic impacts of climate change from biogeography and palaeoecology, there- fore, have the potential to provide significant improvements in the effectiveness of conservation planning. We suggest a collaboration involving biogeography, ecology and applied conservation. The resulting Climate Change-integrated Conservation Strategies (CCS) apply available tools to respond

L. Hannah; G. F. Midgley; D. Millar

2002-01-01

403

Addressing Climate Change in Environmental Impact Analysis  

E-print Network

Addressing Climate Change in Environmental Impact Analysis 2010 CTS Research Conference Carissa impact analysis (EIA) as a tool to address climate change ·! Consider approaches to measuring and addressing climate change at the project scale #12;Purpose ·! Funded by U of M Institute on the Environment

Minnesota, University of

404

Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing  

E-print Network

Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental climate change when relicensing hydropower units, stating that there is a lack of scientific information this project, researchers are conducting an environmental study on climate change for the Yuba River

405

The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change  

E-print Network

The Environmental Justice Dimensions of Climate Change Marie Lynn Miranda, Douglas A. Hastings to mitigate the severe impacts of climate change predicted to occur in the twenty-first century. Many with climate change. This study investigates the varying degrees to which developing and developed nations

406

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change  

E-print Network

Outreach and Adaptive Strategies for Climate Change: The Role of NOAA Sea Grant Extension years and generations about how to adapt to a changing climate. Effective preparation for possible effects of climate change includes engagement of resource managers, planners, public works officials

407

Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

Anderson, Allison

2012-01-01

408

BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change  

E-print Network

BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

Kraft, Nathan

409

Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change

Dawson, Vaille

2012-01-01

410

Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic  

E-print Network

Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic Tomography, Satellite Altimetry, and Modeling The ATOC to thermal expansion. Interpreting climate change signals from fluctuations in sea level is therefore in the advective heat flux. Changes in oceanic heat storage are a major expected element of future climate shifts

Frandsen, Jannette B.

411

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff

412

Arnold Schwarzenegger DATA SOURCES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor DATA SOURCES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH WITH A COMPUTABLE GENERAL-Holst, University of California, Berkeley PIERPROJECTREPORT June 2007 CEC-500-2006-080 #12;California Climate Change for Climate Change Research with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model of the California Economy

413

Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1  

E-print Network

Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1 J. Marotzke,2 W. D. Nordhaus,3 J. T. Overpeck,4 D. M. Peteet,5. Wallace8 Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

414

Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change  

E-print Network

Simulation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change Nathan P. Gillett1 * and David W. J. Thompson2 Recent observations indicate that climate change over the high latitudes of the Southern's surface as well. Recent climate change in the Southern Hemi- sphere (SH) is marked by a strengthening

415

Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012  

E-print Network

- 1 - Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012 Southwestern US trees face rising drought, and several other partner organizations. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change Connection Described in a paper published in Nature Climate Change this week, "Temperature as a potent driver of regional forest

416

Climate change projections and stratospheretroposphere interaction  

E-print Network

Climate change projections and stratosphere­troposphere interaction 1234567 15578379AB72C4DE F547A1 #12;1 1 Climate Change Projections and Stratosphere-Troposphere Interaction Adam A. Scaife*,1 , Thomas ­ University of Toronto, Canada. #12;2 2 ABSTRACT Climate change is expected to increase winter rainfall

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

417

CLIMATE CHANGE -POPULATION INTERACTIONS: A SPATIAL AND  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE - POPULATION INTERACTIONS: A SPATIAL AND REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE Susana B. Adamo CIESIN Conference Marrakech, 27 September ­ 2 October 2009 Plenary Session on Population and Climate Change #12, and demographic processes. ­ implications of the regional/local variability for vulnerability to climate changes

Columbia University

418

As climate changes, so do glaciers  

PubMed Central

Understanding abrupt climate changes requires detailed spatial/temporal records of such changes, and to make these records, we need rapidly responding, geographically widespread climate trackers. Glacial systems are such trackers, and recent additions to the stratigraphic record show overall synchronous response of glacial systems to climate change reflecting global atmosphere conditions. PMID:10677465

Lowell, Thomas V.

2000-01-01

419

7, 1114111189, 2007 Climate change and  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric ozone G. Zeng et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone and its global budgets G. Zeng, J. A. Pyle, and P. Zeng (guang.zeng@atm.ch.cam.ac.uk) 11141 #12;ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

Climate Change and Water Resources in the  

E-print Network

Climate Change and Water Resources in the Tropical Andes Mathias Vuille Inter-American Development Bank Environmental Safeguards Unit TECHNICAL NOTE No. IDB-TN-515 March 2013 #12;Climate Change-American Development Bank Felipe Herrera Library Vuille, Mathias. Climate change and water resources in the tropical

Vuille, Mathias

421

Research Note Impacts of climate change on  

E-print Network

Research Note Impacts of climate change on forestry in Scotland ­ a synopsis of spatial modelling research Duncan Ray January 2008 Climate change is now one of the greatest global challenges, and research by climate change. This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of the likely impacts, with preliminary

422

CLIMATE CHANGE AND MANAGED ECOSYSTEMS: BOOK REVIEW  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In July, 2004, an important international climate change conference convened in Edmonton, Canada, “The Science of Changing Climates – Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands”. Leading experts in climate change, mostly from the natural and agricultural sciences, exchanged the latest findings o...

423

Probabilistic Integrated Assessment of "Dangerous" Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in projections of future climate change due to natural and social parameters of the climate system are often used as a basis for decisions to delay climate policy. However, if we wish to influence the trajectory of future climate change and avoid potentially "dangerous" climate impacts, we must make decisions under uncertainty, an accepted practice in many other sectors. This talk will present a probabilistic conceptual framework for defining "dangerous" climate change, a policy-relevant impact threshold which the US and over 190 other signatories to the UNFCCC have committed to preventing. It will also present an example of application of this metric to projections of future climate change, to demonstrate the linkage of climate policy decisions to risk management of "dangerous" climate change.

Mastrandrea, M. D.

2004-12-01

424

North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Producing Regional Climate Change Projections for Climate Impacts Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is constructing projections of regional climate change over the coterminous United States and Canada in order to provide climate change information at decision relevant scales. A major goal of NARCCAP is to estimate uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate by using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple

R. W. Arritt; L. Mearns; C. Anderson; D. Bader; E. Buonomo; D. Caya; P. Duffy; N. Elguindi; F. Giorgi; W. Gutowski; I. Held; A. Nunes; R. Jones; R. Laprise; L. R. Leung; D. Middleton; W. Moufouma-Okia; D. Nychka; Y. Qian; J. Roads; S. Sain; M. Snyder; L. Sloan; E. Takle

2006-01-01

425

Ocean Circulation and Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the mainstream media has provided extensive coverage of El Nino and La Nina -- the warmer and colder phases of a perpetual oscillation in the surface temperature of the tropical Pacific Ocean -- little attention has been paid to deep-water phases. Several recent publications in leading scientific journals (Science and Nature) are adding new dimensions to the link between large-scale ocean circulation patterns and climate. Researchers Dr. Wallace Broecker and researchers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (see the November 5, 1999 issue of Science and the November 9, 1999 issue of The New York Times) found that deep ocean currents, operating as an oceanic "conveyor belt," may hold clues to climate change. The conveyor belt works by transporting warm, increasingly salty, ocean water from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean; eventually, the warm water current runs into a cold water current, causing the warm water to cool quickly and sink, due to greater density. In turn, this creates a "sub-surface countercurrent which carries the cool water back to the Indian and Pacific oceans" (2). In this week's issue of Nature (December 2, 1999), German scientist Carsten Ruhlemann and colleagues provide new evidence that the thermohaline circulation has triggered rapid climate change events in the past, including the last deglaciation. In addition, the current issue of Science Times (December 7, 1999) highlights the connection between thawing Arctic ice sheets and oceanic currents. This week's In The News focuses on ocean circulation patterns and climate change. The seven resources provide background information and specific links to related resources.

Payne, Laura X.

426

Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural…

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew

2012-01-01

427

Taught degrees MSc in Climate Change and Development  

E-print Network

with sustainable energy, climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. · Our climate change and energy policy and adaptation and/or energy policy. · For the MSc in Climate Change and Development and the MSc Climate ChangeEssentials Taught degrees MSc in Climate Change and Development MSc in Climate Change and Policy

Sussex, University of

428

STERN REVIEW: The Economics of Climate Change 1 Climate Change our approach  

E-print Network

that societies can adapt to the consequences of climate change that can no longer be avoided. The Review takesSTERN REVIEW: The Economics of Climate Change 1 Part I Climate Change ­ our approach Part I of the Review considers the nature of the scientific evidence for climate change, and the nature of the economic

429

Ocean Mixing and Climate ChangeOcean Mixing and Climate Change Factors inducing seawater mixing  

E-print Network

Ocean Mixing and Climate ChangeOcean Mixing and Climate Change #12;Factors inducing seawater mixing than the atmosphere to climate changes; it acts as "buffer" 4. Heat, CO2 are stored in the ocean #12. The ocean responds much slower than the atmosphere to climate changes; it acts as a"buffer" 4. Heat, and CO2

Russell, Lynn

430

Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law  

E-print Network

Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law Monica Molina, Columbia College '14 Supervisor Meredith Wilensky, J.D. Introduction The Climate Change Laws of the World Project is an ongoing effort at the Center for Climate Change Law (CCCL) to aggregate existing domestic

431

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

Saldin, Dilano

432

Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change  

E-print Network

Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change: Implications for · Wisconsin's changing climate · Stormwater management · Impacts and adaptation #12;WICCI Identifying impacts activities. Develop and recommend adaptation strategies. Mission: Assess and anticipate climate change

Sheridan, Jennifer

433

A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century  

E-print Network

A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century Miche`le B; accepted 30 November 2006; published 10 January 2007. [1] A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural

Fischlin, Andreas

434

Climate change in the Netherlands | 1 Climate change in the Netherlands  

E-print Network

Climate change in the Netherlands | 1 Climate change in the Netherlands Supplements to the KNMI'06 scenarios #12;2 | Climate change in the Netherlands Abstract 1 Introduction 1.1 Objective and contents 1 of climate simulations 2.6 Observed rapid warming in the Netherlands Probability of extremes in a changing

Stoffelen, Ad

435

Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review.  

PubMed

The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

2014-11-01

436

The science of climate change.  

SciTech Connect

A complex debate is underway on climate change linked to proposals for costly measures that would reshape our power grid. This confronts technical experts outside of the geophysical disciplines with extensive, but unfamiliar, data both supporting and refuting claims that serious action is warranted. For example, evidence is brought to the table from one group of astrophysicists concerned with sunspots--this group believes there is no issue man can manage; while another group of oceanographers concerned with the heat balance in the world's oceans are very alarmed at the loss of arctic ice. What is the evidence? In an effort to put some of these issues in perspective for a technical audience, without a background in geophysics, a brief survey will consider (1) an overview of the 300 years of scientific inquiry on man's relationship to climate; (2) a basic discussion of what is meant by the ''greenhouse'' and why there are concerns which include not only CO{sub 2}, but also CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CFC's; (3) the geological record on CO{sub 2}--which likely was present at 1,000 times current levels when life began; (4) the solar luminosity and sunspot question; and (5) the current evidence for global climate change. We are at a juncture where we are attempting to understand the earth as an integrated dynamic system, rather than a collection of isolated components.

Doctor, R. D.

1999-09-10

437

Impact of climate change on waterborne diseases.  

PubMed

Change in climate and water cycle will challenge water availability but it will also increase the exposure to unsafe water. Floods, droughts, heavy storms, changes in rain pattern, increase of temperature and sea level, they all show an increasing trend worldwide and will affect biological, physical and chemical components of water through different paths thus enhancing the risk of waterborne diseases. This paper is intended, through reviewing the available literature, to highlight environmental changes and critical situations caused by floods, drought and warmer temperature that will lead to an increase of exposure to water related pathogens, chemical hazards and cyanotoxins. The final aim is provide knowledge-based elements for more focused adaptation measures. PMID:23247142

Funari, Enzo; Manganelli, Maura; Sinisi, Luciana

2012-01-01

438

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear  

E-print Network

Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters Rob Goldston MIT IAP plays a large role in replacing coal red plants. al hydro electricity options penetrate in the climate way across scenarios, showing a slight severe climate targets. In Industry, the climate target has

439

Honey Bees, Satellites and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life isn't what it used to be for honey bees in Maryland. The latest changes in their world are discussed by NASA scientist Wayne Esaias, a biological oceanographer with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. At Goddard, Esaias has examined the role of marine productivity in the global carbon cycle using visible satellite sensors. In his personal life, Esaias is a beekeeper. Lately, he has begun melding his interest in bees with his professional expertise in global climate change. Esaias has observed that the period when nectar is available in central Maryland has shifted by one month due to local climate change. He is interested in bringing the power of global satellite observations and models to bear on the important but difficult question of how climate change will impact bees and pollination. Pollination is a complex, ephemeral interaction of animals and plants with ramifications throughout terrestrial ecosystems well beyond the individual species directly involved. Pollinators have been shown to be in decline in many regions, and the nature and degree of further impacts on this key interaction due to climate change are very much open questions. Honey bee colonies are used to quantify the time of occurrence of the major interaction by monitoring their weight change. During the peak period, changes of 5-15 kg/day per colony represent an integrated response covering thousands of hectares. Volunteer observations provide a robust metric for looking at spatial and inter-annual variations due to short term climate events, complementing plant phenology networks and satellite-derived vegetation phenology data. In central Maryland, the nectar flows are advancing by about -0.6 d/y, based on a 15 yr time series and a small regional study. This is comparable to the regional advancement in the spring green-up observed with MODIS and AVHRR. The ability to link satellite vegetation phenology to honey bee forage using hive weight changes provides a basis for applying satellite-derived plant phenology and land cover data to improve estimates of the northern limits of Africanized Honey Bee invasion in North America.

Esaias, W.

2008-05-01

440

Further thoughts on Younger-Dryas-type abrupt climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dansgaard-Oeschger/Younger-Dryas-type abrupt climate changes of the last ice-age cycle and before continue to challenge our understanding of the climate system. They document the remarkable power of sea ice to amplify forcing, and thus raise questions about the climate response to future sea-ice loss. Increasingly, the abrupt changes are seen to have been essential to the character of the ice-age cycling, including the CO2 changes that globalized the orbital forcing. Although the possibility of recurrence of such a jump in a warming climate is believed to be low, we cannot assume that it is zero. In turn, understanding the geographical pattern of the impacts is important, and in particular learning the pattern of rainfall and drought. Questions recently raised by modeling about this geographical pattern may best be addressed through dust studies.

Alley, R. B.

2011-12-01

441

Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed methodologies are elaborated.

Bright, Ryan M., E-mail: ryan.m.bright@ntnu.no; Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

2012-11-15

442

Climate Change: NASA's Eyes on the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive website features many great tools that are designed to keep your students informed and up to date on whats going on with our planet and its climate. There is a brief history on our climate, and the recent changes that the planet has been experiencing. The effects of global climate change are introduced, and the different indicators of climate change, such as rising sea levels, global surface temperature, and the ozone hole, are discussed and explained.

Conway, Erik; Jackson, Randal; Jenkins, Amber; Sullivant, Rosemary

2010-01-01

443

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:? Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.? Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.? Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.? Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

444

The role of the thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change.  

PubMed

The possibility of a reduced Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to increases in greenhouse-gas concentrations has been demonstrated in a number of simulations with general circulation models of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. But it remains difficult to assess the likelihood of future changes in the thermohaline circulation, mainly owing to poorly constrained model parameterizations and uncertainties in the response of the climate system to greenhouse warming. Analyses of past abrupt climate changes help to solve these problems. Data and models both suggest that abrupt climate change during the last glaciation originated through changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to small changes in the hydrological cycle. Atmospheric and oceanic responses to these changes were then transmitted globally through a number of feedbacks. The palaeoclimate data and the model results also indicate that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the mean climate state. PMID:11859359

Clark, Peter U; Pisias, Nicklas G; Stocker, Thomas F; Weaver, Andrew J

2002-02-21

445

Climate Change in Small Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated islands are especially vulnerable to climate change. But their climate is generally not well reproduced in GCMs, due to their small size and complex topography. Here, results from a new generation of climate models, forced by scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, established by the IPCC for its fifth report, are used to characterize the climate of the islands of Azores and Madeira, and its response to the ongoing global warming. The methodology developed here uses the new global model EC-Earth, data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and results from an extensive set of simulations with the WRF research model, using, for the first time, a dynamic approach for the regionalization of global fields at sufficiently fine resolutions, in which the effect of topographical complexity is explicitly represented. The results reviewed here suggest increases in temperature above 1C in the middle of the XXI century in Azores and Madeira, reaching values higher than 2.5C at the end of the century, accompanied by a reduction in the annual rainfall of around 10% in the Azores, which could reach 30% in Madeira. These changes are large enough to justify much broader impacts on island ecosystems and the human population. The results show the advantage of using the proposed methodology, in particular for an adequate representation of the precipitation regime in islands with complex topography, even suggesting the need for higher resolutions in future work. The WRF results are also compared against two different downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and a modified version of the upslope precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005).

Tomé, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Brito de Azevedo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

2014-05-01

446

Using Satellites to Understand Climate and Climate Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the measurement of climate with the use of satellites. The basic greenhouse effect, Ice-albedo feedback, climate models and observations, aerosol-cloud interactions, and the Antarctic are discussed, along with the human effect on climate change.

Fetzer, Eric

2007-01-01

447

Climate change and wildlife health: direct and indirect effects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate change will have significant effects on the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans, according to scientists. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that unprecedented rates of climate change will result in increasing average global temperatures; rising sea levels; changing global precipitation patterns, including increasing amounts and variability; and increasing midcontinental summer drought (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Increasing temperatures, combined with changes in rainfall and humidity, may have significant impacts on wildlife, domestic animal, and human health and diseases. When combined with expanding human populations, these changes could increase demand on limited water resources, lead to more habitat destruction, and provide yet more opportunities for infectious diseases to cross from one species to another. Awareness has been growing in recent years about zoonotic diseases— that is, diseases that are transmissible between animals and humans, such as Lyme disease and West Nile virus. The rise of such diseases results from closer relationships among wildlife, domestic animals, and people, allowing more contact with diseased animals, organisms that carry and transmit a disease from one animal to another (vectors), and people. Disease vectors include insects, such as mosquitoes, and arachnids, such as ticks. Thus, it is impossible to separate the effects of global warming on wildlife from its effects on the health of domestic animals or people. Climate change, habitat destruction and urbanization, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and pollution—all affect ecosystem and human health. Climate change can also be viewed within the context of other physical and climate cycles, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (El Niño), the North Atlantic Oscillation, and cycles in solar radiation that have profound effects on the Earth’s climate. The effects of climate change on wildlife disease are summarized in several areas of scientific study discussed briefly below: geographic range and distribution of wildlife diseases, plant and animal phenology (Walther and others, 2002), and patterns of wildlife disease, community and ecosystem composition, and habitat degradation.

Hofmeister, Erik; Rogall, Gail Moede; eWsenberg, Kathy; Abbott, Rachel; Work, Thierry; Schuler, Krysten; Sleeman, Jonathan; Winton, James

2010-01-01

448

Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel ecosystems. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar ecosystems to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the California Current, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall ecosystem functioning and services upon which people and societies depend. PMID:22457967

Doney, Scott C; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Duffy, J Emmett; Barry, James P; Chan, Francis; English, Chad A; Galindo, Heather M; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Hollowed, Anne B; Knowlton, Nancy; Polovina, Jeffrey; Rabalais, Nancy N; Sydeman, William J; Talley, Lynne D

2012-01-01

449

Climate Change Impacts on Marine Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel ecosystems. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar ecosystems to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the California Current, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall ecosystem functioning and services upon which people and societies depend.

Doney, Scott C.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Emmett Duffy, J.; Barry, James P.; Chan, Francis; English, Chad A.; Galindo, Heather M.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Hollowed, Anne B.; Knowlton, Nancy; Polovina, Jeffrey; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Sydeman, William J.; Talley, Lynne D.

2012-01-01

450

Climate Change Attribution Using Empirical Decomposition of Climatic Data  

E-print Network

The climate change attribution problem is addressed using empirical decomposition. Cycles in solar motion and activity of 60 and 20 years were used to develop an empirical model of Earth temperature variations. The model was fit to the Hadley global temperature data up to 1950 (time period before anthropogenic emissions became the dominant forcing mechanism), and then extrapolated from 1951 to 2009. After subtraction of the model, the residuals showed an approximate linear upward trend after 1942. Herein we assume that the residual upward warming observed during the second half of the 20th century has been mostly induced by a worldwide rapid increase of anthropogenic emissions, urbanization and land use change. The warming observed before 1942 is relatively small and it is assumed to have been mostly naturally induced by a climatic recovery since the Little Ice Age of the 17th century and the Dalton Minimum at the beginning of the 19th century. The resulting full natural plus anthropogenic model fits the enti...

Loehle, Craig; 10.2174/1874282301105010074

2012-01-01

451

Parasitic and Infectious Disease Responses to Changing Global Nutrient Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic and infectious diseases (PIDs) are a significant threat to human, livestock, and wildlife health and are changing\\u000a dramatically in the face of human-induced environmental changes such as those in climate and land use. In this article we\\u000a explore the little-studied but potentially important response of PIDs to another major environmental change, that in the global\\u000a nutrient cycles. Humans have

Valerie J. McKenzie; Alan R. Townsend

2007-01-01

452

Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change  

E-print Network

Oceanic oxygen changes as a bellwether of climate change Term paper in Biogeochemistry of climate change. Recent publications indicate that the oceanic oxygen outgassing is substaintially larger about oceanic oxygen outgassing as a consequence of the climate perturbation of anthropogenic carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

453

The physical science behind climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists,

William Collins; Robert Colman; James Haywood; Martin R. Manning; Philip Mote

2007-01-01

454

The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda  

E-print Network

The Trade and Climate Change Joint Agenda CEPS Working Document No. 295/June 2008 Thomas L. Brewer Abstract Climate change, international trade, investment and technology transfer are all issues that have............................................................................ 6 3.2 Coverage of the Multilateral Climate and Trade Regimes

455

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN  

E-print Network

VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012031 Commissioner), Chuck Dudley (President of the Yolo County Farm Bureau), John MottSmith (Yolo County Climate

456

Australian Government Department ofClimate Change  

E-print Network

Australian Government Department ofClimate Change C08/7649 Mr James Hansen Columbia University 4405 act to urgently address climate change and its impacts. The Australian Government considers climate of carbon capture and storage, I will focus herein on actions being taken by the AustrrtliAn Government

Hansen, James E.

457

CLIMATE CHANGE AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN WILDLIFE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A large and growing body of scientific evidence indicates the Earth’s climate is changing, and the recent International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) declared that “warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean tempera...

458

Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

Stern, Paul C.

2011-01-01

459

Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change  

E-print Network

Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change Robert Socolow Princeton University socolow should provide at least one wedge. #12;"The Wedge Model is the iPod of climate change: You fill/yr, 30 miles per gallon b) Fly 10,000 miles/yr c) Heat home Natural gas, average house, average climate d

460

Climate Change: A Controlled Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Researchers are altering temperature, carbon dioxide and precipitation levels across plots of forests, grasses and crops to see how plant life responds. Warmer temperatures and higher CO{sub 2} concentrations generally result in more leaf growth or crop yield, but these factors can also raise insect infestation and weaken plants ability to ward off pests and disease. Future field experiments that can manipulate all three conditions at once will lead to better models of how long-term climate changes will affect ecosystems worldwide.

Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Strahl, Maya [ORNL

2010-01-01

461

World Wildlife Fund: Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about the World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) position on climate change and its efforts to address the issue. There are links to information about the causes and potential risks of global warming, to some suggested solutions for energy, business and industry, and public policy solutions. There are also suggestions for actions that individuals can take themselves to conserve energy, as well as links to news articles on the issue. Other links provide access to press materials, to a blog, and to conference reports and a brochure describing WWF's activities on behalf of the issue.

462

PETM: Unearthing Ancient Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) when a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists. The PTEM is used as an analog to the current warming occurring. The scientists' research may help inform our understanding of current increases in carbon in the atmosphere and ocean and the resulting impact on ecosystems. Supporting materials include essay and interactive overview of animals that existed in the Basin after the PETM event.

History, American M.

463

Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

1999-01-01

464

Understanding Climate Change: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Woods Hole Research Center, The Warming of the Earth introduces the concept of global warming through the following topics: the greenhouse effect, scientific evidence, the culprits, potential outcomes, what the skeptics don't tell you, and the Kyoto Protocol. The text relies heavily on reports published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Throughout the website, additional, but intimately related resources can be accessed through linked material. Examples include a link to the IPCC and a letter written by 2400 scientists to President Clinton. Several diagrams exist depicting the rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and related atmospheric warming over the past several decades.

465

Influence of Dynamic Land Use and Land Cover Change on Simulated Global Terrestrial Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles, Climate-carbon Cycle Feedbacks, and Interactions with Rising CO2 and Anthropogenic Nitrogen Deposition  

SciTech Connect

Previous work has demonstrated the sensitivity of terrestrial net carbon exchange to disturbance history and land use patterns at the scale of individual sites or regions. Here we show the influence of land use and land cover dynamics over the historical period 1850-present on global-scale carbon, nutrient, water, and energy fluxes. We also explore the spatial and temporal details of interactions among land use and disturbance history, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide consentation, and increasing anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Our simulations show that these interactions are significant, and that their importance grows over time, expressed as a fraction of the independent forcing terms. We conclude with an analysis of the influence of these interactions on the sign and magnitude of global climate-carbon cycle feedbacks.

Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Hurtt, George C [University of Hew Hampshire

2009-12-01

466

Attribution of glacier fluctuations to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier retreat is a worlwide phenomenon, which started around the middle of the 19th century. During the period 1800-1850 the number of retreating and advancing glaciers was roughly equal (based on 42 records from different continents). During the period 1850-1900 about 92% of all moun