Sample records for cycle climate change

  1. GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. he global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. owever, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. iven ...

  2. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Dynamics under Recent and Future Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Damon Matthews; Andrew J. Weaver; Katrin J. Meissner

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of the terrestrial carbon cycle under historical and future climate change is examined using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, now coupled to a dynamic terrestrial vegetation and global carbon cycle model. When forced by historical emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels and land-use change, the coupled climate-carbon cycle model accurately reproduces historical atmospheric CO2 trends,

  3. Projecting future climate change: Implications of carbon cycle model intercomparisons

    E-print Network

    Jain, Atul K.

    ] The global carbon cycle is one link in a causal chain linking human activities to changes in climate in the radiative balance of the atmosphere, and the response of climate. The behavior of global carbon cycle of the uncertainty of this causal chain remains an important scientific challenge. [3] The global carbon cycle

  4. Cenozoic Climate Change and Carbon Cycling Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Wallmann

    2004-01-01

    Model results and proxy data are presented to constrain the evolution of climate and pCO2 over the Cenozoic. Major controls on the partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere (pCO2) are discussed considering also the contribution from terrestrial and marine productivity and organic carbon burial. Moreover, feed-backs between carbon cycling and climate evolution are evaluated using different modeling approaches. Finally,

  5. Global carbon cycle and climate change. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The production of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities may have begun to change the global climate. The global carbon cycle plays a significant role in projected climate change. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding pools and flux in the global cycle. Given the authors present understanding of current global carbon sources and sinks, feedbacks from the biosphere are likely to influence the process of climate change. Opportunities may exist to manage the biosphere and reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The four chapters in this section survey the role of the global carbon cycle in projected climate change.

  6. Changes in continental Europe water cycle in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Schirmer, Mario; Abbaspour, Karim

    2015-04-01

    Changes in atmospheric water vapor content provide strong evidence that the water cycle is already responding to a warming climate. According to IPCC's last report on Climate Change (AR5), the water cycle is expected to intensify in a warmer climate as the atmosphere can hold more water vapor. This changes the frequency of precipitation extremes, increases evaporation and dry periods, and effects the water redistribution in land. This process is represented by most global climate models (GCMs) by increased summer dryness and winter wetness over large areas of continental mid to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, associated with a reduction in water availability at continental scale. Observing changes in precipitation and evaporation directly and at continental scale is difficult, because most of the exchange of fresh water between the atmosphere and the surface happens the oceans. Long term precipitation records are available only from over the land and there are no measurement of evaporation or redistribution of precipitation over the land area. On the other hand, understanding the extent of climate change effects on various components of the water cycle is of strategic importance for public, private sectors, and policy makers when it comes to fresh water management. In order to better understand the extent of climate change impacts on water resources of continental Europe, we developed a distributed hydrological model of Europe at high spatial and temporal resolution using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The hydrological model was calibrated for 1970 to 2006 using daily observation of streamflow and nitrate loads from 360 gauging stations across Europe. A vegetation growth routine was added to the model to better simulate evapotranspiration. The model results were calibrated with available agricultural crop yield data from other sources. As of future climate scenarios, we used the ISI-MIP project results which provides bias-corrected climate data from the GCMs participating in the CMIP5 at 0.5° x 0.5° resolution. Data cover the time period from 1901 to 2099, i.e. the historical period, and future projections for all Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5). We used four different models output (GFDL, HADGEMES, MIROC, and IPSL) for all RCPs for near (2006-2035) and far (3065-2099) future. Multi-model ensembles (16 scenarios) are then used to study the potential impacts of future climate change on fresh water availability across Europe.

  7. Microbial contributions to climate change through carbon cycle feedbacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D Bardgett; Chris Freeman; Nicholas J Ostle

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding the biological mechanisms that regulate carbon exchanges between the land and atmosphere, and how these exchanges respond to climate change. An understanding of soil microbial ecology is central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle–climate feedbacks, but the complexity of the soil microbial community and the many ways that it can be affected

  8. Center for Climate Systems Modeling The Water Cycle in a Changing Climate

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    C2SM Center for Climate Systems Modeling Symposium The Water Cycle in a Changing Climate July 1 Schädler (University of Berne) Abstract submission and registration: http://www.c2sm.ethz.ch/Symposium_Water-Cycle affect the Earth's water cycle. Yet, our understan- ding and our ability to predict changes in the water

  9. Climate Change and Expected Impacts on the Global Water Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    How the elements of the global hydrologic cycle may respond to climate change is reviewed, first from a discussion of the physical sensitivity of these elements to changes in temperature, and then from a comparison of observations of hydrologic changes over the past 100 million years. Observations of current changes in the hydrologic cycle are then compared with projected future changes given the prospect of global warming. It is shown that some of the projections come close to matching the estimated hydrologic changes that occurred long ago when the earth was very warm.

  10. Multicentury Changes to the Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bala; K. Caldeira; A. Mirin; M. Wickett; C. Delire

    2005-01-01

    A coupled climate and carbon (CO2) cycle model is used to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to the year 2300 that would occur if CO2 emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By the year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO2 reaches 1423

  11. Multi-century Changes to Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Bala; K Caldeira; A Mirin; M Wickett; C Delire

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we use a coupled climate and carbon cycle model to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if COâ emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric COâ reaches 1423

  12. Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas. PMID:25626569

  13. Climate change impact on the carbon cycle in Russian peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavalishin, N. N.

    2009-04-01

    Dynamic compartment model with annual time resolution of carbon cycle functioning with elements of nitrogen and water cycles for three basic types of peatlands (oligotrophic, mesotrophic, eutrophic) is designed and verified based on data for several peatland ecosystems from Russian European part and Western Siberia as well as on estimates of relative areas occupied by these types in each of wetland provinces marked by Kats (1970). Flows between three main reservoirs and input-output fluxes can have donor-, recipient-, Volterra-controlled forms or be saturation functions of storages in participating reservoirs. Possible steady states of combined cycles allow to distinguish forest, forest-swamp and swamp for each of three types of peatland ecosystems as stable equilibria. Stability and bifurcation analysis of the dynamic model, as well as numerical modeling of transient non-equilibrium dynamic regimes, is carried out in the space of three parameters corresponding to intensities of atmospheric carbon assimilation by vegetation, output runoff from soils and litter, decay of dead organic matter by animals and microorganisms. These parameters depend on climatic magnitudes - annual temperature and total precipitation, soil moisture, availability of nitrogen in the litterfall. Atmospheric CO2 concentration increase can lead to appearance of oscillations in system compartments or to transition into other steady states depending on two other parameter values. Numerical simulations and analytical findings allow establish stability boundaries of each peatland type as an equilibrium of the model, and to calculate critical values of external parameters for which stable functioning of matter cycles is provided. Change in climatic or human perturbation parameters initiates a shift in the model parameter space corresponding to the temporal evolution of carbon cycle capable to change the ecosystem state significantly. Estimations of relative areas occupied by peatland types in some regions of European Russia and Western Siberia help to make predictions on the contribution of large peatland regions to the carbon cycle dynamics at regional and global scales and clarify future biotic contribution into carbon emissions from peatland ecosystems to the atmosphere under several CO2 doubling climate change scenarios taken as an output of different climate models. Changes in areas occupied by oligotrophic, mesotrophic and eutrophic peatlands in wetland provinces under these scenarios are also studied. This work is supported by the program of the Earth Sciences Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences "Physical and chemical processes in atmosphere and on Earth surface determining climate change", projects 09-01-226a and 09-05-00153a of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  14. Climate and carbon cycle changes under the overshoot scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusbaumer, Jesse; Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2008-05-01

    The "overshoot scenario" is an emissions scenario in which CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere temporarily exceeds some pre-defined, "dangerous" threshold (before being reduced to non-dangerous levels). Support for this idea comes from its potential to achieve a balance between the burdens of current and future generations in dealing with global warming. Before it can be considered a viable policy, the overshoot scenario needs to be examined in terms of its impacts on the global climate and the environment. In, particular, it must be determined if climate change cause by the overshoot scenario is reversible or not, since crossing that "dangerous" CO 2 threshold could result in climate change from which we might not be able to recover. In this study, we quantify the change in several climatic and environmental variables under the overshoot scenario using a global climate model of intermediate complexity. Compared to earlier studies on the overshoot scenario, we have an explicit carbon cycle model that allows us to represent carbon-climate feedbacks and force the climate model more realistically with CO 2 emissions rates rather than with prescribed atmospheric pCO 2. Our standard CO 2 emissions rate is calculated on the basis of historical atmospheric pCO 2 data and the WRE S650 non-overshoot stabilization profile. It starts from the preindustrial year 1760, peaks in the year 2056, and ends in the year 2300. A variety of overshoot scenarios were constructed by increasing the amplitude of the control emissions peak but decreasing the peak duration so that the cumulative emissions remain essentially constant. Sensitivity simulations of various overshoot scenarios in our model show that many aspects of the global climate are largely reversible by year 2300. The significance of the reversibility, which takes roughly 200 years in our experiments, depends on the time horizon with which it is viewed or the number of future generations for whom equity is sought. At times when the overshoot scenario has emissions rates higher then the control scenario, the transient changes in atmospheric and oceanic temperatures and surface ocean pH can be significant, even for moderate overshoot scenarios that remain within IPCC SRES emissions scenarios. The large transient changes and the centennial timescale of climate reversibility suggest that the overshoot might not be the best mitigation approach, even if it technically follows the optimal economic path.

  15. Climate sensitivity to the carbon cycle modulated by past and future changes in ocean chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Ridgwell; Michael J. Follows; Philip Goodwin; Richard G. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The carbon cycle has a central role in climate change. For example, during glacial–interglacial cycles, atmospheric carbon dioxide has altered radiative forcing and amplified temperature changes. However, it is unclear how sensitive the climate system has been to changes in carbon cycling in previous geological periods, or how this sensitivity may evolve in the future, following massive anthropogenic emissions. Here

  16. Dynamic responses of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling to global climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingkui Cao; F. Ian Woodward

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system are closely coupled, particularly by cycling of carbon between vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. It has been suggested, that changes in climate and in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have modified the carbon cycle so as to render terrestrial ecosystems as substantial carbon sinks,; but direct evidence for this is very limited,. Changes in ecosystem

  17. Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-11-01

    The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global warming in hare-lynx system. PMID:23846828

  18. Climate change or climate cycles? Snowpack trends in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Barry, Dwight; McDonald, Shea

    2013-01-01

    Climate change could significantly influence seasonal streamflow and water availability in the snowpack-fed watersheds of Washington, USA. Descriptions of snowpack decline often use linear ordinary least squares (OLS) models to quantify this change. However, the region's precipitation is known to be related to climate cycles. If snowpack decline is more closely related to these cycles, an OLS model cannot account for this effect, and thus both descriptions of trends and estimates of decline could be inaccurate. We used intervention analysis to determine whether snow water equivalent (SWE) in 25 long-term snow courses within the Olympic and Cascade Mountains are more accurately described by OLS (to represent gradual change), stationary (to represent no change), or step-stationary (to represent climate cycling) models. We used Bayesian information-theoretic methods to determine these models' relative likelihood, and we found 90 models that could plausibly describe the statistical structure of the 25 snow courses' time series. Posterior model probabilities of the 29 "most plausible" models ranged from 0.33 to 0.91 (mean = 0.58, s = 0.15). The majority of these time series (55%) were best represented as step-stationary models with a single breakpoint at 1976/77, coinciding with a major shift in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. However, estimates of SWE decline differed by as much as 35% between statistically plausible models of a single time series. This ambiguity is a critical problem for water management policy. Approaches such as intervention analysis should become part of the basic analytical toolkit for snowpack or other climatic time series data. PMID:22411029

  19. How positive is the feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. FRIEDLINGSTEIN; J.-L. DUFRESNE; P. M. COX; P. RAYNER

    2003-01-01

    Future climate change induced by atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases is believed to have a large impact on the global carbon cycle. Several offline studies focusing either on the marine or on the terrestrial carbon cycle highlighted such potential effects. Two recent online studies, using ocean-atmosphere general circulation models coupled to land and ocean carbon cycle models, in- vestigated in

  20. Soil biotic interactions and climate change: consequences for carbon cycle feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardgett, Richard

    2015-04-01

    There is currently much interest in understanding the biological mechanisms that regulate carbon exchanges between land and atmosphere, and how these exchanges respond to climate change. Climate change impacts on biogeochemical cycles via a variety of mechanisms; but there is now mounting evidence that biotic interactions between plants and diverse soil communities play a major role in determining carbon cycle responses to climate change across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Over seasonal and annual timescales, climate change impacts the growth and physiology of plants and their roots, with knock on effects for the activity of soil biota and carbon transformations; in the longer term, over tens to hundreds of years, climate change can cause shifts in community composition, and species range expansions and contractions, with cascading impacts on belowground communities and carbon cycling in soil. These responses have local and, potentially, global scale implications for carbon cycle feedbacks. In this talk, I will draw on recent research to illustrate this hierarchy of plant-soil feedback responses to climate change, the mechanisms involved, and consequences for the carbon cycle at local and global scales. I will also discuss how such knowledge on plant-soil interactions might be harnessed to inform management strategies for soil carbon sequestration and mitigation of climate change, and identify some major research challenges for the future.

  1. The effects of climate change on the nitrogen cycle and acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Graboske, B.C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Increases in greenhouse gases are expected to lead to a number of changes to the atmosphere which may impact regional and global chemical cycles. With the increasing awareness of climate change and the possibility of global chemical changes to the atmosphere, it becomes important to ask whether these changes to global climate and chemical cycles might benefit or hinder control programs aimed at reducing acid deposition. In the following, we review several possible changes to climate that may be expected to impact the global cycle of reactive nitrogen. We then use our global model of the reactive nitrogen cycle to estimate the effects of several of the more important changes on the continental-scale deposition of nitric acid. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Millennial timescale carbon cycle and climate change in an efficient Earth system model.

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Neil

    Millennial timescale carbon cycle and climate change in an efficient Earth system model. T. M team November 18, 2005 Abstract A new Earth system model, GENIE-1, is presented which comprises a 3-D and for traceability to earlier work. The model versions have climate sensitivity of 2.8-3.3 C and predict atmospheric

  3. Climate Change and Macro-Economic Cycles in Pre-Industrial Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Lee, Harry F.; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales. PMID:24516601

  4. Northern Iberian abrupt climate change dynamics during the last glacial cycle: A view from lacustrine sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Moreno; Penélope González-Sampériz; Mario Morellón; Blas L. Valero-Garcés; William J. Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    We present a palaeoclimatic reconstruction of the last glacial cycle in Iberia (ca. 120,000–11,600cal yrs BP) based on multi-proxy reconstructions from lake sediments with robust chronologies, and with a particular focus on abrupt climate changes. The selected lake sequences provide an integrated approach from northern Iberia exploring temperature conditions, humidity variations and land-sea comparisons during the most relevant climate transitions

  5. Climate Change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, or ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. Climate ...

  6. Interactive Effects of Urban Land Use and Climate Change on Biogeochemical Cycles (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouyat, R. V.

    2009-12-01

    Urban land-use change can affect biogeochemical cycles through altered disturbance regimes, landscape management practices (e.g., irrigation and fertilization), built structures, and altered environments (heat island effect, pollution, introduction of non-native species, loss of native species). As a result, the conversion of native to urban ecological systems has been shown to significantly affect carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles at local, regional, and global scales. These changes have created novel habitats and ecosystems, which have no analogue in the history of life. Nonetheless, some of the environmental changes occurring in urban areas are analogous to the changes expected in climate by the end of the century, e.g. atmospheric increase in CO2 and an increase in air temperatures, which can be utilized as a “natural experiment” to investigate global change effects on large scale ecosystem processes. Moreover, as analogues of expected future environments, urban ecological systems may act as reservoirs of plant and animal species for adjoining landscapes that are expected to undergo relatively rapid climate changes in the next 100 years. Urban land-use change by itself may contribute to changes in regional weather patterns and long-term changes in global climate, which will depend on the net effect of converting native systems to urban systems and the comparison of per capita “footprints” between urban, suburban, and rural inhabitants. My objectives are to 1) assess the impact of changes in urban land-use on climate change and in turn how climate change may affect urban biogeochemical cycles and 2) discuss the potential for urban ecosystems to mitigate green house gas emissions.

  7. The Twilight Zone of the Marine Carbon Cycle and Climate Change Past and Future

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Loubere

    This Ocean and Climate Change Institute article provides information regarding carbon cycling and the ocean. It discusses where and how carbon moves through the ocean system, focusing on carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as it relates to biota and sediment records.

  8. Complex response of the forest nitrogen cycle to climate change

    E-print Network

    nitrate export over the past 46 y, despite longer growing seasons and higher soil temperatures water flow within the watershed, but this effect explained, at best, only 40% of the nitrate decline-lasting effect of forest cutting in the early 1900s on the N cycle of the soil and vegetation pools. Our analysis

  9. Changing climatic response: a conceptual model for glacial cycles and the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daruka, I.; Ditlevsen, P. D.

    2014-03-01

    Milankovitch's astronomical theory of glacial cycles, attributing ice age climate oscillations to orbital changes in Northern Northern-Hemisphere insolation, is challenged by the paleoclimatic record. The climatic response to the variations in insolation is far from trivial. In general the glacial cycles are highly asymmetric in time, with slow cooling from the interglacials to the glacials (inceptions) and very rapid warming from the glacials to the interglacials (terminations). We shall refer to this fast-slow dynamics as the "saw-tooth" shape of the paleoclimatic record. This is non-linearly related to the time-symmetric variations in the orbital forcing. However, the most pronounced challenge to the Milankovitch theory is the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) occurring about one million years ago. During that event, the prevailing 41 kyr glacial cycles, corresponding to the almost harmonic obliquity cycle were replaced by longer saw-tooth shaped cycles with a time scale around 100 kyr. The MPT must have been driven by internal changes in climate response, since it does not correspond to any apparent changes in the orbital forcing. In order to identify possible mechanisms causing the observed changes in glacial dynamics, it is relevant to study simplified models with the capability of generating temporal behavior similar to the observed records. We present a simple oscillator type model approach, with two variables, a temperature anomaly and an ice volume analogous, climatic memory term. The generalization of the ice albedo feedback is included in terms of an effective multiplicative coupling between this latter climatic memory term (representing the internal degrees of freedom) and the external drive. The simple model reproduces the temporal asymmetry of the late Pleistocene glacial cycles and suggests that the MPT can be explained as a regime shift, aided by climatic noise, from a period 1 frequency locking to the obliquity cycle to a period 2-3 frequency locking to the same obliquity cycle. The change in dynamics has been suggested to be a result of a slow gradual decrease in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration. The presence of chaos in the (non-autonomous) glacial dynamics and a critical dependence on initial conditions raises fundamental questions about climate predictability.

  10. Winter climate change effects on soil C and N cycles in urban grasslands.

    PubMed

    Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M

    2013-09-01

    Despite growing recognition of the role that cities have in global biogeochemical cycles, urban systems are among the least understood of all ecosystems. Urban grasslands are expanding rapidly along with urbanization, which is expected to increase at unprecedented rates in upcoming decades. The large and increasing area of urban grasslands and their impact on water and air quality justify the need for a better understanding of their biogeochemical cycles. There is also great uncertainty about the effect that climate change, especially changes in winter snow cover, will have on nutrient cycles in urban grasslands. We aimed to evaluate how reduced snow accumulation directly affects winter soil frost dynamics, and indirectly greenhouse gas fluxes and the processing of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) during the subsequent growing season in northern urban grasslands. Both artificial and natural snow reduction increased winter soil frost, affecting winter microbial C and N processing, accelerating C and N cycles and increasing soil : atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange during the subsequent growing season. With lower snow accumulations that are predicted with climate change, we found decreases in N retention in these ecosystems, and increases in N2 O and CO2 flux to the atmosphere, significantly increasing the global warming potential of urban grasslands. Our results suggest that the environmental impacts of these rapidly expanding ecosystems are likely to increase as climate change brings milder winters and more extensive soil frost. PMID:23630015

  11. Synchronized Northern Hemisphere climate change and solar magnetic cycles during the Maunder Minimum

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko T.; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyahara, Hiroko; Sho, Kenjiro; Nakatsuka, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The Maunder Minimum (A.D. 1645–1715) is a useful period to investigate possible sun–climate linkages as sunspots became exceedingly rare and the characteristics of solar cycles were different from those of today. Here, we report annual variations in the oxygen isotopic composition (?18O) of tree-ring cellulose in central Japan during the Maunder Minimum. We were able to explore possible sun–climate connections through high-temporal resolution solar activity (radiocarbon contents; ?14C) and climate (?18O) isotope records derived from annual tree rings. The tree-ring ?18O record in Japan shows distinct negative ?18O spikes (wetter rainy seasons) coinciding with rapid cooling in Greenland and with decreases in Northern Hemisphere mean temperature at around minima of decadal solar cycles. We have determined that the climate signals in all three records strongly correlate with changes in the polarity of solar dipole magnetic field, suggesting a causal link to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). These findings are further supported by a comparison between the interannual patterns of tree-ring ?18O record and the GCR flux reconstructed by an ice-core 10Be record. Therefore, the variation of GCR flux associated with the multidecadal cycles of solar magnetic field seem to be causally related to the significant and widespread climate changes at least during the Maunder Minimum. PMID:21076031

  12. Impacts of climate change on nutrient cycling in semi-arid and arid ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Belnap, J. [National Biological Survey, Moab, UT (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Effective precipitation is a major factor in determining nutrient pathways in different ecosystems. Soil flora and fauna play a critical role in nutrient cycles of all ecosystems. Temperature, timing, and amounts of precipitation affect population composition, activity levels, biomass, and recovery rates from disturbance. Changes in these variables can result in very different inputs and outputs for different nutrients. As a result, areas with less effective precipitation have very different nutrient cycles than more mesic zones. Climate change, therefore, can profoundly affect the nutrient cycles of ecosystems. Nitrogen cycles may be especially sensitive to changes in temperature and to timing and amounts of precipitation. Rainfall contains varying amounts of nitrogen compounds. Changes in amounts of rainfall will change amounts of nitrogen available to these systems. Because rainfall is limited in semi-arid and regions, these systems tend to be more dependent on microbial populations for nitrogen input. Consequently, understanding the effects of climate change on these organisms is critical in understanding the overall effect on ecosystems.

  13. Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-10-21

    This video segment adapted from NOVA explains the difference between weather and climate and features groundbreaking analysis revealing that Earth's climate has changed much faster than previously believed.

  14. Complex life cycles and the responses of insects to climate change.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Joel G; Woods, H Arthur; Buckley, Lauren B; Potter, Kristen A; MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K

    2011-11-01

    Many organisms have complex life cycles with distinct life stages that experience different environmental conditions. How does the complexity of life cycles affect the ecological and evolutionary responses of organisms to climate change? We address this question by exploring several recent case studies and synthetic analyses of insects. First, different life stages may inhabit different microhabitats, and may differ in their thermal sensitivities and other traits that are important for responses to climate. For example, the life stages of Manduca experience different patterns of thermal and hydric variability, and differ in tolerance to high temperatures. Second, life stages may differ in their mechanisms for adaptation to local climatic conditions. For example, in Colias, larvae in different geographic populations and species adapt to local climate via differences in optimal and maximal temperatures for feeding and growth, whereas adults adapt via differences in melanin of the wings and in other morphological traits. Third, we extend a recent analysis of the temperature-dependence of insect population growth to demonstrate how changes in temperature can differently impact juvenile survival and adult reproduction. In both temperate and tropical regions, high rates of adult reproduction in a given environment may not be realized if occasional, high temperatures prevent survival to maturity. This suggests that considering the differing responses of multiple life stages is essential to understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of climate change. PMID:21724617

  15. Climate change changing hazards?

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Climate change ­ changing hazards? Andreas Sterl Geert Lenderink, Sarah Kew KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands Climate system change modelling extremes #12;21.03.2012 Andreas Sterl, Insurance Strategy, Brussels Climate ­ what's that? Climate = statistics of weather Weather = state of atmosphere

  16. The Terrestrial Carbon Cycle and the Role of Historical Land Cover Change in the UVic Earth System Climate Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Matthews; A. J. Weaver; K. J. Meissner

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of the terrestrial carbon cycle under historical and future climate change is examined using the UVic Earth System Climate Model, which includes a dynamic terrestrial vegetation and global carbon cycle model. When the model is forced by historical emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide the UVic ESCM reproduces well the observed increase in atmospheric CO2. When anthropogenic emissions are

  17. Interactive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling.

    PubMed

    Zepp, R G; Erickson, D J; Paul, N D; Sulzberger, B

    2007-03-01

    This report assesses research on the interactions of UV radiation (280-400 nm) and global climate change with global biogeochemical cycles at the Earth's surface. The effects of UV-B (280-315 nm), which are dependent on the stratospheric ozone layer, on biogeochemical cycles are often linked to concurrent exposure to UV-A radiation (315-400 nm), which is influenced by global climate change. These interactions involving UV radiation (the combination of UV-B and UV-A) are central to the prediction and evaluation of future Earth environmental conditions. There is increasing evidence that elevated UV-B radiation has significant effects on the terrestrial biosphere with implications for the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements. The cycling of carbon and inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen can be affected by UV-B-mediated changes in communities of soil organisms, probably due to the effects of UV-B radiation on plant root exudation and/or the chemistry of dead plant material falling to the soil. In arid environments direct photodegradation can play a major role in the decay of plant litter, and UV-B radiation is responsible for a significant part of this photodegradation. UV-B radiation strongly influences aquatic carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and metals cycling that affect a wide range of life processes. UV-B radiation changes the biological availability of dissolved organic matter to microorganisms, and accelerates its transformation into dissolved inorganic carbon and nitrogen, including carbon dioxide and ammonium. The coloured part of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) controls the penetration of UV radiation into water bodies, but CDOM is also photodegraded by solar UV radiation. Changes in CDOM influence the penetration of UV radiation into water bodies with major consequences for aquatic biogeochemical processes. Changes in aquatic primary productivity and decomposition due to climate-related changes in circulation and nutrient supply occur concurrently with exposure to increased UV-B radiation, and have synergistic effects on the penetration of light into aquatic ecosystems. Future changes in climate will enhance stratification of lakes and the ocean, which will intensify photodegradation of CDOM by UV radiation. The resultant increase in the transparency of water bodies may increase UV-B effects on aquatic biogeochemistry in the surface layer. Changing solar UV radiation and climate also interact to influence exchanges of trace gases, such as halocarbons (e.g., methyl bromide) which influence ozone depletion, and sulfur gases (e.g., dimethylsulfide) that oxidize to produce sulfate aerosols that cool the marine atmosphere. UV radiation affects the biological availability of iron, copper and other trace metals in aquatic environments thus potentially affecting metal toxicity and the growth of phytoplankton and other microorganisms that are involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Future changes in ecosystem distribution due to alterations in the physical and chemical climate interact with ozone-modulated changes in UV-B radiation. These interactions between the effects of climate change and UV-B radiation on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial and aquatic systems may partially offset the beneficial effects of an ozone recovery. PMID:17344963

  18. Climate change during Cenozoic inferred from global carbon cycle model including igneous and hydrothermal activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohiko Kashiwagi; Naotatsu Shikazono

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses climate change in the Cenozoic by constructing a global carbon cycle model which is based on the GEOCARB-type model. Major improvements over previous models in this study are as follows. Previous models have not considered CO2 behavior at subduction sufficiently. They do not distinguish at subduction zones between the CO2 degassing from a back-arc basin (BAB) and

  19. Response of hydrological cycle to recent climate changes in the Tibetan Plateau

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kun Yang; Baisheng Ye; Degang Zhou; Bingyi Wu; Thomas Foken; Jun Qin; Zhaoye Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) surfaces have been experiencing an overall rapid warming and wetting while wind speed and solar radiation\\u000a have been declining in the last three decades. This study investigated how climate changes influenced the hydrological cycle\\u000a on the TP during 1984?2006. To facilitate the analysis, a land surface model was used to simulate surface water budget at\\u000a all

  20. Changing Climates 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    tx H2O | pg. 2 Story by Kathy Wythe CHANGING CLIMATES Researchers investigating effects, mitigation | pg. 2 tx H2O | pg. 3 Editor?s note: This story highlights climate change research from only a few scientists in Texas. A more detailed... on the comment section. L ong before climate change and global warming became such a popular topic, scientists were researching the different aspects of the world?s changing climate. In Texas alone, dozens of scientists from different universities...

  1. A critical review of methods for tourism climate change appraisal: life cycle assessment as a new approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viachaslau Filimonau; Janet E. Dickinson; Derek Robbins; Maharaj Vijay Reddy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews existing approaches to assessing tourism sustainability, especially its contribution to climate change. It assesses ecological footprint analysis, environmental impact assessment and input–output analysis but finds them inaccurate and unreliable. It goes on to argue that life cycle assessment (LCA) is a more promising tool for tourism climate change impact assessment, highlighting important areas where LCA application can

  2. Offset: A Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change Mobile Game from NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, K. J.; Kasprak, A. H.; Novati, A.; Leon, N.; Bowman, K. W.; Gunson, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The global carbon cycle—and humans' role in altering it—is key to understanding both how the climate system works and how people can help to affect positive change in the future. Delivering this message to younger audiences will be a crucial step in inspiring the next generation of climate scientists. Here, we demonstrate a new mobile game (iOS) aiming to make the carbon cycle more accessible to students and their educators. This game—called OFFSET—highlights the role humans have as players in the global carbon cycle—both as sources of CO2 and as agents that harm CO2 sinks. OFFSET is a pong-like game and a resource management game all in one. The player simultaneously spends resources to replace old technology with greener technology while he or she actively prevents CO2 molecules from escaping to the atmosphere with a paddle. The game is fast, simple but challenging, and educational. Games like OFFSET can be a powerful tool to teach climate science to younger audiences.

  3. Land-use and carbon cycle responses to moderate climate change: implications for land-based mitigation?

    PubMed

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Bonsch, Markus; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Weindl, Isabelle; Biewald, Anne; Rolinski, Susanne

    2015-06-01

    Climate change has impacts on agricultural yields, which could alter cropland requirements and hence deforestation rates. Thus, land-use responses to climate change might influence terrestrial carbon stocks. Moreover, climate change could alter the carbon storage capacity of the terrestrial biosphere and hence the land-based mitigation potential. We use a global spatially explicit economic land-use optimization model to (a) estimate the mitigation potential of a climate policy that provides economic incentives for carbon stock conservation and enhancement, (b) simulate land-use and carbon cycle responses to moderate climate change (RCP2.6), and (c) investigate the combined effects throughout the 21st century. The climate policy immediately stops deforestation and strongly increases afforestation, resulting in a global mitigation potential of 191 GtC in 2100. Climate change increases terrestrial carbon stocks not only directly through enhanced carbon sequestration (62 GtC by 2100) but also indirectly through less deforestation due to higher crop yields (16 GtC by 2100). However, such beneficial climate impacts increase the potential of the climate policy only marginally, as the potential is already large under static climatic conditions. In the broader picture, this study highlights the importance of land-use dynamics for modeling carbon cycle responses to climate change in integrated assessment modeling. PMID:25939014

  4. The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change.

    PubMed

    Voss, Maren; Bange, Hermann W; Dippner, Joachim W; Middelburg, Jack J; Montoya, Joseph P; Ward, Bess

    2013-07-01

    The ocean's nitrogen cycle is driven by complex microbial transformations, including nitrogen fixation, assimilation, nitrification, anammox and denitrification. Dinitrogen is the most abundant form of nitrogen in sea water but only accessible by nitrogen-fixing microbes. Denitrification and nitrification are both regulated by oxygen concentrations and potentially produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a climate-relevant atmospheric trace gas. The world's oceans, including the coastal areas and upwelling areas, contribute about 30 per cent to the atmospheric N2O budget and are, therefore, a major source of this gas to the atmosphere. Human activities now add more nitrogen to the environment than is naturally fixed. More than half of the nitrogen reaches the coastal ocean via river input and atmospheric deposition, of which the latter affects even remote oceanic regions. A nitrogen budget for the coastal and open ocean, where inputs and outputs match rather well, is presented. Furthermore, predicted climate change will impact the expansion of the oceans' oxygen minimum zones, the productivity of surface waters and presumably other microbial processes, with unpredictable consequences for the cycling of nitrogen. Nitrogen cycling is closely intertwined with that of carbon, phosphorous and other biologically important elements via biological stoichiometric requirements. This linkage implies that human alterations of nitrogen cycling are likely to have major consequences for other biogeochemical processes and ecosystem functions and services. PMID:23713119

  5. Cogs in the endless machine: lakes, climate change and nutrient cycles: a review.

    PubMed

    Moss, Brian

    2012-09-15

    Lakes have, rather grandly, been described as sentinels, integrators and regulators of climate change (Williamson et al., Limnol. Oceanogr. 2009; 54: 2273-82). Lakes are also part of the continuum of the water cycle, cogs in a machine that processes water and elements dissolved and suspended in myriad forms. Assessing the changes in the functioning of the cogs and the machine with respect to these substances as climate changes is clearly important, but difficult. Many other human-induced influences, not least eutrophication, that impact on catchment areas and consequently on lakes, have generally complicated the recording of recent change in sediment records and modern sets of data. The least confounded evidence comes from remote lakes in mountain and polar regions and suggests effects of warming that include mobilisation of ions and increased amounts of phosphorus. A cottage industry has arisen in deduction and prediction of the future effects of climate change on lakes, but the results are very general and precision is marred not only by confounding influences but by the complexity of the lake system and the infinite variety of possible future scenarios. A common conclusion, however, is that warming will increase the intensity of symptoms of eutrophication. Direct experimentation, though expensive and still unusual and confined to shallow lake and wetland systems is perhaps the most reliable approach. Results suggest increased symptoms of eutrophication, and changes in ecosystem structure, but in some respects are different from those deduced from comparisons along latitudinal gradients or by inference from knowledge of lake behaviour. Experiments have shown marked increases in community respiration compared with gross photosynthesis in mesocosm systems and it may be that the most significant churnings of these cogs in the earth-air-water machine will be in their influence on the carbon cycle, with possibly large positive feedback effects on warming. PMID:21962562

  6. Macronutrient cycles and climate change: key science areas and an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, P G; Crossman, J

    2012-09-15

    Human activities have doubled global cycles of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) and elevated N and P have compromised ecosystem services through the degradation of natural resources of soils, freshwaters and marine waters with a subsequent loss of biodiversity. Elevated Carbon (C) levels in the atmosphere have been linked to global warming, with positive feedback mechanisms accelerating the warming process. In order to initiate nutrient control, both national and international mitigation measures have been implemented. However, many of these initiatives focus upon a single nutrient without considering cycle interactions. A sound understanding of processes and transformations involved in the interactions of macronutrient cycles is required to avoid inadvertently enhancing effects of one nutrient, during mitigation for impacts of another. Emerging research initiatives are addressing these research gaps, with programmes in the US (USGCRP) and the UK (Macronutrient Cycles) advocating integration between scientists and stakeholders, in order to deliver results directly to policy makers. Through these programmes the scales of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes will be quantified, and a determination made of the nature of nutrient transformations in catchments under a changing climate and perturbed carbon cycle. The consideration of connectivity between multiple macronutrient cycles will help to minimise the threats to biodiversity, ecosystem dynamics, public water supplies and human health by improved management and better focused policy. PMID:21937085

  7. The 1,800-year oceanic tidal cycle: a possible cause of rapid climate change.

    PubMed

    Keeling, C D; Whorf, T P

    2000-04-11

    Variations in solar irradiance are widely believed to explain climatic change on 20,000- to 100,000-year time-scales in accordance with the Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, but there is no conclusive evidence that variable irradiance can be the cause of abrupt fluctuations in climate on time-scales as short as 1,000 years. We propose that such abrupt millennial changes, seen in ice and sedimentary core records, were produced in part by well characterized, almost periodic variations in the strength of the global oceanic tide-raising forces caused by resonances in the periodic motions of the earth and moon. A well defined 1,800-year tidal cycle is associated with gradually shifting lunar declination from one episode of maximum tidal forcing on the centennial time-scale to the next. An amplitude modulation of this cycle occurs with an average period of about 5,000 years, associated with gradually shifting separation-intervals between perihelion and syzygy at maxima of the 1,800-year cycle. We propose that strong tidal forcing causes cooling at the sea surface by increasing vertical mixing in the oceans. On the millennial time-scale, this tidal hypothesis is supported by findings, from sedimentary records of ice-rafting debris, that ocean waters cooled close to the times predicted for strong tidal forcing. PMID:10725399

  8. The 1,800-year oceanic tidal cycle: A possible cause of rapid climate change

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Charles D.; Whorf, Timothy P.

    2000-01-01

    Variations in solar irradiance are widely believed to explain climatic change on 20,000- to 100,000-year time-scales in accordance with the Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, but there is no conclusive evidence that variable irradiance can be the cause of abrupt fluctuations in climate on time-scales as short as 1,000 years. We propose that such abrupt millennial changes, seen in ice and sedimentary core records, were produced in part by well characterized, almost periodic variations in the strength of the global oceanic tide-raising forces caused by resonances in the periodic motions of the earth and moon. A well defined 1,800-year tidal cycle is associated with gradually shifting lunar declination from one episode of maximum tidal forcing on the centennial time-scale to the next. An amplitude modulation of this cycle occurs with an average period of about 5,000 years, associated with gradually shifting separation-intervals between perihelion and syzygy at maxima of the 1,800-year cycle. We propose that strong tidal forcing causes cooling at the sea surface by increasing vertical mixing in the oceans. On the millennial time-scale, this tidal hypothesis is supported by findings, from sedimentary records of ice-rafting debris, that ocean waters cooled close to the times predicted for strong tidal forcing. PMID:10725399

  9. Three climate cycles of millennial-scale vegetation change in Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Marine sediments can deliver long well-dated continuous sequences of environmental change, not only of the ocean but also of the continents. Vegetation records from these archives are often the only land-cover records to encompass several climate cycles. Comparing vegetation development during several cycles uncovers the structural and systematic differences between glacial and interglacial vegetation. Such data may help with the validation of the current earth system models including dynamic vegetation modules. A number of marine pollen records from the East Atlantic (ODP658, GIK16415, GIK16776, GIK16867, GeoB1016) and a new one from the Indian Ocean (MD96-2048) register the vegetation development in West and South Africa over a period of more than 300 thousand years covering at least three full glacial-interglacial cycles. From these dataset typical patterns of vegetation change in Africa are inferred and differences between cycles are discussed. Both latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in the vegetation have been recorded by pollen of e.g. Chenopods, Asteraceae (daisies), Ericaceae (heath), Podocarpus (yellow wood), Poaceae (grass), and lowland forest. While latitudinal shifts in the area of desert and savannah are typical in West Africa, altitudinal changes of the belt with mountainous forest and mountainous shrubs are more common in Southern Africa. During glacial times, vegetation includes ericaceous shrubs in Southern Africa, while desert shrubs expand in West Africa, and the area of the lowland forests is strongly reduced on the whole continent.

  10. Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) for Monitoring Carbon, Water Cycles, and Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiji Imaoka; Misako Kachi; Hideyuki Fujii; Hiroshi Murakami; Masahiro Hori; Akiko Ono; Tamotsu Igarashi; Keizo Nakagawa; Taikan Oki; Yoshiaki Honda; Haruhisa Shimoda

    2010-01-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is pursuing the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) that will inherit the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) mission and develop into long-term monitoring. GCOM is not the name of a single satellite, but of a mission that consists of two series of medium-size satellites, GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate), and three generations of each

  11. Impact of climate change on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle

    E-print Network

    Impact of climate change on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea pelagic planktonic ecosystem Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) is biologically one of the most productive Mediterranean regions. NWMS pelagic of climate change on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon

  12. Nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services in the Brazilian La Plata Basin: anthropogenic influence and climate change.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Ortega, E; Bergier, I; Silva, J S V

    2012-08-01

    The increasing human demand for food, raw material and energy has radically modified both the landscape and biogeochemical cycles in many river basins in the world. The interference of human activities on the Biosphere is so significant that it has doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen due to industrial fertiliser production (Haber-Bosch), fossil fuel burning and land-use change over the last century. In this context, the Brazilian La Plata Basin contributes to the alteration of the nitrogen cycle in South America because of its huge agricultural and grazing area that meets the demands of its large urban centres - Sao Paulo, for instance - and also external markets abroad. In this paper, we estimate the current inputs and outputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (in kg N.km(-2).yr(-1)) in the basin. In the results, we observe that soybean plays a very important role in the Brazilian La Plata, since it contributes with an annual entrance of about 1.8 TgN due to biological nitrogen fixation. Moreover, our estimate indicates that the export of soybean products accounts for roughly 1.0 TgN which is greater than the annual nitrogen riverine exports from Brazilian Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers together. Complimentarily, we built future scenarios representing changes in the nitrogen cycle profile considering two scenarios of climate change for 2070-2100 (based on IPCC's A2 and B2) that will affect land-use, nitrogen inputs, and loss of such nutrients in the basin. Finally, we discuss how both scenarios will affect human well-being since there is a connection between nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services that affect local and global populations, such as food and fibre production and climate regulation. PMID:23011299

  13. Improving evaluation of climate change impacts on the water cycle by remote sensing ET-retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Galiano, S. G.; Olmos Giménez, P.; Ángel Martínez Pérez, J.; Diego Giraldo Osorio, J.

    2015-05-01

    Population growth and intense consumptive water uses are generating pressures on water resources in the southeast of Spain. Improving the knowledge of the climate change impacts on water cycle processes at the basin scale is a step to building adaptive capacity. In this work, regional climate model (RCM) ensembles are considered as an input to the hydrological model, for improving the reliability of hydroclimatic projections. To build the RCMs ensembles, the work focuses on probability density function (PDF)-based evaluation of the ability of RCMs to simulate of rainfall and temperature at the basin scale. To improve the spatial calibration of the continuous hydrological model used, an algorithm for remote sensing actual evapotranspiration (AET) retrieval was applied. From the results, a clear decrease in runoff is expected for 2050 in the headwater basin studied. The plausible future scenario of water shortage will produce negative impacts on the regional economy, where the main activity is irrigated agriculture.

  14. Revisiting historical climatic signals to better explore the future: prospects of water cycle changes in Central Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Velluet, C.; Guichard, F.; Mougin, E.; Chelbi, S.; Sultan, B.

    2015-06-01

    Rainfall and climatic conditions are the main drivers of natural and cultivated vegetation productivity in the semiarid region of Central Sahel. In a context of decreasing cultivable area per capita, understanding and predicting changes in the water cycle are crucial. Yet, it remains challenging to project future climatic conditions in West Africa since there is no consensus on the sign of future precipitation changes in simulations coming from climate models. The Sahel region has experienced severe climatic changes in the past 60 years that can provide a first basis to understand the response of the water cycle to non-stationary conditions in this part of the world. The objective of this study was to better understand the response of the water cycle to highly variable climatic regimes in Central Sahel using historical climate records and the coupling of a land surface energy and water model with a vegetation model that, when combined, simulated the Sahelian water, energy and vegetation cycles. To do so, we relied on a reconstructed long-term climate series in Niamey, Republic of Niger, in which three precipitation regimes can be distinguished with a relative deficit exceeding 25% for the driest period compared to the wettest period. Two temperature scenarios (+2 and +4 °C) consistent with future warming scenarios were superimposed to this climatic signal to generate six virtual future 20-year climate time series. Simulations by the two coupled models forced by these virtual scenarios showed a strong response of the water budget and its components to temperature and precipitation changes, including decreases in transpiration, runoff and drainage for all scenarios but those with highest precipitation. Such climatic changes also strongly impacted soil temperature and moisture. This study illustrates the potential of using the strong climatic variations recorded in the past decades to better understand potential future climate variations.

  15. Fast versus slow response in climate change: implications for the global hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Govindasamy; Caldeira, K.; Nemani, R.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that changes in global mean precipitation are larger for solar forcing than for CO2 forcing of similar magnitude. In this paper, we use an atmospheric general circulation model to show that the differences originate from differing fast responses of the climate system. We estimate the adjusted radiative forcing and fast response using Hansen’s “fixed-SST forcing” method. Total climate system response is calculated using mixed layer simulations using the same model. Our analysis shows that the fast response is almost 40% of the total response for few key variables like precipitation and evaporation. We further demonstrate that the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the change in global mean precipitation per unit warming, is the same for the two forcings when the fast responses are excluded from the definition of hydrologic sensitivity, suggesting that the slow response (feedback) of the hydrological cycle is independent of the forcing mechanism. Based on our results, we recommend that the fast and slow response be compared separately in multi-model intercomparisons to discover and understand robust responses in hydrologic cycle. The significance of this study to geoengineering is discussed.

  16. Effects of Past Climate Changes on Ecosystem Biogeochemical Cycles in Rocky Mountain Forests and Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuman, B.; Mechenich, M. F.; Stefanova, I.; Henderson, A.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    Ongoing climate trends will likely alter how forest ecosystems produce important goods and services, in part, by changing ecosystem responses to disturbances, such as fires and land-use. Disturbances induce forest succession and thus dramatically change the flow of water and nutrients through a given ecosystem. However, long-term ecosystem responses to disturbance, especially regarding nutrient pools and cycling rates, are poorly documented, and less is known about the effects of century-scale climate trends on these responses especially with respect to moisture. Here, we show biogeochemical responses to repeated (>20) episodes of disturbance and succession in a single ecosystem under a range of climatic conditions over 2000 years. Our lake sediment record shows regular fluctuations in the flux of base cations and other macronutrients from lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) forests in northern Colorado following catastrophic stand-replacing fires. Post-fire elemental fluctuations are consistent with ecosystem theory regarding the re-equilibration of biomass and nutrient pools during succession, but show systematic variation that has been previously undocumented. The time span of post-fire re-equilibration correlates positively with measures of fire severity, which is consistent with hypotheses that seed dispersal and soil recovery likely slow re-growth after large or severe fires. Likewise, dry conditions during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA, 1200-500 yrs BP) altered elemental fluctuations and, thus, generated post-fire pulses of lake eutrophication that were not evident during other periods. The interaction of climate and disturbance, therefore, has important consequences for ecosystem function and services, including the quality of aquatic environments.

  17. Climate Change Collection (CCC)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Climate Change Collection (CCC) provides access to high quality, digital materials relating to natural and human induced climate change and variability, including scientific, economic and policy issues of climate change. The collection focuses on background resources and learning activities that communicate the principles that underlie climate change and variability, including the differences and links between weather and climate; the basics of the climate system including the greenhouse effect and energy balance; climatic processes that occur at varying time scales, including orbital cycles and forcing; how scientific research is conducted relative to measuring change and variability; and how human activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and changes of land cover, impact the climate system. The resources have been reviewed for scientific accuracy and currency, and annotated with comments and suggestions relating to their potential value to Earth system science teachers and their students, particularly at the middle school level.

  18. Response of plankton ecology and the carbon cycle to climate change over the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, I.; Doney, S.; Lima, I.; Lindsey, K.; Moore, K.

    2008-12-01

    Here we analyze the impact of climate change on ocean plankton ecology and the carbon cycle over the 21st century using a multi-decadal (1880-2100) experiment conducted with the latest version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM-3.1) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land-ice model. The oceanic ecosystem model component includes three classes of phytoplankton (diatoms, pico/nano plankton, diazotrophs) and one class of zooplankton which grazes differentially on the phytoplankton groups. The competition between phytoplankton groups is altered by climate-induced changes in nutrients, light and zooplankton. Here we connect the resulting changes in the ecosystem structure to changes in the air-sea CO2 fluxes and the global ocean sink. Long-term trends due to anthropogenic changes are compared to the natural variability of the system. Increasing stratification in the northern hemisphere oceans decreases the nutrient supply to the ocean surface and decreases the relative and absolute diatom abundance. The northern hemisphere shift from diatoms to small phytoplankton results in decreases in total primary production, export production and export ratio, and a shift to a more efficiently recycled, lower biomass euphotic layer. By contrast, an increase in Southern Ocean westerlies acts against increasing temperature and freshwater flux to destratify the water-column. Additionally, the wind-driven poleward shift in the Southern Ocean subpolar-subtropical front results in a southward shift and increase in the largest oceanic diatom bloom. In the Southern Ocean diatoms are favored over small phytoplankton on average, acting to increase total chlorophyll, primary production and export production. The impact of these ecological shifts on the global oceanic carbon sink is complex, with northern and southern hemisphere effects partially compensating each other. In the net, total chlorophyll, primary and export production decrease, but less than previous modeling studies have suggested, indicating a small positive feedback on atmospheric pCO2.

  19. Carbon cycle–climate feedback sensitivity to parameter changes of a zero-dimensional terrestrial carbon cycle scheme in a climate model of intermediate complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Eliseev; I. I. Mokhov

    2007-01-01

    Summary  A series of sensitivity runs have been performed with a coupled climate–carbon cycle model. The climatic component consists\\u000a of the climate model of intermediate complexity IAP RAS CM. The carbon cycle component is formulated as a simple zero-dimensional\\u000a model. Its terrestrial part includes gross photosynthesis, and plant and soil respirations, depending on temperature via Q\\u000a 10-relationships (Lenton, 2000). Oceanic uptake

  20. Life cycle ecophysiology of small pelagic fish and climate-driven changes in populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Myron A.; Reglero, Patricia; Takahashi, Motomitsu; Catalán, Ignacio A.

    2013-09-01

    Due to their population characteristics and trophodynamic role, small pelagic fishes are excellent bio-indicators of climate-driven changes in marine systems world-wide. We argue that making robust projections of future changes in the productivity and distribution of small pelagics will require a cause-and-effect understanding of historical changes based upon physiological principles. Here, we reviewed the ecophysiology of small pelagic (clupeiform) fishes including a matrix of abiotic and biotic extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, and prey characteristics) and stage-specific vital rates: (1) adult spawning, (2) survival and development of eggs and yolk sac larvae, and (3) feeding and growth of larvae, post-larvae and juveniles. Emphasis was placed on species inhabiting Northwest Pacific and Northeast Atlantic (European) waters for which summary papers are particularly scarce compared to anchovy and sardine in upwelling systems. Our review revealed that thermal niches (optimal and sub-optimal ranges in temperatures) were species- and stage-specific but that temperature effects only partly explained observed changes in the distribution and/or productivity of populations in the Northwest Pacific and Northeast Atlantic; changes in temperature may be necessary but not sufficient to induce population-level shifts. Prey availability during the late larval and early juvenile period was a common, density-dependent mechanism linked to fluctuations in populations but recruitment mechanisms were system-specific suggesting that generalizations of climate drivers across systems should be avoided. We identified gaps in knowledge regarding basic elements of the growth physiology of each life stage that will require additional field and laboratory study. Avenues of research are recommended that will aid the development of models that provide more robust, physiological-based projections of the population dynamics of these and other small pelagic fish. In our opinion, the continued development of biophysical models that close the life cycle (depict all life stages) offers the best chance of revealing processes causing historical fluctuations on the productivity and distribution of small pelagic fishes and to project future climate-driven impacts. Correctly representing physiological-based mechanisms will increase confidence in the outcomes of models simulating the potential impacts of bottom-up processes, a first step towards evaluating the mixture of factors and processes (e.g. intra-guild dynamics, predation, fisheries exploitation) which interact with climate to affect populations of small pelagic fishes. Understand the impacts of reduced growth rates during the juvenile stage on the process of maturation and spawning condition of small pelagic fishes. Examine the effects of changes in prey quality on the duration and magnitude of spawning by small pelagic fishes to capture how climate-driven changes in zooplankton species composition might act as a “bottom-up” regulator of fish productivity. Identify the drivers for spawning location and timing to better understand how spawning dynamics may be influenced by climate change (e.g. changes in water salinity or turbidity resulting from changes in river discharges or wind-driven turbulence, respectively).

  1. Impact of land use change on the diurnal cycle climate of the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Alan K.; Desjardins, Raymond; Worth, Devon; Cerkowniak, Darrel

    2013-11-01

    paper uses hourly observations from 1953 to 2011 of temperature, relative humidity, and opaque cloud cover from 14 climate stations across the Canadian Prairies to analyze the impact of agricultural land use change on the diurnal cycle climate, represented by the mean temperature and relative humidity and their diurnal ranges. We show the difference between the years 1953-1991 and 1992-2011. The land use changes have been largest in Saskatchewan where 15-20% of the land area has been converted in the past four decades from summer fallow (where the land was left bare for 1 year) to annual cropping. During the growing season from 20 May to 28 August, relative humidity has increased by about 7%. During the first 2 months, 20 May to 19 July, maximum temperatures and the diurnal range of temperature have fallen by 1.2°C and 0.6°C, respectively, cloud cover has increased by about 4%, reducing surface net radiation by 6 W m-2, and precipitation has increased. We use the dry-downs after precipitation to separate the impact of cloud cover and show the coupling between evapotranspiration and relative humidity. We estimate, using reanalysis data from ERA-Interim, that increased transpiration from the larger area of cropland has reduced the surface Bowen ratio by 0.14-0.2. For the month on either side of the growing season, cloud cover has fallen slightly; maximum temperatures have increased, increasing the diurnal temperature range and the diurnal range of humidity.

  2. North Atlantic deepwater temperature change during late pliocene and late quaternary climatic cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, G.S.; Baker, P.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Cronin, T.M. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-24

    Variations in the ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) in fossil ostracodes from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 607 in the deep North Atlantic show that the change in bottom water temperature during late Pliocene 41,000-year obliquity cycles averaged 1.5{degrees}C between 3.2 and 2.8 million years ago (Ma) and increased to 2.3{degrees}C between 2.8 and 2.3 Ma, coincidentally with the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. During the last two 100,000-year glacial-to-interglacial climatic cycles of the Quaternary, bottom water temperatures changed by 4.5{degrees}C. These results show that glacial deepwater cooling has intensified since 3.2 Ma, most likely as the result of progressively diminished deepwater production in the North Atlantic and of the greater influence of Antarctic bottom water in the North Atlantic during glacial periods. The ostracode Mg/Ca data also allow the direct determination of the temperature component of the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope record from Site 607, as well as derivation of a hypothetical sea-level curve for the late Pliocene and late Quaternary. The effects of dissolution on the Mg/Ca ratios of ostracode shells appear to have been minimal. 49 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Sulfate-Reducing Microorganisms in Wetlands – Fameless Actors in Carbon Cycling and Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Pester, Michael; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Friedrich, Michael W.; Wagner, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater wetlands are a major source of the greenhouse gas methane but at the same time can function as carbon sink. Their response to global warming and environmental pollution is one of the largest unknowns in the upcoming decades to centuries. In this review, we highlight the role of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in the intertwined element cycles of wetlands. Although regarded primarily as methanogenic environments, biogeochemical studies have revealed a previously hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands that can sustain rapid renewal of the small standing pools of sulfate. Thus, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, which frequently occurs at rates comparable to marine surface sediments, can contribute up to 36–50% to anaerobic carbon mineralization in these ecosystems. Since sulfate reduction is thermodynamically favored relative to fermentative processes and methanogenesis, it effectively decreases gross methane production thereby mitigating the flux of methane to the atmosphere. However, very little is known about wetland SRM. Molecular analyses using dsrAB [encoding subunit A and B of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase] as marker genes demonstrated that members of novel phylogenetic lineages, which are unrelated to recognized SRM, dominate dsrAB richness and, if tested, are also abundant among the dsrAB-containing wetland microbiota. These discoveries point toward the existence of so far unknown SRM that are an important part of the autochthonous wetland microbiota. In addition to these numerically dominant microorganisms, a recent stable isotope probing study of SRM in a German peatland indicated that rare biosphere members might be highly active in situ and have a considerable stake in wetland sulfate reduction. The hidden sulfur cycle in wetlands and the fact that wetland SRM are not well represented by described SRM species explains their so far neglected role as important actors in carbon cycling and climate change. PMID:22403575

  4. A quasi-one-dimensional coupled climate-change cycle model, 1, Description and behavior of the climate component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, L. D. Danny; Huang, Z.

    2001-10-01

    A quasi-one-dimensional, coupled climate-carbon cycle model is presented, which consists of two polar domains and one nonpolar domain. The model simulates the distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), alkalinity, phosphate, dissolved oxygen, and temperature and contains a biological pump with production of organic tissue, calcite, and arogonite. Bottom water is conditioned in one polar domain through interaction with the atmosphere and convective mixing and is injected into the lower portion of the nonpolar domain. Bottom water formed in the downwelling polar domain largely upwells in the nonpolar domain, although a portion upwells from intermediate depth into the other polar domain. In this paper the climate component of the coupled model and its behavior are described, while the carbon cycle component is documented by Harvey [this issue], hereafter referred to as part 2. We develop a simple physical basis for determining the relative magnitudes of the effective vertical diffusion coefficient (kv) for different tracers in a one-dimensional (1-D) model and find that kv is smallest for temperature, intermediate for carbon, and largest for dissolved oxygen. We deduce a substantially smaller kv for temperature in the upper ocean than previously used in 1-D models (˜0.2 cm2 s-2 rather than 0.6-1.0 cm2 s-1) and a smaller peak upwelling velocity (2 m yr-1 rather than 4 m yr-1). The explicit representation of convective mixing has a significant effect on the model surface temperature transient response and sea level rise when the intensity of the thermohaline changes. As a result, the transient temperature response and sea level rise obtained here when the thermohaline circulation intensity decreases is significantly different from that of the classical 1-D upwelling-diffusion model.

  5. Natural and anthropogenic climate change: incorporating historical land cover change, vegetation dynamics and the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Matthews; A. J. Weaver; K. J. Meissner; N. P. Gillett; M. Eby

    2004-01-01

    This study explores natural and anthropogenic influences on the climate system, with an emphasis on the biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects of historical land cover change. The biogeophysical effect of land cover change is first subjected to a detailed sensitivity analysis in the context of the UVic Earth System Climate Model, a global climate model of intermediate complexity. Results show a

  6. Mechanisms for Annual Cycle Changes in Monsoons in a Warming Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Anji

    2014-05-01

    Analyses of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) experiments show that the global monsoon is expected to increase in area, precipitation, and intensity as the climate system responds to anthropogenic forcing. Concurrently, detailed analyses for several individual monsoons indicate a re-distribution of rainfall from early to late in the rainy season. This presentation will further examine CMIP5 projected changes in the annual cycle of precipitation in monsoon regions, and use a moist static energy framework to evaluate competing mechanisms identified to be important in precipitation changes over land. In the presence of sufficient surface moisture, the local response to the increase in downwelling energy is characterized by increased evaporation, increased low-level moist static energy, and decreased stability with consequent increases in precipitation. A remote mechanism begins with warmer oceans and operates on land regions via a warmer tropical troposphere, increased stability, and decreased precipitation. The remote mechanism controls the projected changes during winter, and the local mechanism appears to control the switch to increased precipitation during summer in several monsoon regions. During the early summer transition, regions where boundary layer moisture availability is reduced due to decreases in evaporation and moisture convergence experience an enhanced convective barrier. This enhanced convective barrier leads to a redistribution of rainfall from early to late summer, and is robust in the American and African monsoons but not seen in Asia.

  7. A numerical simulation of climate changes during the obliquity cycle on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francois, L. M.; Walker, J. C. G.; Kuhn, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional seasonal energy balance climate model of the Martian surface is developed. The model shows the importance of using short-period diurnal and seasonal variations of solar irradiance instead of yearly-averaged quantities. The roles of meridional heat transport and greenhouse warming are shown to be important. The possible existence of hysteresis cycles in the formation and sublimation of permanent deposits during the course of the obliquity cycle is demonstrated.

  8. Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change.

    PubMed

    Bevis, Michael; Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat A; Madsen, Finn Bo; Brown, Abel; Willis, Michael; Kendrick, Eric; Knudsen, Per; Box, Jason E; van Dam, Tonie; Caccamise, Dana J; Johns, Bjorn; Nylen, Thomas; Abbott, Robin; White, Seth; Miner, Jeremy; Forsberg, Rene; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Jian; Wilson, Terry; Bromwich, David; Francis, Olivier

    2012-07-24

    The Greenland GPS Network (GNET) uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure the displacement of bedrock exposed near the margins of the Greenland ice sheet. The entire network is uplifting in response to past and present-day changes in ice mass. Crustal displacement is largely accounted for by an annual oscillation superimposed on a sustained trend. The oscillation is driven by earth's elastic response to seasonal variations in ice mass and air mass (i.e., atmospheric pressure). Observed vertical velocities are higher and often much higher than predicted rates of postglacial rebound (PGR), implying that uplift is usually dominated by the solid earth's instantaneous elastic response to contemporary losses in ice mass rather than PGR. Superimposed on longer-term trends, an anomalous 'pulse' of uplift accumulated at many GNET stations during an approximate six-month period in 2010. This anomalous uplift is spatially correlated with the 2010 melting day anomaly. PMID:22786931

  9. Bedrock displacements in Greenland manifest ice mass variations, climate cycles and climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bevis, Michael; Wahr, John; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Madsen, Finn Bo; Brown, Abel; Willis, Michael; Kendrick, Eric; Knudsen, Per; Box, Jason E.; van Dam, Tonie; Caccamise, Dana J.; Johns, Bjorn; Nylen, Thomas; Abbott, Robin; White, Seth; Miner, Jeremy; Forsberg, Rene; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Jian; Wilson, Terry; Bromwich, David; Francis, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The Greenland GPS Network (GNET) uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure the displacement of bedrock exposed near the margins of the Greenland ice sheet. The entire network is uplifting in response to past and present-day changes in ice mass. Crustal displacement is largely accounted for by an annual oscillation superimposed on a sustained trend. The oscillation is driven by earth’s elastic response to seasonal variations in ice mass and air mass (i.e., atmospheric pressure). Observed vertical velocities are higher and often much higher than predicted rates of postglacial rebound (PGR), implying that uplift is usually dominated by the solid earth’s instantaneous elastic response to contemporary losses in ice mass rather than PGR. Superimposed on longer-term trends, an anomalous ‘pulse’ of uplift accumulated at many GNET stations during an approximate six-month period in 2010. This anomalous uplift is spatially correlated with the 2010 melting day anomaly. PMID:22786931

  10. Environmental and climatic changes during Valanginian (Early Cretaceous) perturbations of the carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujau, A.; Heimhofer, U.; Hochuli, P. A.; Schouten, S.; Thierry, A.; Morales, C.; Mutterlose, J.

    2011-12-01

    After a long-lasting period of relatively stable conditions during the late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous, the Valanginian was a time of climatic and environmental perturbations. Proposed changes include fluctuations in atmospheric pCO2, an accelerated hydrologic cycling, a cooling phase, and changes in composition and abundances of the marine fauna. A prominent perturbation of the global carbon cycle is documented in a globally recorded positive ?13C shift. Widespread storage of Corg-rich sediments in ocean basins, probably accompanied by anoxic conditions has long been supposed to explain for the positive carbon isotope anomaly. However, no widespread deposition of black shales has been shown for the Valanginian. Research on the Valanginian carbon cycle has focused on marine environmental changes, while studies on continental archives are scarce. This study deals with stable isotope chemostratigraphy, spore-pollen assemblages, palynofacies, and organic geochemistry of two successions located in the northwestern Tethyan realm (Vocontian Basin, SE France) and the Carpathian seaway (Polish Trough, central Poland). For both sites no evidence for anoxic conditions in the form of the occurrence of specific biomarkers like isoreniratene are found. Spore-pollen assemblages from both localities show many similarities in terms of composition, diversity and abundances of taxa. Both are dominated by conifer pollen and fern spores. During the initial phase of the ?13C shift the palynological compositions of both sites are quite diverging. Here, the French site is characterized by a decrease in spore abundances not being observed for the Polish site. This is followed by a peak in fern spores for both sites. Bulk Corg and algal-derived pristane and phytane follow the positive isotope shift of Ccarb with a lead of ~200 kyrs. Land plant derived long chain C27 n-alkanes for the Vocontian Basin as well show this positive shift while for the site at the Carpathian seaway the coeval shift is negative. PCO2 reconstructions based on the ?? record point to an increase in atmospheric pCO2 for this time interval. Results are interpreted to reflect an increase in aridity at the French site, whereas conditions become more humid in the hinterland of the Carpathian seaway during the initiation of the carbon cycle perturbation. This would explain for diverging compositions of vegetation and the negative shift in C27 n-alkanes of the Polish site, since an increase in humidity enhances discrimination in land plants and therewith the amount of implemented 12C. The subsequent peak in fern spores may point to supra-regional hostile conditions favoring massive appearance of fern plants, coinciding with pCO2 drawdown, arid conditions, and the initiation of a cooling phase during the plateau-phase of the carbon isotope excursion. Results point to an important role of continental environments during the complex pattern of environmental and climatic changes accompanying and/or causing the Valanginian carbon isotope anomaly.

  11. The impacts of climate change on the annual cycles of birds.

    PubMed

    Carey, Cynthia

    2009-11-27

    Organisms living today are descended from ancestors that experienced considerable climate change in the past. However, they are currently presented with many new, man-made challenges, including rapid climate change. Migration and reproduction of many avian species are controlled by endogenous mechanisms that have been under intense selection over time to ensure that arrival to and departure from breeding grounds is synchronized with moderate temperatures, peak food availability and availability of nesting sites. The timing of egg laying is determined, usually by both endogenous clocks and local factors, so that food availability is near optimal for raising young. Climate change is causing mismatches in food supplies, snow cover and other factors that could severely impact successful migration and reproduction of avian populations unless they are able to adjust to new conditions. Resident (non-migratory) birds also face challenges if precipitation and/or temperature patterns vary in ways that result in mismatches of food and breeding. Predictions that many existing climates will disappear and novel climates will appear in the future suggest that communities will be dramatically restructured by extinctions and changes in range distributions. Species that persist into future climates may be able to do so in part owing to the genetic heritage passed down from ancestors who survived climate changes in the past. PMID:19833644

  12. Climate-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in the rapidly warming Antarctic coastal ocean 

    E-print Network

    Henley, Sian Frances

    2013-07-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a hotspot of climatic and oceanographic change, with a 6°C rise in winter atmospheric temperatures and >1°C warming of the surface ocean since the 1950s. These trends are having ...

  13. Global carbon cycle and climate change: Responses and feedbacks from below-ground systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.; Turner, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    According to most global climate models, a continued build-up of CO2 and other greenhouse gases will lead to significant changes in temperature and precipitation patterns over large parts of the Earth. Belowground processes will strongly influence the response of the biosphere to climate change and are likely to contribute to positive or negative biospheric feedbacks to climate change. Current global carbon budgets suggest that as much as 2000 Pg of carbon exists in soil systems. There is considerable disagreement, however, over pool sizes and flux (e.g. CO2, CH4) for various ecosystems. An equilibrium analysis of changes in global belowground carbon storage due to a double-CO2 climate suggests a range from a possible sink of 41 Pg to a possible source of 101 Pg. Components of the terrestrial biosphere could be managed to sequester or conserve carbon and mitigate accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd, England.)

  14. Transient Climate Change Simulations with a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean GCM Including the Tropospheric Sulfur Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Roeckner; L. Bengtsson; J. Feichter; J. Lelieveld; H. Rodhe

    1999-01-01

    The time-dependent climate response to changing concentrations of greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols is studied using a coupled general circulation model of the atmosphere and the ocean (ECHAM4\\/OPYC3). The concentrations of the well-mixed greenhouse gases like CO2, CH4, N2O, and CFCs are prescribed for the past (1860-1990) and projected into the future according to International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  15. Millennial timescale carbon cycle and climate change in an efficient Earth system model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Lenton; M. S. Williamson; N. R. Edwards; R. Marsh; A. R. Price; A. J. Ridgwell; J. G. Shepherd; S. J. Cox

    2006-01-01

    A new Earth system model, GENIE-1, is presented which comprises a 3-D frictional geostrophic ocean, phosphate-restoring marine biogeochemistry, dynamic and thermodynamic sea-ice, land surface physics and carbon cycling, and a seasonal 2-D energy-moisture balance atmosphere. Three sets of model climate parameters are used to explore the robustness of the results and for traceability to earlier work. The model versions have

  16. Millennial timescale carbon cycle and climate change in an efficient Earth system model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Lenton; M. S. Williamson; N. R. Edwards; R. Marsh; A. R. Price; A. J. Ridgwell; J. G. Shepherd; S. J. Cox

    2006-01-01

    A new Earth system model, GENIE-1, is presented which comprises a 3-D frictional geostrophic ocean, phosphate-restoring marine\\u000a biogeochemistry, dynamic and thermodynamic sea-ice, land surface physics and carbon cycling, and a seasonal 2-D energy-moisture\\u000a balance atmosphere. Three sets of model climate parameters are used to explore the robustness of the results and for traceability\\u000a to earlier work. The model versions have

  17. The impacts of climate change and human activities on biogeochemical cycles on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yanfen; Fang, Xiuqing; Gao, Yongheng; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Gang; Tian, Jianqing; Kang, Xiaoming; Piao, Shilong; Ouyang, Hua; Xiang, Wenhua; Luo, Zhibin; Jiang, Hong; Song, Xingzhang; Zhang, Yao; Yu, Guirui; Zhao, Xinquan; Gong, Peng; Yao, Tandong; Wu, Jianghua

    2013-10-01

    With a pace of about twice the observed rate of global warming, the temperature on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (Earth's 'third pole') has increased by 0.2 °C per decade over the past 50 years, which results in significant permafrost thawing and glacier retreat. Our review suggested that warming enhanced net primary production and soil respiration, decreased methane (CH(4)) emissions from wetlands and increased CH(4) consumption of meadows, but might increase CH(4) emissions from lakes. Warming-induced permafrost thawing and glaciers melting would also result in substantial emission of old carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and CH(4). Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission was not stimulated by warming itself, but might be slightly enhanced by wetting. However, there are many uncertainties in such biogeochemical cycles under climate change. Human activities (e.g. grazing, land cover changes) further modified the biogeochemical cycles and amplified such uncertainties on the plateau. If the projected warming and wetting continues, the future biogeochemical cycles will be more complicated. So facing research in this field is an ongoing challenge of integrating field observations with process-based ecosystem models to predict the impacts of future climate change and human activities at various temporal and spatial scales. To reduce the uncertainties and to improve the precision of the predictions of the impacts of climate change and human activities on biogeochemical cycles, efforts should focus on conducting more field observation studies, integrating data within improved models, and developing new knowledge about coupling among carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles as well as about the role of microbes in these cycles. PMID:23744573

  18. Climate change, adaptive cycles, and the persistence of foraging economies during the late Pleistocene/Holocene transition in the Levant.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Arlene M; Rivera-Collazo, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    Climatic forcing during the Younger Dryas (?12.9-11.5 ky B.P.) event has become the theoretical basis to explain the origins of agricultural lifestyles in the Levant by suggesting a failure of foraging societies to adjust. This explanation however, does not fit the scarcity of data for predomestication cultivation in the Natufian Period. The resilience of Younger Dryas foragers is better illustrated by a concept of adaptive cycles within a theory of adaptive change (resilience theory). Such cycles consist of four phases: release/collapse (?); reorganization (?), when the system restructures itself after a catastrophic stimulus through innovation and social memory--a period of greater resilience and less vulnerability; exploitation (r); and conservation (K), representing an increasingly rigid system that loses flexibility to change. The Kebarans and Late Natufians had similar responses to cold and dry conditions vs. Early Natufians and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A responses to warm and wet climates. Kebarans and Late Natufians (?-phase) shifted to a broader-based diet and increased their mobility. Early Natufian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic A populations (r- and K-phases) had a growing investment in more narrowly focused, high-yield plant resources, but they maintained the broad range of hunted animals because of increased sedentism. These human adaptive cycles interlocked with plant and animal cycles. Forest and grassland vegetation responded to late Pleistocene and early Holocene climatic fluctuations, but prey animal cycles reflected the impact of human hunting pressure. The combination of these three adaptive cycles results in a model of human adaptation, showing potential for great sustainability of Levantine foraging systems even under adverse climatic conditions. PMID:22371591

  19. How robust are responses of carbon-nitrogen cycle models to increasing atmospheric [CO2] and climatic changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaehle, Sönke; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Friend, Andrew D.

    2010-05-01

    A number of recent studies have demonstrated the importance of considering nitrogen dynamics for projecting the responses to the terrestrial carbon cycle to increasing atmospheric [CO2] and climatic changes [1-4]. However, there are considerable differences in the global and regional responses of individual models concerning the strength and even the sign of the effect of N dynamics of the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Here, the implications of alternative hypotheses on key nitrogen cycle characteristics that determine vegetation responses are tested to assess the reliability of the modelled responses. For this purpose, the terrestrial biosphere model O-CN model, derived from the land-surface scheme ORCHIDEE of the IPSL Earth system model, is used in different configurations, namely the elasticity of the plant's C:N stoichiometry, and the capacity of vegetation to increase biological nitrogen fixation as a function of N demand and C excess. The alternative hypotheses result in substantially different projected land C storage by the year 2100. However, they do not prevent i) that there is a significant reduction of the net land C storage resulting from CO2 fertilisation compared to the model version not accounting for terrestrial N dynamics; and ii) that on the global scale the limiting effect of N dynamics on the CO2 fertilisation response is stronger than the stimulating effect of increased N release from soil organic matter decomposition in a future warmer climate. References: 1. Sokolov, A.P., et al., Consequences of considering carbon-nitrogen interactions on the feedbacks between climate and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Journal of Climate, 2008. 21(15): p. 3776-3796. 2. Jain, A., et al., Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2009. 23: p. GB4028, doi:10.1029/2009GB003519. 3. Thornton, P.E., et al., Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Biogeosciences, 2009. 6: p. 2099-2120. 4. Zaehle, S., P. Friedlingstein, and A. Friend, Terrestrial nitrogen feedbacks may accelerate future climate change. Geophysical Research Letters, 2010. 37: p. L01401, doi:10.1029/2009GL041345.

  20. GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE AND CLIMATE CHANGE: RESPONSES AND FEEDBACKS FROM BELOW-GROUND SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to most global climate models, a continued build-up of OC2 and other greenhouse gases will lead to significant changes in temperature and precipitation patterns over large parts of the Earth. elow-ground processes will strongly influence the response of the biosphere to...

  1. Solar Cycle Variability, Ozone, and Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew Shindell; David Rind; Nambeth Balachandran; Judith Lean; Patrick Lonergan

    1999-01-01

    Results from a global climate model including an interactive parameterization of stratospheric chemistry show how upper stratospheric ozone changes may amplify observed, 11-year solar cycle irradiance changes to affect climate. In the model, circulation changes initially induced in the stratosphere subsequently penetrate into the troposphere, demonstrating the importance of the dynamical coupling between the stratosphere and troposphere. The model reproduces

  2. Long-term cycles of Triassic climate change: a new ?18O record from conodont apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotter, Julie A.; Williams, Ian S.; Nicora, Alda; Mazza, Michele; Rigo, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    A new oxygen isotope (?18O) record derived from conodont apatite reveals variable long-term climate trends throughout the Triassic period. This record shows several major, first order, negative shifts reflecting intense warming episodes, not only the well-known extreme PTB-Early Triassic event (? 5 ‰), but also two large cycles of similar magnitude (?1.5, ? 1.7 ‰) and duration (?7 Myrs) during the late Carnian and late Norian. Between the PTB-Early Triassic and Carnian major episodes, three rapid shorter-term warming events of decreasing magnitude punctuate the mid-late Anisian, early Ladinian, and latest Ladinian, with distinct cooler (i.e. favourable) intervals characterising the early Anisian and early Carnian, indicating a fluctuating but ameliorating Middle Triassic climate trend. Two long periods of sustained cooler conditions occurred during the Late Triassic, for much of the Norian and Rhaetian. The five humid events previously recognised from the geological record, including the Carnian Pluvial Episode, are associated with the low ?18O warming phases. The magnitudes of these first order warming cycles, together with widespread geological and palaeontological evidence, suggest they were at least Tethyan-wide events.

  3. Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon to Climate Change: Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edward A. G. Schuur (University of Florida; )

    2008-09-01

    Thawing permafrost and the resulting microbial decomposition of previously frozen organic carbon (C) is one of the most significant potential feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere in a changing climate. In this article we present an overview of the global permafrost C pool and of the processes that might transfer this C into the atmosphere, as well as the associated ecosystem changes that occur with thawing. We show that accounting for C stored deep in the permafrost more than doubles previous high-latitude inventory estimates, with this new estimate equivalent to twice the atmospheric C pool. The thawing of permafrost with warming occurs both gradually and catastrophically, exposing organic C to microbial decomposition. Other aspects of ecosystem dynamics can be altered by climate change along with thawing permafrost, such as growing season length, plant growth rates and species composition, and ecosystem energy exchange. However, these processes do not appear to be able to compensate for C release from thawing permafrost, making it likely that the net effect of widespread permafrost thawing will be a positive feedback to a warming climate.

  4. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  5. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  6. Global Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides a brief overview of processes and properties associated with global climate change and its rate of change, which is of current concern to scientists. The carbon cycle is discussed including its sources, sinks, and release agents along with the fact that it is critical to the biosphere and must continue cycling to support life on Earth. The information at this site should lead students to an understanding of carbon dioxide and the other major greenhouse gases, which is necessary to identify the current trends in atmospheric concentrations and climate change. Three other concepts addressed at this site include the profound effects living organisms in an ecosystem can have upon the local atmosphere, profound effects changes in vegetation can have upon wind speed, and the link of human activity to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This section serves as a reference for and includes links to seven classroom activities.

  7. Environmental magnetism and climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara A. Maher

    2007-01-01

    A major and pressing problem is to understand how, and how fast, the Earth's climate has changed in the past, with and without human influences on the global carbon cycle. Magnetic, remanence-acquiring, minerals, mostly iron oxides and sulphides, occur ubiquitously in sediments. They can act as sensitive recorders of past climates, because as climate has varied (from glacial to interglacial,

  8. "Managing Department Climate Change"

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    "Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

  9. Climate change action plan

    E-print Network

    Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

  10. CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change and climate variability has received considerable attention from the scientific community in recent decades and has led to a better understanding of various climate phenomena and driving mechanisms. This increased understanding of climate has prompted engineers and policy makers to as...

  11. Hydrological Cycle in the Indonesian Archipelago and Rapid Climate Changes During Glacial Period at low Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillon, N.; Levi, C.; Bassinot, F.; Waelbroeck, C.; Labeyrie, L.; Guichard, F.; Rebaubier, H.; Michel, E.

    2006-12-01

    An high resolution (0.2-0.6 ka) record of paired measurements of Mg/Ca and ?18Oc (calcite) were obtained on planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white) picked from core MD98-2165 (east tropical Indian Ocean ; 9°38'S, 118°20'E) over the 0-200 ka time interval (extending back in time PhD thesis's work of C. Levi on the LGM-Holocene transition). Cleaning procedure for Mg/Ca followed Barker et al., 2003's procedure and Mg/Ca ratios were performed at the LSCE on an ICP-OES following de Villiers et al, 2002's method. Mg/Ca precisions obtained on G. ruber samples are 4.2% (1?, pooled RSD). Using the Mg/Ca-SST estimates and coupled ?18Oc measurements, a record of water ?18O has been calculated; corrected for ice-volume global contribution using Waelbroeck et al., 2002 reconstruction. Our results suggest a narrow climatic coupling between low latitudes hydrological cycle and northern high latitude climate during the last glacial period, with a reconstructed surface water saltier (around 0.5 psu) and slightly warmer (0.2-1°C) associated with North Atlantic cold episodes. This coupling is in agreement with a weakening of the East Asian monsoon activity during cooling of the Europe-Asia continent that can be explained by a southward shift of the ITCZ as proposed by Labeyrie et al. (C.R. Geosciences, 2004).

  12. Recent climate changes over the Tibetan Plateau and their impacts on energy and water cycle: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Wu, Hui; Qin, Jun; Lin, Changgui; Tang, Wenjun; Chen, Yingying

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) exerts strong thermal forcing on the atmosphere over Asian monsoon region and supplies water resources to adjacent river basins. Recently, the Plateau experienced evident climate changes, which have changed atmospheric and hydrological cycles and thus reshaped the local environment. This study reviewed recent research progress in the climate changes and explored their impacts on the Plateau energy and water cycle, based on which a conceptual model to synthesize these changes was proposed and urgent issues to be explored were summarized. The TP has experienced an overall surface air warming and moistening, solar dimming, and wind stilling since the beginning of the 1980s. The surface warming depends on elevation and its horizontal pattern is consistent with the one of the glacier change. Accompanying the warming was air moistening, and both facilitated the trigger of more deep-clouds, which resulted in solar dimming. Surface wind speed declined from the 1970s, as a result of atmospheric circulation adjustment caused by the differential surface warming between the Asian high-latitude and low-latitude. The climate changes had weakened the thermal forcing over the TP. The warming and wind stilling lowered the Bowen ratio and led to less surface sensible heating. Atmospheric radiative cooling was enhanced, mainly by outgoing longwave emission from the warming planetary system and slightly by solar radiation reflection. Both processes contributed to the thermal forcing weakening over the Plateau. The water cycle was also altered by the climate changes. The wind stilling may have weakened water vapor exchange between the Asia monsoon region and the Plateau and thus led to less precipitation in the monsoon-impacted southern and eastern Plateau, but the warming enhanced land evaporation. Their overlap resulted in runoff reduction in the southern and eastern Plateau regions. By contrast, more convective precipitation over the central TP was triggered under the warmer and moister condition and yielded more runoff; meanwhile, the solar dimming weakened lake evaporation. The two together with enhanced glacier melts contributed to the lake expansion in the central TP.

  13. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Radchuk, Viktoriia; Turlure, Camille; Schtickzelle, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change. However, most studies explore only one life stage; to our best knowledge, none have integrated the impact of temperature on the vital rates of all life stages for a species of conservation concern. Besides, most population viability analysis models for butterflies are based on yearly population growth rate, precluding the implementation and assessment of important climate change scenarios, where climate change occurs mainly, or differently, during some seasons. Here, we used a combination of laboratory and field experiments to quantify the impact of temperature on all life stages of a vulnerable glacial relict butterfly. Next, we integrated these impacts into an overall population response using a deterministic periodic matrix model and explored the impact of several climate change scenarios. Temperature positively affected egg, pre-diapause larva and pupal survival, and the number of eggs laid by a female; only the survival of overwintering larva was negatively affected by an increase in temperature. Despite the positive impact of warming on many life stages, population viability was reduced under all scenarios, with predictions of much shorter times to extinction than under the baseline (current temperature situation) scenario. Indeed, model predictions were the most sensitive to changes in survival of overwintering larva, the only stage negatively affected by warming. A proper consideration of every stage of the life cycle is important when designing conservation guidelines in the light of climate change. This is in line with the resource-based habitat view, which explicitly refers to the habitat as a collection of resources needed for all life stages of the species. We, therefore, encourage adopting a resource-based habitat view for population viability analysis and development of conservation guidelines for butterflies, and more generally, other organisms. Life stages that are cryptic or difficult to study should not be forsaken as they may be key determinants in the overall response to climate change, as we found with overwintering Boloria eunomia larvae. PMID:22924795

  14. Preliminary results of carbon cycling in southwestern ecosystems: Implications for climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Klopatek, C.C. [Forest Service, Tempe, AZ (United States). Rocky Mountain Station; [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Murphy, K.L.; Klopatek, J.M. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1995-12-31

    By determining the C pool sizes, cycling and relative sequestering rates, the authors intend to estimate the effects of a vegetation change caused by a temperature increase and available moisture decrease. A predominant source of C for the soil compartment is the plant litter and its subsequent decomposition. The resulting effect of temperature and moisture on decomposition will vary according to the biome and litter quality of that biome. Litter quality, referring to the carbon and other nutrient fractions, strongly influences the potential rate of decomposition. The preliminary findings indicate that litter quality and moisture, not temperature, are the major controlling variables in decomposition.

  15. Climate change impacts on the vegetation carbon cycle of the Iberian Peninsula—Intercomparison of CMIP5 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparício, Sara; Carvalhais, Nuno; Seixas, Júlia

    2015-04-01

    The vulnerability of a water-limited region like the Iberian Peninsula (IP) to climate changes drives a great concern and interest in understanding its impacts on the carbon cycle, namely, in terms of biomass production. This study assesses the effects of climate change and rising CO2 on forest growth, carbon sequestration, and water-use efficiency on the IP by late 21st century using 12 models from the CMIP5 project (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). We find a strong agreement among the models under representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario, mostly regarding projected forest growth and increased primary production (13, 9% of gross primary production (GPP) increase projected by the models ensemble). Under RCP8.5 scenario, the results are less conclusive, as seven models project both GPP and net primary production to increase (up to 83% and 69%, respectively), while the remaining four models project the IP as a potential carbon source by late century. Divergences in carbon mass in wood predictions could be attributed to model structures, such as the N cycle, land model component, land cover data and parameterization, and distinct clusters of Earth System Models (ESMs). ESMs divergences in carbon feedbacks are likely being highly impacted by parameterization divergences and susceptibility to climate change and CO2 fertilization effect. Despite projected rainfall reductions, we observe a strong agreement between models regarding the increase of water-use efficiency (by 21% and 34%) under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Results suggest that rising CO2 has the potential to partially alleviate the adverse effects of drought.

  16. CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE CERTAINTIES AND UNCERTAINTIES

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE CERTAINTIES AND UNCERTAINTIES Stephen E. Schwartz http concentrations of "greenhouse gases" · Radiative forcing of climate change · Climate system response: Observations of temperature change on various time scales · Climate system sensitivity: Models and Observations

  17. Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    Climate Change Adaptation Planning On the Navajo Nation #12;Navajo Nation Climate Change Adaptation of Colorado Law School #12;What is Climate Change Adaptation? "Adjustment in natural or human systems change #12;Examples of Adaptation Activities Seed banks Land restoration #12;What is Climate Change

  18. Climate Systems and Climate Change Is Climate Change Real?

    E-print Network

    Pan, Feifei

    Chapter 10 Climate Systems and Climate Change #12;Is Climate Change Real? 1980 1898 2005 2003 #12;Arctic Sea Ice Changes #12;Observed Global Surface Air Temperature #12;! Current climate: weather station data, remote sensing data, numerical modeling using General Circulation Models (GCM) ! Past climate

  19. Implications for the hydrologic cycle under climate change due to the expansion of bioenergy crops in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Le, Phong V. V.; Kumar, Praveen; Drewry, Darren T.

    2011-01-01

    To meet emerging bioenergy demands, significant areas of the large-scale agricultural landscape of the Midwestern United States could be converted to second generation bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass. The high biomass productivity of bioenergy crops in a longer growing season linked tightly to water use highlight the potential for significant impact on the hydrologic cycle in the region. This issue is further exacerbated by the uncertainty in the response of the vegetation under elevated CO2 and temperature. We use a mechanistic multilayer canopy-root-soil model to (i) capture the eco-physiological acclimations of bioenergy crops under climate change, and (ii) predict how hydrologic fluxes are likely to be altered from their current magnitudes. Observed data and Monte Carlo simulations of weather for recent past and future scenarios are used to characterize the variability range of the predictions. Under present weather conditions, miscanthus and switchgrass utilized more water than maize for total seasonal evapotranspiration by approximately 58% and 36%, respectively. Projected higher concentrations of atmospheric CO2 (550 ppm) is likely to decrease water used for evapotranspiration of miscanthus, switchgrass, and maize by 12%, 10%, and 11%, respectively. However, when climate change with projected increases in air temperature and reduced summer rainfall are also considered, there is a net increase in evapotranspiration for all crops, leading to significant reduction in soil-moisture storage and specific surface runoff. These results highlight the critical role of the warming climate in potentially altering the water cycle in the region under extensive conversion of existing maize cropping to support bioenergy demand. PMID:21876137

  20. Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on

    E-print Network

    Changing Climate, Changing Forests: The Impacts of Climate Change on Forests of the Northeastern 2012 Email: nrspubs@fs.fed.us Abstract Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect to climate for thousands of years. However, current human-accelerated climate change is much more rapid

  1. Climate Change Schools Project...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

  2. Climate Change and Biogeochemical Cycling in Green Lakes Valley, Colorado Front Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. T.; Parman, J.; Williams, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Alpine ecosystems are particularly susceptible to disturbance due to their short growing seasons, sparse vegetation, thin soils, and a harsh climate. Warming temperatures and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, two drivers of global change, are currently affecting the Green Lakes Valley within the Colorado Front Range. At the top of Green Lakes Valley is Arikaree glacier, a 9 ha cirque glacier which has steady decreased in size since 2000. The watershed continues to receive elevated amounts of nitrogen deposition; however the atmospheric flux of inorganic nitrogen has decreased by 0.56 kg ha-1yr-1 since 2000, due to several years of low rainfall. Despite this decrease N deposition, the alpine watershed’s yield of nitrate has increased by 40% over the same time period relative to 1990-1999, at an approximate rate of 0.47 kg ha-1yr-1 since 2000. Concurrent with increases in nitrate were large increases in sulfate (1.13 kg ha-1yr-1), calcium (0.63 kg ha-1yr-1) and silica (0.22 kg ha-1yr-1) yields. The source of these increased yields appears to be meltwater from Arikaree and thawing permafrost. Mass balance models indicate that high ammonium loads within Arikaree’s meltwater are rapidly nitrified; contributing approximately 0.45 kg yr-1 to the NO3- flux within the upper reaches of the watershed. The chemistry of melting permafrost (as indicated by rock glacial meltwater) is rich in geochemical weathering products suggesting that it is the source of increased sulfate, calcium, and silica as well as providing sustained water contributions late into the growing season. Downstream within the subalpine, there was no increase in nitrate yield and relatively small increases in weathering products, suggesting that the subalpine serves as a sink for excess nitrogen and weathering products. Finally, there were no long term increases in nitrate, sulfate, silica, or calcium at a nearby watershed devoid of glacial and permafrost features; providing further evidence that the chemical signatures observed within the Green Lake watersheds are likely the result of cryospheric melt exposing barren soils to biological and geochemical processes. These findings confound emissions policies and associated water quality improvement efforts, as climate change and associated cryospheric melt may affect affect alpine NO3- concentrations as much, or more than atmospheric deposition trends.

  3. What determines the magnitude of carbon cycle-climate feedbacks?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Damon Matthews; Michael Eby; Tracy Ewen; Pierre Friedlingstein; Barbara J. Hawkins

    2007-01-01

    Positive feedbacks between climate change and the carbon cycle have the potential to amplify the growth of atmospheric carbon dioxide and accelerate future climate warming. However, both the magnitude of and the processes which drive future carbon cycle-climate feedbacks remain highly uncertain. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon model to investigate how the response of vegetation photosynthesis to

  4. Modeling Potential Equilibrium States of Vegetation and Terrestrial Water Cycle of Mesoamerica under Climate Change Scenarios*

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Modeling Potential Equilibrium States of Vegetation and Terrestrial Water Cycle of Mesoamerica and the water cycle in Mesoamerica is evaluated. Mesoamerica is a global biodiversity hotspot with highly and water cycle under three ensembles of model runs, one for each of the groups of greenhouse gas emission

  5. Changes in the terrestrial water cycle across an elevation gradient in the Colorado Headwaters region from cloud resolving simulations with the WRF regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.; Gochis, D. J.; Clark, M. P.; Liu, C.; Dudhia, J.; Yates, D. N.; Chen, F.; Tewari, M.; Gutmann, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies have indicated that climate change will have a pronounced impact on the water cycle due to the enhanced moisture and evapotranspiration. The representation of the water cycle in most climate models, however, is relatively poor due in part to their coarse resolution, the resulting poor representation of complex topography, as well as the difficulty of representing convection using existing convective parameterizations. As a result, there is some uncertainty regarding the magnitude of these changes, especially in regions of complex terrain. To overcome these deficiencies, a high resolution (4 km) cloud resolving simulation of the current climate (continuous eight years starting 2001) and a perturbed, warmer and wetter, climate using the Pseudo Global Warming approach was performed using the WRF regional climate model over the Colorado Headwaters region. This region includes the headwaters of the Colorado, Platte, Rio Grande and Arkansas Rivers, and is one of the key source regions for water in the Southwest; ~85% of the streamflow for the Colorado River comes from snowmelt in this region. The current climate simulation was driven by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) with 32 km resolution and 3 hourly updates. The future simulation was driven by the same NARR reanalysis with perturbed moisture and temperature from a CCSM A1B AR4 simulation of the global future climate in 2045-2055. This study examines changes in the terrestrial component of the water cycle, especially how climate change may impact the partitioning of precipitation between evapotranspiration and runoff and the availability of water in a future climate. We focus analysis on hydrologic changes across an elevation gradient to examine how changes in the climatological availability of energy and water affect seasonal cycles of snowpack, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration. Results show that the performance of the WRF model in current climate for precipitation, temperature and snowpack was reasonable for both winter and summer during the 2001-2008 period using SNOTEL observations at ~100 sites. This accuracy supports the use of such a model to make inferences about likely changes to the water cycle in a future climate. Such inferences are an important input to water resources planning in an environment where climate change is likely.

  6. Increase of carbon cycle feedback with climate sensitivity: results from a coupled climate and carbon cycle model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Govindasamy; S. Thompson; A. Mirin; M. Wickett; K. Caldeira; C. Delire

    2005-01-01

    Coupled climate and carbon cycle modelling studies have shown that the feedback between global warming and the carbon cycle, in particular the terrestrial carbon cycle, could accelerate climate change and result in greater warming. In this paper we investigate the sensitivity of this feedback for year 2100 global warming in the range of 0 to 8 K. Differing climate sensitivities

  7. programs in climate change

    E-print Network

    existing programs in climate change science and infrastructure. The Laboratory has a 15- year history in climate change science. The Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM) project develops and maintains advanced numerical models of the ocean, sea ice, and ice sheets for use in global climate change

  8. Temporal changes in the isotope composition of Sierra spring water: Implications for recent climatic changes and carbon cycling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. F.; Rademacher, L. K.; Manning, A. H.; Blumhagen, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Springs are natural windows into groundwater systems, which are good archives of signals inherited at the time of recharge, as well as those gained during subsequent groundwater flow. These signals are influenced by water rock interactions and temporal variations of external forcing often related to climatic, anthropogenic, and ecological changes. Spring water piston flow ages as determined from environmental tracers (CFCs, tritium, SF6) range between <1 yr to 50 yr and differ depending on which tracer is used. Using a 13-yr data set, Manning et al. (J Hydro., 460/61, 13-28, 2012) found that a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (<50 yr), best explained the age data. Here, we will present spring apparent ages using the CFC piston flow model. Many parameters, including major cations, stable isotopes of water, 14C, and caddisfly species diversity correlate with CFC apparent ages. Cation concentrations, pH, and caddisfly species diversity increase while stable isotope compositions and 14C contents decrease with increasing apparent CFC ages. From waters recharging in 1960 to waters recharging in 1990, there is a 1.2‰ and 11‰ increase in ?18O and ?D, respectively. Historic temperature records from surrounding areas show about a 2°C mean winter temperature increase over the same period. This temperature change alone is not great enough to explain the observed increase in ?18O. We suggest that changes in atmospheric circulation patterns or changes in snow melt processes account for the remaining offset in ?18O. Spring 14C content ranged between 85 and 110 pmc and vary with apparent age, whereby the youngest groundwater has the highest radiocarbon values. The spring 14C is set by the soil pCO2 because the aquifer contains little carbonate, and its trend can be best described assuming the soil CO2 is composed of a 50:50 mix of young (15-25 years) and old (4000 years) soil carbon reservoir sources for the early part of the record and a 33:67 mix for the later portion. These results are consistent with previous soil carbon studies and demonstrate that soil carbon dynamics are variable within the watershed. The timescale of these geochemical changes recorded in the hydrologic records is short (decadal scale) and suggests that the geochemistry of groundwater is a useful tool for studying climate and other watershed changes over these intervals.

  9. Designing Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, P. C.; ORyan, C.

    2012-12-01

    In a time when sensationalism rules the online world, it is best to keep things short. The people of the online world are not passing back and forth lengthy articles, but rather brief glimpses of complex information. This is the target audience we attempt to educate. Our challenge is then to attack not only ignorance, but also apathy toward global climate change, while conforming to popular modes of learning. When communicating our scientific material, it was difficult to determine what level of information was appropriate for our audience, especially with complex subject matter. Our unconventional approach for communicating the carbon crisis as it applies to global climate change caters to these 'recreational learners'. Using story-telling devices acquired from Carolyne's biomedical art background coupled with Peter's extensive knowledge of carbon cycle and ecosystems science, we developed a dynamic series of illustrations that capture the attention of a callous audience. Adapting complex carbon cycle and climate science into comic-book-style animations creates a channel between artist, scientist, and the general public. Brief scenes of information accompanied by text provide a perfect platform for visual learners, as well as fresh portrayals of stale material for the jaded. In this way art transcends the barriers of the cerebral and the abstract, paving the road to understanding.;

  10. From Fall to Spring, or Spring to Fall? Seasonal Cholera Transmission Cycles and Implications for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R.; Islam, S.; WE Reason

    2010-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat in many developing countries around the world. The striking seasonality and the annual recurrence of this infectious disease in endemic areas continues to be of considerable interest to scientists and public health workers. Despite major advances in the ecological, and microbiological understanding of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent, the role of underlying macro-scale hydroclimatic processes in propagating the disease in different seasons and years is not well understood. The incidence of cholera in the Bengal Delta region, the ‘native homeland’ of cholera, shows distinct biannual peaks in the southern floodplains, as opposed to single annual peaks in coastal areas and the northern parts of Bangladesh, as well as other cholera-endemic regions in the world. A coupled analysis of the regional hydroclimate and cholera incidence reveals a strong association of the spatio-temporal variability of incidence peaks with seasonal processes and extreme events. At a seasonal scale, the cycles indicate a spring-fall transmission pattern, contrary to the prevalent notion of a fall-spring transmission cycle. We show that the asymmetric seasonal hydroclimatology affects regional cholera dynamics by providing a coastal growth environment for bacteria in spring, while propagating transmission to fall by flooding. This seasonal interpretation of the progression of cholera has important implications, for formulating effective cholera intervention and mitigation efforts through improved water management and understanding the impacts of changing climate patterns on seasonal cholera transmission. (Water Environental Research Education Actionable Solutions Network)

  11. Abrupt Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site serves as a broad introduction to the subject of abrupt climate change. It cites several historical examples of climate change and their impact on human civilization. In addition, some of the current questions about climate are presented including the drying of the Sahel since the 1960s and changes in the El Nino pattern. The site includes links to a question and answer feature, paleoclimate research that focuses on how and why abrupt climate change events occurred in the recent past, and an explanation of a joint observational and modeling approach to climate change. There is also a link to the Climate Kids Corner with on-line activities.

  12. Climate Change: Basic Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... now. Learn More What are climate change and global warming? Global warming refers to the recent and ongoing rise in ... increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Global warming is causing climate patterns to change. However, global ...

  13. Dampening prey cycle overrides the impact of climate change on predator population dynamics: a long-term demographic study on tawny owls.

    PubMed

    Millon, Alexandre; Petty, Steve J; Little, Brian; Gimenez, Olivier; Cornulier, Thomas; Lambin, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Predicting the dynamics of animal populations with different life histories requires careful understanding of demographic responses to multifaceted aspects of global changes, such as climate and trophic interactions. Continent-scale dampening of vole population cycles, keystone herbivores in many ecosystems, has been recently documented across Europe. However, its impact on guilds of vole-eating predators remains unknown. To quantify this impact, we used a 27-year study of an avian predator (tawny owl) and its main prey (field vole) collected in Kielder Forest (UK) where vole dynamics shifted from a high- to a low-amplitude fluctuation regime in the mid-1990s. We measured the functional responses of four demographic rates to changes in prey dynamics and winter climate, characterized by wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (wNAO). First-year and adult survival were positively affected by vole density in autumn but relatively insensitive to wNAO. The probability of breeding and number of fledglings were higher in years with high spring vole densities and negative wNAO (i.e. colder and drier winters). These functional responses were incorporated into a stochastic population model. The size of the predator population was projected under scenarios combining prey dynamics and winter climate to test whether climate buffers or alternatively magnifies the impact of changes in prey dynamics. We found the observed dampening vole cycles, characterized by low spring densities, drastically reduced the breeding probability of predators. Our results illustrate that (i) change in trophic interactions can override direct climate change effect; and (ii) the demographic resilience entailed by longevity and the occurrence of a floater stage may be insufficient to buffer hypothesized environmental changes. Ultimately, dampened prey cycles would drive our owl local population towards extinction, with winter climate regimes only altering persistence time. These results suggest that other vole-eating predators are likely to be threatened by dampening vole cycles throughout Europe. PMID:24634279

  14. Earth's Orbit and Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this self-paced tutorial, learners examine data to determine the relative contribution of what we call natural climate cycles and that of human-caused greenhouse gases to contemporary climate change. Changes in the Earth-Sun geometry over time are explored using interactive digital applets. A section supporting pedagogical techniques that begin with student prior conceptions and a list of common Earth science student misconceptions are included. Vocabulary terms are hot linked to a glossary. This is the sixth of ten self-paced professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

  15. Climate Change and Biodiverstiy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes climate change due to human activities and natural factors; future scenarios due to global warming; and how climate change will impact ecosystems and biodiversity. It includes information on political activity such as avoidance, mitigation and adaptation as a response to climate change. Current projects of the United Nations Environment Programme - World Conservation Monitoring Centre( UNEP-WCMC) involving involving climate change migration and adaptation and impact on the ecosystem services.

  16. Relationships between solar activity and climate change. [sunspot cycle effects on lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. O.

    1974-01-01

    Recurrent droughts are related to the double sunspot cycle. It is suggested that high solar activity generally increases meridional circulations and blocking patterns at high and intermediate latitudes, especially in winter. This effect is related to the sudden formation of cirrus clouds during strong geomagnetic activity that originates in the solar corpuscular emission.

  17. International Finance and Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    International Finance and Climate Change Thursday, October 17, 2013 Breakfast ­ 8:30 a Principal Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Group at International Finance Corporation, World Bank Group Vladimir Stenek Senior Climate Change Specialist, Climate Business Department of the International

  18. Carbonate formation and water level changes in a paleo-lake and its implication for carbon cycle and climate change, arid China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Wang, Nai'ang; Li, Zhuolun; Zhou, Xuehua; Zhang, Chengqi; Wang, Yue

    2013-12-01

    Carbonate deposition is a main inorganic carbon sink in lakes, which varies depending on climate change and internal lake dynamics. Research on the relationship between lake carbonate and climate will help to understand mechanisms of carbon cycle in lacustrine systems. The approach of this study is to explicitly link carbonate formation with Holocene long-term climate change and lake evolution in a paleo-lake (Zhuye Lake), which is a terminal lake of a typical inland drainage basin in arid China. This paper presents analysis on grain-size, carbonate content and mineralogical composition of sediment samples from different locations of Zhuye Lake. The results show that calcite and aragonite are two main components for the lake carbonate, and the carbonate enrichment is associated with lake expansion during the Late Glacial and early to middle Holocene. Holocene lake expansion in arid regions of China is usually connected with high basin-wide precipitation that can strengthen the basin-wide surface carbonate accumulation in the terminal lake. For this reason, Zhuye Lake plays a role of carbon sinks during the wet periods of the Holocene.

  19. Global Climate Change Exploratorium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Exploratorium

    This site, funded by NSF, is the home page for the Global Climate Change research explorer. Multicolor tabs at the top of the page link to further information and visualizations (graphs, charts, pictures, etc.) for climate change resources in each of the Earth's spheres, including: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and global effects of climate change.

  20. The Mathematics Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Zeeman, Mary Lou

    The Mathematics of Climate Change Graciela Chichilnisky UNESCO Professor of Mathematics January 7 & 8, 2008 #12;Climate Change is a New Phenomenon Notoriously di cult to model mathematically;Evaluating global warming #12;The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) nds that human - induced

  1. Population and climate change

    E-print Network

    Kalnay, Eugenia

    Population and climate change: a proposal Eugenia Kalnay University of Maryland with deep gratitude) Impact of land use and land-use change on climate (Observations minus Reanalysis): over the last 30 years and Mars data assimilation 2) Impact of land use and land-use change on climate (Observations minus

  2. Moving Toward Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Moving Toward Climate Change Adaptation The Promise of the Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation CITATION: Graumlich, L. and W.L. Francis (Eds.). 2010. Moving Toward Climate Change Adaptation: The Promise Toward Climate Change Adaptation | 3 Photo:PaulHorsley TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary 5 Preface 11 I

  3. Environment and Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Galles, David

    Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE #12;The opinions expressed;Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE Edited by Frank Laczko and Christine with with the financial support of #12;3 Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence Contents

  4. The Changing Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the global change of climate. Presents the trend of climate change with graphs. Describes mathematical climate models including expressions for the interacting components of the ocean-atmosphere system and equations representing the basic physical laws governing their behavior. Provides three possible responses on the change. (YP)

  5. Forest Research: Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

  6. Abrupt Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Alley; J. Marotzke; W. D. Nordhaus; J. T. Overpeck; D. M. Peteet; R. A. Pielke Jr; R. T. Pierrehumbert; P. B. Rhines; T. F. Stocker; L. D. Talley; J. M. Wallace

    2003-01-01

    Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur for many reasons, it is conceivable that human forcing of climate change is increasing the probability of large, abrupt events. Were such an event to recur, the economic and ecological impacts

  7. Climate Change Workshop 2007

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

  8. Characterization of the Water and Energy Cycles in the Agro-Pastoral Sahel from 1950 to 2010, in a Context of Climate and Land-Use Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Manuela, G.; Sultan, B.; Kergoat, L.; Vischel, T.; Velluet, C.

    2014-12-01

    The water cycle and ecosystem productivity in the Sahel are tightly linked. Combined with land-use changes, modifications in the rainfall regime and climate can have important consequences on local livelihoods, as illustrated by the devastating droughts in the 1980s. Primary production, but also atmosphere dynamics and aquifer recharge, strongly depend on surface-atmosphere interactions. Although the processes underpinning the water and energy cycles at the surface-atmosphere level are starting to be understood, little is known about how they could have evolved in the past 60 years. This study analyses changes in the water and energy cycles for two major ecosystems (millet and fallow) found in the agro-pastoral Sahel from 1950 to 2010, in a context of strong climate and land-use change. Estimations were undertaken using a process-based Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model (SiSPAT) capable of representing the main surface-atmosphere interactions taking place in the Sahel. Vegetation characteristics were simulated through coupling with vegetation models (STEP and SARRAH) and in-situ data representative of the various ecosystem types. Changes in the rainfall regime induced modifications of the water cycle, both at annual and seasonal time-scales. Different productivities and water seasonal cycles for the millet and fallow systems were evidenced, in accordance with previous studies. When combined with land-use changes, this induced large variations in the water and energy cycles at the landscape scale. These modifications could have important feedback effects on local climate, which are currently not taken into account in Earth System Models. Future work should also focus on understanding the impact of other drivers of change, such as decreasing soil fertility and increased grazing pressure, on ecosystem productivity and the resulting effects on the water and energy cycles in the Sahel.

  9. The effects of global climate change on the cycling and processes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, K.; Mayer, B.; Su, J.; Mathis, M.

    2014-05-01

    The fate and cycling of two selected legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), PCB 153 and ?-HCH, in the North Sea in the 21st century have been modelled with combined hydrodynamic and fate and transport ocean models (HAMSOM and FANTOM, respectively). To investigate the impact of climate variability on POPs in the North Sea in the 21st century, future scenario model runs for three 10-year periods to the year 2100 using plausible levels of both in situ concentrations and atmospheric, river and open boundary inputs are performed. This slice mode under a moderate scenario (A1B) is sufficient to provide a basis for further analysis. For the HAMSOM and atmospheric forcing, results of the IPCC A1B (SRES) 21st century scenario are utilized, where surface forcing is provided by the REMO downscaling of the ECHAM5 global atmospheric model, and open boundary conditions are provided by the MPIOM global ocean model. Dry gas deposition and volatilization of ?-HCH increase in the future relative to the present by up to 20% (in the spring and summer months for deposition and in summer for volatilization). In the water column, total mass of ?-HCH and PCB 153 remain fairly steady in all three runs. In sediment, ?-HCH increases in the future runs, relative to the present, while PCB 153 in sediment decreases exponentially in all three runs, but even faster in the future, due to the increased number of storms, increased duration of gale wind conditions and increased water and air temperatures, all of which are the result of climate change. Annual net sinks exceed sources at the ends of all periods. Overall, the model results indicate that the climate change scenarios considered here generally have a negligible influence on the simulated fate and transport of the two POPs in the North Sea, although the increased number and magnitude of storms in the 21st century will result in POP resuspension and ensuing revolatilization events. Trends in emissions from primary and secondary sources will remain the key driver of levels of these contaminants over time.

  10. Climate Change: Teaching Through Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deb and Chad

    2007-12-06

    Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance Dec. 6, 2007 Agenda 8:00 Welcome Puzzle Intro Overview: The Science of Climate Change Carbon Cycle Activity Data Analysis: Buoy Data Activity Using Technology Effectively 10:00-10:15 Break Links to the 2007 Maine Learning Results Introduction to Afternoon Exploration COSEE (COSEE Ocean-Climate beta website) Giovanni project (Givoanni: Arabian Sea Lesson) (Giovanni Graphing Activity) Earth Exploration Toolkit: Whither Arctic Sea Ice? (Whither Arctic Sea Ice?) Google Earth Climate Change Resources 11:15-12:00 Lunch Afternoon Resource Exploration Exploration Report and Discussion Antarctic Expedition Opportunity WAIS Divide Outreach Blog WAIS Divide Main Science Page Wrap-Up/Evaluation ...

  11. Is Climate Change Happening?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    King's Centre for Visualization in Science

    For this lesson, the guiding Concept Question is: What is climate change and how does climate relate to greenhouse gas concentrations over time? This activity is the second lesson in a nine-lesson module 'Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change' produced by the International Year of Chemistry project (2011).

  12. IISDnet: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) provides this site to present its knowledge base for climate change and adaptation. The knowledge base includes links to global projects on climate change, policy documents and research reports. The e-newsletter, Climate Canada, is accessible from this site as well.

  13. Global Climatic Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Houghton; George M. Woodwell

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed.

  14. Expansion of Bioenergy Crops in the Midwestern United States: Implications for the Hydrologic Cycle under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Drewry, D.

    2010-12-01

    To meet the emerging bioenergy production demands, the agricultural Midwestern United States is likely to see large-scale land use conversions to accommodate expansion of perennial bioenergy crops such as Miscanthus (Miscanthus X giganteus) and Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). This leads to open questions regarding the impact on the hydrologic cycle in the region. To address these, a mechanistic model MLCan (Multi-Layer Canopy model, Drewry et al. 2010) is applied to analyze and predict: (i) the eco-physiological adaptations in the two most promising perennial bioenergy C4 crops in the Midwest, viz. Miscanthus and Switchgrass; and (ii) the impact on soil-water use. Model validation is performed using recent 2005 observations and then projections under climate change for 2050 are analyzed. The result indicates that compared with corn (Zea mays L.), another C4 but annual crop, Miscanthus and Switchgrass utilize more water for total seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) by approximately 58% to 36%, respectively, due to their higher leaf area and longer growing season. Under projected 2050 scenario of elevated atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) [550 ppm], Miscanthus, Switchgrass, and corn are likely to decrease water use for ET by approximately 16%, 15%, 13% for respectively. However, when projected increase in air temperature is also considered, it results in an increase in ET. Air temperature sensitivity to water use of each crop under environmental changes is examined. Meanwhile, spatial extent and distribution of land-use change and bioenergy crop production is driven by economics and policy. Based on economic projections and the corresponding expansion of land area predicted for bioenergy crop production an analysis is conducted to assess the spatial impacts on hydrology. It is predicted that, based on projected elevated CO2 and air temperature increases, the total additional amount of water use in one growing season for these bioenergy crops in the Midwest may vary approximately from 5 to 35 (bil. m3), mostly contributed from the southern States.

  15. Carbon cycles and climate: a selected bibliography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Olson; L. J. Allison; B. N. Collier

    1980-01-01

    This partially annotated bibliography contains the first 1000 references from a computerized file of literature on the global ecological implications of carbon cycles and climatic changes. Many early citations originated from the Biogeochemical Ecological Information Center established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1968 and from profiles of computerized files such as Government Research Abstracts (GRA) and Biological Abstracts (BA).

  16. High regional climate sensitivity over continental China constrained by glacial-recent changes in temperature and the hydrological cycle

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Robert A.; Risi, Camille; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Eiler, John M.; Seibt, Ulrike; Neelin, J. David; Li, Gaojun; Tripati, Aradhna K.

    2013-01-01

    The East Asian monsoon is one of Earth’s most significant climatic phenomena, and numerous paleoclimate archives have revealed that it exhibits variations on orbital and suborbital time scales. Quantitative constraints on the climate changes associated with these past variations are limited, yet are needed to constrain sensitivity of the region to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Here, we show central China is a region that experienced a much larger temperature change since the Last Glacial Maximum than typically simulated by climate models. We applied clumped isotope thermometry to carbonates from the central Chinese Loess Plateau to reconstruct temperature and water isotope shifts from the Last Glacial Maximum to present. We find a summertime temperature change of 6–7 °C that is reproduced by climate model simulations presented here. Proxy data reveal evidence for a shift to lighter isotopic composition of meteoric waters in glacial times, which is also captured by our model. Analysis of model outputs suggests that glacial cooling over continental China is significantly amplified by the influence of stationary waves, which, in turn, are enhanced by continental ice sheets. These results not only support high regional climate sensitivity in Central China but highlight the fundamental role of planetary-scale atmospheric dynamics in the sensitivity of regional climates to continental glaciation, changing greenhouse gas levels, and insolation. PMID:23671087

  17. Global Changes of the Water Cycle Intensity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Bosilovich; Siegfried D. Schubert; Gregory K. Walker

    2005-01-01

    In this study, numerical simulations of the twentieth-century climate are evaluated, focusing on the changes in the intensity of the global water cycle. A new model diagnostic of atmospheric water vapor cycling rate is developed and employed that relies on constituent tracers predicted at the model time step. This diagnostic is compared to a simplified traditional calculation of cycling rate,

  18. Tropical forests and the global carbon cycle: impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate change and rate of deforestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Cramer; Alberte Bondeau; Sibyll Schaphoff; Wolfgang Lucht; B. Smith; S. Sitch

    2004-01-01

    The remaining carbon stocks in wet tropical forests are currently at risk because of anthropogenic defores- tation, but also because of the possibility of release driven by climate change. To identify the relative roles of CO2 increase, changing temperature and rainfall, and deforestation in the future, and the magnitude of their impact on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, we have applied a

  19. Centennial-scale interactions between the carbon cycle and anthropogenic climate change using a dynamic Earth system model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Winguth; U. Mikolajewicz; M. Gröger; E. Maier-Reimer; G. Schurgers; M. Vizcaíno

    2005-01-01

    A complex Earth system model including atmosphere, ocean, ice sheets, marine carbon cycle and terrestrial vegetation was used to study the long-term response (100–1000 yrs) of the climate to different increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A 3.2 K global mean surface temperature increase is simulated for a 3xCO2 experiment. The freshwater input by melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to

  20. Centennial-scale interactions between the carbon cycle and anthropogenic climate change using a dynamic Earth system model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Winguth; U. Mikolajewicz; M. Gröger; E. Maier-Reimer; G. Schurgers; M. Vizcaíno

    2005-01-01

    A complex Earth system model including atmosphere, ocean, ice sheets, marine carbon cycle and terrestrial vegetation was used to study the long-term response (100-1000 yrs) of the climate to different increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A 3.2 K global mean surface temperature increase is simulated for a 3xCO2 experiment. The freshwater input by melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to

  1. Climate Change Economics and Policy

    E-print Network

    Romano, Daniela

    AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

  2. Responding to Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    King's Centre for Visualization in Science

    This is the ninth and final lesson in a series of lessons about climate change. This lesson focuses on the various activities that humans can do to mitigate the effects of climate change. This includes information on current and predicted CO2 emission scenarios across the globe, alternative energy sources, and how people are currently responding to climate change. Importantly, this lesson is motivating in showing students that they can make a difference.

  3. Climate Change Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Experts Jason Shogren and Michael Toman wrote this discussion paper (00-22) on the economics of climate change policy, recently posted on the Resources for the Future (RFF) Website. The paper (.pdf format) examines the risks of climate change, the benefits of protection from climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. Also included is a summary of key policy lessons and knowledge gaps.

  4. Study of Climate Change and its Impact on WaterCycle in Yangtze River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ju; Zhenchun, Hao; Zhongbo, Yu; Huanghe, Gu; Xiaolei, Fu

    2015-04-01

    Under the condition of global warming, the principals of water movements and the prediction of water resources dynamic trends are recently the most popular issue in water science research.Based on the existing distributed hydrologic model system and synthesizing multiple-source data information, applying the "3S" technology and supercomputers, coupling the new generation coarse-gridded land surface model, large scale LSX-HMS is established on YRB at 20-km grids. This model accurately simulates monthly discharge at Cuntan, Hankou and Datong. The spatial variations of precipitation, evaporation, runoff depth, soil water content and other hydrologic features are also simulated with the model. Using multiple methods for dissembling, this study also analyzes the monthly precipitation and temperature simulated under the A2, A1B and B1 scenarios of HADCM3. An artificial neural network method and Delta-DCSI method was proposed and compared with bilinear interpolation method, inverse-distance squared method and Kriging interpolation method in the application of spatial downscaling. The Delta-DCSI method is more suitable for the spatial downscale of meteorological elements and provide a new way to downscale the results of GCMs to station scale. For the temporal downscale of temperature (monthly to daily), the parabolic interpolation, spline function, sine function method which consider the distribution of residual error was proposed and could reflect the stochastic volatility of daily temperature quite well. The dissembled results of precipitation and temperature are used to drive the coupled model LSX-HMS, in order to assess the trend of water dynamics in YRD for the period of 2010 to 2099. It indicated the increasing trend of the water resources during all the future scenarios, in accordance with the increasing trend of the precipitation. Under the conditions of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2, it will produce the highest possibility of the occurrence of extreme floods. Meanwhile, under the conditions of Special Report on Emissions Scenarios B1, it will produce the lowest possibility of the occurrence of extreme floods. An approach for analyzing extreme floods by using wavelet-based multi-resolution analysis shows that the change regularity is similar between the return period of daily and monthly peak flow, but the return period of yearly peak flow will becomes shorten during 2010 to 2099.

  5. Our Changing Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Kay Berglund

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how global warming makes the leap from the headlines to the classroom with thought-provoking science experiments. To teach her fifth-grade students about climate change, the author starts with a discussion of the United States' local climate. They extend this idea to contrast the local climate with others,…

  6. Communicating Urban Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership

    2011-12-01

    While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of models for community programming and this session will present early results of these efforts while engaging participants in exploring approaches to connecting urban communities and their local concerns to the issues of global climate change.

  7. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air ResourcesBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  8. Responding to the Consequences of Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    The talk addresses the scientific consensus concerning climate change, and outlines the many paths that are open to mitigate climate change and its effects on human activities. Diverse aspects of the changing water cycle on Earth are used to illustrate the reality climate change. These include melting snowpack, glaciers, and sea ice; changes in runoff; rising sea level; moving ecosystems, an more. Human forcing of climate change is then explained, including: greenhouse gasses, atmospheric aerosols, and changes in land use. Natural forcing effects are briefly discussed, including volcanoes and changes in the solar cycle. Returning to Earth's water cycle, the effects of climate-induced changes in water resources is presented. Examples include wildfires, floods and droughts, changes in the production and availability of food, and human social reactions to these effects. The lk then passes to a discussion of common human reactions to these forecasts of climate change effects, with a summary of recent research on the subject, plus several recent historical examples of large-scale changes in human behavior that affect the climate and ecosystems. Finally, in the face for needed action on climate, the many options for mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects are presented, with examples of the ability to take affordable, and profitable action at most all levels, from the local, through national.

  9. Lake Level Changes Under a Constant Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rupper; K. Huybers; G. Roe

    2008-01-01

    Lake-level changes are important indicators of climate change, providing particular insight into the nature of hydrological balances (e.g., Benson et al., 1989; Cross et al., 2000). Indeed, evidence from paleo lake changes is one of the primary reasons the hydrological cycle in the subtropics have come to be seen as potential 'tipping points' of the climate system (Lenton et al.,

  10. Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Professor of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Hulme, Mike

    Climate Change: Conflict, Security and Vulnerability Mike Hulme Professor of Climate Change Science, Society and Sustainability Group School of Environmental Sciences Rethinking Climate Change, Conflict security" "increase risk of conflicts among and within nations" #12;· from `climatic change' to `climate-change

  11. Climate Change and Groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine E. Hughes; Dioni I. Cendón; Mathew P. Johansen; Karina T. Meredith

    \\u000a Human civilisations have for millennia depended on the stability of groundwater resources to survive dry or unreliable climates.\\u000a While groundwater supplies are buffered against short-term effects of climate variability, they can be impacted over longer\\u000a time frames through changes in rainfall, temperature, snowfall, melting of glaciers and permafrost and vegetation and land-use\\u000a changes. Groundwater provides an archive of past climate

  12. Climate change 2007 - mitigation of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, B.; Davidson, O.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Meyer, L. (eds.)

    2007-07-01

    This volume of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art and worldwide overview of scientific knowledge related to the mitigation of climate change. It includes a detailed assessment of costs and potentials of mitigation technologies and practices, implementation barriers, and policy options for the sectors: energy supply, transport, buildings, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. It links sustainable development policies with climate change practices. This volume will again be the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change. Contents: Foreword; Preface; Summary for policymakers; Technical Summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Framing issues; 3. Issues related to mitigation in the long term context; 4. Energy supply; 5. Transport and its infrastructure; 6. Residential and commercial buildings; 7. Industry; 8. Agriculture; 9. Forestry; 10. Waste management; 11. Mitigation from a cross sectoral perspective; 12. Sustainable development and mitigation; 13. Policies, instruments and co-operative agreements. 300 figs., 50 tabs., 3 annexes.

  13. Learning and climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. Oneill; Paul Crutzen; Arnulf Grübler; Minh Ha-Duong; Klaus Keller; Charles Kolstad; Jonathan Koomey; Andreas Lange; Michael Obersteiner; Michael Oppenheimer; William Pepper; Warren Sanderson; Michael Schlesinger; Nicolas Treich; Alistair Ulph; Mort Webster; Chris Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Learning – i.e. the acquisition of new information that leads to changes in our assessment of uncertainty – plays a prominent role in the international climate policy debate. For example, the view that we should postpone actions until we know more continues to be influential. The latest work on learning and climate change includes new theoretical models, better informed simulations

  14. A Strategy for Climate Change Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Hibbard; G. A. Meehl; P. Cox; P. Friedlingstein

    2007-01-01

    Climate models used for climate change projections are on the threshold of including much greater biological and chemical detail. Today, standard climate models (referred to generically as atmosphere-ocean general circulation models, or AOGCMs) include components that simulate the coupled atmosphere, ocean, land and sea ice. Some modeling centers are now incorporating carbon cycle models into AOGCMs in a move towards

  15. Coastal Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2011-05-31

    As climate changes, dynamic coastal regions are experiencing a wide range of impacts. Sea levels, ocean acidification, sea surface temperatures, ocean heat, and ocean circulation have all been changing in ways unseen for thousands of years. Arctic sea ice melted significantly more during summers in the last 30 years, and storms are intensifying. Coastal ecosystems stand to be damaged, and coasts will likely erode from rising sea levels, intensified storm surges, and flooding that climate change may amplify. Coastal communities will need to prepare adaptation strategies to cope, and many who live or work in coastal regions are wondering what climate change might mean for them. This module provides an overview of the impacts coastal regions are experiencing and may continue to experience as a result of Earth’s changing climate. A video series within the module demonstrates effective strategies for communicating climate science.

  16. Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and

    E-print Network

    1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change Changes · Due to ­ Climate Change ­ Land Cover / Land Use Change ­ Interaction of Climate and Land Cover Change · Resolution ­ Space ­ Time Hydro-Climatic Change · Variability vs. Change (Trends) · Point data

  17. Modeling Global Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vanessa Svihla

    Understanding global climate change is challenging, even for adults, yet having an understanding of this topic is consequential for the future. In this activity, middle school students learn about global climate change using models that allow them to make predictions, observations, and then explain mechanisms for climate change. Component ideas include change over time, deep time, and accumulation. Students are asked to act as advisers on how to lower energy use, and refine their understanding of how and why this is important, before testing their ideas and finally revising their advice.

  18. The Biodiversity: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    International Polar Foundation

    This step-by-step slide show animation, from the International Polar Foundation, deals with the topics of biodiversity and climate change. It lays out the main effects of climate change, i.e. the strengthening of the natural greenhouse effect phenomenon that has been caused by our way of life, and the unprecedented speeding up of rises in temperature compared with the natural periods of warming that have occurred in the past. It also looks at the main consequences of these changes.

  19. Modeling the phenological response to climate change and its impact on carbon cycle in northeastern U.S. forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hong

    By controlling the timing of leaf activities, vegetation phenology plays an important role in regulating photosynthesis and other ecosystem processes. As driven by environmental variables, vegetation phenology has been shifting in response to climate change. The shift in vegetation phenology, in turn, exerts various feedbacks to affect the climate system. The magnitude of phenological change and the feedbacks has yet been well understood. The goal of this dissertation is to use phenological model with remote sensing and climate data to quantify historical and future trends in leaf onset and offset in northeastern U.S. forests, and use a dynamic ecosystem model, Agro-IBIS, to quantify the impact of phenological change on terrestrial carbon balance. This dissertation has three major parts. First, six phenological metrics based on remotely sensed vegetation index were evaluated with ground phenological observation in Agro-IBIS. Second, a modified phenological metric was used to parameterize a set of phenological models at regional scale; one model for each of leaf onset and offset were selected to examine historical trends; Agro-IBIS simulations were run to quantify the impact of phenological trends on ecosystem productivities. Finally, downscaled climate projections from global climate models under two emission scenarios were used to drive phenological models to predict the trends in leaf onset and offset in the 21st century; and the impact of photoperiod on leaf onset were particularly examined. The results of this study suggest that remotely sensed phenological metrics can be used to improve phenological models with evaluation and adjustment; advancement of leaf onset and delay of leaf offset in the past have increased productivities and could potentially mitigate the warming temperature in the future; lack of physiological understanding of the driving factors of phenology such as photoperiod could result in large uncertainties in phenological projections.

  20. Climate Change and the Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The King's Centre for Visualization in Science

    This activity covers the role that the oceans may play in climate change and how climate change may affect the oceans. It is lesson 8 in a nine-lesson module Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate Change.

  1. Climate change risk and response

    E-print Network

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01

    For marine ecosystems, the net impacts of climate change areClimate change will have fundamental impacts on California’s agricultural, forest, and marine ecosystems,ecosystems, and because of this diversity climate change will have different impacts

  2. MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES,

    E-print Network

    MAPPING CLIMATE CHANGE EXPOSURES, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012041 Prepared for: California Energy Commission of California. #12; ii ABSTRACT This study reviewed first available frameworks for climate change adaptation

  3. Climate change and skin.

    PubMed

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many dermatoses. PMID:23407083

  4. CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND FOR INFORMED DECISION-MAKING Stephen E. Schwartz in climate change. Global mean surface temperature is higher today than it's been for at least a millennium Climate Research Unit, East Anglia UK #12;INDICATIONS OF SYSTEMATIC WARMING IN RECENT YEARS The 1990s were

  5. Conservation and Global Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

  6. Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises

    E-print Network

    Abrupt Climate Change Inevitable Surprises Committee on Abrupt Climate Change Ocean Studies Board of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Abrupt climate change : inevitable surprises / Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, Ocean Studies Board, Polar Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

  7. Status of Climate Change 

    E-print Network

    North, G.

    2013-01-01

    Status of Climate Change 2013 CaTee Conference San Antonio 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Menu for Today • IPCC 2013: Assessment Report #5 • Facts about Climate Change... Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Facts about Climate Change ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 ESL-KT-13-12-56 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  8. Climate Change Education .org

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Climate Change Education .org is a volunteer organization made up primarily of docents and interns at California science centers and museums, along with students, scientists, and staff at the University of California, Berkeley. The organization specializes in hands-on science demonstrations relevant to climate change and other topics, and the encouragement of partnerships in education. The group's two portal web sites, Climate Change Education .org and Global Warming California .net, direct visitors to hundreds of links to great resources on subjects of interest.

  9. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  10. What Science Is Telling Us About Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    What is science telling us about climate change? Leading climate change experts discuss (through short videos) one of the most complex scientific puzzles ever to confront humankind. Topics discussed include: "how do we know climate change is occurring," the water cycle, earth's heat balance, and the carbon cycle. An additional "meet the experts pdf" is available for download.

  11. Population and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2000-11-01

    Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of climate change, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and climate change, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.

  12. Climate Change Impacts in the Amazon. Review of scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The Amazon's hydrological cycle is a key driver of global climate, and global climate is therefore sensitive to changes in the Amazon. Climate change threatens to substantially affect the Amazon region, which in turn is expected to alter global climate and increase the risk of biodiversity loss. In this literature review the following subjects can be distinguished: Observed Climatic Change and Variability, Predicted Climatic Change, Impacts, Forests, Freshwater, Agriculture, Health, and Sea Level Rise.

  13. Orbitally-Induced, Quasi-Periodic Climate Change on Mars: Modelling Changes in the Global Cycling of Water and Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Mischna; M. I. Richardson; R. J. Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Mars' orbital parameters (obliquity, eccentricity and argument of perihelion) are thought to have varied substantially on time scales >105 years. Such variations, especially in obliquity, may drastically affect the circulation of the atmosphere and volatile cycling. In this study, we focus on the response of the water and carbon dioxide cycles to changes in these orbital parameters, chiefly obliquity. The

  14. Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for

    E-print Network

    Purdue Climate Change Research Center Impacts of Climate Change for the State of Indiana Prepared for: The Honorable Richard G. Lugar Prepared by: The Purdue Climate Change Research Center February 2008 #12;1 Executive Summary We have analyzed the potential "no-action" impacts of climate change

  15. Observed climate change hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Palazzi, E.; Hardenberg, J.; Provenzale, A.

    2015-05-01

    We quantify climate change hotspots from observations, taking into account the differences in precipitation and temperature statistics (mean, variability, and extremes) between 1981-2010 and 1951-1980. Areas in the Amazon, the Sahel, tropical West Africa, Indonesia, and central eastern Asia emerge as primary observed hotspots. The main contributing factors are the global increase in mean temperatures, the intensification of extreme hot-season occurrence in low-latitude regions and the decrease of precipitation over central Africa. Temperature and precipitation variability have been substantially stable over the past decades, with only a few areas showing significant changes against the background climate variability. The regions identified from the observations are remarkably similar to those defined from projections of global climate models under a "business-as-usual" scenario, indicating that climate change hotspots are robust and persistent over time. These results provide a useful background to develop global policy decisions on adaptation and mitigation priorities over near-time horizons.

  16. Climate Change: Good for Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblak, Jackie

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity with the objective of encouraging students to think about the effects of climate change. Explains background information on dependence to climate and discuses whether climate change is important. Provides information for the activity, extensions, and evaluation. (YDS)

  17. Projected future changes in regional seasonal cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arizmendi, Fernando; Barreiro, Marcelo; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the consequences of climate change is relevant for social, biological and ecomical interests. Particularly, knowing the potential changes in the seasonal cycle is useful for taking the appropiate actions to prevent adverse circumstances. In this study, we aim to detect future changes in the surface air temperature (SAT) seasonal cycles. We do so by analyzing differences in the response of the SAT field to the solar annual forcing in different scenarios of models of the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). With this approach, we are able to find well-localized areas where the temperature cycle change considerably.

  18. Climate Change and Runoff Management

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate Change and Runoff Management in Wisconsin Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance May 10, 2011 David S of Engineering #12;Overview · Understanding climate change · Wisconsin's changing climate · Expected impacts of a changing climate J. Magnuson Source: IPCC 2007 Potter, et al. A longer record is better! #12;What about

  19. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe (eds.)

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  20. Global Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn how the greenhouse effect is related to global warming and how global warming impacts our planet, including global climate change. Extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and how we react to these changes are the main points of focus of this lesson.

  1. Solar Influence: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Research Council

    This short video, the sixth in the National Academies Climate Change, Lines of Evidence series, explores the hypothesis that changes in solar energy output may be responsible for observed global surface temperature rise. Several lines of evidence, such as direct satellite observations, are reviewed.

  2. Increase of Carbon Cycle Feedback with Climate Sensitivity: Results from a coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model

    SciTech Connect

    Govindasamy, B; Thompson, S; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Caldeira, K; Delire, C

    2004-04-01

    Coupled climate and carbon cycle modeling studies have shown that the feedback between global warming and the carbon cycle, in particular the terrestrial carbon cycle, could accelerate climate change and result in larger warming. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of this feedback for year-2100 global warming in the range of 0 K to 8 K. Differing climate sensitivities to increased CO{sub 2} content are imposed on the carbon cycle models for the same emissions. Emissions from the SRES A2 scenario are used. We use a fully-coupled climate and carbon cycle model, the INtegrated Climate and CArbon model (INCCA) the NCAR/DOE Parallel Coupled Model coupled to the IBIS terrestrial biosphere model and a modified-OCMIP ocean biogeochemistry model. In our model, for scenarios with year-2100 global warming increasing from 0 to 8 K, land uptake decreases from 47% to 29% of total CO{sub 2} emissions. Due to competing effects, ocean uptake (16%) shows almost no change at all. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration increases were 48% higher in the run with 8 K global climate warming than in the case with no warming. Our results indicate that carbon cycle amplification of climate warming will be greater if there is higher climate sensitivity to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} content; the carbon cycle feedback factor increases from 1.13 to 1.48 when global warming increases from 3.2 to 8 K.

  3. Coping with climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Topping, J.C. Jr. (ed.)

    1989-06-01

    The Second North American Conference on Preparing for Climate Change may be the most ambitious assemblage of experts ever to assess impact and response strategies to the twin challenges of greenhouse warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Presentations were made by over 160 scientists, environmental leaders and policy makers from the Western Hemisphere, Europe and Asia in 38 sessions over a three day period. Chapters in this volume correspond to the seven regional panels of the Second North American Conference, with discussions of implications of climate changes for the Caribbean, the Arctic, California, the Southern United States, the Chesapeake Bay, Atlantic Canada and New England, and the Great Lakes. This book also contains a policy overview of the climate challenge with contributions from US, Canadian, British and Caribbean governmental and corporate leaders. A chapter devoted to a scientific overview of climate change includes a skillful overview of the key scientific and policy issues involved in greenhouse warming, a seminal article on regional implications of climate change and the potential impacts of global warming on droughts and floods, and a panel discussion involving four of the world's leading stratospheric scientists. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  4. Soil vulnerability to future climate in the southwestern USA, with implications for vegetation change and water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, W. L.; Bachelet, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding soil response to changes in precipitation/snow cover and increasing temperatures is essential to predicting changes in riparian, wetland, and aquatic as well as terrestrial communities in the coming decades. Changes in precipitation and snowmelt are affecting streamflow seasonality and magnitude, and rising air temperatures and declining precipitation affect aquatic habitats directly by causing increases in stream temperatures and evapo-transpiration causing lower streamflow. The water resources of the Colorado River system are projected to be strained due to runoff losses of 7 to 20% this century, and a reduction of approximately 5% of the annual average runoff is due to increased evapotranspiration from early exposure of vegetation and soils. We are developing a spatially-explicit soil vulnerability index of high, moderate and low sensitivity soils for the southwestern USA and comparing it to projections of vegetation dieback under future climate change scenarios to provide 1) a measure of uncertainty of the model skill and 2) a warning that vegetation shifts may increase soil vulnerability in areas where it is still protected by current plant cover, thus enabling a preliminary estimate of the future location of sources of aeolian dust.

  5. Climate-change scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, F.H.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Baldwin, C.K.; Mearns, L.O.

    2003-01-01

    In 1991, the United States Congress passed the Global Change Research Act directing the Executive Branch of government to assess the potential effects of predicted climate change and variability on the nation. This congressional action followed formation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988 by the United Nations Environmental Program and World Meteorological Organization. Some 2,000 scientists from more than 150 nations contribute to the efforts of the IPCC. Under coordination of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the congressionally ordered national assessment has divided the country into 19 regions and five socio-economic sectors that cut across the regions: agriculture, coastal and marine systems, forests, human health, and water. Potential climate-change effects are being assessed in each region and sector, and those efforts collectively make up the national assessment. This document reports the assessment of potential climate-change effects on the Rocky Mountain/Great Basin (RMGB) region which encompasses parts of nine western states. The assessment began February 16-18, 1998 with a workshop in Salt Lake City co-convened by Frederic H. Wagner of Utah State University and Jill Baron of the U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (BRD). Invitations were sent to some 300 scientists and stakeholders representing 18 socio-economic sectors in nine statesa?|

  6. Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture

    E-print Network

    7/23/2009 1 Climate Change and Indiana Agriculture Dev Niyogi Indiana State Climatologist it l d f d i li tWebsite: landsurface.org and iclimate.org What is Climate Change? (and...... what generally to large scale weather patterns in time or space, i.e. a tropical climate. Climate Change & Global

  7. Biological Impacts of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    McCarty, John P.

    Biological Impacts of Climate Change John P McCarty, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE and reproduction depend on how well adapted individuals are to local climate patterns. Climate change can disrupt subsequent impacts on populations or species' distributions across geographic regions. Climate change may

  8. Climate Change and Ground Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo A. Loáiciga

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the theory of climate change and the relationship of climate-change forcing to hydrologic and aquifer processes. It focuses on regional aquifer systems and on the methods to link large-scale climate-change processes to ground-water recharge and to simulate ground-water flow and solute transport in a warmer, 2xCO2 climate. The article reviews methods currently available to generate climate-change forcing

  9. The Impact of Climate Change on Microbial Communities and Carbon Cycling in High Arctic Permafrost Soil from Spitsbergen, Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, K. C.; Schwery, D.; Yoshikawa, K.; Christiansen, H. H.; Pearce, D.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost-affected soils are among the most fragile ecosystems in which current microbial controls on organic matter decomposition are changing as a result of climate change. Warmer conditions in the high Arctic will lead to a deepening of the seasonal active layer of permafrost, provoking changes in microbial processes and possibly resulting in exacerbated carbon degradation under increasing anoxic conditions. The viable and non-viable fractions of the microbial community in a permafrost soil from Adventdalen, Spitsbergen, Norway were subjected to a comprehensive investigation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Molecular analyses using FISH (with CTC-DAPI) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) on a 257cm deep core, revealed the presence of all major microbial soil groups, with the active layer having more viable cells, and a higher microbial community diversity. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) flux measurements were performed to show the amount of C stored in the sample. We demonstrated that the microbial community composition from the soil in the center of the core was most likely influenced by small scale variations in environmental conditions. Community structure showed distinct shift of presence of bacterial groups along the vertical temperature gradient profile and microbial counts and diversity was found to be highest in the surface layers, decreasing with depth. It was observed that soil properties driving microbial diversity and functional potential varied across the permafrost table. Data on the variability of CO2 and CH4 distribution described in peat structure heterogeneity are important for modeling emissions on a larger scale. Furthermore, linking microbial biomass to gas distribution may elucidate the cause of peak CO2 and CH4 and their changes in relation to environmental change and peat composition.

  10. Confronting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, an African-American think tank based in Washington, D.C., convenes a commission to focus on the disparate impact of climate change on minority communities and help involve historically Black institutions in clean energy projects. Launched formally in July 2008, the Commission to Engage…

  11. What is Climate Change?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is offered by Canada's Natural Resources Department. The main page describes the basics of the phenomenon, while the links tell about the impact of climate change on health and safety, communities, land resources, water resources, and coastal regions. Although specific to Canadian regions, the site will give visitors from all over a good introduction to the potential problems of global warming.

  12. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  13. Climate Change? When? Where?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city. The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is…

  14. Emissions versus climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is likely to offset some of the improvements in air quality expected from reductions in pollutant emissions. A comprehensive analysis of future air quality over North America suggests that, on balance, the air will still be cleaner in coming decades....

  15. Climate Change in Chris Brierley

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Climate Change in HadCM3 Chris Brierley Chapa Club - 21/06/06 #12;Increase in CO2 A climate forcing References Climate Change SRES Scenarios - T. C. Johns, J. M. Gregory,W. J. Ingram, C. E. Johnson, A. Jones leads to a change in the energy balance of earth. Earth responds by changing its characteristics

  16. Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Proposed Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources #12;CLIMATE CHANGE SCOPING PLAN State of California Air Resources Board Resolution 08-47 December 11 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause global warming; WHEREAS, the adverse impacts of climate change

  17. Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21st century simulations with interactive carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boysen, L. R.; Brovkin, V.; Arora, V. K.; Cadule, P.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Kato, E.; Pongratz, J.; Gayler, V.

    2014-04-01

    Biogeophysical (BGP) and biogeochemical (BGC) effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC) are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO2 simulations for the 21st century. Results from four Earth System models (ESMs) are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC) contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts (LUCID) project. Over the period, 2006-2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC-induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between -0.47 and 0.10 K). Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO2-fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g. whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly) and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially, when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC.

  18. Occasional paper Climate Change Policy

    E-print Network

    March 2011 Occasional paper 27 Climate Change Policy and Business in Europe Evidence from and Ulrich J. Wagner #12;Abstract This report presents new evidence relating to the effects of climate policy and Climate Change, the EU Commission (DG Climate), the Environmental Committee of the European Parliament

  19. Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Bruce; Hoesung Lee; Erik F. Haites

    1996-01-01

    Large, irreversible changes in climate may have a major effect on the economies of the world. The social costs of climate change will vary dramatically from country to country. This landmark assessment from Working Group III of the IPCC addresses the costs of climate change, both in terms of society and equity issues, and the economic burden of combating adverse

  20. Effect of climate and environmental changes on plankton biodiversity and bigeochemical cycles of the Dongsha (Pratas) Atoll, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wen-tseng; Hsu, Pei-Kai; Hunag, Jia-Jang; Wang, Yu-Huai

    2013-04-01

    Dongsha (Pratas) Atoll, the so called "Pearl Crown of South China Sea", is a well-developed atoll with a total area of 80000 hectares. It possesses various ecosystems and has very high biodiversity, but it is very sensitive to climate change and physical processes. According to our investigation within the shallow semi-enclosed atoll in April, July, and October, 2011 (i.e., spring, summer, and autumn, respectively), we found that plankton assemblages and hydrographical conditions exhibited clear seasonal and spatial variations. Colder and higher salinity water was observed in April, while warmer water in July and lower salinity water in October, respectively. Nutrient concentration within the atoll was similar to that of the oligotrophic South China Sea waters and seemed to be in nitrogen-limit situation, while the distribution pattern of DOC and POC was mainly attributed to Chla and imported detritus matters. Carbon deposition flux also showed significant seasonal changes, but POC/PN value was near Redfield ratio, implying mostly due to biogenic factors; however it could still be classified as a typical coral ecosystem, since CaCO3 sinking flux generally was 30 times higher than that of organic matter. Plankton biodiversity was quite high in the atoll, and preformed apparent seasonal succession; in total, 82 phytoplankton species and 67 copepod species were recorded; furthermore, crab zoea (17.3% of the total zooplankton by number), fish eggs (12.5%), and shrimp larvae (4.2%), were relatively abundant in zooplankton community, revealed that atoll might be a good hatching ground. We deduced that the seasonal patterns of chemical and biological variables were mainly influenced by monsoons and precipitation, while small scales of temporal and spatial variations could be ascribed to internal wave and tide in this study area.

  1. Climate Change and Human Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-05-02

    Learn how global climate change affects human health in this interactive activity adapted from A Human Health Perspective: On Climate Change by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

  2. Forests / Climate change persp ctive

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Z Forests / Climate change persp ctive e 18Zoonotic diseases cause 2.2 million deaths and 2: in an interconnected world that is undergo- ing considerable climate and environmental change, human, animal

  3. Climate Change and Citizen Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Citizen Science Central, Cornell Lab of Ornithology

    This animation describes how citizen observations can document the impact of climate change on plants and animals. It introduces the topic of phenology and data collection, the impact of climate change on phenology, and how individuals can become citizen scientists.

  4. Comedy, Economics, and Climate Change!

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    Comedy, Economics, and Climate Change! Tuesday, October 22, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p.m. University Club for reforming our tax system and tackling climate change with a revenue-neutral carbon tax that places higher

  5. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...

  6. Terrestrial ecosystems and climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Schimel, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA). Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    The structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems depend on climate, and in turn, ecosystems influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given currently available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.

  7. Perception of climate change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto

    2012-09-11

    "Climate dice," describing the chance of unusually warm or cool seasons, have become more and more "loaded" in the past 30 y, coincident with rapid global warming. The distribution of seasonal mean temperature anomalies has shifted toward higher temperatures and the range of anomalies has increased. An important change is the emergence of a category of summertime extremely hot outliers, more than three standard deviations (3?) warmer than the climatology of the 1951-1980 base period. This hot extreme, which covered much less than 1% of Earth's surface during the base period, now typically covers about 10% of the land area. It follows that we can state, with a high degree of confidence, that extreme anomalies such as those in Texas and Oklahoma in 2011 and Moscow in 2010 were a consequence of global warming because their likelihood in the absence of global warming was exceedingly small. We discuss practical implications of this substantial, growing, climate change. PMID:22869707

  8. Global and regional effects of land-use change on climate in 21st century simulations with interactive carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boysen, L. R.; Brovkin, V.; Arora, V. K.; Cadule, P.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Kato, E.; Pongratz, J.; Gayler, V.

    2014-09-01

    Biogeophysical (BGP) and biogeochemical (BGC) effects of land-use and land cover change (LULCC) are separated at the global and regional scales in new interactive CO2 simulations for the 21st century. Results from four earth system models (ESMs) are analyzed for the future RCP8.5 scenario from simulations with and without land-use and land cover change (LULCC), contributing to the Land-Use and Climate, IDentification of robust impacts (LUCID) project. Over the period 2006-2100, LULCC causes the atmospheric CO2 concentration to increase by 12, 22, and 66 ppm in CanESM2, MIROC-ESM, and MPI-ESM-LR, respectively. Statistically significant changes in global near-surface temperature are found in three models with a BGC-induced global mean annual warming between 0.07 and 0.23 K. BGP-induced responses are simulated by three models in areas of intense LULCC of varying sign and magnitude (between -0.47 and 0.10 K). Modifications of the land carbon pool by LULCC are disentangled in accordance with processes that can lead to increases and decreases in this carbon pool. Global land carbon losses due to LULCC are simulated by all models: 218, 57, 35 and 34 Gt C by MPI-ESM-LR, MIROC-ESM, IPSL-CM5A-LR and CanESM2, respectively. On the contrary, the CO2-fertilization effect caused by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to LULCC leads to a land carbon gain of 39 Gt C in MPI-ESM-LR and is almost negligible in the other models. A substantial part of the spread in models' responses to LULCC is attributed to the differences in implementation of LULCC (e.g., whether pastures or crops are simulated explicitly) and the simulation of specific processes. Simple idealized experiments with clear protocols for implementing LULCC in ESMs are needed to increase the understanding of model responses and the statistical significance of results, especially when analyzing the regional-scale impacts of LULCC.

  9. Climate Change & Mitigation Options

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nummedal, Dag

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation from Dag Nummedal of the Colorado Energy Research Institute on climate change and mitigation options. This presentation is intended for users with a background knowledge on the topic and includes graphical representations of important data. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  10. Climate change? When? Where?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Boon

    2009-01-01

    Regional Australian students were surveyed to explore their understanding and knowledge of the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion\\u000a and climate change. Results were compared with a parallel study undertaken in 1991 in a regional UK city.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The comparison was conducted to investigate whether more awareness and understanding of these issues is demonstrated by students\\u000a as a result of over 16 years’

  11. Climate Change The Physical Background

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    Climate Change ­ The Physical Background Andreas Sterl KNMI · Basics of the climate system/18) #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11.10.2007 Observed climate change #12;Andreas Sterl · Anthropogenic influence · Projected changes & impact #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11

  12. Surviving climate change in the

    E-print Network

    Surviving climate change in the property & casualty industry by growing customer advocacy Insurance build a sustainable competitive advantage. Surviving climate change in the property & casualty industry by growing customer advocacy By Andrea Eichhorn and Bob Heffernan Surviving climate change in the P

  13. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS, VULNERABILITIES, AND ADAPTATION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012071 Prepared for: California Energy, as well as projections of future changes in climate based on modeling studies using various plausible

  14. 4, 28752899, 2007 Climate change

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HESSD 4, 2875­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Climate change impact­2899, 2007 Climate change impact and model inaccuracy P. Droogers et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  15. Climate Change Action Plan Report

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS

  16. Climate warming causes intensification of the hydrological cycle resulting in changes to the vernal and autumnal windows in a northern temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creed, Irena; Hwang, Taehee; Lutz, Brian; Way, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    Climate warming is likely to lead to complex effects on northern forests of the temperate forest biome. We investigated whether rising temperatures altered the timing of snowmelt and snowpack accumulation or extended the forest growing season length in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in Central Ontario. Archived satellite imagery was used to track changes in timing of snow pack loss/gain and canopy leaf on/off; the periods between these events were defined as the vernal (spring) and autumnal (fall) windows. We found only a slight extension of the growing season into the autumn period and no increase in the width of the vernal or autumnal windows, indicating that forest growth is not responding significantly to temperature increases during these windows. Archived time series of temperature, precipitation and discharge data for a nested set of catchments ranging in size from headwater (<10 ha) to regional (103 ha) catchments were used to track changes in the magnitude, timing and partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and discharge. We found an intensification of hydrological cycling, with (1) a higher dryness index (PET/P) during the summer growing season, and (2) earlier spring snowmelt discharges and later more concentrated autumn storm discharges during the shoulder seasons. This intensification of the hydrological cycle during the summer growth season and the vernal and autumnal windows may not only limit opportunities for enhanced forest growth, but may be contributing to the recent observations of forest decline within this biome.

  17. Seasonality and Cenozoic climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J.; Short, D.A.; North, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Previous attempts to model the transition from an ice-free to an ice-covered state have employed annually-averaged insolation to determine whether continental drift may have caused high-latitude cooling. Results have been ambiguous. Resolving the seasonal cycle greatly changes this picture. The authors have modeled the evolution of high-latitude temperatures during the last 100 million years with an energy balance model that resolves geography and has a seasonal cycle. Early Cenozoic summer temperatures were relatively high due to increased continentality over key areas. However, changing land/sea distribution caused a significant reduction in the magnitude of summer warming. Results indicate that summer temperatures decreased by more than 10/sup 0/C over Greenland and about 7/sup 0/C over Antarctica. The transition to near-freezing temperatures occurs during the Oligocene in both hemispheres and suggests that significant ice volume may have developed by that time. An important implication of their model results concerns the nature of presumed ice-free climates. Since warm summers are balanced by cold winters, their results imply that an ice-free earth may not necessarily be a particularly warm earth. Preliminary reevaluation of some paleoecological data either support the authors hypothesis or raise questions about the alternate hypothesis that an ice-free climate implies year-around warmth at all high latitudes.

  18. Activities for Conceptualizing Climate and Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This project is a digitally-based instructional program that contains data-rich case studies and visualization activities, as well as a visual library as a resource for teachers and students. A series of activities is organized to move scientifically from climate, to climate variability, to climate change. The site contains free teacher lesson plans, powerpoints, student activities, a summary of research on student conceptions and a curricular framework/philosopy document.

  19. World Bank Group: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located within the World Bank's Environment Department, the Climate Change team "provides resources and expertise for the World Bank's participation in international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and provides technical advice to the World Bank's Global Environment Facility Program." Understandably, the site contains a brief explication of the key themes surrounding contemporary concerns about climate change, along with offering a detailed discussion of the various programs and research projects with which the Climate Change group is engaged directly or in tandem with other related organizations and institutions. From the main page, visitors can read about the nature of international climate change (and its disproportionate effects on the developing world), peruse a list of relevant online publications, and read press releases from the Climate Change team.

  20. Project Title: Carbon cycling at the landscape scale: the effect of changes in climate and fire frequency on age distribution, stand structure, and net ecosystem production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. Ryan; William H. Romme; Monica G. Turner; Daniel B. Tinker

    Our project addresses Task 1 in RFP 2003-1. Climate, fire (frequency and intensity), and forest structure and development are strongly linked, but our knowledge of the interactions of these factors is poor. We lack the ability to make robust predictions about how changes in climate will alter these interactions and change the carbon balance of a landscape. Our objective is

  1. UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    UK Climate Change Risk Assessment and National Adaptation Programme Meg Patel Defra #12 change #12;Weather & climate impacts - economic, societal, environmental Water consumption per capita;Legislative Framework Climate Change Act 2008 Adaptation Reporting Power 2011 Climate Change Risk Assessment

  2. Middle Miocene Climate Change and Carbon Cycle: Milankovitch Forcing and Deep Ocean circulation in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbourn, A.; Kuhnt, W.; Schulz, M.

    2003-12-01

    The relation of enhanced carbon burial, carbon isotope excursions and global cooling remains an unsolved problem in the Mesozoic and early Neogene climate history of the Earth. The enigmatic long-term positive carbon isotope excursion between 16.4 and 13.6 Ma ("Monterey excursion") coincided initially with a period of extreme warmth and high sea level (mid-Miocene climate optimum) and a subsequent increase in deep-water oxygen isotopic values, related to the cooling of deep water masses and growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet. High resolution reconstruction of the succession of events reveals a complex relationship between orbital forcing, carbon burial and climate cooling, mediated by a major re-organization of ocean circulation patterns. We used high resolution benthic deep water oxygen and carbon isotopes in combination with new age models at critical locations in a West Pacific marginal basin (South China Sea, ODP Site 1146), in the eastern Indian Ocean (NW Australian margin, ODP Site 761) and in the tropical Pacific (Ontong Java Plateau, ODP Site 806) to investigate the frequency and amplitude of deep water isotope fluctuations during the middle Miocene. Benthic stable isotope records document complete recovery of the six main ? 13C maxima of the,Monterey Excursion" between 16.4 and 13.6 Ma and the characteristic stepped increase in ? 18O between 14.5 and 13.1 Ma. At Site 761, the ? 18O curve shows an excellent match with the global sea level curve between 11.5 and 15.1 Ma, and thus closely reflects changes in global ice volume. Prior to 15.1 Ma, the ? 18O curve is mainly driven by bottom water temperature. At Site 1146, a major increase in ? 18O and ? 13C values (1\\permil) at 14.0 Ma, indicates a radical change in the deep water circulation of this marginal West Pacific basin. Spectral analysis of benthic isotopes time series, combined with magnetic susceptibility and color reflectance records, indicate Milankovitch forcing on virtually all proxies and a change from eccentricity to precession driven cyclicity at approximately 14.8 Ma. The ? 13C curve closely reflects the eccentricity forcing of Laskar's astronomical solution. Strikingly, a period of anomalous eccentricity forcing between approximately 14.8 and 14.1 Ma coincides with the fifth carbon maximum and initiation of major global cooling. Variations in the global carbon cycle modulated by eccentricity probably played a major role in controlling mid Miocene climate evolution.

  3. Emerging Legal and Policy Strategies for Climate Change Adaptation: Opportunities and Constraints for Action in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Kasimbazi

    2012-01-01

    The climate of the Africa is changing. When the climate started changing and when it will end is subject to endless debate. Climate is important for development in Africa but natural climate fluctuations from autonomous climate cycles (such as those linked to the El Nino phenomenon) disrupt ecological, economic and social systems. The causes of climate of change include: continued

  4. Biofuels and Global Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent Sohngen

    This paper reviews literature on the impacts of climate change and climate change policy on agriculture and forests. The review suggests that the range of results in the impact literature is widening rather than narrowing as more studies are added. To a large degree, however, the range of results appears to depend largely on uncertainty in the climate effects themselves.

  5. Insects and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, S.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1991-09-01

    In this article the author describes some of the significant late glacial and Holocene changes that occurred in the Rocky Mountains, including the regional extirpation of certain beetle species. The fossil data presented here summarize what is known about regional insect responses to climate change in terms of species stability and geographic distribution. To minimize potential problems of species interactions (i.e., insect-host plant relationships, host-parasite relationships, and other interactions that tie a particular insect species' distribution to that of another organism), only predators and scavengers are discussed. These insects respond most rapidly to environmental changes, because for the most part they are not tied to any particular type of vegetation.

  6. Climate Variability and Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet focuses on climate variability and change and how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  7. Contrails and Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-02-25

    In this problem-based learning unit, learners analyze the role of condensation trails from jets, or contrails, and their role in climate change. Contrails are thin ice clouds that form from the burning of jet fuel and release of water vapor. The issue with contrails is that narrow trails can spread and coalesce to form significant banks of cirrus-type clouds. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

  8. Uncertainty in Climate Change Modeling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wisconsin ECB

    2010-11-30

    Learn why trout are important indicators in Wisconsin’s changing climate, and why the uncertainty of global climate models complicates predictions about their survival, in this video produced by the Wisconsin Educational Communications Board.

  9. Climate Kids: Birds and Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Some bird species appear to respond to extreme weather changes in their native habitat by moving to more hospitable environments. This article discusses the role of NASA satellites, along with field and citizen scientists, in studying that movement. The article also includes an activity on constructing a bird feeder. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

  10. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury?

    PubMed

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The review finishes with several conclusions and recommendations. PMID:22104383

  11. Climate ChangeClimate Change Mitigation StrategiesMitigation Strategies----

    E-print Network

    ---- the Dominant Greenhouse Gasthe Dominant Greenhouse Gas U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions weighted by 100-yr Global gas emissions and other human drivers of climate change (such as changes in land use), but also U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change called for "stabilization of greenhouse gas

  12. Permafrost and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basnet, S.; Shahroudi, N.

    2012-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change on Permafrost. Climate change has been shown to have a global correlation with decreased snow cover in high latitudes. In the current research station and satellite data were used to detect the location of permafrost. Permafrost is dependent on the temperature of the ground surface. Air temperature and snow cover from Integrated Surface Database (ISD) downloaded from National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) were observed for six consecutive years (1999-2004). The research was carried out over the entire globe to study the trend between fluctuating temperature and snow cover. Number of days with temperature below zero (freezing) and above zero (melting) was counted over a 6-year period. It was observed that each year the area of ice cover decreased by 0.3% in the Northern Hemisphere; a 1% increase in air temperature was also observed. Furthermore, the results from station data for snow cover and air temperature were compared with the snow cover and skin temperature from the satellite data. The skin temperature was retrieved from infrared (IR) radiance at International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and the snow cover is derived from visible satellite data at The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Both dataset projected that the higher latitudes had the highest number of days with temperature below zero degree Celsius and these locations will be able to house permafrost. In order to improve the data quality as well as for more accurate results, in the future ISD data and satellite skin temperature will be analyzed for longer period of time (1979-2011) and (1983-2007) respectively also, two additional station data will be studied. The two datasets for future studies are Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) and International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS). The results outputted by these three stations will be further compared with available permafrost datasets.

  13. Hydrological study of climate change impact on the Llobregat basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Antoine Versini; Romeo Ballinas-Gonzáles; Daniel Sempere-Torres; Isabel Escaler

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may cause a progressive increase of atmospheric temperature and consequently may change the amount, frequency and intensity of precipitation. All these changes of meteorological variables may modify the water cycle: run-off, infiltration, aquifer recharge, etc... In Spain, climate change scenarios describe a general trend to increase temperature and reduced precipitation. This would result in a reduction of available

  14. California Climate Change Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Global warming and climate change have been a top priority for a number of international organizations, and in recent years, a number of states have also become profoundly concerned about these transformations. Not surprisingly, the state of California has been interested in these subjects for some time, and this website is an initiative of the various agencies working in this area of research. On this site, visitors can learn about various initiatives sponsored by different agencies within the state and also peruse a list of FAQâ??s on the subject. First-time visitors will want to start at the â??Backgroundâ? section; they may then proceed to the â??Policy & Programâ? area, where they can learn what the state is doing to combat this situation. Some of these programs include a voluntary greenhouse gas emission registry for California companies and a research program to spur environmentally-friendly energy alternatives. Finally, the site also includes a very nice glossary of terms used in discussing global climate change.

  15. White pine and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, G.L. Jr.; Dieffenbacher-Krall, A. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, MA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    In the past changing climates have lead to numerous continent-scale reorganizations of biotal. During the Quaternary Period climate has oscillated regularly between glacial and interglacial conditions, causing the ranges of many species to ship hundreds and even thousands of kilometers. On short time scales, clime changes that are less dramatic have influenced the regional distibution and abundance of plant taxa. This paper focus on post glacial changes in the distribution and abundance of white pine during the past 12,000 years in eastern North America; responses of white pine to past climate change, and implications for future responses of northeastern forests to climate change.

  16. Vegetation and climate changes in the South Eastern Mediterranean during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle (86 ka): new marine pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langgut, D.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Bar-Matthews, M.; Weinstein-Evron, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean, located at the meeting between the Mediterranean vegetation of the Eurasian continent and the desert vegetation of the Saharan-Arabian desert belt, is ideal for tracking changes in regional vegetation as function of climate changes. Reconstruction of these changes in the South Eastern Mediterranean during the last 86 ka is based on a palynological record, from deep-sea core 9509, taken by R/V Marion Dufresne, off the southern Israeli coast. The chronological framework is based on the correlation of ? 18O records of planktonic foraminifera with the high resolution, well-dated U-Th speleothem record from the Soreq Cave, Israel and the occurrence of sapropel layers. Several cycles of humid/dry periods were documented during the last 86 ka. The record starts with the moderate humid and warm sapropel S3 marking the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. The climate during the Last Glacial period (75.5-16.2 ka) was cold and dry, with low Arboreal Pollen (AP) levels, and high values of semi-desert and desert vegetation (e.g. Artemisia - sagebrush). The driest and coldest period during the last 86 ka corresponds to MIS 2 (27.1-16.2 ka), characterized by the lowest tree cover along the sequence and the dominance of steppe vegetation. Some slightly more humid fluctuations were identified during the period of 56.3 and 43.5 ka with its peak between 56.0 and 54.4 ka. The most pronounced climate change started at the beginning of the Deglaciation (16.2-10 ka) and continued throughout the Holocene (last 10 ka), notwithstanding some short fluctuations. High AP levels were dominated by Quercus callipprinos (evergreen oak), suggesting that the Mediterranean forest was more extensive in the area and the climate was wet. Sapropels S3 and S1 were clearly recognized here by the high concentrations and good state of preservation of pollen because of the development of anoxia in the bottom water that may be related to more extensive Nile discharge coinciding with high insolation values at 65° N and enhanced westerlies activity. Another wet and warm event is the Bölling-Allerød (14.6-12.3 ka). Cold and dry spells identified by low AP and high steppe elements correspond with Heinrich Events H2-H6, the Last Glacial Maximum, Younger Dryas and the 8.2 ka event. Similar pattern of vegetation trends was observed also in Lake Zeribar Western Iran, Tenaghi Philippon North East Greece and the Alborán Sea. There is a clear general difference between the South East Mediterranean and western and central Mediterranean because of W-E climatic moisture gradient reflected in the dominance of Mediterranean maquis, lower tree population and higher steppe vegetation in the South East Mediterranean.

  17. Climate Change and Arctic Ecosystems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Project Activities for Conceptualizing Climate and Climate Change

    In this activity, students learn about how climate change is affecting the Arctic ecosystem and then investigate how this change is impacting polar bear populations. Students analyze maps of Arctic sea ice, temperature graphs, and polar bear population data to answer questions about the impact of climate change on the Arctic ecosystem.

  18. AGROECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT FOR RARE SPECIES OF PAYSONIA (BRASSICACEAE): INTEGRATING THEIR SEED ECOLOGY AND LIFE CYCLE WITH CROPPING REGIMENS IN A CHANGING CLIMATE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIZABETH A. FITCH; L. WALCK; SITI N. HIDAYATI

    Dormancy break and germination of seeds are governed by climatic cues, and predicted changes in climate may impact the ecology and conservation of species. Paysonia perforata and P. stonensis are rare brassicaceous winter annuals occurring primarily in fields on floodplains, where corn or soybeans are recommended for habitat maintenance. We tested the effects of precipitation, based on two predictions of

  19. A Record of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Zach

    2007-01-01

    The hydrologic cycle is a very basic scientific principle. In this article, background information is presented on how the hydrologic cycle provides scientists with clues to understanding the history of Earth's climate. Also detailed is a web-based activity that allows students to learn about how scientists are able to piece together a record of…

  20. TOWARD AN ECOLOGY OF CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    TOWARD AN ECOLOGY OF CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz Upton, Long Island, NY, USA climate change First principles climate modeling Earth's energy balance and perturbations Climate system models Summary and conclusions #12;SOME SIMPLE QUESTIONS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE How much has Global Mean

  1. Can ice sheets trigger abrupt climatic change?

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The discovery in recent years of abrupt climatic changes in climate proxy records from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment cores, and from other sites around the world, has diverted attention from gradual insolation changes caused by Earth`s orbital variations to more rapid processes on Earth`s surface as forcing Quaternary climatic change. In particular, forcing by ice sheets has been quantified for a major ice stream that drained the Laurentide Ice Sheet along Hudson Strait. The history of these recent discoveries leading to an interest in ice sheets is reviewed, and a case is made that ice sheets may drive abrupt climatic change that is virtually synchronous worldwide. Attention is focused on abrupt inception and termination of a Quaternary glaciation cycle, abrupt changes recorded as stadials and interstadials within the cycle, abrupt changes in ice streams that trigger stadials and interstadials, and abrupt changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet linked to effectively simultaneous abrupt changes in its ice streams. Remaining work needed to quantify further these changes is discussed. 90 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Cinematic climate change, a promising perspective on climate change communication.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Maria

    2014-06-10

    Previous research findings display that after having seen popular climate change films, people became more concerned, more motivated and more aware of climate change, but changes in behaviors were short-term. This article performs a meta-analysis of three popular climate change films, The Day after Tomorrow (2005), An Inconvenient Truth (2006), and The Age of Stupid (2009), drawing on research in social psychology, human agency, and media effect theory in order to formulate a rationale about how mass media communication shapes our everyday life experience. This article highlights the factors with which science blends in the reception of the three climate change films and expands the range of options considered in order to encourage people to engage in climate change mitigation actions. PMID:24916195

  3. Climate change and moral judgement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Shariff, Azim F.

    2012-04-01

    Converging evidence from the behavioural and brain sciences suggests that the human moral judgement system is not well equipped to identify climate change -- a complex, large-scale and unintentionally caused phenomenon -- as an important moral imperative. As climate change fails to generate strong moral intuitions, it does not motivate an urgent need for action in the way that other moral imperatives do. We review six reasons why climate change poses significant challenges to our moral judgement system and describe six strategies that communicators might use to confront these challenges. Enhancing moral intuitions about climate change may motivate greater support for ameliorative actions and policies.

  4. Volcanic activity and climatic changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Bryson; B. M. Goodman

    1980-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years

  5. Volcanic Activity and Climatic Changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reid A. Bryson; Brian M. Goodman

    1980-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years

  6. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

  7. BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    BC Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Risk + Opportunity Assessment Provincial Report executive summary #12;published March 2012 by the British Columbia Agriculture & Food Climate Action Initiative www.BCAgClimateAction.ca project funding provided by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada BC Ministry of Agriculture BC Ministry

  8. 1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate

    E-print Network

    1DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL Dangerous Climate A BrAzil-UK AnAlysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;3DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE IN BRAZIL April 2011Alysis of ClimAte ChAnge And deforestAtion impACts in the AmAzon Change in Brazil #12;4 DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE

  9. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  10. Climate change refugia as a tool for climate adaptation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change refugia, areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change so as to increase persistence of valued physical, ecological, and cultural resources, are considered as potential adaptation options in the face of anthropogenic climate change. In a collaboration ...

  11. Climate Change and National Security

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

  12. Schneider lecture: From climate change impacts to climate change risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Steve Schneider was a strong proponent of considering the entire range of possible climate-change outcomes. He wrote and spoke frequently about the importance of low probability/high consequence outcomes as well as most likely outcomes. He worked tirelessly on communicating the risks from overlapping stressors. Technical and conceptual issues have made it difficult for Steve's vision to reach maturity in mainstream climate-change research, but the picture is changing rapidly. The concept of climate-change risk, considering both probability and consequence, is central to the recently completed IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, and the concept frames much of the discussion about future research agendas. Framing climate change as a challenge in managing risks is important for five core reasons. First, conceptualizing the issue as being about probabilities builds a bridge between current climate variability and future climate change. Second, a formulation based on risks highlights the fact that climate impacts occur primarily in extremes. For historical variability and future impacts, the real concern is the conditions under which things break and systems fail, namely, in the extremes. Third, framing the challenge as one of managing risks puts a strong emphasis on exploring the full range of possible outcomes, including low-probability, high/consequence outcomes. Fourth, explaining climate change as a problem in managing risks links climate change to a wide range of sophisticated risk management tools and strategies that underpin much of modern society. Fifth, the concept of climate change as a challenge in managing risks helps cement the understanding that climate change is a threat multiplier, adding new dimensions and complexity to existing and emerging problems. Framing climate change as a challenge in managing risks creates an important but difficult agenda for research. The emphasis needs to shift from most likely outcomes to most risky outcomes, considering the full range of interacting processes, both in the climate system and in human responses. But conceptualizing the challenge of climate change as a challenge in managing risks also opens a path to a wide range of options for solutions. Together, the agenda for research and the options for solutions build toward Steve's vision.

  13. Geomorphic responses to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    The primary focus of this book is the response of landscapes to Pleistocene and Holocene climatic changes. During the past 40 ky the global climate has varied from full-glacial to interglacial. Global temperatures decreased between 40 and 20 ka culminating in full-glacial climatic conditions at 20 ka. This resulted in a sea level decline of 130 m. Only 8 to 14 ky later the global temperature had reversed itself and the climate was the warmest of the past 120 ky. These dramatic changes in climate imposed significant controls on fluvial systems and impacted land forms and whole landscapes worldwide. Chapter 1, Conceptual Models for Changing landscapes, presents numerous concepts related to erosional and depositional processes controlling landscape development. Each of the next four chapters of the book, 2, 3, 4, and 5, examine different aspects of climatic change on fluvial systems. The conceptual models are used to analyze landscape response in four different climatic and geologic settings. In each setting the present and past climatic conditions, the climatically induced changes in vegetation and soil development, and geochronology are considered in assessing the influence of climatic changes on geomorphic processes. Chapter 2, investigates the influence of climatic change on the geomorphic processes operating in desert watersheds in the southwestern US and northern Mexico. The study sites for Chapter 3, are small desert drainage basins in the southwestern US and near the Sinai Peninsula in the Middle East. Chapter 4, investigates fill terraces in several drainage basins of the San Gabrial Mountains of the central Transverse Ranges of coastal southern California. The study site for Chapter 5 is the Charwell River watershed in the Seaward Kaikoura Range of New Zealand. Chapter 6, Difference Responses of Arid and Humid Fluvial Systems, compares the effects of changing climates in basins that range from extremely arid to humid.

  14. Global climate change: Implications, challenges and mitigation measures

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.K.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Yarnal, B.M.; Miller, E.W.; Rosenfeld, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present volume discusses topics in the fields of natural climatic fluctuations, the greenhouse effect, climate modeling, the biophysical and socioeconomic impacts of climate change, climate-change effect mitigation and adaptation strategies, and domestic (US) and international perspectives on regulation of climate-affecting activities. Attention is given to past climates as a guide to the future, the certainty of contemporary global warming, the physics of the greenhouse effect, the global carbon cycle, general circulation model studies of global warming, the implications of sea-level rise, forests' role in global climate change, the ecological effects of rapid climate change, predicted effects of climate change on agriculture, the impact of global warming on human health, energy supply technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and the U.N.'s 1992 Earth Summit Conference.

  15. AAAS - Global Climate Change Video

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

    This video features residents of Shishmaref, Alaska, plus environmental journalist Elizabeth Kolbert and scientist John Holdren, exploring the human impacts of global climate change. The roles of teachers, scientists, policymakers, and concerned citizens in mitigating the changes are highlighted.

  16. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND ECOSYSTEM CHANGE A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial ecosystems is understanding where transitions

  17. Forests / Climate change persp ctive

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    T Forests / Climate change persp ctive e 15The recent food price increases in international markets, is speculation; the second, accepted cause, especially for the The need for change Benoit Daviron Price spikes instruments (price, climate), and social safety nets. These solu- tions were proposed at the time because

  18. Generating Arguments about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Barry; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor; Oliveri, Robin

    2012-01-01

    This unit is a different and fun way to engage students with an extremely important topic, climate change, which cuts across scientific and nonscientific disciplines. While climate change itself may not be listed in the curriculum of every science class, the authors contend that such a unit is appropriate for virtually any science curriculum.…

  19. Generating Arguments About Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-16

    In this article from the NSTA Press Journal, Science Scope, students participate in a unit on global climate change by engaging in the process of scientific argumentation. The lessons presented in this article were created using the generate-an-argument model to help students understand climate change science. The article is free to both NSTA members and nonmembers.

  20. Teaching about Global Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffron, Susan Gallagher; Valmond, Kharra

    2011-01-01

    Students are exposed to many different media reports about global climate change. Movies such as "The Day After Tomorrow" and "Ice Age" are examples of instances when movie producers have sought to capture the attention of audiences by augmenting the challenges that climate change poses. Students may receive information from a wide range of media…

  1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environment Programme

    This organization was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change. The website contains reports, publications, technical papers, press releases, and official documents related to climate change.

  2. Chapters 10 & 11 Climate Change and Global Climate Systems

    E-print Network

    Pan, Feifei

    Chapters 10 & 11 Climate Change and Global Climate Systems #12;© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives · Introduce climate change and describe scientific tools used to study paleoclimatology and future climate. · Define climate and climatology, and review the principal components of Earth's climate

  3. Climate change and potential natural vegetation

    E-print Network

    Climate change and potential natural vegetation Kuchler 1964 #12;Climate change: An attack Ecological forecasting? #12;Incorporate climate drivers in state & transition models? Briske et al. 2005 #12;Line-up Wolter Climate variability Jackson Paleoecology Miller Paleoecology Knapp Experiments

  4. Climate Change and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Luber, George; Prudent, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    Climate change science points to an increase in sea surface temperature, increases in the severity of extreme weather events, declining air quality, and destabilizing natural systems due to increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The direct and indirect health results of such a global imbalance include excessive heat-related illnesses, vector- and waterborne diseases, increased exposure to environmental toxins, exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases due to declining air quality, and mental health stress among others. Vulnerability to these health effects will increase as elderly and urban populations increase and are less able to adapt to climate change. In addition, the level of vulnerability to certain health impacts will vary by location. As a result, strategies to address climate change must include health as a strategic component on a regional level. The co-benefits of improving health while addressing climate change will improve public health infrastructure today, while mitigating the negative consequences of a changing climate for future generations. PMID:19768168

  5. Climate@Home: Crowdsourcing Climate Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Li, J.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change deeply impacts human wellbeing. Significant amounts of resources have been invested in building super-computers that are capable of running advanced climate models, which help scientists understand climate change mechanisms, and predict its trend. Although climate change influences all human beings, the general public is largely excluded from the research. On the other hand, scientists are eagerly seeking communication mediums for effectively enlightening the public on climate change and its consequences. The Climate@Home project is devoted to connect the two ends with an innovative solution: crowdsourcing climate computing to the general public by harvesting volunteered computing resources from the participants. A distributed web-based computing platform will be built to support climate computing, and the general public can 'plug-in' their personal computers to participate in the research. People contribute the spare computing power of their computers to run a computer model, which is used by scientists to predict climate change. Traditionally, only super-computers could handle such a large computing processing load. By orchestrating massive amounts of personal computers to perform atomized data processing tasks, investments on new super-computers, energy consumed by super-computers, and carbon release from super-computers are reduced. Meanwhile, the platform forms a social network of climate researchers and the general public, which may be leveraged to raise climate awareness among the participants. A portal is to be built as the gateway to the climate@home project. Three types of roles and the corresponding functionalities are designed and supported. The end users include the citizen participants, climate scientists, and project managers. Citizen participants connect their computing resources to the platform by downloading and installing a computing engine on their personal computers. Computer climate models are defined at the server side. Climate scientists configure computer model parameters through the portal user interface. After model configuration, scientists then launch the computing task. Next, data is atomized and distributed to computing engines that are running on citizen participants' computers. Scientists will receive notifications on the completion of computing tasks, and examine modeling results via visualization modules of the portal. Computing tasks, computing resources, and participants are managed by project managers via portal tools. A portal prototype has been built for proof of concept. Three forums have been setup for different groups of users to share information on science aspect, technology aspect, and educational outreach aspect. A facebook account has been setup to distribute messages via the most popular social networking platform. New treads are synchronized from the forums to facebook. A mapping tool displays geographic locations of the participants and the status of tasks on each client node. A group of users have been invited to test functions such as forums, blogs, and computing resource monitoring.

  6. Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    E-print Network

    Debinski, Diane M.

    Climate Change Impacts in the United States U.S. National Climate Assessment U.S. Global Change Research Program #12;i CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE UNITED STATES Members of the National Guard lay climate change. Climate change is contributing to an increase in wildfires across the U.S. West. Solar

  7. Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    Climate Change Adaptation for Local Government A Resource Guide June 2011 Jenny Fraser, Adaptation to Climate Change Team, Simon Fraser University #12;Page 1 of 26 Climate Change Adaptation for Local: RESOURCES THAT SUPPORT CLIMATE CHANGE ASSESSMENT 3. Past and Future Climate Change and Its Impacts 4

  8. CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction

    E-print Network

    Allan, Richard P.

    CLIMATE CHANGE: Past, Present and Future: Introduction Richard Allan, Department of Meteorology r.p.allan@reading.ac.uk #12;Text Books and References · Henson, B., Rough Guide to Climate Change http://www.amazon.co.uk/Climate-Change-Guides-Reference- Titles/dp/1858281059 · Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007, www

  9. Global climate change: Policy implications for fisheries

    SciTech Connect

    Gucinski, H.; Lackey, R.T.; Spence, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. These include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. For fisheries resources, policy questions address effects on international, national, and regional scales. Climate change variables expected to affect inland and offshore fisheries include temperature rise, changes in the hydrologic cycle, alterations in nutrient fluxes, and reduction and relocation of spawning and nursery habitat. These variables will affect resources at all levels of biological organization, including the genetic, organism, population, and ecosystem levels. In this context, changes in primary productivity, species composition in the food-web, migration, invasions, synchrony in biological cycles, shifts in utilization of niches, and problems of larvae entrainment in estuaries have been identified. Maintaining ecosystem robustness (i.e., high biodiversity) is another component of the problem. Action requires establishing priorities for information needs, determining appropriate temporal and spatial scales at which to model effects, and accounting for interactive changes in physical and biological cycles. A policy response can be derived when these results are integrated with social needs and human population constraints.

  10. Climate Change and Coastal Eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The world's climate has changed and human activities will continue to contribute to the acceleration of greenhouse gases and temperature rise. The major drivers of these changes are increased temperature, altered hydrological cycles and shifts in wind patterns that might alter coastal currents. Increasing temperatures alone have the potential to strengthen pycnoclines in estuarine and coastal waters, but lower surface salinity (e.g., from increased freshwater runoff) would be more of a factor in stratifying the water column. The combination of increased nutrient loads (from human activities) and increased freshwater discharge (from GCC) will aggravate the already high loads of nutrients from the Mississippi River to the northern Gulf of Mexico, strengthen stratification (all other factors remaining the same), and worsen the hypoxia situation. Reduced precipitation, on the other hand, would lower the amount of nutrients and water reaching the coastal zone and, perhaps, lead to oligotrophication and reduced fisheries productivity, or perhaps alleviate hypoxia. The increase or decrease in flow (whichever occurs), flux of nutrients and water temperature are likely to have important, but as yet not clearly identifiable, influences on hypoxia. In anticipation of the negative effects of global change, nutrient loadings to coastal waters need to be reduced now, so that further water quality degradation is prevented.

  11. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

  12. Adapting agriculture to climate change.

    PubMed

    Howden, S Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-12-11

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists. PMID:18077402

  13. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Howden, S. Mark; Soussana, Jean-François; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Chhetri, Netra; Dunlop, Michael; Meinke, Holger

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management. We show that implementation of these options is likely to have substantial benefits under moderate climate change for some cropping systems. However, there are limits to their effectiveness under more severe climate changes. Hence, more systemic changes in resource allocation need to be considered, such as targeted diversification of production systems and livelihoods. We argue that achieving increased adaptation action will necessitate integration of climate change-related issues with other risk factors, such as climate variability and market risk, and with other policy domains, such as sustainable development. Dealing with the many barriers to effective adaptation will require a comprehensive and dynamic policy approach covering a range of scales and issues, for example, from the understanding by farmers of change in risk profiles to the establishment of efficient markets that facilitate response strategies. Science, too, has to adapt. Multidisciplinary problems require multidisciplinary solutions, i.e., a focus on integrated rather than disciplinary science and a strengthening of the interface with decision makers. A crucial component of this approach is the implementation of adaptation assessment frameworks that are relevant, robust, and easily operated by all stakeholders, practitioners, policymakers, and scientists. PMID:18077402

  14. Deep solar minimum and global Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Hady, Ahmed

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its likely impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 100 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activities are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

  15. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, Ahmed A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.

  16. Deep solar minimum and global climate changes.

    PubMed

    Hady, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue. PMID:25685420

  17. Climate Change Adaptation in the Cariboo-Chilcotin The Stakeholder Series: Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Climate Change Adaptation in the Cariboo-Chilcotin The Stakeholder Series: Climate Change 26 Sept CRD should address climate change adaptation, in advance of Regional Development Strategy Collaborative (RAC) Cariboo Regional District case study ­ deliverables · Climate change adaptation strategy

  18. Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Stormwater ManagementStormwater Management and Climate Change:and Climate Change: Implications for · Wisconsin's changing climate · Stormwater management · Impacts and adaptation #12;WICCI Identifying impacts activities. Develop and recommend adaptation strategies. Mission: Assess and anticipate climate change

  19. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: A Federal Perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brekke, Levi D.; Kiang, Julie E.; Olsen, J. Rolf; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Raff, David A.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Webb, Robert S.; White, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Many challenges, including climate change, face the Nation's water managers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has provided estimates of how climate may change, but more understanding of the processes driving the changes, the sequences of the changes, and the manifestation of these global changes at different scales could be beneficial. Since the changes will likely affect fundamental drivers of the hydrological cycle, climate change may have a large impact on water resources and water resources managers. The purpose of this interagency report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating, and responding to climate change. This report describes the existing and still needed underpinning science crucial to addressing the many impacts of climate change on water resources management.

  20. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, K. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Bett, B. J.; Billett, D. S. M.; Lampitt, R. S.; Kaufmann, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Climate variation affects surface ocean processes and the production of organic carbon, which ultimately comprises the primary food supply to the deep-sea ecosystems that occupy ?60% of the Earth's surface. Warming trends in atmospheric and upper ocean temperatures, attributed to anthropogenic influence, have occurred over the past four decades. Changes in upper ocean temperature influence stratification and can affect the availability of nutrients for phytoplankton production. Global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing. Research also suggests that such reduced mixing will enhance variability in primary production and carbon export flux to the deep sea. The dependence of deep-sea communities on surface water production has raised important questions about how climate change will affect carbon cycling and deep-ocean ecosystem function. Recently, unprecedented time-series studies conducted over the past two decades in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic at >4,000-m depth have revealed unexpectedly large changes in deep-ocean ecosystems significantly correlated to climate-driven changes in the surface ocean that can impact the global carbon cycle. Climate-driven variation affects oceanic communities from surface waters to the much-overlooked deep sea and will have impacts on the global carbon cycle. Data from these two widely separated areas of the deep ocean provide compelling evidence that changes in climate can readily influence deep-sea processes. However, the limited geographic coverage of these existing time-series studies stresses the importance of developing a more global effort to monitor deep-sea ecosystems under modern conditions of rapidly changing climate. PMID:19901326

  1. In situ permafrost thaw due to climate change drives holistic microbial community shifts with implications for methane cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondav, Rhiannon; McCalley, Carmody; Hodgkins, Suzanne; Rich, Virginia; Frolking, Steve; Saleska, Scott; Barnes, Andrew; Chanton, Jeff; Crill, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Thawing permafrost is a potentially significant source of radiative forcing feedback due to increased emissions of methane, a biogenic greenhouse gas (GHG). This study investigated changes in the microbial community along a permafrost thaw gradient at Stordalen Mire, Sweden using 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic methods. In situ measurements of geochemical parameters, including CH4 and C isotopes, enabled linkage of community dynamics to significant shifts in C balance. The thaw gradient ranged from intact at a palsa (low productivity and GHG emissions), through partially thawed in a bog (high productivity, low GHG emissions) to a completely thawed fen (high productivity and GHG emissions). Microbial assemblages in both the palsa and fen were highly diverse (in both richness and evenness), consistent with climax communities. The microbial community in the bog had distinctly lower diversity, characteristic of ecosystem disturbance. The palsa community was dominated by Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria, as is typical of a range of soils including permafrost. Methanogens dominated both the bog and fen and were most abundant within the zone of water table fluctuation. Inferring methanogens' production pathway from phylogeny showed a shift from mostly hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the bog towards acetotrophic methanogens in the fen. This corroborated porewater and flux emitted CH4 and CO2 carbon isotopic 13C signatures of CH4 and CO2. The fen, where the highest CH4 flux was recorded, was significantly richer in methanogenic archaea. A novel archaea, Candidatus Methanoflorens stordalenmirensis, was present at up to 70% relative abundance in the bog, enabling recovery of a population genome. The genome (and associated metaproteome) of 'M. stordalenmirensis' indicates that hydrogenotrophic methane production is its main energy conservation pathway. 'Methanoflorens' may be an indicator species of permafrost thaw, it is globally ubiquitous, and appears a major contributor to global methane production. Our results revealed a distinct difference in the microbial community structure and membership at each site, which can be directly associated with increasing methane emission and thaw state.

  2. Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary,

    E-print Network

    Reale, Marco

    will reverse in the near future. 1 Introduction Since the end of the last ice age the earth's climate has enjoyed a period of relative stability. The earth is now in a period of rising global temperatures millenia, in an effort to estimate the natural variability of the earth's climate. These series often

  3. Atmospheric Composition Change: Climate-Chemistry Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaksen, I.S.A.; Granier, C.; Myhre, G.; Bernsten, T. K.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Gauss, S.; Klimont, Z.; Benestad, R.; Bousquet, P.; Collins, W.; Cox, T.; Eyring, V.; Fowler, D.; Fuzzi, S.; Jockel, P.; Laj, P.; Lohmann, U.; Maione, M.; Monks, T.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Raes, F.; Richter, A.; Rognerud, B.; Schulz, M.; Shindell, D.; Stevenson, D. S.; Storelvmo, T.; Wang, W.-C.; vanWeele, M.; Wild, M.; Wuebbles, D.

    2011-01-01

    Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds such as methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds such as ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate-chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change, through changes in temperature, dynamics, the hydrological cycle, atmospheric stability, and biosphere-atmosphere interactions, affects the atmospheric composition and oxidation processes in the troposphere. Here we present progress in our understanding of processes of importance for climate-chemistry interactions, and their contributions to changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. A key factor is the oxidation potential involving compounds such as O3 and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Reported studies represent both current and future changes. Reported results include new estimates of radiative forcing based on extensive model studies of chemically active climate compounds such as O3, and of particles inducing both direct and indirect effects. Through EU projects such as ACCENT, QUANTIFY, and the AEROCOM project, extensive studies on regional and sector-wise differences in the impact on atmospheric distribution are performed. Studies have shown that land-based emissions have a different effect on climate than ship and aircraft emissions, and different measures are needed to reduce the climate impact. Several areas where climate change can affect the tropospheric oxidation process and the chemical composition are identified. This can take place through enhanced stratospheric-tropospheric exchange of ozone, more frequent periods with stable conditions favouring pollution build up over industrial areas, enhanced temperature-induced biogenic emissions, methane releases from permafrost thawing, and enhanced concentration through reduced biospheric uptake. During the last 510 years, new observational data have been made available and used for model validation and the study of atmospheric processes. Although there are significant uncertainties in the modelling of composition changes, access to new observational data has improved modelling capability. Emission scenarios for the coming decades have a large uncertainty range, in particular with respect to regional trends, leading to a significant uncertainty range in estimated regional composition changes and climate impact.

  4. Terrestrial carbon-cycle feedback to climate warming: experimental evidence on plant regulation and impacts of biofuel feedstock harvest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YIQI LUO; REBECCA SHERRY; XUHUI ZHOU; SHIQIANG WAN

    2009-01-01

    Feedback between global carbon (C) cycles and climate change is one of the major uncertainties in projecting future global warming. Coupled carbon-climate models all demonstrated a positive feedback between terrestrial C cycle and climate warming. The positive feedback results from decreased net primary production (NPP) in most models and increased respiratory C release by all the models under climate warming.

  5. Volcanic activity and climatic changes

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, R.A.; Goodman, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years to many decades requires broad-scale volcanic activity prediction. Statistical analysis of the volcanic record suggests that some predictability is possible.

  6. CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial

  7. Energy and global climate change: Why ORNL?

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    Subtle signs of global warming have been detected in studies of the climate record of the past century after figuring in the cooling effects of sulfur emissions from volcanoes and human sources. According to the December 1995 report of the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the earth`s surface temperature has increased by about 0.2{degrees}C per decade since 1975. the panel projects about a 2{degrees} increase in global temperature by 2100. The IPCC report states that pollutants-greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and fluorocarbons that warm the globe and sulfur emission that cool it-are responsible for recent patterns of climate change. {open_quotes}The balance of evidence,{close_quotes} states the report, {open_quotes}suggests that there is a discrenible human influence on global climate.{close_quotes} This human influence stems largely from fossil fuel combustion, cement production, and the burning of forests, and could intensify as populations grow and developing countries increase energy production and industrial development. The two facts have caught the attention of the news media and public. First, 1995 was declared the hottest year in the 140-year-long record of reliable global measurements. Second, recent years have been marked by an unusually high number of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, blizzards, and floods. In the 1990`s the world has become more aware of the prospect and possible impacts of global climate change. In the late 1950`s, global climate change was an unknown threat to the world`s environment and social systems. Except for a few ORNL researchers who had just completed their first briefing to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission on the need to understand the global carbon cycle, the connection between rising carbon dioxide concentrations and potential changes in global climate was not common knowledge, nor were the consequences of climate change understood.

  8. Climate Change and Tourism Dr David Viner

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    Climate Change and Tourism éCLAT Dr David Viner Climatic Research Unit University of East Anglia d.viner@uea.ac.uk Tourism has a strong international dimension and is sensitive to any changes of climate that alter to attract visitors are likely to be vulnerable to climate change and the implementation of climate change

  9. Changes in the Northern Hemisphere annual cycle: Implications for paleoclimatology?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Jones; K. R. Briffa; T. J. Osborn

    2003-01-01

    Paleoclimatologists generally consider past epochs on the basis of whether they were warmer or colder than today's climate. It is often not possible, however, to consider potential changes in the annual cycle because of limited seasonal emphases in many climate proxies. Using both long European instrumental records and longer European and Chinese documentary series, we show that winters have warmed

  10. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  11. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  12. Climate Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from the C4MIP Model Intercomparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Friedlingstein; P. Cox; R. Betts; L. Bopp; W. von Bloh; V. Brovkin; P. Cadule; S. Doney; M. Eby; I. Fung; G. Bala; J. John; C. Jones; F. Joos; T. Kato; M. Kawamiya; W. Knorr; K. Lindsay; H. D. Matthews; T. Raddatz; P. Rayner; C. Reick; E. Roeckner; K.-G. Schnitzler; R. Schnur; K. Strassmann; A. J. Weaver; C. Yoshikawa; N. Zeng

    2006-01-01

    Eleven coupled climate-carbon cycle models used a common protocol to study the coupling between climate change and the carbon cycle. The models were forced by historical emissions and the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 anthropogenic emissions of CO2 for the 1850-2100 time period. For each model, two simulations were performed in

  13. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  14. Climate change and trophic interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Harrington; Ian Woiwod; Tim Sparks

    1999-01-01

    With confirmation of anthropogenically induced climate change, the spotlight is on biologists to predict and detect effects on populations. The complexity of interactions within and between the biotic and abiotic components involved makes this a tough challenge, and most studies have consequently considered effects of only single climate variables on single species. However, some have gone further, and recently published

  15. Extinction risk from climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris D. Thomas; Alison Cameron; Rhys E. Green; Michel Bakkenes; Linda J. Beaumont; Yvonne C. Collingham; Barend F. N. Erasmus; Marinez Ferreira de Siqueira; Alan Grainger; Lee Hannah; Lesley Hughes; Brian Huntley; Albert S. van Jaarsveld; Guy F. Midgley; Lera Miles; Miguel A. Ortega-Huerta; A. Townsend Peterson; Oliver L. Phillips; Stephen E. Williams

    2004-01-01

    Climate change over the past ~30 years has produced numerous shifts in the distributions and abundances of species and has been implicated in one species-level extinction. Using projections of species' distributions for future climate scenarios, we assess extinction risks for sample regions that cover some 20% of the Earth's terrestrial surface. Exploring three approaches in which the estimated probability of

  16. Regional effects of climate change on hydrology and water resources in Aliakmon River basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIA MIMIKOU; FOTIS FOTOPOULOS

    The impacts of climate change on the water cycle of the Aliakmon River basin in Western Macedonia and the operation of the Polyfito reservoir are examined in the current study. Two climate change scenarios, the UKHI and HadCM2, are applied to estimate the climatically induced changes in the water cycle and the altered inflows to the reservoir. A reduction of

  17. To What Degree? What Science is Telling Us About Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What is science telling us about climate change? Leading climate change experts discuss one of the most complex scientific puzzles ever to confront humankind. Included is information on how climate change affects the carbon cycle, water cycle, and heat balance of the Earth.

  18. Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication

    E-print Network

    Watson, Andrew

    Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour;1 Is this climate porn? How does climate change communication affect our perceptions and behaviour? Thomas D. Lowe 1 these kinds of messages (which have recently been dubbed `climate porn' (Ereaut and Segnit, 2006)), can

  19. Simulating the climate of the last glacial cycle Steve Phipps

    E-print Network

    Phipps, Steven J.

    Simulating the climate of the last glacial cycle Steve Phipps 3 December 2003 PhD seminar Simulating the climate of the last glacial cycle Steve Phipps, 3 December 2003 #12;Supervisors: · A the climate of the last glacial cycle Steve Phipps, 3 December 2003 #12;Overview · Background · Aims

  20. Global Climate Change Key Indicators

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website charts measurement of key indicators of global climate change. Simple explanations and "What Does This Mean?" sections accompany each area of sea level, carbon dioxide concentration, global surface temperature, Arctic sea ice and land ice.

  1. Climate Change is About... Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Democracy Center

    Climate Change Is About...Water tells the story of climate change and impacts on water in Bolivia through a range of voices and multimedia materials. Case studies bring the explanatory analysis of vulnerability and the social, economic and cultural impacts of climate change vividly to life. A Teaching and Activities Guide is available to help educators and learners delve into this material, understand the realities of climate change for affected communities, apply this to their own experiences and encourage citizenship in responding to it. The resources are designed to be flexible and accessible for use with secondary-level students upwards, and can be adapted for self-led or teacher-led exploration in both formal and informal settings.

  2. Taking Action on Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this Government of Canada website, visitors can "learn about the science, impacts and adaptation to climate change and how individuals, governments, businesses, industry and communities take action by reducing greenhouse gas emissions." Through maps, graphs, and clear text, users can learn the basics of climate change and the greenhouse gases. The website details many of the ecological, economic, and global impacts of climate change. Users can find out about the One-Tonne Challenge, which encourages everyone to reduce their emissions. Teachers can find questions and activities to educate their students about climate change. The website also offers a calculator to estimate a user's current emissions, a series of videos instructing individuals how to create an energy efficient home and car, as well as publications and media resources. This site is also reviewed in the March 18, 2005 _NSDL Physical Sciences Report_.

  3. Natural and anthropogenic climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, M.K.W.; Clough, S.A.; Molnar, G.I.; Iacono, M. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Wang, W.C. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States) State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center)

    1992-03-01

    This report consists of two parts: (1) progress for the period 9/1/91--3/31/92 and (2) the plan for the remaining period 4/1/92--8/31/92. The project includes two tasks: atmospheric radiation and improvement of climate models to evaluate the climatic effects of radiation changes. The atmospheric radiation task includes four subtasks: (1) Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM), (2) analysis of the water vapor continuum using line-by-line calculations to develop a parameterization for use in climate models, (3) parameterization of longwave radiation and (4) climate/radiation interactions of desert aerosols. Our effort in this period is focused on the first three subtasks. The improvement of climate models to evaluate the subtasks: (1) general circulation model study and (2) 2- D model development and application.

  4. Assessing Impacts of Climate and Land Use Change on Terrestiral-Ocean Fluxes of Carbon and Nutrients and their Cycling in Coastal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Cai, W. J.; Xue, Z. G.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change, increasing population, and associated changes in land use have placed tremendous pressures on coastal ecosystems. We describe an integrated research effort involving observations, modeling and prediction to explore how climate and weather-related forcing in conjunction with changing human activity can alter the transfer of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters, ultimately impacting the biogeochemistry and trophic dynamics of the coastal ocean. We refer to recent NSF- and NASA-funded research applying an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations to understand processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. Past and present conditions across land-ocean continua are examined, as well as coupled model projections of future scenarios for climate, land-use and other human activity. Finally, we provide examples of approaches for determining an overall carbon balance in coastal margins and for describing and predicting how climate and land use changes impact coastal water quality, including coastal eutrophication, hypoxia and ocean acidification.

  5. Global climate change and pedogenic carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Lal, R.; Kimble, J.M.; Stewart, B.A.; Eswaran, H. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    Global Climate Change summarizes what is known about soil inorganic carbon and develops strategies that could lead to the retention of more carbon in the soil. It covers basic concepts, analytical methods, secondary carbonates, and research and development priorities. With this book one will get a better understanding of the global carbon cycle, organic and inorganic carbon, and their roles, or what is known of them, in the greenhouse effect.

  6. The effects of climate sensitivity and carbon cycle interactions on mitigation policy stringency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate sensitivity and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks interact to determine how global carbon and energy cycles will change in the future. While the science of these connections is well documented, their economic implications are not well understood. Here we examine the effect o...

  7. Climate Change, Energy and Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physicians for Social Responsibility

    This site provides an overview of the causes of climate change and the repercussions it has on our environment and our health. Special focus topics include energy and health (with respect to fossil fuels and nuclear energy), national energy policy and health, how a warming climate affects weather and health, impacts of fuel economy (with respect to emissions of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons on environmental and human health), and air quality and climate change. The site also features links to current news and related resources.

  8. Climate Change: The Sun's Role

    E-print Network

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2007-01-01

    The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

  9. Climate Change: The Sun's Role

    E-print Network

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2007-06-23

    The sun's role in the earth's recent warming remains controversial even though there is a good deal of evidence to support the thesis that solar variations are a very significant factor in driving climate change both currently and in the past. This precis lays out the background and data needed to understand the basic scientific argument behind the contention that variations in solar output have a significant impact on current changes in climate. It also offers a simple, phenomenological approach for estimating the actual-as opposed to model dependent-magnitude of the sun's influence on climate.

  10. Reanalysis and the Climate Change Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, S.; Kumar, A.; Arkin, P.; Bosilovich, M.; White, G.

    2005-05-01

    One of the key early deliverables of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is a synthesis and assessment report on "Reanalyses of historical climate data for key atmospheric features; implications for attribution of causes of observed change". The significance of this deliverable is in the premise that "understanding the magnitude of past climate variations is key to increasing confidence in the understanding of how and why climate has changed and why it may change in the future". One component of the deliverable is a summary report on the current generation of re-analysis of historical climate data. The summary report will address such questions as: What aspects of climate trends do different re-analysis agree and disagree on? How do different re-analysis products compare to other independent assessments of climate variability and trends? What discontinuities and spurious trends and variability exist in the current generation of reanalysis products and for what reasons? How are global and regional climate trends and variability in surface temperature and precipitation related to trends in atmospheric circulation? What are the uncertainties in the current generation of re-analysis products and how can they be minimized. In this presentation, we review our current understanding of some of these issues. In particular, we will examine 1) the transition to the satellite era in the middle to late 1970s, 2) the agreement between reanalyses and independent observations in the trends of surface temperature and 3) the differences in the intensity and pattern of the hydrological cycle in re-analyses and independent estimates.

  11. Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Adrian

    Climate Adaptation Futures: Second International Climate Change Adaptation Conference 2012 to climate change! May 29­May 31, 2012, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA Conference Web Site: http://www.adaptation.arizona.edu/adaptation2012 (not yet active) Climate change is one of the most important environmental, social and economic

  12. Climate Change: One, or Many? Professor of Climate and Culture

    E-print Network

    Hulme, Mike

    Climate Change: One, or Many? Mike Hulme Professor of Climate and Culture Department of Geography Presidential Session: `Geographies of Climate Change' AAG Annual Conference, Tampa, Florida, 7-11 April 2014 #12;10 Mary Douglas #12;One Resistance? The dominant singular approach to climate change has fuelled

  13. Climate Amenities, Climate Change, and American Quality of Life

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Climate Amenities, Climate Change, and American Quality of Life September, 2011 PRELIMINARY DRAFT "business-as-usual" forecast from the United Nations' International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts assessment that has received comparatively little investigation: the impact of climate change on the amenity

  14. The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change

    E-print Network

    1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley · Changes to surface and atmosphere by aerosols · Climate sensitivity to changes in aerosols and CO2 Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: · Central

  15. Daily precipitation in a changing climate: lessons learnt from Swiss national climate change scenario initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Andreas; Liniger, Mark; Zubler, Elias; Keller, Denise; Rajczak, Jan; Schär, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation is a key variable in the climate system that affects many aspects of the hydrological cycle such as river runoff, snow amount, or droughts. Climate change projections of precipitation and related impacts are therefore of fundamental concern for multiple sectors in many regions. Within the Swiss national climate change initiatives CH2011 and CH2014, several precipitation-dependent impacts were quantitatively assessed. This included consideration of projections of the mean annual cycle, as well as changes in extremes, wet-day frequency, and spell lengths. To better understand the needs of the primary and intermediary users of climate model data in Switzerland, a dialogue between the climate modeling and impact communities was established over recent years. In this presentation, we like to report about our experience with these needs, and on the steps we undertook to approach the emerging challenges regarding changes in precipitation. In our work beyond CH2011, the multi-faceted characteristics of precipitation change over Switzerland are investigated based on the joint analysis of several regional climate model (RCM) simulations from ENSEMBLES at the A1B emission scenario. In some seasons, changes in precipitation frequency and intensity compensate each other, in other seasons just one of these two components changes. Yet, extreme daily precipitation events are projected to intensify in most seasons. In summer, a reduction of frequency yields an augmented risk of more multi-day dry spells and meteorological summer droughts. It is also in summer, when the model simulations exhibit an elevation-dependent shift in precipitation type toward more convective precipitation. To accommodate the common need of many end-users in obtaining quantitative future projection data at multiple stations, we use a stochastic multi-site precipitation generator as main downscaling technique. In the presentation, we will present first results thereof and discuss, how end-users can handle changes in daily precipitation statistics for climate change scenarios.

  16. The EPA Climate Change Kids Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-29

    This interactive site features games, animations, and teachers' materials intended to introduce younger students to climate change. There is information about what climate change is, the difference between weather and climate, and the greenhouse effect. There are also materials on the climate system, ancient climates, and how scientists investigate climate. Other topics include discussions of whether people can actually change Earth's climate, what the potential effects might be, and what people can do to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.

  17. Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NINA L. BRADLEY; A. CARL LEOPOLD; J OHN ROSS; WELLINGTON HUFFAKER

    1999-01-01

    A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes ref lect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was 20.12 day per year, an

  18. Solar activities and Climate change hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. A., II

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the geological history of Earth, climate change is one of the recurrent natural hazards. In recent history, the impact of man brought about additional climatic change. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary, both solar activities and building-up of green-house gases effect added to the climatic changes. This paper discusses if the global worming caused by the green-house gases effect will be equal or less than the global cooling resulting from the solar activities. In this respect, we refer to the Modern Dalton Minimum (MDM) which stated that starting from year 2005 for the next 40 years; the earth's surface temperature will become cooler than nowadays. However the degree of cooling, previously mentioned in old Dalton Minimum (c. 210 y ago), will be minimized by building-up of green-house gases effect during MDM period. Regarding to the periodicities of solar activities, it is clear that now we have a new solar cycle of around 210 years. Keywords: Solar activities; solar cycles; palaeoclimatic changes; Global cooling; Modern Dalton Minimum.

  19. Climate change and biodiversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lovejoy

    2008-01-01

    Summary There is already widespread change in the natural calendars (phenology) of plants and animals, as well as change in some species distributions. Now threshold change (sudden, fundamental change) in ecosystems is beginning to be observed in nature. At minimum, the natural world will experience an equal amount of warming to that which has already taken place. This all suggests

  20. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice 10 November 2011 J. Hansen, M. Sato, coincident with increased global warming. The most dramatic and important change of the climate dice change is the natural variability of climate. How can a person discern long-term climate change, given

  1. Climate change impacts on forestry

    PubMed Central

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Sedjo, Roger A.

    2007-01-01

    Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. Our review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. We concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand. PMID:18077403

  2. Climate change impacts on forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilenko, A.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science and Policy; Sedjo, R.A. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-12-11

    Changing temperature and precipitation pattern and increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to drive significant modifications in natural and modified forests. The authors' review is focused on recent publications that discuss the changes in commercial forestry, excluding the ecosystem functions of forests and nontimber forest products. They concentrate on potential direct and indirect impacts of climate change on forest industry, the projections of future trends in commercial forestry, the possible role of biofuels, and changes in supply and demand.

  3. Climate change and food security.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

    2005-11-29

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

  4. CLIMATE CHANGE. Climate change impacts on bumblebees converge across continents.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jeremy T; Pindar, Alana; Galpern, Paul; Packer, Laurence; Potts, Simon G; Roberts, Stuart M; Rasmont, Pierre; Schweiger, Oliver; Colla, Sheila R; Richardson, Leif L; Wagner, David L; Gall, Lawrence F; Sikes, Derek S; Pantoja, Alberto

    2015-07-10

    For many species, geographical ranges are expanding toward the poles in response to climate change, while remaining stable along range edges nearest the equator. Using long-term observations across Europe and North America over 110 years, we tested for climate change-related range shifts in bumblebee species across the full extents of their latitudinal and thermal limits and movements along elevation gradients. We found cross-continentally consistent trends in failures to track warming through time at species' northern range limits, range losses from southern range limits, and shifts to higher elevations among southern species. These effects are independent of changing land uses or pesticide applications and underscore the need to test for climate impacts at both leading and trailing latitudinal and thermal limits for species. PMID:26160945

  5. The Strength of the Brewer Dobson Circulation in a Changing Climate: Coupled Chemistry Climate Model Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Li; John Austin; John Wilson

    2008-01-01

    The strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in a changing climate is studied using multidec- adal simulations covering the 1960-2100 period with a coupled chemistry-climate model, to examine the seasonality of the change of the BDC. The model simulates an intensification of the BDC in both the past (1960-2004) and future (2005-2100) climate, but the seasonal cycle is different. In

  6. Can Science Win Over Climate Change Skeptics?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Dougherty (The American Society of Human Genetics; )

    2009-07-25

    Explaining global warming is complex, making it harder to argue against climate change skeptics. Teaching the nature of science may be a better way to help students and the public understand that climate change is real; highlight the benefits from climate change awareness; and provide concise, direct answers to critics of climate change theory.

  7. Linkages between climate change and sustainable development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noreen Beg; Jan Corfee Morlot; Ogunlade Davidson; Yaw Afrane-Okesse; Lwazikazi Tyani; Fatma Denton; Youba Sokona; Jean Philippe Thomas; Emilio Lèbre La Rovere; Jyoti K. Parikh; Kirit Parikh; A. Atiq Rahman

    2002-01-01

    Climate change does not yet feature prominently within the environmental or economic policy agendas of developing countries. Yet evidence shows that some of the most adverse effects of climate change will be in developing countries, where populations are most vulnerable and least likely to easily adapt to climate change, and that climate change will affect the potential for development in

  8. Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co of global climate change­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Projected Climate Change 200-2100 What Global Change Probability Distribution of 14 Global Climate Model Projections D. Vimont, UW-Madison 90% chance

  9. An iconic approach to representing climate change

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    1 An iconic approach to representing climate change Saffron Jessica O'Neill A thesis submitted-experts to be meaningfully engaged with the issue of climate change. This thesis investigates the value of engaging non-experts with climate change at the individual level. Research demonstrates that individuals perceive climate change

  10. Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers

    E-print Network

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    1 Prospective Climate Change Impact on Large Rivers in the US and South Korea Pierre Y. Julien Dept. of Civil and Environ. Eng. Colorado State University Seoul, South Korea August 11, 2009 Climate Change and Large Rivers 1. Climatic changes have been on-going for some time; 2. Climate changes usually predict

  11. Inuit Observations on Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an overview of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) project at Sachs Harbour on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, an effort to document the problem of Arctic climate change as experienced by the Inuit living there. There is video commentary by Inuit in which they describe changes in daily life for animals and people at Sachs Harbour: banks caving from permafrost melt, seasonal changes and new types of animals appearing as the old familiar animals disappear, ice dangerously opening up, and most importantly, a new unpredictability added to the usual extreme weather conditions in the Arctic region. The video comes in an abbreviated version, 14 minutes in length, as well as the full version, which is 42 minutes in length. There are reports of IISD trips made during different seasons at Sachs Harbour, a teacher guide for the video, and a report on the climate observations discussed in the IISD: Inuit Observations on Climate Change workshop.

  12. Faces of Climate Change: Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darcy Dugan

    This is the first of three short videos showcasing the dramatic changes in Alaska's marine ecosystems through interviews with scientists and Alaska Natives. This introduction to the impacts of climate change in Alaska includes interviews with Alaska Natives, commentary by scientists, and footage from Alaska's Arctic.

  13. Inuit Observations of Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-17

    In this video adapted from the International Institute for Sustainable Development, an Inuit community collaborates with Western scientists studying climate change. Inuit observations are recorded and included in the data collection process, expanding the scientists' understanding of changes in the area.

  14. Climate Change: Coastal Dead Zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald F. Boesch; Victoria J. Coles; David G. Kimmel; W. David Miller

    \\u000a Many of the anticipated changes (increased streamflow, warmer temperatures, calmer summer winds, and increased depth due to\\u000a sea-level rise) associated with global climate change would move the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in the direction of worsening\\u000a hypoxia (harmful oxygen depletion).

  15. Invasive species and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  16. Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Paul; Heward, William L.

    2010-01-01

    In "Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge," we conclude the special section by assuming that you have been persuaded by Thompson's paper or other evidence that global warming is real and poses a threat that must be dealt with, and that for now the only way to deal with it is by changing behavior. Then we ask what you, as behavior analysts, can do…

  17. Volcanic activity and climatic changes.

    PubMed

    Bryson, R A; Goodman, B M

    1980-03-01

    Radiocarbon dates of volcanic activity suggest variations that appear to be related to climatic changes. Historical eruption records also show variations on the scale of years to centuries. These records can be combined with simple climatic models to estimate the impact of various volcanic activity levels. From this analysis it appears that climatic prediction in the range of 2 years to many decades requires broad-scale volcanic activity prediction. Statistical analysis of the volcanic record suggests that some predictability is possible. PMID:17759813

  18. Double Exposure: Photographing Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D. P.; Wake, C. P.; Romanow, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    Double Exposure, Photographing Climate Change, is a fine-art photography exhibition that examines climate change through the prism of melting glaciers. The photographs are twinned shots of glaciers, taken in the mid-20th century by world-renowned photographer Brad Washburn, and in the past two years by Boston journalist/photographer David Arnold. Arnold flew in Washburn's aerial "footprints", replicating stunning black and white photographs, and documenting one irreversible aspect of climate change. Double Exposure is art with a purpose. It is designed to educate, alarm and inspire its audiences. Its power lies in its beauty and the shocking changes it has captured through a camera lens. The interpretive text, guided by numerous experts in the fields of glaciology, global warming and geology, helps convey the message that climate change has already forced permanent changes on the face of our planet. The traveling exhibit premiered at Boston's Museum of Science in April and is now criss-crossing the nation. The exhibit covers changes in the 15 glaciers that have been photographed as well as related information about global warming's effect on the planet today.

  19. Experimenting with Climate Change

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hilda Smith, biological technician with Canyonlands Research Station, monitors changes in biological soil crusts in response to experimental increases in temperature and altered precipitation patterns....

  20. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation

  1. Global Climate Change: A Glance in the Rear View Mirror

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Huber

    This Geotimes article provides information regarding the inference of paleoclimate (global climate change) from proxy data such as ice core (oxygen isotope) records and biota found in deep sea sediments. The article discusses the history of proxy usage, the basis of current proxies, and gaps in our understanding of carbon/material cycling and climate records.

  2. Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change climate extremes and change impacts. Uncertainties in process studies, climate models, and associated

  3. Climate Wisconsin: Temperature Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Finn Ryan

    This interactive visualization allows users to compare future projections of Wisconsin's average annual temperature with the actual changes of the last five decades. Text on the web page encourages students to think about the challenges Wisconsin could face if these changes occur.

  4. The climate is changing and world popula4on is growing. These are increasing demands on the Earth's water resources and uncertainty on water availability. Advances in water cycle

    E-print Network

    these challenges. With this in mind, JPL's Center for Climate Sciences February to May 2012 at JPL. A separate workshop on Water Resource Management water cycle science ques4ons; - integrate water cycle science across JPL

  5. United Nations Environment Programme: Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides access to information on the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) initiatives on the issue of climate change. Materials include UNEP's areas of focus on addressing climate change (climate, finance, and business; emissions mitigation; carbon sequestration; vulnerability and adaptation to climate change; and others); links to UNEP Climate Change Centres; links to partner organizations; and links to information and media activities. There are also links to multimedia materials (posters, films, and video), printed publications on climate change, maps and graphics, and links to other organizations working on the issue of climate change.

  6. Changing Biomass, Fossil, and Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Sustainability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. Forsberg; Charles W

    2007-01-01

    The energy and chemical industries face two great sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace crude oil as the basis of our transport and chemical industries. These challenges can be met by changing and synergistically combining the fossil, biomass, and nuclear fuel cycles.

  7. Path Dependence of Regional Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrington, Tyler; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    Path dependence of the climate response to CO2 forcing has been investigated from a global mean perspective, with evidence suggesting that long-term global mean temperature and precipitation changes are proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions, and independent of emissions pathway. Little research, however, has been done on path dependence of regional climate changes, particularly in areas that could be affected by tipping points. Here, we utilize the UVic Earth System Climate Model version 2.9, an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity. It consists of a 3-dimensional ocean general circulation model, coupled with a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model, and a thermodynamic energy-moisture balance model of the atmosphere. This is then coupled with a terrestrial carbon cycle model and an ocean carbon-cycle model containing an inorganic carbon and marine ecosystem component. Model coverage is global with a zonal resolution of 3.6 degrees and meridional resolution of 1.8 degrees. The model is forced with idealized emissions scenarios across five cumulative emission groups (1300 GtC, 2300 GtC, 3300 GtC, 4300 GtC, and 5300 GtC) to explore the path dependence of (and the possibility of hysteresis in) regional climate changes. Emission curves include both fossil carbon emissions and emissions from land use changes, and span a variety of peak and decline scenarios with varying emission rates, as well as overshoot and instantaneous pulse scenarios. Tipping points being explored include those responsible for the disappearance of summer Arctic sea-ice, the irreversible melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet, the collapse of the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation, and the dieback of the Amazonian Rainforest. Preliminary results suggest that global mean climate change after cessation of CO2 emissions is independent of the emissions pathway, only varying with total cumulative emissions, in accordance with results from earlier studies. Forthcoming analysis will investigate path dependence of regional climate change. Some evidence exists to support the idea of hysteresis in the Greenland Ice Sheet, and since tipping points represent non-linear elements of the climate system, we suspect that the other tipping points might also show path dependence.

  8. US Climate Change Science Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site offers a portal to the recently held Planning Workshop for Scientists and Stakeholders, convened by the Bush administration to set the research agenda for its US Climate Change Science Program (CCSP). Clicking on Library will call up the draft strategic plan for the CCSP, which may be downloaded in whole or in part. The Web site also provides an overview of the meetings and the program, along with various publications and white papers also available to download. Climate change researchers and other interested parties should find this site a useful resource for keeping tabs on the current administration's stance on the issue.

  9. Aquatic biochronologies and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrongiello, John R.; Thresher, Ronald E.; Smith, David C.

    2012-12-01

    Historical evidence provides essential context for models predicting the biological impacts of climate change. Such long-term data sets are relatively common for terrestrial taxa and environments, but sparse for aquatic systems. Aquatic biochronologies -- generated from information recorded in the hard parts of fish, molluscs and corals that are archived in their millions worldwide -- can provide valuable long-term ecological insights into marine and freshwater environments. These resources are, however, at present under-utilized in the measurement and prediction of ecological responses to climate change, despite their potential to provide unprecedented levels of spatial and temporal detail in aquatic environments.

  10. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE UNITED STATES

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE UNITED STATES The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change Foundation Humanity's influence on the global climate will grow in the 21st century. Increasingly, there will be significant climate-related changes that will affect each one of us. We must begin now to consider our

  11. 4, 289308, 2008 Climate change and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    CPD 4, 289­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title forum of Climate of the Past Recent climate change affecting rainstorm occurrences? A case study in East­308, 2008 Climate change and rainstorms in East China M. Domroes and D. Schaefer Title Page Abstract

  12. Public Engagement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change communication is complicated by complexity of the scientific problem, multiple perspectives on the magnitude of the risk from climate change, often acrimonious disputes between scientists, high stakes policy options, and overall politicization of the issue. Efforts to increase science literacy as a route towards persuasion around the need for a policy like cap and trade have failed, because the difficulty that a scientist has in attempting to make sense of the social and political complexity is very similar to the complexity facing the general public as they try to make sense of climate science itself. In this talk I argue for a shift from scientists and their institutions as information disseminators to that of public engagement and enablers of public participation. The goal of engagement is not just to inform, but to enable, motivate and educate the public regarding the technical, political, and social dimensions of climate change. Engagement is a two-way process where experts and decision-makers seek input and learn from the public about preferences, needs, insights, and ideas relative to climate change impacts, vulnerabilities, solutions and policy options. Effective public engagement requires that scientists detach themselves from trying to control what the public does with the acquired knowledge and motivation. The goal should not be to "sell" the public on particular climate change solutions, since such advocacy threatens public trust in scientists and their institutions. Conduits for public engagement include the civic engagement approach in the context of community meetings, and perhaps more significantly, the blogosphere. Since 2006, I have been an active participant in the climate blogosphere, focused on engaging with people that are skeptical of AGW. A year ago, I started my own blog Climate Etc. at judithcurry.com. The demographic that I have focused my communication/engagement activities are the technically educated and scientifically literate public, many of whom have become increasingly skeptical of climate science the more they investigate the topic. Specific issues that this group has with climate science include concerns that science that cannot easily be separated from risk assessment and value judgments; concern that assessments (e.g. IPCC) have become a Maxwell's daemon for climate research; inadequate assessment of our ignorance of this complex scientific issue; elite scientists and scientific institutions losing credibility with the public; political exploitation of the public's lack of understanding; and concerns about the lack of public accountability of climate science and climate models that are being used as the basis for far reaching decisions and policies. Individuals in this group have the technical ability to understand and examine climate science arguments and are not prepared to cede judgment on this issue to the designated and self-proclaimed experts. This talk will describe my experiences in engaging with this group and what has been learned, both by myself and by participants in the discussion at Climate Etc.

  13. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  14. Bergen earth system model (BCM-C): model description and regional climate-carbon cycle feedbacks assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Tjiputra; K. Assmann; M. Bentsen; I. Bethke; O. H. Otterâ; C. Sturm; C. Heinze

    2009-01-01

    A complex earth system model is developed by coupling terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle models into the Bergen Climate Model. Two model simulations (one with climate change inclusions and the other without) are generated to study the large scale climate and carbon cycle variability as well as its feedback for the period 1850-2100. The simulations are performed based on historical

  15. Bergen Earth system model (BCM-C): model description and regional climate-carbon cycle feedbacks assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Tjiputra; K. Assmann; M. Bentsen; I. Bethke; O. H. Otterâ; C. Sturm; C. Heinze

    2010-01-01

    We developed a complex Earth system model by coupling terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle components into the Bergen Climate Model. For this study, we have generated two model simulations (one with climate change inclusions and the other without) to study the large scale climate and carbon cycle variability as well as its feedback for the period 1850-2100. The simulations are

  16. Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities 

    E-print Network

    Crawford, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can make essentially irreversible changes in the climate of the future. Naysayers dispute whether mankind is even capable of changing...

  17. Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Owen, Sandra J.

    2012-11-01

    Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop NASA/Ames Research Center May 15-17, 2012 Climate change on Mars has been a subject of great interest to planetary scientists since the 1970's when orbiting spacecraft first discovered fluvial landforms on its ancient surfaces and layered terrains in its polar regions. By far most of the attention has been directed toward understanding how "Early Mars" (i.e., Mars >~3.5 Gya) could have produced environmental conditions favorable for the flow of liquid water on its surface. Unfortunately, in spite of the considerable body of work performed on this subject, no clear consensus has emerged on the nature of the early Martian climate system because of the difficulty in distinguishing between competing ideas given the ambiguities in the available geological, mineralogical, and isotopic records. For several reasons, however, the situation is more tractable for "Recent Mars" (i.e., Mars during past 20 My or so). First, the geologic record is better preserved and evidence for climate change on this time scale has been building since the rejuvenation of the Mars Exploration Program in the late 1990's. The increasing coverage of the planet from orbit and the surface, coupled with accurate measurements of surface topography, increasing spatial resolution of imaging cameras, improved spectral resolution of infrared sensors, and the ability to probe the subsurface with radar, gamma rays, and neutron spectroscopy, has not only improved the characterization of previously known climate features such as polar layered terrains and glacier-related landforms, but has also revealed the existence of many new features related to recent climate change such as polygons, gullies, concentric crater fill, and a latitude dependent mantle. Second, the likely cause of climate change - spin axis/orbital variations - is more pronounced on Mars compared to Earth. Spin axis/orbital variations alter the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of sunlight, which can mobilize and redistribute volatile reservoirs both on and below the surface. And for Mars, these variations are large. In the past 20 My, for example, the obliquity is believed to have varied from a low of 15° to a high of 45° with a regular oscillation time scale of ~10^5 years. These variations are typically less than two degrees on the Earth. Mars, therefore, offers a natural laboratory for the study of orbitally induced climate change on a terrestrial planet. Finally, general circulation models (GCMs) for Mars have reached a level of sophistication that justifies their application to the study of spin axis/orbitally forced climate change. With recent advances in computer technology the models can run at reasonable spatial resolution for many Mars years with physics packages that include cloud microphysics, radiative transfer in scattering/absorbing atmospheres, surface heat budgets, boundary layer schemes, and a host of other processes. To be sure, the models will undergo continual improvement, but with carefully designed experiments they can now provide insights into mechanisms of climate change in the recent past. Thus, the geologic record is better preserved, the forcing function is large, and GCMs have become useful tools. While research efforts in each of these areas have progressed considerably over the past several decades, they have proceeded mostly on independent paths occasionally leading to conflicting ideas. To remedy this situation and accelerate progress in the area, the NASA/Ames Research Center's Mars General Circulation Modeling Group hosted a 3-day workshop on May 15-17, 2012 that brought together the geological and atmospheric science communities to collectively discuss the evidence for recent climate change on Mars, the nature of the change required, and how that change could be brought about. Over 50 researchers, students, and post-docs from the US, Canada, Europe, and Japan attended the meeting. The program and abstracts from the workshop are presented in this NASA/CP and are available to the public at http://spa

  18. Simulated climate and CO2—Induced climate change over Western Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Wilson; J. F. B. Mitchell

    1987-01-01

    The use of a relatively high resolution general circulation model (the Meteorological Office 5-layer model) to determine climate changes for impact studies is evaluated. The simulation of present day climate over Western Europe is assessed by comparing not only different seasons with climatological data, but also the mean annual cycle and the frequency of extreme events. It is found that

  19. Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Climate Change: High Water Impacts and Adaptation David S. Liebl and Kenneth W. Potter Co changes due to global climate change." ­ WICCI Stormwater Working Group #12;Future Climate Change What downscaled to Wisconsin using historic data ("de-biasing") #12;Change in Wisconsin monthly temperature

  20. Simulated Climate Change by the Community Climate System Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Kiehl

    2001-01-01

    Simulations from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are presented that consider the predicted magnitude and spatial patterns of natural climate variability and anthropogenically forced climate change. These simulations will consider changes from the inter-annual to century time scales for both the 20th and 21st centuries. Special focus will be given to the simulated variability and change in Earth's hydrologic

  1. Climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Robert W.; Davidson, Eric A.; Goodale, Christine L.; Greaver, Tara L.; Herrick, Jeffrey D.; Liu, Lingli

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer application in the United States have substantially altered the nitrogen cycle, with serious effects on climate change. The climate effects can be short-lived, by impacting the chemistry of the atmosphere, or long-lived, by altering ecosystem greenhouse gas fluxes. Here we develop a coherent framework for assessing the climate change impacts of US reactive nitrogen emissions, including oxides of nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N2O). We use the global temperature potential (GTP), calculated at 20 and 100 y, in units of CO2 equivalents (CO2e), as a common metric. The largest cooling effects are due to combustion sources of oxides of nitrogen altering tropospheric ozone and methane concentrations and enhancing carbon sequestration in forests. The combined cooling effects are estimated at ?290 to ?510 Tg CO2e on a GTP20 basis. However, these effects are largely short-lived. On a GTP100 basis, combustion contributes just ?16 to ?95 Tg CO2e. Agriculture contributes to warming on both the 20-y and 100-y timescales, primarily through N2O emissions from soils. Under current conditions, these warming and cooling effects partially offset each other. However, recent trends show decreasing emissions from combustion sources. To prevent warming from US reactive nitrogen, reductions in agricultural N2O emissions are needed. Substantial progress toward this goal is possible using current technology. Without such actions, even greater CO2 emission reductions will be required to avoid dangerous climate change. PMID:22547815

  2. Climate Change in the 20th and 21st Centuries

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, Warren (NCAR) [NCAR

    2006-04-19

    The NCAR Community Climate System Model and Parallel Climate Model have produced one the largest data sets for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its fourth Assessment. There will be some discussion of what is in state-of-art climate models. As a result of this and other climate assessments, most of the climate research science community now believes that mankind is changing the earth's system and that global warming is taking place. The changes are not only reflected in terms of means but also extremes. The new IPCC research findings will be presented along with future computational challenges. It is expected that in the future there will be a need for both terascale and petascale computing, which will allow for higher resolution climate models that have embedded hurricanes and smaller scale weather features as well as viable biogeochemical cycles. Because of concerns of burning fossil fuels there will be special emphasis on better estimates of the Earth's carbon cycle, which is a special concern for the DOE. In order to perform future climate change simulations, the computational methods will necessarily undergo a reexamination. Finally, at the end of talk there will be a discussion of how climate model studies can aid in future policy options, some of which will address 'geoengineering' the climate system.

  3. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. van der Vink; Y. Plancherel; C. Hennet; K. D. Jones; A. Abdullah; J. Bradshaw; S. Dee; A. Deprez; M. Pasenello; E. Plaza-Jennings; D. Roseman; P. Sopher; E. Sung

    2009-01-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events

  4. Global Climate Change Interaction Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1998-01-01

    Students investigate the effects of global climate change on life in the Great Lakes region in this activity. Teams working together construct as many links as possible for such factors as rainfall, lake water, evaporation, skiing, zebra mussels, wetlands, shipping, walleye, toxic chemicals, coastal homes, and population. (PVD)

  5. Forensic entomology and climatic change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margherita Turchetto; Stefano Vanin

    2004-01-01

    Forensic entomology establishes the postmortem interval (PMI) by studying cadaveric fauna. The PMI today is still largely based on tables of insect succession on human cadavers compiled in the late 19th- or mid-20th centuries. In the last few years, however, the gradual warming of the climate has been changing faunal communities by favouring the presence of thermophilous species. To demonstrate

  6. Climate Change: Evidence and Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The fundamentals of climate change are well established: greenhouse gases warm the planet; their concentrations in the atmosphere are increasing; Earth has warmed, and is going to continue warming with a range of impacts. This article summarises the contents of a recent publication issued by the UK's Royal Society and the US National Academy…

  7. Climate Change Wildlife and Wildlands

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    This video focuses on the science of climate change and its impacts on wildlife on land and in the sea, and their habitats in the U.S. There are short sections on walruses, coral reefs, migrating birds and their breeding grounds, freshwater fish, bees, etc. Video concludes with some discussion about solutions, including reduce/recyle/reuse, energy conservation, backyard habitats, citizen scientists.

  8. CLIMATE CHANGE AND N DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project investigates the potential influence of climate change on wet deposition of reduced nitrogen across the U.S. The concentration of ammonium-nitrogen in precipitation is known to increase with temperature, owing to temperature dependent ammonia source strengths (natur...

  9. Climate Change: Science, Skepticism, Solutions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kutscher, Charles F.

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation on climate change from Chuck Kutscher of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The presentation includes graphics and data. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  10. Media power and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Julia B.

    2015-04-01

    Fingers are often pointed directly at the news media for their powerful influence and ineffective reporting of climate change. But is that the best place to point? And are there more effective ways to conceptualize the power of the media and to consider whom they serve?

  11. A Lesson on Climate Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jim

    This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce…

  12. Engaging the Public in Climate Change Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meymaris, K. K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.; Schwarz Ballard, J.

    2009-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, currently finishing its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. In anticipation of the 2010 campaign, Project BudBurst has developed and released innovative and exciting projects with a special focus in the field of phenology and climate change. The collaborations between Project BudBurst and other organizations are producing unique campaigns for engaging the public in environmental research. The special project foci include on-the-spot and in-the-field data reporting via mobile phones, an emphasis on urban tree phenology data, as well as monitoring of native gardens across the US National Wildlife Refuge System. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and the new special projects, and share results from 2007-2009. Project BudBurst is managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, the Chicago Botanic Garden, and the University of Montana.

  13. The Arctic Ocean's seasonal cycle must change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, James; Ding, Yanni

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses anticipated changes to the seasonal cycle of the Arctic Ocean along with Arctic surface climate due to the reduction of seasonal sea ice cover expected in the 21st century. Net surface shortwave radiation is a function of surface reflectivity and atmospheric transparency as well as solar declination. Recent observational studies and modeling results presented here strongly suggest that this excess heat in the summer is currently being stored locally in the form of ocean warming and sea ice melt. This heat is lost in winter/spring through surface loss through longwave and turbulent processes causing ocean cooling and the refreezing of sea ice. A striking feature of Arctic climate during the 20th century has been the enhanced warming experienced during winter in response to increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of surface air temperature is declining by gradually warming winter temperatures relative to summer temperatures. Bintanja and van der Linden (2013) show this process will eventually cause the 30C seasonal change in air temperature to reduce by half as seasonal sea ice disappears. The much weaker seasonal cycle of ocean temperature, which is controlled by the need to store excess surface heat seasonally, is also going to be affected by the loss of sea ice but in quite different ways. In particular the ocean will need to compensate for the loss of seasonal heat storage by the ice pack. This study examines consequences for the Arctic Ocean stratification and circulation in a suite of CMIP5 models under future emissions scenarios relative to their performance during the 20th century and to explore a range of model ocean responses to declining sea ice cover on the Arctic Ocean.

  14. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  15. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  16. Enhancement of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to include the effect of surface albedo on climate change: Comparing black and white roofs.

    PubMed

    Susca, Tiziana

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, life cycle assessment (LCA) does not estimate a key property: surface albedo. Here an enhancement of the LCA methodology has been proposed through the development and employment of a time-dependent climatological model for including the effect of surface albedo on climate. The theoretical findings derived by the time-dependent model have been applied to the case study of a black and a white roof evaluated in the time-frames of 50 and 100 years focusing on the impact on global warming potential. The comparative life cycle impact assessment of the two roofs shows that the high surface albedo plays a crucial role in offsetting radiative forcings. In the 50-year time horizon, surface albedo is responsible for a decrease in CO(2)eq of 110-184 kg and 131-217 kg in 100 years. Furthermore, the white roof compared to the black roof, due to the high albedo, decreases the annual energy use of about 3.6-4.5 kWh/m(2). PMID:22325430

  17. Perturbations to the River Nitrogen Cycling from the Historical Land Use and Climate Changes: the Susquehanna River Case Study with GFDL Land Model LM3-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a regional version of the GFDL land model LM3-N to assess human influences on the nitrogen cycle in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The new features include integrated effects of point and non-point sources on river nitrogen loads, a denitrification module and stream microbial processes within the LM3's terrestrial and river component respectively. We have used the improved version to investigate the intertwined relationship between nitrogen dynamics and hydrological processes under different climate scenarios. We applied the modified model to the Susquehanna River basin, the largest of the watersheds in the northeastern U.S., draining an area of 71,220 square kilometers, at the resolution of 1/8 degree. Within the LM3's integrated modeling framework, we simulated stream NH4-N and DON loads in addition to NO3-N loads for the entire drainage network, which were verified using 20 year (1986-2005) river data from 6 long-term monitoring stations. Results suggest that mechanistic land-surface models like LM3, which are capable of capturing long-term hydrological cycles, allow for the simulation of inter-annual variations of stream nitrogen loadings caused by differences in weather patterns. Most of the non-point nitrogen inputs to the terrestrial ecosystem were stored in the vegetation and soil in the secondary land use, but they were removed by soil denitrification in the agricultural land, indicating that artificial nitrogen applications could drive substantial increase of N2O emission. Simulations using different idealized climate scenarios showed that after a series of dry years (e.g., 1961-1963) the median and upper 10 percent of the estimated river nitrogen loadings increase by 25 and 26 percent respectively, as compared to the loadings after a mean hydrological year (2005). This shows that prolonged drought periods could induce a significant increase of stream nutrient load in the post drought year due to the delayed release of the accumulated soil nitrogen during the drought periods. The above discussion points illustrate the critical role of historical climate patterns in addition to the increasing anthropogenic nutrient loads when assessing nutrient-related water quality problems and designing optimal nutrient loading controls.

  18. Climate change and trace gases.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Kharecha, Pushker; Russell, Gary; Lea, David W; Siddall, Mark

    2007-07-15

    Palaeoclimate data show that the Earth's climate is remarkably sensitive to global forcings. Positive feedbacks predominate. This allows the entire planet to be whipsawed between climate states. One feedback, the 'albedo flip' property of ice/water, provides a powerful trigger mechanism. A climate forcing that 'flips' the albedo of a sufficient portion of an ice sheet can spark a cataclysm. Inertia of ice sheet and ocean provides only moderate delay to ice sheet disintegration and a burst of added global warming. Recent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions place the Earth perilously close to dramatic climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest human-made climate forcing, but other trace constituents are also important. Only intense simultaneous efforts to slow CO2 emissions and reduce non-CO2 forcings can keep climate within or near the range of the past million years. The most important of the non-CO2 forcings is methane (CH4), as it causes the second largest human-made GHG climate forcing and is the principal cause of increased tropospheric ozone (O3), which is the third largest GHG forcing. Nitrous oxide (N2O) should also be a focus of climate mitigation efforts. Black carbon ('black soot') has a high global warming potential (approx. 2000, 500 and 200 for 20, 100 and 500 years, respectively) and deserves greater attention. Some forcings are especially effective at high latitudes, so concerted efforts to reduce their emissions could preserve Arctic ice, while also having major benefits for human health, agricultural productivity and the global environment. PMID:17513270

  19. Climate Science in a Nutshell: Climate Change Around the World?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Planet Nutshell

    This video is part of the Climate Science in a Nutshell video series. This short video looks at the effects of climate change happening right now around the globe, including: more extreme weather events, droughts, forest fires, land use changes, altered ranges of disease-carrying insects, and the loss of some agricultural products. It concludes with a discussion of the differences among weather, climate variability and climate change.

  20. A common-sense climate index: Is climate changing noticeably?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Glascoe, Jay; Ruedy, Reto

    1998-01-01

    We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent already, but in most places climate trends are too small to stand out above year-to-year variability. The climate index is strongly correlated with global surface temperature, which has increased as rapidly as projected by climate models in the 1980s. We argue that the global area with obvious climate change will increase notably in the next few years. But we show that the growth rate of greenhouse gas climate forcing has declined in recent years, and thus there is an opportunity to keep climate change in the 21st century less than “business-as-usual” scenarios. PMID:9539699

  1. Ecological Restoration and Global Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Harris; Richard J. Hobbs; Eric Higgs; James Aronson

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing consensus that global climate change occurs and that potential changes in climate are likely to have important regional consequences for biota and ecosystems. Ecological restoration, including (re)- afforestation and rehabilitation of degraded land, is included in the array of potential human responses to cli- mate change. However, the implications of climate change for the broader practice

  2. Challenges and Possibilities in Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneau,, Diane; Khattabi, Abdellatif; Demers, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Educating and communicating about climate change is challenging. Researchers reported that climate change concepts are often misunderstood. Some people do not believe that climate change will have impacts on their own life. Other challenges may include people's difficulty in perceiving small or gradual environmental changes, the fact that…

  3. The greenhouse effect and climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. B. Mitchell; J. F. B

    1989-01-01

    The physical basis of the projected changes in climate due to enhancement of the greenhouse effect is outlined. Gases important to the greenhouse effect are discussed as well as the expected changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases, potential climatic effects, and the ways of detecting changes in the climate. The potential warming due to man-made changes over the last

  4. Ecological Consequences of Recent Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. McCarty

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change is frequently considered a major conservation threat. The Earth's climate has already warmed by 0.5 8 C over the past century, and recent studies show that it is possible to detect the ef- fects of a changing climate on ecological systems. This suggests that global change may be a current and fu- ture conservation threat. Changes in

  5. Atmospheric composition change: Climate–Chemistry interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. A. Isaksen; C. Granier; G. Myhre; T. K. Berntsen; S. B. Dalsøren; M. Gauss; Z. Klimont; R. Benestad; P. Bousquet; W. Collins; T. Cox; V. Eyring; D. Fowler; S. Fuzzi; P. Jöckel; P. Laj; U. Lohmann; M. Maione; P. Monks; A. S. H. Prevot; F. Raes; A. Richter; B. Rognerud; M. Schulz; D. Shindell; D. S. Stevenson; T. Storelvmo; W.-C. Wang; M. van Weele; M. Wild; D. Wuebbles

    2009-01-01

    Chemically active climate compounds are either primary compounds like methane (CH4), removed by oxidation in the atmosphere, or secondary compounds like ozone (O3), sulfate and organic aerosols, both formed and removed in the atmosphere. Man-induced climate–chemistry interaction is a two-way process: Emissions of pollutants change the atmospheric composition contributing to climate change through the aforementioned climate components, and climate change,

  6. Climate Change Modeling: Computational Opportunities and Challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dali Wang; Wilfred M. Post; Bruce E. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    High-fidelity climate models are the workhorses of modern climate change sciences. In this article, the authors focus on several computational issues associated with climate change modeling, covering simulation methodologies, temporal and spatial modeling restrictions, the role of high-end computing, as well as the importance of data-driven regional climate impact modeling.

  7. Unit Plans: Earth's Climate Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    Unit plans for Grades K-2 and 3-5 are a regular feature of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle. The plans draw on articles and resources in a themed issue and are aligned with national science and language arts standards. This unit is designed to provide elementary students with the opportunity to investigate how the annual rings in trees help scientists learn about past climates. It uses hands-on experiences and nonfiction text to answer the unit question: How do trees help scientists learn about the past?

  8. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

  9. How Will Climate Change Impact Cholera Outbreaks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Rahimikolu, J.; Akanda, A. S.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental parameters associated with cholera are well documented. However, cholera continues to be a global public health threat. Uncertainty in defining environmental processes affecting growth and multiplication of the cholera bacteria can be affected significantly by changing climate at different temporal and spatial scales, either through amplification of the hydroclimatic cycle or by enhanced variability of large scale geophysical processes. Endemic cholera in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia has a unique pattern of two seasonal peaks and there are associated with asymmetric and episodic variability in river discharge. The first cholera outbreak in spring is related with intrusion of bacteria laden coastal seawater during low river discharge. Cholera occurring during the fall season is hypothesized to be associated with high river discharge related to a cross-contamination of water resources and, therefore, a second wave of disease, a phenomenon characteristic primarily in the inland regions. Because of difficulties in establishing linkage between coarse resolutions of the Global Climate Model (GCM) output and localized disease outbreaks, the impact of climate change on diarrheal disease has not been explored. Here using the downscaling method of Support Vector Machines from HADCM3 and ECHAM models, we show how cholera outbreak patterns are changing in the Bengal Delta. Our preliminary results indicate statistically significant changes in both seasonality and magnitude in the occurrence of cholera over the next century. Endemic cholera is likely to transform into epidemic forms and new geographical areas will be at risk for cholera outbreaks.

  10. Risk management and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunreuther, Howard; Heal, Geoffrey; Allen, Myles; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Field, Christopher B.; Yohe, Gary

    2013-05-01

    The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes to be examined, as well as the uncertainty surrounding their likelihoods.

  11. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    E-print Network

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  12. COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING IN

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    COMMUNITY ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN EXPLORATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION PLANNING Columbia must adapt to climate change by preparing for expected and unexpected changes in their communities that planners do not have a high level of knowledge of climate change adaptation. Planners feel that the impacts

  13. America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Academies

    This video production is a part of a four-panel report from the National Academies' America's Climate Choices project. The video maps out the realm of our accumulated knowledge regarding climate change and charts a path forward, urging that research on climate change enter a new era focused on the needs of decision makers.

  14. Regional Changes in Extreme Climatic Events: A Future Climate Scenario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason L. Bell; Lisa C. Sloan; Mark A. Snyder

    2004-01-01

    In this study a regional climate model is employed to expand on modeling experiments of future climate change to address issues of 1) the timing and length of the growing season and 2) the frequency and intensity of extreme temperatures and precipitation. The study focuses on California as a climatically complex region that is vulnerable to changes in water supply

  15. A Common-Sense Climate Index: Is Climate Changing Noticeably?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Jay Glascoe; Reto Ruedy

    1998-01-01

    We propose an index of climate change based on practical climate indicators such as heating degree days and the frequency of intense precipitation. We find that in most regions the index is positive, the sense predicted to accompany global warming. In a few regions, especially in Asia and western North America, the index indicates that climate change should be apparent

  16. Phenological changes reflect climate change in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Nina L.; Leopold, A. Carl; Ross, John; Huffaker, Wellington

    1999-01-01

    A phenological study of springtime events was made over a 61-year period at one site in southern Wisconsin. The records over this long period show that several phenological events have been increasing in earliness; we discuss evidence indicating that these changes reflect climate change. The mean of regressions for the 55 phenophases studied was ?0.12 day per year, an overall increase in phenological earliness at this site during the period. Some phenophases have not increased in earliness, as would be expected for phenophases that are regulated by photoperiod or by a physiological signal other than local temperature. PMID:10449757

  17. Influence of Phosphorus Cycle Coupling on Carbon-Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that carbon-nutrient interactions play important roles in regulating terrestrial carbon cycle responses to increasing CO2 in the atmosphere and climate change. Nitrogen-enabled models in CMIP5 indicated that the inclusion of nitrogen cycle reduces CO2 fertilization effect and warming-induced carbon loss from land ecosystems. None of the CMIP5 models has considered phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient. Phosphorus has been commonly considered to be the most limiting nutrient in lowland tropical forests. Only recently a few land models have considered P dynamics and C-N-P interactions (CASA-CNP, JSBACH-CNP and CLM-CNP) and these models show strong P limitation in tropical forest responses to increasing atmospheric CO2. In this study, we have performed a set of offline global-scale simulations using CLM-CNP constrained by realistic maps of phosphorus distribution. We examine the influence of including phosphorus cycle dynamics and C-N-P interactions on C-climate feedbacks. We illustrate the spatial patterns of dominant nutrient limitation (N-limited vs. P-limited) on the global scale. We show that P-limitation dominates over most of the tropics and sub-tropics, while N limitation dominates over most of the temperate and high-latitude regions. We also show that phosphorus cycle coupling reduces the sensitivity of net carbon exchange to variations in both temperature and precipitation.

  18. Mitigating Climate Change in China and Ethiopia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2010-11-30

    In this video segment adapted from Hope in a Changing Climate, learn how an environmentally devastated ecosystem has been restored, benefiting both the local economy and global efforts to fight climate change.

  19. What do Squirrels know about Climate Change?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What do Squirrels know about Climate Change? This activity was developed during the Teaching Climate Change from the Geological Record workshop, held in August 2010.Contributed by: Beth Norman, Allan Ashworth, and ...

  20. Climate Change and the Historical Imagination

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Climate Change and the Historical Imagination Thursday, March 28, 2013 4:30 ­ 6:00 p.m. Wrigley on anthropogenic climate change and its implications for historical thinking, on the history of the idea

  1. RISKS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptation is an important approach for protecting human health, ecosystems, and economic systems from the risks posed by climate variability and change, and to exploit beneficial opportunities provided by a changing climate. This paper presents nine fundamental principles that ...

  2. Global Climate Change and the Mitigation Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book edited by Frank Princiotta titled Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Transparent modeling tools and the most recent literature are used, to quantify the challenge posed by climate change and potential technological remedies. The chapter examines forces driving ...

  3. Diagnosing Carbon-Climate Feedbacks in the Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Anderegg, W.; Bowling, D. R.; Smith, W. K.; Miller, J. B.; White, J. W. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    The amount of carbon being taken up by the biosphere is clearly increasing; however, the variance in the global carbon cycle also appears to be increasing. This increasing variance may be indicative of C sink instability, or it may simply be noise in the global C cycle. Therefore identifying the mechanisms driving this variance is critical for predicting future behavior of the global C cycle. Here we combine satellite observations of terrestrial productivity and atmospheric observations of CO2 and its isotopic composition as diagnostics to gain new insight into the changing behavior of the global C cycle. We use these observations to partition net C uptake into photosynthetic gains and respiratory losses. Based on this approach, we conclude that much of the observed variance in the global C cycle appears to be due to the respiratory response of the terrestrial tropics and that much of the recently observed increase in net C uptake is due to diminished respiratory losses during the well documented warming hiatus. Lastly, we use isotopic analyses of CO2 in this respiratory flux to infer the biosphere's response to changing climate. From these analyses we conclude that water vapor feedbacks present a first-order control on the biosphere's capacity to continue taking up atmospheric CO2 as Earth's atmosphere continues to warm.

  4. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambarish V. Karmalkar; Raymond S. Bradley; Henry F. Diaz

    2011-01-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it’s important to provide regional climate change\\u000a information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central\\u000a America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of temperature and precipitation

  5. Climate change and the global harvest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Rosenzweig; Daniel Hillel

    1998-01-01

    This book summarizes state-of-the-art knowledge on the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture. The book begins by introducing the nonspecialist to the causes of climate change, and reviews the main climate change drivers and impacts. It then goes on to review all major aspects of climate change impact on agriculture in detail. The scope is very broad indeed--the authors

  6. Climate Change: A Case Study Over India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Sahai

    1998-01-01

    Summary   A brief account of various causes of climate change in recent decades and climate change trends in the Indian region is presented.\\u000a It is of great importance to determine the influence of human activities on the likely climate change during recent decades.\\u000a Local temperature is one of the major climatic elements to record the changes in the atmospheric environment

  7. Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities

    E-print Network

    Crawford, J. G.

    Climate Change: Some Scientific and Political Realities Jim Crawford Trane jim.crawford@trane.com www.trane.com Abstract Atmospheric scientists tell us that mankind is changing the climate, and is setting in motion forces that can... make essentially irreversible changes in the climate of the future. Naysayers dispute whether mankind is even capable of changing the climate. Today we are hearing more from the scientists and less from the naysayers. This presentation will review...

  8. Climate change and Arctic parasites.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Andy; Molnár, Péter K; Kutz, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Climate is changing rapidly in the Arctic. This has important implications for parasites of Arctic ungulates, and hence for the welfare of Arctic peoples who depend on caribou, reindeer, and muskoxen for food, income, and a focus for cultural activities. In this Opinion article we briefly review recent work on the development of predictive models for the impacts of climate change on helminth parasites and other pathogens of Arctic wildlife, in the hope that such models may eventually allow proactive mitigation and conservation strategies. We describe models that have been developed using the metabolic theory of ecology. The main strength of these models is that they can be easily parameterized using basic information about the physical size of the parasite. Initial results suggest they provide important new insights that are likely to generalize to a range of host-parasite systems. PMID:25900882

  9. Applied Climate-Change Analysis: The Climate Wizard Tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan H. Girvetz; Chris Zganjar; George T. Raber; Edwin P. Maurer; Peter Kareiva; Joshua J. Lawler; Anna Traveset

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundAlthough the message of “global climate change” is catalyzing international action, it is local and regional changes that directly affect people and ecosystems and are of immediate concern to scientists, managers, and policy makers. A major barrier preventing informed climate-change adaptation planning is the difficulty accessing, analyzing, and interpreting climate-change information. To address this problem, we developed a powerful, yet

  10. Holocence Climatic Changes in the Mongolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.; Zhai, X.; Wang, W.; Ma, Y.; Guo, L.

    2007-12-01

    This study compares lacustrine and nearby eolian sections at sites in the Southern and Northern Mongolian Plateaus in order to test spatial climate variability during the Holocene. Based on the lithology, proxy data, and 14C dated and the interpolated ages, following observations can be made. In the northern Mongolian Plateau best developed Holocene paleosol (Mollisol) dated at ~8,600-~7000 14C yr BP at the Shaamar section and the carbonate-rich laminated layer in the Gun Nuur lake core mark the interval of warmer and dryer climate (i.e., grassland domination) during the early Holocene (~8,300-~7400 14C yr BP). Younger paleosols at the Shaamar section and corresponding organic-rich layers in the Gun Nuur core were formed under distinctly cooler and more humid conditions. Minor soils (Entisols) and associated pollen assemblages indicate that the climate in the Northern Mongolian Plateau ameliorated four times during mid-late Holocene: (1) around 4800 14C yr BP, (2) around 3800 14C yr BP, and (3) around 3000 14C yr BP, and (4) during the past 1600 14C yr BP. The Baahar Nuur lake core in the Southern Mongolian Plateau and the Dingxi eolian section in the western part of the Western Chinese Loess Plateau appear to be supportive of the notion that prolonged interval of maximum humidity prevailed in this region during the early- and mid-Holocene (9,000-4,000 14C yr BP). The late Holocene at the Dingxi section consists of three paleosol-loess couplets and the three weakly developed paleosols (i.e., Entisols) were inferred to have been formed from ~3500 to ~3100 14C yr BP, from ~2900 to ~2400 14C yr BP, and from ~2000 to ~1000 14C yr BP, respectively. The lake-core proxy data indicate that the Holocene Climatic Optimum (equivalent to the highest productivity) in the Northern Mongolian Plateau occurred from ~6000 to ~1500 14C yr BP and the Climatic Optimum occurred in the Southern Mongolian Plateau and in the western part of the Chinese Plateau from ~9000 to ~4000 14C yr BP. This discrepancy implies that the concept of the Holocene Climatic Optimum has limitations and may have to be reconsidered if it is intended to have a large-scale connotation. We also notived that the climate appeared to have changed in cycles of ~1500 years in the North (comparable with those in North Atlantic) and tt appeared to have changed in cycles of ~1000 years in the South (comparable with those in the Santa Barbara basin--- needs to be further confirmed).

  11. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East Africa have been derived (six at CSIR and two at CMCC). That is, a multi-model ensemble of simulations of present-day and future climate has been made available for a number of African regions. This approach is most useful to describe the range of uncertainty associated with future climate. In order to obtain a set of plausible and physically defensible projections that can be used for a broad range of subsequent research questions, the two partners followed two different modelling approaches. The first approach, (by CMCC) uses a single dynamic climate change model: the model gets executed several times using a number of pertubations, e.g. changing initial conditions to account for the non-linear dynamics, perturbations of the boundary conditions to account for the 'imperfect' characterizations of the non-atmospheric components of the climate system or to handle the uncertainty of the driving global model, or perturbations of the model physics to account for the uncertainties inherent in the parameterizations. The second approach, (by CSIR) keeps the boundary conditions static but downscales a number of different global circulation models to account for the uncertainties inherent in the models themselves. In total, CSIR has run six different dynamic models. All runs have been conducted on super computing clusters to be completed within reasonable timeframes. The full data set is currently made available on the web. A number of tools is used to provide maximum user experience for climate change experts, social geographers, city planners and policy decision makers.

  12. Climate Change in South Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mannava V. K. Sivakumar; Robert Stefanski

    \\u000a South Asia, is home to over one fifth of the world’s population and is known to be the most disaster prone region in the world.\\u000a The high rates of ­population growth, and natural resource degradation, with continuing high rates of poverty and food insecurity\\u000a make South Asia one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. In

  13. Teaching Climate Change Through Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, P. S.

    2007-12-01

    During 2006, Peter Weiss aka "The Singing Scientist" performed many music assemblies for elementary schools (K-5) in Santa Cruz County, California, USA. These assemblies were an opportunity for him to mix a discussion of climate change with rock n' roll. In one song called "Greenhouse Glasses", Peter and his band the "Earth Rangers" wear over-sized clown glasses with "molecules" hanging off them (made with Styrofoam balls and pipe cleaners). Each molecule is the real molecular structure of a greenhouse gas, and the song explains how when the wearer of these glasses looks up in the sky, he/she can see the "greenhouse gases floating by." "I've seen more of them this year than the last / 'Cuz fossil fuels are burning fast / I wish everyone could see through these frames / Then maybe we could prevent climate change" Students sing, dance and get a visual picture of something that is invisible, yet is part of a very real problem. This performance description is used as an example of an educational style that can reach a wide audience and provide a framework for the audience as learners to assimilate future information on climate change. The hypothesis is that complex socio-environmental issues like climate change that must be taught in order to achieve sustainability are best done so through alternative mediums like music. Students develop awareness which leads to knowledge about chemistry, physics, and biology. These kinds of experiences which connect science learning to fun activities and community building are seriously lacking in primary and secondary schools and are a big reason why science illiteracy is a current social problem. Science education is also paired with community awareness (including the local plant/animal community) and cooperation. The Singing Scientist attempts to create a culture where it is cool to care about the environment. Students end up gardening in school gardens together and think about their "ecological footprint".

  14. Climate change-integrated conservation strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hannah; G. F. Midgley; D. Millar

    2002-01-01

    Aim Conservation strategies currently include little consider- ation of climate change. Insights about the biotic impacts of climate change from biogeography and palaeoecology, there- fore, have the potential to provide significant improvements in the effectiveness of conservation planning. We suggest a collaboration involving biogeography, ecology and applied conservation. The resulting Climate Change-integrated Conservation Strategies (CCS) apply available tools to respond

  15. Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Poff, N. LeRoy

    Saving Million Species EXTINCTION RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE Edited by Lee Hannah ISLANDPRESS-in-Publication Data Saving a million species : extinction risk from climate change / edited by LeeHannah. p. cm. ISBN-10: 1-59726-570-5 (paper) 1. Climatic changes. 2. Global warming. 3. Extinction (Biology

  16. Climate Change Education for Mitigation and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article makes the case for the education sector an untapped opportunity to combat climate change. It sets forth a definition of Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development that is comprehensive and multidisciplinary and asserts that it must not only include relevant content knowledge on climate change, environmental and social…

  17. Science Teachers' Perspectives about Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and its effects are likely to present challenging problems for future generations of young people. It is important for Australian students to understand the mechanisms and consequences of climate change. If students are to develop a sophisticated understanding, then science teachers need to be well-informed about climate change…

  18. USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    USACE JUNE 2014 Climate Change Adaptation Plan #12;2 INTRODUCTIONEXECUTIVE SUMMARY This USACE Adaptation Plan describes activities underway to evaluate the most significant climate change related risks in supporting mainstreaming climate change adaptation has focused on clarifying our adaptation mission and goals

  19. Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Our Changing Climate 2012 Vulnerability & Adaptation to the Increasing Risks from Climate Change Climate Change Center to lead this effort. The 2009 Adaptation Strategy prepared by the California Natural Resources Agency also called for a statewide vulnerability and adaptation study. This report summarizes

  20. Demographic Approaches to Assessing Climate Change Impact

    E-print Network

    Funk, W. Chris

    58 4 Demographic Approaches to Assessing Climate Change Impact: An Application to Pond autonomously to climate change-induced shifts as a result of extensive human modifications of these ecosystems, amphibians may be especially vulnerable to climate change impacts in both sets of landscapes, and some

  1. Climate Change and Water Resources in the

    E-print Network

    Vuille, Mathias

    Climate Change and Water Resources in the Tropical Andes Mathias Vuille Inter-American Development Bank Environmental Safeguards Unit TECHNICAL NOTE No. IDB-TN-515 March 2013 #12;Climate Change-American Development Bank Felipe Herrera Library Vuille, Mathias. Climate change and water resources in the tropical

  2. Climate change projections and stratospheretroposphere interaction

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Climate change projections and stratosphere­troposphere interaction 1234567 15578379AB72C4DE F547A1 #12;1 1 Climate Change Projections and Stratosphere-Troposphere Interaction Adam A. Scaife*,1 , Thomas ­ University of Toronto, Canada. #12;2 2 ABSTRACT Climate change is expected to increase winter rainfall

  3. Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Climate change cripples forests October 1, 2012 Southwestern US trees face rising drought, and several other partner organizations. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change Connection Described in a paper published in Nature Climate Change this week, "Temperature as a potent driver of regional forest

  4. 7, 1114111189, 2007 Climate change and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric ozone G. Zeng et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone and its global budgets G. Zeng, J. A. Pyle, and P. Zeng (guang.zeng@atm.ch.cam.ac.uk) 11141 #12;ACPD 7, 11141­11189, 2007 Climate change and tropospheric

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE AND MANAGED ECOSYSTEMS: BOOK REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In July, 2004, an important international climate change conference convened in Edmonton, Canada, “The Science of Changing Climates – Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Wetlands”. Leading experts in climate change, mostly from the natural and agricultural sciences, exchanged the latest findings o...

  6. Whither the International Climate Change Regime?

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    Whither the International Climate Change Regime? The Road from Cancun Wednesday, January 19, 2011 Bodansky is a preeminent authority on global climate change whose teaching and research focus on international environmental law and public international law. He has served as the climate change coordinator

  7. Food Rights, Food Frugality, and Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Vincentnathan

    2012-01-01

    Climate change-related food issues are key problems affecting the world today and into the future. This paper investigates how climate change is harming and is expected to harm food sources on land and in the sea, and how food production itself, especially industrialized agriculture and meat production, contributes to climate change. This article uses human rights discourse to frame the

  8. Adaptation to climate change in forest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Spittlehouse; Robert B. Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Adaptation in forestry is sustainable forest management that includes a climate change focus. Climate change over the next 100 years is expected to have significant impacts on forest ecosystems. The forestry community needs to evaluate the long-term effects of climate change on forests and determine what the community might do now and in the future to respond to this threat.

  9. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATIONS FOR LOCAL WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC Climate change will affect both sea level and the temporal and spatial distribution of runoff

  10. Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1

    E-print Network

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Abrupt Climate Change R. B. Alley,1 J. Marotzke,2 W. D. Nordhaus,3 J. T. Overpeck,4 D. M. Peteet,5. Wallace8 Large, abrupt, and widespread climate changes with major impacts have occurred repeatedly in the past, when the Earth system was forced across thresholds. Although abrupt climate changes can occur

  11. Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic

    E-print Network

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Ocean Climate Change: Comparison of Acoustic Tomography, Satellite Altimetry, and Modeling The ATOC to thermal expansion. Interpreting climate change signals from fluctuations in sea level is therefore in the advective heat flux. Changes in oceanic heat storage are a major expected element of future climate shifts

  12. BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change

    E-print Network

    Kraft, Nathan

    BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

  13. Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing

    E-print Network

    Considering Climate Change in Hydropower Relicensing ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH PIER Environmental climate change when relicensing hydropower units, stating that there is a lack of scientific information this project, researchers are conducting an environmental study on climate change for the Yuba River

  14. Stratospheric Changes and Climate Coordinating Lead Authors

    E-print Network

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Chapter 4 Stratospheric Changes and Climate Coordinating Lead Authors: P.M. Forster D.W.J. Thompson.P. Free A.I. Jonsson J. Logan D. Stevenson #12;#12;Chapter 4 StratoSpheric changeS and climate contents............................................................................................................................3 4.1 OBSERVED VARIATIONS IN STRATOSPHERIC CONSTITuENTS THAT RELATE TO CLIMATE.........4 4.1.1 Long

  15. Psychological research and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Susan; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Stern, Paul C.; Whitmarsh, Lorraine; Carrico, Amanda; Steg, Linda; Swim, Janet; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2015-07-01

    Human behaviour is integral not only to causing global climate change but also to responding and adapting to it. Here, we argue that psychological research should inform efforts to address climate change, to avoid misunderstandings about human behaviour and motivations that can lead to ineffective or misguided policies. We review three key research areas: describing human perceptions of climate change; understanding and changing individual and household behaviour that drives climate change; and examining the human impacts of climate change and adaptation responses. Although much has been learned in these areas, we suggest important directions for further research.

  16. Climate change, environment and allergy.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Climate change with global warming is a physicometeorological fact that, among other aspects, will also affect human health. Apart from cardiovascular and infectious diseases, allergies seem to be at the forefront of the sequelae of climate change. By increasing temperature and concomitant increased CO(2) concentration, plant growth is affected in various ways leading to prolonged pollination periods in the northern hemisphere, as well as to the appearance of neophytes with allergenic properties, e.g. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed), in Central Europe. Because of the effects of environmental pollutants, which do not only act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes, allergen carriers such as pollen can be altered in the atmosphere and release allergens leading to allergen-containing aerosols in the ambient air. Pollen has been shown not only to be an allergen carrier, but also to release highly active lipid mediators (pollen-associated lipid mediators), which have proinflammatory and immunomodulating effects enhancing the initiation of allergy. Through the effects of climate change in the future, plant growth may be influenced in a way that more, new and altered pollens are produced, which may affect humans. PMID:22433365

  17. Presentation 2.3: The sustainable forest products industry, carbon and climate change Mikael Hannus

    E-print Network

    : · The connections between the forest products industry and the global carbon cycle are complex, and hastily enacted and the global carbon cycle are complex, and hastily enacted climate change policies can have unintended

  18. Response of the seasonal carbon cycle in high latitudes to climate anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanli Wu; Amanda H. Lynch

    2000-01-01

    Many observational studies have demonstrated that the amplitude of the seasonal carbon cycle in high latitudes is increasing and advancing in phase. Several hypotheses related to natural and anthropogenic landscape disturbance and climate change have been proposed to explain these observations. This study employs a regional atmosphere-biosphere model (the Arctic Regional Climate System Model (ARCSyM)) to investigate the impacts of

  19. Modelling vegetation and the carbon cycle as interactive elements of the climate system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Cox; Richard A. Betts; A. Betts; Chris D. Jones; Steven A. Spall; Ian J. Totterdell

    2002-01-01

    The climate system and the global carbon cycle are tightly coupled. Atmospheric carbon in the form of the radiatively active gases, carbon dioxide and methane, plays a significant role in the natural greenhouse effect. The continued increase in the atmospheric concentrations of these gases, due to human emissions, is predicted to lead to significant climatic change over the next 100

  20. North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Producing Regional Climate Change Projections for Climate Impacts Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Arritt; L. Mearns; C. Anderson; D. Bader; E. Buonomo; D. Caya; P. Duffy; N. Elguindi; F. Giorgi; W. Gutowski; I. Held; A. Nunes; R. Jones; R. Laprise; L. R. Leung; D. Middleton; W. Moufouma-Okia; D. Nychka; Y. Qian; J. Roads; S. Sain; M. Snyder; L. Sloan; E. Takle

    2006-01-01

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is constructing projections of regional climate change over the coterminous United States and Canada in order to provide climate change information at decision relevant scales. A major goal of NARCCAP is to estimate uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate by using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple

  1. Conceptualizing Climate Change in the Context of a Climate System: Implications for Climate and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Roychoudhury, Anita; Hirsch, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students' understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural…

  2. Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Anita Roychoudhury; Andrew Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students’ understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural and human influences result in

  3. Conceptualizing climate change in the context of a climate system: implications for climate and environmental education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Anita Roychoudhury; Andrew Hirsch

    2012-01-01

    Today there is much interest in teaching secondary students about climate change. Much of this effort has focused directly on students’ understanding of climate change. We hypothesize, however, that in order for students to understand climate change they must first understand climate as a system and how changes to this system due to both natural and human influences result in

  4. Climate Change or Land Use Dynamics: Do We Know What Climate Change Indicators Indicate?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Clavero; Daniel Villero; Lluís Brotons; Stephen G. Willis

    2011-01-01

    Different components of global change can have interacting effects on biodiversity and this may influence our ability to detect the specific consequences of climate change through biodiversity indicators. Here, we analyze whether climate change indicators can be affected by land use dynamics that are not directly determined by climate change. To this aim, we analyzed three community-level indicators of climate

  5. Climate change scenarios for the assessments of the climate change on regional ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Viner; M. Hulme; S. C. B. Raper

    1995-01-01

    This paper outlines the different methods which may be used for the construction of regional climate change scenarios. The main focus of the paper is the construction of regional climate change scenarios from climate change experiments carried out using General Circulation Models (GCMs). An introduction to some GCM climate change experiments highlights the difference between model types and experiments (e.g.

  6. Climate change in the Netherlands | 1 Climate change in the Netherlands

    E-print Network

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Climate change in the Netherlands | 1 Climate change in the Netherlands Supplements to the KNMI'06 scenarios #12;2 | Climate change in the Netherlands Abstract 1 Introduction 1.1 Objective and contents 1 of climate simulations 2.6 Observed rapid warming in the Netherlands Probability of extremes in a changing

  7. Learning about Climate Change: Finance Ministries in International Climate Change Politics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    In the course of the last four years, finance ministries have increasingly become involved in the international climate change negotiations. Their involvement has to a large degree been an outcome of the framing of climate change as a market failure. This framing calls for an active climate change policy and is at odds with the framing of climate change policy

  8. Ocean Mixing and Climate ChangeOcean Mixing and Climate Change Factors inducing seawater mixing

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    Ocean Mixing and Climate ChangeOcean Mixing and Climate Change #12;Factors inducing seawater mixing than the atmosphere to climate changes; it acts as "buffer" #12;Concepts to bear in mind than the atmosphere to climate changes; it acts as "buffer" 4. Heat, CO2 are stored in the ocean #12

  9. UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

  10. Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law

    E-print Network

    Climate Change Laws of the World Project Columbia Center for Climate Change Law Monica Molina, Columbia College '14 Supervisor Meredith Wilensky, J.D. Introduction The Climate Change Laws of the World Project is an ongoing effort at the Center for Climate Change Law (CCCL) to aggregate existing domestic

  11. A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    A climate change index: Where climate change may be most prominent in the 21st century Miche`le B; accepted 30 November 2006; published 10 January 2007. [1] A Climate Change Index (CCI) is developed to a single index that is a measure for the strength of future climate change relative to today's natural

  12. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 00, M 0, 2001 Positive feedback between future climate change

    E-print Network

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    , France Abstract. Future climate change due to increased atmo­ spheric CO2 may a#ect land and ocean e and the carbon cycle. Climate change reduces land and ocean uptake of CO2 , respectively by 54% and 35% at 4 × CO cycle studies suggest that such climate change may reduce the uptake of CO2 by the ocean [Maier

  13. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 0-0, M 0, 2001 Positive feedback between future climate change

    E-print Network

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    , France Abstract. Future climate change due to increased atmo- spheric CO2 may affect land and ocean system and the carbon cycle. Climate change reduces land and ocean uptake of CO2, respectively by 54 cycle studies suggest that such climate change may reduce the uptake of CO2 by the ocean [Maier

  14. Orbitally paced climate change across the middle Miocene climate transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Shevenell; J. P. Kennett

    2004-01-01

    Spectral analyses of an orbitally-tuned 3-my-long geochemical record of Miocene (16.5-13.5 Ma) climate and carbon cycling from the South Tasman Rise, Southern Ocean (paleolatitude: ˜55° S) provide insight into the processes and feedbacks involved in the middle Miocene climate transition (MMCT; 14.2-13.8 Ma), one of the three major steps in Earth's Cenozoic climate evolution. Spectral power in benthic foraminifer (Cibicidoides

  15. Climate change and wildlife health: direct and indirect effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik; Rogall, Gail Moede; eWsenberg, Kathy; Abbott, Rachel; Work, Thierry; Schuler, Krysten; Sleeman, Jonathan; Winton, James

    2010-01-01

    Climate change will have significant effects on the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans, according to scientists. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that unprecedented rates of climate change will result in increasing average global temperatures; rising sea levels; changing global precipitation patterns, including increasing amounts and variability; and increasing midcontinental summer drought (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Increasing temperatures, combined with changes in rainfall and humidity, may have significant impacts on wildlife, domestic animal, and human health and diseases. When combined with expanding human populations, these changes could increase demand on limited water resources, lead to more habitat destruction, and provide yet more opportunities for infectious diseases to cross from one species to another. Awareness has been growing in recent years about zoonotic diseases— that is, diseases that are transmissible between animals and humans, such as Lyme disease and West Nile virus. The rise of such diseases results from closer relationships among wildlife, domestic animals, and people, allowing more contact with diseased animals, organisms that carry and transmit a disease from one animal to another (vectors), and people. Disease vectors include insects, such as mosquitoes, and arachnids, such as ticks. Thus, it is impossible to separate the effects of global warming on wildlife from its effects on the health of domestic animals or people. Climate change, habitat destruction and urbanization, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and pollution—all affect ecosystem and human health. Climate change can also be viewed within the context of other physical and climate cycles, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (El Niño), the North Atlantic Oscillation, and cycles in solar radiation that have profound effects on the Earth’s climate. The effects of climate change on wildlife disease are summarized in several areas of scientific study discussed briefly below: geographic range and distribution of wildlife diseases, plant and animal phenology (Walther and others, 2002), and patterns of wildlife disease, community and ecosystem composition, and habitat degradation.

  16. Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Philip K; Ericksen, Polly J; Herrero, Mario; Challinor, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the great majority of climate change impact studies is on changes in mean climate. In terms of climate model output, these changes are more robust than changes in climate variability. By concentrating on changes in climate means, the full impacts of climate change on biological and human systems are probably being seriously underestimated. Here, we briefly review the possible impacts of changes in climate variability and the frequency of extreme events on biological and food systems, with a focus on the developing world. We present new analysis that tentatively links increases in climate variability with increasing food insecurity in the future. We consider the ways in which people deal with climate variability and extremes and how they may adapt in the future. Key knowledge and data gaps are highlighted. These include the timing and interactions of different climatic stresses on plant growth and development, particularly at higher temperatures, and the impacts on crops, livestock and farming systems of changes in climate variability and extreme events on pest-weed-disease complexes. We highlight the need to reframe research questions in such a way that they can provide decision makers throughout the food system with actionable answers, and the need for investment in climate and environmental monitoring. Improved understanding of the full range of impacts of climate change on biological and food systems is a critical step in being able to address effectively the effects of climate variability and extreme events on human vulnerability and food security, particularly in agriculturally based developing countries facing the challenge of having to feed rapidly growing populations in the coming decades. PMID:24668802

  17. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear

    E-print Network

    Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters Rob Goldston MIT IAP plays a large role in replacing coal red plants. al hydro electricity options penetrate in the climate way across scenarios, showing a slight severe climate targets. In Industry, the climate target has

  18. Regional Climate Change Hotspots over Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Anber

    2009-01-01

    Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI), is developed based on regional mean precipitation change, mean surface air temperature change, and change in precipitation and temperature interannual variability. The RCCI is a comparative index designed to identify the most responsive regions to climate change, or Hot- Spots. The RCCI is calculated for Seven land regions over North Africa and Arabian region from

  19. Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-28

    This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:? Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.? Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.? Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.? Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

  20. Influence of Dynamic Land Use and Land Cover Change on Simulated Global Terrestrial Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles, Climate-carbon Cycle Feedbacks, and Interactions with Rising CO2 and Anthropogenic Nitrogen Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Hurtt, George C [University of Hew Hampshire

    2009-12-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the sensitivity of terrestrial net carbon exchange to disturbance history and land use patterns at the scale of individual sites or regions. Here we show the influence of land use and land cover dynamics over the historical period 1850-present on global-scale carbon, nutrient, water, and energy fluxes. We also explore the spatial and temporal details of interactions among land use and disturbance history, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide consentation, and increasing anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Our simulations show that these interactions are significant, and that their importance grows over time, expressed as a fraction of the independent forcing terms. We conclude with an analysis of the influence of these interactions on the sign and magnitude of global climate-carbon cycle feedbacks.

  1. Effects of Holocene climate change on mercury deposition in Elk Lake, Minnesota: The importance of eolain transport in the mercury cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Dean, W.E.; Bullock, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sediments in Elk Lake, Minnesota, consist of 10,400 varve layers that provide a precise chronology for Holocene fluctuations in climate and biota recorded in the strata. Progressively greater concentrations and accumulation rates of mercury since ca. A.D. 1875 reflect deposition of anthropogenic mercury additions to the atmosphere. Within the Holocene record are numerous short intervals in which mercury concentrations and accumulation rates exceed the modern values. The highest mercury concentrations formed ca. 8 ka, coincident with a rapid change from cool, moist conditions to warm, dry conditions. A related change in flora from pine forest to prairie caused destruction of organic forest soils and the release of mercury that had been sequestered in them, resulting in a short- lived pulse of mercury to the lake. Accumulation rates of mercury were highest during the 4 k.y. mid-Holocene dry interval and show a correlation with periods of rapid deposition of eolian dust. The mercury was probably bound to wind-borne mineral particles, which were derived from an unidentified mercury-rich source region west of Elk Lake.

  2. Climate Change in the Preservice Teacher's Mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2013-10-01

    Given the recent media attention on the public’s shift in opinion toward being more skeptical about climate change, 154 preservice teachers’ participated in an intervention in an elementary science methods course. Findings indicated that students developed a deeper level of concern about climate change. Their perceptions on the evidence for climate change, consensus of scientists, impacts of climate change, and influence of politics also changed significantly. The curriculum and instruction appear to be an important factor in increasing understanding of climate change and developing perceptions more aligned to those of climate scientists. More broadly, this study provides preliminary support for the value of providing a careful framing of the topic of climate change within the context of science methods courses.

  3. Physiological ecology meets climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we pointed out that understanding the physiology of differential climate change effects on organisms is one of the many urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolutionary biology. We explore how physiological ecology can contribute to a holistic view of climate change impacts on organisms and ecosystems and their evolutionary responses. We suggest that theoretical and experimental efforts not only need to improve our understanding of thermal limits to organisms, but also to consider multiple stressors both on land and in the oceans. As an example, we discuss recent efforts to understand the effects of various global change drivers on aquatic ectotherms in the field that led to the development of the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) as a framework integrating various drivers and linking organisational levels from ecosystem to organism, tissue, cell, and molecules. We suggest seven core objectives of a comprehensive research program comprising the interplay among physiological, ecological, and evolutionary approaches for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. While studies of individual aspects are already underway in many laboratories worldwide, integration of these findings into conceptual frameworks is needed not only within one organism group such as animals but also across organism domains such as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Indeed, development of unifying concepts is relevant for interpreting existing and future findings in a coherent way and for projecting the future ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on functional biodiversity. We also suggest that OCLTT may in the end and from an evolutionary point of view, be able to explain the limited thermal tolerance of metazoans when compared to other organisms. PMID:25798220

  4. Physiological ecology meets climate change.

    PubMed

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we pointed out that understanding the physiology of differential climate change effects on organisms is one of the many urgent challenges faced in ecology and evolutionary biology. We explore how physiological ecology can contribute to a holistic view of climate change impacts on organisms and ecosystems and their evolutionary responses. We suggest that theoretical and experimental efforts not only need to improve our understanding of thermal limits to organisms, but also to consider multiple stressors both on land and in the oceans. As an example, we discuss recent efforts to understand the effects of various global change drivers on aquatic ectotherms in the field that led to the development of the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) as a framework integrating various drivers and linking organisational levels from ecosystem to organism, tissue, cell, and molecules. We suggest seven core objectives of a comprehensive research program comprising the interplay among physiological, ecological, and evolutionary approaches for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. While studies of individual aspects are already underway in many laboratories worldwide, integration of these findings into conceptual frameworks is needed not only within one organism group such as animals but also across organism domains such as Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Indeed, development of unifying concepts is relevant for interpreting existing and future findings in a coherent way and for projecting the future ecological and evolutionary effects of climate change on functional biodiversity. We also suggest that OCLTT may in the end and from an evolutionary point of view, be able to explain the limited thermal tolerance of metazoans when compared to other organisms. PMID:25798220

  5. Seasonality and Cenozoic climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Crowley; D. A. Short; G. R. North

    1985-01-01

    Previous attempts to model the transition from an ice-free to an ice-covered state have employed annually-averaged insolation to determine whether continental drift may have caused high-latitude cooling. Results have been ambiguous. Resolving the seasonal cycle greatly changes this picture. The authors have modeled the evolution of high-latitude temperatures during the last 100 million years with an energy balance model that

  6. Climate Reel: Global Climate Change - NASA's Eyes on the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website is a collection of NASA's best videos and visualizations of climate change. The Top 10 Climate Movies are featured. Other videos, animated visuals and images are listed by themes: Life on Earth, Water, The Land, The Atmosphere, The Sun, Frozen Places, and Climate Data. Links to complete transcripts are available.

  7. Climate Change and Human Security1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Wisner; Maureen Fordham; Ilan Kelman; Barbara Rose Johnston; David Simon; Allan Lavell; Hans Günter; Gustavo Wilches-Chaux; Marcus Moench

    percent of those living below the poverty line are women 3 for whom climate change represents very specific threats to security. When the impacts of climate change are brought home, then women, in their roles as the primary managers of family, food, water and health, must deal very directly with the impacts. While natural climate variations have existed for millennia,

  8. Effect of climate change on air quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Jacob; Darrell A. Winner

    2009-01-01

    Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results.

  9. The ocean and climate change policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grantly Galland; Ellycia Harrould-Kolieb; Dorothée Herr

    2012-01-01

    The ocean plays a major role in regulating Earth's climate system, and is highly vulnerable to climate change, but continues to receive little attention in the ongoing policymaking designed to mitigate and adapt to global climate change. There are numerous ways to consider the ocean more significantly when developing these policies, several of which offer the co-benefits of biodiversity protection

  10. Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

  11. Tree rings, carbon dioxide, and climatic change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GORDON C. JACOBY; ROSANNE D. D'ARRIGO

    1997-01-01

    Tree rings have been used in various appli- cations to reconstruct past climates as well as to assess the effects of recent climatic and environmental change on tree growth. In this paper we brief ly review two ways that tree rings provide information about climate change and CO2 :( i )i n determining whether recent warming during the period of

  12. Climate Change, Agriculture, Forests, and Biofuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent Sohngen

    This paper reviews literature on the impacts of climate change and climate change policy on agriculture and forests. The review suggests that the range of results in the impact literature is widening rather than narrowing as more studies are added. To a large degree, however, the range of results appears to depend largely on uncertainty in the climate effects themselves.

  13. Evaluation method for climate change mitigation instruments

    E-print Network

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Evaluation method for climate change mitigation instruments Popi A. Konidari* National of these instruments is to be effective in mitigating climate change through GHG emissions reductions. The second level@kepa.uoa.gr Abstract. AMS is a specially developed evaluation method for climate policy instruments. The same method

  14. Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Place-based Mitigation of Climate Change Robert Socolow Princeton University socolow should provide at least one wedge. #12;"The Wedge Model is the iPod of climate change: You fill/yr, 30 miles per gallon b) Fly 10,000 miles/yr c) Heat home Natural gas, average house, average climate d

  15. Comparison of two potato simulation models under climate change. II Application of climate change scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wolf

    2002-01-01

    The effects of climate change (for the year 2050 compared to ambient climate) and change in climatic variability on potato growth and production at 6 sites in Europe were calculated. These calculations were done with both a simple growth model, POTATOS, and a comprehensive model, NPOTATO. Comparison of the results from both models indicated the sort of climate change conditions

  16. Waders in winter: long-term changes of migratory bird assemblages facing climate change

    PubMed Central

    Godet, Laurent; Jaffré, Mikaël; Devictor, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Effects of climate change on species occupying distinct areas during their life cycle are still unclear. Moreover, although effects of climate change have widely been studied at the species level, less is known about community responses. Here, we test whether and how the composition of wader (Charadrii) assemblages, breeding in high latitude and wintering from Europe to Africa, is affected by climate change over 33 years. We calculated the temporal trend in the community temperature index (CTI), which measures the balance between cold and hot dwellers present in species assemblages. We found a steep increase in the CTI, which reflects a profound change in assemblage composition in response to recent climate change. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a strong community response of migratory species to climate change in their wintering areas. PMID:21429911

  17. PETM: Unearthing Ancient Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum Natural History

    In this video, a team of paleontologists, paleobotanists, soil scientists, and other researchers take to the field in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin to document how the climate, plants, and animals there changed during the Paleocene- Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) when a sudden, enormous influx of carbon flooded the ocean and atmosphere for reasons that are still unclear to scientists. The PTEM is used as an analog to the current warming occurring. The scientists' research may help inform our understanding of current increases in carbon in the atmosphere and ocean and the resulting impact on ecosystems. Supporting materials include essay and interactive overview of animals that existed in the Basin after the PETM event.

  18. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  19. Projection of future climate change conditions using IPCC simulations, neural networks and Bayesian statistics. Part 2: Precipitation mean state and seasonal cycle in South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Philippe Boulanger; Fernando Martinez; Enrique C. Segura

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating the response of climate to greenhouse gas forcing is a major objective of the climate community, and the use of\\u000a large ensemble of simulations is considered as a significant step toward that goal. The present paper thus discusses a new\\u000a methodology based on neural network to mix ensemble of climate model simulations. Our analysis consists of one simulation\\u000a of

  20. 10 Facts on Climate Change and Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and other greenhouse gases to affect the global climate. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased ... lower atmosphere. The resulting changes in the global climate bring a range of risks to health, from ...

  1. Climate Change: A simulation with commentary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Global Environmental Research

    This webpage contains two videos that show climate visualizations created by super computers. Both videos show climate changes that may occur during the 21st Century due to human activities based on IPCC science.

  2. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory data analysis the approaches on climate time series, trend analysis and extreme events analysis are explained. Tools to describe relations within the data sets and significance tests further corroborate this. Within the weekly exercises that have to be prepared at home, the students work with self-selected climate data sets and apply the learned methods. The presentation and discussion of intermediate results by the students is as much part of the exercises as the illustration of possible methodological procedures by the teacher using exemplary data sets. The total time expenditure of the course is 270 hours with 90 attendance hours. The remainder consists of individual studies, e.g., preparation of discussions and presentations, statistical data analysis, and scientific writing. Different forms of examination are applied including written or oral examination, scientific report, presentation and portfolio work.

  3. Changes in Streamflow Percentiles under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Roobavannan, M.; Kanae, S.

    2013-12-01

    Various studies have shown that the occurrence of floods and droughts will change under global warming. This study uses the bias-corrected runoff outputs of multiple general circulation models (GCMs) participating in the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to analyze the changes in the extreme streamflow percentiles. Under the highest emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5), compared to 20C (1971-2000) multimodel mean, ~77% (19%) of the world shows increase (decrease) in high flow (10th percentile) in 21C (2071-2100). Similarly, ~63% (32%) shows increase (decrease) in low flow (90th percentile). Consistency among GCMs in showing similar sign (increase or decrease) of change of high flow is relatively high with more than 9 out of 11 models showing increase in ~39% of the world and more than 9 out of 11 models showing decrease in 13% of the world. Similar high consistency among models in showing similar change of low flow can be seen in 34% (increase) and 23% (decrease) of the world. Further, in 16% of the world, the high flow will increase and low flow will decrease in future suggesting reduced water availability and elevated risk of flood. As most of these regions are located in South America, Central Africa, and eastern China, which also have large population density, the number of people facing water scarcity and flood events is bound to increase with climate change. Change in multimodel mean and consistency among models for 10th percentile/high flow (a and b, respectively) and 90th percentile/low flow (c and d, respectively). Change is presented in percentage (increase is in blue shades and decrease in red shades) and consistency is presented as number of model (blue shades indicate regions with increase and red shade indicate regions with decrease).

  4. Climate change scenarios for the California region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Cayan; Edwin P. Maurer; Michael D. Dettinger; Mary Tyree; Katharine Hayhoe

    2008-01-01

    To investigate possible future climate changes in California, a set of climate change model simulations was selected and evaluated.\\u000a From the IPCC Fourth Assessment, simulations of twenty-first century climates under a B1 (low emissions) and an A2 (a medium-high\\u000a emissions) emissions scenarios were evaluated, along with occasional comparisons to the A1fi (high emissions) scenario. The\\u000a climate models whose simulations were

  5. Land-ocean contrasts under climate change

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Observations and climate models show a pronounced land-ocean contrast in the responses of surface temperature and the hydrological cycle to global warming: Land temperatures increase more than ocean temperatures, low-level ...

  6. Carbonate-Silicate Cycle Models of the Long-Term Carbon Cycle, Carbonate Accumulation in the Oceans, and Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth George Caldeira

    1991-01-01

    Several models of the long-term carbon cycle, incorporating models of the carbonate-silicate cycle, were developed and utilized to investigate issues relating to global climate and the causes and consequences of changes in calcium carbonate accumulation in the oceans. Model results indicate that the marked mid-Cretaceous (120 Ma) global warming could be explained by increased rates of release of carbon dioxide

  7. Forest response to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have examined the likely response of forests to projected climate change. The consensus of these studies, as described in the second IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) assessment and other studies (e.g., Houghton et al. 1996: Smith and Tirpak 1989), is that dieback of forest is likely and could occur on regional scales. Deforestation of certain regions is even predicted by some analyses. If such events are indeed probable, they have significant policy implications. projected dieback of the southern boreal forest, for example, could have major regional economic repercussions. Range shrinkage of certain forest species is projected to be so severe that extinctions may occur. Such projections lend weight to calls for reduction of fossil fuel consumption. Although all models are necessarily only approximations of reality, the fact that so many different models have all predicted similar catastrophic results for different regions tends to lend credence to their dire predictions. Thus, the dominant view is that, in spite of uncertainty, in the models, the general trends they project are probably correct. This paper argues that, as a class, these models exhibit catastrophic effects. That is, they tend to predict forest dieback where none is likely to occur and predict range shrinkages over decades that could actually take centuries or even millennia. 10 refs.

  8. Conceptual Understanding of Climate Change with a Simple Climate Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Dommenget; Janine Floeter

    2010-01-01

    The future climate change projections are essentially based on coupled general circulation model (CGCM) simulations, which give a distinct global warming pattern with arctic winter amplification, an equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and an inter-hemispheric warming gradient. While these simulations are the most important tool of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predictions, the conceptual understanding of these predicted structures

  9. Detection and Attribution of Climate Change (from global to regional)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegerl, Gabriele; Stott, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The evidence for a human influence on global temperatures has strengthened in the IPCC AR5 report; which concluded that it is 'extremely likely (>95%) that 'more than half of the observed increase in global average surface temperature from 1951-2010 was caused by the anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gas concentrations and other anthropogenic forcings together'. For the first time, the report provides an estimate of the contributions by greenhouse gases and other influences to global temperature changes. Recent temperature changes provide constraints on climate system properties such as the transient climate response (TCR), and relate to estimates of the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). These estimates overlap with, but are not identical to those from modelling and palaeoclimate. Despite progress, stronger constraints on the human contribution to recent warming, and on ECS and TCR are presently hampered by uncertainties in quantifying the role of aerosols and multidecadal climate variability to regional climate change. For climate impacts, changes in the water cycle are very important. For the first time, the report concluded that human influences have 'likely' affected the global water cycle since 1960. Since the IPCC report, evidence has further strengthened, despite substantial observational uncertainty. The report also concludes that human influence has increased the probability of heat waves in some locations. Quantifying the changing risk of extreme events is an important continuing research question.

  10. Global climate change and international security

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.

    1991-01-01

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  11. COP4: International Conference on Climate Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nannapaneni, Sujani.

    This week's In The News highlights a critical international conference on climate change, the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, currently being held (November 2-13) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Convention on Climate Change, signed and ratified by over 175 countries, is one of a series of recent international agreements dedicated to reducing anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change. Although the detection of climate change is a complex and contentious issue among scientists (and is generally refuted by industries afraid of the regulatory consequences), the potential impacts to the earth's ecosystems cannot be ignored. Thus, the Convention's "ultimate objective" is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level -- and with enough time -- to prevent "dangerous anthropogenic interference with the atmosphere." The nine sites discussed provide background information, resources, and information related to COP4 and to climate change.

  12. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts.

    PubMed

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; Frank, David; Mahecha, Miguel D; Smith, Pete; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Babst, Flurin; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Ibrom, Andreas; Miglietta, Franco; Poulter, Ben; Rammig, Anja; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin; Zavala, Miguel A; Zscheischler, Jakob

    2015-08-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance-induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well-defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta-analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land-cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground-based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub-)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global upscaling of the impacts of climate extremes on global carbon-climate feedbacks. PMID:25752680

  13. Climate Change: Environmental Literacy and Inquiry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Climate Change is a technology-supported middle school science inquiry curriculum. This curriculum focuses on essential climate literacy principles with an emphasis on weather and climate, Earth system energy balance, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and how human activities influence climate change. Students use geospatial information technology tools (Google Earth), Web-based tools (including an interactive carbon calculator and geologic timeline), and inquiry-based lab activities to investigate important climate change topics. Climate Change is aligned to the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy in addition to national science and environmental education standards. The unit takes 21 days which include pretest and post test. Assessments for each learning activity are available using the following login and password: Login: eliteacher Password: 87dja92

  14. AO\\/NAO response to climate change: 1. Respective influences of stratospheric and tropospheric climate changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rind; J. Perlwitz; P. Lonergan

    2005-01-01

    We utilize the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model and eight different climate change experiments, many of them focused on stratospheric climate forcings, to assess the relative influence of tropospheric and stratospheric climate change on the extratropical circulation indices (Arctic Oscillation, AO; North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). The experiments are run in two different ways: with variable sea surface temperatures (SSTs)

  15. Climate Change and the Nuclear Wedge Climate change frames the issue

    E-print Network

    Climate Change and the Nuclear Wedge Climate change frames the issue Scales of problem: Energy;Marty Hoffert, NYU Framing the Issue Carbon Climate impact Time scale to act is short ~50 years ~ 1 government can put climate costs on the utilities' balance sheets Energy Information Agency - http

  16. Climate Change & Water Presented by Douglas Yoder

    E-print Network

    Sukop, Mike

    1 Climate Change & Water Resources Presented by Douglas Yoder Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department · Climate Change Adaptation Plan · Energy Efficient Operations and Buildings #12;10 Conclusions · Beyond/Flooding · Water Supply/Salt Intrusion · More Frequent Drought/Intense Rain · Natural System Changes

  17. The Changing Climate for United States Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Driesen

    2007-01-01

    Just a few years ago, the subject of American climate change law would not merit an article like this one, let alone the book that the American Bar Association has recently published on the subject. But the United States has changed, at least somewhat. At the moment, most important United States climate change law consists of state and local law,

  18. America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, P. A.; Dietz, T.; Kraucunas, I.

    2010-12-01

    At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies the nation can take to respond to climate change. This suite of activities included a panel report on Advancing the Science of Climate Change. The report concludes that a strong, credible body of scientific evidence shows that climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems. As decision makers respond to these risks, the nation's scientific enterprise can contribute both by continuing to improve understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change, and by improving and expanding the options available to limit the magnitude of climate change and adapt to its impacts. To make this possible, the nation needs a comprehensive, integrated, and flexible climate change research enterprise that is closely linked with action-oriented programs at all levels. The report recommends that a single federal entity or program be given the authority and resources to coordinate a national research effort integrated across many disciplines and aimed at improving both understanding and responses to climate change. The U.S. Global Change Research Program, established in 1990, could fulfill this role, but it would need to address weaknesses in the current program and form partnerships with action-oriented programs at all levels. A comprehensive climate observing system, improved climate models and other analytical tools, investment in human capital, and better linkages between research and decision making are also essential for advancing the science of climate change.

  19. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Under a NASA grant, Mathematical and Geospatial Pathways to Climate Change Education, students at California State University, Northridge integrated Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, satellite data technologies, and climate modelling into the study of global climate change under a Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC). The PMCC, which is an interdisciplinary option within the BS in Applied Mathematical Sciences, consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for careers and Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Under this option students are exposed to the science, mathematics, and applications of climate change science through a variety of methods including hands-on experience with computer modeling and image processing software. In the Geography component of the program, ESRI's ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine mapping, spatial analysis and image processing software were used to explore NASA satellite data to examine the earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in areas that are affected by climate change or affect climate. These technology tools were incorporated into climate change and remote sensing courses to enhance students' knowledge and understanding of climate change through hands-on application of image processing techniques to NASA data. Several sets of exercises were developed with specific learning objectives in mind. These were (1) to increase student understanding of climate change and climate change processes; (2) to develop student skills in understanding, downloading and processing satellite data; (3) to teach remote sensing technology and GIS through applications to climate change; (4) to expose students to climate data and methods they can apply to solve real world problems and incorporate in future research projects. In the Math and Physics components of the course, students learned about atmospheric circulation with applications of the Lorenz model, explored the land-sea breeze problem with the Dynamics and Thermodynamics Circulation Model (DTDM), and developed simple radiative transfer models. Class projects explored the effects of varying the content of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere, as well as the properties of paleoclimates in atmospheric simulations using EdGCM. Initial assessment of student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with these activities, particularly about climate change, was measured. Pre- and post-course surveys provided student perspectives about the courses and their learning about remote sensing and climate change concepts. Student performance on the tutorials and course projects evaluated students' ability to learn and apply their knowledge about climate change and skills with remote sensing to assigned problems or proposed projects of their choice. Survey and performance data illustrated that the exercises were successful in meeting their intended learning objectives as well as opportunities for further refinement and expansion.

  20. Fostering Hope in Climate Change Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swim, Janet K.; Fraser, John

    2013-01-01

    Climate Change is a complex set of issues with large social and ecological risks. Addressing it requires an attentive and climate literate population capable of making informed decisions. Informal science educators are well-positioned to teach climate science and motivate engagement, but many have resisted the topic because of self-doubt about…