Sample records for cycle primary energy

  1. A Solar Energy Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregory Childs

    2007-03-01

    In sixth grade, students understand that Earth gets visible light from the Sun, but studentsmay also believe the Earth gets heat from the Sun. This last part is incorrect because the Sun is too far from the Earth to heat it directly. So, how does the Sun heat the Earth? When light strikes an object, it can be reflected or absorbed. Absorbed light usually increases the energy in an object, which causes the object to heat up. The following solar energy learning cycle (Exploration, Term Introduction, and Concept Application) was developed to help sixth-grade students better understand the concept. This learning cycle also facilitates technology integration and provides students opportunities to construct and generate experiments with scientifically testable questions. The cycle takes six 50-minute periods.

  2. Annual cycle energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minturn, R. E.

    The annual cycle energy system (ACES) program which incorporates in a practical system the outstanding energy conservation potential that exists when the unidirectional heat pump and the interseasonal storage of energy are combined to provide heating, cooling, and domestic hot water to buildings is described. Information on the system, its applicability to different geographic areas, and the methodology for designing and building systems are enumerated. It is shown that the system is rugged, reliable, and appreciably more conservative of purchased energy than all practical alternatives. An ACES residential design methodology was also developed. It is concluded that the system is constant in efficiency and capacity during winter operation, independent of extremes in weather, contributes to the reduction of peak demand and increases in daily and seasonal load factors.

  3. Primary production cycle in an upwelling center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIsaac, J. J.; Dugdale, R. C.; Barber, R. T.; Blasco, D.; Packard, T. T.

    1985-05-01

    The cycle of nitrogen and carbon productivity of phytoplankton in an upwelling center at 15°S on the coast of Peru was studied during the JOINT-II expedition of the Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis program. The productivity cycle was characterized by repeated stations at various locations in the upwelling plume, a time series of stations in mid plume, and stations located along drogue tracks. Four zones of physiological condition were distinguished along the axis of the upwelling plume. In Zone I phytoplankton upwelled with nutrient-rich water were initially 'shifted-down'; in Zone II they underwent light induced 'shift-up' to increased nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, and synthesis of macromolecules. In Zone III ambient nutrient concentrations were rapidly reduced, there was a rapid accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in the water column, and rate processes proceeded at maximal rates. In Zone IV ambient nutrient concentrations were significantly decreased, phytoplankton biomass remained high, and limitation of phytoplankton processes was beginning to be observed. Phytoplankton responded to the altered environment by undergoing 'shift-down' to lower rates of nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, and macromolecule synthesis. The time and space domain where this entire sequence occurs was relatively small; the cycle from initial upwelling to 'shift-down' was completed in 8 to 10 days within 30 to 60 km off the coast.

  4. Annual cycle energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Minturn, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The ACES program incorporates in a practical system the outstanding energy conservation potential that exists when the uni-directional heat pump and the interseasonal storage of energy are combined to provide heating, cooling, and domestic hot water to buildings. Information on the system, its applicability to different geographic areas, and the methodology for designing and building such systems is to be made freely available to the private sector. An ACES has been designed, constructed, and field tested over a three-year period in a fully instrumented residential test complex near Knoxville, Tennessee. During that period, the system has been shown to be rugged, reliable, and appreciably more conservative of purchased energy than all practical alternatives. An ACES residential design methodology has been developed and published, and the performance characteristics of ACES and several alternative systems have been analytically estimated for 115 US cities. The ACES has a relatively high first cost, but its life-cycle costs at present day electricity rates are competitive with those of other systems with the exception of those using natural gas. The ACES, however, offers some load management features that may be economically attractive to a number of electric power utiliites. Its constancy in efficiency and capacity during winter operation, independent of extremes in weather, contributes to the reduction of peak demand and to increases in daily and seasonal load factors. Its significant reduction in summer demand may be a boon to utilities encumbered by summer peaking problems and low reserve margins.

  5. SAFE Reactor Brayton Cycle Primary Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert S.; Houts, Michael G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Gas cooling of power-dense nuclear reactor cores can produce large thermal and stress gradients through sensible temperature changes in the coolant. In-core heat pipes remove heat isothermally and reduce the severity of these gradients. The modular SAFE reactor concept consists of numerous heat pipes that permit core re-assembly during test and preflight integration. The redundancy inherent in the modular heat pipe-based design enhances reactor reliability. The SAFE reactor is designed to operate for extended periods near full power even if several fuel pins or modules fail. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center are jointly developing two modular heat pipe heat exchangers, collectively named FIGMENT (Fission Inert Gas Metal Exchanger for Non-nuclear Testing). The FIGMENT heat exchangers are designed to transfer power from the SAFE nuclear reactor cores to gas turbine energy converters. A stainless steel prototype heat exchanger will be built in preparation for the construction of a larger refractory metal version. Several promising FIGMENT stainless steel heat exchanger concepts are reviewed here. (authors)

  6. The Energy Strategy Cycle 

    E-print Network

    Korich, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Effective long-range energy planning begins with a reflective analysis that encompasses the complexity of today's energy reality and sets a course for activity to achieve long-range continuing advancement. This strategy approach involves...

  7. The Energy Strategy Cycle

    E-print Network

    Korich, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    ue.cos KNOWLE~' '. &alned from :."~:re:,~~itl ProceOl executed by Integra~~~ pl.nt em' /J- (L, .Il-. .energy t'on \\J-> ~ V- conserva I Energy conservation activities such as audits, projects, awareness, and EMS play the key...

  8. Open cycle traveling wave thermoacoustics: Energy fluxes and thermodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan T. Weiland; Ben T. Zinn

    2004-01-01

    In an open cycle traveling wave thermoacoustic engine, hot gas steadily flows into the hot side of the regenerator, replacing the hot heat exchanger as the primary energy source for the engine. In such an engine, interactions between the acoustic, convective, conductive and thermoacoustic energy fluxes facilitate conversion of the input thermal energy into acoustic energy. This study describes the

  9. Adaptive duty cycling for energy harvesting systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Hsu; Sadaf Zahedi; Aman Kansal; Mani B. Srivastava; Vijay Raghunathan

    2006-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the environment is feasible in many applications to ameliorate the energy limitations in sensor networks. In this paper, we present an adaptive duty cycling algorithm that allows energy harvesting sensor nodes to autonomously adjust their duty cycle according to the energy availability in the environment. The algorithm has three objectives, namely (a) achieving energy neutral operation, i.e.,

  10. Energy Activities for the Primary Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Blue, Comp.

    An energy education program at the primary level should help students to understand the nature and importance of energy, consider different energy sources, learn about energy conservation, prepare for energy related careers, and become energy conscious in other career fields. The activities charts, readings, and experiments provided in this…

  11. Open cycle traveling wave thermoacoustics: Energy fluxes and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, Nathan T.; Zinn, Ben T.

    2004-09-01

    In an open cycle traveling wave thermoacoustic engine, hot gas steadily flows into the hot side of the regenerator, replacing the hot heat exchanger as the primary energy source for the engine. In such an engine, interactions between the acoustic, convective, conductive and thermoacoustic energy fluxes facilitate conversion of the input thermal energy into acoustic energy. This study describes the energy flux interactions throughout the engine, thus clarifying the important role of the mean temperature difference that exists between the mean flow of hot gas and the hot-side regenerator interface in the open cycle engine. Furthermore, this study derives an optimal regenerator interface temperature that maximizes the acoustic power output of the engine for a given thermal energy input. The acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of the open cycle engine are compared to those in a closed cycle engine in which a crossflow heat exchanger is used to supply the required heat input. By accounting for the effectiveness of the heat exchanger, it is shown that the open cycle has the potential to achieve higher efficiencies than the closed cycle in converting the thermal energy in a stream of gas into acoustic energy.

  12. Methodology for estimating saving of primary energy with membrane operations in industrial processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaele Molinari; Roberto Gagliardi; Enrico Drioli

    1995-01-01

    Membrane separation processes can realize significant savings of direct energy (e.g., oil, gas, coal) and indirect energy (intrinsically contained in the materials recovered and\\/or recycled). The methodology of the energy analysis in various industrial cycles is described, and the benefits of these operations, based principally on electrical energy consumption, are evaluated using the definition of “substitution coefficient” (primary energy saved

  13. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    E-print Network

    Harris, William D

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  14. Primary urban energy-management-planning methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, Joseph; Meador, Toni

    1980-11-01

    Metropolitan Dade County, Florida, developed a pragmatic, transferable methodology to assist local governments in attempts to develop and implement energy management plans. A summary of that work is presented and suggestions are provided to guide the application and refinement of a Primary Urban Energy Management Planning Methodology. The methodology provides local governments with the systematic approach for dealing with short and intermediate-term urban energy management problems while at the same time laying the groundwork for the formulation of long-term energy management activities. The five tasks of the methodology summarized are: organizing for the PEP process; performing an energy use and supply inventory; formulating energy management goals and objectives; developing strategies to achieve the energy management objectives; and monitoring and evaluation. (MCW)

  15. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wittig; J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed

  16. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wittig

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system includes a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed

  17. Great Lakes Ice Cycle Primary Investigator: Raymond Assel -NOAA GLERL (Emeritus)

    E-print Network

    Great Lakes Ice Cycle Primary Investigator: Raymond Assel - NOAA GLERL (Emeritus) Co Board The formation, duration, and extent of ice cover on the Great Lakes has a major impact and chemistry of the lakes. The significance of reduced ice cover on the biota of the Great Lakes includes

  18. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Attitudes towards Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekbiyik, Ahmet; Ipek, Cemalettin

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to examine the pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation. In order to reach this main aim following research questions are formulated: (1) What are the attitude levels of pre-service primary teachers in terms of energy conservation? (2) Do pre-service primary teachers' attitudes towards energy conservation…

  19. Cell cycle inhibition by sodium arsenite in primary embryonic rat midbrain neuroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Jaspreet S; Ponce, Rafael A; Vredevoogd, Melinda A; Yu, Xiaozhong; Gribble, Elizabeth; Hong, Sung-Woo; Schneider, Emily; Faustman, Elaine M

    2006-02-01

    Arsenite (As3+) exposure during development has been associated with neural tube defects and other structural malformations, and with behavioral alterations including altered locomotor activity and operant learning. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are uncertain. Because arsenic can cross the placenta and accumulate in the developing neuroepithelium, we examined cell cycling effects of sodium arsenite (As3+ 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 microM) on embryonic primary rat midbrain (gestational day [GD] 12) neuroepithelial cells over 48 h. There was a concentration- and time-dependent As3+-induced reduction in cell viability assessed by neutral red dye uptake assay but minimal apoptosis at concentrations below 4 microM. Morphologically, apoptosis was not apparent until 4 microM at 24 h, which was demonstrated by a marginal but statistically significant increase in cleaved caspase-3/7 activity. Cell cycling effects over several rounds of replication were determined by continuous 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and bivariate flow cytometric Hoechst-Propidium Iodide analysis. We observed a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell cycle progression as early as 12 h after exposure (> or =0.5 microM). In addition, data demonstrated a concentration-dependent increase in cytostasis within all cell cycle phases, a decreased proportion of cells able to reach the second cell cycle, and a reduced cell cycle entry from gap 1 phase (G1). The proportion of affected cells and the severity of the cell cycle perturbation, which ranged from a decreased transition probability to complete cytostasis in all cell cycle phases, were also found to be concentration-dependent. Together, these data support a role for perturbed cell cycle progression in As3+ mediated neurodevelopmental toxicity. PMID:16251481

  20. Advances in modeling ocean primary production and its role in the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Nuttle; J. S. Wroblewski; J. L. Sarmiento

    1991-01-01

    The oceans contain a large fraction of the carbon in the Earth's biosphere. Therefore understanding the global carbon cycle, particularly the changes in atmospheric CO2 and their effects on climate, requires an accounting of CO2 exchanges between the atmosphere and the ocean. Primary production in the ocean, i.e. uptake and assimilation of CO2 by phytoplankton, plays an important role in

  1. Life Prediction and Stress Evolvement for Low Cycle Fatigue in PWR Primary Pipe Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue Fei; Yu Wei-Wei; Wang Zhao-Xi; Ti Wen-Xin; Lin Lei; Men Xin-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of primary pipe material Z3CN20.09M cast stainless stell (CASS) was studied at room temperature (RT) and elevated temperature of 350° C by conducting total axial stain controlled tests in air with strain amplitude in the range +\\/-0.175% to +\\/-0.8%. Based on the test results, the cyclic stress response of material was analyzed, and a

  2. Annual Cycle Energy System characteristics and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Abbatiello, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) provides space heating, air conditioning, and domestic water heating while using substantially less energy than competing systems providing the same services. The ACES is based on an electrically driven, unidirectional heat pump that extracts heat from an insulated tank of water during the heating season. As the heat is extracted, most of the water freezes, and the stored ice provides air conditioning in the summer. A single-family residence near Knoxville, Tennessee is being used to demonstrate the energy conserving features of the ACES. A second similar house, the control house, has been used to compare the performance of the ACES to both an electric resistance heating and hot water with central air conditioning system and an air-to-air heat pump system. The results of the first year's operation from November 1977 through mid-September 1978 showed that the ACES consumed 9012 kWh of electricity while delivering an annual coefficient of performance (COP) of 2.78. The control house consumed 20,523 kWh of electricity while delivering an annual COP of 1.13. The second annual cycle was started on December 1978. The ACES was compared with an air-to-air heat pump during this period. During the ice storage portion of this test year, December 1, 1978 to September 1, 1979, 5705 kWh of electricity was used by the ACES, compared to 12,014 kWh for the control house. The respective COPs are 1.40 for the control house with the heat pump and 2.99 for the ACES house during this period. Annual energy consumption for the test year was 6597 kWh and the annual COPs were 1.41 for the control house and 2.81 for ACES. ACES is achieving its anticipated performance. The ACES concept and its general engineering performance as compared to conventional HVAC system are described and discussed.

  3. Net primary productivity and nutrient cycling across a mesic to wet precipitation gradient in Hawaiian montane forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. G. Schuur; Pamela A. Matson

    2001-01-01

    Variation in rainfall in humid tropical forests has the potential to alter patterns of primary productivity andnutrient cycling. Net primary productivity (NPP) and nutrient cycling were measured at six sites similar in temperature regime, parent material, ecosystem age, vegetation and topographical relief, while mean annual precipitation (MAP) varied from 2,200 toover 5,000 mm\\/year. Aboveground NPP declined by a factor of

  4. Life cycle assessment of high temperature electrolysis for hydrogen production via nuclear energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Utgikar; T. Thiesen

    2006-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) of one proposed method of hydrogen production—the high temperature electrolysis of water vapor—is presented in this paper. High temperature electrolysis offers an advantage of higher energy efficiency over the conventional low-temperature alkaline electrolysis due to reduced cell potential and consequent electrical energy requirements. The primary energy source for the electrolysis will be advanced nuclear reactors

  5. Atmospheric Water and Energy Cycle Changes With Global Warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Previdi; B. G. Liepert

    2008-01-01

    The annual loss of radiative energy from Earth's atmosphere is largely balanced by latent heating from cloud formation and precipitation, thus closely coupling the water and energy cycles. Here we analyze changes in the atmospheric energy cycle that occur with global mean surface warming using a series of observational datasets. Changes in radiative heating and cooling are examined using radiative

  6. The primary energy estimation of inclined giant Jean Noel Capdevielle

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    cosmic ray energy. The primary spectrum reconstructed by an appropriate pro- cedure for inclined showers. INTRODUCTION An important discrepancy in the determination of the primary energy spectrum above 10 eV was underlined in 2001 [1] between the data of HiRes collected by the atmo- spheric fluorescence and the data

  7. Life Prediction and Stress Evolvement for Low Cycle Fatigue in PWR Primary Pipe Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xue; Wei-wei, Yu; Zhao-xi, Wang; Wen-xin, Ti; Lei, Lin; Xin-ming, Men

    2010-05-01

    The low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of primary pipe material Z3CN20.09M cast stainless stell (CASS) was studied at room temperature (RT) and elevated temperature of 350° C by conducting total axial stain controlled tests in air with strain amplitude in the range ±0.175% to ±0.8%. Based on the test results, the cyclic stress response of material was analyzed, and a dynamic strain aging (DSA) phenomena was discovered at 350° C. Besides, the evaluation of elastic modulus during cyclic tests was studied, and the effect of elastic modulus on parameters of low cycle fatigue was investigated based on the Manson-Coffin model. It is shown that elastic modulus for Z3CN20.09M decreases constantly during the whole fatigue life, but fluctuates more frequently at elevated temperature. Both the static and dynamic elastic modulus result in a same life trend in low cycle fatigue, but the elastic modulus affects the precision of fatigue life prediction to some extent when the fatigue life exceeded 105.

  8. Morpholino-Mediated Knockdown in Primary Chondrocytes Implicates Hoxc8 in Regulation of Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Suzan; Kruger, Claudia; Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Numerous experiments in mutant and transgenic mice have implicated Hox transcription factors in development of the skeletal system, postulating a role for these proteins in cell proliferation of precursor cells and regulation of cell differentiation. Our own data from Hoxc8 and Hoxd4 transgenic mice suggest that Hoxc8 is involved in cell proliferation during cartilage development. In order to directly assess its role in cell proliferation of a specific skeletal cell type, the cartilage-producing chondrocyte, we performed morpholino-mediated knockdown experiments in normal primary chondrocytes. Through analysis of PCNA expression and staining for phosphorylated Histone 3, two cell cycle markers, we show that interference with Hoxc8 expression in chondrocytes reduces cell proliferation, but in the absence of apoptosis. Instead, cells with a knockdown in Hoxc8 expression appear to be delayed in their progression through the cell cycle. Our results provide evidence for prolonged duration of and delayed exit from M-phase, thus implicating a role for Hoxc8 in controlling cell cycle progression at this critical check point. PMID:19071237

  9. Morpholino-mediated knockdown in primary chondrocytes implicates Hoxc8 in regulation of cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Suzan; Kruger, Claudia; Salbaum, J Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2009-04-01

    Numerous experiments in mutant and transgenic mice have implicated Hox transcription factors in development of the skeletal system, postulating a role for these proteins in cell proliferation of precursor cells and regulation of cell differentiation. Our own data from Hoxc8 and Hoxd4 transgenic mice suggest that Hoxc8 is involved in cell proliferation during cartilage development. In order to directly assess its role in cell proliferation of a specific skeletal cell type, the cartilage-producing chondrocyte, we performed morpholino-mediated knockdown experiments in normal primary chondrocytes. Through analysis of PCNA expression and staining for phosphorylated Histone 3, two cell cycle markers, we show that interference with Hoxc8 expression in chondrocytes reduces cell proliferation, but in the absence of apoptosis. Instead, cells with a knockdown in Hoxc8 expression appear to be delayed in their progression through the cell cycle. Our results provide evidence for prolonged duration of and delayed exit from M-phase, thus implicating a role for Hoxc8 in controlling cell cycle progression at this critical check point. PMID:19071237

  10. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    Presented are approximately 100 energy-related lessons for elementary school students. Among the topics addressed are the importance of energy, future energy sources, energy conservation, forms of energy, and electricity. Most activities relate to science and/or social studies and include illustrated handouts to duplicate for students. Listed in…

  11. SOLAR THERMAL ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Eng Cong; Sanjayan Velautham; Amer Nordin Darus

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to study the feasibility of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) driven by solar thermal energy as a renewable energy option for small and medium sized commercial usage, power generation of less than 10MW. ORC is principally a conventional Rankine Cycle that uses organic compound as the working fluid instead of water and it is

  12. Family Life Cycle and Deforestation in Amazonia: Combining Remotely Sensed Information with Primary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldas, M.; Walker, R. T.; Shirota, R.; Perz, S.; Skole, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristics of small settlers in the Brazilian Amazon and the life cycle hypothesis in the process of deforestation. The analysis was conducted combining remote sensing and geographic data with primary data of 153 small settlers along the TransAmazon Highway. Regression analyses and spatial autocorrelation tests were conducted. The results from the empirical model indicate that socio-demographic characteristics of households as well as institutional and market factors, affect the land use decision. Although remotely sensed information is not very popular among Brazilian social scientists, these results confirm that they can be very useful for this kind of study. Furthermore, the research presented by this paper strongly indicates that family and socio-demographic data, as well as market data, may result in misspecification problems. The same applies to models that do not incorporate spatial analysis.

  13. Investigation of Energy Dissipation in an Ejector Refrigeration Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Tischendorf; Denise Janotte; Ricardo Fiorenzano; Wilhelm Tegethoff

    2009-01-01

    The presented work focuses on the differences in en- ergy dissipation in each cycle component compared to the energy dissipation of the whole ejector refrigera- tion cycle. With help of this analysis, improvement of energetic efficiency by using an ejector can be set in relation to the potential improvement in efficiency of other components such as heat exchangers. Informa- tion

  14. Gallery Walk Questions about Energy and Material Cycles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about energy and material cycles. The questions are organized according to ...

  15. Quantifying subtropical North Pacific gyre mixed layer primary productivity from Seaglider observations of diel oxygen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, David P.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Doney, Scott C.; Karl, David M.

    2015-05-01

    Using autonomous underwater gliders, we quantified diurnal periodicity in dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and temperature in the subtropical North Pacific near the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Station ALOHA during summer 2012. Oxygen optodes provided sufficient stability and precision to quantify diel cycles of average amplitude of 0.6 µmol kg-1. A theoretical diel curve was fit to daily observations to infer an average mixed layer gross primary productivity (GPP) of 1.8 mmol O2 m-3 d-1. Cumulative net community production (NCP) over 110 days was 500 mmol O2 m-2 for the mixed layer, which averaged 57 m in depth. Both GPP and NCP estimates indicated a significant period of below-average productivity at Station ALOHA in 2012, an observation confirmed by 14C productivity incubations and O2/Ar ratios. Given our success in an oligotrophic gyre where biological signals are small, our diel GPP approach holds promise for remote characterization of productivity across the spectrum of marine environments.

  16. Study of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays: EAS size fluctuations at a fixed primary energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allev, N.; Alimov, T.; Kakhharov, N.; Khakimov, K.; Rakhimova, N.; Tashpulatov, R.; Khristiansen, G. B.

    1985-08-01

    During the initial period of the Samarkand EAS array operations the showers were selected on the basis of charged-particle flux density, and during the subsequent periods the showers were selected on the basis of Cerenkov light flux density. This procedure made it possible to measure the shower energy, to estimate the EAS size fluctuations at a fixed primary energy, and to experimentally obtain the scaling factor K(Ne, Eo) from the EAS size spectrum to the primary energy spectrum. Six scintillators of area S = 2 sq m each were added to the array. The fluctuations of EAS sizes in the showers of fixed primary energies and the scaling factors K(Ne, Eo) were inferred from the data obtained. The showers with zenith angles 30 deg were selected. The EAS axis positions were inferred from the amplitude data of the scintillators. The primary energy Eo was determined by the method of least squares for the known EAS axis position using the data of the Cerenkov detector located at 80 to 150 m EAS axis. It is shown that the Cerenkov light flux fluctuations at 100 m from EAS axis, q100, do not exceed 10% at a fixed EAS energy, so the parameter q100 may be used to estimate the EAS-generating primary particle-energy.

  17. Cycle helmet ownership and use; a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary school children in deprived areas

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, D; Royal, S

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of two different educational interventions plus free cycle helmets, in increasing cycle helmet ownership and use. Methods: A cluster randomised controlled trial was carried out in 28 primary schools in deprived areas of Nottingham, involving 1213 year 5 schoolchildren (age 9 and 10). Children received either a helmet + educational pack (educational pack and order form for free cycle helmet) or a helmet + multifaceted intervention (educational pack, order form for free cycle helmet, school assembly, lesson devoted to cycle helmet education, and an invitation to a school based cycling event). Results: The helmet + educational pack was as effective as the helmet + multifaceted intervention in terms of helmet ownership (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.50 to 4.58) and wearing (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.68). Helmet ownership significantly increased from baseline with both interventions, and wearing significantly increased from baseline with the helmet + educational pack. The interventions reduced the inequality in helmet ownership between children residing in deprived and non-deprived areas that had been present prior to the study. Conclusions: An educational pack plus a form to order a free cycle helmet is an effective way of increasing bicycle helmet ownership and use and reduces inequalities in helmet ownership among children in deprived areas. Further work is needed to determine the length of the effect of such interventions. PMID:15033841

  18. SQUID-SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Woodward W; Fike, David A; Johnson, Jena E; Raub, Timothy D; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Eiler, John M

    2014-04-15

    Many aspects of Earth's early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood--in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, and (34)S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (?2.6-2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in ?(33)S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial ?(34)S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments--even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry. PMID:24706767

  19. SQUID–SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Fike, David A.; Johnson, Jena E.; Raub, Timothy D.; Guan, Yunbin; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Eiler, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of Earth’s early sulfur cycle, from the origin of mass-anomalous fractionations to the degree of biological participation, remain poorly understood—in part due to complications from postdepositional diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Using a combination of scanning high-resolution magnetic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S, and 34S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a major Late Archean (?2.6–2.5 Ga) marine carbonate platform from South Africa. Coupled with petrography, these techniques can untangle the complex history of mineralization in samples containing diverse sulfur-bearing phases. We focused on pyrite nodules, precipitated in shallow sediments. These textures record systematic spatial differences in both mass-dependent and mass-anomalous sulfur-isotopic composition over length scales of even a few hundred microns. Petrography and magnetic imaging demonstrate that mass-anomalous fractionations were acquired before burial and compaction, but also show evidence of postdepositional alteration 500 million y after deposition. Using magnetic imaging to screen for primary phases, we observed large spatial gradients in ?33S (>4‰) in nodules, pointing to substantial environmental heterogeneity and dynamic mixing of sulfur pools on geologically rapid timescales. In other nodules, large systematic radial ?34S gradients (>20‰) were observed, from low values near their centers increasing to high values near their rims. These fractionations support hypotheses that microbial sulfate reduction was an important metabolism in organic-rich Archean environments—even in an Archean ocean basin dominated by iron chemistry. PMID:24706767

  20. Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Price, Lynn

    2011-06-08

    Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. Energy efficiency analysis of air cycle heat pump dryers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Braun; P. K. Bansal; E. A. Groll

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of an air heat pump (reversed Brayton) cycle for tumbler clothes dryers is investigated. The goal is to increase the energy efficiency as compared to conventional electrically heated driers. Relatively simple models were used to compare the energy efficiency of the heat pump drier with that of a conventional air vented drier. The components were

  2. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  3. Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, C. B.

    1968-01-01

    Zinc-oxygen primary cell yields high energy density for battery used as an auxiliary power source in space vehicle systems. Maximum reliability and minimum battery weight is achieved by using a stacking configuration of 23 series-connected modules with 6 parallel-connected cells per module.

  4. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  5. Life cycle analysis of energy systems: Methods and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1992-08-01

    Fuel-cycle analysis if not the same as life-cycle analysis, although the focus on defining a comprehensive system for analysis leads toward the same path. This approach was the basis of the Brookhaven Reference Energy System. It provided a framework for summing total effects over an explicitly defined fuel cycle. This concept was computerized and coupled with an extensive data base in ESNS -- the Energy Systems Network Simulator. As an example, ESNS was the analytical basis for a comparison of health and environmental effects of several coal conversion technologies. With advances in computer systems and methods, however, ESNS has not been maintained at Brookhaven. The RES approach was one of the bases of the OECD COMPASS Project and the UNEP comparative assessment of environmental impacts of energy sources. An RES model alone has limitations in analyzing complex energy systems, e.g., it is difficult to handle feedback in the network. The most recent version of a series of optimization models is MARKAL, a dynamic linear programming model now used to assess strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy system. MARKAL creates an optimal set of reference energy systems over multiple time periods, automatically incorporating dynamic feedback and allowing fuel switching and end-use conservation to meet useful energy demands.

  6. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Nitash Balsara: Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Nitash Balsara

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  7. Solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamaguchi; X. R. Zhang; K. Fujima; M. Enomoto; N. Sawada

    2006-01-01

    A solar energy powered Rankine cycle using supercritical CO2 for combined production of electricity and thermal energy is proposed. The proposed system consists of evacuated solar collectors, power generating turbine, high-temperature heat recovery system, low-temperature heat recovery system, and feed pump. The system utilizes evacuated solar collectors to convert CO2 into high-temperature supercritical state, used to drive a turbine and

  8. Estimates of the energy cycle of the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oort, Abraham H.; Anderson, Laurence A.; Peixoto, José P.

    1994-04-01

    A new formulation of the general problem of the large-scale energetics for the global oceans is presented and analyzed. Using a variety of ocean surface observations, some of the terms in the energy balance equations, such as the time rates of change, the generation rates of available gravitational potential energy G(P) and kinetic energy G(K), and the conversion rate from available gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy C(P, K), are estimated for annual and seasonal mean conditions. An attempt is also made to measure the uncertainty of these terms in order to assess the reliability of the results. The interseasonal variability is analyzed showing that the winter hemisphere represents the most active region of the globe. Using the data and some reasonable assumptions, pictures of the energy cycle in the global oceans for yearly and seasonal conditions are constructed. The hemispheric and global dissipation rates of available gravitational potential energy D(P) and of kinetic energy D(K) are estimated as residuals, assuming that the contribution from the internal energy C(I, K) is only a minor factor. After analyzing the general consistency of the picture of the energy cycle for the oceans, the conclusion is reached that the G(P) and G(K) terms are about equally important terms needed to describe and understand the structure and dynamics of the global ocean circulation.

  9. Dosimetric impact evaluation of primary coolant chemistry of the internal tritium breeding cycle of a fusion reactor DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Velarde, M. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM), ETSII, Universidad Politecnica Madrid UPM, J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Sedano, L. A. [Asociacion Euratom-Ciematpara Fusion, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, J. M. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM), ETSII, Universidad Politecnica Madrid UPM, J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Tritium will be responsible for a large fraction of the environmental impact of the first generation of DT fusion reactors. Today, the efforts of conceptual development of the tritium cycle for DEMO are mainly centred in the so called Inner Breeding Tritium Cycle, conceived as guarantee of reactor fuel self-sufficiency. The EU Fusion Programme develops for the short term of fusion power technology two breeding blanket conceptual designs both helium cooled. One uses Li-ceramic material (HCPB, Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed) and the other a liquid metal eutectic alloy (Pb15.7Li) (HCLL, Helium-Cooled Lithium Lead). Both are Li-6 enriched materials. At a proper scale designs will be tested as Test Blanket Modules in ITER. The tritium cycles linked to both blanket concepts are similar, with some different characteristics. The tritium is recovered from the He purge gas in the case of HCPB, and directly from the breeding alloy through a carrier gas in HCLL. For a 3 GWth self-sufficient fusion reactor the tritium breeding need is few hundred grams of tritium per day. Safety and environmental impact are today the top priority design criteria. Dose impact limits should determine the key margins and parameters in its conception. Today, transfer from the cycle to the environment is conservatively assumed to be operating in a 1-enclosure scheme through the tritium plant power conversion system (intermediate heat exchangers and helium blowers). Tritium loss is caused by HT and T{sub 2} permeation and simultaneous primary coolant leakage through steam generators. Primary coolant chemistry appears to be the most natural way to control tritium permeation from the breeder into primary coolant and from primary coolant through SG by H{sub 2} tritium flux isotopic swamping or steel (EUROFER/INCOLOY) oxidation. A primary coolant chemistry optimization is proposed. Dynamic flow process diagrams of tritium fluxes are developed ad-hoc and coupled with tritiated effluents dose impact evaluations. Dose assessments are obtained from the use of appropriate numeric tools (NORMTRI). (authors)

  10. Carbon nanofiber polymer composites: evaluation of life cycle energy use.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2009-03-15

    Holistic evaluation of emerging nanotechnologies using systems analysis is pivotal for guiding their safe and sustainable development. While toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials are essential, understanding of the potential large scale impacts of nanotechnology is also critical for developing sustainable nanoproducts. This work evaluates the life cycle energetic impact associated with the production and use of carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polymer nanocomposites (PNC). Specifically, both simple CNF and carbon nanofiber-glass fiber (CNF-GF) hybrid PNCs are evaluated and compared with steel for equal stiffness design. Life cycle inventory is developed based on published literature and best available engineering information. A cradle-to-gate comparison suggests that for equal stiffness design, CNF reinforced PNCs are 1.6-12 times more energy intensive than steel. It is anticipated that the product use phase may strongly influence whether any net savings in life cycle energy consumption can be realized. A case study involving the use of CNF and CNF-GF reinforced PNCs in the body panels of automobiles highlights that the use of PNCs with lower CNF loading ratios has the potential for net life cycle energy savings relative to steel owing to improved fuel economy benefits. Other factors such as cost, toxicity impact of CNF, and end-of-life issues specific to CNFs need to be considered to evaluate the final economic and environmental performance of CNF reinforced PNC materials. PMID:19368217

  11. High energy primary electron spectrum observed by the emulsion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Fujii, M.; Aizu, H.; Hiraiwa, N.; Taira, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Niu, K.; Koss, T. A.; Lord, J. J.; Golden, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector of the emulsion chamber type is used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons. Two large emulsion chambers, each having an area of 40 by 50 sq cm, are exposed for about 25.5 hr at an average pressure altitude of 3.9 mbar. About 500 high-energy cascades (no less than about 600 GeV) are detected by searching for dark spots on the X-ray films. A power-law energy dependence formula is derived for the spectrum of primary cosmic-ray electrons in the energy region over 100 GeV. The results are in good agreement with the transition curves obtained previously by theoretical and Monte Carlo calculations.

  12. High-energy solar particle events in cycle 24

    E-print Network

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji; Xie, Hong; Akiyama, Sachiko; Thakur, Neeharika

    2015-01-01

    The Sun is already in the declining phase of cycle 24, but the paucity of high-energy solar energetic particle (SEP) events continues with only two ground level enhancement (GLE) events as of March 31, 2015. In an attempt to understand this, we considered all the large SEP events of cycle 24 that occurred until the end of 2014. We compared the properties of the associated CMEs with those in cycle 23. We found that the CME speeds in the sky plane were similar, but almost all those cycle-24 CMEs were halos. A significant fraction of (16%) of the frontside SEP events were associated with eruptive prominence events. CMEs associated with filament eruption events accelerate slowly and attain peak speeds beyond the typical GLE release heights. When we considered only western hemispheric events that had good connectivity to the CME nose, there were only 8 events that could be considered as GLE candidates. One turned out to be the first GLE event of cycle 24 (2012 May 17). In two events, the CMEs were very fast (>2000...

  13. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  14. Modeling fossil energy demands of primary nonferrous metal production: the case of copper.

    PubMed

    Swart, Pilar; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-12-17

    The methodologies for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of metal resources are rather diverse. Some LCIA methods are based on ore grade changes, but they typically do not consider the impact of changes in primary metal extraction technology. To characterize the impact of technology changes for copper, we modeled and analyzed energy demand, expressed in fossil energy equivalents (FEE) per kilogram of primary copper, taking into account the applied mining method and processing technology. The model was able to capture variations in reported energy demands of selected mining sites (FEE: 0.07 to 0.84 MJ-eq/kg ore) with deviations of 1 to 30%. Applying the model to a database containing global mine production data resulted in energy demand median values of around 50 MJ/kg Cu irrespective of the processing route, even though median values of ore demands varied between processing routes from ca. 35 (underground, conventional processing) to 200 kg ore/kg Cu (open pit, solvent-extraction, and electrowinning), as high specific ore demands are typically associated with less energy intensive extraction technologies and vice versa. Thus, only considering ore grade in LCIA methods without making any differentiation with regard to employed technology can produce misleading results. PMID:24266773

  15. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  16. Nitrogen cycling networks of coastal ecosystems: influence of trophic status and primary producer form

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Christian; Elisenda Forés; Francisco Comin; Pierluigi Viaroli; Mariachiara Naldi; Ireneo Ferrari

    1996-01-01

    We have used ecological network analysis to compare nitrogen cycles from five well-researched coastal ecosystems. These included a representative ricefield and two lagoons (Tancada and Encanysada lagoons) in the Ebro River delta, Spain; a region of the Sacca di Goro, a lagoon at the mouth of the Po River, Italy; and a drowned river estuary in North Carolina, USA, the

  17. Increasing primary energy and electricity demand. Persistent energy deficit situation.

    E-print Network

    In India 1. Objectives · Identification of markets for Solar Linear Concentrators in India. · Promoting greater commercial utilization of solar energy in India. · Determination of market acceptance for SLC (PV, T, and PV/T). · Design Solar Linear Concentrators to address market expectations in India

  18. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various operating conditions as well as trade offs between efficiency and capital cost. Prametric studies were carried out on reactor outlet temperature, mass flow, pressure, and turbine cooling. Recommendations on the optimal working fluid for each configuration were made. A steady state model comparison was made with a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) power conversion system developed at Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). A preliminary model of the CBC was developed in HYSYS for comparison. Temperature and pressure ratio curves for the Capstone turbine and compressor developed at SNL were implemented into the HYSYS model. A comparison between the HYSYS model and SNL loop demonstrated power output predicted by HYSYS was much larger than that in the experiment. This was due to a lack of a model for the electrical alternator which was used to measure the power from the SNL loop. Further comparisons of the HYSYS model and the CBC data are recommended. Engineering analyses were performed for several configurations of the intermediate heat transport loop that transfers heat from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production plant. The analyses evaluated parallel and concentric piping arrangements and two different working fluids, including helium and a liquid salt. The thermal-hydraulic analyses determined the size and insulation requirements for the hot and cold leg pipes in the different configurations. Economic analyses were performed to estimate the cost of the va

  19. Renewable energy from the sea - organic Rankine Cycle using ocean thermal energy conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Wang; T. C. Hung

    2010-01-01

    Rankine cycles using refrigerant- and benzene-series fluids as working fluids in converting low-grade energy from renewable energy resources such as solar energy and ocean thermal energy were investigated in this study. The main purpose is to verify the feasibility of utilizing ocean energy (i.e., ocean thermal energy conversion, OTEC) which can also be combined with solar energy in an organic

  20. A volumetric energy based high cycle multiaxial fatigue citerion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Banvillet; T. Palin-Luc; S. Lasserre

    2003-01-01

    A reliable design of industrial parts against high-cycle multiaxial fatigue requires a fatigue criterion capable of predicting both the stress gradient and the load-type effects. These effects are very important in the transfer of fatigue data from specimen to component. By using the concept of volume influencing fatigue crack initiation proposed by Palin-Luc and Lasserre with an energy based approach,

  1. Structural Integrity of ESBWR Primary Containment for 60-Years of Thermal Duty Cycle Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. James; Y. R. Rashid; A. S. Liu; B. Gou

    2006-01-01

    GE's latest evolution of the boiling water reactor, the ESBWR, has innovative passive design features that reduce the number and complexity of active systems, which in turn provide economic advantages while also increasing safety. To incorporate these passive cooling features, the Isolation Condenser Passive Cooling Containment System Pools (IC\\/PCCS) are integrated onto the top slab of the primary containment structure.

  2. Developmentally regulated inhibition of cell cycle progression by glucocorticoids through repression of cyclin A transcription in primary osteoblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Gabet, Yankel; Noh, Tommy; Lee, Christopher; Frenkel, Baruch

    2011-04-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) like dexamethasone (DEX) are effective immunosuppressants indicated for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, they often promote osteoporosis and bone fractures. Here, we investigated the anti-mitogenic effect of GCs in primary osteoblast cultures. DEX did not affect cell cycle progression in confluent (day 2), or early post-confluent cultures. Starting on day 5, however, DEX strongly inhibited the G1/S cell cycle transition. Day 5 also marked the beginning of a ?2-day commitment stage, during which cultures acquired resistance to the inhibitory effect of DEX on mineralization. Considering the importance of Wnt signaling in osteoblast development, we analyzed the effect of DEX on the Wnt pathway. DEX treatment did not inhibit the TOPGAL Wnt reporter before, but only during and after the commitment stage. However, this inhibition was not associated with repression of neither cyclin D1 nor c-Myc mRNA, well-established Wnt targets regulating cell cycle progression. On the other hand, acute (24-h) and chronic (7 days) DEX treatment significantly reduced both the mRNA and protein levels of cyclin A, another cell cycle regulator. Moreover, cyclin A repression by DEX was not observed before, but only during and after the commitment stage. Using gel shift and reporter assays, we identified an ATF/CREB-binding site critical for the DEX-mediated repression of cyclin A transcription. Furthermore, and similar to cyclin A, Atf4 expression was repressed by DEX only during and after commitment. Our data suggest that GCs attenuate cell cycle progression in osteoblasts in a developmental stage-specific manner by repressing Atf4-dependent cyclin A gene expression. PMID:20857405

  3. Direct energy conversion bottoming cycles for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paramonov, D.V.; Carelli, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Besides high conversion efficiency, advantages of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) include ability of low pressure operation, absence of moving parts and resulting inherently low maintenance requirements, modularity, long lifetime and unattended operation. A further increase in the conversion efficiency, without compromising the advantages inherent with static devices, can be achieved by employing a direct energy conversion bottoming cycle. The biggest challenges in the integration of direct energy conversion devices with SOFC are: (a) the need to preheat the SOFC feed air while maximizing the bottoming cycle power, and (b) limited temperature of the SOFC exhaust. These restrictions limit the choice to the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Conversion (AMTEC) and Thermoelectric (TE) technologies while eliminating thermionics and thermophotovoltaics. In addition to the aforementioned advantages, the SOFC-AMTEC and SOFC-TE cycles are attractive for certain applications such as cogeneration and power supplies for remote locations where the use of higher efficiency dynamic bottoming cycles might be undesirable due to maintenance and noise restrictions. A preliminary feasibility assessment of AMTEC and TE bottoming of SOFC power systems has been performed. Five SOFC bottoming cycle concepts were considered. They include: TE bottoming with cogeneration capability, TE bottoming with additional heat recovery, TE bottoming with uncoupled TE converter and air preheater, AMTEC bottoming, and Cascaded AMTEC-TE bottoming. The cascaded AMTEC-TE bottoming cycle increases the overall cycle efficiency by 4.7 percentage points. TE bottoming cycle with additional heat recovery adds 3.8 percentage points, and the other concepts are between 3 and 3.5 percentage points. The results are also compared with results of similar studies reported in literature. The AMTEC-TE cascade has the largest potential, however, development of both AMTEC and TE components would be required. The second best option from the efficiency point of view is the TE bottoming with additional heat recovery which would require development of only the TE component. Despite that fact that AMTEC is generally perceived as more efficient than thermoelectrics, efficiencies of the considered AMTEC and TE bottoming cycles are almost equal. The reason is that the somewhat more efficient AMTEC requires relatively high hot side temperature ({gt}850--900 K) and, at the same time, air has to be preheated to 973 K. (This is equally true for a high efficiency TE converter operating at the highest hot side to cold side temperature difference possible). As a result, only a small fraction ({lt}30 %) of the total heat available is directed to the bottoming cycle where it is converted with relatively high efficiency. When a TE converter operating in a wider hot side temperature range, but at a smaller hot side--cold side temperature difference is employed, its lower efficiency is offset by its larger thermal power and the overall bottoming cycle efficiency changes insignificantly.

  4. Primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee energy region measured by the Tibet hybrid

    E-print Network

    Primary cosmic-ray energy spectrum around the knee energy region measured by the Tibet hybrid-8561, Japan 2 Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570, Japan 3 Institute of High Energy for Informatics, Tokyo 101-8430, Japan 18 Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, Tokyo 116

  5. Altered cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes across the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongyue; Hong, Min; Duan, Jinao; Liu, Pei; Fan, Xinsheng; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Guo, Jianming; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping

    2013-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase), and the first (menstrual phase) and the fifth (regenerative phase) days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased), 14 (five increased and nine decreased), and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased) genes with ? 2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05) in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8) were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-? superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN) were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-? superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-? superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23390521

  6. Gopher mounds decrease nutrient cycling rates and increase adjacent vegetation in volcanic primary succession.

    PubMed

    Yurkewycz, Raymond P; Bishop, John G; Crisafulli, Charles M; Harrison, John A; Gill, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    Fossorial mammals may affect nutrient dynamics and vegetation in recently initiated primary successional ecosystems differently than in more developed systems because of strong C and N limitation to primary productivity and microbial communities. We investigated northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) effects on soil nutrient dynamics, soil physical properties, and plant communities on surfaces created by Mount St. Helens' 1980 eruption. For comparison to later successional systems, we summarized published studies on gopher effects on soil C and N and plant communities. In 2010, 18 years after gopher colonization, we found that gophers were active in ~2.5% of the study area and formed ~328 mounds ha(-1). Mounds exhibited decreased species density compared to undisturbed areas, while plant abundance on mound margins increased 77%. Plant burial increased total soil carbon (TC) by 13% and nitrogen (TN) by 11%, compared to undisturbed soils. Mound crusts decreased water infiltration, likely explaining the lack of detectable increases in rates of NO3-N, NH4-N or PO4-P leaching out of the rooting zone or in CO2 flux rates. We concluded that plant burial and reduced infiltration on gopher mounds may accelerate soil carbon accumulation, facilitate vegetation development at mound edges through resource concentration and competitive release, and increase small-scale heterogeneity of soils and communities across substantial sections of the primary successional landscape. Our review indicated that increases in TC, TN and plant density at mound margins contrasted with later successional systems, likely due to differences in physical effects and microbial resources between primary successional and older systems. PMID:25260998

  7. Disturbance of sandflats by thin terrigenous sediment deposits: consequences for primary production and nutrient cycling.

    PubMed

    Rodil, Iván F; Lohrer, Andrew M; Chiaroni, Luca D; Hewitt, Judi E; Thrush, Simon F

    2011-03-01

    The contributions of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning are increasingly recognized by ecologists, with biodiversity loss considered a significant threat to the maintenance of life-supporting ecosystem goods and services. Although ecologists have increased the amount of realism in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiments, effects on functioning are rarely investigated in the field in conjunction with disturbances that affect biodiversity. Here, effects on functioning were investigated in situ following experimental disturbance of a realistic type and magnitude. Experimental deposits of terrigenous sediment (5 mm thickness) were applied at three intertidal sites in Whangapoua Harbour (Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand), where soil erosion associated with logging is a serious problem. Experimental disturbance by terrigenous sediment impacted macrofaunal abundance and community composition (suspension and deposit feeders), and there were coincident shifts in ecosystem functioning at all three sites. Relative to controls, sediment-treated plots had higher rates of ammonium efflux (despite 50% fewer macrofaunal individuals) and lower rates of gross primary production and photosynthetic efficiency (despite similar sediment chlorophyll a concentrations). Judging from nutrient ratios in sediment pore water, microphyte primary producers living on the sediment surface in control plots were likely nitrogen limited (the normal situation for marine waters), whereas microphytes in sediment-treated plots were likely phosphate limited. Gross primary production and photosynthetic efficiency were significantly and positively correlated with ammonium uptake in control plots (r2 = 0.463 and 0.856, respectively) but not in treated plots (P > 0.05, r2 < 0.3). We suggest that the higher content of charged particles (clay) in the experimental deposits bound up phosphate, limiting its bio-availability, and shifted functional relationships between sandflat macrofauna and sediment primary productivity. PMID:21563573

  8. Energy life cycle cost analysis: Guidelines for public agencies

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The State of Washington encourages energy-efficient building designs for public agencies. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) supports this goal by identifying advances in building technology and sharing this information with the design community and public administrators responsible for major construction projects. Many proven technologies can reduce operating costs-and save energy-to an extent that justifies some increases in construction costs. WSEO prepared these Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) guidelines for the individuals who are responsible for preparing ELCCA submittals for public buildings. Key terms and abbreviations are provided in Appendix A. Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an overview-providing background, defining energy life cycle cost analysis, explaining which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements, and identifying changes to the guidelines that have been made since 1990. They explain {open_quotes}what needs to happen{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}why it needs to happen.{close_quotes} Chapters 3 to 7 provide the {open_quotes}how to,{close_quotes} the instructions and forms needed to prepare ELCCA submittals.

  9. Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies

    E-print Network

    Pan, Ming

    Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies-sensor/multi-platform approach to water and energy cycle prediction is demonstrated in an effort to understand the variability to an improved understanding of water and energy cycles within the NAME region and providing a novel framework

  10. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    SciTech Connect

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J. [Deutsche Aerospace AG, Munich (Germany)]|[Technical Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  11. Solar energy demand (SED) of commodity life cycles.

    PubMed

    Rugani, Benedetto; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mutel, Christopher; Bastianoni, Simone; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2011-06-15

    The solar energy demand (SED) of the extraction of 232 atmospheric, biotic, fossil, land, metal, mineral, nuclear, and water resources was quantified and compared with other energy- and exergy-based indicators. SED represents the direct and indirect solar energy required by a product or service during its life cycle. SED scores were calculated for 3865 processes, as implemented in the Ecoinvent database, version 2.1. The results showed that nonrenewable resources, and in particular minerals, formed the dominant contribution to SED. This large share is due to the indirect solar energy required to produce these resource inputs. Compared with other energy- and exergy-based indicators, SED assigns higher impact factors to minerals and metals and smaller impact factors to fossil energetic resources, land use, and nuclear energy. The highest differences were observed for biobased and renewable energy generation processes, whose relative contribution of renewable resources such as water, biomass, and land occupation was much lower in SED than in energy- and exergy-based indicators. PMID:21545085

  12. Recovered Energy Generation Using an Organic Rankine Cycle System

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, Neil [Gas Technology Institute] [Gas Technology Institute; Sweetser, Richard [Exergy Partners Corp.] [Exergy Partners Corp.; Zimron, Ohad [Ormat] [Ormat; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a project demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of capturing thermal energy from a 35,000 hp (27 MW) gas turbine driving a natural gas pipeline compressor with a Recovered Energy Generation (REG) system to produce 5.5 MW of electricity with no additional fuel and near-zero emissions. The REG is based on a modified Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Other major system elements include a waste-heat-to-oil heat exchanger with bypass, oil-to-pentane heat exchanger with preheater, recuperator, condenser, pentane turbine, generator and synchronizing breaker and all power and control systems required for the automatic operation of the REG. When operating at design heat input available from the gas turbine exhaust, the REG system consistently delivered 5.5 MW or more output to the grid at up to 15 percent heat conversion efficiency. The REG system improved the overall energy efficiency by 28%, from 32% simple cycle efficiency to 41% for the combined system. Significant lessons learned from this project are discussed as well as measured performance and economic considerations.

  13. The Urban Water Cycle and how it Modulates the Microclimate and the Energy Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Wang, Z.; Ramamurthy, P.; Li, D.; Sun, T.; Smith, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization is the land-use modification with the largest and most manifest impacts on hydrologic storage and fluxes. This perturbation of the water cycle also has considerable ramifications on the surface energy budget and the microclimatology in built terrain: reducing the potential for water storage and subsequent evaporation reduces the fraction of incoming radiative energy dissipated through surface evaporation, and consequently increases the sensible heating of the urban atmosphere and solid surfaces (buildings, roads, …). However, the complexity of the involved physical processes and their interactions have so far been oversimplified, leading to considerable biases in model output when compared to observations. Using novel sensing techniques that include wireless sensor networks, this study seeks to build a better understanding of the Urban Water Cycle. Our findings indicate that "impervious surfaces" in urban area are not really impervious and not always dry. The role of evaporation from gravel-covered roofs and from concrete, brick, stone and asphalt surfaces can be considerable, leading to lower sensible heating. In addition, the different thermal properties of the various urban materials lead to extreme spatial heterogeneity in surface conditions that is much higher than over natural terrain. Building on this understanding, an improved urban canopy model is developed that includes much better representation of surface heterogeneity and of hydrological and thermal storage and transport processes, including analytical solutions of the heat equation and numerical solutions of the Richards equation in the urban surface. The model development will be detailed and applications focusing on the role of evaporation in mitigating summer building cooling needs and urban heat island effects will be presented.

  14. Decision-making of nuclear energy policy: application of environmental management tool to nuclear fuel cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Eal Lee; Kyoo-Kun Koh

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate and estimate the environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycles and to support the decision-making of nuclear energy policy, relating to a selection of environmentally preferred nuclear fuel cycle for the environmentally sound and sustainable development of nuclear energy. To achieve this objective, life cycle assessment (LCA) as an environmental management tool is applied to the

  15. Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production

    E-print Network

    Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research fuels more carbonintensive than conventional biofuels. Critics of this study argue that alternative

  16. ENERGY SPECTRUM OF PRIMARY COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 1017 OBTAINED USING AKENO 20 KM2

    E-print Network

    OG 6.3-3 ENERGY SPECTRUM OF PRIMARY COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 1017 EV OBTAINED USING AKENO 20 KM2 ARRAY M these showers, 60 of them are initiated by primaries with energies larger than 1019 eV. The energy spectrum of the simulation, the refined energy spectrum is derived. The previously reported dip becomes less significant

  17. An Energy Demand and Generalized Fuel Choice Model for the Primary Metals Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LuAnn McClernan Duffus; Wen S. Chern

    1984-01-01

    The primary metals industry is defined by the Bureau of the Census as the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 33. In terms of both absolute amount of energy use and energy intensiveness, SIC-33 is large relative to other industries.' This paper estimates essential energy demand relationships for this important sector. Although there are basically four energy sources used in the primary

  18. Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

  19. Energy efficient iron based electronic field cycling magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plendl, Dirk; Fujara, Marian; Privalov, Alexei F.; Fujara, Franz

    2009-06-01

    A new concept for an energy efficient electromagnet for fast field cycling NMR applications as well as its construction and first test results are presented. The magnet, which provides a rectangular sample space of 17 × 25 mm, has an iron yoke and pole pieces optimised with respect to the B0 homogeneity. The maximum field is 0.66 T at a current of 320 A; its field inhomogeneity for a cylindrical sample (length 7 mm, diameter 6 mm) is about 50 ppm. The power dissipation during polarisation at 0.55 T is as low as 1.4 kW. The magnet is powered by a commercially available power supply and can be rapidly switched with a slew rate of 0.55 T/ms. The system has shown a stability of 50 ppm/h.

  20. Energy efficient iron based electronic field cycling magnet.

    PubMed

    Plendl, Dirk; Fujara, Marian; Privalov, Alexei F; Fujara, Franz

    2009-06-01

    A new concept for an energy efficient electromagnet for fast field cycling NMR applications as well as its construction and first test results are presented. The magnet, which provides a rectangular sample space of 17 x 25 mm, has an iron yoke and pole pieces optimised with respect to the B(0) homogeneity. The maximum field is 0.66 T at a current of 320 A; its field inhomogeneity for a cylindrical sample (length 7 mm, diameter 6mm) is about 50 ppm. The power dissipation during polarisation at 0.55 T is as low as 1.4 kW. The magnet is powered by a commercially available power supply and can be rapidly switched with a slew rate of 0.55 T/ms. The system has shown a stability of 50 ppm/h. PMID:19269203

  1. District energy or distributed heating/cooling? A case study in life-cycle O & M cost decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Madigan, D.W. [van Zelm Heywood & Shadford, Inc., West Hartford, CT (United States); Evans, E.A. [Boulder Energy Associates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Cornell University is building a new home for its Johnson Graduate School of Management. Facilities planners wanted to know if they should connect the new building to the campus district energy system or install local on-site primary heating and cooling equipment. The basis for making this decision was total life-cycle cost to install, operate, and maintain the HVAC equipment. To ensure that the lowest possible life-cycle cost would prevail, numerous combinations of water-side and air-side systems were considered. Rigorous analysis was conducted on each option using computer simulation to characterize hourly heating, cooling and electrical load shapes. This information enabled quantification of utility costs and identification of peak loads for on-site equipment sizing and costing purposes. Peak heating and cooling load information allowed assessment of district energy system capacity impacts and quantification of required district system capital expenditures. After thorough engineering analysis of a broad range of options, including on-site gas-fired cooling and thermal energy storage, life-cycle economic analysis pointed to district energy as the most cost-effective source of heating and cooling for the new building. This paper presents details on the engineering analysis and the life-cycle economic analysis and articulates the benefits of conducting a comprehensive simulation-based engineering study.

  2. The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Finck; N. Edelstein; T. Allen; C. Burns; M. Chadwick; M. Corradini; D. Dixon; M. Goff; J. Laidler; K. McCarthy; B. Moyer; K. Nash; A. Navrotsky; P. Oblozinsky; K. Pasamehmetoglu; P. Peterson; J. Sackett; K. E. Sickafus; J. Tulenko; W. Weber; L. Morss; G. Henry

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear

  3. A novel thermomechanical energy conversion cycle Ian M. McKinley, Felix Y. Lee, Laurent Pilon

    E-print Network

    Pilon, Laurent

    . The most widely used method to harvest mechanical energy is piezoelectric energy conversion [3]. It makes power than traditional mechanical cycles using piezoelectric materials. a r t i c l e i n f o Article: Pyroelectric materials Direct energy conversion Waste heat harvesting Ferroelectric materials Olsen cycle

  4. Proceedings of GLOBAL 2013: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference - Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The Global conference is a forum for the discussion of the scientific, technical, social and regulatory aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Relevant topics include global utilization of nuclear energy, current fuel cycle technologies, advanced reactors, advanced fuel cycles, nuclear nonproliferation and public acceptance.

  5. Life cycle analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for road transportation fuels in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyu Yan; Roy J. Crookes

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle analysis is considered to be a valuable tool for decision making towards sustainability. Life cycle energy and environmental impact analysis for conventional transportation fuels and alternatives such as biofuels has become an active domain of research in recent years. The present study attempts to identify the most reliable results to date and possible ranges of life cycle fossil

  6. Exergoeconomic analysis of solar organic rankine cycle for geothermal air conditioned net zero energy buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rambod Rayegan

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt at achieving Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) using a solar Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based on exergetic and economic measures. The working fluid, working conditions of the cycle, cycle configuration, and solar collector type are considered the optimization parameters for the solar ORC system. ^ In the first section, a procedure is developed to compare

  7. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnCO sub 4 systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wentworth

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NHâHSOâ) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, reported herein,

  8. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Wentworth

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have

  9. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Unique Air-Conditioner Desiccant Cycle to Enhance Dehumidification and Save Energy

    E-print Network

    Cromer, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    The Cromer cycle uses a desiccant to move moisture from the saturated air leaving an air conditioning (AC) cooling coil to the air returning to the AC unit from the conditioned space. This has the thermodynamic effect of reducing the overall energy...

  10. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    Managing power consumption and improving energy efficiency is a key driver in the design of computing devices today. This is true for both battery-powered mobile devices as well as mains-powered desktop PCs and servers. In case of mobile devices, the focus of optimization is on energy efficiency to maximize battery lifetime. In case of mains-powered devices, we seek to optimize power consumption to reduce energy costs, thermal and environmental concerns. Traditionally, there are two main mechanisms to improve energy efficiency in systems: slowdown techniques that seek to reduce processor speed or radio power against the rate of work done, and shutdown techniques that seek to shut down specific components or subsystems -- such as processor, radio, memory -- to reduce power used by these components when not in use. The adverse effect of using these techniques is either reduced performance (e.g., increase in latency) and/or usability or loss of functionality. The thesis behind this dissertation is that improved energy efficiency can be achieved through system architectures that seek to design and exploit "collaboration" among heterogeneous but functionally similar subsystems. For instance, multiple radio interfaces with different power/performance characteristics can collaborate to provide an energy-efficient wireless communication subsystem. Furthermore, we show that in systems where such heterogeneity is not naturally present, we can introduce heterogeneous components to improve overall energy efficiency. We show that using collaboration, individual subsystems and even entire platforms can be shut down more aggressively to reduce energy consumption, while reducing adverse impacts on performance or usability. We have used collaboration to do energy efficient operation in several contexts. For battery powered mobile devices we show that wireless radios are the dominant power consumers, and then describe several techniques that use various heterogeneous radios present on these devices in a collaborative manner to improve their battery lifetime substantially, on average by two to three times and in some cases up to 8 times. First we present "Cell2Notify", a technique in which a lower power radio is used purely to wakeup a higher power radio. Next, we present "CoolSpots" and "SwitchR", systems that build a hierarchy of collaborative radios to choose the most appropriate radio interface, taking into account application characteristics as well as various energy and performance metrics. In the case of wall-powered desktop and laptop Personal Computers (PCs) we show that the dominant power consumers are the processors themselves. We then describe "Somniloquy", an architecture that augments a PC with a separate low power secondary processor that can perform some of the functions of the host PC on its behalf. We show that by using the primary processor (i.e. the PC) collaboratively with the secondary processor we can shut down PCs opportunistically, and as a result reduce the overall energy consumption by up to 80% in most cases.

  11. Red waters of Myrionecta rubra are biogeochemical hotspots for the Columbia River estuary with impacts on primary/secondary productions and nutrient cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Prahl, Fredrick G.; McCue, Lee Ann; Needoba, Joe A.; Crump, Byron C.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Campbell, Victoria; Zuber, Peter A.

    2012-02-29

    The localized impact of blooms of the mixotrophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra in the Columbia River estuary during 2007-2010 was evaluated with biogeochemical, light microscopy, physiological and molecular data. M. rubra affected surrounding estuarine nutrient cycles, as indicated by high and low concentrations of organic nutrients and inorganic nitrogen, respectively, associated with red waters. M. rubra blooms also altered the energy transfer pattern in patches of the estuarine water that contain the ciliate by creating areas characterized by high primary production and elevated levels of fresh autochthonous particulate organic matter, therefore shifting the trophic status in emergent red water areas of the estuary from net heterotrophy towards autotrophy. The pelagic estuarine bacterial community structure was unaffected by M. rubra abundance, but red waters of the ciliate do offer a possible link between autotrophic and heterotrophic processes since they were associated with elevated dissolved organic matter and enhanced microbial secondary production. Taken together these findings suggest that M. rubra red waters are biogeochemical hotspots of the Columbia River estuary.

  12. Comparison of energy-based indicators used in life cycle assessment tools for buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, building rating systems focused on, among others, energy used during operational stage. Recently, there is a strong push by these rating systems to include the life cycle energy use of buildings, particularly using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), by offering credits t...

  13. Prognostic Utility of Cell Cycle Progression Score in Men With Prostate Cancer After Primary External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Freedland, Stephen J., E-mail: steve.freedland@duke.edu [Department of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Gerber, Leah [Department of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Surgery (Urology), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Reid, Julia; Welbourn, William; Tikishvili, Eliso; Park, Jimmy; Younus, Adib; Gutin, Alexander; Sangale, Zaina; Lanchbury, Jerry S. [Myriad Genetics, Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Salama, Joseph K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Stone, Steven [Myriad Genetics, Inc, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic utility of the cell cycle progression (CCP) score, a RNA signature based on the average expression level of 31 CCP genes, for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) in men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as their primary curative therapy. Methods and Materials: The CCP score was derived retrospectively from diagnostic biopsy specimens of men diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1991 to 2006 (n=141). All patients were treated with definitive EBRT; approximately half of the cohort was African American. Outcome was time from EBRT to BCR using the Phoenix definition. Median follow-up for patients without BCR was 4.8 years. Association with outcome was evaluated by Cox proportional hazards survival analysis and likelihood ratio tests. Results: Of 141 patients, 19 (13%) had BCR. The median CCP score for patient samples was 0.12. In univariable analysis, CCP score significantly predicted BCR (P=.0017). The hazard ratio for BCR was 2.55 for 1-unit increase in CCP score (equivalent to a doubling of gene expression). In a multivariable analysis that included Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, percent positive cores, and androgen deprivation therapy, the hazard ratio for CCP changed only marginally and remained significant (P=.034), indicating that CCP provides prognostic information that is not provided by standard clinical parameters. With 10-year censoring, the CCP score was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (P=.013). There was no evidence for interaction between CCP and any clinical variable, including ethnicity. Conclusions: Among men treated with EBRT, the CCP score significantly predicted outcome and provided greater prognostic information than was available with clinical parameters. If validated in a larger cohort, CCP score could identify high-risk men undergoing EBRT who may need more aggressive therapy.

  14. Annual cycle energy system experimental performance and national applicability

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    A single-family residence in Knoxville, Tennessee has been used to demonstrate the energy conserving potential of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). For the past two years the performance of the ACES has been compared with that of two different air-to-air heat pumps in an identical house, the control house. The two heat pumps had ARI-rated COPs of 2.46 and 3.11 at 8.3/sup 0/C, representing both standard and best available heat pumps now on the market. Hot water for the control house was supplied by an electric resistance heater each year, while hot water for the ACES house was supplied by the ACES mechanical package. Performance results for the period December 1978 through September 1979 show that the ACES consumed 6719 kWh of electricity for an annual coefficient of performance (ACOP) of 2.80. The control house (with the ARI-2.46 heat pump) consumed 12,853 kWh of electricity, yielding an ACOP of 1.42. For December 1979 through September 15, 1980, the ACES consumed 6447 kWh of electricity for an ACOP of 3.08 while the control house, using the ARI-3.11 heat pump, consumed 11,358 kWh for an ACOP of 1.73. The ACES has achieved nearly all of its theoretical performance predictions and has verified its design criteria. This system has delivered residential heating and cooling services while consuming only 57% as much electricity as the best conventional alternative tested. Computer studies have shown the ACES to be applicable to all US climatic zones except those with very low heating needs.

  15. Nitrogen cycling in an integrated biomass for energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhead, K.K.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate N cycling in three components of an integrated biomass for energy system, i.e. water hyacinth production, anaerobic digestion in hyacinth biomass, and recycling of digester effluent and sludge. Plants assimilated 50 to 90% of added N in hyacinth production systems. Up to 28% of the total plant N was contained in hyacinth detritus. Nitrogen loading as plant detritus into hyacinth ponds was 92 to 148 kg N ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/. Net mineralization of plant organic /sup 15/N during anaerobic digestion was 35 and 70% for water hyacinth plants with low and high N content, respectively. Approximately 20% of the /sup 15/N was recovered in the digested sludge while the remaining /sup 15/N was recovered in the effluent. Water hyacinth growth in digester effluents was affected by electrical conductivity and /sup 15/NH/sub 4//sup +/-N concentration. Addition of water hyacinth biomass to soil resulted in decomposition of 39 to 50% of added C for fresh plant biomass and 19 to 23% of added C for digested biomass sludge. Only 8% of added /sup 15/N in digested sludges was mineralized to /sup 15/NO/sub 3//sup -/-N despite differences in initial N content. In contrast, 3 and 33% of added /sup 15/N in fresh biomass with low and high N content, respectively, was recovered as /sup 15/NO/sub 3//sup -/-N. Total /sup 15/N recovery after anaerobic digestion ranged from 70 to 100% of the initial plant biomass /sup 15/N. Total N recovery by sludge and effluent recycling in the integrated biomass for energy system was 48 to 60% of the initial plant biomass /sup 15/N.

  16. New developments in energy recovery with organic Rankine bottoming cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    Recent new developments in lighter duty, smaller and cheaper turbine-generator sets, lighter duty heat exchangers, synthetic material-based condensers, and increased industrial electrical utility rates have made possible applications of organic Rankine cycles where previously they would not have been attractive. In this paper the authors describe several interesting design feasibility studies on the attractiveness of using organic Rankine bottoming cycles

  17. The effect of primary particle surface energy on agglomeration rate in fluidised bed wet granulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Thielmann; Majid Naderi; Mansoor A. Ansari; Frantisek Stepanek

    2008-01-01

    The effect of primary particle surface wettability by a binder solution on the rate of agglomeration in a fluid-bed top-spray granulation process was investigated. A model system consisting of hydrophilic and hydrophobic spherical primary particles with a narrow size distribution, and an aqueous solution of hydroxy propyl-cellulose (HPC) as binder, was used. The surface energy of the primary particles was

  18. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

  19. Prospects for Nuclear Electric Propulsion Using Closed-Cycle Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Bitteker, L. J.; Jones, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has long been recognized as a major enabling technology for scientific and human exploration of the solar system, and it may conceivably form the basis of a cost-effective space transportation system suitable for space commerce. The chief technical obstacles to realizing this vision are the development of efficient, high-power (megawatt-class) electric thrusters and the development of low specific mass (less than 1 kg/kWe) power plants. Furthermore, comprehensive system analyses of multimegawatt class NEP systems are needed in order to critically assess mission capability and cost attributes. This Technical Publication addresses some of these concerns through a systematic examination of multimegawatt space power installations in which a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is used to drive a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator in a closed-loop Brayton cycle. The primary motivation for considering MHD energy conversion is the ability to transfer energy out of a gas that is simply too hot for contact with any solid material. This has several intrinsic advantages including the ability to achieve high thermal efficiency and power density and the ability to reject heat at elevated temperatures. These attributes lead to a reduction in system specific mass below that obtainable with turbine-based systems, which have definite solid temperature limits for reliable operation. Here, the results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis are placed in context with a preliminary system analysis in order to converge on a design space that optimizes performance while remaining clearly within established bounds of engineering feasibility. MHD technology issues are discussed including the conceptual design of a nonequilibrium disk generator and opportunities for exploiting neutron-induced ionization mechanisms as a means of increasing electrical conductivity and enhancing performance and reliability. The results are then used to make a cursory examination of piloted Mars missions during the 2018 opportunity.

  20. Development and use of the GREET model to estimate fuel-cycle energy use and emissions of various transportation technologies and fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel- cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydrogen, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

  1. Exergoeconomic Analysis of Solar Organic Rankine Cycle for Geothermal Air Conditioned Net Zero Energy Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rambod Rayegan

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt at achieving Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) using a solar Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based on exergetic and economic measures. The working fluid, working conditions of the cycle, cycle configuration, and solar collector type are considered the optimization parameters for the solar ORC system.\\u000aIn the first section, a procedure is developed to compare ORC

  2. Low-temperature thermodynamic bottoming cycles for fusion reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hansborough

    1976-01-01

    Possible application of thermodynamic bottoming cycles to fusion reactors is examined. Thermodynamic and cost data for many possible working fluids are incomplete. Geothermal research is the primary source of fluid data. Bottoming cycles should be fully integrated into the energy conversion system to achieve maximum effectiveness. Scavenging by a bottoming cycle of low-level energy may be possible but not attractive

  3. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste...

  4. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste...

  5. 18 CFR 2.400 - Statement of interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...interpretation of waste concerning natural gas as the primary energy source for...For purposes of deciding whether natural gas may be considered as waste...

  6. High-frequency thermal-electrical cycles for pyroelectric energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Bikram; Damodaran, Anoop R.; Cho, Hanna; Martin, Lane W.; King, William P.

    2014-11-01

    We report thermal to electrical energy conversion from a 150 nm thick BaTiO3 film using pyroelectric cycles at 1 kHz. A microfabricated platform enables temperature and electric field control with temporal resolution near 1 ?s. The rapid electric field changes as high as 11 × 105 kV/cm-s, and temperature change rates as high as 6 × 105 K/s allow exploration of pyroelectric cycles in a previously unexplored operating regime. We investigated the effect of phase difference between electric field and temperature cycles, and electric field and temperature change rates on the electrical energy generated from thermal-electrical cycles based on the pyroelectric Ericsson cycle. Complete thermodynamic cycles are possible up to the highest cycle rates tested here, and the energy density varies significantly with phase shifts between temperature and electric field waveforms. This work could facilitate the design and operation of pyroelectric cycles at high cycle rates, and aid in the design of new pyroelectric systems.

  7. Ambient-RF-Energy-Harvesting Sensor Node with Capacitor-Leakage-Aware Duty Cycle Control

    E-print Network

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Ambient-RF-Energy-Harvesting Sensor Node with Capacitor-Leakage-Aware Duty Cycle Control Ryo (WSN) that are solely powered by ambient RF power. Different from all other energy harvesting WSN for an energy storage in the energy harvesting system because of its efficient charge and discharge performance

  8. Life cycle energy and environmental benefits of generating electricity from willow biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Heller; Gregory A Keoleian; Margaret K. Mann; Timothy A. Volk

    2004-01-01

    Biomass is a key renewable energy source expected to play an important role in US electricity production under stricter emission regulations and renewable portfolio standards. Willow energy crops are being developed in the northeast US as a fuel source for increasing biomass energy and bioproduct demands. A life cycle inventory is presented that characterizes the full cradle-to-grave energy and environmental

  9. Cycle-accurate energy consumption measurement and analysis: case study of ARM7TDMI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naehyuck Chang; Kwanho Kim; Hyung Gyu Lee

    2000-01-01

    We introduce an energy consumption analysis of complex digital systems through a case study of ARM7TDMI RISC processor by using a new energy measurement technique. We developed a cycle-accurate energy consumption measurement system based on charge transfer which is robust to spiky noise and is capable of collecting a range of power consumption profiles in real time. The relative energy

  10. NASA Contributions to Improve Understanding of Extreme Events in the Global Energy and Water Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) has established the water cycle goals of the Nation's climate change program. Accomplishing these goals will require, in part, an accurate accounting of the key reservoirs and fluxes associated with the global water and energy cycle, including their spatial and temporal variability. through integration of all necessary observations and research tools, To this end, in conjunction with NASA's Earth science research strategy, the overarching long-term NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) grand challenge can he summarized as documenting and enabling improved, observationally based, predictions of water and energy cycle consequences of Earth system variability and change. This challenge requires documenting and predicting trends in the rate of the Earth's water and energy cycling that corresponds to climate change and changes in the frequency and intensity of naturally occurring related meteorological and hydrologic events, which may vary as climate may vary in the future. The cycling of water and energy has obvious and significant implications for the health and prosperity of our society. The importance of documenting and predicting water and energy cycle variations and extremes is necessary to accomplish this benefit to society.

  11. Accelerating energy release prior to large events in simulated earthquake cycles: implications for earthquake forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mora

    Long earthquake sequences are generated using the 2D physically based lattice solid numerical model in a system representing an evolving fracture zone of the Earth's crust subjected to shear. Cycles of seismic activity are observed in which the rate of seismic energy release of simulated earthquakes accelerates in the lead-up to the largest events. During a cycle, the cumulative number

  12. Promoting Knowledge Creation Discourse in an Asian Primary Five Classroom: Results from an inquiry into life cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan van Aalst; Mya Sioux Truong

    2011-01-01

    The phrase ‘knowledge creation’ refers to the practices by which a community advances its collective knowledge. Experience with a model of knowledge creation could help students to learn about the nature of science. This research examined how much progress a teacher and 16 Primary Five (Grade 4) students in the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme could make towards the discourse

  13. Promoting Knowledge Creation Discourse in an Asian Primary Five Classroom: Results from an Inquiry into Life Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aalst, Jan; Truong, Mya Sioux

    2011-01-01

    The phrase "knowledge creation" refers to the practices by which a community advances its collective knowledge. Experience with a model of knowledge creation could help students to learn about the nature of science. This research examined how much progress a teacher and 16 Primary Five (Grade 4) students in the International Baccalaureate Primary…

  14. Evaluating energy dissipation during expansion in a refrigeration cycle using flue pipe acoustic resonators

    E-print Network

    Luckyanova, Maria N. (Maria Nickolayevna)

    2008-01-01

    This research evaluates the feasibility of using a flue pipe acoustic resonator to dissipate energy from a refrigerant stream in order to achieve greater cooling power from a cryorefrigeration cycle. Two models of the ...

  15. Life cycle assessment of electrical and thermal energy systems for commercial buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayat Osman; Robert Ries

    2007-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope  The objective of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to develop LCA models for energy systems in order to assess the\\u000a potential environmental impacts that might result from meeting energy demands in buildings. The scope of the study includes\\u000a LCA models of the average electricity generation mix in the USA, a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC)

  16. Low-grade geothermal energy conversion by organic Rankine cycle turbine generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Zarling; J. D. Aspnes

    1983-01-01

    Results of a demonstration project which helped determine the feasibility of converting low-grade thermal energy in 49 C water into electrical energy via an organic Rankine cycle 2500 watt (electrical) turbine-generator are presented. The geothermal source which supplied the water is located in a rural Alaskan village. The reasons an organic Rankine cycle turbine-generator was investigated as a possible source

  17. Electron showers of high primary energy in lead.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, D.

    1972-01-01

    The development of electron cascade showers in a lead-scintillator sandwich of 8 plastic scintillators in about 20 radiation lengths of lead has been investigated. This detector, which was used for cosmic-ray studies, has been calibrated with electrons with energies from 2 to 15 GeV at SLAC. Measured shower profiles are presented, and expressions are given which allow an extrapolation of the measured data up to energies around 1000 GeV. The results are compared with analytical shower theories and Monte Carlo calculations.

  18. Optimal cycling time trial position models: aerodynamics versus power output and metabolic energy.

    PubMed

    Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X

    2014-06-01

    The aerodynamic drag of a cyclist in time trial (TT) position is strongly influenced by the torso angle. While decreasing the torso angle reduces the drag, it limits the physiological functioning of the cyclist. Therefore the aims of this study were to predict the optimal TT cycling position as function of the cycling speed and to determine at which speed the aerodynamic power losses start to dominate. Two models were developed to determine the optimal torso angle: a 'Metabolic Energy Model' and a 'Power Output Model'. The Metabolic Energy Model minimised the required cycling energy expenditure, while the Power Output Model maximised the cyclists? power output. The input parameters were experimentally collected from 19 TT cyclists at different torso angle positions (0-24°). The results showed that for both models, the optimal torso angle depends strongly on the cycling speed, with decreasing torso angles at increasing speeds. The aerodynamic losses outweigh the power losses at cycling speeds above 46km/h. However, a fully horizontal torso is not optimal. For speeds below 30km/h, it is beneficial to ride in a more upright TT position. The two model outputs were not completely similar, due to the different model approaches. The Metabolic Energy Model could be applied for endurance events, while the Power Output Model is more suitable in sprinting or in variable conditions (wind, undulating course, etc.). It is suggested that despite some limitations, the models give valuable information about improving the cycling performance by optimising the TT cycling position. PMID:24726654

  19. Energy and CO 2 life-cycle analyses of wind turbines—review and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Lenzen; Jesper Munksgaard

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the structure and technology of most modern wind turbines differs little over a wide range of power ratings, results from existing life-cycle assessments of their energy and CO2 intensity show considerable variations. While the range of energy intensities reflects economies of scale, their scatter is due to discrepancies in the energy contents of materials and the

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of five compressed-air energy-storage cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Fort

    1983-01-01

    One important aspect of the compressed air energy storage (CAES) program is the evaluation of alternative CAES plant designs. The thermodynamic performance of the various configurations is critical to the successful demonstration of CAES as an economically feasible energy storage option. A computer code, the compressed air energy storage cycle analysis program (CAESCAP), was developed. This code was designed to

  1. The industrial life cycle of wind energy electrical power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Dismukes; Lawrence K. Miller; John A. Bers

    2009-01-01

    This innovation assessment addresses the factors that have influenced the exceptionally lengthy industrial technology life cycle of wind electrical power generation since its inception in the late 19th Century. It then applies the recently developed Accelerated Radical Innovation (ARI) Model to understand the dynamics of this innovation compared to those of other major 18th–20th Century innovations.Despite market pull in the

  2. Different Sun-Earth energy coupling between different solar cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    Geoeffect of the extremely low solar (sunspot) activity starting from the last solar minimum is one of major space science issues. This study compared responses of global geomagnetic indices Dst, Kp, and AL to the same solar wind conditions (density, velocity, magnetic field and their products) between the recent decade (2005-2014) and each of the previous four decades (1965-1974, 1975-1984, 1985-1994, 1995-2004) using the NASA OMNI hourly values up to August 2014. It is found that geomagnetic activity for a given solar wind condition, namely the Sun-Earth coupling efficiency, during the last 10 years (from after the declining phase of cycle #23 to the maximum of cycle #24) is quantitatively lower than those during the previous four decades (each decade approximately corresponds to cycles #20--23, respectively). The low Sun-Earth coupling efficiency became obvious from around 2006 and continued until now with a sharp peak at 2009. The speciality after 2006 is more obvious in Dst than in AL. Acknowledgement: Dst, Kp, AL, and sunspot numbers (RI) are official IAGA and IAA endorsed indices that are provided by World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto University, Japan (Dst and AL), GFZ, Adolf-Schmidt-Observatory Niemegk, Germany (Kp), and the Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels (RI). Including these indices, all data in hourly values are obtained from NASA-GSFC/SPDF through OMNIWeb (http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/ow.html).

  3. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gaines; A. Burnham; A. Rousseau; D. Santini

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to 2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel

  4. Fast-cycling superconducting synchrotrons and possible path to the future of US experimental high-energy particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, Henryk; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    The authors outline primary physics motivation, present proposed new arrangement for Fermilab accelerator complex, and then discuss possible long-range application of fast-cycling superconducting synchrotrons at Fermilab.

  5. Primary beam energy dependence of properties in ion beam sputtered spin-valve films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hari Hegde; Jinsong Wang; Alan Hayes; Viktor Kanarov; R. Yevtukov; Adrian J. Devasahayam; Richard J. Gambino; Ming Mao; Mark Miller

    1999-01-01

    Spin-valve films with the structure Ta\\/NiFe\\/FeCo\\/Cu(18-30 Å)\\/FeCo\\/FeMn-70 Å\\/Ta were deposited using a Veeco ion beam deposition (IBD) system, model IBD-350. The physical properties of these spin-valve films as a function of primary ion beam energy have been studied in a primary ion beam energy range of 600-1500 eV. Xe was used as the working gas. The optimal ion beam energy

  6. Applying sustainable technology for saving primary energy in the brewhouse during beer brewing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronnie G. Willaert; Gino V. Baron

    2004-01-01

    Wort boiling is the most energy intensive stage in the brewing process. For this reason considerable attention has been given to improve the efficiency of wort boiling systems. Alternative wort boiling technologies, such as low pressure boiling and high temperature wort boiling, have been studied in detail during the last decades, with a focus on the reduction of primary energy

  7. Gentle STEM: ADF imaging and EELS at low primary energies$ Ondrej L. Krivanek a,n

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Gentle STEM: ADF imaging and EELS at low primary energies$ Ondrej L. Krivanek a,n , Niklas Dellby, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH, UK a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: STEM ADF EELS Aberration correction (STEM) has made it possible to reach probe sizes close to 1 °A at 60 keV, an operating energy

  8. Assessments of primary energy consumption and its environmental consequences in the United Arab Emirates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayoub M. Kazim

    2007-01-01

    Since its independence in 1971, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) took a giant leap toward achieving a high economic growth and urbanization. Consequently, primary energy consumption namely oil and natural gas has quadrupled in the past two decades such that energy consumption per capita was the highest in the world and the resulting carbon emission per capita was at least

  9. The size of antimatter bodies and the primary very high energy cosmic ray flux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Wayland

    1970-01-01

    The consequences of antimatter bodies on the very high energy primary cosmic ray flux are considered. The effects of various models of cosmic ray origin and properties of astrophysical parameters are discussed. A simple expression for the production of antiprotons inN-N collisions as a function of energy of the incident proton is obtained by utilizing characteristics of particles produced in

  10. The Size of Antimatter Bodies and the Primary Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Flux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Wayland

    1970-01-01

    The consequences of antimatter bodies on the very high energy primary cosmic ray flux are considered. The effects of various models of cosmic ray origin and properties of astrophysical parameters are discussed. A simple expression for the production of antiprotons inN-N collisions as a function of energy of the incident proton is obtained by utilizing characteristics of particles produced in

  11. The U.S. Department of Energy`s integrated gasification combined cycle research, development and demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Brdar, R.D.; Cicero, D.C.

    1996-07-01

    Historically, coal has played a major role as a fuel source for power generation both domestically and abroad. Despite increasingly stringent environmental constraints and affordable natural gas, coal will remain one of the primary fuels for producing electricity. This is due to its abundance throughout the world, low price, ease of transport an export, decreasing capital cost for coal-based systems, and the need to maintain fuel diversity. Recognizing the role coal will continue to play, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is working in partnership with industry to develop ways to use this abundant fuel resource in a manner that is more economical, more efficient and environmentally superior to conventional means to burn coal. The most promising of these technologies is integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. Although IGCC systems offer many advantages, there are still several hurdles that must be overcome before the technology achieves widespread commercial acceptance. The major hurdles to commercialization include reducing capital and operating costs, reducing technical risk, demonstrating environmental and technical performance at commercial scale, and demonstrating system reliability and operability. Overcoming these hurdles, as well as continued progress in improving system efficiency, are the goals of the DOE IGCC research, development and demonstrate (RD and D) program. This paper provides an overview of this integrated RD and D program and describes fundamental areas of technology development, key research projects and their related demonstration scale activities.

  12. Life cycle inventory energy consumption and emissions for biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fueled construction vehicles.

    PubMed

    Pang, Shih-Hao; Frey, H Christopher; Rasdorf, William J

    2009-08-15

    Substitution of soy-based biodiesel fuels for petroleum diesel will alter life cycle emissions for construction vehicles. A life cycle inventory was used to estimate fuel cycle energy consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases. Real-world measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were made forfive backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders on both fuels from which fuel consumption and tailpipe emission factors of CO, HC, NO(x), and PM were estimated. Life cycle fossil energy reductions are estimated it 9% for B20 and 42% for B100 versus petroleum diesel based on the current national energy mix. Fuel cycle emissions will contribute a larger share of total life cycle emissions as new engines enter the in-use fleet. The average differences in life cycle emissions for B20 versus diesel are: 3.5% higher for NO(x); 11.8% lower for PM, 1.6% higher for HC, and 4.1% lower for CO. Local urban tailpipe emissions are estimated to be 24% lower for HC, 20% lower for CO, 17% lower for PM, and 0.9% lower for NO(x). Thus, there are environmental trade-offs such as for rural vs urban areas. The key sources of uncertainty in the B20 LCI are vehicle emission factors. PMID:19746743

  13. Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.J.; He, J.; Gaines, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Transportation Research; Patterson, P. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Transportation Technologies

    1997-09-17

    Argonne National Laboratory has begun an analysis of the energy and air emission impacts of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) over the entire energy cycle, including manufacturing, operating, and recycling the vehicles and producing their fuel. Phase 1 evaluates series HEVs using lead acid and nickel metal hydride batteries, operating independent of the electricity grid and connected to it, and compares them to conventional ICE vehicles. With efficient electric components, both grid-dependent and grid-independent vehicles are more efficient than their conventional counterpart, though most of the efficiency advantage is gained in slow, lower power operation (e.g., on the federal urban driving schedule). The grid-independent HEV is not clearly superior if it operates part of each day with grid electricity. Finally, estimates of lead emissions for the lead acid battery-powered HEV are significantly lower than suggested elsewhere.

  14. Generation of available potential energy and the energy cycle during the global weather experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, D. A.; Rosen, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two parallel sets of analyses, which in one case included and in the other omitted data observed by satellite based and other FGGE special observing systems are examined. The results of our previous work is extended in two separate, but not unrelated, ways. First, from these two parallel analyses, which are labeled FGGE (full FGGE system) and NOSAT (satellite omitted), it was discovered that the two sets of fields were quite close over much of the globe. Locally the influence of satellite based systems led to some differences, particularly over the Southern Hemisphere Oceans. The diabatic heating fields generated by the GLA FGGE analysis was also examined. From these fields, one can ascertain the role of total diabatic heating and of the various diabatic heating components in the atmospheric energy cycle, in particular in the generation of available potential energy.

  15. Possible composition of the primary particles at ultrahigh energies observed at the Yakutsk array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Fedorova, G. F.; Roganova, T. M.; Glushkov, A. V.; Knurenko, S. P.; Makarov, A. K.; Makarov, L. T.; Pravdin, M. I.; Sabourov, A. A.; Sleptsov, I. Ye

    2013-02-01

    The composition of the primary cosmic radiation should be studied by various alternative approaches. A promising way is to exploit a dependence of the fraction of muons in an extensive air shower on the atomic number of the primary nuclei. A comparison of the fraction of muons at 600 m from the shower axis observed at the Yakutsk array in the vertical air showers at ultra-high energies with results of simulations in terms of QGSJET-II and Gheisha-2002d models carried out with the help of the CORSIKA 6.616 and GEANT4 codes showed rather heavy composition of the primary radiation. But some errors in these models should be taken into account. At last, one has to allow for the fact that signals in the surface and underground scintillation detectors of the Yakutsk array from various particles of extensive air showers are measured in different units. All these corrections taken together show the proton composition of the primary radiation in the energy region of ~2.·1018 - 1019 eV. At lower energies a composition is heavier. The change from the heavy composition to the primary protons occurs in the energy interval of 9.·1017 - 2.·1018 eV. It is not excluded that at energies above 1.1·1019 eV the composition may be also heavier as illustrated by a trend of data.

  16. Energy from CO2 using capacitive electrodes - a model for energy extraction cycles.

    PubMed

    Paz-Garcia, J M; Dykstra, J E; Biesheuvel, P M; Hamelers, H V M

    2015-03-15

    A model is presented for the process of harvesting electrical energy from CO2 emissions using capacitive cells. The principle consists of controlling the mixing process of a concentrated CO2 gas stream with a dilute CO2 gas stream (as, for example, exhaust gas and air), thereby converting part of the released mixing energy into electrical energy. The model describes the transient reactive transport of CO2 gas absorbed in water or in monoethanolamine (MEA) solutions, under the assumption of local chemical equilibrium. The model combines the selective transport of ions through ion-exchange membranes, the accumulation of charge in the porous carbon electrodes and the coupling between the ionic current and the produced electrical current and power. We demonstrate that the model can be used to calculate the energy that can be extracted by mixing concentrated and dilute CO2 containing gas streams. Our calculation results for the process using MEA solutions have various counterintuitive features, including: 1. When dynamic equilibrium is reached in the cyclical process, the electrical charge in the anode is negative both during charging and discharging; 2. Placing an anion-exchange membrane (AEM) in the system is not required, the energy per cycle is just as large with or without an AEM. PMID:25525977

  17. Body Parts, the Water Cycle, Plants, and DolphinsAdventures in Primary-Grade Whole-Class Composing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Bolden

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences leading primary grades in whole-class composing. Together they created songs inspired by topics the students were exploring in their homeroom classes. The author systematically describes the songwriting process they employed, identifying specific challenges encountered along the way. The first task was to identify a topic, then to create a song text. Next they

  18. Energy release properties of amorphous boron and boron-based propellant primary combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong; Xiao, Jinwu; Xi, Jianfei; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhou, Junhu

    2015-07-01

    The microstructure of amorphous boron and the primary combustion products of boron-based fuel-rich propellant (hereafter referred to as primary combustion products) was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. Composition analysis of the primary combustion products was carried out by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy release properties of amorphous boron and the primary combustion products were comparatively studied by laser ignition experimental system and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry. The primary combustion products contain B, C, Mg, Al, B4C, B13C2, BN, B2O3, NH4Cl, H2O, and so on. The energy release properties of primary combustion products are different from amorphous boron, significantly. The full-time spectral intensity of primary combustion products at a wavelength of 580 nm is ~2% lower than that of amorphous boron. The maximum spectral intensity of the former at full wave is ~5% higher than that of the latter. The ignition delay time of primary combustion products is ~150 ms shorter than that of amorphous boron, and the self-sustaining combustion time of the former is ~200 ms longer than that of the latter. The thermal oxidation process of amorphous boron involves water evaporation (weight loss) and boron oxidation (weight gain). The thermal oxidation process of primary combustion products involves two additional steps: NH4Cl decomposition (weight loss) and carbon oxidation (weight loss). CL-20 shows better combustion-supporting effect than KClO4 in both the laser ignition experiments and the thermal oxidation experiments.

  19. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  20. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano [Politecnico di Milano - DIIAR, Environmental Section, P.zza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Grosso, Mario, E-mail: mario.grosso@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano - DIIAR, Environmental Section, P.zza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rigamonti, Lucia [Politecnico di Milano - DIIAR, Environmental Section, P.zza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the assessment of the environmental performance of any integrated waste management scheme address the importance of properly defining, beyond the design value assumed for the separate collection as a whole, also the yields of each material recovered; particular significance is finally related to the amount of residues deriving from material recovery activities, resulting on average in the order of 20% of the collected materials.

  1. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the assessment of the environmental performance of any integrated waste management scheme address the importance of properly defining, beyond the design value assumed for the separate collection as a whole, also the yields of each material recovered; particular significance is finally related to the amount of residues deriving from material recovery activities, resulting on average in the order of 20% of the collected materials. PMID:21482096

  2. Muscle as the primary site of urea cycle enzyme activity in an alkaline lake-adapted tilapia, Oreochromis alcalicus grahami.

    PubMed

    Lindley, T E; Scheiderer, C L; Walsh, P J; Wood, C M; Bergman, H L; Bergman, A L; Laurent, P; Wilson, P; Anderson, P M

    1999-10-15

    The tilapia fish Oreochromis alcalicus grahami from Kenya has adapted to living in waters at pH 10.5 by excreting the end product of nitrogen metabolism as urea rather than as ammonia directly across the gills as occurs in most fish. The level of activity in liver of the first enzyme in the urea cycle pathway, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase III (CPSase III), is too low to account for the observed high rates of urea excretion. We report here the surprising finding that CPSase III and all other urea cycle enzyme activities are present in muscle of this species at levels more than sufficient to account for the rate of urea excretion; in addition, the basic kinetic properties of the CPSase III appear to be different from those of other known type III CPSases. The sequence of the CPSase III cDNA is reported as well as the finding that glutamine synthetase activity is present in liver but not in muscle. This unusual form of adaptation may have occurred because of the apparent impossibility of packaging the needed amount of urea cycle enzymes in liver. PMID:10514466

  3. Reducing energy penalties in carbon capture with Organic Rankine Cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis M. Romeo; Yolanda Lara; Ana González

    2011-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage are considered one of the most promising technologies to reduce emissions in a midterm. Its main drawback is the energy penalty caused by the CO2 separation and compression processes. It increases the CO2 avoided cost and it is an important driving force to propose new and improved capture methods with lower energy requirements. In the case

  4. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.

  5. Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. Liska; Haishun S. Yang; Virgil R. Bremer; Terry J. Klopfenstein; Daniel T. Walters; Galen E. Erickson; Kenneth G. Cassman

    2009-01-01

    SummaryCorn-ethanol production is expanding rapidly with the adoption of improved technologies to increase energy efficiency and profitability in crop production, ethanol conversion, and coproduct use. Life cycle assessment can evaluate the impact of these changes on environmental performance metrics. To this end, we analyzed the life cycles of corn-ethanol systems accounting for the majority of U.S. capacity to estimate greenhouse

  6. Modeling Energy Recovery Using Thermoelectric Conversion Integrated with an Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik W. Miller; Terry J. Hendricks; Richard B. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Engine and industrial waste heat are sources of high-grade thermal energy that can potentially be utilized. This paper describes\\u000a a model system that employs thermoelectric conversion as a topping cycle integrated with an organic Rankine bottoming cycle.\\u000a The model has many parameters that define combined system quantities such as overall output power and conversion efficiency.\\u000a The model can identify the

  7. Comparative energy and exergy analysis of R744, R404A and R290 refrigeration cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Shilliday; S. A. Tassou; N. Shilliday

    2009-01-01

    A detailed energy and exergy analysis of the low global warming potential refrigerants R744 and R290 was preformed and compared against the commercial refrigerant R404A in a single-stage vapour compression cycle and R744 in a two-stage vapour compression cycle with an internal heat exchanger. Copyright The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  8. Energy pathway analysis—a hydrogen fuel cycle framework for system studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Badin; S. Tagore

    1997-01-01

    An analytical framework has been developed that can be used to estimate a range of life-cycle costs and impacts that result from the incremental production, storage, transport, and use of different fuels or energy carriers, such as hydrogen, electricity, natural gas, and gasoline. This information is used in a comparative analysis of energy pathways. The pathways provide the U.S. Department

  9. Unconventional working fluids in organic Rankine-cycles for waste energy recovery systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Maizza; A. Maizza

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the thermodynamic and physical properties of some unconventional fluids for use in organic Rankine-cycles supplied by waste energy sources. Energy requirement and recovery system performances are analyzed using realistic design operating conditions. Thermodynamic efficiencies and other useful results have been calculated by varying some recovery system operating parameters at various reference temperatures. With reference to proposed application,

  10. Forecasting the primary energy demand in Turkey and analysis of cyclic patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volkan ?. Ediger; Hüseyin Tatl?dil

    2002-01-01

    The planning and estimation of future energy demand via modern statistical methods have been officially used in Turkey since 1984. However, almost all previous forecasts proved significantly higher than actual observations because of several reasons discussed here. The cycle analysis, which is a semi-statistical technique that makes use of any cyclicity in the historical data of annual additional amounts of

  11. Energy life-cycle analysis modeling and decision support tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.; White, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    As one of DOE`s five multi-program national laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) develops and deploys technology for national missions in energy and the environment. The Energy Information Systems Group, within the Laboratory`s Computer Sciences Department, focuses on the development of the computational and data communications infrastructure and automated tools for the Transmission and Distribution energy sector and for advanced process engineering applications. The energy industry is being forced to operate in new ways and under new constraints. It is in a reactive mode, reacting to policies and politics, and to economics and environmental pressures. The transmission and distribution sectors are being forced to find new ways to maximize the use of their existing infrastructure, increase energy efficiency, and minimize environmental impacts, while continuing to meet the demands of an ever increasing population. The creation of a sustainable energy future will be a challenge for both the soft and hard sciences. It will require that we as creators of our future be bold in the way we think about our energy future and aggressive in its development. The development of tools to help bring about a sustainable future will not be simple either. The development of ELCAM, for example, represents a stretch for the computational sciences as well as for each of the domain sciences such as economics, which will have to be team members.

  12. Characterization of the Water and Energy Cycles in the Agro-Pastoral Sahel from 1950 to 2010, in a Context of Climate and Land-Use Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Manuela, G.; Sultan, B.; Kergoat, L.; Vischel, T.; Velluet, C.

    2014-12-01

    The water cycle and ecosystem productivity in the Sahel are tightly linked. Combined with land-use changes, modifications in the rainfall regime and climate can have important consequences on local livelihoods, as illustrated by the devastating droughts in the 1980s. Primary production, but also atmosphere dynamics and aquifer recharge, strongly depend on surface-atmosphere interactions. Although the processes underpinning the water and energy cycles at the surface-atmosphere level are starting to be understood, little is known about how they could have evolved in the past 60 years. This study analyses changes in the water and energy cycles for two major ecosystems (millet and fallow) found in the agro-pastoral Sahel from 1950 to 2010, in a context of strong climate and land-use change. Estimations were undertaken using a process-based Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model (SiSPAT) capable of representing the main surface-atmosphere interactions taking place in the Sahel. Vegetation characteristics were simulated through coupling with vegetation models (STEP and SARRAH) and in-situ data representative of the various ecosystem types. Changes in the rainfall regime induced modifications of the water cycle, both at annual and seasonal time-scales. Different productivities and water seasonal cycles for the millet and fallow systems were evidenced, in accordance with previous studies. When combined with land-use changes, this induced large variations in the water and energy cycles at the landscape scale. These modifications could have important feedback effects on local climate, which are currently not taken into account in Earth System Models. Future work should also focus on understanding the impact of other drivers of change, such as decreasing soil fertility and increased grazing pressure, on ecosystem productivity and the resulting effects on the water and energy cycles in the Sahel.

  13. High-energy sub-cycle optical waveform synthesizer

    E-print Network

    Huang, Shu-Wei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, the control of atomic-scale electronic motion by optical fields strong enough to mitigate the atomic Coulomb potential, has broken tremendous new ground with the advent of phase controlled high-energy ...

  14. Appliance remanufacturing and life cycle energy and economic savings

    E-print Network

    Boustani, Avid

    In this paper we evaluate the energy and economic consequences of appliance remanufacturing relative to purchasing new. The appliances presented in this report constitute major residential appliances: refrigerator, dishwasher, ...

  15. Cycle Evaluations of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Solar Thermochemical Energy Storage in Support of Concentrating Solar Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Shankar; Palo, Daniel R.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2010-07-25

    The production and storage of thermochemical energy is a possible route to increase capacity factors and reduce the Levelized Cost of Electricity from concentrated solar power generation systems. In this paper, we present the results of cycle evaluations for various thermochemical cycles, including a well-documented ammonia closed-cycle along with open- and closed-cycle versions of hydrocarbon chemical reactions. Among the available reversible hydrocarbon chemical reactions, catalytic reforming-methanation cycles are considered; specifically, various methane-steam reforming cycles are compared to the ammonia cycle. In some cases, the production of an intermediate chemical, methanol, is also included with some benefit being realized. The best case, based on overall power generation efficiency and overall plant capacity factor, was found to be an open cycle including methane-steam reforming, using concentrated solar energy to increase the chemical energy content of the reacting stream, followed by combustion to generate heat for the heat engine.

  16. Recovered Energy Generation Using an Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Leslie; Richard Sweetser; Ohad Zimron; Therese K Stovall

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a project demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of capturing thermal energy from a 35,000 hp (27 MW) gas turbine driving a natural gas pipeline compressor with a Recovered Energy Generation (REG) system to produce 5.5 MW of electricity with no additional fuel and near-zero emissions. The REG is based on a modified Organic

  17. Oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest are induced in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells exposed to fine particulate matter from cooking oil fumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Yan-Yan; Cao, Ji-Yu; Tao, Fang-Biao; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Chen, Dao-Jun; Che, Zhen; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Wen, Long-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate a linkage between morbidity and mortality and particulate matter (PM), particularly fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that can readily penetrate into the lungs and are therefore more likely to increase the incidence of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the compositions of cooking oil fume (COF)-derived PM2.5, which is the major source of indoor pollution in China. Furthermore, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest induced by COF-derived PM2.5 in primary fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells (AEC II cells) were also detected. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a radical scavenger, was used to identify the role of oxidative stress in the abovementioned processes. Our results suggested that compositions of COF-derived PM2.5 are obviously different to PM2.5 derived from other sources, and COF-derived PM2.5 led to cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and G0/G1 cell arrest in primary fetal AEC II cells. Furthermore, the results also showed that COF-derived PM2.5 induced apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway, which is indicated by the increased expression of ER stress-related apoptotic markers, namely GRP78 and caspase-12. Besides, the induction of oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest was reversed by pretreatment with NAC. These findings strongly suggested that COF-derived PM2.5-induced toxicity in primary fetal AEC II cells is mediated by increased oxidative stress, accompanied by ER stress which results in apoptosis. PMID:25634364

  18. Energy harvesting based on Ericsson pyroelectric cycles in a relaxor ferroelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebald, Gael; Pruvost, Sebastien; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    This work deals with energy harvesting from temperature variations. It is shown here that direct pyroelectric energy harvesting (connecting an adapted resistance, for example) is not effective, whereas Ericsson-based cycles give energy 100 times higher. The principle and experimental validation of the Ericsson cycle are shown with the example of 0.90Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.10PbTiO3 ceramic. Harvested energy reached 186 mJ cm-3 for 50 °C temperature variation and electric field cycle of 3.5 kV mm-1. A correlation between the electrocaloric effect and pyroelectric energy harvesting is then shown. Harvested electric energy with Ericsson cycles can be simply expressed as electrocaloric heat multiplied by Carnot efficiency. Several examples are then given from materials with the highest known electrocaloric effect. This leads to energies of hundreds of mJ cm-3 for a limited 10 °C temperature variation. Compared to Carnot's efficiency, this is much higher than the best thermoelectric materials based on the Seebeck effect.

  19. Evaluation of the effective energy of primary and transmmitted workload weighted X-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. C.; Costa, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Current methods for X-ray shielding evaluation for imaging facilities do not take into account the effective energy of the radiation impinging on primary barrier. In addition, the X-ray beam attenuation through the patient is not considered in radiation shielding. The proposed models do not deal with the hardening of the spectra between the primary and transmitted beams. Therefore, the present work proposes the evaluation of X-ray spectra transmitted by an adult patient (anthropomorphic phantom) and a shielding barrier weighted by typical workload distributions. A set of primary spectra produced by a voltage range from 60 to 140 kV was measured with a CdTe spectrometer system. A second set of X-ray spectra transmitted through a 15 mm thickness barite mortar plate was also measured employing the same beam quality and voltage range. The air-kerma was simultaneously measured using an ionization chamber. The primary and transmitted experimental X-ray spectra were weighted by a typical chest examination workload distribution. The resulting weighted spectra represent the superposition of the radiation beams typically used in chest examinations. The effective energy of primary weighted spectra was estimated in 42.4 keV and the effective energy of the corresponding transmitted spectra was estimated in 64.7 keV.

  20. From Cycling Between Coupled Reactions to the Cross-Bridge Cycle: Mechanical Power Output as an Integral Part of Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Diederichs, Frank

    2012-01-01

    ATP delivery and its usage are achieved by cycling of respective intermediates through interconnected coupled reactions. At steady state, cycling between coupled reactions always occurs at zero resistance of the whole cycle without dissipation of free energy. The cross-bridge cycle can also be described by a system of coupled reactions: one energising reaction, which energises myosin heads by coupled ATP splitting, and one de-energising reaction, which transduces free energy from myosin heads to coupled actin movement. The whole cycle of myosin heads via cross-bridge formation and dissociation proceeds at zero resistance. Dissipation of free energy from coupled reactions occurs whenever the input potential overcomes the counteracting output potential. In addition, dissipation is produced by uncoupling. This is brought about by a load dependent shortening of the cross-bridge stroke to zero, which allows isometric force generation without mechanical power output. The occurrence of maximal efficiency is caused by uncoupling. Under coupled conditions, Hill’s equation (velocity as a function of load) is fulfilled. In addition, force and shortening velocity both depend on [Ca2+]. Muscular fatigue is triggered when ATP consumption overcomes ATP delivery. As a result, the substrate of the cycle, [MgATP2?], is reduced. This leads to a switch off of cycling and ATP consumption, so that a recovery of [ATP] is possible. In this way a potentially harmful, persistent low energy state of the cell can be avoided. PMID:24957757

  1. Experimental Energy Balance During the First Cycles of Cyclically Loaded Specimens Under the Conventional Yield Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Connesson; F. Maquin; F. Pierron

    2011-01-01

    This paper, as an extension of Maquin and Pierron (Mech Mater 41(8):928–942, 2009), presents an experimental procedure developed to macroscopically estimate the energy balance during the very first cycles\\u000a of a uniaxially loaded metallic specimen at low stress levels. This energy balance is performed by simultaneously measuring\\u000a the plastic input energy using a load cell and a strain gauge, and

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of five compressed-air energy-storage cycles. [Using CAESCAP computer code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fort

    1983-01-01

    One important aspect of the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage (CAES) Program is the evaluation of alternative CAES plant designs. The thermodynamic performance of the various configurations is particularly critical to the successful demonstration of CAES as an economically feasible energy-storage option. A computer code, the Compressed-Air Energy-Storage Cycle-Analysis Program (CAESCAP), was developed in 1982 at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This code was

  3. Iron oxide-decorated carbon for supercapacitor anodes with ultrahigh energy density and outstanding cycling stability.

    PubMed

    Guan, Cao; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Yadong; Mao, Lu; Fan, Zhanxi; Shen, Zexiang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, John

    2015-05-26

    Supercapacitor with ultrahigh energy density (e.g., comparable with those of rechargeable batteries) and long cycling ability (>50000 cycles) is attractive for the next-generation energy storage devices. The energy density of carbonaceous material electrodes can be effectively improved by combining with certain metal oxides/hydroxides, but many at the expenses of power density and long-time cycling stability. To achieve an optimized overall electrochemical performance, rationally designed electrode structures with proper control in metal oxide/carbon are highly desirable. Here we have successfully realized an ultrahigh-energy and long-life supercapacitor anode by developing a hierarchical graphite foam-carbon nanotube framework and coating the surface with a thin layer of iron oxide (GF-CNT@Fe2O3). The full cell of anode based on this structure gives rise to a high energy of ?74.7 Wh/kg at a power of ?1400 W/kg, and ?95.4% of the capacitance can be retained after 50000 cycles of charge-discharge. These performance features are superior among those reported for metal oxide based supercapacitors, making it a promising candidate for the next generation of high-performance electrochemical energy storage. PMID:25868870

  4. Reducing Life Cycle Cost By Energy Saving in Pump Systems 

    E-print Network

    Bower, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    Pumps consume about 15% of all electricity generated world wide. In the USA alone this accounts for over 130TWh per annum. A saving of only 1% would amount to $80 million in electricity cost. The importance of energy saving, in pump systems...

  5. Reducing Life Cycle Cost By Energy Saving in Pump Systems

    E-print Network

    Bower, J. R.

    Pumps consume about 15% of all electricity generated world wide. In the USA alone this accounts for over 130TWh per annum. A saving of only 1% would amount to $80 million in electricity cost. The importance of energy saving, in pump systems...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS: VOLUME XIV. PRIMARY COPPER INDUSTRY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the likelihood of new process technology and new practices being introduced by energy intensive industries and explores the environmental impacts of such changes. Volume 14 deals with the primary copper industry and examines six alternatives: (1) Outokumpu fla...

  7. Energy and nutrient cycling in pig production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Peter J.

    United States pig production is centered in Iowa and is a major influence on the economic and ecological condition of that community. A pig production system includes buildings, equipment, production of feed ingredients, feed processing, and nutrient management. Although feed is the largest single input into a pig production system, nearly 30% of the non-solar energy use of a conventional--mechanically ventilated buildings with liquid manure handling--pig production system is associated with constructing and operating the pig facility. Using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs reduces construction resource use and construction costs of pig production systems. The hoop based systems also requires approximately 40% less non-solar energy to operate as the conventional system although hoop barn-based systems may require more feed. The total non-solar energy input associated with one 136 kg pig produced in a conventional farrow-to-finish system in Iowa and fed a typical corn-soybean meal diet that includes synthetic lysine and exogenous phytase is 967.9 MJ. Consuming the non-solar energy results in emissions of 79.8 kg CO2 equivalents. Alternatively producing the same pig in a system using bedded hoop barns for gestating sows and grow-finish pigs requires 939.8 MJ/pig and results in emission of 70.2 kg CO2 equivalents, a reduction of 3 and 12% respectively. Hoop barn-based swine production systems can be managed to use similar or less resources than conventional confinement systems. As we strive to optimally allocate non-solar energy reserves and limited resources, support for examining and improving alternative systems is warranted.

  8. Theory and design of an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) for residences

    SciTech Connect

    Nephew, E.A.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Ballou, M.L.

    1980-05-01

    The basic concept of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) - an integrated system for supplying space heating, hot water, and air conditioning to a building - and the theory underlying its design and operation are described. Practical procedures for designing an ACES for a single-family residence, together with recommended guidelines for the construction and installation of system components, are presented. Methods are discussed for estimating the life-cycle cost, component sizes, and annual energy consumption of the system for residential applications in different climatic regions of the US.

  9. ENERGY SPECTRA OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COSMIC-RAY NUCLEI MEASURED WITH TRACER

    SciTech Connect

    Obermeier, A.; Ave, M.; Boyle, P.; Hoeppner, Ch.; Mueller, D. [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hoerandel, J., E-mail: a.obermeier@astro.ru.nl [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 HP Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-11-20

    The Transition Radiation Array for Cosmic Energetic Radiation (TRACER) cosmic-ray detector, first flown on long-duration balloon (LDB) in 2003 for observations of the major primary cosmic-ray nuclei from oxygen (Z = 8) to iron (Z = 26), has been upgraded to also measure the energies of the lighter nuclei, including the secondary species boron (Z = 5). The instrument was used in another LDB flight in 2006. The properties and performance of the modified detector system are described, and the analysis of the data from the 2006 flight is discussed. The energy spectra of the primary nuclei carbon (Z = 6), oxygen, and iron over the range from 1 GeV amu{sup -1} to 2 TeV amu{sup -1} are reported. The data for oxygen and iron are found to be in good agreement with the results of the previous TRACER flight. The measurement of the energy spectrum of boron also extends into the TeV amu{sup -1} region. The relative abundances of the primary nuclei, such as carbon, oxygen, and iron, above {approx}10 GeV amu{sup -1} are independent of energy, while the boron abundance, i.e., the B/C abundance ratio, decreases with energy as expected. However, there is an indication that the previously reported E {sup -0.6} dependence of the B/C ratio does not continue to the highest energies.

  10. Cycle Evaluations of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Solar Thermochemical Energy Storage in Support of Concentrating Solar Power Generation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shankar Krishnan; Daniel R. Palo; Robert S. Wegeng

    2010-01-01

    The production and storage of thermochemical energy is a possible route to increase capacity factors and reduce the Levelized Cost of Electricity from concentrated solar power generation systems. In this paper, we present the results of cycle evaluations for various thermochemical cycles, including a well-documented ammonia closed-cycle along with open- and closed-cycle versions of hydrocarbon chemical reactions. Among the available

  11. Studies of slow-positron production using low-energy primary electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-20

    Slow-positron beams produced from negative-work-function solid-state moderators have found numerous applications in condensed matter physics. There are potential advantages in using low-energy primary electron beams for positron production, including reduced radiation damage to single-crystal moderators and reduced activation of nearby components. We present numerical calculations of positron yields and other beam parameters for various target-moderator configurations using the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) [1] and Advanced Photon Source (APS) [2] electron linacs [3] as examples of sources for the primary electron beams. The status of experiments at these facilities is reviewed.

  12. Proceedings of the 28th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2--Environmental impact, energy systems, new technology for energy utilization, policy issues, renewable energy sources, stirling cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The section on environmental impacts covers global environmental concerns and air pollution. Energy systems includes the following: alternative fuels; co-generation; fossil fuels; mechanical thermal storage; fission/fusion; thermal management; electric and hybrid vehicles. The section on renewable energy sources includes biomass, hydrogen, and solar. This volume also contains separate sections for stirling cycles, policy issues, and new technologies for energy utilization. Separate abstracts were prepared for 150 papers of this volume.

  13. Seasonal cycle of solar energy fluxes through Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, S.; Nicolaus, M.

    2014-06-01

    Arctic sea ice has not only decreased considerably during the last decades, but also changed its physical properties towards a thinner and more seasonal cover. These changes strongly impact the energy budget and might affect the ice-associated ecosystem of the Arctic. But until now, it is not possible to quantify shortwave energy fluxes through sea ice sufficiently well over large regions and during different seasons. Here, we present a new parameterization of light transmittance through sea ice for all seasons as a function of variable sea ice properties. The annual maximum solar heat flux of 30 × 105 J m-2 occurs in June, then also matching the under ice ocean heat flux. Furthermore, our results suggest that 96% of the total annual solar heat input occurs from May to August, during four months only. Applying the new parameterization on remote sensing and reanalysis data from 1979 to 2011, we find an increase in light transmission of 1.5% a-1 for all regions. Sensitivity studies reveal that the results strongly depend on the timing of melt onset and the correct classification of ice types. Hence, these parameters are of great importance for quantifying under-ice radiation fluxes and the uncertainty of this parameterization. Assuming a two weeks earlier melt onset, the annual budget increases by 20%. Continuing the observed transition from Arctic multi- to first year sea ice could increase light transmittance by another 18%. Furthermore, the increase in light transmission directly contributes to an increase in internal and bottom melt of sea ice, resulting in a positive transmittance-melt feedback process.

  14. Analyzing the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Life Cycle in Primary Keratinocytes with a Quantitative Colony-Forming Assay.

    PubMed

    Lace, Michael J; Turek, Lubomir P; Anson, James R; Haugen, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    Papillomavirus genomes replicate as extrachromosomal plasmids within infected keratinocytes, requiring the regulated expression of early viral gene products to initially amplify the viral genomes and subvert cell growth checkpoints as part of a complex path to immortalization. Building on contemporary keratinocyte transfection and culture systems, the methods described in this unit form a detailed approach to analyzing critical events in the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle, utilizing physiologic levels of viral gene products expressed from their native promoter(s) in the natural host cells for HPV infection. A quantitative colony-forming assay permits comparison of the capacities of various transfected HPV types and mutant HPV genomes to initially form colonies and immortalize human keratinocytes. In conjunction with additional methods, these protocols enable examination of genomic stability, viral and cellular gene expression, viral integration, and differentiation patterns influenced by HPV persistence in clonal human keratinocytes that effectively mimic early events in HPV infection. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 33:14B.2.1-14B.2.13. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24789595

  15. Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle

    E-print Network

    Bahk, Saewoong

    protocol is inferior to the distributed one any more for WSNs. Rather, the centralized routing protocol canEnergy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle Wooguil--In this paper, we propose a new centralized routing protocol named WRP that aims at maximizing the network

  16. Factors controlling evaporation and energy partitioning beneath a deciduous forest over an annual cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kell B. Wilson; Paul J. Hanson; Dennis D. Baldocchi

    2000-01-01

    The energy balance components were measured above the ground surface of a temperate deciduous forest over an annual cycle using the eddy covariance technique. Over a year, the net radiation at the forest floor was 21.5% of that above the canopy, but this proportion was not constant, primarily because of the distinct phenological stages separated by the emergence and senescence

  17. Adaptive GPS Duty Cycling and Radio Ranging for Energy-efficient Localization

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptive GPS Duty Cycling and Radio Ranging for Energy-efficient Localization Raja Jurdak CSIRO ICT and localization performance in a mobile sensor network application. The focus is on augmenting GPS loca- tion node lifetime. We use empirical GPS and radio contact data from a large- scale animal tracking

  18. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF WOOD PELLET FROM SRC THROUGH DIRECT MEASURING OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Fantozzi; Marco Barbanera; Cinzia Buratti

    In Italy wood pellet is experiencing some difficulties because of the lack of sawdust (the principal raw material) at cheap prices. For this reason it is interesting to evaluate the possibility of producing this biofuel from Short Rotation Forestry. The paper describes the environmental impact assessment of wood pellet production from dedicated energy crops (poplar) through a Life Cycle Analysis

  19. Energy Use and Emissions from Marine Vessels: A Total Fuel Life Cycle Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Winebrake; James J. Corbett; Patrick E. Meyer

    2007-01-01

    Regional and global air pollution from marine transportation is a growing concern. In discerning the sources of such pollution, researchers have become interested in tracking where along the total fuel life cycle these emissions occur. In addition, new efforts to introduce alternative fuels in marine vessels have raised questions about the energy use and environmental impacts of such fuels. To

  20. Fluid Selection for a Low-Temperature Geothermal Organic Rankine Cycle by Energy and Exergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Guo; Huaixin Wang; Shengjun Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A detailed energy and exergy analysis of a low-temperature geothermal organic Rankine cycle is presented, screening the appropriate working fluids for specific heat source conditions. The results have been calculated with pinch point analysis approach for fixed temperature and mass flow rate of the heat source, fixed pinch points in evaporator and condenser and fixed condensing and sink temperatures by

  1. Energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on solid oxide fuel cell and organic Rankine cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahad A. Al-Sulaiman; Ibrahim Dincer; Feridun Hamdullahpur

    2010-01-01

    In this study, energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is conducted. The physical and thermodynamic elements of the plant include an SOFC, an ORC, a heat exchanger for the heating process and a single-effect absorption chiller for cooling. The results obtained from this study show that there is

  2. Development of silver-zinc cells of improved cycle life and energy density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Serenyi; Stanley D. James

    1994-01-01

    Substantial increases in the cost effectiveness and range of naval underwater vehicles are possible by virtue of advances made, in this program, to silver-zinc, vehicle propulsion batteries. To improve battery cycle life and energy density, electropermeable membranes (EPM's) were used as additives and\\/or as coatings for the negative electrodes and as coatings for conventional separator materials. Also, bismuth oxide was

  3. Life-cycle assessment of desalination technologies integrated with energy production systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Raluy; L. Serra; J. Uche; A. Valero

    2004-01-01

    Desalination technologies require high energy consumption. As a consequence, the environmental load associated with the operating stage is much higher (more than 90%) than that associated to plant construction, maintenance and final disposal. This paper analyzes the evolution of environmental impact by means of the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique, caused by the most common commercial desalination technologies used worldwide -

  4. The Energy-Cycle Analysis of the Interactions Between Shallow and Deep Atmospheric Convection

    E-print Network

    Plant, Robert

    The Energy-Cycle Analysis of the Interactions Between Shallow and Deep Atmospheric Convection´et´eo-France and CNRS, 31057 Toulouse Cedex, France Abstract Interactions between different convection modes can investigates this system by taking a limit of two modes: shallow and deep convection. Shallow convection

  5. Performance Comparison of Hybrid Vehicle Energy Management Controllers on Real-World Drive Cycle Data

    E-print Network

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    Performance Comparison of Hybrid Vehicle Energy Management Controllers on Real-World Drive Cycle economy and drivability. I. INTRODUCTION Hybrid vehicles have become increasingly popular in the automotive marketplace in the past decade. The most common type is the electric hybrid, which consists

  6. Standard mechanical energy analyses do not correlate with muscle work in cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Neptune; A. J. van den Bogert

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the utility of experimental methods to quantify mechanical energy expenditure (MEE) in human movement. To achieve this goal, a theoretical model of steady-state cycling driven by individual muscle actuators was used to produce two distinct pedal simulations. The simulations yielded the same pedaling rate and power output, but one reduced the MEE

  7. Assessing total and renewable energy in Brazilian automotive fuels. A life cycle inventory (LCI) approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcio de Almeida D’Agosto; Suzana Kahn Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    This article uses a first approach LCI procedure to evaluate total and renewable energy and CO2 emissions in Brazilian automotive fuels life cycle (LC). The LC model is structured and modular, capable of being successively refined if necessary. The procedure is applied to passenger car use in urban traffic, comparing three fuels used in Brazil (gasoline with 25% ethanol, pure

  8. Thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic space power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Heidenreich; M. B. Parekh

    1986-01-01

    An organic Rankine cycle-solar dynamic power system (ORC-SDPS) comprises a concentrator, a radiator, a power conversion unit, and a receiver with a thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which charges and discharges energy to meet power demands during orbital insolation and eclipse periods. Attention is presently given to the criteria used in designing and evaluating an ORC-SDPS TES, as well as

  9. Comparative energy life-cycle analyses of microalgal biomass production in open ponds and photobioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando Jorquera; Asher Kiperstok; Emerson A. Sales; Marcelo Embiruçu; Maria L. Ghirardi

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the energy life-cycle for production of biomass using the oil-rich microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. was performed, which included both raceway ponds, tubular and flat-plate photobioreactors for algal cultivation. The net energy ratio (NER) for each process was calculated. The results showed that the use of horizontal tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) is not economically feasible ([NER]<1) and that the estimated

  10. Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Saricks; D. Santini; M. Wang

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol

  11. Modeling Energy Recovery Using Thermoelectric Conversion Integrated with an Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erik W.; Hendricks, Terry J.; Peterson, Richard B.

    2009-07-01

    Hot engine exhaust represents a resource that is often rejected to the environment without further utilization. This resource is most prevalent in the transportation sector, but stationary engine-generator systems also typically do not utilize this resource. Engine exhaust is a source of high grade thermal energy that can potentially be utilized by various approaches to produce electricity or to drive heating and cooling systems. This paper describes a model system that employs thermoelectric conversion as a topping cycle integrated with an organic Rankine bottoming cycle for waste heat utilization. This approach is being developed to fully utilize the thermal energy contained in hot exhaust streams. The model is composed of a high temperature heat exchanger which extracts thermal energy for driving the thermoelectric conversion elements. However, substantial sensible heat remains in the exhaust stream after emerging from the heat exchanger. The model incorporates a closely integrated bottoming cycle to utilize this remaining thermal energy in the exhaust stream. The model has many interacting parameters that define combined system quantities such as overall output power, efficiency, and total energy utilization factors. In addition, the model identifies a maximum power operating point for the system. That is, the model can identify the optimal amount of heat to remove from the exhaust flow to run through the thermoelectric elements. Removing too much or too little heat from the exhaust stream in this stage will reduce overall cycle performance. The model has been developed such that heat exchanger UAh values, thermal resistances, ZT values, and multiple thermoelectric elements can be investigated in the context of system operation. The model also has the ability to simultaneously determine the effect of each cycle design parameter on the performance of the overall system, thus giving the ability to utilize as much waste heat as possible. Key analysis results are presented showing the impact of critical design parameters on power output, system performance and inter-relationships between design parameters in governing performance.

  12. Life-cycle energy and CO2 analysis of stormwater treatment devices.

    PubMed

    Andrew, R M; Vesely, E-T

    2008-01-01

    Environmental impacts associated with the construction, maintenance, and disposal of low-impact stormwater management devices are one aspect that should be considered during decision-making and life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a suitable method for quantifying such impacts. This paper reports a pilot study that employs LCA to compare life-cycle energy requirements and CO2 emissions of two stormwater devices in New Zealand. The two devices are a raingarden servicing an urban feeder road, and a sand filter that could have been installed in its stead. With an assumed life-time of 50 years, the life-cycle energy requirements of the built raingarden were almost 20% less than for the sand filter, while the CO2 emissions were 30% less. Our analysis shows that given the difference between the infiltration rates used in the raingarden design (0.3 m/day) and measured during monitoring (3 m/day) there was potential to make significantly greater life-time savings using a smaller design for the raingarden that would have also met the treatment efficiency expectations. The analysis highlights the significant contribution of transportation-of both materials and staff-and ongoing maintenance to a treatment device's life-cycle energy and CO2 profiles. PMID:18824795

  13. Compressed air energy storage turbomachinery cycle with compression heat recovery, storage, steam generation and utilization during power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nakhamkin

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) plant cycle which utilizes otherwise wasted compression heat by storing such heat in a thermal energy storage (TES) device for subsequent use for steam generation and injection into compressed air flow before entering a high pressure combustion which expands such compressed air to produce additional power. The cycle consists of the

  14. Antenna entropy in plant photosystems does not reduce the free energy for primary charge separation.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Robert C; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated the concept of the so-called "antenna entropy" of higher plant photosystems. Several interesting points emerge: 1. In the case of a photosystemwhich harbours an excited state, the “antenna entropy” is equivalent to the configurational (mixing) entropy of a thermodynamic canonical ensemble. The energy associated with this parameter has been calculated for a hypothetical isoenergetic photosystem, photosystem I and photosystem II, and comes out in the range of 3.5 - 8% of the photon energy considering 680 nm. 2. The “antenna entropy” seems to be a rather unique thermodynamic phenomenon, in as much as it does not modify the free energy available for primary photochemistry, as has been previously suggested. 3. It is underlined that this configurational (mixing) entropy, unlike heat dispersal in a thermal system, does not involve energy dilution. This points out an important difference between thermal and electronic energy dispersal. PMID:25190479

  15. Study of high energy cosmic ray interactions and primary composition using mountain based detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Fujimoto; V. Kopenkin; A. Ohsawa; M. Tamada; C. E. Navia; C. R. A. Augusto; A. K. Managadze; T. M. Roganova; I. V. Rakobolskaya; L. G. Sveshnikova

    2001-01-01

    We report new experimental results obtained by MSU-Waseda collaboration. Our detector is 60 cm thick lead X-ray emulsion chamber exposed to cosmic rays at Pamirs. We show that this experiment can detect cosmic rays in the wide energy range 1013 - 1017 eV. Using experimental data we discuss the primary cosmic ray composition and the features of hadron interactions in

  16. US nonrenewable conventional primary energy resources as of year-end 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-07

    Estimates are made of the remaining amounts of US nonrenewable conventional primary energy resources as of the end of 1982. Tables present the holdings in the area of natural gas, crude oil, coal, and uranium. Attention is also given to those potentially additional supplies of natural gas and natural gas liquids and additional crude oil. A final table projects the life expectancy of US fossil fuels at various demand rates. 7 tables.

  17. Functional unit, technological dynamics, and scaling properties for the life cycle energy of residences.

    PubMed

    Frijia, Stephane; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Williams, Eric

    2012-02-01

    Prior LCA studies take the operational phase to include all energy use within a residence, implying a functional unit of all household activities, but then exclude related supply chains such as production of food, appliances, and household chemicals. We argue that bounding the functional unit to provision of a climate controlled space better focuses the LCA on the building, rather than activities that occur within a building. The second issue explored in this article is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence; improved efficiency of newer equipment affects life cycle energy use. The third objective is to construct parametric models to describe LCA results for a family of related products. We explore these three issues through a case study of energy use of residences: one-story and two-story detached homes, 1,500-3,500 square feet in area, located in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 2002 and retired in 2051. With a restricted functional unit and accounting for technological progress, approximately 30% of a building's life cycle energy can be attributed to materials and construction, compared to 0.4-11% in previous studies. PMID:22192002

  18. Computation techniques and computer programs to analyze Stirling cycle engines using characteristic dynamic energy equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V. H.

    1982-01-01

    The basic equations that are used to describe the physical phenomena in a Stirling cycle engine are the general energy equations and equations for the conservation of mass and conversion of momentum. These equations, together with the equation of state, an analytical expression for the gas velocity, and an equation for mesh temperature are used in this computer study of Stirling cycle characteristics. The partial differential equations describing the physical phenomena that occurs in a Stirling cycle engine are of the hyperbolic type. The hyperbolic equations have real characteristic lines. By utilizing appropriate points along these curved lines the partial differential equations can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. These equations are solved numerically using a fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta integration technique.

  19. The modulation of low energy galactic cosmic rays over solar maximum (cycle 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhollebeke, M. A. I.; Wang, J. R.; Mcdonald, F. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented on detailed observations of low energy approximately (60 MeV/nucleon) galactic cosmic rays made during the recent period of solar maximum. For this particular cycle a significant time lag between intensity changes in the low energy and high energy components was observed. There are a number of possible explanations of this hysteresis effect. In the simplest form these include either changes in the form of the magnetic field power spectrum or changes in the size of the effective modulating region, or both.

  20. Energy-containing beverages: reproductive hormones and ovarian function in the BioCycle Study123

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, Karen C; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Perkins, Neil J; Ye, Aijun; Zhang, Cuilin J; Stanford, Joseph B; Porucznik, Christina A; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Energy-containing beverages are widely consumed among premenopausal women, but their association with reproductive hormones is not well understood. Objective: The objective was to assess the association of energy-containing beverages, added sugars, and total fructose intake with reproductive hormones among ovulatory cycles and sporadic anovulation in healthy premenopausal women. Design: Women (n = 259) in the BioCycle Study were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles; they provided fasting blood specimens during up to 8 visits/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Results: Women who consumed ?1 cup (1 cup = 237 mL) sweetened soda/d had 16.3% higher estradiol concentrations compared with women who consumed less sweetened soda (86.5 pg/mL compared with 74.4 pg/mL, P = 0.01) after adjustment for age, BMI, race, dietary factors, and physical activity. Similarly elevated estradiol concentrations were found for ?1 cup cola/d and noncola soda intake. Neither artificially sweetened soda nor fruit juice intake ?1 cup/d was significantly associated with reproductive hormones. Added sugar above the average US woman's intake (?73.2 g/d) or above the 66th percentile in total fructose intake (?41.5 g/d) was associated with significantly elevated estradiol but not consistently across all models. No associations were found between beverages, added sugars, or total fructose intake and anovulation after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Even at moderate consumption amounts, sweetened soda is associated with elevated follicular estradiol concentrations among premenopausal women but does not appear to affect ovulatory function. Further research into the mechanism driving the association between energy-containing beverages and reproductive hormones, and its potential implications for women's health, is warranted. PMID:23364018

  1. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnSO4 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, W. E.

    1992-04-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, we have shown that when NH4HSO4 is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H2O (gaseous) at approximately 163 C, NH3 (gaseous) at 365-418 C, and a mixture of SO2 (gaseous) and SO3 (gaseous) at approximately 900 C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high, as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally, we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V2A5, and possibly other metal oxides.

  2. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnCO sub 4 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wentworth, W.E. (Houston Univ., TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4}) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, reported herein, we have shown that when NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4} is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H{sub 2}A{sub (g)} at {approximately}163{degrees}C, NH{sub 3(g)} at 365--418{degrees}C, and a mixture of SO{sub 2(g)} and SO{sub 3(g)} at {approximately}900{degrees}C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V{sub 2}A{sub 5} and possibly other metal oxides.

  3. Total energy cycle assessment of electric and conventional vehicles: an energy and environmental analysis. Volume 1: technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cuenca, R.; Formento, J.; Gaines, L.; Marr, B.; Santini, D.; Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Adelman, S.; Kline, D.; Mark, J.; Ohi, J.; Rau, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, S.; Humphreys, K.; Placet, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report compares the energy use, oil use and emissions of electric vehicles (EVs) with those of conventional, gasoline-powered vehicles (CVs) over the total life cycle of the vehicles. The various stages included in the vehicles` life cycles include vehicle manufacture, fuel production, and vehicle operation. Disposal is not included. An inventory of the air emissions associated with each stage of the life cycle is estimated. Water pollutants and solid wastes are reported for individual processes, but no comprehensive inventory is developed. Volume I contains the major results, a discussion of the conceptual framework of the study, and summaries of the vehicle, utility, fuel production, and manufacturing analyses. It also contains summaries of comments provided by external peer reviewers and brief responses to these comments.

  4. Primary electron spectrometer, 18:63 UE: Electrostatic analyzer description and energy spectrum determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M. B.

    1973-01-01

    The primary electron spectrometer used to detect auroral electrons on sounding rocket 18:63 UE is described. The spectrometer used exponentially decaying positive and negative voltages applied to spherical deflection plates for energy analysis. A method for determining the analyzer response which does not require the assumptions that the ratio of plate separation to mean radius, the entrance or the exit apertures are small is described. By comparison with experiment it is shown that the effect of neither entrance nor exit collimation can be ignored. The experimental and calculated values of the limiting orbits agree well. A non-iterative technique of unfolding the electron differential energy spectrum is described. This method does not require the usual assumption of a flat or histogram-type energy spectrum. The unfolded spectra using both this technique and one which assumes a flat spectrum are compared to actual input spectra. This technique is especially useful in analyzing peaked auroral electron energy spectra.

  5. Sorting through the many total-energy-cycle pathways possible with early plug-in hybrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Burnham, A.; Rousseau, A.; Santini, D.; Energy Systems

    2008-01-01

    Using the 'total energy cycle' methodology, we compare U.S. near term (to {approx}2015) alternative pathways for converting energy to light-duty vehicle kilometers of travel (VKT) in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), hybrids (HEVs), and conventional vehicles (CVs). For PHEVs, we present total energy-per-unit-of-VKT information two ways (1) energy from the grid during charge depletion (CD); (2) energy from stored on-board fossil fuel when charge sustaining (CS). We examine 'incremental sources of supply of liquid fuel such as (a) oil sands from Canada, (b) Fischer-Tropsch diesel via natural gas imported by LNG tanker, and (c) ethanol from cellulosic biomass. We compare such fuel pathways to various possible power converters producing electricity, including (i) new coal boilers, (ii) new integrated, gasified coal combined cycle (IGCC), (iii) existing natural gas fueled combined cycle (NGCC), (iv) existing natural gas combustion turbines, (v) wood-to-electricity, and (vi) wind/solar. We simulate a fuel cell HEV and also consider the possibility of a plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle (FCV). For the simulated FCV our results address the merits of converting some fuels to hydrogen to power the fuel cell vs. conversion of those same fuels to electricity to charge the PHEV battery. The investigation is confined to a U.S. compact sized car (i.e. a world passenger car). Where most other studies have focused on emissions (greenhouse gases and conventional air pollutants), this study focuses on identification of the pathway providing the most vehicle kilometers from each of five feedstocks examined. The GREET 1.7 fuel cycle model and the new GREET 2.7 vehicle cycle model were used as the foundation for this study. Total energy, energy by fuel type, total greenhouse gases (GHGs), volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate (PM2.5) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) values are presented. We also isolate the PHEV emissions contribution from varying kWh storage capability of battery packs in HEVs and PHEVs from {approx}16 to 64 km of charge depleting distance. Sensitivity analysis is conducted with respect to the effect of replacing the battery once during the vehicle's life. The paper includes one appendix that examines several recent studies of interactions of PHEVs with patterns of electric generation and one that provides definitions, acronyms, and fuel consumption estimation steps.

  6. Vacuum thermal cycle life testing of high temperature thermal energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rengasamy Ponnappan; Jerry E. Beam

    1991-01-01

    Three fluoride-eutectic mixtures having 1000 K melting points and heats of fusion above 750 kJ\\/kg have been tested by an experimental program investigating the corrosion compatibility of high temperature thermal energy storage (TES) salts with their Inconel-617 containers. Electron beam-welded TES capsules were placed in a furnace for continuous thermal cycle life testing; the capsules have successfully undergone 4000 hrs

  7. Integrated Oil Shale Processing into Energy and Chemicals Using Combined-Cycle Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VALENTIN FAINBERG; ALINA GARBAR; GAD HETSRONI

    1998-01-01

    Oil shale integrated processing and an exhaustive utilization of its energy and chemical potential are described herein. The principal features of this method are two-stage oil shale processing and power cogeneration by means of the combined-cycle turbine unit As a result of the two-stage processing, two principal products—gas and liquids—are obtained. The gas is used for power production in a

  8. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer

    2010-07-01

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO2, NOX, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM10 (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO2e by 6-23 g CO2e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO2 and PM10 emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  9. Intercomparison of the seasonal cycle in 200 hPa kinetic energy in AMIP GCM simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    The 200 hPa kinetic energy is represented by means of the spherical harmonic components for the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations, the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast Reanalysis (ERA). The data used are the monthly mean wind fields from 1979 to 1988. The kinetic energy is decomposed into the divergent (DKE) and rotational (RKE) components and emphasis is placed on examining the former. The two reanalysis data sets show reasonable agreement that is best for the rotational kinetic energy. The largest difference in the divergent kinetic energy occurs during the northern summer. As might be expected, the two analyses are closet in regions where there are sufficient observations such that the effect of the model used in the assimilation cycle are minimized. The observed RKE show only a slight seasonal cycle with a maximum occuring during the northern winter. The DKE, on the other hand, has a very pronounced seasonal cycle with maxima at the solsticial seasons and minima during the equinoctial seasons. The model results show a very large spread in the magnitudes of the RKE and DKE although the models all evince a seasonal variation in phase with that observed. The median values of the seasonal cycle of RKE and DKE for the models are usually superior to those of any individual model. Results are also presented for simulation following the AMIP protocol but using updated versions of the original AMIP entries. In most cases these new integrations show better agreement with the observations.

  10. Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. McCabe; E. F. Wood; R. Wójcik; M. Pan; J. Sheffield; H. Gao; H. Su

    2008-01-01

    A multi-sensor\\/multi-platform approach to water and energy cycle prediction is demonstrated in an effort to understand the variability and feedback of land surface and atmospheric processes over large space and time scales. Remote sensing-based variables including soil moisture (from AMSR-E), surface heat fluxes (from MODIS) and precipitation rates (from TRMM) are combined with North American Regional Reanalysis derived atmospheric components

  11. Apparatus for realization of rock exploitation method based on thermodynamic cycles utilizing in situ energy source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. T. Aladiev; V. K. Fardzinov; G. P. Gukov; E. V. Saperov; K. D. Voskresensky

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for the realization of a rock-exploitation method based on thermodynamic cycles utilizing an in-situ energy source including a well with a casing sunk at least as far down as a producing horizon, a string of exploitation pipes having at least one opening at the fluid outlet, and means for varying the heat content of the heat-carrying agent in

  12. MY NASA DATA Lesson Plan: Earth's Energy Budget-Seasonal Cycles in Net Radiative Flux

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This lesson plan uses Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) radiation data to understand seasonal variations in the pattern of net energy input to the Earth system. The net amount of energy received by different parts of the Earth at different times of year determines the type of weather and climate they will experience. The net radiative flux shows the combined effect of the Sun's location and the conditions in the Earth system. The two primary components of the Earth system that affect the net radiative flux are: 1) the type of surface and 2) clouds. This lesson will allow students to explore these variations.

  13. Primary beam energy dependence of properties in ion beam sputtered spin-valve films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Hari; Wang, Jinsong; Hayes, Alan; Kanarov, Viktor; Yevtukov, R.; Devasahayam, Adrian J.; Gambino, Richard J.; Mao, Ming; Miller, Mark

    1999-04-01

    Spin-valve films with the structure Ta/NiFe/FeCo/Cu(18-30 Å)/FeCo/FeMn-70 Å/Ta were deposited using a Veeco ion beam deposition (IBD) system, model IBD-350. The physical properties of these spin-valve films as a function of primary ion beam energy have been studied in a primary ion beam energy range of 600-1500 eV. Xe was used as the working gas. The optimal ion beam energy range for the best spin-valve performance has been found to be around 600 eV. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) values of ?R/R˜8% have been measured for the spin-valve films deposited in this energy range. A strong dependence on beam energy of magnetic properties for these spin-valve films has been observed in the energy range from 600 to 1500 eV. ?R/R for spin-valve films with a Cu layer thickness of 22 Å decreases from 7.5% at 600 eV monotonically to 6.1% at 1500 eV with increasing ion beam energy. Interlayer coupling field increases from 20 Oe at 600 eV to 37 Oe at 1500 eV. Further reduction in the interlayer coupling field to 13 Oe and an increase in ?R/R to 8% have been achieved by depositing the free layer at 1000 eV and the rest of the layers at 600 eV. These are consistent with the improvement in crystallographic orientation and crystallinity of these spin-valve films.

  14. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTION MASS AND ENERGY PROPERTIES OVER A FULL SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Vourlidas, A.; Howard, R. A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7663, Washington, DC (United States); Esfandiari, E. [Adnet Systems Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Patsourakos, S. [Department of Physics, Section of Astrogeophysics, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Yashiro, S. [Center for Solar and Space Weather, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Michalek, G. [Astronomical Observatory of Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland)

    2010-10-20

    The LASCO coronagraphs, in continuous operation since 1995, have observed the evolution of the solar corona and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) over a full solar cycle with high-quality images and regular cadence. This is the first time that such a data set becomes available and constitutes a unique resource for the study of CMEs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive investigation of the solar cycle dependence on the CME mass and energy over a full solar cycle (1996-2009) including the first in-depth discussion of the mass and energy analysis methods and their associated errors. Our analysis provides several results worthy of further studies. It demonstrates the possible existence of two event classes: 'normal' CMEs reaching constant mass for >10 R{sub sun} and {sup p}seudo{sup -}CMEs which disappear in the C3 field of view. It shows that the mass and energy properties of CME reach constant levels and therefore should be measured only above {approx}10 R{sub sun}. The mass density (g/R {sup 2}{sub sun}) of CMEs varies relatively little (< order of magnitude) suggesting that the majority of the mass originates from a small range in coronal heights. We find a sudden reduction in the CME mass in mid-2003 which may be related to a change in the electron content of the large-scale corona and we uncover the presence of a 6 month periodicity in the ejected mass from 2003 onward.

  15. One-year monitoring of reproductive and energy reserve cycles in transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Palais, F; Mouneyrac, C; Dedourge-Geffard, O; Giambérini, L; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Geffard, A

    2011-05-01

    A 12-month active biomonitoring study was performed in 2008-2009 on a northern French river system using the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha as a sentinel species. Allochtonous mussels originating from a reference site (Commercy) were caged at four sites (Bouy, Sept-Saulx, Fismes, Ardre) within the Vesle River basin. The main objective of the study was to characterize the influence of biotic (sex, food availability) and abiotic (temperature, chemicals) factors on the reproductive and energy reserve (glycogen, lipids) cycles of exposed mussels. Both cycles were markedly disturbed at the Bouy and Sept-Saulx sites where the lowest chlorophyll a levels were recorded during the study. At these sites, mussels obviously faced a negative energy balance, as confirmed by the impairment of their physiological state and byssal attachment. At other exposure sites, reproductive and energy reserves cycles were less impacted but were still dependent on the nutritional state of mussels. The latter appeared as a significant natural confounding factor in ecotoxicological survey performed in low polluted areas. PMID:21345479

  16. Water loss control using pressure management: life-cycle energy and air emission effects.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad; Sturm, Reinhard

    2013-10-01

    Pressure management is one cost-effective and efficient strategy for controlling water distribution losses. This paper evaluates the life-cycle energy use and emissions for pressure management zones in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Halifax, Nova Scotia. It compares water savings using fixed-outlet and flow-modulated pressure control to performance without pressure control, considering the embedded electricity and chemical consumption in the lost water, manufacture of pipe and fittings to repair breaks caused by excess pressure, and pressure management. The resulting energy and emissions savings are significant. The Philadelphia and Halifax utilities both avoid approximately 130 million liters in water losses annually using flow-modulated pressure management. The conserved energy was 780 GJ and 1900 GJ while avoided greenhouse gas emissions were 50 Mg and 170 Mg a year by Philadelphia and Halifax, respectively. The life-cycle financial and environmental performance of pressure management systems compares favorably to the traditional demand management strategy of installing low-flow toilets. The energy savings may also translate to cost-effective greenhouse gas emission reductions depending on the energy mix used, an important advantage in areas where water and energy are constrained and/or expensive and greenhouse gas emissions are regulated as in California, for example. PMID:23869434

  17. The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, P.; Edelstein, N.; Allen, T.; Burns, C.; Chadwick, M.; Corradini, M.; Dixon, D.; Goff, M.; Laidler, J.; McCarthy, K.; Moyer, B.; Nash, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.; Peterson, P.; Sackett, J.; Sickafus, K. E.; Tulenko, J.; Weber, W.; Morss, L.; Henry, G.

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this report is to identify new basic science that will be the foundation for advances in nuclear fuel-cycle technology in the near term, and for changing the nature of fuel cycles and of the nuclear energy industry in the long term. The goals are to enhance the development of nuclear energy, to maximize energy production in nuclear reactor parks, and to minimize radioactive wastes, other environmental impacts, and proliferation risks. The limitations of the once-through fuel cycle can be overcome by adopting a closed fuel cycle, in which the irradiated fuel is reprocessed and its components are separated into streams that are recycled into a reactor or disposed of in appropriate waste forms. The recycled fuel is irradiated in a reactor, where certain constituents are partially transmuted into heavier isotopes via neutron capture or into lighter isotopes via fission. Fast reactors are required to complete the transmutation of long-lived isotopes. Closed fuel cycles are encompassed by the Department of Energy?s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), to which basic scientific research can contribute. Two nuclear reactor system architectures can meet the AFCI objectives: a ?single-tier? system or a ?dual-tier? system. Both begin with light water reactors and incorporate fast reactors. The ?dual-tier? systems transmute some plutonium and neptunium in light water reactors and all remaining transuranic elements (TRUs) in a closed-cycle fast reactor. Basic science initiatives are needed in two broad areas: ? Near-term impacts that can enhance the development of either ?single-tier? or ?dual-tier? AFCI systems, primarily within the next 20 years, through basic research. Examples: Dissolution of spent fuel, separations of elements for TRU recycling and transmutation Design, synthesis, and testing of inert matrix nuclear fuels and non-oxide fuels Invention and development of accurate on-line monitoring systems for chemical and nuclear species in the nuclear fuel cycle Development of advanced tools for designing reactors with reduced margins and lower costs ? Long-term nuclear reactor development requires basic science breakthroughs: Understanding of materials behavior under extreme environmental conditions Creation of new, efficient, environmentally benign chemical separations methods Modeling and simulation to improve nuclear reaction cross-section data, design new materials and separation system, and propagate uncertainties within the fuel cycle Improvement of proliferation resistance by strengthening safeguards technologies and decreasing the attractiveness of nuclear materials A series of translational tools is proposed to advance the AFCI objectives and to bring the basic science concepts and processes promptly into the technological sphere. These tools have the potential to revolutionize the approach to nuclear engineering R&D by replacing lengthy experimental campaigns with a rigorous approach based on modeling, key fundamental experiments, and advanced simulations.

  18. Energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) balance of logging residues as alternative energy resources: system analysis based on the method of a life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuyuki Yoshioka; Kazuhiro Aruga; Toshio Nitami; Hiroshi Kobayashi; Hideo Sakai

    2005-01-01

    Using the method of a life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis, the energy balance and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of logging residues from Japanese conventional forestry as alternative energy resources were analyzed over the entire life cycle of the residues. The fuel consumption for forestry machines was measured in field experiments for harvesting and transporting logging residues at forestry operating

  19. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  20. Thermal energy storage for organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic space power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidenreich, G. R.; Parekh, M. B.

    An organic Rankine cycle-solar dynamic power system (ORC-SDPS) comprises a concentrator, a radiator, a power conversion unit, and a receiver with a thermal energy storage (TES) subsystem which charges and discharges energy to meet power demands during orbital insolation and eclipse periods. Attention is presently given to the criteria used in designing and evaluating an ORC-SDPS TES, as well as the automated test facility employed. It is found that a substantial data base exists for the design of an ORC-SDPS TES subsystem.

  1. An evaluation on the life cycle of photovoltaic energy system considering production energy of off-grade silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Kato; Akinobu Murata; Koichi Sakuta

    1997-01-01

    In this study, single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) cells and residential PV systems using off-grade silicon supplied from semiconductor industries were evaluated from a life cycle point of view. Energy payback time (EPT) of the residential PV system with the c-Si PV cells made of the off-grade silicon was estimated at 15.5 years and indirect CO2 emission per unit electrical

  2. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2004-02-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a ``partial energy conversion'' system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  3. Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: a UK case study.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Borello, Domenico; Clift, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Particularly in the UK, there is potential for use of large-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants to treat food waste, possibly along with other organic wastes, to produce biogas. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of AD with energy and organic fertiliser production against two alternative approaches: incineration with energy production by CHP and landfill with electricity production. In particular the paper investigates the dependency of the results on some specific assumptions and key process parameters. The input Life Cycle Inventory data are specific to the Greater London area, UK. Anaerobic digestion emerges as the best treatment option in terms of total CO2 and total SO2 saved, when energy and organic fertiliser substitute non-renewable electricity, heat and inorganic fertiliser. For photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment potentials, AD is the second option while incineration is shown to be the most environmentally friendly solution. The robustness of the model is investigated with a sensitivity analysis. The most critical assumption concerns the quantity and quality of the energy substituted by the biogas production. Two key issues affect the development and deployment of future anaerobic digestion plants: maximising the electricity produced by the CHP unit fuelled by biogas and to defining the future energy scenario in which the plant will be embedded. PMID:24112851

  4. Thermodynamic framework for identifying free energy inventories of enzyme catalytic cycles

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Stephen D.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    Pauling’s suggestion that enzymes are complementary in structure to the activated complexes of the reactions they catalyze has provided the conceptual basis to explain how enzymes obtain their fantastic catalytic prowess, and has served as a guiding principle in drug design for over 50 y. However, this model by itself fails to predict the magnitude of enzymes’ rate accelerations. We construct a thermodynamic framework that begins with the classic concept of differential binding but invokes additional terms that are needed to account for subtle effects in the catalytic cycle’s proton inventory. Although the model presented can be applied generally, this analysis focuses on ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) as an example, where recent experiments along with a large body of kinetic and thermodynamic data have provided strong support for the noncanonical thermodynamic contribution described. The resulting analysis precisely predicts the free energy barrier of KSI’s reaction as determined from transition-state theory using only empirical thermodynamic data. This agreement is suggestive that a complete free energy inventory of the KSI catalytic cycle has been identified. PMID:23840058

  5. Analyzing the Life Cycle Energy Savings of DOE Supported Buildings Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2009-08-31

    This report examines the factors that would potentially help determine an appropriate analytical timeframe for measuring the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technology (BT) benefits and presents a summary-level analysis of the life cycle savings for BT’s Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) R&D program. The energy savings for three hypothetical building designs are projected over a 100-year period using Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS) to illustrate the resulting energy and carbon savings associated with the hypothetical aging buildings. The report identifies the tasks required to develop a long-term analytical and modeling framework, and discusses the potential analytical gains and losses by extending an analysis into the “long-term.”

  6. Strengthening of the hydrological cycle in future scenarios: atmospheric energy and water balance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, A.; Fogli, P. G.; Vichi, M.; Zeng, N.

    2012-07-01

    Future climate scenarios experiencing global warming are expected to strengthen hydrological cycle during 21st century by comparison with the last decades of 20th century. We analyze strengthening of the global-scale increase in precipitation from the perspective of changes in whole atmospheric water and energy balances. Furthermore, by combining energy and water equations for the whole atmosphere we profitably obtain constraints for the changes in surface fluxes and for the partitioning at the surface between sensible and latent components. Above approach is applied to investigate difference in strengthening of hydrological cycle in two scenario centennial simulations performed with an Earth System model forced with specified atmospheric concentration pathways. Alongside the medium-high non-mitigation scenario SRES A1B, we considered a new aggressive-mitigation scenario (E1) with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2 K. Quite unexpectedly, mitigation scenario is shown to strengthen hydrological cycle more than SRES A1B till around 2070. Our analysis shows that this is mostly a consequence of the larger increase in the negative radiative imbalance of atmosphere in E1 compared to A1B. This appears to be primarily related to the abated aerosol concentration in E1, which considerably reduces atmospheric absorption of solar radiation compared to A1B. In contrast, last decades of 21st century (21C) show marked increase of global precipitation in A1B compared to E1, despite the fact that the two scenarios display almost same overall increase of radiative imbalance with respect to 20th century. Our results show that radiative cooling is weakly effective in A1B throughout all 21C, so that two distinct mechanisms characterize the diverse strengthening of hydrological cycle in mid and end 21C. It is only through a very large perturbation of surface fluxes that A1B achieves larger increase of global precipitation in the last decades of 21C. Our energy/water budget analysis shows that this behavior is ultimately due to a bifurcation in the Bowen ratios change between the two scenarios. This work warns that mitigation policies, by abating aerosols, may lead to unexpected stronger intensification of hydrological cycle and associated changes that may last for decades after that global warming is effectively mitigated. On the other hand, it is here suggested that predictable components of the radiative forcing by aerosols may have the potential to effectively contribute to the decadal-scale predictability of changes in the hydrological strength.

  7. Thermal energy storage for low grade heat in the organic Rankine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soda, Michael John

    Limits of efficiencies cause immense amounts of thermal energy in the form of waste heat to be vented to the atmosphere. Up to 60% of unrecovered waste heat is classified as low or ultra-low quality, making recovery difficult or inefficient. The organic Rankine cycle can be used to generate mechanical power and electricity from these low temperatures where other thermal cycles are impractical. A variety of organic working fluids are available to optimize the ORC for any target temperature range. San Diego State University has one such experimental ORC using R245fa, and has been experimenting with multiple expanders. One limitation of recovering waste heat is the sporadic or cyclical nature common to its production. This inconsistency makes sizing heat recovery ORC systems difficult for a variety of reasons including off-design-point efficiency loss, increased attrition from varying loads, unreliable outputs, and overall system costs. Thermal energy storage systems can address all of these issues by smoothing the thermal input to a constant and reliable level and providing back-up capacity for times when the thermal input is deactivated. Multiple types of thermal energy storage have been explored including sensible, latent, and thermochemical. Latent heat storage involves storing thermal energy in the reversible phase change of a phase change material, or PCM, and can have several advantages over other modalities including energy storage density, cost, simplicity, reliability, relatively constant temperature output, and temperature customizability. The largest obstacles to using latent heat storage include heat transfer rates, thermal cycling stability, and potentially corrosive PCMs. Targeting 86°C, the operating temperature of SDSU's experimental ORC, multiple potential materials were explored and tested as potential PCMs including Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate (MgCl2?6H2O), Magnesium Nitrate Hexahydrate (Mg(NO3)2?6H 2O), montan wax, and carnauba wax. The addition of graphite to augment heat transfer rates was also tested. Melting and solidification temperatures largely matched predictions. The magnesium salts were found to be less stable under thermal cycling than the waxes. Graphite was only soluble in the waxes. Mixtures of magnesium salts and waxes yielded a layered composite with the less dense waxes creating a sealing layer over the salt layer that significantly increased the stability of the magnesium salts. Research into optimum heat exchangers and storage vessels for these applications indicates that horizontally oriented aluminum pipes with vertically oriented aluminum fins would be the best method of storing and retrieving energy. Fin spacing can be predicted by an equation based on target temperatures and PCM characteristics.

  8. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Unique Air-Conditioner Desiccant Cycle to Enhance Dehumidification and Save Energy 

    E-print Network

    Cromer, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    . This work reports on a test at ARI conditions (95 deg. F outside, 80 deg F, 51% RH inside). The test unit (10 year old, 5 ton Bryant Air Conditioner) without the Cromer cycle, averaged an EER of 7.93 at a latent ratio of 26.2 % (SHR = 0.738). With the Cromer...

  9. Rock Cycle: Cycling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It explores the variables that contribute to rock transformation and the continuous processes of rock formation that constitute the rock cycle. The rock cycle provides an example of the transfer of energy and mass in the Earth system. Earth is a closed system containing essentially a fixed amount of each element. Movement of matter is driven by the Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and is often accompanied by changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter. Minerals are made, dissolved, and remade--on the Earth's surface, in the oceans, and in the hot, high-pressure layers beneath the crust. The total amount of material stays the same as its forms change. Learning Outcomes:? Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.? Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.? Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.

  10. Energy storage in the primary step of the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Birge, R R; Cooper, T M

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed-dye laser low temperature photocalorimeter is used to study the enthalpy differences between light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (bR568) and its primary photoproduct (K) at 77 K. A key feature of our experimental method is the use of the laser-induced photostationary state as an internal reference. Analyses of the forward (bR leads to K), reverse (K leads to bR), and mixed (bR in equilibrium K) photoreactions were carried out to measure delta H12 = EK - EbR. All three experiments yielded identical values of delta H12 within experimental error (delta Have12 = 15.8 +/- 2.5 kcal mol-1). Accordingly, the primary event in the photocycle of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin stores approximately 30% of the absorbed photon energy at the 568-nm absorption maximum. We observe that the quantum yields phi f1(bR leads to K) and phi r2(K leads to bR) add up to unity within experimental error: phi f1 + phi r2 = 1.02 +/- 0.19 for phi f1 in the range 0.28-0.33. A theoretical analysis of energy storage in K suggests that at least one-half of the enthalpy difference between K and bR is associated with charge separation accompanying chromophore isomerization. PMID:6838982

  11. Prognostic significance of regulators of cell cycle and apoptosis, p16(INK4a), p53, and bcl-2 in primary mucosal melanomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Manju L; Patel, Snehal G; Shah, Jatin P; Hoshaw-Woodard, Stacy; Busam, Klaus J

    2012-06-01

    Abnormalities in cell cycle regulation, tumor suppressor gene functions and apoptosis are frequent events in tumorigenesis. Their role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of primary mucosal melanomas (MM) of the upper aerodigestive tract remains unknown. Sixty-four patients (40 men, 24 women, median age 64 years) with MM were included in this study; 32 had tumors in the nasal/paranasal cavities, 28 in the oral cavity and 4 in the pharynx. Archival tissues from 47 initial mucosal tumors, 17 mucosal recurrences, and 13 nodal/distant metastases were subjected to immunohistochemistry using antibodies against p16, p53, and bcl-2. The results were correlated with histological features and survival data. Expressions of p16, p53, and bcl-2 proteins were seen in 25% (N=19/76), 21% (N=16/76), and 74% (N=56/76) of all tumors, respectively. bcl-2 expression in the initial tumors was associated with significantly longer overall and disease specific survival (3.3 vs. 1.5 years, P ? 0.05). Expression of p16 was increasingly lost, from 32% in initial tumors to 12% in recurrent and 15% in metastatic tumors (P=0.06). Tumors comprised of undifferentiated cells were significantly more p53 positive than epithelioid or spindle cells (80% vs. 33%, P=0.02). Expression of these markers did not correlate with necrosis, or vascular and/or deep tissue invasion. Expression of bcl-2 is associated with better survival in MM. Loss of p16 was seen with tumor progression whereas aberrant p53 expression was frequent in undifferentiated tumor cells. PMID:22160615

  12. Cell type and transfection reagent-dependent effects on viability, cell content, cell cycle and inflammation of RNAi in human primary mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsiao-yin; Vonk, Lucienne A; Licht, Ruud; van Boxtel, Antonetta M G; Bekkers, Joris E J; Kragten, Angela H M; Hein, San; Varghese, Oommen P; Howard, Kenneth A; Öner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Creemers, Laura B

    2014-03-12

    The application of RNA interference (RNAi) has great therapeutic potential for degenerative diseases of cartilaginous tissues by means of fine tuning the phenotype of cells used for regeneration. However, possible non-specific effects of transfection per se might be relevant for future clinical application. In the current study, we selected two synthetic transfection reagents, a cationic lipid-based commercial reagent Lipofectamine RNAiMAX and polyethylenimine (PEI), and two naturally-derived transfection reagents, namely the polysaccharides chitosan (98% deacetylation) and hyaluronic acid (20% amidation), for siRNA delivery into primary mesenchymal cells including nucleus pulposus cells, articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as an endogenous model gene to evaluate the extent of silencing by 20 nM or 200 nM siRNA at day 3 and day 6 post-transfection. In addition to silencing efficiency, non-specific effects such as cytotoxicity, change in DNA content and differentiation potential of cells were evaluated. Among the four transfection reagents, the commercial liposome-based agent was the most efficient reagent for siRNA delivery at 20 nM siRNA, followed by chitosan. Transfection using cationic liposomes, chitosan and PEI showed some decrease in viability and DNA content to varying degrees that was dependent on the siRNA dose and cell type evaluated, but independent of GAPDH knockdown. Some effects on DNA content were not accompanied by concomitant changes in viability. However, changes in expression of marker genes for cell cycle inhibition or progression, such as p21 and PCNA, could not explain the changes in DNA content. Interestingly, aspecific upregulation of GAPDH activity was found, which was limited to cartilaginous cells. In conclusion, non-specific effects should not be overlooked in the application of RNAi for mesenchymal cell transfection and may need to be overcome for its effective therapeutic application. PMID:24345796

  13. Performance of absorption cycle operating with low thermal-potential energy sources for direct-contact cooling applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Borde; I. Yaron; M. Jelinek

    1977-01-01

    Low thermal-potential energy sources, e.g., waste heat, solar energy, etc., can be utilized for refrigeration or cooling in various industrial applications. Suitable working solutions have been selected to operate in an absorption refrigeration cycle. A computer program delineated the ranges of feasible operating parameters and chose the optimal operating conditions for given energy sources, refrigeration requirements and ambient conditions. The

  14. On the nonlinear feedback loop and energy cycle of the non-dissipative Lorenz model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B.-W.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we discuss the role of the nonlinear terms and linear (heating) term in the energy cycle of the three-dimensional (X-Y-Z) non-dissipative Lorenz model (3D-NLM). (X, Y, Z) represent the solutions in the phase space. We first present the closed-form solution to the nonlinear equation d2 X/d?2+ (X2/2)X = 0, ? is a non-dimensional time, which was never documented in the literature. As the solution is oscillatory (wave-like) and the nonlinear term (X2) is associated with the nonlinear feedback loop, it is suggested that the nonlinear feedback loop may act as a restoring force. We then show that the competing impact of nonlinear restoring force and linear (heating) force determines the partitions of the averaged available potential energy from Y and Z modes, respectively, denoted as APEY and APEZ. Based on the energy analysis, an energy cycle with four different regimes is identified with the following four points: A(X, Y) = (0,0), B = (Xt, Yt), C = (Xm, Ym), and D = (Xt, -Yt). Point A is a saddle point. The initial perturbation (X, Y, Z) = (0, 1, 0) gives (Xt, Yt) = ( 2?r , r) and (Xm, Ym) = (2 ?r , 0). ? is the Prandtl number, and r is the normalized Rayleigh number. The energy cycle starts at (near) point A, A+ = (0, 0+) to be specific, goes through B, C, and D, and returns back to A, i.e., A- = (0,0-). From point A to point B, denoted as Leg A-B, where the linear (heating) force dominates, the solution X grows gradually with { KE↑, APEY↓, APEZ↓}. KE is the averaged kinetic energy. We use the upper arrow (↑) and down arrow (↓) to indicate an increase and decrease, respectively. In Leg B-C (or C-D) where nonlinear restoring force becomes dominant, the solution X increases (or decreases) rapidly with KE↑, APEY↑, APEZ↓ (or KE↓, APEY↓, APEZ↑). In Leg D-A, the solution X decreases slowly with {KE↓, APEY↑, APEZ↑ }. As point A is a saddle point, the aforementioned cycle may be only half of a "big" cycle, displaying the wing pattern of a glasswinged butterfly, and the other half cycle is antisymmetric with respect to the origin, namely B = (-Xt, -Yt), C = (-Xm, 0), and D = (-Xt, Yt).

  15. Few-cycle effect in H$_2^+$ joint electron-ion energy spectra

    E-print Network

    Mosert, V

    2015-01-01

    Joint electron-ion energy spectra for the dissociative ionization of a model H$_2^+$ in few-cycle, infrared laser pulses are calculated via the numerical ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation. A strong, pulse-dependent modulation of the ionization probability for certain values of the protons' kinetic energy (but almost independent of the electron's energy) is observed. With the help of models with frozen ions, this feature---which mistakenly might be attributed to vibrational excitations---is traced back to the transient population of electronically excited states, followed by ionization. This assertion is further corroborated employing a two-level model incorporating strong-field ionization from the excited state.

  16. Establishment and analysis of High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaohang; Liao, Xiaohan; Dong, Wenjie; Yuan, Wenping

    2015-04-01

    For better prediction and understanding of water-energy exchange process and land-atmospheric interaction, the in-situ observed meteorological data which were acquired from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system were also integrated in the WRF model over China. Further, the High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China (HRADC) was produced by WRF model. This dataset include 25 km horizontal resolution near surface meteorological data such as air temperature, humidity, ground temperature, and pressure at 19 levels, soil temperature and soil moisture at 4 levels, green vegetation coverage, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and ground heat flux for 3 hours. In this study, we 1) briefly introduce the cycling 3D-Var assimilation method; 2) Compare results of meteorological elements such as 2 m temperature, precipitation and ground temperature generated by the HRADC with the gridded observation data from CMA, and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) output data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is found that the results of 2 m temperature were improved compared with the control simulation and has effectively reproduced the observed patterns, and the simulated results of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature and specific humidity were as much closer to GLDAS outputs. Root mean square errors are reduced in assimilation run than control run, and the assimilation run of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature, radiation and surface fluxes were agreed well with the GLDAS outputs over China. The HRADC could be used in further research on the long period climatic effects and characteristics of water-energy cycle over China.

  17. Earth Observations of the Water and Energy Cycle and the GEWEX Regional Hydroclimate Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, S.; van Oevelen, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    In order to predict and manage changes in our environment it is necessary to make accurate observations of the energy and water cycle at various scales. Changes will have direct impacts on our natural and social environment e.g. for our water resources. Within GEWEX, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the global energy and water cycle is a main focus of attention. Changes at the global scale will have consequences at the regional scale and vice versa. To better discern the various processes over the entire range of spatial and temporal scales the Regional Hydroclimate Projects (RHP's) are established as the part of the GEWEX Hydroclimatology Panel that links the regional observations and process understanding to the global scale. This is done through exchange of observations, data, modeling, transferability studies etc. In this presentation an overview is given of the various RHP's, the reasons for their establishment and how they are likely to evolve in the future. Each of the RHP's is a collection of individual researchers, research institutes, academia and national agencies which have a common goal related to our environment and in which association with GEWEX helps to reach that goal. In the next few years the emphasis will be placed on stronger collaboration between the various RHP's as well as the intercomparison and evaluation of the GEWEX global datasets with the regional data sets. Crucial to success in this endeavor is the linkage between in-situ observations, modeling data and earth observational data.

  18. Energy metabolism and glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain: a stoichiometric modeling perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The energetics of cerebral activity critically relies on the functional and metabolic interactions between neurons and astrocytes. Important open questions include the relation between neuronal versus astrocytic energy demand, glucose uptake and intercellular lactate transfer, as well as their dependence on the level of activity. Results We have developed a large-scale, constraint-based network model of the metabolic partnership between astrocytes and glutamatergic neurons that allows for a quantitative appraisal of the extent to which stoichiometry alone drives the energetics of the system. We find that the velocity of the glutamate-glutamine cycle (Vcyc) explains part of the uncoupling between glucose and oxygen utilization at increasing Vcyc levels. Thus, we are able to characterize different activation states in terms of the tissue oxygen-glucose index (OGI). Calculations show that glucose is taken up and metabolized according to cellular energy requirements, and that partitioning of the sugar between different cell types is not significantly affected by Vcyc. Furthermore, both the direction and magnitude of the lactate shuttle between neurons and astrocytes turn out to depend on the relative cell glucose uptake while being roughly independent of Vcyc. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in absence of ad hoc activity-related constraints on neuronal and astrocytic metabolism, the glutamate-glutamine cycle does not control the relative energy demand of neurons and astrocytes, and hence their glucose uptake and lactate exchange. PMID:24112710

  19. Nuclear energy as a primary source for a clean hydrogen energy system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Torjman; H. Shaaban

    1998-01-01

    The limited availability of fossil fuels compared to the increasing demand and the connected environmental questions have became topics of growing importance and international attention. Many other clean alternative sources of energy are available, but most of them are either relatively undeveloped technologically or are not yet fully utilized. Also, there is a need for a medium which can carry

  20. Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Institute for Global Change Research and Education (IGCRE) is a joint initiative of the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) for coordinating and facilitating research and education relevant to global environmental change. Created in 1992 with primary support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), IGCRE fosters participation by university, private sector and government scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative research in global change science, focusing on the role of water and energy in the Earth's atmosphere and physical climate system. IGCRE is also chartered to address educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including the preparation of future scientists and training of primary and secondary education teachers.

  1. Global Change Research Related in the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Linda R.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Global Change Research Related to the Earth's Energy and Hydrologic Cycle is to enhance the scientific knowledge and educational benefits obtained from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the U.S. Global Change Research Program, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). This paper presents the final technical report on this collaborative effort. Various appendices include: A) Staff Travel Activities years one through three; B) Publications and Presentations years one through three; C) Education Activities; D) Students year one through three; E) Seminars year one through three; and F) Center for Applied Optics Projects.

  2. Dual energy micro-CT imaging of radiation-induced vascular changes in primary mouse sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Moding, Everett J.; Clark, Darin P.; Qi, Yi; Li, Yifan; Ma, Yan; Ghaghada, Ketan; Johnson, G. Allan; Kirsch, David G.; Badea, Cristian T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of radiation therapy on primary tumor vasculature using dual energy (DE) micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Methods and Materials The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary sarcomas with mutant Kras and p53. Unirradiated tumors were compared to tumors irradiated with 20 Gy. A long-circulating PEGylated liposomal-iodinated contrast agent was administered one day after treatment, and mice were imaged immediately after injection (day 1) and three days later (day 4) using DE micro-CT. CT-derived tumor sizes were used to assess tumor growth. After DE decomposition, iodine maps were used to assess tumor fractional blood volume (FBV) at day 1 and tumor vascular permeability at day 4. For comparison, tumor vascularity and vascular permeability were also evaluated histologically using CD31 immunofluorescence and fluorescently-labeled dextrans. Results Radiation treatment significantly decreased tumor growth (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation between CT-measurement of tumor FBV and extravasated iodine with microvascular density (MVD) (R2=0.53) and dextran accumulation (R2=0.63), respectively. Despite no change in MVD measured by histology, tumor FBV significantly increased after irradiation as measured by DE micro-CT (0.070 vs. 0.091, P<0.05). Both dextran and liposomal-iodine accumulation in tumors increased significantly after irradiation with dextran fractional area increasing 4.2-fold and liposomal-iodine concentration increasing 3.0-fold. Conclusions DE micro-CT is an effective tool for non-invasive assessment of vascular changes in primary tumors. Tumor blood volume and vascular permeability increased after a single therapeutic dose of radiation treatment. PMID:23122984

  3. Energy harvesting based on piezoelectric Ericsson cycles in a piezoceramic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Ducharne, B.; Guyomar, D.; Sebald, G.

    2013-09-01

    The possibility of recycling ambient energies with electric generators instead of using batteries with limited life spans has stimulated important research efforts over the past years. The integration of such generators into mainly autonomous low-power systems, for various industrial or domestic applications is envisioned. In particular, the present work deals with energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations. It is shown here that direct piezoelectric energy harvesting (short circuiting on an adapted resistance, for example) leads to relatively weak energy levels that are insufficient for an industrial development. By coupling an electric field and mechanical excitation on Ericsson-based cycles, the amplitude of the harvested energy can be highly increased, and can reach a maximum close to 100 times its initial value. To obtain such a gain, one needs to employ high electrical field levels (high amplitude, high frequency), which induce a non-linearity through the piezoceramic. A special dynamic hysteresis model has been developed to correctly take into account the material properties, and to provide a real estimation of the harvested energy. A large number of theoretical predictions and experimental results have been compared and are discussed herein, in order to validate the proposed solution.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North Atlantic: an investigation of parameters affecting the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and export of detritus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Scott; H. Kettle; C. J. Merchant

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universities Simulator (FAMOUS)

  5. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  6. Speeding up DFT: A faster method for integrating band energy in SCF cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Matthew M.; Jorgensen, Jeremy J.; Rosenbrock, Conrad W.; Thomas, Derek C.; Hess, Bret C.; Forcade, Rodney W.; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus L. W.

    2015-03-01

    Typically in SCF cycles, a ``rectangle rule'' is used on uniformly spaced points (Monk Pack meshes)1 to integrate the band energy. The use of rectangles is motivated by their fast convergence when used on the fully occupied bands of semiconductors. Unfortunately integration with rectangles is extremely inefficient for metals. This motivates the use of gauss quadrature (or other higher order methods) for integrating the band energy. As we show, however, even in the case of semiconductors where the rectangle convergence is extremely efficient, higher order methods are still more efficient. The savings in semiconductors alone are sufficient to motivate the implementation of a higher order method in current DFT codes. Even though higher order quadrature methods were discussed immediately following the original Monkhorst and Pack1 paper, we revisit the issue in light of modern DFT calculations. MMB acknowledges support by NSF (DMR-0908753). JJJ, CWR, DCT, RWF, SC, GLWH was supported by ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  7. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions of nuclear energy: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Lenzen

    2008-01-01

    The increased urgency of dealing with mitigation of the looming climate change has sparked renewed interest in the nuclear energy option. There exists a substantial stream of research on the amount of embodied energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with nuclear generated electricity. While conventional fossil fuelled power plants cause emissions almost exclusively from the plant site, the majority of

  8. Heat recovery from a thermal energy storage based on the Ca(OH) 2\\/CaO cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Azpiazu; J. M. Morquillas; A. Vazquez

    2003-01-01

    Thermal energy storage is very important in many applications related to the use of waste heat from industrial processes, renewable energies or from other sources. Thermochemical storage is very interesting for long-term storage as it can be carried out at room temperature with no energy losses.Dehydration\\/hydration cycle of Ca(OH)2\\/CaO has been applied for thermal energy storage in two types of

  9. A Finite Element Model Of Self-Resonating Bimorph Microcantilever For Fast Temperature Cycling In A Pyroelectric Energy Harvester

    SciTech Connect

    Mostafa, Salwa [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Bannuru, Thirumalesh [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A self resonating bimorph cantilever structure for fast temperature cycling in a pyroelectric energy harvester has been modeled using a finite element method. The effect of constituting material properties and system parameters on the frequency and magnitude of temperature cycling and the efficiency of energy recycling using the proposed structure has been investigated. Results show that thermal contact conductance and heat source temperature play a key role in dominating the cycling frequency and efficiency of energy recycling. An optimal solution for the most efficient energy scavenging process has been sought by studying the performance trend with different variable parameters such as thermal contact conductance, heat source temperature, device aspect ratio and constituent materials of varying thermal conductivity and expansion coefficients.

  10. The PCA and IOA approaches for life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from Thai commodities and energy consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawinee Suksuntornsiri; Bundit Limmeechokchai

    Suksuntornsiri, P. and Limmeechokchai, B. The PCA and IOA approaches for life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from Thai commodities and energy consumption Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2005, 27(1) : 177-189 The use of more substitutable commodities, selected by their total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions would highly contribute to mitigating the effects of global warming. Life-cycle analysis (LCA) is a

  11. Life-Cycle Analysis of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Anaerobic Biodegradation of Municipal Solid Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. DiStefano

    2009-01-01

    Energy requirements and greenhouse gas GHG emissions for current landfilling of municipal solid waste MSW was compared to potential biodegradation of MSW in anaerobic digesters AD throughout the United States. A hybrid life-cycle analysis was completed to assess the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of MSW to methane, a valuable energy source. Conversion of MSW to methane in AD would generate

  12. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Huo; Michael Wang; Cary Bloyd; Vicky Putsche

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches

  13. Change of primary cosmic radiation nuclear composition in the energy range 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Barnaveli; A. P. Chubenko; N. A. Eristavi; I. V. Khaldeeva; N. M. Nesterova; Yu. G. Verbetsky

    2002-01-01

    The dependence E_h (N_e) of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadronic component energy flux on the number N_e of particles in EAS is investigated in the primary energy range of the order of 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV. The work was aimed at checking the existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)\\/N_e behavior at these energies in several independent experiments. The investigation is

  14. Control and Optimization of Vapor Compression Cycles Using Recursive Least Squares Estimation 

    E-print Network

    Rani, Avinash

    2012-10-19

    Vapor compression cycles are the primary method by which refrigeration and air-conditioning systems operate, and thus constitute a significant portion of commercial and residential building energy consumption. This thesis presents a data...

  15. Algal Photosynthesis as the Primary Driver for a Sustainable Development in Energy, Feed, and Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Anemaet, Ida G.; Bekker, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO2 into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO2 into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps—after acid hydrolysis—as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro. PMID:20640935

  16. Core structure of extensive air showers at primary energies around the knee by a multifractal moments analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haungs, A.; Kempa, J.

    1999-03-01

    Patterns of particle distributions in the core of extensive air showers, measured by multiwire proportional chambers installed below the central detector of the KASCADE experiment are analysed in terms of multifractal moments. Correlating the obtained mass sensitive parameters with the shower size and the number of reconstructed muons in the core region, an artificial neural net analysis leads to probability distributions for associating single showers to particular primary masses. The resulting chemical composition in the energy region of the knee tends to a heavier composition after the knee. The knee position seems to be shifted to higher energies in case of heavy primary cosmic rays.

  17. Technology for Brayton-cycle space powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Brayton-cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors to generate from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power-generating system. Their development for solar-energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power-generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated for 38,000 hr. Tests of improved components show that, if installed in the power-generating system, these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32; this efficiency is twice that so far demonstrated by any alternate concept, a characteristic especially important for solar power systems. Because of this high efficiency, solar-heat Brayton-cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar-collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants based on present technology for silicon solar cells. For the heat source, paraboloidal mirrors have been assembled from sectors here on Earth. One mirror, 1.5-m diameter, had a standard error for its surface of only 1 arc-min and a specific mass of only 1.3 kg/m 2. A heavier mirror (nearly 5 kg/m{sup 2}), assembled from 12 sectors, had a standard surface error of 3 arc-min but was 6 m in diameter. Either of these mirrors is sufficiently accurate for use with the Brayton cycle, but the techniques for actually assembling large mirrors in space must yet be worked out. For use during the shadow period of a low Earth orbit (LEO), heat could be stored in LiF, a salt that melts at 1121 K (1558{degrees}F) and whose latent heat of fusion exceeds 1 MJ/kg. Because of the prior experience with its fabrication and of its tolerance of the thermal cycling in LEO, Nb-1Zr was selected to contain the LiF.

  18. Continuous energy variation during the seizure cycle: towards an on-line accumulated energy

    E-print Network

    Litt, Brian

    of less than 3 h did not achieve statistical significance in the data sets analyzed that had an average; Average inter-seizure interval 1. Introduction Computerized analysis of pre-ictal intracranial EEG (IEEG in patients under- going evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Because energy changes in the IEEG are also affected

  19. Renewable Energy from Willow Biomass Crops: Life Cycle Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Keoleian; Timothy A. Volk

    2005-01-01

    Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) along with other woody biomass feedstocks will play a significant role in a more secure and sustainable energy future for the United States and around the world. In temperate regions, shrub willows are being developed as a SRWC because of their potential for high biomass production in short time periods, ease of vegetative propagation, broad genetic

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of a Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker using solar energy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Bu, Xianbiao; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with increasing generation temperature. For every working fluid there is an optimal generation temperature at which organic Rankine efficiency achieves the maximum value. The cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day are, respectively, 126.44 W m(-2) and 7.61 kg m(-2) day(-1) at the generation temperature of 140 °C for working fluid of R245fa, which demonstrates the feasibility of organic Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker. PMID:25202735

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Powered Vapor Compression Ice Maker Using Solar Energy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Bing; Bu, Xianbiao; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with increasing generation temperature. For every working fluid there is an optimal generation temperature at which organic Rankine efficiency achieves the maximum value. The cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day are, respectively, 126.44?W?m?2 and 7.61?kg?m?2?day?1 at the generation temperature of 140°C for working fluid of R245fa, which demonstrates the feasibility of organic Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker. PMID:25202735

  2. Annual Cycle Energy System performance and national economic comparisons with competitive residential HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, V.D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of three years of experience with the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) and conventional systems in two identical houses, the ACES house (using an ACES for heating, cooling, and water heating) and the control house (using conventional systems). The houses, located in a test complex on the University of Tennessee campus at Knoxville, Tennessee were unoccupied during the tests. Internal loads for a family of four were simulated by appliances and hot water used at the rate of 265 L/d (70 gal/d). The test period extended from November 1, 1977, through September 15, 1980. Additionally the results of an analytical study comparing the ACES performance and economics with that of several conventional heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) and water heating systems are summarized.

  3. The Coordinated Energy and Water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) Data Integration Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. F.

    2010-09-01

    Many of the Projects under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) bring together numerous types of data to perform climate research on various regional and time scales using routine operational/research global observations and process studies. The Coordinated Energy and Water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) [under the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)] goal is to demonstrate skill in predicting changes in water resources and soil moisture on time scales up to seasonal and annual as an integral part of the climate system. In order to satisfy the multi-disciplinary scientific objectives of CEOP, an integrated approach to bring together such global in-situ observations, remote sensing (satellite), and model output was needed. Both a centralized and distributed integrated data management strategy was then designed and implemented to incorporate and distribute such research quality data. There are multitudes of global/regional surface in-situ measurements made globally that are quite disparate in type, number, quality, and format. The concept of a "Reference Site" combining specialized observations of sub-surface (soil temperature and moisture profiles), near-surface (standard meteorological parameters, radiation, flux), and lower tropospheric profiles (tower, rawinsonde, lidar, wind profiler) over various spatial scales (from single point to 104 square km) was created for evaluation with satellite data and model output analyses. A network of 36 such Reference Sites from various climatic regions was identified and organized through coordination of CEOP's Regional Hydroclimate Projects (RHPs). Standardized observation times/averaging and format (with complete metadata) was agreed upon and a "composite" in-situ database developed. This presentation will describe CEOP's data integration approach and "lessons learned" from such a prototype network for use in global climate studies.

  4. Global vs local energy dissipation: the energy cycle of the turbulent Von K\\'arm\\'an flow

    E-print Network

    Kuzzay, Denis; Dubrulle, Bérengère

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relations between global and local energy transfers in a turbulent Von K\\'arm\\'an flow. The goal is to understand how and where energy is dissipated in such a flow and to reconstruct the energy cycle in an experimental device where local as well as global quantities can be measured. We use PIV measurements and we model the Reynolds stress tensor to take subgrid scales into account. This procedure involves a free parameter that is calibrated using angular momentum balance. We then estimate the local and global mean injected and dissipated power for several types of impellers, for various Reynolds numbers and for various flow topologies. These PIV-estimates are then compared with direct injected power estimates provided by torque measurements at the impellers. The agreement between PIV-estimates and direct measurements depends on the flow topology. In symmetric situations, we are able to capture up to 90% of the actual global energy dissipation rate. However, our results become...

  5. Life Cycle Analysis on Fossil Energy Ratio of Algal Biodiesel: Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency and Oil Extraction Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from “cradle to grave.” Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae. PMID:26000338

  6. Life cycle analysis on fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel: effects of nitrogen deficiency and oil extraction technology.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from "cradle to grave." Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae. PMID:26000338

  7. Energy and greenhouse gas profiles of polyhydroxybutyrates derived from corn grain: a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-10-15

    Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHB) are well-known biopolymers derived from sugars orvegetable oils. Cradle-to-gate environmental performance of PHB derived from corn grain is evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA), particularly nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Site-specific process information on the corn wet milling and PHB fermentation and recovery processes was obtained from Telles. Most of energy used in the corn wet milling and PHB fermentation and recovery processes is generated in a cogeneration power plant in which corn stover, assumed to be representative of a variety of biomass sources that could be used, is burned to generate electricity and steam. County level agricultural information is used in estimating the environmental burdens associated with both corn grain and corn stover production. Results show that PHB derived from corn grain offers environmental advantages over petroleum-derived polymers in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, PHB provides greenhouse gas credits, and thus PHB use reduces greenhouse gas emissions compared to petroleum-derived polymers. Corn cultivation is one of the environmentally sensitive areas in the PHB production system. More sustainable practices in corn cultivation (e.g., using no-tillage and winter cover crops) could reduce the environmental impacts of PHB by up to 72%. PMID:18983094

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage: Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G.; Turchi, C.; Burkhardt, J.; Kutscher, C.; Decker, T.

    2009-07-01

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  9. Life-Cycle Impacts From Novel Thorium–Uranium-Fuelled Nuclear Energy Systems

    E-print Network

    Ashley, S. F.; Fenner, R. A.; Nuttall, W. J.; Parks, G. T.

    2015-06-02

    inclusion in technologies that could prospectively operate open Th–U-based nuclear fuel cycles. Three potential Th–U-based systems operating with open nuclear fuel cycles are considered: AREVA’s European Pressurised Reactor; India’s Advanced Heavy Water... of each of the reactor technologies and all of the other associated facilities in the open nuclear fuel cycle. This includes the development of life-cycle analysis models to describe the extraction of thorium from monazitic beach sands...

  10. Measurement of changes in high-energy phosphates in the cardiac cycle using gated 31P nuclear magnetic renonance.

    PubMed Central

    Fossel, E T; Morgan, H E; Ingwall, J S

    1980-01-01

    Levels of the high-energy phosphate-containing compounds, ATP and creatine phosphate, and of inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured as a function of position in the cardiac cycle. Measurements were made on isolated, perfused, working rat hearts through the use of gated 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of ATP and creatine phosphate were found to vary during the cardiac cycle and were maximal at minimal aortic pressure and minimal at maximal aortic pressure. Pi varied inversely with the high-energy phosphates. PMID:6932041

  11. Abstract--MAC layer duty-cycling is widely used to reduce idling listening, which is energy-intensive in wireless sensor

    E-print Network

    Heinzelman, Wendi

    1 Abstract--MAC layer duty-cycling is widely used to reduce idling listening, which is energy-intensive in wireless sensor networks. Among duty-cycling MAC protocols, asynchronous protocols generally have higher model to analyze the throughput of X-MAC, an asynchronous duty-cycled MAC protocol for wireless sensor

  12. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnCOâ systems. Final topical report, January 1, 1982December 31, 1984

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wentworth

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NHâHSOâ) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, reported herein,

  13. Revised Energy Spectra for Primary Elements, H - Si, above 50 GeV from the ATIC-2 Science Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunashingha, R. M.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kouznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) long duration balloon experiment had a successful science flight accumulating 18 days of data (12/02 - 1/03) during a single circumnavigation in Antarctica. ATIC measures the energy spectra of elements from H to Fe in primary cosmic rays using a fully active Bismuth Germanate calorimeter preceded by a carbon target, with embedded scintillator hodoscopes, and a silicon matrix charge detector at the top. Preliminary results from ATIC have been reported in previous conferences. The revised results reported here are derived from a new analysis of the data with improved charge resolution, lower background and revised energy calibration. The raw energy deposit spectra are de-convolved into primary energy spectra and extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere. We compare these revised results to previous data and comment upon the astrophysical interpretation of the results.

  14. Low energy consumption is becoming the primary design con-sideration for battery-operated and portable embedded sys-

    E-print Network

    Childers, Bruce

    Abstract Low energy consumption is becoming the primary design con- sideration for battery-operated in 2000 [21]. Not only has the sheer demand for battery-operated devices grown, but the expectations, battery operated embedded systems, such as cellular phones, digital motion and still cameras, personal

  15. Construction of direction selectivity through local energy computations in primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Lochmann, Timm; Blanche, Timothy J; Butts, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Despite detailed knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1), the large numbers of inputs onto a given V1 neuron make it difficult to relate them to the neuron's functional properties. For example, models of direction selectivity (DS), such as the Energy Model, can successfully describe the computation of phase-invariant DS at a conceptual level, while leaving it unclear how such computations are implemented by cortical circuits. Here, we use statistical modeling to derive a description of DS computation for both simple and complex cells, based on physiologically plausible operations on their inputs. We present a new method that infers the selectivity of a neuron's inputs using extracellular recordings in macaque in the context of random bar stimuli and natural movies in cat. Our results suggest that DS is initially constructed in V1 simple cells through summation and thresholding of non-DS inputs with appropriate spatiotemporal relationships. However, this de novo construction of DS is rare, and a majority of DS simple cells, and all complex cells, appear to receive both excitatory and suppressive inputs that are already DS. For complex cells, these numerous DS inputs typically span a fraction of their overall receptive fields and have similar spatiotemporal tuning but different phase and spatial positions, suggesting an elaboration to the Energy Model that incorporates spatially localized computation. Furthermore, we demonstrate how these computations might be constructed from biologically realizable components, and describe a statistical model consistent with the feed-forward framework suggested by Hubel and Wiesel. PMID:23554913

  16. Rescaling of metal oxide nanocrystals for energy storage having high capacitance and energy density with robust cycle life.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyung Mo; Choi, Kyung Min; Cheng, Tao; Lee, Dong Ki; Zhou, Renjia; Ock, Il Woo; Milliron, Delia J; Goddard, William A; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2015-06-30

    Nanocrystals are promising structures, but they are too large for achieving maximum energy storage performance. We show that rescaling 3-nm particles through lithiation followed by delithiation leads to high-performance energy storage by realizing high capacitance close to the theoretical capacitance available via ion-to-atom redox reactions. Reactive force-field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations support the conclusion that Li atoms react with nickel oxide nanocrystals (NiO-n) to form lithiated core-shell structures (Ni:Li2O), whereas subsequent delithiation causes Ni:Li2O to form atomic clusters of NiO-a. This is consistent with in situ X-ray photoelectron and optical spectroscopy results showing that Ni(2+) of the nanocrystal changes during lithiation-delithiation through Ni(0) and back to Ni(2+). These processes are also demonstrated to provide a generic route to rescale another metal oxide. Furthermore, assembling NiO-a into the positive electrode of an asymmetric device enables extraction of full capacitance for a counter negative electrode, giving high energy density in addition to robust capacitance retention over 100,000 cycles. PMID:26080421

  17. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    PubMed

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. PMID:24060290

  18. A Practical Approach to a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustained Nuclear Energy - 12383

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Emory D.; Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Spencer, Barry B.; Williams, Kent A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6152, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent systems analysis studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have shown that sufficient information is available from previous research and development (R and D), industrial experience, and current studies to make rational decisions on a practical approach to a closed nuclear fuel cycle in the United States. These studies show that a near-term decision is needed to recycle used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States, to encourage public recognition that a practical solution to disposal of nuclear energy wastes, primarily UNF, is achievable, and to ensure a focus on essential near-term actions and future R and D. Recognition of the importance of time factors is essential, including the multi-decade time period required to implement industrial-scale fuel recycle at the capacity needed, and the effects of radioactive decay on proliferation resistance, recycling complexity, radioactive emissions, and high-level-waste storage, disposal form development, and eventual emplacement in a geologic repository. Analysis of time factors led to identification of the benefits of processing older fuel and an 'optimum decay storage time'. Further benefits of focused R and D can ensure more complete recycling of UNF components and minimize wastes requiring disposal. Analysis of recycling costs and nonproliferation requirements, which are often cited as reasons for delaying a decision to recycle, shows that (1) the differences in costs of nuclear energy with open or closed fuel cycles are insignificant and (2) nonproliferation requirements can be met by a combination of 'safeguards-by-design' co-location of back-end fuel cycle facilities, and applied engineered safeguards and monitoring. The study shows why different methods of separating and recycling used fuel components do not have a significant effect on nonproliferation requirements and can be selected on other bases, such as process efficiency, maturity, and cost-effectiveness. Finally, the study concludes that continued storage of UNF without a decision to recycle is not a solution to the problem of nuclear waste disposal, but can be a deterrent to public confidence in nuclear energy. In summary, our studies have shown, in contrast to findings of the more prominent studies, that today we do have sufficient knowledge to make informed choices for the values and essential methods of UNF recycling, based on previous research, industrial experience, and current analyses. We have shown the significant importance of time factors, including the benefits of an optimum decay storage time on deploying effective nonproliferation safeguards, enabling reduced recycling complexity and environmental emissions, and optimizing waste management and disposal. Together with the multi-decade time required to implement industrial-scale UNF recycle at the capacity needed to match generation rate, our conclusion is that a near-term decision to recycle as many UNF components as possible is vitally needed. Further indecision and procrastination can lead to a loss of public confidence and favorable perception of nuclear energy. With no near-term decision, the path forward for UNF disposal will remain uncertain, with many diverse technologies being considered and no possible focus on a practical solution to the problem. However, a near-term decision to recycle UNF fuel and to take advantage of processing UNF and surface storing HLW, together with development and incorporation of more-complete recycling of UNF components, can provide the focus needed for a practical solution to the problem of nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  19. Life cycle assessment of innovative technology for energy production from automotive shredder residue.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Caterina; Masoni, Paolo; Salvati, Fabio; Tolve, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) is a problematic waste material remaining after shredding and recovery processes of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). Its heterogeneous grain size and composition make difficult its recovery or disposal. Although ASR accounts for approximately 20% to 25% of the weight of an ELV, the European Union (EU)'s ELV Directive (2000/53/EC) requires that by 2015 a minimum 95% of the weight of an ELV must be reused or recovered, including a 10% weight energy recovery. The quantity of ASR is relevant: Approximately 2.4 million tons are generated in the EU each year and most of it is sent to landfills. This article describes a life cycle model of the "TEKNE-Fluff" process designed to make beneficial use of ASR that is based on the results of an experimental pilot plant for pyro-gasification, combustion, cogeneration, and emissions treatment of ASR. The goal of the research was the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to identify the environmental hot spots of the "TEKNE system" and use scenario analysis to check solutions to improve its environmental profile, supporting the design and industrialization process. The LCA was conducted based on data modeled from the experimental campaign. Moreover, different scenarios on shares of electricity and thermal energy produced by the cogeneration system and alternative treatment processes for the waste produced by the technology were compared. Despite the limitation of the research (results based on scaling up experimental data by modeling), impact assessment results are promising and sufficiently robust, as shown by Monte Carlo analysis. The TEKNE technology may become an interesting solution for the problem of ASR management: Besides representing an alternative to landfill disposal, the energy produced could avoid significant impacts on fossil resources depletion (a plant of 40?000 tons/y capacity could produce ?147?000 GJ/yr, covering the annual need of ?13?500 households). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:435-444. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25930669

  20. Biomass pyrolysis for biochar or energy applications? A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jens F; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2015-04-21

    The application of biochar as a soil amendment is a potential strategy for carbon sequestration. In this paper, a slow pyrolysis system for generating heat and biochar from lignocellulosic energy crops is simulated and its life-cycle performance compared with that of direct biomass combustion. The use of the char as biochar is also contrasted with alternative use options: cofiring in coal power plants, use as charcoal, and use as a fuel for heat generation. Additionally, the influence on the results of the long-term stability of the biochar in the soil, as well as of biochar effects on biomass yield, is evaluated. Negative greenhouse gas emissions are obtained for the biochar system, indicating a significant carbon abatement potential. However, this is achieved at the expense of lower energy efficiency and higher impacts in the other assessed categories when compared to direct biomass combustion. When comparing the different use options of the pyrolysis char, the most favorable result is obtained for char cofiring substituting fossil coal, even assuming high long-term stability of the char. Nevertheless, a high sensitivity to biomass yield increase is found for biochar systems. In this sense, biochar application to low-quality soils where high yield increases are expected would show a more favorable performance in terms of global warming. PMID:25830564

  1. Analysis of a Helium Brayton Power Cycle for a Direct-Drive Inertial Fusion Energy Power Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Scott; Gentile, Charles; Parsells, Robert; Priniski, Craig

    2008-11-01

    Presented is a thermodynamic model analysis and optimization of a helium Brayton power cycle for direct-drive inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor. Preliminary reactor design goals include production of 2GW of thermal power and an estimated 700MW of electricity using a tertiary indirect helium Brayton cycle. A thermodynamic analysis of the proposed helium Brayton cycle is performed using baseline technology specifications and generalized thermodynamic assumptions. Analytic equations are developed using first and second law analysis. The model constraints are the turbine inlet temperature and pressure set by the reactor temperature of ˜700^oC and current turbine specifications of 7MPa, respectively. Optimization of this model is then performed using iterative numerical programming for key variables. Previous analysis shows a 51% cycle efficiency using current technology; best estimates of near-term technology increase the cycle efficiency to 64%. Results will be presented. R. Schleicher, A. R. Raffray, C. P. Wong, ``An Assessment of the Brayton Cycle for High Performance Power Plant,'' Fusion Technology, 39 (2), 823-827, March 2001.

  2. A quantitative evaluation of closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology in central station applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Gritton; R. Y. Pei; J. Aroesty; M. M. Balaban; C. Gazley; R. W. Hess; W. H. Krase

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of a closed cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system for delivery of electric power to the United States is presented. Performance and costs of complete commercial OTEC systems are analyzed at the system level using inputs from component analyses and thermal resource data in the Gulf of Mexico. Such sites could feed the Gulf Coast from the

  3. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel demand and solar energy conversion efficiency in European bioethanol production for automotive purposes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Reijnders; M. A. J. Huijbregts

    2007-01-01

    Crop derived biofuels such as (bio)ethanol are increasingly applied for automotive purposes. They have, however, a relatively low efficiency in converting solar energy into automotive power. The outcome of life cycle studies concerning ethanol as to fossil fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions associated with such inputs depend strongly on the assumptions made regarding e.g. allocation, inclusion of upstream processes

  4. Switchgrass as an Alternate Feedstock for Power Generation: Integrated Environmental, Energy, and Economic Life-Cycle Analysis

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    preparation are harvesting loose switchgrass for hauling and chopping and then transporting after compression Generation: Integrated Environmental, Energy, and Economic Life-Cycle Analysis Fossil fuel usage is a key.S. carbon dioxide emissions, 98.0 percent, or 5,682 million metric tons, resulted from fossil fuel

  5. The Solar Wind Energy Input Rate and Recovery of the Magnetospheric Ring Current during the Last Two Solar Cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Biktash

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the recent results of our calculations of the solar wind energy input rate to the magnetospheric ring current in the main phase of magnetic storms used for simulation of Dst index based on solar wind data. For this purpose we studied the solar wind parameters during the last two solar cycles. We looked for geomagnetic storms and

  6. Modeling energy flow and nutrient cycling in natural semiarid grassland ecosystems with the aid of thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Energy flow and nutrient cycling were modeled as affected by herbivory on selected intensive sites along gradients of precipitation and soils, validating the model output by monitoring selected parameters with data derived from the Thematic Mapper (TM). Herbivore production was modeled along the gradient of soils and herbivory, and validated with data derived from TM in a spatial data base.

  7. A comprehensive life cycle analysis of cofiring algae in a coal power plant as a solution for achieving sustainable energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Kucukvar; Omer Tatari

    2011-01-01

    Algae cofiring scenarios in a 360 MW coal power plant were studied utilizing an ecologically based hybrid life cycle assessment methodology. The impacts on the ecological system were calculated in terms of cumulative mass, energy, industrial exergy, and ecological exergy. The environmental performance metrics, including efficiency, loading, and renewability ratios were also quantified to assess the sustainability of cofiring scenarios from

  8. Students' Understanding of Energy Flow and Matter Cycling in the Context of the Food Chain, Photosynthesis, and Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chen-Yung; Hu, Reping

    2003-01-01

    The research focus on children's science has recently shifted from separate concepts to more comprehensive and complex topics. This study addressed pupils' understanding of the complex topic of energy flow and matter cycling. A scoring system with three categories and six concepts was developed and used by four biology teachers to analyze 106…

  9. Life cycle assessment of processes for the treatment of wastewater urban sludge: energy and global warming analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Houillon; O. Jolliet

    2005-01-01

    This study compares six wastewater sludge treatment scenarios applied to a 300,000 equivalent-inhabitant (eq. inh) wastewater treatment plant: agricultural spreading, fluidised bed incineration, wet oxidation, pyrolysis, incineration in cement kilns and landfill. The study focuses on energy and emissions contributing to global warming over the whole treatment life cycle. As a result, avoided burdens by coproducts are very important in

  10. PSTAR: Primary and secondary terms analysis and renormalization: A unified approach to building energy simulations and short-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, K.

    1988-09-01

    This report presents a unified method of hourly simulation of a building and analysis of performance data. The method is called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance equation is best satisfied in the least squares sense, hence, the name PSTAR. PSTAR allows extraction of building characteristics from short-term tests on a small number of data channels. These can be used for long-term performance prediction (''ratings''), diagnostics, and control of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC), comparison of design versus actual performance, etc. By combining realistic building models, simple test procedures, and analysis involving linear equations, PSTAR provides a powerful tool for analyzing building energy as well as testing and monitoring. It forms the basis for the Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) project at SERI.

  11. The optimal design of buildings: A life-cycle approach to energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khawas, Ihab Nabil

    This study reports on an energy model designed to minimize the life cycle cost of a building, considering both the building initial cost and its energy consumption. It reports on the structure of this model and a series of experiments conducted to derive optimal design. While there already exist models that analyze the energy consumption and efficiency of buildings, the general model presented here is unique in several ways. First, it addresses the needs of the typical architect who requires rapid technical feedback on the energy efficiency of a building during the initial design process. Second, it considers the trade-off between initial development costs and future operating costs. Different from most models therefore, it does not simply minimizes energy consumption, but takes into account the cost incurred as a result of any method to save energy. Third, it is an optimization model which derives design optima through numerical optimization methods rather than trial and error. However, it can still be used to develop design ideas outside the model optimization scope. Fourth, the model optimizes a number of design features of interest to the architect, including building orientation, dimensions, window placement and size, and choice of building material. Most other models appear to take these features as inputs. Rules of thumb and traditional design guidelines were also investigated through the analysis of a large number of model experiments, with different objective functions and constraint sets. The aim was to simulate a number of real life design alternatives and economic goals. The findings show that the cost of sub-optimal building dimensions and orientation may vary significantly under different user constraints. Generalizations are possible, but must be used with caution. One major finding of this study is that following rules of thumb and traditional guidelines will not always lead to an optimal design. In fact, the study proves that design variables, such as, length-to-width ratio, window placement and size, and building orientation cannot be specified with certainty based on rules of thumb alone. Optimization models are needed to analyze each individual design case.

  12. An Ecosystem Model Including C, N and P Cycles Applied to Stn ALOHA: Simulating Primary Production, Organic Matter Stoichiometries and Export

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Smith; Y. Yamanaka; M. J. Kishi

    2002-01-01

    We have applied a one dimensional model to simulate the production, recycling and export of organic matter at Station ALOHA, Hawaii. Our ecosystem model is a modified version of the NEMURO formulation, with modifications including addition of nitrogen fixation, carbon and phosphorous cycles and variable stoichiometries. We also compared versions of the model with and without a formulation for the

  13. Effects of high-dose major components in oral disinfectants on the cell cycle and apoptosis in primary human gingival fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yuji; Bhawal, Ujjal Kumar; Nishikiori, Ryo; Sawajiri, Masahiko; Maeda, Takeshi; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of high-dose major components in oral disinfectants on oral cells from the standpoints of the cell cycle and apoptosis. We examined the viability and cell cycle of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) treated with the components of dental disinfectants, benzethonium chloride (BEC), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), and povidone iodine (PVD-I) using a cell counting kit and flow cytometry. The IC(50) inhibitory concentration value in HGF cultures at 24 hours was 1.3x10(-2) mM BEC, 6.0x10(-3) mM BAC, and 2.6x10(-1) mM PVD-I. In the cell cycle analysis, propidium iodide-stained HGFs were arrested in G(0)/G(1) of the cell cycle by all three disinfectants, and in the apoptosis assay, annexin V-FITC/PI-stained HGFs that became apoptotic at 5.0x10(-2) and 1.0x10(-1) mM BEC and 5.0x10(-2) and 1.0x10(-1) mM BAC, but not in PVD-I at concentrations as high as 5.0x10(-1) mM. Our findings describe the effects of high-dose oral disinfectants, rather than clinical concentrations. Nevertheless, appreciating the effects of high-dose disinfectants absorbed into the human body is important, where they may accumulate in specific tissues and cells. PMID:20379016

  14. Energy Spectra, Composition, and Other Properties of Ground-Level Events During Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; COhen, C. M. S.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Looper, M. D.; Haggerty, D. K.; Mason, G. M.; Mazur, J. E.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2012-01-01

    We report spacecraft measurements of the energy spectra of solar protons and other solar energetic particle properties during the 16 Ground Level Events (GLEs) of Solar Cycle 23. The measurements were made by eight instruments on the ACE, GOES, SAMPBX, and STEREO spacecraft and extend from approximately 0.1 to approximately 500-700 MeV. All of the proton spectra exhibit spectral breaks at energies ranging from approximately 2 to approximately 46 MeV and all are well fit by a double power-law shape. A comparison of GLE events with a larger sample of other solar energetic particle (SEP) events shows that the typical spectral indices are harder in GLE events, with a mean slope of -3.18 at greater than 40 MeV/nuc. In the energy range 45 to 80 MeV/nucleon about approximately 50% of GLE events have properties in common with impulsive He-3-rich SEP events, including enrichments in Ne/O, Fe/O, Ne-22/Ne-20, and elevated mean charge states of Fe. These He-3 rich events contribute to the seed population accelerated by CME-driven shocks. An analysis is presented of whether highly-ionized Fe ions observed in five events could be due to electron stripping during shock acceleration in the low corona. Making use of stripping calculations by others and a coronal density model, we can account for events with mean Fe charge states of (Q(sub Fe) is approximately equal to +20 if the acceleration starts at approximately 1.24-1.6 solar radii, consistent with recent comparisons of CME trajectories and type-II radio bursts. In addition, we suggest that gradual stripping of remnant ions from earlier large SEP events may also contribute a highly-ionized suprathermal seed population. We also discuss how observed SEP spectral slopes relate to the energetics of particle acceleration in GLE and other large SEP events.

  15. Energy Spectra, Composition, and Other Properties of Ground-Level Events During Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Looper, M. D.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Haggerty, D. K.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Mason, G. M.; Mazur, J. E.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2012-10-01

    We report spacecraft measurements of the energy spectra of solar protons and other solar energetic particle properties during the 16 Ground Level Events (GLEs) of Solar Cycle 23. The measurements were made by eight instruments on the ACE, GOES, SAMPEX, and STEREO spacecraft and extend from ˜0.1 to ˜500-700 MeV. All of the proton spectra exhibit spectral breaks at energies ranging from ˜2 to ˜46 MeV and all are well fit by a double power-law shape. A comparison of GLE events with a larger sample of other solar energetic particle (SEP) events shows that the typical spectral indices are harder in GLE events, with a mean slope of -3.18 at >40 MeV/nuc. In the energy range 45 to 80 MeV/nucleon about ˜50 % of GLE events have properties in common with impulsive 3He-rich SEP events, including enrichments in Ne/O, Fe/O, 22Ne/20Ne, and elevated mean charge states of Fe. These 3He-rich events contribute to the seed population accelerated by CME-driven shocks. An analysis is presented of whether highly-ionized Fe ions observed in five events could be due to electron stripping during shock acceleration in the low corona. Making use of stripping calculations by others and a coronal density model, we can account for events with mean Fe charge states of < Q Fe>?+20 if the acceleration starts at ˜1.24-1.6 solar radii, consistent with recent comparisons of CME trajectories and type-II radio bursts. In addition, we suggest that gradual stripping of remnant ions from earlier large SEP events may also contribute a highly-ionized suprathermal seed population. We also discuss how observed SEP spectral slopes relate to the energetics of particle acceleration in GLE and other large SEP events.

  16. A future bamboo-structure residential building prototype in China: Life cycle assessment of energy use and carbon emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongwei Yu; Hongwei Tan; Yingjun Ruan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the material-based energy use and carbon emission over the life cycle of a bamboo-structure residential building prototype with innovative insulation technologies are analyzed. In comparison with a typical brick-concrete building, the bamboo-structure building requires less energy and emits less carbon dioxide to meet the identical functional requirements, i.e., envelope insulation and structure supporting. In order to systematically

  17. A high-rate and long cycle life aqueous electrolyte battery for grid-scale energy storage.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Huggins, Robert A; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    New types of energy storage are needed in conjunction with the deployment of solar, wind and other volatile renewable energy sources and their integration with the electric grid. No existing energy storage technology can economically provide the power, cycle life and energy efficiency needed to respond to the costly short-term transients that arise from renewables and other aspects of grid operation. Here we demonstrate a new type of safe, fast, inexpensive, long-life aqueous electrolyte battery, which relies on the insertion of potassium ions into a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a novel activated carbon/polypyrrole hybrid anode. The cathode reacts rapidly with very little hysteresis. The hybrid anode uses an electrochemically active additive to tune its potential. This high-rate, high-efficiency cell has a 95% round-trip energy efficiency when cycled at a 5C rate, and a 79% energy efficiency at 50C. It also has zero-capacity loss after 1,000 deep-discharge cycles. PMID:23093186

  18. Effect of tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) at environmental concentration on the levels of cell cycle regulatory protein expression in primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianghao Ren; Yu Jin Lee; Ho Jae Han; In S. Kim

    2008-01-01

    Tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) is a typical organophosphate flame retardant and has been designated as a micropollutant in aquatic environment. However, the potential effect of TCEP at environmental concentration is mostly unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the renal effect of TCEP at environmental concentration using primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs). The results showed that

  19. Recapitulation of the Sexual Cycle of the Primary Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii: Implications for an Outbreak on Vancouver Island, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Fraser; Ryan L. Subaran; Connie B. Nichols; Joseph Heitman

    2003-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen that exists as three distinct varieties or sibling species: the predominantly opportunistic pathogens C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) and C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype A) and the primary pathogen C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B and C). While serotypes A and D are cosmopolitan, serotypes B and C are typically restricted to

  20. Change of primary cosmic radiation nuclear composition in the energy range 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV

    E-print Network

    T. T. Barnaveli; T. T. Barnaveli; A. P. Chubenko; N. A. Eristavi; I. V. Khaldeeva; N. M. Nesterova; Yu. G. Verbetsky

    2002-08-14

    The dependence E_h (N_e) of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadronic component energy flux on the number N_e of particles in EAS is investigated in the primary energy range of the order of 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV. The work was aimed at checking the existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior at these energies in several independent experiments. The investigation is carried out using large statistical material obtained at different configurations of experimental apparatus and under different triggering conditions. The existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the region Ne > 2*10^6 is confirmed. These irregularities have the character of sharp deeps and are located near the same values of N_e regardless of the experimental material and selection conditions used. So, at recent stage of research the existence of these irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the range of N_e > 2*10^6 may be regarded as reliably established. This fact supports our earlier conclusion on the existence of primary cosmic radiation (PCR) nuclei spectra cutoff effect in the primary energy region 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV.

  1. Development and use of the GREET model to estimate fuel-cycle energy use and emissions of various transportation technologies and fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel- cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides,

  2. Improving the actinides recycling in closed fuel cycles, a major step towards nuclear energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Poinssot, C.; Grandjean, S.; Masson, M. [RadioChemistry and Processes Department, CEA Marcoule, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Bouillis, B.; Warin, D. [Innovation and Industrial Support Direction, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the sustainability of nuclear energy is a longstanding road that requires a stepwise approach to successively tackle the following 3 objectives. First of all, optimize the consumption of natural resource to preserve them for future generations and hence guarantee the energetic independence of the countries (no uranium ore is needed anymore). The current twice-through cycle of Pu implemented by France, UK, Japan and soon China is a first step in this direction and already allows the development and optimization of the relevant industrial processes. It also allows a major improvement regarding the conditioning of the ultimate waste in a durable and robust nuclear glass. Secondly, the recycling of americium could be an interesting option for the future with the deployment of FR fleet to save the repository resource and optimize its use by allowing a denser disposal. It would limit the burden towards the future generations and the need for additional repositories before several centuries. Thirdly, the recycling of the whole minor actinides inventory could be an interesting option for the far-future for strongly decreasing the waste long-term toxicity, down to a few centuries. It would bring the waste issue back within the human history, which should promote its acceptance by the social opinion.

  3. Primary and Compensatory Roles for RB Family Members at Cell Cycle Gene Promoters That Are Deacetylated and Downregulated in Doxorubicin-Induced Senescence of Breast Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Jackson; Olivia M. Pereira-Smith

    2006-01-01

    When treated with DNA-damaging chemotherapy agents, many cancer cells, in vivo and in vitro, undergo a terminal growth arrest and acquire a senescence-like phenotype. We investigated the molecular basis for this in breast cancer cells following a 2-hour treatment with 1 M doxorubicin. Treated cells arrested in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle, with concomitant reductions in S-phase

  4. Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Post; V. H. Dale; D. L. DeAngelis; L. K. Mann; P. J. Mulholland; R. V. ONeill; T.-H. Peng; M. P. Farrell

    1990-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric COâ concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties

  5. Combined solar organic Rankine cycle with reverse osmosis desalination process: Energy, exergy, and cost evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Nafey; M. A. Sharaf

    2010-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have unique properties that are well suited to solar power generation. In this work design and performance calculations are performed using MatLab\\/SimuLink computational environment. The cycle consists of thermal solar collectors (Flat Plate Solar Collector (FPC), or Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC), or Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)) for heat input, expansion turbine for work output, condenser unit

  6. Effect of Energy Expenditure and Training Status on Leptin Response to Sub-Maximal Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Bouassida, Anissa; Chatard, Jean-Claude; Chamari, Karim; Zaouali, Monia; Feki, Youssef; Gharbi, Najoua; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Tabka, Zouhaïr

    2009-01-01

    We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR) and 7 untrained (UTR) subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively) were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP). Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively). [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05) in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01) and [GH] increased (p < 0.01) significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01) and higher (GH: p < 0.01) than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01) during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1) leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal) in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2) volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3) it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of energy expenditure than hormonal or metabolic modifications induced by acute exercise. Key points Trials concerning acute exercise and leptin indicated discrepant results. Acute exercise with energy expenditure higher than 800 kcal can decrease leptinemia. Elite volleyball players presented decreased leptin levels than untrained subjects. PMID:24149525

  7. Characterization of the new free-air primary standard for low-energy X-rays at CMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, Jaroslav; Sochor, Vladimír

    2014-11-01

    In 2011 a decision was made by Czech Metrology Institute to build a free-air ionization chamber (FAC) intended to be used as a primary standard of air kerma rate for low-energy X-rays (photon energy below 50 keV, including mammography X-ray qualities) in order to replace the currently used secondary ionization chamber and to decrease the uncertainty of air kerma reference value. In the period 2011-2012, the FAC has been designed, manufactured and put into operation. Its performance was tested using a calibrated secondary chamber and then by an informal comparison with a national primary standard of BEV (Austria). Physical characteristics of the FAC are described and individual correction factors are discussed focusing on computational methods utilized in their estimation. Summary of the correction factors with the uncertainty budget is presented.

  8. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from low-Earth orbit satellites sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate near real time fire emissions estimates are required for air quality forecasts. To date, most approaches are based on satellite-derived estimates of fire radiative power (FRP), which can be converted to fire radiative energy (FRE) which is directly related to fire emissions. Uncertainties in these FRE estimations are often substantial. This is for a large part because the most often used low-Earth orbit satellite-based instruments like the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have a relatively poor sampling of the usually pronounced fire diurnal cycle. In this paper we explore the spatial variation of this fire diurnal cycle and its drivers. Specifically, we assess how representing the fire diurnal cycle affects FRP and FRE estimations when using data collected at MODIS overpasses. Using data assimilation we explored three different methods to estimate hourly FRE, based on an incremental sophistication of parameterizing the fire diurnal cycle. We sampled data from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) at MODIS detection opportunities to drive the three approaches. The full SEVIRI time-series, providing full coverage of the diurnal cycle, were used to evaluate the results. Our study period comprised three years (2010-2012), and we focussed on Africa and the Mediterranean basin to avoid the use of potentially lower quality SEVIRI data obtained at very far off-nadir view angles. We found that the fire diurnal cycle varies substantially over the study region, and depends on both fuel and weather conditions. For example, more "intense" fires characterized by a fire diurnal cycle with high peak fire activity, long duration over the day, and with nighttime fire activity are most common in areas of large fire size (i.e., large burned area per fire event). These areas are most prevalent in relatively arid regions. Ignoring the fire diurnal cycle as done currently in some approaches caused structural errors, while generally overestimating FRE. Including information on the climatology of the fire diurnal cycle provided the most promising avenue to improve FRE estimations. This approach also improved the performance on relatively high spatiotemporal resolutions, although only when aggregating model results to coarser spatial and/or temporal scale good correlation was found with the full SEVIRI hourly reference dataset. In general model performance was best in areas of frequent fire and low errors of omission. We recommend the use of regionally varying fire diurnal cycle information within the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) used in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Services, which will improve FRE estimates and may allow for further reconciliation of biomass burning emission estimates from different inventories.

  9. A new model of dependence of secondary electron emission yield on primary electron energy for application to polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cazaux

    2005-01-01

    A new analytical model for the secondary electron (SE) emission yield, delta, is applied to polymers. It involves a parameter k, k = zC\\/R, between the most probable energy dissipation depth, zC, of primary electrons (PE) and their range R, where k ranges from 0.5 and 0.45 for low-density, low atomic-weight materials. Reduced yield curves (RYC), delta\\/delta(max) versus E^0\\/E^0_{(\\\\max)} ,

  10. Assessment of the load management potential of the annual cycle energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuliasha, M.A.; Poore, W.P.

    1984-03-01

    This study evaluates the load management potential of the ACES from the perspective of the electric utility. The primary objective of the study was to quantify the revenue requirements to serve an ACES-equipped house as compared with a hot water heater. Two utilities, Arkansas Power and Light Company (APL) and Duke Power Company (Duke), were selected for analysis based on climatic and utility system characteristics that appear favorable for the ACES concept. The selection criteria included five utility characteristics: load growth, reserve margin, peak season, average energy cost, and on-peak/off-peak cost differential. Four customer demographic criteria were also considered including residential growth rates, saturation of electric space conditioning, necessity for air conditioning, and ratio of heating to cooling requirement. Detailed analyses were made of generation expansion plans, system reliability, and production costs for various load growth scenarios and assumed penetrations of AECS, and the total revenue requirements were calculated for each case. The four scenarios investigated were (1) normal load growth and moderate ACES penetration; (2) normal load growth and high ACES penetration; (3) low load growth and moderate ACES penetration; and (4) low load growth and high ACES penetration. The revenue requirements developed for each of these scenarios were compared with those of a base case without any ACES involving either normal or low system load growth.

  11. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-21

    The Rock Cycle SciPack explores different kinds and categories of rocks, the major processes through which they form and the cyclical nature of the formation and transformation of rock materials. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to the rock cycle as part of the transfer and transformation of matter and energy in Earth's system as well as a sense of the time scales involved and how rocks provide information about their own development and the history of Earth.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Rock Cycle: Categories by Process? List the three different types of rock. ? Make appropriate observations about rocks (e.g. describe rock composition and texture).? Make appropriate observations about the general environments in which the rocks formed.Rock Cycle: Environments of Formation? Realize that different rocks have specific origins, and that they are the product of any number of processes.? Identify the processes through which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock form.? Explain the role of intermediary materials such as sediment and magma in the formation of different kinds of rock.? Provide an overarching description of the steps in the rock cycle, the formation of sedimentary rock, the re-forming of rock by heat and pressure, and the process by which re-formed rock can return to the surface.Rock Cycle: Cycling? Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.? Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.? Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.Rock Cycle: Earth's Autobiography? State the amount of time over which the rock cycle has been in operation (4 billion years rather than 40 million or 400 million).? Recognize that the processes at work in the present are the same as those at work in the distant past.? Describe how rock formations and characteristics can be used to determine how different rock formed, making appropriate interpretations about the source of the rock, history and processes, and the environment of formation.? Describe how rocks provide a history of the changing surface of Earth and its lifeforms.

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  13. Solar energy collecting system using a primary reflector based on a pyramid structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    A primary reflector formed as a modified pyramid having a polygonal base located in open exposure to the sun has faces above the base which include reflecting surfaces that intersect at obtuse angles along lines lying in planes perpendicular to the base. The reflecting surfaces form a dihedral and are constructed of an externally mirrored material to reflect light impingent

  14. Energy, angular and spatial distributions of primary electrons inside photoconducting materials for digital mammography: Monte Carlo simulation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellaris, T.; Spyrou, G.; Tzanakos, G.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2007-11-01

    Materials such as a-Se, a-As2Se3, GaSe, GaAs, Ge, CdTe, CdZnTe, Cd0.8Zn0.2Te, ZnTe, PbO, TlBr, PbI2 and HgI2 are potential candidates as photoconductors in direct detectors for digital mammography. The x-ray induced primary electrons inside a photoconductor's bulk comprise the initial signal that propagates and forms the final signal (image) on the detector's electrodes. An already developed model for a-Se has been properly extended to simulate the primary electron production in the materials mentioned. Primary electron characteristics, such as their energy, angular and spatial distributions that strongly influence the characteristics of the final image, were studied for both monoenergetic and polyenergetic x-ray spectra in the mammographic energy range. The characteristic feature in the electron energy distributions for PbI2 and HgI2 is the atomic deexcitation peaks, whereas for the rest of the materials their shape can also be influenced by the electrons produced from primary photons. The electrons have a small tendency to be forward ejected whereas they prefer to be ejected perpendicular (? = ?/2) to the incident beam's axis and at two lobes around phiv = 0 and phiv = ?. At practical mammographic energies (15-40 keV) a-Se, a-As2Se3 and Ge have the minimum azimuthal uniformity whereas CdZnTe, Cd0.8Zn0.2Te and CdTe the maximum one. The spatial distributions for a-Se, a-As2Se3, GaSe, GaAs, Ge, PbO and TlBr are almost independent of the polyenergetic spectrum, while those for CdTe, CdZnTe, Cd0.8Zn0.2Te, ZnTe, PbI2 and HgI2 have a spectrum dependence. In the practical mammographic energy range and at this primitive stage of primary electron production, a-Se has the best inherent spatial resolution as compared to the rest of the photoconductors. PbO has the minimum bulk space in which electrons can be produced whereas CdTe has the maximum one.

  15. Energy cycle associated with Inter-member Variability in a large ensemble of simulations of the Canadian RCM (CRCM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiema, Oumarou; Laprise, René

    2015-04-01

    In an ensemble of high-resolution Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations where different members are initialised at different times, the individual members provide different, but equally acceptable, weather sequences. In others words, RCM simulations exibit a kind of uncertainty called Internal Variability (or Inter-member Variability - IV), defined as the inter-member spread between members of the ensemble of simulations. Our recent studies reveal that RCM's IV can be associated with energy conversions similar to those taking place in weather systems. By analogy with the classical work on global energetics of weather systems, a formulation of an energy cycle for IV has been developed that is applicable over limited-area domains. Prognostic equations for ensemble-mean kinetic energy and available enthalpy are decomposed into contributions due to ensemble-mean (EM) variables and those due to deviations from the ensemble mean (IV). Together these equations constitute an energy cycle for IV in ensemble simulations of a RCM. By using a 50-member ensemble of one-year simulations that differ only in their initial conditions (IC) and performed with the fifth-generation of the Canadian RCM (CRCM5) over an eastern North America domain, we evaluate the various energy reservoirs of IV and exchange terms between reservoirs. Results show a remarkably close parallel between the energy conversions associated with IV in ensemble simulations of RCM and the energy conversions in weather systems.

  16. Energy cycle associated with inter-member variability in a large ensemble of simulations with the Canadian RCM (CRCM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiéma, Oumarou; Laprise, René

    2015-05-01

    In an ensemble of Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations where different members are initialised at different times but driven by identical lateral boundary conditions, the individual members provide different, but equally acceptable, weather sequences. In others words, RCM simulations exhibit the phenomenon of Internal Variability (or inter-member variability—IV), defined as the spread between members in an ensemble of simulations. Our recent studies reveal that RCM's IV is associated with energy conversions similar to those taking place in weather systems. By analogy with the classical work on global energetics of weather systems, a formulation of an energy cycle for IV has been developed that is applicable over limited-area domains. Prognostic equations for ensemble-mean kinetic energy and available enthalpy are decomposed into contributions due to ensemble-mean variables and those due to deviations from the ensemble mean (IV). Together these equations constitute an energy cycle for IV in ensemble simulations of an RCM. A 50-member ensemble of 1-year simulations that differ only in their initial conditions was performed with the fifth-generation Canadian RCM (CRCM5) over an eastern North America domain. The various energy reservoirs of IV and exchange terms between reservoirs were evaluated; the results show a remarkably close parallel between the energy conversions associated with IV in ensemble simulations of RCM and the energy conversions taking place in weather systems in the real atmosphere.

  17. Energy and exergy analysis of an efficient organic Rankine cycle for low temperature power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Sami

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the performance of an advanced Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) using a heated chemical instead of steam as found in the typical Rankine Cycle. Chemicals used are the new quaternary refrigerant mixtures that are environmentally-friendly and have efficient thermodynamic properties at low and medium waste heat temperatures compared to other organic and non-organic fluids.This mixture boils

  18. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an ethanol production process based on blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dexin; Hu, Zushou; Choi, Dong Gu; Thomas, Valerie M; Realff, Matthew J; Chance, Ronald R

    2010-11-15

    Ethanol can be produced via an intracellular photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), excreted through the cell walls, collected from closed photobioreactors as a dilute ethanol-in-water solution, and purified to fuel grade ethanol. This sequence forms the basis for a biofuel production process that is currently being examined for its commercial potential. In this paper, we calculate the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for three different system scenarios for this proposed ethanol production process, using process simulations and thermodynamic calculations. The energy required for ethanol separation increases rapidly for low initial concentrations of ethanol, and, unlike other biofuel systems, there is little waste biomass available to provide process heat and electricity to offset those energy requirements. The ethanol purification process is a major consumer of energy and a significant contributor to the carbon footprint. With a lead scenario based on a natural-gas-fueled combined heat and power system to provide process electricity and extra heat and conservative assumptions around the ethanol separation process, the net life cycle energy consumption, excluding photosynthesis, ranges from 0.55 MJ/MJ(EtOH) down to 0.20 MJ/ MJ(EtOH), and the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions range from 29.8 g CO?e/MJ(EtOH) down to 12.3 g CO?e/MJ(EtOH) for initial ethanol concentrations from 0.5 wt % to 5 wt %. In comparison to gasoline, these predicted values represent 67% and 87% reductions in the carbon footprint for this ethanol fuel on a energy equivalent basis. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions can be further reduced via employment of higher efficiency heat exchangers in ethanol purification and/ or with use of solar thermal for some of the process heat. PMID:20968295

  19. Analysis of a novel solar energy-powered Rankine cycle for combined power and heat generation using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. R. Zhang; H. Yamaguchi; D. Uneno; K. Fujima; M. Enomoto; N. Sawada

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of a solar energy-powered Rankine thermodynamic cycle utilizing an innovative new concept, which uses supercritical carbon dioxide as a working fluid, is presented. In this system, a truly ‘natural’ working fluid, carbon dioxide, is utilized to generate firstly electricity power and secondly high-grade heat power and low-grade heat power. The uniqueness of the system is in the way

  20. Comparative Life Cycle Assessments of Lignocellulosic and Algae Biomass Conversion to Various Energy Products through Different Pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Juliana Pinilla

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy has the potential to reduce the world's dependence on fossil fuels, and to decrease the CO2 emissions due to fossil combustion. Lignocellulosic and algae biomass have been presented as promising feedstocks for bioenergy production.\\u000aIn this study, a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been developed to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with different energy products via different routes

  1. Multi-vane expanders as prime movers for low-grade energy organic Rankine-cycle engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Badr; P. W. OCallaghan; M. Hussein; S. D. Probert

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of the prime mover in a low-grade energy Rankine-cycle engine is one of the most important factors affecting the overall system performance. A survey of published data concerning various types of expander in use in Rankine engines and an analysis based on the concept of similarity shows that, for the low power outputs, positive-displacement expanders have potential advantages

  2. Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, trace gases, and aerosols in Amazonia: The LBA-EUSTACH experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Andreae; P. Artaxo; C. Brandão; F. E. Carswell; P. Ciccioli; A. L. da Costa; A. D. Culf; J. L. Esteves; J. H. C. Gash; J. Grace; P. Kabat; J. Lelieveld; Y. Malhi; A. O. Manzi; F. X. Meixner; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; M. d. L. P. Ruivo; M. A. F. da Silva-Dias; P. Stefani; R. Valentini; J. von Jouanne; M. J. Waterloo

    2002-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin was investigated in the project European Studies on Trace Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry as a Contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). We present an overview of the design of the project, the measurement sites and methods, and the meteorological conditions during the

  3. Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Wang, Michael; Bloyd, Cary; Putsche, Vicky

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts. PMID:19245012

  4. Integrated operation of the photorespiratory cycle and cytosolic metabolism in the modulation of primary nitrogen assimilation and export of organic N-transport compounds from leaves: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Jitendra B

    2014-02-15

    Photorespiration is generally considered to be an essentially dissipative process, although it performs some protective and essential functions. A theoretical appraisal indicates that the loss of freshly assimilated CO2 due to photorespiration in well-watered plants may not be as high as generally believed. Even under moderately adverse conditions, these losses may not exceed 10%. The photorespiratory metabolism of the source leaves of well-watered and well-nourished crop plants ought to be different from that of other leaves because the fluxes of the export of both carbohydrates and organic N-transport compounds in source leaves is quite high. With a heuristic approach that involved the dovetailing of certain metabolic steps with the photorespiratory cycle (PR-cycle), a novel network is proposed to operate in the source-leaves of well-watered and well-nourished plants. This network allows for the diversion of metabolites from their cyclic-routes in sizeable quantities. With the removal of considerable quantities of glycine and serine from the cyclic route, the number of RuBP oxygenation events would be several times those of the formation of hydroxypyruvate. Thus, to an extreme extent, photorespiratory metabolism would become open-ended and involve much less futile recycling of glycine and serine. Conversion of glyoxylate to glycine has been proposed to be a crucial step in the determination of the relative rates of the futile (cyclic) and anabolic (open-ended) routes. Thus, in the source leaves of well-watered and well-nourished plants, the importance of the cyclic route is limited to the salvaging of photorespiratory intermediates for the regeneration of RuBP. The proposed network is resilient enough to coordinate the rates of the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen in accordance with the moisture and N-fertility statuses of the soil. PMID:24157314

  5. 78 FR 43870 - Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project; Preliminary Staff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification...DOE) announces the availability of the Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification...environmental impacts associated with the Hydrogen Energy California's (HECA)...

  6. Formulating energy policies related to fossil fuel use: Critical uncertainties in the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Post, W.M.; Dale, V.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Neill, R.V.; Peng, T.-H.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs. 87 refs.

  7. Conversion of fossil and biomass fuels to electric power and transportation fuels by high efficiency integrated plasma fuel cell (IPFC) energy cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meyer Steinberg

    2006-01-01

    The IPFC is a high efficiency energy cycle, which converts fossil and biomass fuel to electricity and co-product hydrogen and liquid transportation fuels (gasoline and diesel). The cycle consists of two basic units, a hydrogen plasma black reactor (HPBR) which converts the carbonaceous fuel feedstock to elemental carbon and hydrogen and CO gas. The carbon is used as fuel in

  8. Pyroelectric energy harvesting using Olsen cycles in purified and porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] thin films

    E-print Network

    Pilon, Laurent

    Pyroelectric energy harvesting using Olsen cycles in purified and porous poly(vinylidene fluoride harvesting using Olsen cycles in purified and porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P performed on three different types of 60/40 poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P

  9. The influence of the rotational energy of a flywheel on the load pulse sum during pedalling on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Voigt, B; von Kiparski, R

    1989-01-01

    Employing seven male subjects, the influence of four different ergometer flywheels with the moments of inertia at the crankshaft (J') = 5.5, 10.5, 16.5, and 19.5 kg.m2 on 6-min load pulse sum (LPS), the heart rate integrated over 6-min was investigated. The J' was demonstrated to influence LPS at each of the corresponding rotational energies of the flywheels (75, 144, 226 and 276 J at 50 rev.min-1) in the four work-load steps (50, 100, 150 and 200 W). Between the values J' = 5.5 kg.m2 and 10.5 kg.m2 the LPS decreases, to rise again in the range J' = 10.5 kg.m2-19.5 kg.m2. For equal work-loads the minimum LPS was reached at a J' of 10.5 kg.m2. For the workloads of 100, 150 and 200 W it was possible to show statistically significant differences. The moment of inertia of ergometer flywheels J has a smoothing effect on the fluctuations of the rotational speed which are unavoidable during work on a cycle ergometer. The flywheel stores the leg forces acting on the pedals as rotational energy and opposes any rotational acceleration. If the J used is too small, equalization of the fluctuations of the rotational speed remains unsatisfactory. Flywheels with larger J require larger torques at the crankshaft for acceleration. For the most effective delivery of work to a cycle ergometer, an optimal rotational energy of the flywheel was found. For equal physical work, smaller or larger rotational energies require a larger expenditure of biological energy. A J' = 11 +/- 2 kg.m2 was incorporated into the draft for the German standard DIN 13,405 -- cycle-type ergometers. PMID:2737187

  10. Change of primary cosmic radiation nuclear composition in the energy range 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV

    E-print Network

    Barnaveli, A T; Chubenko, A P; Eristavi, N A; Khaldeeva, I V; Nesterova, N M; Verbetsky, Yu G; Verbetsky, Yu.G.

    2002-01-01

    The dependence E_h (N_e) of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadronic component energy flux on the number N_e of particles in EAS is investigated in the primary energy range of the order of 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV. The work was aimed at checking the existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior at these energies in several independent experiments. The investigation is carried out using large statistical material obtained at different configurations of experimental apparatus and under different triggering conditions. The existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the region Ne > 2*10^6 is confirmed. These irregularities have the character of sharp deeps and are located near the same values of N_e regardless of the experimental material and selection conditions used. So, at recent stage of research the existence of these irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the range of N_e > 2*10^6 may be regarded as reliably established. This fact supports our earlier conclusion on the existence of primary...

  11. Research in Support of the Use of Rankine Cycle Energy Conversion Systems for Space Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahey, Richard T., Jr.; Dhir, Vijay

    2004-01-01

    This is the report of a Scientific Working Group (SWG) formed by NASA to determine the feasibility of using a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor and Rankine energy conversion cycle for dual purpose power and propulsion in space. This is a high level technical report which is intended for use by NASA management in program planning. The SWG was composed of a team of specialists in nuclear energy and multiphase flow and heat transfer technology from academia, national laboratories, NASA and industry. The SWG has identified the key technology issues that need to be addressed and have recommended an integrated short term (approx. 2 years) and a long term (approx. 10 year) research and development (R&D) program to qualify a Rankine cycle power plant for use in space. This research is ultimately intended to give NASA and its contractors the ability to reliably predict both steady and transient multiphase flow and heat transfer phenomena at reduced gravity, so they can analyze and optimize designs and scale-up experimental data on Rankine cycle components and systems. In addition, some of these results should also be useful for the analysis and design of various multiphase life support and thermal management systems being considered by NASA.

  12. Life cycle assessment of energy self-sufficiency systems based on agricultural residues for organic arable farms.

    PubMed

    Kimming, M; Sundberg, C; Nordberg, A; Baky, A; Bernesson, S; Norén, O; Hansson, P-A

    2011-01-01

    The agricultural industry today consumes large amounts of fossil fuels. This study used consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) to analyse two potential energy self-sufficient systems for organic arable farms, based on agricultural residues. The analysis focused on energy balance, resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A scenario based on straw was found to require straw harvest from 25% of the farm area; 45% of the total energy produced from the straw was required for energy carrier production and GHG emissions were reduced by 9% compared with a fossil fuel-based reference scenario. In a scenario based on anaerobic digestion of ley, the corresponding figures were 13%, 24% and 35%. The final result was sensitive to assumptions regarding, e.g., soil carbon content and handling of by-products. PMID:20970998

  13. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem. PMID:24787319

  14. Life Cycle Comparison of Waste-to-Energy to Sanitary Landfill

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to evaluate the environmental footprint of products, processes, and services. An LCA allows decision makers to compare products and processes through systematic evaluation of supply chains. Also known as a ?cradle-to-grave? approach, LCA ev...

  15. Cycling Performance of the Iron-Chromium Redox Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Extended charge-discharge cycling of this electrochemical storage system at 65 C was performed on 14.5 sq cm single cells and a four cell, 867 sq cm bipolar stack. Both the anolyte and catholyte reactant fluids contained 1 molar concentrations of iron and chromium chlorides in hydrochloric acid and were separated by a low-selectivity, cation-exchange membrane. The effect of cycling on the chromium electrode and the cation-exchange membrane was determined. Bismuth and bismuth-lead catalyzed chromium electrodes and a radiation-grafted polyethylene membrane were evaluated by cycling between 5 and 85 percent state-of-charge at 80 mA/sq cm and by periodic charge-discharge polarization measurements to 140 mA/sq cm. Gradual performance losses were observed during cycling but were recoverable by completely discharging the system. Good scale-up to the 867 sq cm stack was achieved. The only difference appeared to be an unexplained resistive-type loss which resulted in a 75 percent W-hr efficiency (at 80 mA/sq cm versus 81 percent for the 14.5 sq cm cell). A new rebalance cell was developed to maintain reactant ionic balance. The cell successfully reduced ferric ions in the iron reactant stream to ferrous ions while chloride ions were oxidized to chlorine gas.

  16. Users' Requirements for Environmental Effects From Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Their Fuel Cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Carreter; M. Gray; E. Falck; A. Bonne; M. Bell

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is to support the safe, sustainable, economic and proliferation resistant use of nuclear technology to meet the needs of the 21. century. The first part of the project focusses on the development of an understanding of the requirements of possible users of innovative concepts for reactors

  17. Wind Energy Electrical Power Generation: Industrial Life Cycle of a Radical Innovation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Dismukes; L. K. Miller; A. Solocha; S. Jagani; J. A. Bers

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses past, current and future development of the wind electrical power industry, that began prior to 1890 in Cleveland, Ohio and Askov, Denmark... Overcoming technological, business, societal and political hurdles required approximately 120 years of exploration to establish wind electricity generation as a radical innovation entering the acceleration stage of the industrial technology life cycle. Further growth and

  18. Vapor cycle energy system for implantable circulatory assist devices. Annual report, Jul 1973Jul 1974

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagen

    1974-01-01

    The report describes the development status of a heart assist system ; driven by a nuclear fueled, electronically controlled vapor cycle engine termed ; the tidal regenerator engine (TRE). The TRE pressurization (typically from 5-160 ; psia) is controlled by a torque motor coupled to a displacer. The electrical ; power for the sensor, electronic logic and actuator is provided

  19. Vapor cycle energy system for implantable circulatory assist devices. Annual progress report, Jul 1975May 1976

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Watelet; A. E. Ruggles; K. G. Hagen

    1976-01-01

    The development status of a heart assist system driven by a nuclear fueled, electronically controlled vapor cycle engine termed the tidal regenerator engine (TRE) is described. The TRE pressurization is controlled by a torque motor coupled to a displacer. The electrical power for the sensor, electronic logic and actuator is provided by thermoelectric modules interposed between the engine superheater and

  20. Vapor cycle energy system for implantable circulatory assist devices. Final summary May--Oct 1976

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Watelet; A. E. Ruggles; K. G. Hagen

    1977-01-01

    The report describes the development status of a heart assist system driven by a nuclear-fueled, electronically controlled vapor cycle engine termed the tidal regenerator engine (TRE). The TRE pressurization is controlled by a torque motor coupled to a displacer. The electrical power for the sensor, electronic logic and actuator is provided by thermoelectric modules interposed between the engine superheater and

  1. Energy 3: Fossil Fuel Use and its Consequences - The Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Linda Vanasupa

    This video goes through the carbon cycle and describes how using fossil fuels threatens the foundation of the aquatic global food chain. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

  2. Method applied to the background analysis of energy data to be considered for the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD).

    PubMed

    Fazio, Simone; Garraín, Daniel; Mathieux, Fabrice; De la Rúa, Cristina; Recchioni, Marco; Lechón, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Under the framework of the European Platform on Life Cycle Assessment, the European Reference Life-Cycle Database (ELCD - developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission), provides core Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data from front-running EU-level business associations and other sources. The ELCD contains energy-related data on power and fuels. This study describes the methods to be used for the quality analysis of energy data for European markets (available in third-party LC databases and from authoritative sources) that are, or could be, used in the context of the ELCD. The methodology was developed and tested on the energy datasets most relevant for the EU context, derived from GaBi (the reference database used to derive datasets for the ELCD), Ecoinvent, E3 and Gemis. The criteria for the database selection were based on the availability of EU-related data, the inclusion of comprehensive datasets on energy products and services, and the general approval of the LCA community. The proposed approach was based on the quality indicators developed within the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook, further refined to facilitate their use in the analysis of energy systems. The overall Data Quality Rating (DQR) of the energy datasets can be calculated by summing up the quality rating (ranging from 1 to 5, where 1 represents very good, and 5 very poor quality) of each of the quality criteria indicators, divided by the total number of indicators considered. The quality of each dataset can be estimated for each indicator, and then compared with the different databases/sources. The results can be used to highlight the weaknesses of each dataset and can be used to guide further improvements to enhance the data quality with regard to the established criteria. This paper describes the application of the methodology to two exemplary datasets, in order to show the potential of the methodological approach. The analysis helps LCA practitioners to evaluate the usefulness of the ELCD datasets for their purposes, and dataset developers and reviewers to derive information that will help improve the overall DQR of databases. PMID:25897408

  3. Solar cycle dependence of solar wind energy coupling to the thermosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Burke

    2011-01-01

    Efficient solar wind energy coupling to storm time thermosphere depends on F10.7Estimates storm time energy partitioning between thermosphere and ring currentMethod adapts to specify solar wind\\/thermosphere energy coupling during storms

  4. Effects of thermal cycling and plastic deformation upon the Gibbs energy barriers to martensitic transformation in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Co alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Baruj; A Fernández Guillermet; M Sade

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study of the effect of thermal cycling (TC) upon the fcc\\/hcp martensitic transformation (MT) in the binary system Fe-Mn, we evaluated the so-called resistance-to-start-the-transformation energy (RSTE) by applying models for the Gibbs energy of the fcc and hcp phases, and found a well defined pattern of variation as a function of the number of phase transformation cycles.

  5. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater. PMID:24742289

  6. Resonance Raman Analysis of the Mechanism of Energy Storage and Chromophore Distortion in the Primary Visual Photoproduct†

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Elsa C. Y.; Ganim, Ziad; Kazmi, Manija A.; Chang, Belinda S. W.; Sakmar, Thomas P.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The vibrational structure of the chromophore in the primary photoproduct of vision, bathorhodopsin, is examined to determine the cause of the anomalously decoupled and intense C11=C12 hydrogen-out-of-plane (HOOP) wagging modes and their relation to energy storage in the primary photoproduct. Low-temperature (77 K) resonance Raman spectra of Glu181 and Ser186 mutants of bovine rhodopsin reveal only mild mutagenic perturbations of the photoproduct spectrum suggesting that dipolar, electrostatic, or steric interactions with these residues do ded by NIHnot cause the HOOP mode frequencies and intensities. Density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the effect of geometric distortion on the HOOP coupling. The decoupled HOOP modes can be simulated by imposing ?40° twists in the same direction about the C11=C12 and C12-C13 bonds. Sequence comparison and examination of the binding site suggests that these distortions are caused by three constraints consisting of an electrostatic anchor between the protonated Schiff base and the Glu113 counterion, as well as steric interactions of the 9- and 13-methyl groups with surrounding residues. This distortion stores light energy that is used to drive the subsequent protein conformational changes that activate rhodopsin. PMID:15323547

  7. Resonance Raman analysis of the mechanism of energy storage and chromophore distortion in the primary visual photoproduct.

    PubMed

    Yan, Elsa C Y; Ganim, Ziad; Kazmi, Manija A; Chang, Belinda S W; Sakmar, Thomas P; Mathies, Richard A

    2004-08-31

    The vibrational structure of the chromophore in the primary photoproduct of vision, bathorhodopsin, is examined to determine the cause of the anomalously decoupled and intense C(11)=C(12) hydrogen-out-of-plane (HOOP) wagging modes and their relation to energy storage in the primary photoproduct. Low-temperature (77 K) resonance Raman spectra of Glu181 and Ser186 mutants of bovine rhodopsin reveal only mild mutagenic perturbations of the photoproduct spectrum suggesting that dipolar, electrostatic, or steric interactions with these residues do not cause the HOOP mode frequencies and intensities. Density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the effect of geometric distortion on the HOOP coupling. The decoupled HOOP modes can be simulated by imposing approximately 40 degrees twists in the same direction about the C(11)=C(12) and C(12)-C(13) bonds. Sequence comparison and examination of the binding site suggests that these distortions are caused by three constraints consisting of an electrostatic anchor between the protonated Schiff base and the Glu113 counterion, as well as steric interactions of the 9- and 13-methyl groups with surrounding residues. This distortion stores light energy that is used to drive the subsequent protein conformational changes that activate rhodopsin. PMID:15323547

  8. The Energy Return on Energy Investment (EROI) of Photovoltaics: Methodology and Comparisons with Fossil Fuel Life Cycles

    E-print Network

    with Fossil Fuel Life Cycles Marco Raugei*1,2 , Pere Fullana-i-Palmer1 and Vasilis Fthenakis2,3 1 UNESCO Chair-term viability. The EROI of conventional thermal electricity from fossil fuels has been viewed as being much and present updated EROI values for a range of modern PV systems, in comparison to conventional fossil

  9. Fuel cycle strategies for the sustainable development of nuclear energy: The role of accelerator driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2006-06-01

    The paper summarizes fuel cycle strategies which can call for the development of accelerator driven systems (ADS) and shows how an ADS-based transmutation strategy can be envisaged in a regional context. Finally, a path towards the demonstration of the ADS concept will be proposed, which accounts for the need of developing a consistent strategy of dedicated fuel development and validation with long-term irradiation programs.

  10. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  11. Development and evaluation of a Stirling cycle energy conversion system. Annual report, May 1973Jul 1974

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Andrus; R. J. Faeser; J. Moise; L. C. Hoffman; M. I. Rudnicki

    1974-01-01

    The Stirling cycle engine is designed to power implantable heart-assist ; and total-heart-replacement systems. Heat is provided by a ²³⁸Pu ; radioisotope capsule. Program activity during the report period included ; development and in vivo testing of the Heart Assist System including the PAC-4 ; actuator and the MK V engine; design of an advanced actuator, PAC-5; and design, ;

  12. Development and evaluation of a Stirling-Cycle energy conversion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Andrus; R. J. Faeser; J. Moise; L. C. Hoffman; M. I. Rudnicki

    1974-01-01

    The Stirling-Cycle engine is designed to power implantable heart-assist and total-heart-replacement systems. Heat is provided by a PU-238 radioisotope capsule. Program activity during the report period included development and in vivo testing of the Heart Assist System including the PAC-4 actuator and the MK V engine; design of an advanced actuator, PAC-5; and design, fabrication and testing of the THA-1

  13. Life cycle energy and environmental performance of a new university building: modeling challenges and design implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Scheuer; Gregory A Keoleian; Peter Reppe

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive case study life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted of a 7300m2, six-story building with a projected 75 year life span, located on the University of Michigan campus. The bottom three floors and basement are used as classrooms and open-plan offices; the top three floors are used as hotel rooms. An inventory of all installed materials and material replacements

  14. Energy and exergy analysis of a micro-compressed air energy storage and air cycle heating and cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Kim; D. Favrat

    2010-01-01

    Energy storage systems are becoming more important for load leveling, especially for widespread use of intermittent renewable energy. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a promising method for energy storage, but large scale CAES is dependent on suitable underground geology. Micro-CAES with man-made air vessels is a more adaptable solution for distributed future power networks. In this paper, energy and

  15. Variable Sun-Earth energy coupling function: dependence on solar cycle strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    Correlation between monthly geomagnetic activity and monthly sunspot numbers for more than 50 years revealed that the geomagnetic activity during the current solar maximum is lower than what can be expected from the sunspot numbers. This is valid for both one station (Kiruna K index, since 1962) and world-wide average (Kp index, since 1932). The Kp data with more than 80 years record also revealed that monthly Kp for given sunspot numbers are lower during solar cycles with small amplitude than those with large amplitude when we define the cycle from the end of solar maximum to the end of next solar maximum. The result suggests that the Sun-Earth coupling function itself (including the multiplication constant) might be different between different solar cycles when the amplitude is different, and therefore that there might be unknown solar parameter that should contribute to the Sun-Earth coupling. Such a hidden parameter might bridge missing physical link between the solar effect and the terrestrial environment such as the global temperature. Acknowledgement: Kp is an official IAGA endorsed index that is provided by GFZ, Adolf-Schmidt-Observatory Niemegk, Germany. The sunspot numbers are provided by Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels.

  16. Specification and implementation of IFC based performance metrics to support building life cycle assessment of hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Elmer; O'Donnell, James; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-03-29

    Minimizing building life cycle energy consumption is becoming of paramount importance. Performance metrics tracking offers a clear and concise manner of relating design intent in a quantitative form. A methodology is discussed for storage and utilization of these performance metrics through an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) instantiated Building Information Model (BIM). The paper focuses on storage of three sets of performance data from three distinct sources. An example of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilizing the sets of performance data, two discrete performance effectiveness ratios may be computed, thus offering an accurate method of quantitatively assessing building performance.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

  18. A life-cycle analysis on thin-film CdS\\/CdTe PV modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Kato; Takeshi Hibino; Keiichi Komoto; Seijiro Ihara; Shuji Yamamoto; Hideaki Fujihara

    2001-01-01

    Authors have evaluated the life cycle of a thin-film CdS\\/CdTe PV module to estimate the energy payback time (EPT) and the life-cycle CO2 emissions of a residential rooftop PV system using the CdS\\/CdTe PV modules. The primary energy requirement for producing 1m2 of the CdS\\/CdTe PV module was similar to a-Si PV module at annual production scale of 100MW. EPT

  19. Alternative primary energy for power desalting plants in Kuwait: the nuclear option I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Darwisha; Fatima M. Al-Awadhi; Ali Akbar; Ali Darwish

    2009-01-01

    Some countries (e.g. Korea, China, India, Pakistan, Japan) were forced to adopt the nuclear energy option to generate electric power Ep (by nuclear power plants NPP) and desalt seawater D (by nuclear desalination ND) due to the rising cost of fossil fuel and its insecure supply. The increase of fuel oil consumption and cost (more than $100 per barrel) motivate

  20. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions. PMID:16889378

  1. Review of life-cycle approaches coupled with data envelopment analysis: launching the CFP + DEA method for energy policy making.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Iribarren, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Life-cycle (LC) approaches play a significant role in energy policy making to determine the environmental impacts associated with the choice of energy source. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) can be combined with LC approaches to provide quantitative benchmarks that orientate the performance of energy systems towards environmental sustainability, with different implications depending on the selected LC + DEA method. The present paper examines currently available LC + DEA methods and develops a novel method combining carbon footprinting (CFP) and DEA. Thus, the CFP + DEA method is proposed, a five-step structure including data collection for multiple homogenous entities, calculation of target operating points, evaluation of current and target carbon footprints, and result interpretation. As the current context for energy policy implies an anthropocentric perspective with focus on the global warming impact of energy systems, the CFP + DEA method is foreseen to be the most consistent LC + DEA approach to provide benchmarks for energy policy making. The fact that this method relies on the definition of operating points with optimised resource intensity helps to moderate the concerns about the omission of other environmental impacts. Moreover, the CFP + DEA method benefits from CFP specifications in terms of flexibility, understanding, and reporting. PMID:25654136

  2. Review of Life-Cycle Approaches Coupled with Data Envelopment Analysis: Launching the CFP + DEA Method for Energy Policy Making

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Life-cycle (LC) approaches play a significant role in energy policy making to determine the environmental impacts associated with the choice of energy source. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) can be combined with LC approaches to provide quantitative benchmarks that orientate the performance of energy systems towards environmental sustainability, with different implications depending on the selected LC + DEA method. The present paper examines currently available LC + DEA methods and develops a novel method combining carbon footprinting (CFP) and DEA. Thus, the CFP + DEA method is proposed, a five-step structure including data collection for multiple homogenous entities, calculation of target operating points, evaluation of current and target carbon footprints, and result interpretation. As the current context for energy policy implies an anthropocentric perspective with focus on the global warming impact of energy systems, the CFP + DEA method is foreseen to be the most consistent LC + DEA approach to provide benchmarks for energy policy making. The fact that this method relies on the definition of operating points with optimised resource intensity helps to moderate the concerns about the omission of other environmental impacts. Moreover, the CFP + DEA method benefits from CFP specifications in terms of flexibility, understanding, and reporting. PMID:25654136

  3. Energy analysis of conventional and source-separation systems for urban wastewater management using Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Remy, C; Jekel, M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the cumulative energy demand (CED) of different systems for the management of urban wastewater, following the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment. In a hypothetical case study for an urban area (5,000 inhabitants), all relevant processes for wastewater collection and treatment and the construction of infrastructure are described in a substance flow model. The conventional system requires 1,250 MJ/(pe*a), with the operation contributing 45%, the infrastructure 7%, and the system expansion (production of mineral fertilizer and electricity) 48% to the total CED. The separation systems have a CED of 930-1,182 MJ/(pe*a) depending on their configuration. Results of the impact assessment show that recovering energy from the organic matter of toilet wastewater and household biowaste in a digestion process can decrease the cumulative energy demand by 13-26%. Energetic benefits of mineral fertilizer substitution are relatively small compared to the energy recovered from organic matter. Decisive parameters for the energy analysis are the amount of biowaste which is co-digested with toilet wastewater and the energy demand of the vacuum plant. PMID:22173404

  4. On the study of energy performance and life cycle cost of smart window

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Sekhar; Kenneth Lim Cher Toon

    1998-01-01

    With worldwide energy cost rising significantly, there has been a pressing need to reduce the burning of fossil fuels and subsequently energy consumption. This, coupled with the prospect of global warming threatening human habitation, has made countries including Singapore more conscious and aware of the energy problem at hand. This paper deals with smart window, a double glazing unit where

  5. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert J. Juhasz; Jerzy T. Sawicki

    2004-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a ``partial energy conversion'' system, consisting of a high

  6. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-03-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total primary particulate matter (PM), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7%, 20%, 41%, 34%, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and partial implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17% (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12% and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 emissions and thereby concentrations of negative-forcing sulfate particles. Expanded control of emissions of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols from small industrial and residential sources is recommended, and a more comprehensive emission control strategy targeting a wider range of pollutants and taking account of more diverse environmental impacts is also urgently needed.

  7. NV Energy Solar Integration Study: Cycling and Movements of Conventional Generators for Balancing Services

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin

    2011-07-01

    With an increasing penetration level of solar power in the southern Nevada system, the impact of solar on system operations needs to be carefully studied from various perspectives. Qualitatively, it is expected that the balancing requirements to compensate for solar power variability will be larger in magnitude; meanwhile, generators providing load following and regulation services will be moved up or down more frequently. One of the most important tasks is to quantitatively evaluate the cycling and movements of conventional generators with solar power at different penetration levels. This study is focused on developing effective methodologies for this goal and providing a basis for evaluating the wear and tear of the conventional generators

  8. Thermally regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell power cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehouse, J. H.

    1986-07-01

    Two innovative thermodynamic power cycles are analytically examined for future engineering feasibility. The power cycles use a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell for electrical energy production and use the thermal dissociation of water for regeneration of the hydrogen and oxygen. The TDS (thermal dissociation system) uses a thermal energy input at over 2000 K to thermally dissociate the water. The other cycle, the HTE (high temperature electrolyzer) system, dissociates the water using an electrolyzer operating at high temperature (1300 K) which receives its electrical energy from the fuel cell. The primary advantages of these cycles is that they are basically a no moving parts system, thus having the potential for long life and high reliability, and they have the potential for high thermal efficiency. Both cycles are shown to be classical heat engines with ideal efficiency close to Carnot cycle efficiency. The feasibility of constructing actual cycles is investigated by examining process irreversibilities and device efficiencies for the two types of cycles. The results show that while the processes and devices of the 2000 K TDS exceed current technology limits, the high temperature electrolyzer system appears to be a state-of-the-art technology development. The requirements for very high electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies are seen as determining the feasbility of the HTE system, and these high efficiency devices are currently being developed. It is concluded that a proof-of-concept HTE system experiment can and should be conducted.

  9. Alteration of ocean crust provides a strong temperature dependent feedback on the geological carbon cycle and is a primary driver of the Sr-isotopic composition of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, Laurence A.; Dosso, Stan E.

    2015-04-01

    On geological timescales there is a temperature dependent feedback that means that increased degassing of CO2 into the atmosphere leads to increased CO2 drawdown into rocks stabilizing Earth's climate. It is widely considered that this thermostat largely comes from continental chemical weathering. An alternative, or additional, feedback comes from dissolution of seafloor basalt in low-temperature (tens of °C), off-axis, hydrothermal systems. Carbonate minerals precipitated in these systems provide strong evidence that increased bottom water temperature (traced by their O-isotopic compositions) leads to increased basalt dissolution (traced by their Sr-isotopic compositions). Inversion of a simple probabilistic model of fluid-rock interaction allows us to determine the apparent activation energy of rock dissolution in these systems. The high value we find (92 ± 7 kJmol-1) indicates a strong temperature dependence of rock dissolution. Because deep-ocean temperature is sensitive to global climate, and the fluid temperature in the upper oceanic crust is strongly influenced by bottom water temperature, increased global temperature must lead to increased basalt dissolution. In turn, through the generation of alkalinity by rock dissolution, this leads to a negative feedback on planetary warming; i.e. off-axis, hydrothermal systems play an important role in the planetary thermostat. Changes in the extent of rock dissolution, due to changes in bottom water temperature, also lead to changes in the flux of unradiogenic Sr into the ocean. The decreased flux of unradiogenic Sr into the ocean due to the cooling of ocean bottom water over the last 35 Myr is sufficient to explain most of the increase in seawater 87Sr/86Sr over this time.

  10. Numerical studies on the Impact of the Last Glacial Cycle on recent borehole temperature profiles: implications for terrestrial energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Matharoo, G. S.; Tarasov, L.; Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.

    2014-09-01

    Reconstructions of past climatic changes from borehole temperature profiles are important independent estimates of temperature histories over the last millennium. There remain, however, multiple uncertainties in the interpretation of these data as climatic indicators and as estimates of the changes in the heat content of the continental subsurface due to long-term climatic change. One of these uncertainties is associated with the often ignored impact of the last glacial cycle (LGC) on the subsurface energy content, and on the estimate of the background quasi steady-state signal associated with the diffusion of accretionary energy from the Earth's interior. Here, we provide the first estimate of the impact of the development of the Laurentide ice sheet on the estimates of energy and temperature reconstructions from measurements of terrestrial borehole temperatures in North America. We use basal temperature values from the data-calibrated Memorial University of Newfoundland glacial systems model (MUN-GSM) to quantify the extent of the perturbation to estimated steady-state temperature profiles, and to derive spatial maps of the expected impacts on measured profiles over North America. Furthermore, we present quantitative estimates of the potential effects of temperature changes during the last glacial cycle on the borehole reconstructions over the last millennium for North America. The range of these possible impacts is estimated using synthetic basal temperatures for a period covering 120 ka to the present day that include the basal temperature history uncertainties from an ensemble of results from the calibrated numerical model. For all the locations, we find that within the depth ranges that are typical for available boreholes (?600 m), the induced perturbations to the steady-state temperature profile are on the order of 10 mW m-2, decreasing with greater depths. Results indicate that site-specific heat content estimates over North America can differ by as much as 50%, if the energy contribution of the last glacial cycle in those areas of North America that experienced glaciation is not taken into account when estimating recent subsurface energy changes from borehole temperature data.

  11. Uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment of biodiesel versus diesel: global warming and non-renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty information is essential for the proper use of life cycle assessment and environmental assessments in decision making. To investigate the uncertainties of biodiesel and determine the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel, an explicit analytical approach based on the Taylor series expansion for lognormal distribution was applied in the present study. A biodiesel case study demonstrates the probability that biodiesel has a lower global warming and non-renewable energy score than diesel, that is 92.3% and 93.1%, respectively. The results indicate the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel based on the global warming and non-renewable energy scores. PMID:22178489

  12. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase controls energy interconversion during the catalytic cycle of the yeast copper-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Rafael H F; Morin, Isabelle; Lowe, Jennifer; Mintz, Elisabeth; Cuillel, Martine; Vieyra, Adalberto

    2008-03-19

    The pathogenesis of human Menkes and Wilson diseases depends on alterations in copper transport. Some reports suggest that intracellular traffic of copper might be regulated by kinase-mediated phosphorylation. However, there is no evidence showing the influence of kinase-related processes in coupled ATP hydrolysis/copper transport cycles. Here, we show that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates Ccc2p, the yeast Cu(I)-ATPase, with PKA-mediated phosphorylation of a conserved serine (Ser258) being crucial for catalysis. Long-range intramolecular communication between Ser258 and Asp627 (at the catalytic site) modulates the key pumping event: the conversion of the high-energy to the low-energy phosphorylated intermediate associated with copper release. PMID:18291109

  13. University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project report on the third long-term cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, M.C.; Hallgren, J.P.; Uebel, M.H.; Delin, G.N.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Sterling, R.L.

    1994-12-01

    The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system has been operated as a field test facility (FTF) since 1982. The objectives were to design, construct, and operate the facility to study the feasibility of high-temperature ATES in a confined aquifer. Four short-term and two long-term cycles were previously conducted, which provided a greatly increased understanding of the efficiency and geochemical effects of high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. The third long-term cycle (LT3) was conducted to operate the ATES system in conjunction with a real heating load and to further study the geochemical impact that heated water storage had on the aquifer. For LT3, the source and storage wells were modified so that only the most permeable portion, the Ironton-Galesville part, of the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer was used for storage. This was expected to improve storage efficiency by reducing the surface area of the heated volume and simplify analysis of water chemistry results by reducing the number of aquifer-related variables which need to be considered. During LT3, a total volume of 63.2 {times} 10{sup 3} m {sup 3} of water was injected at a rate of 54.95 m{sup 3}/hr into the storage well at a mean temperature of 104.7{degrees}C. Tie-in to the reheat system of the nearby Animal Sciences Veterinary Medicine (ASVM) building was completed after injection was completed. Approximately 66 percent (4.13 GWh) of the energy added to the aquifer was recovered. Approximately 15 percent (0.64 GWh) of the usable (10 building. Operations during heat recovery with the ASVM building`s reheat system were trouble-free. Integration into more of the ASVM (or other) building`s mechanical systems would have resulted in significantly increasing the proportion of energy used during heat recovery.

  14. A gateway node with duty-cycled radio and processing subsystems for wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong-yi Jin; Curt Schurgers; Rajesh K. Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor nodes are increasingly being tasked with computation and communication inten- sive functions while still subject to constraints related to energy availability. On these embedded platforms, once all low power design techniques have been explored, duty-cycling the various sub- systems remains the primary option to meet the energy and power constraints. This requires the ability to provide spurts of

  15. An Embedded Platform with Duty-Cycled Radio and Processing Subsystems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong-yi Jin; Curt Schurgers; Rajesh K. Gupta

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor nodes are increasingly being tasked with computation and communication intensive functions while still subject to constraints related to energy availabili ty. On these embedded platforms, once all low power design techniques have been explored, duty-cycling the various subsystems remains the primary option to meet the energy and power constraints. This requires the ability to provide spurts of high

  16. Gross Primary Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's new Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) allows scientists to gauge our planet's metabolism on an almost daily basis. GPP, gross primary production, is the technical term for plant photosynthesis. This composite image over the continental United States, acquired during the period March 26-April 10, 2000, shows regions where plants were more or less productive-i.e., where they 'inhaled' carbon dioxide and then used the carbon from photosynthesis to build new plant structures. This false-color image provides a map of how much carbon was absorbed out of the atmosphere and fixed within land vegetation. Areas colored blue show where plants used as much as 60 grams of carbon per square meter. Areas colored green and yellow indicate a range of anywhere from 40 to 20 grams of carbon absorbed per square meter. Red pixels show an absorption of less than 10 grams of carbon per square meter and white pixels (often areas covered by snow or masked as urban) show little or no absorption. This is one of a number of new measurements that MODIS provides to help scientists understand how the Earth's landscapes are changing over time. Scientists' goal is use of these GPP measurements to refine computer models to simulate how the land biosphere influences the natural cycles of water, carbon, and energy throughout the Earth system. The GPP will be an integral part of global carbon cycle source and sink analysis, an important aspect of Kyoto Protocol assessments. This image is the first of its kind from the MODIS instrument, which launched in December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft. MODIS began acquiring scientific data on February 24, 2000, when it first opened its aperture door. The MODIS instrument and Terra spacecraft are both managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. Image courtesy Steven Running, MODIS Land Group Member, University of Montana

  17. Application of hybrid life cycle approaches to emerging energy technologies--the case of wind power in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Suh, Sangwon; Feng, Kuishuang; Lenzen, Manfred; Acquaye, Adolf; Scott, Kate; Barrett, John R

    2011-07-01

    Future energy technologies will be key for a successful reduction of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for electricity projected to increase significantly in the future, climate policy goals of limiting the effects of global atmospheric warming can only be achieved if power generation processes are profoundly decarbonized. Energy models, however, have ignored the fact that upstream emissions are associated with any energy technology. In this work we explore methodological options for hybrid life cycle assessment (hybrid LCA) to account for the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy technologies using wind power generation in the UK as a case study. We develop and compare two different approaches using a multiregion input-output modeling framework - Input-Output-based Hybrid LCA and Integrated Hybrid LCA. The latter utilizes the full-sized Ecoinvent process database. We discuss significance and reliability of the results and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison of hybrid LCA methodologies provides valuable insight into the availability and robustness of approaches for informing energy and environmental policy. PMID:21649442

  18. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  19. Preexercise energy drink consumption does not improve endurance cycling performance but increases lactate, monocyte, and interleukin-6 response.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Melody D; Rola, Kelyn S; Christensen, Kenneth V; Ross, Jacob W; Mitchell, Joel B

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an energy drink (ED) on cycling performance and immune-related variables. Eleven trained male cyclists (33.4 ± 8.9 years; 81 ± 7.6 kg; maximal VO2, 52 ± 3.4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) consumed 500 ml of (a) ED (2.0 g taurine, 1.2 g glucuronolactone, 160 mg caffeine, 56 g carbohydrate [CHO], and B vitamins), (b) cola matched for caffeine and CHO (CC), or (c) flavored placebo (PL: sparking water and flavoring) 50 minutes before racing in a randomized, crossover design. Performance was measured as time to complete (TTC) a 25-mile simulated road race. Blood was collected at baseline, 30 minutes after drink consumption, during exercise at miles 5 (M5), 15 (M15), and immediately (POEX) and 30 minutes (30minPO) after exercise. TTC was not different (p > 0.05) among trials (ED, 68.6 ± 2.7; CC, 68.9 ± 3.8; PL, 69.6 ± 3.8 minutes). Consumption of CC and ED elicited a mild hypoglycemia elicited a mild hypoglycemia during cycling. POEX interleukin-6 (IL-6) was greatest after ED, whereas CC IL-6 was greater than PL (10.2 ± 1.6, 6.7 ± 0.6, and 4.8 ± 0.7 pg·ml(-1), respectively; p < 0.001). Cycling increased leukocyte number in all conditions with ED leukocyte number greater than that of PL at M15 (9.8 ± 0.6, 8.5 ± 0.3 × 10(6) cells·mL(-1)). Energy drink induced an earlier recruitment of monocytes to the blood stream than CC. Mean fat oxidation was greater in PL compared with CC (0.43 ± 0.06 and 0.28 ± 0.04 g·min(-1); p = 0.033) but did not differ between ED (0.32 ± 0.06) and PL. Lactate was higher in ED compared with CC and PL at M5 and M15 (p = 0.003), but there was no significant influence of either ED or CC on performance. Carbohydrate and caffeine consumption before endurance cycling significantly increased the IL-6 release and leukocytosis, and the additional ingredients in ED seem to have further augmented these responses. PMID:24172719

  20. ICONE-4: Proceedings. Volume 4: Nuclear plant operations and maintenance, nuclear fuel cycle, institutional and energy policy, non-proliferation and safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, A.S. [ed.] [General Electric Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States); Duffey, R.B. [ed.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Elias, D. [ed.] [Commonwealth Edison, Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The proceedings of this conference are divided into five volumes. This volume covers the following topics: operational experience; maintenance methods and programs; organization, management, QA, and human factors; performance monitoring; instrument and control systems; analytical methods; risk methodology; plant and system improvements; fuel cycle technologies; fuel cycle related technologies--component applications; enrichment and processing; economics; technical issues in capacity and expansion in Russia; nuclear energy policy advances; energy mix--the role of nuclear energy; latest international developments in non-proliferation and safeguards; plutonium disposition and mixed oxide fuels; aspects of plutonium disposition; and plutonium burning and disposition reactors and accelerators. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  1. Sodium ion cycling mediates energy coupling between complex I and ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Gemperli, Anja C; Dimroth, Peter; Steuber, Julia

    2003-02-01

    We show here sodium ion cycling between complex I from Klebsiella pneumoniae and the F(1)F(0) ATP synthase from Ilyobacter tartaricus in a reconstituted proteoliposome system. In the course of NADH oxidation by complex I, an electrochemical sodium ion gradient was established and served as a driving force for the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate. In the opposite direction, the deltamu(Na(+)) generated by ATP hydrolysis could be coupled to NADH formation by reversed electron transfer from ubiquinol to NAD. For reverse electron transfer, a transmembrane voltage larger than 30 mV was obligatory. No NADH-driven proton transport into the lumen of proteoliposomes was detected. We conclude that Na(+) is used as the exclusive coupling ion by the enterobacterial complex I. PMID:12538874

  2. A comparison of muscular mechanical energy expenditure and internal work in cycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Kautz; M. L. HULLS; R. R. Neptune

    1994-01-01

    The hypothesis that the sum of the absolute changes in mechanical energy (internal work) is correlated with the muscular mechanical energy expenditure (MMEE) was tested using two elliptical chainrings, one that reduced and one that increased the internal work (compared to circular). Upper and lower bounds were put on the extra MMEE (work done by net joint torques in excess

  3. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas analysis of a large-scale vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2011-03-01

    In order to manage strategies to curb climate change, systemic benchmarking at a variety of production scales and methods is needed. This study is the first life cycle assessment (LCA) of a large-scale, vertically integrated organic dairy in the United States. Data collected at Aurora Organic Dairy farms and processing facilities were used to build a LCA model for benchmarking the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption across the entire milk production system, from organic feed production to post-consumer waste disposal. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for the entire system (averaged over two years of analysis) were 18.3 MJ per liter of packaged fluid milk and 2.3 kg CO(2 )equiv per liter of packaged fluid milk, respectively. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management account for 27% of total system GHG emissions. Transportation represents 29% of the total system energy use and 15% of the total GHG emissions. Utilization of renewable energy at the farms, processing plant, and major transport legs could lead to a 16% reduction in system energy use and 6.4% less GHG emissions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis reveal that alternative meat coproduct allocation methods can lead to a 2.2% and 7.5% increase in overall system energy and GHG, respectively. Feed inventory data source can influence system energy use by -1% to +10% and GHG emission by -4.6% to +9.2%, and uncertainties in diffuse emission factors contribute -13% to +25% to GHG emission. PMID:21348530

  4. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas. PMID:20378326

  5. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Damgaard, Anders, E-mail: and@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Riber, Christian [Ramboll, Consulting Engineers, Teknikerbyen 31, DK-2830 Virum (Denmark); Fruergaard, Thilde [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Hulgaard, Tore [Ramboll, Consulting Engineers, Teknikerbyen 31, DK-2830 Virum (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-07-15

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  6. Displacement cross sections and PKA spectra: tables and applications. [Neutron damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV, primary knockon atom spectra to 15 MeV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Doran; N. J. Graves

    1976-01-01

    Damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV are given for aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, lead, and 18Cr10Ni stainless steel. They are based on ENDF\\/B-IV nuclear data and the Lindhard energy partition model. Primary knockon atom (PKA) spectra are given for aluminum, iron, niobium, tantalum, and lead for neutron energies up to 15 MeV

  7. QM/MM study of energy storage and molecular rearrangements due to the primary event in vision.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Jose A; Batista, Victor S

    2004-11-01

    The energy storage and the molecular rearrangements due to the primary photochemical event in rhodopsin are investigated by using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics hybrid methods in conjunction with high-resolution structural data of bovine visual rhodopsin. The analysis of the reactant and product molecular structures reveals the energy storage mechanism as determined by the detailed molecular rearrangements of the retinyl chromophore, including rotation of the (C11-C12) dihedral angle from -11 degrees in the 11-cis isomer to -161 degrees in the all-trans product, where the preferential sense of rotation is determined by the steric interactions between Ala-117 and the polyene chain at the C13 position, torsion of the polyene chain due to steric constraints in the binding pocket, and stretching of the salt bridge between the protonated Schiff base and the Glu-113 counterion by reorientation of the polarized bonds that localize the net positive charge at the Schiff-base linkage. The energy storage, computed at the ONIOM electronic-embedding approach (B3LYP/6-31G*:AMBER) level of theory and the S0-->S1 electronic-excitation energies for the dark and product states, obtained at the ONIOM electronic-embedding approach (TD-B3LYP/6-31G*//B3LYP/6-31G*:AMBER) level of theory, are in very good agreement with experimental data. These results are particularly relevant to the development of a first-principles understanding of the structure-function relations in prototypical G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:15339806

  8. SAFE Reactor Brayton Cycle Primary Heat Exchangers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Reid; Michael G. Houts

    2002-01-01

    Gas cooling of power-dense nuclear reactor cores can produce large thermal and stress gradients through sensible temperature changes in the coolant. In-core heat pipes remove heat isothermally and reduce the severity of these gradients. The modular SAFE reactor concept consists of numerous heat pipes that permit core re-assembly during test and preflight integration. The redundancy inherent in the modular heat

  9. Megha-Tropiques: a Joint French and Indian Mission to Study Water Cycle and Energy Exchanges in the Tropiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouche, N.

    ISRO and CNES organisations have signed an agreement in May 2001 to carry out Phase B studies of the MEGHA-TROPIQUES mission. MEGHA-TROPIQUES is a satellite mission designed to study convective systems, focusing on the analysis of water cycle with water vapour distribution and transport, convective systems life cycle and energy exchanges in the tropical belt. The science goal is to increase the understanding of the energetic and hydrologic processes in the tropics and the way they influence the global circulation of the atmosphere and oceans and climate variability. To fulfil these objectives, the satellite will perform high repetitive measurements using a low inclination (20°) orbit . The MEGHA-TROPIQUES mission will fly a satellite carrying 3 scientific passive instruments which are : MADRAS Instrument : A multi-channels self calibrating microwave imager mainly aimed at studying precipitation and cloud properties. This instrument will measure brightness temperature of the atmosphere in various frequencies 18.7 GHz, 23.8GHz, 36.5 GHz, 89GHz, 157GHz. SAPHIR Instrument : A microwave instrument used to retrieve water vapour vertical profiles using the 183 GHz absorption line . SCARAB Instrument : An optical radiometer devoted to the measurement of outgoing radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. The MEGHA-TROPIQUES satellite based on the PROTEUS multi-purpose bus is planned to be launched in 2006 by the PSLV launcher. The paper will present the current status of Phase B development and the main expected mission performances.

  10. The effects of energy paths and emission controls and standards on future trends in China's emissions of primary air pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-09-01

    To examine the efficacy of China's actions to control atmospheric pollution, three levels of growth of energy consumption and three levels of implementation of emission controls are estimated, generating a total of nine combined activity-emission control scenarios that are then used to estimate trends of national emissions of primary air pollutants through 2030. The emission control strategies are expected to have more effects than the energy paths on the future emission trends for all the concerned pollutants. As recently promulgated national action plans of air pollution prevention and control (NAPAPPC) are implemented, China's anthropogenic pollutant emissions should decline. For example, the emissions of SO2, NOx, total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 are estimated to decline 7, 20, 41, 34, and 31% from 2010 to 2030, respectively, in the "best guess" scenario that includes national commitment of energy saving policy and implementation of NAPAPPC. Should the issued/proposed emission standards be fully achieved, a less likely scenario, annual emissions would be further reduced, ranging from 17 (for primary PM2.5) to 29% (for NOx) declines in 2015, and the analogue numbers would be 12 and 24% in 2030. The uncertainties of emission projections result mainly from the uncertain operational conditions of swiftly proliferating air pollutant control devices and lack of detailed information about emission control plans by region. The predicted emission trends by sector and chemical species raise concerns about current pollution control strategies: the potential for emissions abatement in key sectors may be declining due to the near saturation of emission control devices use; risks of ecosystem acidification could rise because emissions of alkaline base cations may be declining faster than those of SO2; and radiative forcing could rise because emissions of positive-forcing carbonaceous aerosols may decline more slowly than those of SO2 emissions and thereby concentrations of negative-forcing sulfate particles. Expanded control of emissions of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols from small industrial and residential sources is recommended, and a more comprehensive emission control strategy targeting a wider range of pollutants (volatile organic compounds, NH3 and CO, etc.) and taking account of more diverse environmental impacts is also urgently needed.

  11. Life cycle Analysis of Aluminum Foil Packaging Material.

    PubMed

    El Sebaie, Olfat; Ahmed, Manal; Hussein, Ahmed; El Sharkawy, Fahmay; Samy, Manal

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental tent of life cycle analysis (LCA) is that every material product must become a waste. To choose the greener products, it is necessary to take into account their environmental impacts from cradle to grave. LCA is the tool used to measure environmental improvements. Aluminum (Al) is the third most common element found in the earth's crust, after oxygen and silicon. Al packaging foil was chosen as the material for the study with its life cycle perspective at Alexandria. The Al packaging produced from virgin and recycled Al was investigated through life cycle stages in these two production processes; primary and secondary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental impact of aluminum packaging process by using life cycle analysis of its product from two different starting raw materials (virgin and recycled aluminum). The input and output materials, energy, water, natural gas consumptions, and solid waste uses in the foil industry had been analyzed in order to identify those with significant contribution to the total environmental impacts. From the survey done on the two life cycles, it was found that in environmental terms, the most important emissions from the primary process are the emission of CO(2) and perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, which produce the greenhouse effect, and SO(2) as well as the emission of fluorides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compounds), which are toxic to humans and the environment. On over all material balance, it was found that the ingot shares by 45% of the feed to the casthouse furnaces at Egyptian Copper Work (ECW), net production of the casthouse is 43.76% and the yield of rotary dross furnace (RDF) is 28.8%. The net production of the foil unit represents 35% of the total input to the unit. By comparing the two life cycles, it is obvious that, for water consumption, 93.5% is used in the primary cycle, while 6.5% is used in the secondary cycle. For electricity consumption, 99.3% is used in the primary cycle; while 0.63% is used in the secondary cycle. For the natural gas consumption, 46.66% is used in the primary cycle excluding Nag' Hammady as it uses fuel oil, while 53.34% is used in the secondary cycle. Using a matrix approach, the primary cycle scored 6 heavy loaded factors out of 9, while the secondary cycle scored 3 heavy loaded factors out of 9. It can be concluded that Al recycling (secondary cycle) in Al industry decreases the use of virgin material, energy use, and environmental loadings, while increasing the economic life of products, and reducing overall material demands. So, the secondary cycle is to be recommended and is the most favorable option in most of the factors influencing the two cycles. Monitoring of the furnaces, automatic control of the metal, proper dross cooling, better refining of molten Al, rate of solidification of molten Al, and proper annealing process will lead to reduction of the overall fuel, water, and electricity consumption and metal losses will be minimum. PMID:17382061

  12. The Real Biofuel Cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tad W. Patzek

    This paper analyzes energy efficiency of the industrial corn-ethanol cycle and brackets energy efficiency of the switchgrass-cellulosic ethanol cycle. In particular, it critically evaluates the publications by Farrell et al. (2006a; 2006b) and Shapouri, Wang, et al. (Wang, 2001; Shapouri et al., 2002; Shapouri et al., 2003; Shapouri and McAloon, 2004). It is demonstrated that in a net-energy analysis of

  13. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore »that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  14. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Fengli [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Johnson, Dana M. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Wang, Jinjiang [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  15. Introduction to combined cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.

    Ideas and concepts underlying the technology of combined cycles including the scientific principles involved and the reasons these cycles are in fashion at the present time, are presented. A cycle is a steady flow process for conversion of heat energy into work, in which a working medium passes through a range of states, returning to its original state. Cycles for power production are the steam cycle, which is a closed cycle, and the gas turbine, which represents an open cycle. Combined cycle thermodynamic parameters, are discussed. The general arrangement of the plant is outlined and important features of their component parts described. The scope for future development is discussed. It is concluded that for the next few years the natural gas fired combined cycle will be the main type of plant installed for electricity generation and cogeneration. Whilst gas turbines may not increase substantially in unit size, there remains scope for further increase in firing temperature with consequent increase in cycle performance. However the larger global reserves of coal are providing an incentive to the development of plant for clean coal combustion using the inherent advantage of the combined cycle to attain high efficiencies.

  16. Conversion of thermal energy into electricity via a water pump operating in Stirling engine cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Slavin; G. C. Bakos; K. A. Finnikov

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the principle of heat energy conversion via Stirling pump into electricity is considered. New scheme of Stirling pump is proposed, that differs from known ones in application of offset heater and cooler and valves controlling the motion of liquid. The mathematical model is implemented to examine the liquid flow and gas heat exchange in cylinders and regenerator.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage: Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garvin Heath; Craig Turchi; John Burkhardt; Chuck Kutscher; Terese Decker

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key

  18. Energy consumption, costs and environmental impacts for urban water cycle services: Case study of Oslo (Norway)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Venkatesh; Helge Brattebø

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the operation and maintenance phase of the urban water and wastewater network is directly related to both the quantity and the desired quality of the supplied water\\/treated wastewater – in other words, to the level of service provided to consumers. The level of service is dependent on not just the quantity and quality of the water but

  19. Innovation & Risk Management Result in Energy and Life-Cycle Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstrand, David E.; Singh, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines a Pennsylvania school's successful planning, design, and bidding process for acquiring a geothermal heat pump (GHP)system whose subsequent efficiency became award-winning for environmental excellence. Charts and statistical tables describe the GHP's energy savings. Concluding comments review the lessons learned from the process. (GR)

  20. Pyroelectric conversion cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.B.; Bruno, D.A.; Briscoe, J.M.

    1985-12-15

    The effect of the type of power cycle upon the amount of output electrical work for a pyroelectric converter has been measured. Output electrical energy densities are reported for ceramic lead zirconate modified with Sn/sup 4 +/ and Ti/sup 4 +/ in the execution of a variety of thermal-electrical cycles. The effect upon the energy density due to changes in the voltage cycle limits and changes in the load resistance were also studied. A conversion cycle which is an electric analog of the Ericsson cycle is shown to yield the largest output energy density (100 mJ/cm/sup 3/ for a 12.6 K temperature excursion and a 28-kV/cm electric field excursion).

  1. Measurement of changes in high-energy phosphates in the cardiac cycle by using gated /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fossel, E.T. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA); Morgan, H.E.; Ingwall, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    Levels of the high-energy phosphate-containing compounds, ATP and creatine phosphate, and of inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/ were measured as a function of position in the cardiac cycle. Measurements were made on isolated, perfused, working rat hearts through the use of gated /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of ATP and creatine phosphate were found to vary during the cardiac cycle and were maximal at minimal aortic pressure and minimal at maximal aortic pressure. P/sub i/ varied inversely with the high-energy phosphates.

  2. Energy efficiency for the transcritical compression CO2 cycle with the use of the ejector as the first stage of the compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozio?, Joachim; Gazda, Wies?aw; Wil?y?ski, ?ukasz

    2010-10-01

    An analysis of energy efficiency for transcritical compression unit with CO2 (R744) as the refrigerant has been carried out using empirical operating characteristics for the two-phase ejector. The first stage of the refrigerant compression is carried out in the ejector. The criterion adopted for the estimation of energy efficiency for the cycle is the coefficient of performance COP. The analysis is performed for the heat pump and refrigeration systems. The results of COP for the systems with the ejector has been compared with the COPL values for the single stage Linde cycle.

  3. Constructing the electricity-carbohydrate-hydrogen cycle for a sustainability revolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-H Percival; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In this opinion, we suggest the electricity-carbohydrate-hydrogen (ECHo) cycle which bridges primary energies and secondary energies. Carbohydrates are sources of food, feed, liquid biofuels, and renewable materials and are a high-density hydrogen carrier and electricity storage compounds (e.g. >3000 Wh/kg). One element of this ECHo cycle can be converted to another reversibly and efficiently depending on resource availability, needs and costs. This cycle not only supplements current and future primary energy utilization systems for facilitating electricity and hydrogen storage and enhancing secondary energy conversion efficiencies, but also addresses such sustainability challenges as transportation fuel production, CO(2) utilization, fresh water conservation, and maintenance of a small closed ecosystem in emergency situations. PMID:22444162

  4. Rot it Right: The Cycling of Matter and Transfer of Energy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    This Immersion Unit provides a coherent series of lessons designed to guide students in developing deep conceptual understanding that is aligned with the National standards, key science concepts, and essential features of classroom inquiry (as defined by the National Science Education Standards). The goal of this unit is to provide students with an opportunity to explore the interdependency of living and nonliving factors in an ecological system. Students investigate the process of decomposition and examine the role that decomposers and other organisms play in the transfer of energy and matter.The Unit's overarching concepts are:Organisms need matter and energy to live.Science knowledge advances through inquiry.This unit was developed through the large Math and Science Partnership project called System-wide Change for All Learners and Educators (SCALE), involving a collaboration among Los Angeles School District educators, California State University science and education faculty, and UW-Madison SCALE staff.

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Analysis of Passive House with Variable Construction Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba?urová, Silvia; Ponechal, Radoslav; ?urica, Pavol

    2013-11-01

    The term "passive house" refers to rigorous and voluntary standards for energy efficiency in a building, reducing its ecological footprint. There are many ways how to build a passive house successfully. These designs as well as construction techniques vary from ordinary timber constructions using packs of straw or constructions of clay. This paper aims to quantify environmental quality of external walls in a passive house, which are made of a timber frame, lightweight concrete blocks and sand-lime bricks in order to determine whether this constructional form provides improved environmental performance. Furthermore, this paper assesses potential benefit of energy savings at heating of houses in which their external walls are made of these three material alternatives. A two storey residential passive house, with floorage of 170.6 m2, was evaluated. Some measurements of air and surface temperatures were done as a calibration etalon for a method of simulation.

  6. Energy losses in thermally cycled optical fibers constrained in small bend radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, Eric; Morelli, Gregg

    2012-11-01

    High energy laser pulses were fired into a 365?m diameter fiber optic cable constrained in small radii of curvature bends, resulting in a catastrophic failure. Q-switched laser pulses from a flashlamp pumped, Nd:YAG laser were injected into the cables, and the spatial intensity profile at the exit face of the fiber was observed using an infrared camera. The transmission of the radiation through the tight radii resulted in an asymmetric intensity profile with one half of the fiber core having a higher peak-to-average energy distribution. Prior to testing, the cables were thermally conditioned while constrained in the small radii of curvature bends. Single-bend, double-bend, and U-shaped geometries were tested to characterize various cable routing scenarios.

  7. Vacuum thermal cycle life testing of high temperature thermal energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rengasamy Ponnappan; Jerry E. Beam

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program to investigate the corrosion compatibility of the high temperature thermal energy storage (TES) salts with Inconel-617 container was initiated at the Thermal Laboratory of the Wright Research and Development Center (WRDC) in 1985. Three fluoride eutectic mixtures: LiF-MgF2-KF, LiF-MgF2-NaF, and LiF-MgF2 having melting points in the neighborhood of 1000 K and heats of fusion above 750 kJ\\/kg

  8. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Stirling Cycle 1 Stirling Cycle

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    internal combustion engines, a Stirling cycle does not exchange the working gas in each cycle, the gas energy, nuclear power, etc. Stirling engine can reach higher thermal efficiencies than Otto and DieselM. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Stirling Cycle 1 Stirling Cycle In Stirling cycle, Carnot cycle

  9. Study of the solar anisotropy of cosmic ray primaries of about 200 GeV energy with the L3+C muon detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Achard; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; M. van den Akker; J. Alcaraz; G. Alemanni; J. Allaby; A. Aloisio; M. G. Alviggi; H. Anderhub; V. P. Andreev; F. Anselmo; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. Bagnaia; A. Bajo; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; J. Bahr; S. V. Baldew; S. Banerjee; A. Barczyk; R. Barillere; P. Bartalin; M. Basile; N. Batalova; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; L. Bellucci; R. Berbeco; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; M. Biglietti; A. Biland; J. J. Blaising; S. C. Blyth; G. J. Bobbink; A. Boehm; L. Boldizsar; B. Borgia; S. Bottai; D. Bourilkov; M. Bourquin; S. Braccini; J. G. Branson; F. Brochu; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; G. C. Romeo; G. Carlino; A. Cartacci; J. Casaus; F. Cavallari; N. Cavallo; C. Cecchi; M. Cerrada; M. Chamizo; Y. H. Chang; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; T. Chiarusi; G. Chiefari; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; I. Clare; R. Clare; G. Coignet; N. Colino; S. Costantini; B. de La Cruz; S. Cucciarelli; R. de Asmundis; P. Deglon; J. Debreczeni; A. Degre; K. Dehmelt; K. Deiters; D. della Volpe; E. Delmeire; P. Denes; F. DeNotaristefani; A. De Salvo; M. Diemoz; M. Dierckxsens; L. K. Ding; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; A. Doria; M. T. Dova; D. Duchesneau; M. Duda; I. Duran; B. Echenard; A. Eline; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; G. Faber; M. A. Falagan; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; O. Fedin; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; G. Forconi; K. Freudenreich; C. Furetta; Y. Galaktionov; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; M. Gataullin; S. Gentile; S. Giagu; Z. F. Gong; H. J. Grabosch; G. Grenier; O. Grimm; H. Groenstege; M. W. Gruenewald; Y. N. Guo; S. Gupta; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; L. J. Gutay; D. Haas; C. Haller; D. Hatzifotiadou; Y. Hayashi; Z. X. He; T. Hebbeker; A. Herve; H. Hofer; M. Hohlmann; G. Holzner; S. R. Hou; A. X. Huo; N. Ito; B. N. Jin; P. Jindal; C. L. Jing; L. W. Jones; P. de Jong; I. Josa-Mutuberria; V. Kantserov; M. Kaur; S. Kawakami; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; J. Kirkby; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; A. C. Konig; E. Kok; A. Korn; M. Kopal; V. Koutsenko; M. Kraber; H. H. Kuang; R. W. Kraemer; A. Kruger; J. Kuijpers; A. Kunin; P. L. de Guevara; I. Laktineh; G. Landi; M. Lebeau; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Lecoq; P. Le Coultre; J. M. Le Goff; Y. Lei; H. Leich; R. Leiste; M. Levtchenko; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; L. Li; Z. C. Li; S. Likhoded; C. H. Lin; W. T. Lin; F. L. Linde; L. Lista; Z. A. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; C. Luci; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; W. G. Ma; X. H. Ma; Y. Q. Ma; L. Malgeri; A. Malinin; C. Mana; J. Mans; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; K. Mazumdar; R. R. McNeil; S. Mele; X. W. Meng; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; A. Mihul; A. van Mil; H. Milcent; G. Mirabelli; G. B. Mohanty; B. Monteleoni; G. S. Muanza; A. J. M. Muijs; M. Musy; S. Nagy; R. Nahnhauer; V. A. Naumov; S. Natale; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; A. Nisati; T. Novak; H. Nowak; R. Ofierzynski; G. Organtini; I. Pal; C. Palomares; P. Paolucci; R. Paramatti; J. F. Parriaud; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; M. Pedace; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; B. Petersen; D. Piccolo; F. Pierella; M. Pieri; M. Pioppi; P. A. Piroue; E. Pistolesi; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; J. Pothier; D. Prokofiev; C. R. Qing; G. Rahal-Callot; M. A. Rahaman; P. Raics; N. Raja; R. Ramelli; P. G. Rancoita; R. Ranieri; A. Raspereza; K. C. Ravindran; P. Razis; S. Rembeczki; D. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; P. Rewiersma; S. Riemann; K. Riles; B. P. Roe; A. Rojkov; L. Romero; A. Rosca; S. Rosier-Lees; S. Roth; J. A. Rubio; G. Ruggiero; H. Rykaczewski; R. Saidi; A. Sakharov; S. Saremi; S. Sarkar; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; C. Schafer; V. Schegelsky; V. Schmitt; B. Schoeneich; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; C. Sciacca; L. Servoli; C. Q. Shen; S. Shevchenko; N. Shivarov; V. Shoutko; E. Shumilov; A. Shvorob; D. Son; C. Souga; P. Spillantini; M. Steuer; D. P. Stickland; B. Stoyanov; A. Straessner; K. Sudhakar; H. Sulanke; G. Sultanov; L. Z. Sun; H. Suter; J. D. Swain; Z. Szillasi; X. W. Tang; P. Tarjan; L. Tauscher; L. Taylor; B. Tellili; D. Teyssier; C. Timmermans; C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; S. C. Tonwar; J. Toth; G. Trowitzsch; C. Tully; K. L. Tung; J. Ulbricht; M. Unger; E. Valente; H. Verkooijen; R. T. V. de Walle; R. Vasquez; G. Vesztergombi; I. Vetlitsky; G. Viertel; M. Vivargent; S. Vlachos; I. Vodopianov; H. Vogel; H. Vogt; I. Vorobiev; A. A. Vorobyov; M. Wadhwa; R. G. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; X. W. Wang; Z. M. Wang; M. Weber; R. van Wijk; T. A. M. Wijnen; H. Wilkens; S. Wynhoff; L. Xia; Y. P. Xu; J. S. Xu; Z. Z. Xu; J. Yamamoto; B. Z. Yang; C. G. Yang; H. J. Yang; M. Yang; X. F. Yang; Z. G. Yao; S. C. Yeh; Z. Q. Yu; A. Zalite; Y. Zalite; C. Zhang; F. Zhang; J. Zhang; S. Zhang; Z. P. Zhang; J. Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Context. Primary cosmic rays experience multiple deflections in the non-uniform galactic and heliospheric magnetic fields which may generate anisotropies. Aims. A study of anisotropies in the energy range between 100 and 500 GeV is performed. This energy range is not yet well explored. Methods. The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, is used for a study of the

  10. Study of the solar anisotropy of cosmic ray primaries of about 200 GeV energy with the L3+C muon detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Achard; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; M. van den Akker; J. Alcaraz; G. Alemanni; J. Allaby; A. Aloisio; M. G. Alviggi; H. Anderhub; V. P. Andreev; F. Anselmo; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. Bagnaia; A. Bajo; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; J. Bähr; S. V. Baldew; S. Banerjee; A. Barczyk; R. Barillère; P. Bartalini; M. Basile; N. Batalova; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; L. Bellucci; R. Berbeco; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; M. Biglietti; A. Biland; J. J. Blaising; S. C. Blyth; G. J. Bobbink; A. Böhm; L. Boldizsar; B. Borgia; S. Bottai; D. Bourilkov; M. Bourquin; S. Braccini; J. G. Branson; F. Brochu; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; G. Cara Romeo; G. Carlino; A. Cartacci; J. Casaus; F. Cavallari; N. Cavallo; C. Cecchi; M. Cerrada; M. Chamizo; Y. H. Chang; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; T. Chiarusi; G. Chiefari; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; I. Clare; R. Clare; G. Coignet; N. Colino; S. Costantini; B. de la Cruz; S. Cucciarelli; R. de Asmundis; P. Déglon; J. Debreczeni; A. Degré; K. Dehmelt; K. Deiters; D. della Volpe; E. Delmeire; P. Denes; F. DeNotaristefani; A. De Salvo; M. Diemoz; M. Dierckxsens; L. K. Ding; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; A. Doria; M. T. Dova; D. Duchesneau; M. Duda; I. Duran; B. Echenard; A. Eline; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; G. Faber; M. A. Falagan; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; O. Fedin; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; W. Fisher; G. Forconi; K. Freudenreich; C. Furetta; Yu. Galaktionov; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; M. Gataullin; S. Gentile; S. Giagu; Z. F. Gong; H. J. Grabosch; G. Grenier; O. Grimm; H. Groenstege; M. W. Gruenewald; Y. N. Guo; S. Gupta; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; L. J. Gutay; D. Haas; Ch. Haller; D. Hatzifotiadou; Y. Hayashi; Z. X. He; T. Hebbeker; A. Hervé; J. Hirschfelder; H. Hofer; H. Hoferjun; M. Hohlmann; G. Holzner; S. R. Hou; A. X. Huo; N. Ito; B. N. Jin; P. Jindal; C. L. Jing; L. W. Jones; P. de Jong; I. Josa-Mutuberría; V. Kantserov; M. Kaur; S. Kawakami; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; J. Kirkby; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; A. C. König; E. Kok; A. Korn; M. Kopal; V. Koutsenko; M. Kräber; H. H. Kuang; R. W. Kraemer; A. Krüger; J. Kuijpers; A. Kunin; P. Ladron de Guevara; I. Laktineh; G. Landi; M. Lebeau; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Lecoq; P. Le Coultre; J. M. Le Goff; Y. Lei; H. Leich; R. Leiste; M. Levtchenko; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; L. Li; Z. C. Li; S. Likhoded; C. H. Lin; W. T. Lin; F. L. Linde; L. Lista; Z. A. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; C. Luci; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; W. G. Ma; X. H. Ma; Y. Q. Ma; L. Malgeri; A. Malinin; C. Maña; J. Mans; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; K. Mazumdar; R. R. McNeil; S. Mele; X. W. Meng; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; A. Mihul; A. van Mil; H. Milcent; G. Mirabelli; G. B. Mohanty; B. Monteleoni; G. S. Muanza; A. J. M. Muijs; M. Musy; S. Nagy; R. Nahnhauer; V. A. Naumov; S. Natale; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; A. Nisati; T. Novak; H. Nowak; R. Ofierzynski; G. Organtini; I. Pal; C. Palomares; P. Paolucci; R. Paramatti; J.-F. Parriaud; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; M. Pedace; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; B. Petersen; D. Piccolo; F. Pierella; M. Pieri; M. Pioppi; P. A. Piroué; E. Pistolesi; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; J. Pothier; D. Prokofiev; C. R. Qing; G. Rahal-Callot; M. A. Rahaman; P. Raics; N. Raja; R. Ramelli; P. G. Rancoita; R. Ranieri; A. Raspereza; K. C. Ravindran; P. Razis; S. Rembeczki; D. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; P. Rewiersma; S. Riemann; K. Riles; B. P. Roe; A. Rojkov; L. Romero; A. Rosca; S. Rosier-Lees; S. Roth; J. A. Rubio; G. Ruggiero; H. Rykaczewski; R. Saidi; A. Sakharov; S. Saremi; S. Sarkar; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; C. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; V. Schmitt; B. Schoeneich; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; C. Sciacca; L. Servoli; C. Q. Shen; S. Shevchenko; N. Shivarov; V. Shoutko; E. Shumilov; A. Shvorob; D. Son; C. Souga; P. Spillantini; M. Steuer; D. P. Stickland; B. Stoyanov; A. Straessner; K. Sudhakar; H. Sulanke; G. Sultanov; L. Z. Sun; H. Suter; J. D. Swain; Z. Szillasi; X. W. Tang; P. Tarjan; L. Tauscher; L. Taylor; B. Tellili; D. Teyssier; C. Timmermans; Samuel C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; S. C. Tonwar; J. Tóth; G. Trowitzsch; C. Tully; K. L. Tung; J. Ulbricht; M. Unger; E. Valente; H. Verkooijen; R. T. Van de Walle; R. Vasquez; G. Vesztergombi; I. Vetlitsky; G. Viertel; M. Vivargent; S. Vlachos; I. Vodopianov; H. Vogel; H. Vogt; I. Vorobiev; A. A. Vorobyov; M. Wadhwa; R. G. Wang; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; X. W. Wang; Z. M. Wang; M. Weber; R. van Wijk; T. A. M. Wijnen; H. Wilkens; S. Wynhoff; L. Xia; Y. P. Xu; J. S. Xu; Z. Z. Xu; J. Yamamoto; B. Z. Yang; C. G. Yang; H. J. Yang; M. Yang; X. F. Yang; Z. G. Yao; S. C. Yeh; Z. Q. Yu; An. Zalite; Yu. Zalite

    2008-01-01

    Context: Primary cosmic rays experience multiple deflections in the non-uniform galactic and heliospheric magnetic fields which may generate anisotropies. Aims: A study of anisotropies in the energy range between 100 and 500 GeV is performed. This energy range is not yet well explored. Methods: The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, is used for a study of the

  11. Recent climate changes over the Tibetan Plateau and their impacts on energy and water cycle: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Wu, Hui; Qin, Jun; Lin, Changgui; Tang, Wenjun; Chen, Yingying

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) exerts strong thermal forcing on the atmosphere over Asian monsoon region and supplies water resources to adjacent river basins. Recently, the Plateau experienced evident climate changes, which have changed atmospheric and hydrological cycles and thus reshaped the local environment. This study reviewed recent research progress in the climate changes and explored their impacts on the Plateau energy and water cycle, based on which a conceptual model to synthesize these changes was proposed and urgent issues to be explored were summarized. The TP has experienced an overall surface air warming and moistening, solar dimming, and wind stilling since the beginning of the 1980s. The surface warming depends on elevation and its horizontal pattern is consistent with the one of the glacier change. Accompanying the warming was air moistening, and both facilitated the trigger of more deep-clouds, which resulted in solar dimming. Surface wind speed declined from the 1970s, as a result of atmospheric circulation adjustment caused by the differential surface warming between the Asian high-latitude and low-latitude. The climate changes had weakened the thermal forcing over the TP. The warming and wind stilling lowered the Bowen ratio and led to less surface sensible heating. Atmospheric radiative cooling was enhanced, mainly by outgoing longwave emission from the warming planetary system and slightly by solar radiation reflection. Both processes contributed to the thermal forcing weakening over the Plateau. The water cycle was also altered by the climate changes. The wind stilling may have weakened water vapor exchange between the Asia monsoon region and the Plateau and thus led to less precipitation in the monsoon-impacted southern and eastern Plateau, but the warming enhanced land evaporation. Their overlap resulted in runoff reduction in the southern and eastern Plateau regions. By contrast, more convective precipitation over the central TP was triggered under the warmer and moister condition and yielded more runoff; meanwhile, the solar dimming weakened lake evaporation. The two together with enhanced glacier melts contributed to the lake expansion in the central TP.

  12. Exposure of Clinical MRSA Heterogeneous Strains to ?-Lactams Redirects Metabolism to Optimize Energy Production through the TCA Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Keaton, Mignon A.; Rosato, Roberto R.; Plata, Konrad B.; Singh, Christopher R.; Rosato, Adriana E.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as one of the most important pathogens both in health care and community-onset infections. The prerequisite for methicillin resistance is mecA, which encodes a ?-lactam-insensitive penicillin binding protein PBP2a. A characteristic of MRSA strains from hospital and community associated infections is their heterogeneous expression of resistance to ?-lactam (HeR) in which only a small portion (?0.1%) of the population expresses resistance to oxacillin (OXA) ?10 µg/ml, while in other isolates, most of the population expresses resistance to a high level (homotypic resistance, HoR). The mechanism associated with heterogeneous expression requires both increase expression of mecA and a mutational event that involved the triggering of a ?-lactam-mediated SOS response and related lexA and recA genes. In the present study we investigated the cellular physiology of HeR-MRSA strains during the process of ?-lactam-mediated HeR/HoR selection at sub-inhibitory concentrations by using a combinatorial approach of microarray analyses and global biochemical profiling employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to investigate changes in metabolic pathways and the metabolome associated with ?-lactam-mediated HeR/HoR selection in clinically relevant heterogeneous MRSA. We found unique features present in the oxacillin-selected SA13011-HoR derivative when compared to the corresponding SA13011-HeR parental strain that included significant increases in tricarboxyl citric acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and a concomitant decrease in fermentative pathways. Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme cis-aconitase gene in the SA13011-HeR strain abolished ?-lactam-mediated HeR/HoR selection demonstrating the significance of altered TCA cycle activity during the HeR/HoR selection. These results provide evidence of both the metabolic cost and the adaptation that HeR-MRSA clinical strains undergo when exposed to ?-lactam pressure, indicating that the energy production is redirected to supply the cell wall synthesis/metabolism, which in turn contributes to the survival response in the presence of ?-lactam antibiotics. PMID:23940684

  13. Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of production of bioethanol from sorghum in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of feedstock options is a key to meeting the volumetric requirement of 136.3 billion liters of renewable fuels per year beginning in 2022, as required in the US 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of sorghum-based ethanol need to be assessed for sorghum to play a role in meeting that requirement. Results Multiple sorghum-based ethanol production pathways show diverse well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and GHG emissions due to differences in energy use and fertilizer use intensity associated with sorghum growth and differences in the ethanol conversion processes. All sorghum-based ethanol pathways can achieve significant fossil energy savings. Relative to GHG emissions from conventional gasoline, grain sorghum-based ethanol can reduce WTW GHG emissions by 35% or 23%, respectively, when wet or dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the co-product and fossil natural gas (FNG) is consumed as the process fuel. The reduction increased to 56% or 55%, respectively, for wet or dried DGS co-production when renewable natural gas (RNG) from anaerobic digestion of animal waste is used as the process fuel. These results do not include land-use change (LUC) GHG emissions, which we take as negligible. If LUC GHG emissions for grain sorghum ethanol as estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are included (26 g CO2e/MJ), these reductions when wet DGS is co-produced decrease to 7% or 29% when FNG or RNG is used as the process fuel. Sweet sorghum-based ethanol can reduce GHG emissions by 71% or 72% without or with use of co-produced vinasse as farm fertilizer, respectively, in ethanol plants using only sugar juice to produce ethanol. If both sugar and cellulosic bagasse were used in the future for ethanol production, an ethanol plant with a combined heat and power (CHP) system that supplies all process energy can achieve a GHG emission reduction of 70% or 72%, respectively, without or with vinasse fertigation. Forage sorghum-based ethanol can achieve a 49% WTW GHG emission reduction when ethanol plants meet process energy demands with CHP. In the case of forage sorghum and an integrated sweet sorghum pathway, the use of a portion of feedstock to fuel CHP systems significantly reduces fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions. Conclusions This study provides new insight into life-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of multiple sorghum-based ethanol production pathways in the US. Our results show that adding sorghum feedstocks to the existing options for ethanol production could help in meeting the requirements for volumes of renewable, advanced and cellulosic bioethanol production in the US required by the EPA’s Renewable Fuel Standard program. PMID:24088388

  14. Capital requirements and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of potential PNGV fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Wang, M.

    1999-03-11

    Our study reveals that supplying gasoline-equivalent demand for the low-market-share scenario requires a capital investment of less than $40 billion for all fuels except H{sub 2}, which will require a total cumulative investment of $150 billion. By contrast, cumulative capital investments under the high-market-share scenario are $50 billion for LNG, $90 billion for ethanol, $100 billion for methanol, $160 billion for CNG and DME, and $560 billion for H{sub 2}. Although these substantial capital requirements are spread over many years, their magnitude could pose a challenge to the widespread introduction of 3X vehicles. Fossil fuel use by US light-duty vehicles declines significantly with introduction of 3X vehicles because of fuel-efficiency improvements for 3X vehicles and because of fuel substitution (which applies to the nonpetroleum-fueled alternatives). Petroleum use for light-duty vehicles in 2030 is reduced by as much as 45% relative to the reference scenario. GHG emissions follow a similar pattern. Total GHG emissions decline by 25-30% with most of the propulsion system/fuel alternatives. For those using renewable fuels (i.e., ethanol and H{sub 2} from solar energy), GHG emissions drop by 33% (H{sub 2}) and 45% (ethanol). Among urban air pollutants, urban NOX emissions decline slightly for 3X vehicles using CIDI and SIDI engines and drop substantially for fuel-cell vehicles. Urban CO emissions decline for CIDI and FCV alternatives, while VOC emissions drop significantly for all alternatives except RFG-, methanol-, and ethanol-fueled SIDI engines. With the exception of CIDI engines fueled by RFD, FT50, or B20 (which increase urban PM{sub 10} emissions by over 30%), all propulsion system/fuel alternatives reduce urban PM{sub 10} emissions. Reductions are approximately 15-20% for fuel cells and for methanol-, ethanol-, CNG-, or LPG-fueled SIDI engines. Table 3 qualitatively summarizes impacts of the 13 alternatives on capital requirements and on energy use and emissions relative to the reference scenario. The table clearly shows the trade-off between costs and benefits. For example, while H{sub 2} FCVs have the greatest incremental capital needs, they offer the largest energy and emissions benefits. On the basis of the cost and benefit changes shown, methanol and gasoline FCVs appear to have particularly promising benefits-to-costs ratios.

  15. Primary breast lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Chan Y; Campbell, Belinda A; Seymour, John F

    2014-09-01

    Primary breast lymphoma is a rare form of extranodal lymphoma, defined by the presence of a primary lesion within the breast with or without regional nodal involvement but no other extra-mammary sites of involvement. It comprises diverse histologic subtypes, but diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common. In this review, we describe in detail the clinical features, diagnosis and staging, pathogenesis, risk factors and therapy of primary breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We consider choice and number of cycles of chemotherapy, the indications for radiotherapy and discuss the need for central nervous system prophylaxis. We also provide a brief overview of the less commonly encountered histologic subtypes including marginal zone, follicular, Burkitt and breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We conclude with a suggested treatment approach and potential areas of future research. PMID:24953564

  16. IECEC '91; Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Boston, MA, Aug. 4-9, 1991. Vol. 5 - Renewable resource systems, stirling engines and applications, systems and cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on energy conversion enegineering are presented. The general topics considered are: developments in nuclear power, energy from waste and biomass, system performance and materials in photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, wind energy systems, Stirling cycle analysis, Stirling cycle power, Stirling component technology, Stirling cooler/heat pump developments, Stirling engine concepts, Stirling engine design and optimization, Stirling engine dynamics and response, Stirling engine solar terrestrial, advanced cogeneration, AMTC, fossil fuel systems and technologies, marine energy.

  17. Aluminum Stock and Flows in the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet and Implications on the Material Cycle Energy Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynette Cheah; John Heywood; Randolph Kirchain

    In this paper, a methodology to build a model of th e annual stock and flows of aluminum in a key end-use sector in the U.S. - pass enger vehicles in use - from 1975-2035 has been described. This material flow model has en abled analysis of the corresponding material cycle energy consumption, which was found to be significant at

  18. Extent of partial ice cover due to carbon cycle feedback in a zonal energy balance model Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(2), 213219 (2003) EGU

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    2003-01-01

    release of carbon from fossil fuel burning over the next hundred years could result in the eventual such as rock weathering, volcanic eruptions and fossil fuel burning) is gained. This study models how differentExtent of partial ice cover due to carbon cycle feedback in a zonal energy balance model 213

  19. Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Wullschleger, Stan [ORNL

    2013-01-22

    Stan Wullschleger of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems" on March 22, 2012 at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, California.

  20. Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Raugei; Silvia Bargigli; Sergio Ulgiati

    2007-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of a thorough energy and life cycle assessment (LIA) of CdTe and CIS photovoltaic modules. The analysis is based on actual production data, making it one of the very first of its kind to be presented to the scientific community, and therefore especially worthy of attention as a preliminary indication of the future

  1. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation: A Detailed Methodology for Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventories of Automobiles, Buses, Light Rail, Heavy Rail and Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail Chester; Arpad Horvath

    2007-01-01

    The passenger transportation modes of auto, bus, heavy rail, light rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of necessary infrastructures, fuels, and vehicles.

  2. Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation An Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Criteria Pollutant Inventory of Rail and Air Transportation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arpad Horvath; Mikhail Chester

    2008-01-01

    The passenger transportation modes of rail and air are critical systems relied upon for business and leisure. When considering their environmental effects, most studies and policy focus on the fuel use of the vehicles, and ignore the energy and other resource inputs and environmental outputs from the life cycles of other components. Vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction and operation,

  3. Diesel Cycle: Since we use a Closed System, the work and heat transfers are calculated from changes in internal energy u

    E-print Network

    in internal energy u w1 2 = u1 u2 = negative but the expansion during constant-pressure combustion involves-ignition, we are counting on self-ignition! 1 #12;On top of that, Diesel cycles have no throttling losses, so engines is generally limited by incomplete combustion and production of smoke at somewhat less than

  4. The recycling of plastic wastes from discarded TV sets: comparing energy recovery with mechanical recycling in the context of life cycle assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gjergj Dodbiba; Kunihiko Takahashi; Jun Sadaki; Toyohisa Fujita

    2008-01-01

    Two treatment options, i.e. energy recovery and mechanical recycling of plastic wastes from discarded TV sets, were compared in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An estimate for the environmental burden of each option was calculated as the sum of the depletion of abiotic resources (ADP), the global warming potential (GWP), the acidification potential (AP), the photo-oxidant formation

  5. Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sciencelearn

    This interactive animation focuses on the carbon cycle and includes embedded videos and captioned images to provide greater clarification and detail of the cycle than would be available by a single static visual alone.

  6. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryland Virtual High School

    The purpose of this activity is to demonstrate the principle of conservation of mass through the rock cycle. When students create the model, the various parts and processes in the rock cycle are reinforced for them.

  7. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash animation about the rock cycle is suitable for a review or overview in an introductory level Physical Geology class. It includes animations, photos, and descriptions involving rock types and processes in the rock cycle.

  8. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  9. Comparison of the annual cycle of atmospheric parameters at Djougou and Niamey in relation to the surface energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospichal, Bernhard; Crewell, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    One of the main goals of the AMMA project was to enhance the knowledge on the West African monsoon and the related atmospheric processes. Therefore, two locations were equipped with a variety of in-situ and remote sensing instruments in 2006: Djougou (Benin, 9.7°N, 1.7°E) and Niamey (Niger, 13.5°N, 2.1° E). These two stations represent the strong meridional humidity gradient within West Africa's monsoon climate: At the northern station of Niamey the annual precipitation is less than half of Djougou and the monsoon onset takes place more than one month later. In this presentation, a statistical analysis of boundary layer parameters, such as temperature and humidity conditions at the ground, integrated water vapour as well as cloud base heights and cloudy times will be made with a special focus on their relation to the surface radiation and energy balance. For example, it was found that over the whole year the diurnal mean surface longwave radiation balance at Niamey is strongly related to the diurnal temperature range as well as the integrated water vapour. At Djougou, where cloud cover is much more frequent, the surface energy balance shows a quite different behaviour in the course of the year compared to the drier climate at Niamey. The one-year deployment of many instruments in the areas of Djougou and Niamey provides a very good overview of the annual cycle of various atmospheric parameters and their differences between the moister and drier climates. The availability of data with high temporal resolution from the above mentioned locations makes it possible to present the similarities as well as some sharp differences both in diurnal and annual variability of energy balance and boundary layer parameters over West Africa.

  10. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). Volume II. Detailed results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept are examined. ACES is studied in a variety of different applications and compared to a number of conventional systems. The different applications are studied in two groups: the class of building into which the ACES is incorporated and the climatic region in which the ACES is located. Buildings investigated include single-family and multi-family residences and a commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. The economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of conventional systems; namely, electric resistance heating, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; air-to-air heat pump and electric domestic water heating; oil-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; and gas-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and gas domestic water heating.

  11. Assessment of external combustion, Brayton-cycle engine potential in total and integrated energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marciniak, T.J.; Bratis, J.C.; Davis, A.; Jain, M.L.; Ashe, T.L.; Six, L.D.; Trimble, S.W.

    1980-03-01

    The history, advantages, disadvantages, and performance and cost characteristics of the external-combustion, Brayton engine are discussed. Included are studies of external combustion, Brayton engines in Integrated Energy Systems, and comparisons with current technologies, such as diesels and gas turbines, as well as with other advanced prime-mover technologies, such as large Stirling engines and adiabatic turbocompound diesel engines. Lastly, a development program, one that would lead to a commercializable external combustion, Brayton engine using an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor is described. The fluidized bed offers a method for burning coal in an environmentally acceptable manner at a fairly reasonable cost so that the external combustion Brayton concept can be used in the residential/commercial sector. Based on this study, it appears that the external combustion, Brayton engine, using a fluidized-bed combustion system, offers a technologically sound alternative for developing an economically viable, environmentally acceptable method for using non-scarce fuels. Although the efficiency of the engine is not as high as that projected for large diesel and Stirling engines, the capital cost advantages, fuel flexibility, relatively low developmental costs, and high chance of success make it an attractive alternative.

  12. Buoyancy organic Rankine cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schoenmaker; J. F. Q. Rey; K. R. Pirota

    2011-01-01

    In the scope of renewable energy, we draw attention to a little known technique to harness solar and geothermal energy. The design here proposed and analyzed is a conceptual hybrid of several patents. By means of a modified organic Rankine cycle, energy is obtained utilizing buoyancy force of a working fluid. Based on thermodynamic properties we propose and compare the

  13. Renewable Energy Production and Urban Remediation: Modeling the biogeochemical cycle at contaminated urban brownfields and the potential for renewable energy production and mitigation of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Brownfields or urban sites that have been contaminated as a result of historic practices are present throughout the world. In the United States alone, the National Research Council has estimated that there are approximately 300,000 to 400,000 sites which have been contaminated by improper use and disposal of chemicals (NRC 1993). The land available at these sites is estimated at several million acres; however, the presence of high levels of contamination in the soil and groundwater makes it difficult to utilize these sites for traditional purposes such as agriculture. Further, the time required to remediate these contaminants to regulated levels is in the order of decades, which often results in long-term economic consequences for the areas near these sites. There has been significant interest in developing these sites as potential sources of renewable energy production in order to increase the economic viability of these sites and to provide alternative land resources for renewable energy production (EPA 2012). Solar energy, wind energy, and bioenergy from lignocellulosic biomass production have been identified as the main sources of renewable energy that can be produced at these locations. However, the environmental impacts of such a policy and the implications for greenhouse gas emissions, particularly resulting from changes in land-use impacting the biogeochemical cycle at these sites, have not been studied extensively to date. This study uses the biogeochemical process-based model DNDC to simulate carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions and methane emissions from typical urban brownfield systems in the United States, when renewable energy systems are deployed. Photovoltaic solar energy and lignocellulosic biomass energy systems are evaluated here. Plants modeled include those most widely used for both bioenergy and remediation such as woody trees. Model sensitivity to soil conditions, contaminant levels and local weather data and the resulting impacts on greenhouse gas emissions are explored. Tradeoffs between renewable energy production,contaminant removal, and mitigation of greenhouse gases are also evaluated. Results indicate that a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions of 29-43% is possible, together with an estimated increase in renewable energy production of 7-22%.

  14. Seasonal cycle and long-term trend of solar energy fluxes through Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, S.; Nicolaus, M.

    2014-11-01

    Arctic sea ice has not only decreased in volume during the last decades, but has also changed in its physical properties towards a thinner and more seasonal ice cover. These changes strongly impact the energy budget, and might affect the ice-associated ecosystems. In this study, we quantify solar shortwave fluxes through sea ice for the entire Arctic during all seasons. To focus on sea-ice-related processes, we exclude fluxes through open water, scaling linearly with sea ice concentration. We present a new parameterization of light transmittance through sea ice for all seasons as a function of variable sea ice properties. The maximum monthly mean solar heat flux under the ice of 30 × 105 Jm-2 occurs in June, enough heat to melt 0.3 m of sea ice. Furthermore, our results suggest that 96% of the annual solar heat input through sea ice occurs during only a 4-month period from May to August. Applying the new parameterization to remote sensing and reanalysis data from 1979 to 2011, we find an increase in transmitted light of 1.5% yr-1 for all regions. This corresponds to an increase in potential sea ice bottom melt of 63% over the 33-year study period. Sensitivity studies reveal that the results depend strongly on the timing of melt onset and the correct classification of ice types. Assuming 2 weeks earlier melt onset, the annual transmitted solar radiation to the upper ocean increases by 20%. Continuing the observed transition from a mixed multi-year/first-year sea ice cover to a seasonal ice cover results in an increase in light transmittance by an additional 18%.

  15. Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine

    E-print Network

    11/17/2014 1 Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Utility Scale Solar PV Steven doing recently around two key supply-side resource technologies 1. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine #12;11/17/2014 4 Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Background Primary Components Gas-fired combustion

  16. Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide - 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1999-01-01

    The 1990 U.S. Bureau of Mines publication, Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide, has been updated and is now available. The 1998 USGS edition of Primary Aluminum Plants Worldwide is published in two parts. Part I—Detail contains information on individual primary smelter capacity, location, ownership, sources of energy, and other miscellaneous information. Part II—Summary summarizes the capacity data by country

  17. Transient Accident Analysis of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Converter Coupled to an Autonomous Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, Anton; Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton Cycle is a promising advanced alternative to the Rankine saturated steam cycle and recuperated gas Brayton cycle for the energy converters of specific reactor concepts belonging to the U.S. Department of Energy Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. A new plant dynamics analysis computer code has been developed for simulation of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle coupled to an autonomous, natural circulation Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The plant dynamics code was used to simulate the whole-plant response to accident conditions. The specific design features of the reactor concept influencing passive safety are discussed and accident scenarios are identified for analysis. Results of calculations of the whole-plant response to loss-of-heat sink, loss-of-load, and pipe break accidents are demonstrated. The passive safety performance of the reactor concept is confirmed by the results of the plant dynamics code calculations for the selected accident scenarios. (authors)

  18. Transient accident analysis of a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle energy converter coupled to an autonomous lead-cooled fast reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-08-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is a promising advanced alternative to the Rankine steam cycle and recuperated gas Brayton cycle for the energy converters of specific reactor concepts belonging to the U.S. Department of Energy Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. A new plant dynamics analysis computer code has been developed for simulation of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle coupled to an autonomous, natural circulation lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR). The plant dynamics code was used to simulate the whole-plant response to accident conditions. The specific design features of the reactor concept influencing passive safety are discussed and accident scenarios are identified for analysis. Results of calculations of the whole-plant response to loss-of-heat sink, loss-of-load, and pipe break accidents are demonstrated. The passive safety performance of the reactor concept is confirmed by the results of the plant dynamics code calculations for the selected accident scenarios.

  19. A complete geothermal energy cycle with heat pumps and hybrid HVAC systems for the city of Denizli, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Eltez, M. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Kilkis, I.B. [Heatway Radiant Floors and Snowmelting, Springfield, MO (United States); [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses general aspects of maximizing geofluid effectiveness by employing hybrid cycle plants coupled to district HVAC systems. Alternative and new techniques in space heating and cooling are also discussed. A case study is presented for the district HVAC system for the city of Denizli in Turkey. Results are compared with an open-cycle, open-loop system.

  20. Carbon, nutrient and trace metal cycling in sandy sediments: A comparison of high-energy beaches and backbarrier tidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckhardt, Anja; Beck, Melanie; Seidel, Michael; Riedel, Thomas; Wehrmann, Achim; Bartholomä, Alexander; Schnetger, Bernhard; Dittmar, Thorsten; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    In order to evaluate the importance of coastal sandy sediments and their contribution to carbon, nutrient and metal cycling we investigated two beach sites on Spiekeroog Island, southern North Sea, Germany, and a tidal flat margin, located in Spiekeroog's backbarrier area. We also analyzed seawater and fresh groundwater on Spiekeroog Island, to better define endmember concentrations, which influence our study sites. Intertidal sandy flats and beaches are characterized by pore water advection. Seawater enters the sediment during flood and pore water drains out during ebb and at low tide. This pore water circulation leads to continuous supply of fresh organic substrate to the sediments. Remineralization products of microbial degradation processes, i.e. nutrients, and dissolved trace metals from the reduction of particulate metal oxides, are enriched in the pore water compared to open seawater concentrations. The spatial distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients (PO43-, NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, Si(OH)4 and total alkalinity), trace metals (dissolved Fe and Mn) as well as sulfate suggests that the exposed beach sites are subject to relatively fast pore water advection, which leads to organic matter and oxygen replenishment. Frequent pore water exchange further leads to comparatively low nutrient concentrations. Sulfate reduction does not appear to play a major role during organic matter degradation. High nitrate concentrations indicate that redox conditions are oxic within the duneward freshwater influenced section, while ammonification, denitrification, manganese and iron reduction seem to prevail in the ammonium-dominated seawater circulation zone. In contrast, the sheltered tidal flat margin site exhibits a different sedimentology (coarser beach sands versus finer tidal flat sands) and nutrients, dissolved manganese and DOC accumulate in the pore water. Ammonium is the dominant pore water nitrogen species and intense sulfate reduction leads to the formation of sulfide, which precipitates dissolved iron as iron sulfide. These findings are due to slower advective pore water exchange in the tidal flat sediments. This study illustrates how different energy regimes affect biogeochemical cycling in intertidal permeable sediments.

  1. Understanding the Energy, Water and Carbon Cycles Using an Innovative Land Surface Model with Multi-Parameterization Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Noah-MP, which improves over the standard Noah land surface model, is unique among all land surface models in that it has multi-parameterization options (hence Noah-MP), capable of producing thousands of parameterization schemes, in addition to its improved physical realism (multi-layer snowpack, groundwater dynamics, and vegetation dynamics). All these features are critical for ensemble hydrological simulations and climate predictions at intraseasonal to decadal timescales. This talk will focus on evaluation of the Noah-MP simulations of energy, water and carbon balances for different sub-basins in the Mississippi River in comparison with various observations. The analysis is performed on daily and monthly scales spanning from January 2000 to December 2009. We will show how different runoff schemes in Noah-MP affect the scatter patterns between runoff and water table depth and between gross primary productivity and total water storage change, a type of analysis that would help us identify the relationships between key water storage terms (groundwater, soil moisture, snow) and fluxes (GPP, sensible heat, evapotranspiration, runoff). Similarly, we want to see how other options affect the patterns, such as the beta parameter (i.e. the soil moisture parameter controlling transpiration of plants), the Ball-Berry and Jarvis options for stomatal resistance, and the dynamic vegetation options (on or off). We will compare the water storage simulations from Noah-MP, observations and other model estimates, which would help determine the strengths and limitations of the Noah-MP groundwater and hydrological schemes.

  2. Muon sea-level intensity and primary cosmic-ray nucleon spectrum in the (1÷100) TeV energy range from the Mt. Blanc underground experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bergamasco; A. Castellina; B. D'Ettorre Piazzoli; G. Mannocchi; P. Picchi; S. Vernetto; H. Bilokon

    1983-01-01

    Summary  We have measured the muon intensity underground up to 7100 hg\\/cm2 s.r. by means of a spark chamber apparatus. These intensities have been converted to a sea-level muon energy spectrum. An\\u000a accurate description of the flux of hadrons and muons in the atmosphere allows us to derive the primary nucleon spectrum.\\u000a If the validity of the superposition model and scaling

  3. Earth's Energy Cycle: Albedo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Center for Atmospheric Research

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, learners experiment and observe how the color of materials that cover the Earth affects the amounts of sunlight our planet absorbs. Use this activity to begin discussions on global warming and climate change. This lesson guide includes background information and handouts. Note: cost of materials does not include cost of thermometers or desk lamp/light bulbs.

  4. carbon cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryland Virtual High School

    Life on earth is based on carbon. Living things acquire carbon from their environment - from air, water, soil, and rock and from other living things - through processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition. The carbon cycle model is a representation of the movement of carbon from sources to sinks through chemical and physical transfers. The carbon cycle activity allows students to see the effect of fossil fuel burning on the carbon cycle.

  5. Thermochemical cycles for energy storage: Thermal decomposition of ZnCO{sub 4} systems. Final topical report, January 1, 1982--December 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Wentworth, W.E. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The overall objective of our research has been to develop thermochemical cycles that can be used for energy storage. A specific cycle involving ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4}) has been proposed. Each reaction in the proposed cycle has been examined experimentally. Emphasis has been placed on the basic chemistry of these reactions. In the concluding phase of this research, reported herein, we have shown that when NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4} is mixed with ZnO and decomposed, the resulting products can be released stepwise (H{sub 2}A{sub (g)} at {approximately}163{degrees}C, NH{sub 3(g)} at 365--418{degrees}C, and a mixture of SO{sub 2(g)} and SO{sub 3(g)} at {approximately}900{degrees}C) and separated by controlling the reaction temperature. Side reactions do not appear to be significant and the respective yields are high as would be required for the successful use of this energy storage reaction in the proposed cycle. Thermodynamic, kinetic, and other reaction parameters have been measured for the various steps of the reaction. Finally we have completed a detailed investigation of one particular reaction: the thermal decomposition of zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4}). We have demonstrated that this reaction can be accelerated and the temperature required reduced by the addition of excess ZnO, V{sub 2}A{sub 5} and possibly other metal oxides.

  6. Analysis of cycle-to-cycle variation and non-uniformity of energy production: Tests on individual cylinders of a radial piston engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Czarnigowski

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of identification tests on radial piston engine non-uniformity and non-repeatability of energy production. The tests are a part of the ASz-62IR engine modernization project aimed at extending the engine’s service life and decreasing fuel consumption. This is to be achieved by substituting a carburetor with an electronic injection control system. The tests consisted in measurements of

  7. Solar magnetic cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Karen L.

    1993-01-01

    Using NSO/KP magnetograms, the pattern and rate of the emergence of magnetic flux and the development of the large-scale patterns of unipolar fields are considered in terms of the solar magnetic cycle. Magnetic flux emerges in active regions at an average rate of 2 x 10(exp 21) Mx/day, approximately 10 times the estimated rate in ephemeral regions. Observations are presented that demonstrate that the large-scale unipolar fields originate in active regions and activity nests. For cycle 21, the net contribution of ephemeral regions to the axial dipole moment of the Sun is positive, and is of opposite sign to that of active regions. Its amplitude is smaller by a factor of 6, assuming an average lifetime of ephemeral regions of 8 hours. Active regions larger than 4500 Mm(sup 2) are the primary contributor to the cycle variation of Sun's axial dipole moment.

  8. Constraints on the flux of primary cosmic-ray photons at energies E>10{sup 18} eV from Yakutsk muon data

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A. V.; Makarov, I. T.; Pravdin, M. I.; Sleptsov, I. E.; Gorbunov, D. S.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Troitsky, S. V. [Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Yakutsk 677980 (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research of RAS, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    Comparing the signals measured by the surface and underground scintillator detectors of the Yakutsk Extensive Air Shower Array, we place upper limits on the integral flux and the fraction of primary cosmic-ray photons with energies E>10{sup 18} eV, E>2x10{sup 18} eV, and E>4x10{sup 18} eV. The large collected statistics of the showers measured by large-area muon detectors provides a sensitivity to photon fractions <10{sup -2}, thus achieving precision previously unreachable at ultrahigh energies.

  9. Constraints on the flux of primary cosmic-ray photons at energies E > 10^18 eV from Yakutsk muon data

    E-print Network

    A. V. Glushkov; I. T. Makarov; M. I. Pravdin; I. E. Sleptsov; D. S. Gorbunov; G. I. Rubtsov; S. V. Troitsky

    2010-09-15

    Comparing the signals measured by the surface and underground scintillator detectors of the Yakutsk Extensive Air Shower Array, we place upper limits on the integral flux and the fraction of primary cosmic-ray photons with energies E > 10^18 eV, E > 2*10^18 eV and E > 4*10^18 eV. The large collected statistics of the showers measured by large-area muon detectors provides a sensitivity to photon fractions < 10^-2, thus achieving precision previously unreachable at ultra-high energies.

  10. Cycles in mining seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcak, Henryk

    2013-07-01

    Stochastic models of self-organized criticality and intermittent criticality are used to describe the structure of seismic catalogs. The intermittent models introduce three phases of the seismic cycle: increase in seismic energy, seismic relaxation, and seismic quiescence after the final relaxation. In this paper, seismic mining catalogs from a deep copper mine are searched to find these three phases of the seismic cycle. In spite of the differences between the seismic records from earthquakes and the building of stresses in the mine, the cycles can be estimated in mining seismicity.

  11. Regulation of the cell cycle via mitochondrial gene expression and energy metabolism in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Huang, Weiwei; Ma, Mingxing; Yu, Min; Cui, Qinghua; Tan, Deyong

    2012-04-01

    Human cervical cancer HeLa cells have functional mitochondria. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial metabolism plays an essential role in tumor cell proliferation. Nevertheless, how cells coordinate mitochondrial dynamics and cell cycle progression remains to be clarified. To investigate the relationship between mitochondrial function and cell cycle regulation, the mitochondrial gene expression profile and cellular ATP levels were determined by cell cycle progress analysis in the present study. HeLa cells were synchronized in the G0/G1 phase by serum starvation, and re-entered cell cycle by restoring serum culture, time course experiment was performed to analyze the expression of mitochondrial transcription regulators and mitochondrial genes, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cellular ATP levels, and cell cycle progression. The results showed that when arrested G0/G1 cells were stimulated in serum-containing medium, the amount of DNA and the expression levels of both mRNA and proteins in mitochondria started to increase at 2 h time point, whereas the MMP and ATP level elevated at 4 h. Furthermore, the cyclin D1 expression began to increase at 4 h after serum triggered cell cycle. ATP synthesis inhibitor-oligomycin-treatment suppressed the cyclin D1 and cyclin B1 expression levels and blocked cell cycle progression. Taken together, our results suggested that increased mitochondrial gene expression levels, oxidative phosphorylation activation, and cellular ATP content increase are important events for triggering cell cycle. Finally, we demonstrated that mitochondrial gene expression levels and cellular ATP content are tightly regulated and might play a central role in regulating cell proliferation. PMID:22343378

  12. Development of silver-zinc cells of improved cycle life and energy density. Final report, 16 August 1991-15 January 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Serenyi; S. D. James

    1994-01-01

    Substantial increases in the cost effectiveness and range of naval underwater vehicles are possible by virtue of advances made, in this program, to silver-zinc, vehicle propulsion batteries. To improve battery cycle life and energy density, Electro-Permeable Membranes (EPMs) were used (1) as additives and\\/or as coatings for the negative electrodes and (2) as coatings for conventional separator materials' Also, bismuth

  13. Pyroelectric energy harvesting using Olsen cycles in purified and porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navid, Ashcon; Pilon, Laurent

    2011-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the direct conversion of heat into electricity using pyroelectric materials. The Olsen (or Ericsson) cycle was experimentally performed on three different types of 60/40 poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer samples, namely commercial, purified, and porous films. This cycle consists of two isoelectric field and two isothermal processes. The commercial and purified films were about 50 µm thick and produced a maximum energy density of 521 J l - 1 and 426 J l - 1 per cycle, respectively. This was achieved by successively dipping the films in cold and hot silicone oil baths at 25 and 110 °C under low and high applied electric fields of about 200 and 500 kV cm - 1, respectively. The 11 µm thick porous films achieved a maximum energy density of 188 J l - 1 per cycle between 25 and 100 °C and electric field between 200 and 400 kV cm - 1. The performance of the purified and porous films suffered from their lower electrical resistivity and electric breakdown compared with commercial thin films. However, the energy densities of all 60/40 P(VDF-TrFE) films considered matched or exceeded those reported recently for 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.10PbTiO3 (0.9PMN-0.1PT) (186 J l - 1) and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)0.955Ti0.045O3 (243 J l - 1) bulk ceramics. Furthermore, the results are discussed in light of recently proposed figures of merit for energy harvesting applications.

  14. Primary Cosmic Rays with Energies above 1015 eV - Rapporteur Review of Poster Presentations at the 23rd ECRS - Session PCR 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabelski, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    Measurements of atmospheric Extensive Air Showers (EAS) are the only way of experimental studies of Primary Cosmic Rays (CR) with energies above 1015 eV. The final targets of these studies are search for astrophysical origin of these particles and properties of particle production in high energy particle interaction. Works presented at the PCR 2 session in the form of posters reflected the current progress in this area. In this review presented posters were grouped according to CR energy range, astrophysical significance, relation to high energy physics interaction properties and interaction models, and future experiments. 42 posters were submitted for this session. Some of the presented material in posters overlapped in parts with oral presentations.

  15. Charge, energy and LET spectra of high LET primary and secondary particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors of the P0006 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csige, I.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. V.; Oda, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the charge, energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of about 800 high LET (LET(sub infinity) H2O greater than 50 keV/micron) particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors in the P0006 experiment of LDEF. Primary particles with residual range at the reference surface greater than about 2 microns and secondary particles produced in the detector material with total range greater than about 4 microns were measured. We have used a multi-etch technique and an internal calibration to identify and measure the energy of the particles at the reference surface. The LET spectrum was obtained from the charge and energy distribution of the particles.

  16. Economic assessment and energy model scenarios of municipal solid waste incineration and gas turbine hybrid dual-fueled cycles in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Udomsri, Seksan, E-mail: seksan.udomsri@energy.kth.s [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Martin, Andrew R.; Fransson, Torsten H. [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    Finding environmentally benign methods related to sound municipal solid waste (MSW) management is of highest priority in Southeast Asia. It is very important to study new approaches which can reduce waste generation and simultaneously enhance energy recovery. One concrete example of particular significance is the concept of hybrid dual-fuel power plants featuring MSW and another high-quality fuel like natural gas. The hybrid dual-fuel cycles provide significantly higher electrical efficiencies than a composite of separate single-fuel power plant (standalone gas turbine combined cycle and MSW incineration). Although hybrid versions are of great importance for energy conversion from MSW, an economic assessment of these systems must be addressed for a realistic appraisal of these technologies. This paper aims to further examine an economic assessment and energy model analysis of different conversion technologies. Energy models are developed to further refine the expected potential of MSW incineration with regards to energy recovery and environmental issues. Results show that MSW incineration can play role for greenhouse gas reduction, energy recovery and waste management. In Bangkok, the electric power production via conventional incineration and hybrid power plants can cover 2.5% and 8% of total electricity consumption, respectively. The hybrid power plants have a relative short payback period (5 years) and can further reduce the CO{sub 2} levels by 3% in comparison with current thermal power plants.

  17. Economic assessment and energy model scenarios of municipal solid waste incineration and gas turbine hybrid dual-fueled cycles in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Udomsri, Seksan; Martin, Andrew R; Fransson, Torsten H

    2010-07-01

    Finding environmentally benign methods related to sound municipal solid waste (MSW) management is of highest priority in Southeast Asia. It is very important to study new approaches which can reduce waste generation and simultaneously enhance energy recovery. One concrete example of particular significance is the concept of hybrid dual-fuel power plants featuring MSW and another high-quality fuel like natural gas. The hybrid dual-fuel cycles provide significantly higher electrical efficiencies than a composite of separate single-fuel power plant (standalone gas turbine combined cycle and MSW incineration). Although hybrid versions are of great importance for energy conversion from MSW, an economic assessment of these systems must be addressed for a realistic appraisal of these technologies. This paper aims to further examine an economic assessment and energy model analysis of different conversion technologies. Energy models are developed to further refine the expected potential of MSW incineration with regards to energy recovery and environmental issues. Results show that MSW incineration can play role for greenhouse gas reduction, energy recovery and waste management. In Bangkok, the electric power production via conventional incineration and hybrid power plants can cover 2.5% and 8% of total electricity consumption, respectively. The hybrid power plants have a relative short payback period (5 years) and can further reduce the CO(2) levels by 3% in comparison with current thermal power plants. PMID:20207531

  18. Composition of Primary Cosmic Rays at Energies 10**16 - 10**16 Ev: Analysis of Low Energy Muons in Air Showers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Yodh; J. A. Goodman; S. C. Tonwar; R. W. Ellsworth

    1983-01-01

    The authors present a comparison of observations with the expectations from simulation of showers and experimental conditions and discuss the sensitivity of the results to composition of primary cosmic rays.

  19. Characterization of structural and free energy properties of promoters associated with Primary and Operon TSS in Helicobacter pylori genome and their orthologs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aditya; Bansal, Manju

    2012-07-01

    Promoter regions in the genomes of all domains of life show similar trends in several structural properties such as stability, bendability, curvature, etc. In current study we analysed the stability and bendability of various classes of promoter regions (based on the recent identification of different classes of transcription start sites) of Helicobacter pylori 26695 strain. It is found that primary TSS and operon-associated TSS promoters show significantly strong features in their promoter regions. DNA free-energy-based promoter prediction tool PromPredict was used to annotate promoters of different classes, and very high recall values (approx. 80 percent) are obtained for primary TSS. Orthologous genes from other strains of H. pylori show conservation of structural properties in promoter regions as well as coding regions. PromPredict annotates promoters of orthologous genes with very high recall and precision. PMID:22750980

  20. Primary light-energy conversion in tetrameric chlorophyll structure of photosystem II and bacterial reaction centers: I. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravil A. Khatypov; Anton Yu. Khmelnitskiy; Maria M. Leonova; Lyudmila G. Vasilieva; Vladimir A. Shuvalov

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the review is to show that the tetrameric (bacterio)chlorophyll ((B)Chl) structures in reaction centers of\\u000a photosystem II (PSII) of green plants and in bacterial reaction centers (BRCs) are similar and play a key role in the primary\\u000a charge separation. The Stark effect measurements on PSII reaction centers have revealed an increased dipole moment for the\\u000a transition at

  1. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  2. Two Quantum Polytropic Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Hernández, L. A.; Morales-Serrano, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we follow the Bender et al paper [1] to study the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson polytropic cycles. In the context of the classical thermodynamics, the Stirling and Ericsson cycles correspond to reversible heat engines with two isothermal processes joined by two polytropic branches which occur in a device called regenerator. If this device is an ideal one, the efficiency of these cycles is the Carnot efficiency. Here, we introduce the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson cycles, the first one based on a double square potential well with a finite potential barrier, since in this system the tunnel effect could be the analogue to the regeneration classical process, therefore the isochoric quantum branches would really correspond to an internal energy storage, and the last one with an unknown system where the isobaric quantum processes don't induce changes in its quantum state. With these systems the quantum engines have cycles consisting of polytropic and isothermal quantum processes analogues to the corresponding classical processes. We show that in both cases the quantum cycles have an efficiency given by ?CQM = 1 - EC/EH, which is the same expression for the quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle studied by Bender.

  3. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors/Advanced Burner Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, James J.; Moisseytsev, Anton; Cho, Dae H.; Momozaki, Yoichi; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Haglund, Robert C.; Reed, Claude B.; Farmer, Mitchell T. [Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    An optimized supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle power converter has been developed for the 100 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) eliminating the potential for sodium-water reactions and achieving a small power converter and turbine generator building. Cycle and plant efficiencies of 39.1 and 38.3 %, respectively, are calculated for the ABTR core outlet temperature of 510 deg. C. The ABTR S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle will incorporate Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger{sup TM} units in the Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers, high and low temperature recuperators, and cooler. A new sodium test facility is being completed to investigate the potential for transient plugging of narrow sodium channels typical of a Na-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger under postulated off-normal or accident conditions. (authors)

  4. Milankovitch Cycles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    [http://www.sciencecourseware.org/eec/GlobalWarming/Tutorials/Milankovitch/

    These animations depict the three major Milankovitch Cycles that impact global climate, visually demonstrating the definitions of eccentricity, obliquity, and precession, and their ranges of variation and timing on Earth.

  5. Natural Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Climate Central

    In this short video from ClimateCentral, host Jessica Harrop explains what evidence scientists have for claiming that recent global warming is caused by humans and is not just part of a natural cycle.

  6. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moorland School

    This site, from Moorland School in England, describes the rock cycle. Topics briefly discussed include rock formation, erosion, transportation, and deposition, plus various types of rocks. The page is directed towards a middle-school audience.

  7. Presidential Primaries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Washington Weekly (an Internet newspaper) offers a 1996 Presidential Primaries Page that is organized by candidate within each party. For most candidates there is biographical information, voting record, list of accomplishments or stands on key issues, and a connection to the candidate's home page when available. This is a non-graphical but well organized page that provides the user with quick access to voting records, speeches and press releases, and Web pages of the candidates.

  8. The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European Contribution to the Investigation of the Energy and Water Cycle over a Large Drainage Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, E.; Meywerk, J.; Warrach, K.; Andrea, U.; Bergström, S.; Beyrich, F.; Bosveld, F.; Bumke, K.; Fortelius, C.; Graham, L. P.; Gryning, S.-E.; Halldin, S.; Hasse, L.; Heikinheimo, M.; Isemer, H.-J.; Jacob, D.; Jauja, I.; Karlsson, K.-G.; Keevallik, S.; Koistinen, J.; van Lammeren, A.; Lass, U.; Launianen, J.; Lehmann, A.; Liljebladh, B.; Lobmeyr, M.; Matthäus, W.; Mengelkamp, T.; Michelson, D. B.; Napiórkowski, J.; Omstedt, A.; Piechura, J.; Rockel, B.; Rubel, F.; Ruprecht, E.; Smedman, A.-S.; Stigebrandt, A.

    2001-11-01

    The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple interactively the atmosphere with the vegetated continental surfaces and the Baltic Sea including its sea ice. The intensive observational and modeling phase BRIDGE, which is a contribution to the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period of GEWEX, will provide enhanced datasets for the period October 1999-February 2002 to validate numerical models and satellite products. Major achievements have been obtained in an improved understanding of related exchange processes. For the first time an interactive atmosphere-ocean-land surface model for the Baltic Sea was tested. This paper reports on major activities and some results.

  9. Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Saydah, Benjamin; Eranki, Pragnya; Colosi, Lisa M; Greg Mitchell, B; Rhodes, James; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used widely to estimate the environmental implications of deploying algae-to-energy systems even though no full-scale facilities have yet to be built. Here, data from a pilot-scale facility using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is used to estimate the life cycle profiles at full scale. Three scenarios (lab-, pilot-, and full-scale) were defined to understand how development in the industry could impact its life cycle burdens. HTL-derived algae fuels were found to have lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum fuels. Algae-derived gasoline had significantly lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol. Most algae-based fuels have an energy return on investment between 1 and 3, which is lower than petroleum biofuels. Sensitivity analyses reveal several areas in which improvements by algae bioenergy companies (e.g., biocrude yields, nutrient recycle) and by supporting industries (e.g., CO2 supply chains) could reduce the burdens of the industry. PMID:24045203

  10. Particle lateral distributions in the core of high-energy extensive air showers as a source of informations of the primary particle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haungs, A.

    1996-11-01

    In the central detector of the KASCADE experiment a system of 32 large-area multiwire proportional chambers is able to observe muons in extensive air showers. This system allows in addition to the tracking of muons with a threshold energy of 2 GeV and the estimate of the shower direction through the mean muon direction a measurement of density distributions including the muons, secondaries produced in the absorber, and punch-throughs of high energetic hadrons. With a multifractal analysis of this density distributions a parametrisation of the lateral particle distributions is possible, especially for the core of high-energy extensive air showers. Detailed shower and detector simulations give the sensitivities of the reconstructed parameters relative to the mass of the primary particle. An analysis of first measured showers is done with an artificial neural net, trained by full simulated showers. A decrease of the light components in the primary cosmic ray composition is favoured in the energy region around 1015eV.

  11. Towards Standardization of Life-Cycle Metrics for Biofuels: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation and Net Energy Yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. Liska; Kenneth G. Cassman

    2008-01-01

    Despite a rapid worldwide expansion of the biofuel industry, there is a lack of consensus within the scientific community about the potential of biofuels to reduce reliance on petroleum and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although life cycle assessment provides a means to quantify these potential benefits and environmental impacts, existing methods limit direct comparison within and between different biofuel

  12. Vapor cycle energy system for implantable circulatory assist devices. Annual progress report Jul 1974--Jun 1975. [Tidal regenerator engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagen

    1975-01-01

    The report describes the development status of a heart assist system driven by a nuclear fueled, electronically controlled vapor cycle engine termed the tidal regenerator engine (TRE). The TRE pressurization (typically from 5-160 psia) is controlled by a torque motor coupled to a displacer. The electrical power for the sensor, electronic logic and actuator is provided by a thermoelectric module

  13. A life cycle assessment of biodiesel derived from the “niche filling” energy crop camelina in the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. Krohn; Matthias Fripp

    2012-01-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) is a promising crop for biodiesel production that avoids many of the potential pitfalls of traditional biofuel crops, such as land use change (LUC) and food versus fuel. In this study the environmental viability of camelina biodiesel was assessed using life cycle analysis (LCA) methodology. The LCA was conducted using the spreadsheet model dubbed KABAM. KABAM found

  14. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume III. Life-cycle and cost-benefit analysis of a battery-flywheel electric car

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-27

    This report describes the development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000-lb class. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all-electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control is described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor-type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a d-c battery electric propulsion system through a load-commutated inverter. The motor/alernator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy. Laboratory simulation of the electric vehicle propulsion system includes a 108-volt, lead-acid battery bank and a separately excited d-c propulsion motor coupled to a flywheel and generator which simulate the vehicle's inertia and losses. This volume presents the life-cycle and cost-benefit analyses of the proposed battery/flywheel electric vehicle.

  15. Impact of the Last Glacial Cycle on Common-Era temperature and energy reconstructions from terrestrial borehole temperatures in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrami, H.; Matharoo, G. S.; Tarasov, L.; Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Reconstructions of past climatic changes from borehole temperature profiles areimportant independent estimates of temperature histories over the lastmillennium. There remain, however, multiple uncertainties in theinterpretation of these data as climatic indicators and as estimates of thechanges in heat content of the continental subsurface due to long-termclimatic change. One of these uncertainties is associated with the oftenignored impact of the last glacial cycle on the subsurface energy content, andthe estimate of the background quasi steady-state signal associated withthe diffusion of accretionary energy from the Earth's interior. Here we providethe first quantification of the impact of the Laurentide ice sheeton energy and surface temperature reconstructions during the Common Era from measurements ofterrestrial borehole temperatures in North America. We use basal temperaturevalues from the data-calibrated Memorial University of Newfoundland GlacialSystems Model to quantify the extent of the perturbation tosteady-state temperature profiles and to derive spatial maps of the expectedimpacts on measured profiles over North America. Furthermore, we presentquantitative estimates of the potential effects of temperature changes duringthe last glacial cycle on Common-Era surface temperature reconstructions for North America. The range of these possible impacts areestimated using synthetic basal temperatures for a period covering 120 ka tothe present day that include the basal temperature history uncertainties froman ensemble of results from the calibrated numerical model. For all thelocations, we find that within the depth ranges that are typical for availableboreholes used to estimate surface temperature changes during the Common era (~600 m), the induced perturbations to the steady-state temperature profile are on the order of 10 mW/m2, decreasingwith greater depths. Results indicate that site-specific heat content estimatesover North America can differ by as much as 50%, if the energy contributionof the last glacial cycle in those areas of North America that experiencedglaciation is not taken into account when estimating recent subsurface energychange from borehole temperature data.

  16. Advanced heat pump cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Groll, E.A.; Radermacher, R.

    1993-07-01

    The desorption and absorption process of a vapor compression heat pump with a solution circuit (VCHSC) proceeds at gliding temperature intervals, which can be adjusted over a wide range. In case that the gliding temperature intervals in the desorber and the absorber overlap, a modification of the VCHSC employing a desorber/absorber heat exchange (DAHX) can be introduced, which results in an extreme reduction of the pressure ratio. Although the DAHX-cycle has features of a two-stage cycle, it still requires only one solution pump, one separator and one compressor. Such a cycle for the working pair ammonia/water is built in the Energy Laboratory of the Center for Environmental Energy Engineering at the University of Maryland. The experimental results obtained with the research plant are discussed and compared to those calculated with a simulation program. The possible temperature lift between heat source and heat sink depending on the achievable COP are presented.

  17. Integrating Energy-saving Concept into General Product Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Li; Hong-chao Zhang; J. Carrell; D. Tate

    2007-01-01

    Currently, Energy and Environmental issues are worldwide concerns. Energy savings is also without doubt the most effective strategy for environmental protection. This paper introduces a new general product design method. Our research effort will be directed towards the following three primary objectives: (1) investigating all the aspects related to energy-saving issues throughout the entire product life cycle; (2) developing a

  18. Energy Manual for Parks: A Handbook for Interpreters and Naturalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lee; And Others

    This publication is intended to supply information on energy with which park interpreters can supplement their understanding of natural environments. Chapter one discusses the sun as earth's primary energy source, the hydrologic cycle, the system concept, and the laws of thermodynamics. The second chapter explores energy transformations in natural…

  19. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas profile of a process for the production of ammonium sulfate from nitrogen-fixing photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Razon, Luis F

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative means for nitrogen fixation that may consume less energy and release less greenhouse gases than the Haber-Bosch process is explored. A life-cycle assessment was conducted on a process to: culture the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, in open ponds; harvest the biomass and exopolysaccharides and convert these to biogas; strip and convert the ammonia from the biogas residue to ammonium sulfate; dry the ammonium sulfate solution to ammonium sulfate crystals and transport the finished product. The results suggest that substantial reductions in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions may be realized. The study opens the possibility that Haber-Bosch ammonia may be replaced with ammonia from a biomass process which simultaneously generates renewable energy. The process is intrinsically safer than the Haber-Bosch process. However, there are trade-offs in terms of land use and possibly, water. PMID:22226591

  20. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 3: Life cycle and cost-benefit analysis of a battery-flywheel electric car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control is described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE j227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor-type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load-commutated inverter. The motor/alernator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy. Laboratory simulation of the electric vehicle propulsion system included a 108 volt, lead-acid battery bank and a separately excited dc propulsion motor coupled to a flywheel and generator which simulate the vehicle's inertia and losses.

  1. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines

    E-print Network

    Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines Steven Simmons February 27 2014 1 #12;CCCT Today's Discussion 1 Meeting Pricing of 4 advanced units using information from Gas Turbine World Other cost estimates from E E3 EIA Gas Turbine World California Energy Commission Date 2010 Oct 2012, Dec 2013 Apr 2013 2013 Apr

  2. Dual fast-cycling superconducting synchrotron at Fermilab and a possible path to the future of high energy particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    We briefly outline shorter and longer term physics motivation for constructing a dual, fast-cycling superconducting synchrotron accelerator (DSFMR - Dual Super-Ferric Main Ring) in the Tevatron tunnel at Fermilab. We discuss using this accelerator as a high-intensity dual neutrino beam source for the long-baseline neutrino oscillation search experiments, and also as a fast, dual pre-injector accelerator for the VLHC (Very Large Hadron Collider).

  3. Using energy balances for processing the results from tests of a single-shaft combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    Application of the balance method for dividing the overall power output produced by a single-shaft combined-cycle power plant between the steam turbine and gas turbine unit is considered. It is shown that the method can be used for obtaining trustworthy results of thermal tests. The effect of air flowrate taken for gas turbine cooling purposes on the gas turbine unit parameters and indicators is estimated.

  4. Economic scales for first-generation biomass-gasifier\\/gas turbine combined cycles fueled from energy plantations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Larson; C. I. Marrison

    1997-01-01

    This paper assesses the scales at which commercial, first-generation biomass integrated-gasifier\\/gas turbine combined cycle (BIG\\/GTCC) technology is likely to be most economic when fueled by plantation-derived biomass. First-generation BIG\\/GTCC systems are likely to be commercially offered by vendors beginning around 2000 and will be based on either pressurized or atmospheric-pressure gasification. Both plant configurations are considered here, with estimates of

  5. Energy and exergy analysis of new refrigerant mixtures in an Organic Rankine Cycle for low temperature power generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Sami

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the performance of environmentally-friendly refrigerant mixtures in an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for power generation. The performance has been compared at low and medium waste heat temperatures to other organic and non-organic fluids.The refrigerant mixtures boil at extremely low temperatures and are capable of efficiently capturing waste heat at temperatures less than 27°C (80°F). The

  6. Dual fast-cycling superconducting synchrotron at Fermilab and a possible path to the future of high energy particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarz, H.

    2009-08-01

    We briefly outline shorter and longer term physics motivation for constructing a dual, fast-cycling superconducting synchrotron accelerator (DSFMR — Dual Super-Ferric Main Ring) in the Tevatron tunnel at Fermilab. We discuss using this accelerator as a high-intensity dual neutrino beam source for the long-baseline neutrino oscillation search experiments, and also as a fast, dual pre-injector accelerator for the VLHC (Very Large Hadron Collider).

  7. Dual fast-cycling superconducting synchrotron at Fermilab and a possible path to the future of high energy particle physics

    E-print Network

    Piekarz, H

    2010-01-01

    We briefly outline shorter and longer term physics motivation for constructing a dual, fast-cycling superconducting synchrotron accelerator (DSFMR - Dual Super-Ferric Main Ring) in the Tevatron tunnel at Fermilab. We discuss using this accelerator as a high-intensity dual neutrino beam source for the long-baseline neutrino oscillation search experiments, and also as a fast, dual pre-injector accelerator for the VLHC (Very Large Hadron Collider).

  8. GREET 1.0 -- Transportation fuel cycles model: Methodology and use

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, Co, NOx, SOx, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

  9. An Estimation of Reduction of the Primary Energy and the CO2 Emission in Residential PEFC Co-Generation System with Li-ion Battery Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Kazushige; Yonemori, Hideto; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi

    This paper presents the effects of introduction of residential polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) co-generation system with batteries in comparison with conventional systems that consist of a gas boiler and electric power from commercial grid, by computer simulation. The PEFC co-generation system in commercial use provides the average primary energy saving rate of 12.7% and CO2 reduction rate of 15.4% with respect to the conventional system. Addition of 8.0-kWh batteries to the PEFC system results in limited improvements of 0.8 points and 0.9 points in the reduction rates, respectively, yielding 13.5% and 16.3%, when using a conventional operation planning method. A new operation planning method is proposed in order to make a precise control of charging and discharging the batteries. The average primary energy saving rate reaches up to 16.9% by the improvement of 4.2 points, and CO2 reduction rate reaches up to 20.4% by the improvement of 5.0 points in the PEFC co-generation system with 8.0-kWh batteries using the new operation planning method. The new method can thus realize a substantial improvement in reduction rates. Furthermore, it is shown that the suitable battery module capacity for the residential PEFC co-generation system is 4.0kWh.

  10. Impact of tropical cyclones on the tropospheric water and energy cycle at synoptic scale : a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garot, Thomas; Brogniez, Hélène; Viltard, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Typhoon Bopha, formed on November 25 and dissipated on December 9, 2012. It was the strongest tropical cyclone to ever hit the southern Philippine island of Mindanao, making landfall as a Category 5 super typhoon with winds of 280 km/h. During the life cycle of the typhoon, the satellite Megha-Tropiques provided 2 to 5 samplings of the tropical atmosphere per day, thanks to its low inclination orbit (20°). At that time, the two microwave radiometers SAPHIR and MADRAS were both performing measurements thus giving the opportunity to investigate(i) how the typhoon impacted the atmospheric humidity of its environment and (ii) the temporal evolution of its rain field. For this purpose, three different level of upper tropospheric humidity retrieved from SAPHIR, rain rates and releases of total latent heat estimated from MADRAS were monitored along the track. We discussed the mean behavior of the typhoon that shows strong lagged oscillations of humidity and convection during its life cycle and we deepened its spatial asymetries and their relationship with the close environment. This analysis was completed with the traking algorithm TOOCAN that allows to study how each individual convective clusters contributed to the life cycle of the typhoon.

  11. Uranium, its impact on the national and global energy mix; and its history, distribution, production, nuclear fuel-cycle, future, and relation to the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1997-01-01

    The many aspects of uranium, a heavy radioactive metal used to generate electricity throughout the world, are briefly described in relatively simple terms intended for the lay reader. An adequate glossary of unfamiliar terms is given. Uranium is a new source of electrical energy developed since 1950, and how we harness energy from it is explained. It competes with the organic coal, oil, and gas fuels as shown graphically. Uranium resources and production for the world are tabulated and discussed by country and for various energy regions in the United States. Locations of major uranium deposits and power reactors in the United States are mapped. The nuclear fuel-cycle of uranium for a typical light-water reactor is illustrated at the front end-beginning with its natural geologic occurrence in rocks through discovery, mining, and milling; separation of the scarce isotope U-235, its enrichment, and manufacture into fuel rods for power reactors to generate electricity-and at the back end-the reprocessing and handling of the spent fuel. Environmental concerns with the entire fuel cycle are addressed. The future of the use of uranium in new, simplified, 'passively safe' reactors for the utility industry is examined. The present resource assessment of uranium in the United States is out of date, and a new assessment could aid the domestic uranium industry.

  12. Primary study of high-energy micro-arc alloying on In718 superalloy under distilled water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Changjun; Zhang Min; Cao Qin; Chang Qingming; Zhang SHichang; Chen Xia

    2010-01-01

    The effect of processing parameters on the topography, microstructure and chemical composition in electrical discharge alloying has been studied. This paper details the high-energy micro-arc alloying of In718 superalloy during electrical discharge surface alloying using deionizer water with NiCrAl electrode. Scan electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrograph (EDS) were performed. The results suggest that the surface is saturated with oxygen,

  13. Cycle Route

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-11-07

    If you're an avid cyclist or just a neophyte, you'll find this rather unique app most useful. Cycle Route can assist those with a passion for cycling plan out their route based on topography, elevation, main roads, and a range of other variables. Visitors just need to enter their origin and destination and they will be all set. The app returns a range of routes that users can take advantage of and there's also a mobile version as well. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

  14. PRIMARY CARE ASSOCIATE PROGRAM PRIMARY PRECEPTOR MANUAL

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    PRIMARY CARE ASSOCIATE PROGRAM 2011-2013 PRIMARY PRECEPTOR MANUAL http://pcap.stanford.edu 1215 or Supplemental Preceptor PRIMARY PRECEPTOR/PRIMARY CARE ASSOCIATE PROGRAM RELATIONSHIP PRECEPTOR REQUIREMENTS: Thank you for your interest in precepting a student in the Primary Care Associate Program. Your services

  15. Particles of primary cosmic radiation generating extensive air showers of energy above 10{sup 20} eV in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Dedenko, L. G., E-mail: ddn@dec1.sinp.msu.r [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Glushkov, A. V.; Knurenko, S. P.; Makarov, I. T.; Pravdin, M. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Yakutsk Research Center, Siberian Division (Russian Federation); Podgrudkov, D. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Sleptzov, I. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Yakutsk Research Center, Siberian Division (Russian Federation); Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Fedunin, E. Yu. [Anturis (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    In order to construct the energy spectrum on the basis of data from the Yakutsk array, a method similar to that employed at the AGASA array is applied in addition to the standard approach based on experimental procedures. Moreover, a new, original, method underlying the calculation of the spectrum in the region of energies above 10{sup 20} eV is used to estimate energies. In order to compare data obtained at different arrays, it is proposed to harness the universal spectrum based on HiRes data. Within the QGSJET2 model, it is shown that a shower of energy 2 x 10{sup 20} eV was observed at the Yakutsk array. In the same energy region (above 2 x 10{sup 20} eV), the AGASA array recorded four showers, while the Fly's Eye array and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) recorded one shower each. These data do not confirm the conclusion that the flux of primary-cosmic-ray particles decreases because of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect.

  16. Energy and economic analysis of industrial process heat recovery with heat pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Urdanetta-Bohorquez

    1978-01-01

    A two-stream process scheme is considered as the basic heat pump heat recovery model around which the energy-economic analysis is developed. An algorithm is implemented to search for the heat pump cycle operational conditions that minimize energy consumption and maximize economic profitability. The measure of energy performance is the ratio of primary energy consumption by the heat pump system to

  17. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  18. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  19. Cycle Sequencing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents the cycle sequencing. The animation contains instructions on how to sequence a piece of DNA beginning with the raw materials needed, and details on the process: "Fluorescent dyes are added to the reactions, and a laser within an automated DNA sequencing machine is used to analyze the DNA fragments produced."

  20. Nitrogen Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary LeFever

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides a variety of resources. Some assist you in your content knowledge, some are actual lessons or activities, some are good graphic representations of both concepts and organisms of the nitrogen cycle, and some provide real data from current issues for you and your students to analyze and interpret.