Science.gov

Sample records for cycle project twenty-first

  1. Uncertainty in Twenty-First-Century CMIP5 Sea Level Projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Christopher M.; Horton, Radley M.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yip, Stan

    2015-01-01

    The representative concentration pathway (RCP) simulations included in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) quantify the response of the climate system to different natural and anthropogenic forcing scenarios. These simulations differ because of 1) forcing, 2) the representation of the climate system in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), and 3) the presence of unforced (internal) variability. Global and local sea level rise projections derived from these simulations, and the emergence of distinct responses to the four RCPs depend on the relative magnitude of these sources of uncertainty at different lead times. Here, the uncertainty in CMIP5 projections of sea level is partitioned at global and local scales, using a 164-member ensemble of twenty-first-century simulations. Local projections at New York City (NYSL) are highlighted. The partition between model uncertainty, scenario uncertainty, and internal variability in global mean sea level (GMSL) is qualitatively consistent with that of surface air temperature, with model uncertainty dominant for most of the twenty-first century. Locally, model uncertainty is dominant through 2100, with maxima in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The model spread is driven largely by 4 of the 16 AOGCMs in the ensemble; these models exhibit outlying behavior in all RCPs and in both GMSL and NYSL. The magnitude of internal variability varies widely by location and across models, leading to differences of several decades in the local emergence of RCPs. The AOGCM spread, and its sensitivity to model exclusion and/or weighting, has important implications for sea level assessments, especially if a local risk management approach is utilized.

  2. Projected deglaciation of western Canada in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Garry K. C.; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Anslow, Faron S.; Radić, Valentina; Menounos, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Retreat of mountain glaciers is a significant contributor to sea-level rise and a potential threat to human populations through impacts on water availability and regional hydrology. Like most of Earth’s mountain glaciers, those in western North America are experiencing rapid mass loss. Projections of future large-scale mass change are based on surface mass balance models that are open to criticism, because they ignore or greatly simplify glacier physics. Here we use a high-resolution regional glaciation model, developed by coupling physics-based ice dynamics with a surface mass balance model, to project the fate of glaciers in western Canada. We use twenty-first-century climate scenarios from an ensemble of global climate models in our simulations; the results indicate that by 2100, the volume of glacier ice in western Canada will shrink by 70 +/- 10% relative to 2005. According to our simulations, few glaciers will remain in the Interior and Rockies regions, but maritime glaciers, in particular those in northwestern British Columbia, will survive in a diminished state. We project the maximum rate of ice volume loss, corresponding to peak input of deglacial meltwater to streams and rivers, to occur around 2020-2040. Potential implications include impacts on aquatic ecosystems, agriculture, forestry, alpine tourism and water quality.

  3. On the twenty-first-century wet season projections over the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selman, Christopher; Misra, Vasu; Stefanova, Lydia; Dinapoli, Steven; Smith, Thomas J., III

    2013-01-01

    This paper reconciles the difference in the projections of the wet season over the Southeastern United States (SEUS) from a global climate model (the Community Climate System Model Version 3 [CCSM3]) and from a regional climate model (the Regional Spectral Model [RSM]) nested in the CCSM3. The CCSM3 projects a dipole in the summer precipitation anomaly: peninsular Florida dries in the future climate, and the remainder of the SEUS region becomes wetter. The RSM forced with CCSM3 projects a universal drying of the SEUS in the late twenty-first century relative to the corresponding twentieth-century summer. The CCSM3 pattern is attributed to the “upped-ante” mechanism, whereby the atmospheric boundary layer moisture required for convection increases in a warm, statically stable global tropical environment. This criterion becomes harder to meet along convective margins, which include peninsular Florida, resulting in its drying. CCSM3 also projects a southwestward expansion of the North Atlantic subtropical high that leads to further stabilizing of the atmosphere above Florida, inhibiting convection. The RSM, because of its high (10-km grid) resolution, simulates diurnal variations in summer rainfall over SEUS reasonably well. The RSM improves upon CCSM3 through the RSM’s depiction of the diurnal variance of precipitation, which according to observations accounts for up to 40 % of total seasonal precipitation variance. In the future climate, the RSM projects a significant reduction in the diurnal variability of convection. The reduction is attributed to large-scale stabilization of the atmosphere in the CCSM3 projections.

  4. Robust twenty-first-century projections of El Niño and related precipitation variability.

    PubMed

    Power, Scott; Delage, François; Chung, Christine; Kociuba, Greg; Keay, Kevin

    2013-10-24

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives substantial variability in rainfall, severe weather, agricultural production, ecosystems and disease in many parts of the world. Given that further human-forced changes in the Earth's climate system seem inevitable, the possibility exists that the character of ENSO and its impacts might change over the coming century. Although this issue has been investigated many times during the past 20 years, there is very little consensus on future changes in ENSO, apart from an expectation that ENSO will continue to be a dominant source of year-to-year variability. Here we show that there are in fact robust projected changes in the spatial patterns of year-to-year ENSO-driven variability in both surface temperature and precipitation. These changes are evident in the two most recent generations of climate models, using four different scenarios for CO2 and other radiatively active gases. By the mid- to late twenty-first century, the projections include an intensification of both El-Niño-driven drying in the western Pacific Ocean and rainfall increases in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. Experiments with an Atmospheric General Circulation Model reveal that robust projected changes in precipitation anomalies during El Niño years are primarily determined by a nonlinear response to surface global warming. Uncertain projected changes in the amplitude of ENSO-driven surface temperature variability have only a secondary role. Projected changes in key characteristics of ENSO are consequently much clearer than previously realized. PMID:24121439

  5. Projected seasonal mean summer monsoon over India and adjoining regions for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sushil K.; Mishra, Saroj K.; Pattnayak, Kanhu C.; Mamgain, Ashu; Mariotti, Laura; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo; Giuliani, Graziano

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we present the projected seasonal mean summer monsoon over India and adjoining regions for the twenty-first century under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios using the regional model RegCM4 driven by the global model GFDL-ESM2M. RegCM4 is integrated from 1970 to 2099 at 50 km horizontal resolution over the South Asia CORDEX domain. The simulated mean summer monsoon circulation and associated rainfall by RegCM4 are validated against observations in the reference period 1975 to 2004 based on the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) data sets. Regional model results are also compared with those of the global model GFDL which forces the RegCM4, showing that the regional model in particular improves the simulation of precipitation trends during the reference period. Future projections are categorized as near future (2010-2039), mid future (2040-2069), and far future (2070-2099). Comparison of projected seasonal (June-September) mean rainfall from the different time slices indicate a gradual increase in the intensity of changes over some of the regions under both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. RegCM4 projected rainfall decreases over most of the Indian land mass and the equatorial and northern Indian Ocean, while it increases over the Arabian Sea, northern Bay of Bengal, and the Himalayas. Results show that the monsoon circulation may become weaker in the future associated with a decrease in rainfall over Indian land points. The RegCM4 projected decrease in June, July, August, September (JJAS) rainfall under the RCP8.5 scenario over the central, eastern, and peninsular India by the end of the century is in the range of 25-40 % of their mean reference period values; it is significant at the 95 % confidence level and it is broadly in line with patterns of observed change in recent decades. Surface evaporation is projected to increase over the Indian Ocean, thereby

  6. Twenty-first century reversal of the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifton, O. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Correa, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

    2014-10-01

    Changing emissions can alter the surface O3 seasonal cycle, as detected from northeastern U.S. (NE) observations during recent decades. Under continued regional precursor emission controls (-72% NE NOx by 2100), the NE surface O3 seasonal cycle reverses (to a winter maximum) in 21st century transient chemistry-climate simulations. Over polluted regions, regional NOx largely controls the shape of surface O3 seasonal cycles. In the absence of regional NOx controls, climate warming contributes to a higher surface O3 summertime peak over the NE. A doubling of the global CH4 abundance by 2100 partially offsets summertime surface O3 decreases attained via NOx reductions and contributes to raising surface O3 during December-March when the O3 lifetime is longer. The similarity between surface O3 seasonal cycles over the NE and the Intermountain West by 2100 indicates a NE transition to a region representative of baseline surface O3 conditions.

  7. Potential Impacts of Projected Mid-twenty-first Century Climate Change on the Hydrology of the Nasia Catchment, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alo, C. A.; Oteng, F. M.; Bitew, M. M.; Ahmed, K. F.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the coupled surface water-groundwater model, MIKE-SHE has been calibrated to observed streamflow and groundwater heads spanning 2000-2009 for the Nasia sub-catchment in the White Volta Basin, West Africa. The calibrated model has been used to project the mid-twenty-first century hydrology of the region. Bias-correction has also been applied to daily precipitation and monthly average temperature projections for the period 2010-2050 to derive the meteorological forcing data required to drive the model. The climate projections have been drawn from ten Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) relatively high resolution (less than two degrees latitude/longitude) climate models under the representative concentration pathway, RCP8.5. Here, we present simulated mid-twenty-first century hydrologic (streamflow and groundwater) changes over the Nasia sub-catchment with MIKE-SHE forced with the bias-corrected CMIP5 climate projections.

  8. The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Olson, W. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Houser, P. R.; Adler, R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Clayson, C. A.; Chambers, D.; Clark, E.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Gao, X.; Gu, G.; Hilburn, K.; Huffman, G. J.; Lettenmier, D. P.; Liu, W. T.; Robertson, F. R.; Schlosser, C. A.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study quantifies mean annual and monthly fluxes of Earth's water cycle over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the flux estimates are based on satellite measurements first and data-integrating models second. A careful accounting of uncertainty in the estimates is included. It is applied within a routine that enforces multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework in order to produce objectively determined optimized flux estimates. In the majority of cases, the observed annual surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are negligible. Fluxes were poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Many of the satellite systems that contributed data have been or will soon be lost or replaced. Models that integrate ground-based and remote observations will be critical for ameliorating gaps and discontinuities in the data records caused by these transitions. Continued development of such models is essential for maximizing the value of the observations. Next-generation observing systems are the best hope for significantly improving global water budget accounting.

  9. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained <10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance.

  10. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, C.V.; Marcot, B.G.; Douglas, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained >10% through the end of the century. The summed probabilities of vulnerable, rare, and extirpated (P(v,r,e)) increased from a current level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance. ?? 2011 US Government.

  11. Twenty-first century probabilistic projections of precipitation over Ontario, Canada through a regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, probabilistic projections of precipitation for the Province of Ontario are developed through a regional climate model ensemble to help investigate how global warming would affect its local climate. The PRECIS regional climate modeling system is employed to perform ensemble simulations, driven by a set of boundary conditions from a HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble. The PRECIS ensemble simulations are fed into a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify uncertain factors affecting the resulting projections of precipitation and thus generate probabilistic precipitation changes at grid point scales. Following that, reliable precipitation projections throughout the twenty-first century are developed for the entire province by applying the probabilistic changes to the observed precipitation. The results show that the vast majority of cities in Ontario are likely to suffer positive changes in annual precipitation in 2030, 2050, and 2080 s in comparison to the baseline observations. This may suggest that the whole province is likely to gain more precipitation throughout the twenty-first century in response to global warming. The analyses on the projections of seasonal precipitation further demonstrate that the entire province is likely to receive more precipitation in winter, spring, and autumn throughout this century while summer precipitation is only likely to increase slightly in 2030 s and would decrease gradually afterwards. However, because the magnitude of projected decrease in summer precipitation is relatively small in comparison with the anticipated increases in other three seasons, the annual precipitation over Ontario is likely to suffer a progressive increase throughout the twenty-first century (by 7.0 % in 2030 s, 9.5 % in 2050 s, and 12.6 % in 2080 s). Besides, the degree of uncertainty for precipitation projections is analyzed. The results suggest that future changes in spring precipitation show higher degree of uncertainty than other

  12. Twenty-first century probabilistic projections of precipitation over Ontario, Canada through a regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2015-09-01

    In this study, probabilistic projections of precipitation for the Province of Ontario are developed through a regional climate model ensemble to help investigate how global warming would affect its local climate. The PRECIS regional climate modeling system is employed to perform ensemble simulations, driven by a set of boundary conditions from a HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble. The PRECIS ensemble simulations are fed into a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify uncertain factors affecting the resulting projections of precipitation and thus generate probabilistic precipitation changes at grid point scales. Following that, reliable precipitation projections throughout the twenty-first century are developed for the entire province by applying the probabilistic changes to the observed precipitation. The results show that the vast majority of cities in Ontario are likely to suffer positive changes in annual precipitation in 2030, 2050, and 2080 s in comparison to the baseline observations. This may suggest that the whole province is likely to gain more precipitation throughout the twenty-first century in response to global warming. The analyses on the projections of seasonal precipitation further demonstrate that the entire province is likely to receive more precipitation in winter, spring, and autumn throughout this century while summer precipitation is only likely to increase slightly in 2030 s and would decrease gradually afterwards. However, because the magnitude of projected decrease in summer precipitation is relatively small in comparison with the anticipated increases in other three seasons, the annual precipitation over Ontario is likely to suffer a progressive increase throughout the twenty-first century (by 7.0 % in 2030 s, 9.5 % in 2050 s, and 12.6 % in 2080 s). Besides, the degree of uncertainty for precipitation projections is analyzed. The results suggest that future changes in spring precipitation show higher degree of uncertainty than other

  13. Project-Based Learning: A Critical Pedagogy for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maida, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    John Dewey's notion of the school as a "social laboratory" influenced educational policy a century ago when the United States underwent a "great transformation" in its educational history toward mass schooling, resulting partly from the "high school movement", where the focus was on "schooling for life". Project-based learning, which builds on…

  14. Twenty-first century projected summer mean climate in the Mediterranean interpreted through the monsoon-desert mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Annamalai, H.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Alessandri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The term "monsoon-desert mechanism" indicates the relationship between the diabatic heating associated with the South Asian summer monsoon rainfall and the remote response in the western sub-tropics where long Rossby waves anchor strong descent with high subsidence. In CMIP5 twenty-first century climate scenarios, the precipitation over South Asia is projected to increase. This study investigates how this change could affect the summer climate projections in the Mediterranean region. In a linear framework the monsoon-desert mechanism in the context of climate change would imply that the change in subsidence over the Mediterranean should be strongly linked with the changes in South Asian monsoon precipitation. The steady-state solution from a linear model forced with CMIP5 model projected precipitation change over South Asia shows a broad region of descent in the Mediterranean, while the results from CMIP5 projections differ having increased descent mostly in the western sector but also decreased descent in parts of the eastern sector. Local changes in circulation, particularly the meridional wind, promote cold air advection that anchors the descent but the barotropic Rossby wave nature of the wind anomalies consisting of alternating northerlies/southerlies favors alternating descent/ascent locations. In fact, the local mid-tropospheric meridional wind changes have the strongest correlation with the regions where the difference in subsidence is largest. There decreased rainfall is mostly balanced by changes in moisture, omega and in the horizontal advection of moisture.

  15. Uncertainty in twenty-first century projections of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in CMIP3 and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reintges, Annika; Martin, Thomas; Latif, Mojib; Keenlyside, Noel S.

    2016-05-01

    Uncertainty in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is analyzed in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) and Phase 5 (CMIP5) projections for the twenty-first century; and the different sources of uncertainty (scenario, internal and model) are quantified. Although the uncertainty in future projections of the AMOC index at 30°N is larger in CMIP5 than in CMIP3, the signal-to-noise ratio is comparable during the second half of the century and even larger in CMIP5 during the first half. This is due to a stronger AMOC reduction in CMIP5. At lead times longer than a few decades, model uncertainty dominates uncertainty in future projections of AMOC strength in both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 model ensembles. Internal variability significantly contributes only during the first few decades, while scenario uncertainty is relatively small at all lead times. Model uncertainty in future changes in AMOC strength arises mostly from uncertainty in density, as uncertainty arising from wind stress (Ekman transport) is negligible. Finally, the uncertainty in changes in the density originates mostly from the simulation of salinity, rather than temperature. High-latitude freshwater flux and the subpolar gyre projections were also analyzed, because these quantities are thought to play an important role for the future AMOC changes. The freshwater input in high latitudes is projected to increase and the subpolar gyre is projected to weaken. Both the freshening and the gyre weakening likely influence the AMOC by causing anomalous salinity advection into the regions of deep water formation. While the high model uncertainty in both parameters may explain the uncertainty in the AMOC projection, deeper insight into the mechanisms for AMOC is required to reach a more quantitative conclusion.

  16. Projected changes of summer monsoon extremes and hydroclimatic regimes over West Africa for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Ismaïla; Giorgi, Filippo; Deme, Abdoulaye; Tall, Moustapha; Mariotti, Laura; Gaye, Amadou T.

    2016-03-01

    We use two CORDEX-Africa simulations performed with the regional model RegCM4 to characterize the projected changes in extremes and hydroclimatic regimes associated with the West African Monsoon (WAM). RegCM4 was driven for the period 1970-2100 by the HadGEM2-ES and the MPI-ESM Global Climate Models (GCMs) under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentration pathway. RegCM4 accurately simulates the WAM characteristics in terms of seasonal mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and extreme events of rainfall. Overall, both RegCM4 experiments are able to reproduce the large-scale atmospheric circulation for the reference period (i.e. present-day), and in fact show improved performance compared to the driving GCMs in terms of precipitation mean climatology and extreme events, although different shortcomings in the various models are still evident. Precipitation is projected to decrease (increase) over western (eastern) Sahel, although with different spatial detail between RegCM4 and the corresponding driving GCMs. Changes in extreme precipitation events show patterns in line with those of the mean change. The models project different changes in water budget over the Sahel region, where the MPI projects an increased deficit in local moisture supply (E < P) whereas the rest of models project a local surplus (E > P). The E-P change is primarily precipitation driven. The precipitation increases over the eastern and/or central Sahel are attributed to the increase of moisture convergence due to increased water vapor in the boundary layer air column and surface evaporation. On the other hand, the projected dry conditions over the western Sahel are associated with the strengthening of moisture divergence in the upper level (850-300 hPa) combined to both a southward migration of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and a weakening of rising motion between the core of the AEJ and the Tropical Easterly Jet.

  17. Regional projections of glacier volume and runoff in response to twenty-first century climate scenarios (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, V.; Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in mass contained by mountain glaciers and ice caps can modify the Earth's hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from glaciers contributes to sea level rise. On regional and local scales, glacier melt-water is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. In this study we use an elevation-dependent glacier mass balance model to project annual volume changes and monthly runoff from all mountain glaciers and ice caps in the world (excluding those in the Antarctic periphery) for the 21st century forced by temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. The largest contributors to projected total volume loss are the glaciers in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska and glaciers peripheral to Greenland ice sheet. Although small contributors to global volume loss, glaciers in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 75% of their volume by 2100. The magnitude and sign of trends in annual runoff totals differ considerably among regions depending on the balance between enhanced melt and the reduction of the glacier reservoir by glacier retreat and shrinkage. Most regions show strong declines in glacier runoff indicating that the effect of glacier shrinkage is more dominant than increased melting rates. Some high-latitude regions (Arctic Canada North, Russian Arctic and Greenland) exhibit increases in runoff totals. Iceland and Svalbard show an increase in runoff followed by a multi-decadal decrease in annual runoff.

  18. Twenty-first century wave climate projections for Ireland and surface winds in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Gleeson, Emily; Tiron, Roxana; McGrath, Ray; Dias, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Ireland has a highly energetic wave and wind climate, and is therefore uniquely placed in terms of its ocean renewable energy resource. The socio-economic importance of the marine resource to Ireland makes it critical to quantify how the wave and wind climate may change in the future due to global climate change. Projected changes in winds, ocean waves and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events should be carefully assessed for long-term marine and coastal planning. We derived an ensemble of future wave climate projections for Ireland using the EC-Earth global climate model and the WAVEWATCH III® wave model, by comparing the future 30-year period 2070-2099 to the period 1980-2009 for the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. This dataset is currently the highest resolution wave projection dataset available for Ireland. The EC-Earth ensemble predicts decreases in mean (up to 2 % for RCP4.5 and up to 3.5 % for RCP8.5) 10 m wind speeds over the North Atlantic Ocean (5-75° N, 0-80° W) by the end of the century, which will consequently affect swell generation for the Irish wave climate. The WAVEWATCH III® model predicts an overall decrease in annual and seasonal mean significant wave heights around Ireland, with the largest decreases in summer (up to 15 %) and winter (up to 10 %) for RCP8.5. Projected decreases in mean significant wave heights for spring and autumn were found to be small for both forcing scenarios (less than 5 %), with no significant decrease found for RCP4.5 off the west coast in those seasons.

  19. Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) projected twenty-first century warming over Southern Africa: Role of Local Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, Mxolisi; Ntsangwane, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    The warming rates projected by an ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparion Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models (GCMs) over southern Africa (south of 10 degrees latitude) are investigated. The low resolution GCMs forced by four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) have been interpolated to a common resolution using a bilinear interpolation scheme. Warming is defined in terms of absolute differences in annual-mean near-surface air temperatures between two twenty-year time slices (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) and the historical period 1986-2005. In all RCPs, CMIP5 models project a higher warming rate over the southwestern parts centred around the arid Kalahari and Namib deserts and extending towards northern South Africa, eastern Namibia, western Botswana and southern Angola. The higher warming rates over these areas outpace global warming by up to a factor 2 in some GCMs. The projected warming is associated with an increase in heat waves. There is notable consensus across the models with little intermodel spread, suggesting a strong robustness of the projections. The spatial pattern and magnitude of the projected temperature increase relative to global warming is quite similar across the two selected time slices in the twenty-first century. Mechanisms underlying the enhanced warming are investigated. A positive soil moisture-temperature feedback is suggested to contribute to the accelerated temperature increase. A decrease in soil moisture is projected by the GCMs over the area of highest warming. The reduction in soil wetness reduces evapotranspiration rates over the area where evaporation is dependent on available soil moisture. The reduction is evapotranspiration affects the partitioning of turbulent energy fluxes from the soil surface into the atmosphere and translates into an increase of the Bowen ratio featuring an increase in sensible relative to latent heat flux. An increase in sensible heat flux leads to an increase in near

  20. Sources of uncertainty in projections of twenty-first century westerly wind changes over the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica, in CMIP5 climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott; Phillips, Tony

    2014-10-01

    The influence of changes in winds over the Amundsen Sea has been shown to be a potentially key mechanism in explaining rapid loss of ice from major glaciers in West Antarctica, which is having a significant impact on global sea level. Here, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model data are used to assess twenty-first century projections in westerly winds over the Amundsen Sea ( U AS ). The importance of model uncertainty and internal climate variability in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenario projections are quantified and potential sources of model uncertainty are considered. For the decade 2090-2099 the CMIP5 models show an ensemble mean twenty-first century response in annual mean U AS of 0.3 and 0.7 m s-1 following the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios respectively. However, as a consequence of large internal climate variability over the Amundsen Sea, it takes until around 2030 (2065) for the RCP8.5 response to exceed one (two) standard deviation(s) of decadal internal variability. In all scenarios and seasons the model uncertainty is large. However the present-day climatological zonal wind bias over the whole South Pacific, which is important for tropical teleconnections, is strongly related to inter-model differences in projected change in U AS (more skilful models show larger U AS increases). This relationship is significant in winter (r = -0.56) and spring (r = -0.65), when the influence of the tropics on the Amundsen Sea region is known to be important. Horizontal grid spacing and present day sea ice extent are not significant sources of inter-model spread.

  1. Projected impact of climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the Lake of Guiers for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tall, Moustapha; Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Diallo, Ismaïla; Pal, Jeremy S.; Faye, Aïssatou; Mbaye, Mamadou Lamine; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzes the impact of anthropogenic climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the lake of Guiers basin for the middle (2041-2060) and late twenty-first century (2080-2099). To this end, high-resolution multimodel ensemble based on regional climate model experiments considering two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) is used. The results indicate that an elevated warming, leading to substantial increase of atmospheric water demand, is projected over the whole of Senegal. In the Lake basin, these increases in potential evapotranspiration (PE) range between 10 and 25 % in the near future and for RCP4.5 while for the far future and RCP8.5, they exceed 50 %. In addition, mean precipitation unveils contrasting changes with wetter (10 to 25 % more) conditions by the middle of the century and drier conditions (more than 50 %) during the late twenty-first century. Such changes cause more/less evapotranspiration and soil moisture respectively during the two future periods. Furthermore, surface runoff shows a tendency to increase in most areas amid few locations including the Lake basin with substantial reduction. Finally, it is found that while semi-arid climates develop in the RCP4.5 scenario, generalized arid conditions prevail over the whole Senegal for RCP8.5. It is thus evident that these future climate conditions substantially threaten freshwater availability for the country and irrigated cropping over the Lake basin. Therefore, strong governmental politics are needed to help design response options to cope with the challenges posed by the projected climate change for the country.

  2. Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

  3. Evaluating CMIP5 models using GPS radio occultation COSMIC temperature in UTLS region during 2006-2013: twenty-first century projection and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, P.; Basha, Ghouse; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Velicogna, Isabella; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2016-02-01

    This paper provides a first overview of the performance of global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) temperatures. Temperature from CMIP5 models is evaluated with high resolution global positioning system radio occultation (GPSRO) constellation observing system for meteorology, ionosphere, and climate (COSMIC) data during the period of July 2006-December 2013. Future projections of 17 CMIP5 models based on the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenarios are utilized to assess model performance and to identify the biases in the temperature in the UTLS region at eight different pressure levels. The evaluations were carried out vertically, regionally, and globally to understand the temperature uncertainties in CMIP5 models. It is found that the CMIP5 models successfully reproduce the general features of temperature structure in terms of vertical, annual, and inter-annual variation. The ensemble mean of CMIP5 models compares well with the COSMIC GPSRO data with a mean difference of ±1 K. In the tropical region, temperature biases vary from one model to another. The spatial difference between COSMIC and ensemble mean reveals that at 100 hPa, the models show a bias of about ±2 K. With increase in altitude the bias decreases and turns into a cold bias over the tropical and Antarctic regions. The future projections of the CMIP5 models were presented during 2006-2099 under the RCP 8.5 scenarios. Projections show a warming trend at 300, 200, and 100 hPa levels over a wide region of 60°N-45°S. The warming decreases rapidly and becomes cooling with increase in altitudes by the end of twenty-first century. Significant cooling is observed at 30, 20, and 10 hPa levels. At 300/10 hPa, the temperature trend increases/decreases by ~0.82/0.88 K/decade at the end of twenty-first century under RCP 8.5 scenarios.

  4. The role of ENSO and PDO in variability of winter precipitation over North America from twenty first century CMIP5 projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Franco, Ramón; Giorgi, Filippo; Coppola, Erika; Kucharski, Fred

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the combined impact of ENSO and PDO on North American winter climate in current and future climate projections from 11 global models in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset. We first analyze winter sea surface temperature, sea level pressure (SLP) and precipitation anomalies for the historical period 1951-2005, and find that the CMIP5 models reproduce well the constructive interference between ENSO and the PDO compared to observations (i.e. positive ENSO and PDO or negative ENSO and PDO). On the other hand, the destructive interference (positive ENSO and negative PDO or negative ENSO and positive PDO) is less accurately reproduced. Consistently with observations, ENSO events show generally more impact on North American winter climate than PDO events, although there is a robust increase of rainfall in the Southeastern US during the negative PDO phase. For the twenty first century projections, we focus on the 2050-2099 period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentration scenario and we find an overall strengthening of both the ENSO and PDO signals, and particularly the PDO one, on the SLP and related teleconnections. This results in an enhanced influence of the negative PDO phase on flood conditions in the Southeastern United States, and in drier conditions over the Southwest coasts of North America.

  5. Twenty-first-century science.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, M R

    1995-01-01

    Scientific life is changing in fundamental ways as the twenty-first century approaches. Advances in technology are changing methods of scientific communications and dissemination of information, while diminishing resources lead to stabilization, politicization, increased public oversight, and the potential for significant downsizing. Libraries can foster the crucial interdisciplinary connections necessary to forge a new vision of scholarship. PMID:7703945

  6. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2016-07-01

    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975-2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December-May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  7. Variations in northern hemisphere snowfall: An analysis of historical trends and the projected response to anthropogenic forcing in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasting, John P.

    , such as northern Quebec. A signal-to-noise analysis reveals that the projected changes in snowfall are likely to become apparent during the twenty-first century for most locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  8. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Twenty-first quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1992--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Combustor spare and contingency hardware was shipped to the CDIF. Manufacture of spare and replacement hardware for the lA4 channel and diffuser continued. Fabrication of a modified/spare channel inlet frame which enables iron oxide injection. The cathode power cabinets and associated control system were successfully tested at Westinghouse and met all design requirements. The cathode system was delivered to the CDIF and installed in the current consolidation building. With the delivery of tills component, all prototypical power train components have been delivered to the CDIF. The hot-fire checkout of the channel subsystem and the design verification test series of the integrated power train were completed. A total of 29 tests were performed accumulating 120 thermal and 52 electrical hours. The test series demonstrated the adequacy of the overall cooling of the channel subsystem and provided an initial evaluation of the integrated combustor and channel performance in terms of operating conditions, power output, conductivity, heat loss, slagging behavior, and gas-side wear characteristics. During the test series localized wear in the supersonic nozzle was observed on the right sidewall. Cause of wear is being investigated. At conclusion of DVT test series, the channel was removed for inspection.

  9. Impact of land-use and land-cover changes on CRCM5 climate projections over North America for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandru, Adelina; Sushama, Laxmi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) on regional climate projections for North America. To this end, two transient climate change simulations, with and without LULCC, but identical atmospheric forcing, are performed with the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) driven by CanESM2 model for the (2006-2100)-RCP4.5 scenario. For the simulation with LULCC, land-cover data sets are taken from the Global Change Assessment Model representing the RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2006-2100. LULCC in RCP4.5 scenario point to significant reduction in cultivated land (e.g. Canadian Prairies and Mississippi basin) due to intense afforestation. Results suggest that biogeophysical effects of LULCC on climate, assessed through differences between the all-forcing (atmospheric and LULCC) run and the atmospheric forcing run (with constant land cover) are substantial for relevant surface variables. It is shown that the afforestation of cropland lead to warmer regional climates, especially in winter (warming above 1.5 °C), as compared with climates resulting from atmospheric forcings alone. The investigation of processes leading to this response shows high sensitivity of the results to changes in albedo as a response to LULCC. Additional roughness, evaporative cooling and water soil availability also seem to play an important role in regional climate especially for the summer season in certain afforested areas (e.g., southeastern US).

  10. Information Ethics in the Twenty First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The first decade of the twenty first century has seen a growing interest and intellectual debate within the information professions, focusing on issues where an ethical dimension predominates. This paper provides an overview of codes of practice, published literature, conference proceedings and educational programs that focus on information…

  11. Shelter for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, J D

    1990-01-01

    Housing for the twenty-first century will be shaped by the changes that are occurring in society. These include the demographics of the occupant, the products and materials used for construction and furnishing, and the basic use of the structure. An aging population will have different demands on design and function. The health concerns of an aging population encompass chronic degenerative diseases as well as injury. The lessons of the past must make us mindful that chronic, low-level exposures to substances can occur at home. Products and materials used in homes can release vapors that may affect immunologic and neurologic function. Manifestations of dysfunctions will be more important as our population ages and if there is a continued reliance on new chemical formulation for products used in homes and workplaces. The future portends changes in functional use of residences. Electronic communications and robotics will decentralize our work force. Manufacturing or office functions will occur at home. This will present new challenges for health and safety for both monitoring and prevention. PMID:2401266

  12. Twenty-first century challenges for biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hench, Larry L.; Thompson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, a first generation of materials was specially developed for use inside the human body. These developments became the basis for the field of biomaterials. The devices made from biomaterials are called prostheses. Professor Bill Bonfield was one of the first to recognize the importance of understanding the mechanical properties of tissues, especially bone, in order to achieve reliable skeletal prostheses. His research was one of the pioneering efforts to understand the interaction of biomaterials with living tissues. The goal of all early biomaterials was to ‘achieve a suitable combination of physical properties to match those of the replaced tissue with a minimal toxic response in the host’. By 1980, there were more than 50 implanted prostheses in clinical use made from 40 different materials. At that time, more than three million prosthetic parts were being implanted in patients worldwide each year. A common feature of most of the 40 materials was biological ‘inertness’. Almost all materials used in the body were single-phase materials. Most implant materials were adaptations of already existing commercial materials with higher levels of purity to eliminate release of toxic by-products and minimize corrosion. This article is a tribute to Bill Bonfield's pioneering efforts in the field of bone biomechanics, biomaterials and interdisciplinary research. It is also a brief summary of the evolution of bioactive materials and the opportunities for tailoring the composition, texture and surface chemistry of them to meet five important challenges for the twenty-first century. PMID:20484227

  13. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A.; Cape, J. Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N.; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr−1) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3−) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr−1 to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40–70 Tg N yr−1 to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr−1) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 102–103 years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced. PMID:23713126

  14. Annual maximum 5-day rainfall total and maximum number of consecutive dry days over Central America and the Caribbean in the late twenty-first century projected by an atmospheric general circulation model with three different horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaegawa, T.; Kitoh, A.; Murakami, H.; Kusunoki, S.

    2014-04-01

    We simulated changes in annual maximum 5-day rainfall (RX5D) and annual maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) in Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean with three different horizontal resolution atmospheric global general circulation models (AGCMs) and quantified the uncertainty of the projections. The RX5Ds and CDDs were projected to increase in most areas in response to global warming. However, consistent changes were confined to small areas: for RX5D, both coastal zones of northern Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula; for CDD, the Pacific coastal zone of Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala. All three AGCMs projected that RX5Ds and CDDs averaged over only the land area and over the entire area (land and ocean) would increase. The dependence of RX5D probability density functions on the horizontal resolutions was complex. Precipitation unrelated to tropical cyclones was primarily responsible for the projected increases in the frequency of RX5Ds greater than 300 mm.

  15. The Twenty-First NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Twenty-First NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Tampa, FL, April 26 through April 30, 1993. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre-and postprocessing with other auxiliary programs and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  16. Creating an Academic Library for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    When Bruce Miller took up the position of head librarian at the University of California, Merced in 2001, the plan for the new library was to use the University of California (UC) system's rich base of support as a launching pad for something great and extraordinary: a model academic research library for the twenty-first century. This article…

  17. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  18. Why the American Public Supports Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacconaghi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    American attitudes toward the need for teaching twenty-first century skills appear as strong as the socioeconomic research being done that shows how critical these skills are for students' future access to the middle class and the country's economic competitiveness. In 2003, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation) set out…

  19. Twenty-first Century Ethical Challenges for Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    2007-01-01

    Foreseeable social and technological changes will force us to reevaluate our thinking about ethically appropriate ways to fulfill our mission of using psychology to advance human health and welfare in the twenty-first century. Three categories of challenge related to societal and technological changes have become particularly evident. First,…

  20. Constraints, Dangers, and Challenges of the Twenty-First Century. International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondel, Daniele

    This document groups together the ideas about the difficulties, dangers, and challenges of the 21st century expressed by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century. In discussing constraints created by contemporary world history, the paper suggests that the development of the world economy and society is at present…

  1. Project 21: Teachers for the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Board of Teacher Education, Toowong (Australia).

    During 1985 and 1986, the Queensland Board of Teacher Education undertook a major review of teacher education and certification in Queensland. The report analyzes the social and educational trends emerging in Australia and formulates a view of the desirable roles and competencies of teachers in the future. Full recognition of teaching as a…

  2. Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

  3. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities.

  4. Why the American public supports twenty-first century learning.

    PubMed

    Sacconaghi, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Aware that constituent support is essential to any educational endeavor, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation), in conjunction with two respected national research firms, measured Americans' attitudes toward the implementation of twenty-first century skills. The foundation's national research survey was intended to explore public perceptions of the need for changes in the educational system, in school and after school, with respect to the teaching of twenty-first century skills. The author summarizes the findings of the survey, which were released by the foundation in June 2003. One thousand adults were surveyed by telephone, including African Americans, Latinos, teachers, and business executives. In general, the survey found that Americans believe today's students need a "basics-plus" education, meaning communication, technology, and critical thinking skills in addition to the traditional basics of reading, writing, and math. In fact, 92 percent of respondents stated that students today need different skills from those of ten to twenty years ago. Also, after-school programs were found to be an appropriate vehicle to teach these skills. Furthermore, the survey explored how well the public perceives schools to be preparing youth for the workforce and postsecondary education, which twenty-first century skills are seen as being taught effectively, and the level of need for after-school and summer programs. The survey results provide conclusive evidence of national support for basics-plus education. Thus, a clear opportunity exists to build momentum for a new model of education for the twenty-first century. PMID:17017255

  5. Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society

    PubMed Central

    Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino

    2013-01-01

    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the human immune responses are paving the way for the development of new vaccines. Final goal will be to rationally design effective vaccines where conventional approaches have failed. PMID:24478777

  6. Can we conquer cancer in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed

    Freireich, E J

    2001-08-01

    The twentieth century recorded the greatest advance in the control of human disease. From the beginning of recorded time, the human life-span changed little until the twentieth century. In the USA, it increased from 47.3 years in 1900 to 76.4 years in 2000. The answer to the question of "Can we cure cancer in the twenty-first century?" requires an appreciation of the contemporary nature of our knowledge. At the beginning of the twentieth century, major problems were nutrition and infection. By 1950, the major causes of mortality and morbidity were still infectious diseases, such as syphilis, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, and influenza. The 1950s and 1960s were the golden age of control of infectious diseases, while cancer, because of the aging of the population and the strong association between cancer and age, has become the major healthcare problem of the twenty-first century. Until 1960, no one had proposed or demonstrated that a systemic or metastatic form of cancer could be cured. In only 35-40 years not only have techniques for the early detection, prevention, and surgical and radiation therapy treatments improved, but at least 15-20% of patients with systemic/metastatic cancers can be cured with our current primitive systemic treatments. Prior to 1943, there was no chemotherapy. Prior to 1948, no one had described complete regression of a systemic cancer. There were no multi-institution, randomized clinical trials prior to 1949. Additionally, combination chemotherapy, new drugs, bone marrow transplantation, broad-spectrum antibiotics to control infections, and platelets to control hemorrhage have been added in the past 50 years. The pace of progress extrapolates to a prediction of cancer control in the twenty-first century. The human genome has been sequenced, and it will be possible to identify expression profiles not only for malignant cells but for their normal counterparts. It is certain that interventions specific for control of the malignant

  7. Twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over Upper Indus Basin of Himalayan region of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shaukat; Li, Dan; Congbin, Fu; Khan, Firdos

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on both the recent and the predicted twenty first century climatic and hydrological changes over the mountainous Upper Indus Basin (UIB), which are influenced by snow and glacier melting. Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data for the periods 1976-2005, 2006-2035, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100 with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) data for the periods of 2041-2050 and 2071-2080 with RCP8.5 are used for climatic projection and, after bias correction, the same data are used as an input to the University of British Columbia (UBC) hydrological model for river flow projections. The projections of all of the future periods were compared with the results of 1976-2005 and with each other. Projections of future changes show a consistent increase in air temperature and precipitation. However, temperature and precipitation increase is relatively slow during 2071-2100 in contrast with 2041-2070. Northern parts are more likely to experience an increase in precipitation and temperature in comparison to the southern parts. A higher increase in temperature is projected during spring and winter over southern parts and during summer over northern parts. Moreover, the increase in minimum temperature is larger in both scenarios for all future periods. Future river flow is projected by both models to increase in the twenty first century (CCAM and RegCM) in both scenarios. However, the rate of increase is larger during the first half while it is relatively small in the second half of the twenty first century in RCP4.5. The possible reason for high river flow during the first half of the twenty first century is the large increase in temperature, which may cause faster melting of snow, while in the last half of the century there is a decreasing trend in river flow, precipitation, and temperature (2071-2100) in comparison to 2041-2070 for RCP4.5. Generally, for all future periods, the percentage of increased river flow is larger in winter than in

  8. In vitro Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Roggen, Erwin L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) article “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy” (National Research Council, 2007) was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound. Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modeling tools for, e.g., system biology, physiologically based modeling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the twenty-first century. PMID:21713102

  9. Twenty-first century learning in schools: A case study of New Technology High School in Napa, California.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    The most pertinent question concerning teaching and learning in the twenty-first century is not what knowledge and skills students need--that laundry list was identified over a decade ago--but rather how to foster twenty-first century learning. What curricula, experiences, assessments, environments, and technology best support twenty-first century learning? New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, is one example of a successful twenty-first century school. In this chapter, the author describes the components of this exemplary high school, illustrating an environment that will cultivate twenty-first century student learning. New Technology High School began by defining eight learning outcomes, aligned with the standards of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills; to graduate, students demonstrate mastery of these outcomes through an online portfolio. To help students achieve the outcomes, NTHS employs project- and problem-based learning. Whereas in traditional classrooms students work alone on short-term assignments that do not lend themselves to deep understanding, the project-based learning approach has students working in teams on long-term, in-depth, rigorous projects. Students' work is supported by the school's workplace-like environment and effectiv use of technology. Meaningful assessment is essential to project-based learning; students receive continuous feedback, helping them become self-directed learners. In fact, NTHS uses outcome-based grading through which students constantly know how they are performing on the twenty-first century outcomes. Research has shown that NTHS graduates are better prepared for postsecondary education, careers, and citizenship than their peers from other schools. To facilitate twenty-first century learning, all schools need to rethink their approach to teaching and learning. New Technology High School is one way to do so. PMID:17017260

  10. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  11. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  12. 78 FR 22024 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 216, Aeronautical Systems Security (Joint Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 216, Aeronautical Systems... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 216, Aeronautical Systems... of the twenty first meeting of RTCA Special Committee 216, Aeronautical Systems Security...

  13. Assessing twenty-first century skills through a teacher created video game for high school biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

    2010-07-01

    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty-first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high productivity, and effective communication techniques of the students exposed to a MEGA. Three factors, as they pertained to these skills, emerged from classroom observations. Interaction with the teacher, discussion with peers, and engagement/time-on-task while playing the MEGA suggested that students playing an educational video game exhibited all of the projected twenty-first century skills while being engrossed in the embedded science content.

  14. Dominating Controls for Wetter South Asian Summer Monsoon in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Rui; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Leung, L. Ruby; Dominguez, Francina

    2015-04-07

    This study analyzes a suite of global climate models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives to understand the mechanisms behind a net increase in the South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in response to enhanced radiative forcing during the twenty-first century. An increase in radiative forcing fuels an increase in the atmospheric moisture content through warmer temperatures, which overwhelms the weakening of monsoon circulation and results in an increase of moisture convergence and therefore summer monsoon precipitation over South Asia. Moisture source analysis suggests that both regional (local recycling, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal) and remote (including the south Indian Ocean) sources contribute to the moisture supply for precipitation over South Asia during the summer season that is facilitated by the monsoon dynamics. For regional moisture sources, the effect of excessive atmospheric moisture is offset by weaker monsoon circulation and uncertainty in the response of the evapotranspiration over land, so anomalies in their contribution to the total moisture supply are either mixed or muted. In contrast, weakening of the monsoon dynamics has less influence on the moisture supply from remote sources that not only is a dominant moisture contributor in the historical period but is also the net driver of the positive summer monsoon precipitation response in the twenty-first century. Finally, the results also indicate that historic measures of the monsoon dynamics may not be well suited to predict the nonstationary moisture-driven South Asian summer monsoon precipitation response in the twenty-first century.

  15. Dominating Controls for Wetter South Asian Summer Monsoon in the Twenty-First Century

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mei, Rui; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Leung, L. Ruby; Dominguez, Francina

    2015-04-07

    This study analyzes a suite of global climate models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives to understand the mechanisms behind a net increase in the South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in response to enhanced radiative forcing during the twenty-first century. An increase in radiative forcing fuels an increase in the atmospheric moisture content through warmer temperatures, which overwhelms the weakening of monsoon circulation and results in an increase of moisture convergence and therefore summer monsoon precipitation over South Asia. Moisture source analysis suggests that both regional (local recycling, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal)more » and remote (including the south Indian Ocean) sources contribute to the moisture supply for precipitation over South Asia during the summer season that is facilitated by the monsoon dynamics. For regional moisture sources, the effect of excessive atmospheric moisture is offset by weaker monsoon circulation and uncertainty in the response of the evapotranspiration over land, so anomalies in their contribution to the total moisture supply are either mixed or muted. In contrast, weakening of the monsoon dynamics has less influence on the moisture supply from remote sources that not only is a dominant moisture contributor in the historical period but is also the net driver of the positive summer monsoon precipitation response in the twenty-first century. Finally, the results also indicate that historic measures of the monsoon dynamics may not be well suited to predict the nonstationary moisture-driven South Asian summer monsoon precipitation response in the twenty-first century.« less

  16. Linked Courses at the Twenty-First Century Metropolitan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, the authors argue that linked-course learning communities serve students at nonresidential metropolitan public universities by increasing their academic achievement, reducing their attrition, and engaging them in the project of public education. They use a winter 2004 research project to argue that linked courses create supportive…

  17. Planning for Collection Development in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifidon, Sam E.

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the collections of Nigerian university libraries by comparing them to those of their peers in other African and British universities. Discusses the impact of the World Bank Loan Project on resuscitating Nigerian university libraries. Strategies for maintaining adequacy and relevance of the collections for the 21st century are recommended.…

  18. Tropical Pacific Variability and its Influence on Twenty-First Century Arctic Sea Ice Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wettstein, J. J.; Deser, C.

    2014-12-01

    Large declines in Arctic sea ice volume and summer sea ice extent are generally anticipated for the coming decades, based upon their trajectory in available observations and from a wide variety of greenhouse gas-forced model projections. Substantial uncertainty remains, however, regarding the magnitude of twenty-first century Arctic sea ice loss. Two studies are presented that document and explore the existence of an atmospheric teleconnection between the tropical Pacific and the Arctic on time scales ranging from the interannual to the multi-decadal. In the first study, twenty-first-century summer Arctic sea ice loss and its relationship to the large-scale atmospheric circulation is investigated in a 39-member Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) ensemble for the period 2000-2061. Each member is subject to an identical greenhouse gas emissions scenario and differs only in the atmospheric model component's initial condition. A surprisingly large factor of three range in the multi-decadal trends of Arctic sea ice loss is projected, which can only be attributed to internal variability. Higher rates of summer Arctic sea ice loss in CCSM3 are associated with enhanced transpolar drift and Fram Strait ice export driven by surface wind and sea level pressure patterns. Outside the Arctic, the internal variability in sea ice loss is associated with an atmospheric Rossby wave train concentrated over the Pacific sector. The structure of the atmospheric teleconnection pattern in CCSM3 suggests that the tropical Pacific modulates Arctic sea ice loss via the aforementioned Rossby wave train. The second study generally corroborates results in the first by documenting qualitatively similar relationships in a newer model version and across a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) ensemble. Hints of a similar tropical Pacific-Arctic sea ice variability relationship are also present in various reanalyses at the interannual time scale.

  19. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century. PMID:26361050

  20. Low Fertility at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, S. Philip; Taylor, Miles G.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few decades, demographic concerns have shifted from rapid population growth fueled by high fertility to concerns of population decline produced by very low, sub-replacement fertility levels. Once considered a problem unique to Europe or developed nations, concerns now center on the global spread of low fertility. Nearly half of the world's population now lives in countries with fertility at or below replacement levels. Further, by the mid-twenty-first century three of four countries now described as developing are projected to reach or slip below replacement fertility. We review the research on low fertility through the predominant frameworks and theories used to explain it. These explanations range from decomposition and proximate determinant frameworks to grand theories on the fundamental causes underlying the pervasiveness and spread of low fertility. We focus on the ability of theory to situate previous and future findings and conclude with directions for furthur research. PMID:20376287

  1. Mid-twenty-first century climate change in the Central United States. Part II: Climate change processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patricola, C. M.; Cook, K. H.

    2013-02-01

    Ensemble regional model simulations over the central US with 30-km resolution are analyzed to investigate the physical processes of projected precipitation changes in the mid-twenty-first century under greenhouse gas forcing. An atmospheric moisture balance is constructed, and changes in the diurnal cycle are evaluated. Wetter conditions over the central US in April and May occur most strongly in the afternoon and evening, supported primarily by moisture convergence by transient eddy activity, indicating enhanced daytime convection. In June, increased rainfall over the northern Great Plains is strongest from 0000 to 0600 LT. It is supported by positive changes in stationary meridional moisture convergence related to a strengthening of the GPLLJ accompanied by an intensification of the western extension of the North Atlantic subtropical high. In the Midwest, decreased rainfall is strongest at 1500 LT and 0000 LT. Both a suppression of daytime convection as well as changes in the zonal flow in the GPLLJ exit region are important. Future drying over the northern Great Plains in summer is triggered by weakened daytime convection, and persists throughout August and September when a deficit in soil moisture develops and land-atmosphere feedbacks become increasingly important.

  2. Water and Food in the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marsily, Ghislain; Abarca-del-Rio, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    In 2000, the World population was 6.2 billion people; it reached 7 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach 9.5 billion (±0.4) in 2050 and 11 billion (±1.5) in 2100, according to the 2012 UN projections (Gerland et al. in Science 346:234-237, 2014). The trend after 2100 is still one of the global demographic growths, but after 2060, Africa is the only continent where the population would still increase. The amount of water consumed annually to produce the food necessary to meet the needs of the populations varies greatly between countries, from about 600 to 2500 m3/year per capita (Zimmer in L'empreinte eau. Les faces cachées d'une ressource vitale. Charles Léopold Meyer, Paris, 2013), depending on their wealth, their food habits, and the percentage of food waste they generate (on average, 30 % of the food produced is wasted). In 2000, the total food production was on the order of 3300 million tons (in cereal equivalents). In 2014, it is estimated that about 0.8 billion inhabitants of the planet suffer from hunger (FAO in World agriculture: towards 2030-2050. FAO, Rome, 2014. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y3557E/y3557e00.HTM) and do not get the nutrition they need to be in good health or, in the case of children, to grow properly (both physically and intellectually). This food deficit was on the order of 40 million tons of cereal equivalents in 2014. The number of inhabitants with a food deficit was about 0.85 billion before the 2008 crisis and was decreasing annually, but it increased abruptly after 2008 up to 1 billion inhabitants and is slowly decreasing now. Assuming a World average water consumption for food of 1300 m3/year per capita in 2000, 1400 m3/year in 2050, and 1500 m3/year in 2100, a volume of water of around 8200 km3/year was needed in 2000, 13,000 km3/year will be needed in 2050, and 16,500 km3/year in 2100 (Marsily in L'eau, un trésor en partage. Dunod, Paris, 2009). Can bioenergy be added to food production? Will that much water be available

  3. Slowmation: A Twenty-First Century Educational Tool for Science and Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Kathryn; Bentley, Brendan; Dobson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Slowmation is a twenty-first century digital literacy educational tool. This teaching and learning tool has been incorporated as an assessment strategy in the curriculum area of science and mathematics with pre-service teachers (PSTs). This paper explores two themes: developing twenty-first century digital literacy skills and modelling best…

  4. 77 FR 25781 - Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-first meeting of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned...

  5. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  6. Assessing Multidimensional Students' Perceptions of Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Ching Sing; Deng, Feng; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Koh, Joyce Hwee; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to design a survey to assess students' perceptions of twenty-first-century learning practices in their classrooms and the resulting knowledge creation self-efficacy among the students. In addition, it also explores the relationships among the various dimensions of twenty-first-century learning practices. Four hundred and…

  7. Twenty-first century learning in states: the case of the Massachusetts educational system.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David P

    2006-01-01

    A current crisis in education is leaving students less prepared to succeed in the working world than any generation before them. Increasingly complex external, nonacademic pressures have an impact on many of today's students, often causing them to drop out of school. Only 76 percent of Massachusetts high school students graduate, and only 29 percent earn a college degree. National figures are worse. Most educational institutions share a common goal to support students in becoming skilled, productive, successful members of society, but the author argues that this goal is not being met. Despite the constant changes in the world, educational practices have remained static. Most public schools are not adapting to meet the shifting needs of students. Universities are not able to prepare the right mix of prospective employees for the demands of the job market; for example, schools are graduating only 10 percent of the needed engineers. Institutions of higher learning cannot keep up with employers' needs in an evolving global market: strong math, science, and writing abilities; critical thinking skills; and the ability to work in teams. The author draws on exemplary efforts at work in his home state of Massachusetts--whose improvements in student achievement outcomes have been some of the best in the nation--to suggest there is promise in twenty-first century learning. Middle school students involved in a NASA-funded project write proposals, work in teams, and engage in peer review. Older students participate in enhanced, hands-on cooperative school-to-work and after-school programs. Schools are starting to offer expanded day learning, increasing the number of hours they are engaged in formal learning. Yet such programs have not reached significant levels of scale. The author calls for a major shift in education to help today's students be successful in the twenty-first century. PMID:17017262

  8. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  9. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-09-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  10. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) Project represents the culmination of the proof-of-concept (POC) development stage in the US Department of Energy (DOE) program to advance MHD technology to early commercial development stage utility power applications. The project is a joint effort, combining the skills of three topping cycle component developers: TRW, Avco/TDS, and Westinghouse. TRW, the prime contractor and system integrator, is responsible for the 50 thermal megawatt (50 MW{sub t}) slagging coal combustion subsystem. Avco/TDS is responsible for the MHD channel subsystem (nozzle, channel, diffuser, and power conditioning circuits), and Westinghouse is responsible for the current consolidation subsystem. The ITC Project will advance the state-of-the-art in MHD power systems with the design, construction, and integrated testing of 50 MW{sub t} power train components which are prototypical of the equipment that will be used in an early commercial scale MHD utility retrofit. Long duration testing of the integrated power train at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana will be performed, so that by the early 1990's, an engineering data base on the reliability, availability, maintainability and performance of the system will be available to allow scaleup of the prototypical designs to the next development level. This Sixteenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period May 1, 1991 to July 31, 1991.

  11. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This eighteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1991 to January 31, 1992. The precombustor is fully assembled. Manufacturing of all slagging stage components has been completed. All cooling panels were welded in place and the panel/shell gap was filled with RTV. Final combustor assembly is in progress. The low pressure cooling subsystem (LPCS) was delivered to the CDIF. Second stage brazing issues were resolved. The construction of the two anode power cabinets was completed.

  12. Teacher-Friendly Technology Applications for the Twenty-First Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Jaime; Potter, Jalene; Hollas, Tori

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present recent technology applications for teachers as well as share important techniques in setting up a classroom environment that will prepare their students as twenty-first century learners.

  13. Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

  14. Divergent trajectories of Antarctic surface melt under two twenty-first-century climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusel, Luke D.; Frey, Karen E.; Das, Sarah B.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; van Meijgaard, Erik; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2015-12-01

    Ice shelves modulate Antarctic contributions to sea-level rise and thereby represent a critical, climate-sensitive interface between the Antarctic ice sheet and the global ocean. Following rapid atmospheric warming over the past decades, Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have progressively retreated, at times catastrophically. This decay supports hypotheses of thermal limits of viability for ice shelves via surface melt forcing. Here we use a polar-adapted regional climate model and satellite observations to quantify the nonlinear relationship between surface melting and summer air temperature. Combining observations and multimodel simulations, we examine melt evolution and intensification before observed ice shelf collapse on the Antarctic Peninsula. We then assess the twenty-first-century evolution of surface melt across Antarctica under intermediate and high emissions climate scenarios. Our projections reveal a scenario-independent doubling of Antarctic-wide melt by 2050. Between 2050 and 2100, however, significant divergence in melt occurs between the two climate scenarios. Under the high emissions pathway by 2100, melt on several ice shelves approaches or surpasses intensities that have historically been associated with ice shelf collapse, at least on the northeast Antarctic Peninsula.

  15. Dynamic consent: a patient interface for twenty-first century research networks

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Jane; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Morrison, Michael; Teare, Harriet; Melham, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical research is being transformed through the application of information technologies that allow ever greater amounts of data to be shared on an unprecedented scale. However, the methods for involving participants have not kept pace with changes in research capability. In an era when information is shared digitally at the global level, mechanisms of informed consent remain static, paper-based and organised around national boundaries and legal frameworks. Dynamic consent (DC) is both a specific project and a wider concept that offers a new approach to consent; one designed to meet the needs of the twenty-first century research landscape. At the heart of DC is a personalised, digital communication interface that connects researchers and participants, placing participants at the heart of decision making. The interface facilitates two-way communication to stimulate a more engaged, informed and scientifically literate participant population where individuals can tailor and manage their own consent preferences. The technical architecture of DC includes components that can securely encrypt sensitive data and allow participant consent preferences to travel with their data and samples when they are shared with third parties. In addition to improving transparency and public trust, this system benefits researchers by streamlining recruitment and enabling more efficient participant recontact. DC has mainly been developed in biobanking contexts, but it also has potential application in other domains for a variety of purposes. PMID:24801761

  16. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

  17. MHD integrated topping cycle project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois no. 6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  18. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.

  19. A needs assessment for DOE`s packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE`s mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE`s transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically.

  20. Investigating the pace of temperature change and its implications over the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavaillaz, Y.; Joussaume, S.; Braconnot, P.; Vautard, R.

    2015-12-01

    In most studies, climate change is approached by focusing on the evolution between a fixed current baseline and the future, emphasizing stronger warming as we move further from the current climate. Under climate conditions that are continuously evolving, human systems might have to constantly adapt to a changing target. We propose here an alternative approach, and consider indicators of the pace of temperature change and its effects on temperature distributions estimated from projections of an ensemble of 18 General Circulation Models. The pace is represented by a rate defined by the difference between two subsequent 20-year periods. Under the strongest emission pathway (RCP 8.5), the warming rate strongly increases over the twenty-first century, with a maximum reached before 2080. Whilst northern high-latitudes witness the highest temperature rise, all other latitudes highlight at least a doubling in the warming rate compared to the current period. The spatial extent of significant shifts in annual temperature distributions between two subsequent 20-year periods is projected to be at least four times larger than in the current period. They are mainly located in tropical areas, such as West Africa and South-East Asia. The fraction of the world population exposed to these shifts grows from 8% to 60% from around 2060 onwards, i.e. reaching 6 billions people. In contrast, low mitigation measures (RCP 6.0) are sufficient to keep the warming rate similar to current values. Under the medium mitigation pathway (RCP 4.5), population exposure to significant shifts drops to negligible values by the end of the century. Strong mitigation measures (RCP 2.6) are the only option that generates a global return to historical conditions regarding our indicators. Considering the pace of change can bring an alternative way to interact with climate impacts and adaptation communities.

  1. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This fourteenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period November 1, 1990 to January 31, 1991. Testing of the High Pressure Cooling Subsystem electrical isolator was completed. The PEEK material successfully passed the high temperature, high pressure duration tests (50 hours). The Combustion Subsystem drawings were CADAM released. The procurement process is in progress. An equipment specification and RFP were prepared for the new Low Pressure Cooling System (LPCS) and released for quotation. Work has been conducted on confirmation tests leading to final gas-side designs and studies to assist in channel fabrication.The final cathode gas-side design and the proposed gas-side designs of the anode and sidewall are presented. Anode confirmation tests and related analyses of anode wear mechanisms used in the selection of the proposed anode design are presented. Sidewall confirmation tests, which were used to select the proposed gas-side design, were conducted. The design for the full scale CDIF system was completed. A test program was initiated to investigate the practicality of using Avco current controls for current consolidation in the power takeoff (PTO) regions and to determine the cause of past current consolidation failures. Another important activity was the installation of 1A4-style coupons in the 1A1 channel. A description of the coupons and their location with 1A1 channel is presented herein.

  2. Irish America at the Crossroads: A New Beginning or the Last Gasp of Irish Immigration in the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarbaugh, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Demographic patterns of immigration to the United States from Ireland are examined, and a scenario is projected for Irish immigration in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the wave of Irish immigration of the 1980s will prove to be a last gasp of a 200-year-old tradition. (SLD)

  3. Twenty-first century skills for students: hands-on learning after school builds school and life success.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Leide

    2006-01-01

    At the core of the movement for twenty-first century skills are students. The growing efforts to increase programs leveraging out-of-school time are focused on giving American youth everything they need to compete in this increasingly complex world. The author is one of many students who have been well served by initiatives imparting twenty-first century skills during after-school hours. Now a senior at Boston Latin School, the author has been helped along the way by Citizen Schools, an after-school education program focused on hands-on learning apprenticeships and homework help. While enrolled in the program as a middle school student, the author took part in projects that exemplified hands-on, inquiry-based learning that helped her develop twenty-first century skills. For example, along with dozens of other students, she advanced her data analysis skills by analyzing statistics about Boston Public high schools, which also helped her select and enroll in one of the city's premier exam schools. Also, she and her peers worked with corporate attorneys who served as writing coaches and whose expertise the author drew from in producing a published essay and greatly improving her writing skills. The author now finds that the public speaking, leadership, organizational, social, and management abilities she built through her participation in Citizen Schools are a great asset to her in high school. The confidence with which she tackles her responsibilities can also be traced back to her experiences in the program. As she looks toward college, the author reflects and realizes that being actively involved in a quality after-school program put her on track for a successful future. PMID:17017266

  4. Consequences of twenty-first-century policy for multi-millennial climate and sea-level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Peter U.; Shakun, Jeremy D.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Mix, Alan C.; Eby, Michael; Kulp, Scott; Levermann, Anders; Milne, Glenn A.; Pfister, Patrik L.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Solomon, Susan; Stocker, Thomas F.; Strauss, Benjamin H.; Weaver, Andrew J.; Winkelmann, Ricarda; Archer, David; Bard, Edouard; Goldner, Aaron; Lambeck, Kurt; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper

    2016-04-01

    Most of the policy debate surrounding the actions needed to mitigate and adapt to anthropogenic climate change has been framed by observations of the past 150 years as well as climate and sea-level projections for the twenty-first century. The focus on this 250-year window, however, obscures some of the most profound problems associated with climate change. Here, we argue that the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, a period during which the overwhelming majority of human-caused carbon emissions are likely to occur, need to be placed into a long-term context that includes the past 20 millennia, when the last Ice Age ended and human civilization developed, and the next ten millennia, over which time the projected impacts of anthropogenic climate change will grow and persist. This long-term perspective illustrates that policy decisions made in the next few years to decades will have profound impacts on global climate, ecosystems and human societies -- not just for this century, but for the next ten millennia and beyond.

  5. A Profile of Twenty-First Century Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine secondary social studies teachers' professional characteristics and workplace perceptions in order to better understand who represents social education in the twenty-first century. Utilizing data from the National Center for Educational Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey, parametric and non-parametric…

  6. The Five Cs of Digital Curation: Supporting Twenty-First-Century Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschaine, Mark E.; Sharma, Sue Ann

    2015-01-01

    Digital curation is a process that allows university professors to adapt and adopt resources from multidisciplinary fields to meet the educational needs of twenty-first-century learners. Looking through the lens of new media literacy studies (Vasquez, Harste, & Albers, 2010) and new literacies studies (Gee, 2010), we propose that university…

  7. Culture, Power, and the University in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Powerful nations have influential systems of higher education. The article explores the possible pattern of geopolitics in the twenty-first century, and the competing prospects of America and its rivals in higher education and research. Pressures on both the American and non-American worlds are evaluated, along with relative economic strengths,…

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Achievement of the Twenty-First Century Skills in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaith, Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey study of the achievement of twenty-first century skills in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs a quantitative survey design. Findings: The findings indicate that the basic scientific and technological skills of reading critically and writing…

  9. Meeting the Access Challenge: An Examination of Indiana's Twenty-First Century Scholars Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Musoba, Glenda Droogsma; Simmons, Ada; Chung, Choong-Geun; Schmit, Jack; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Early intervention programs can promote access by providing encouragement for academic preparation, but adequate grant aid may be necessary to ensure access for students who prepare. This study examines the impact of Indiana's Twenty-first Century Scholars Program, an intervention that provides supplemental grant aid and academic support for…

  10. An Education for the Twenty-First Century: Stewardship of the Global Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Douglas C.; Cornwell, Grant H.; Al-Lail, Haifa Jamal; Schenck, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing that the term "global education" has become commonplace but, too often, is put forward without adequate substance, this proposal seeks to envision a foundational higher education for the twenty-first century. The authors believe it is important to imagine an education fit for global possibilities because theirs has become a world in…

  11. Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first…

  12. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  13. Distance Education Technology: Higher Education Barriers during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Ansah, Angela; Neill, Patti; Haralson, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, despite the expanded opportunities technology affords in student-access to higher education, most institutions of higher education are hesitant to offer technology-based distance education (TBDE). The prohibiting factors include cost, accessibility, faculty concerns, state mandates, academic administrative actions, and…

  14. The New Cosmopolitan Monolingualism: On Linguistic Citizenship in Twenty-First Century Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramling, David

    2009-01-01

    In the early years of the twenty-first century, being German has become a matter of linguistic competence and performance. An acute shift in citizenship statutes at the end of the 1990s brought about a peripatetic departure from Germany's "right of blood" ("ius sanguinis") toward a French-inspired "right of territory" ("ius soli"). Yet in the nine…

  15. A Comment on Class Productions in Elite Secondary Schools in Twenty-First-Century Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    2014-01-01

    In this closing essay, Lois Weis offers a broad overview of the contributions of this Special Issue on class production in elite secondary schools in the twenty-first-century global context. Drawing upon her own research within US privileged secondary schools, Weis explores the contemporary social, economic and political landscape as connected to…

  16. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10,...

  17. Knowledge and Educational Research in the Context of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Educational researchers and academics cannot ignore the ever-present call for education, and schooling in particular, to reflect the needs of the twenty-first century knowledge economy. Since the 1990s, national curricula and education systems have reflected this call in their focus on technology and shifting pedagogy to increasingly…

  18. Developmental Education: A Twenty-First Century Social and Economic Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Robert H., Ed.; Day, Philip R., Jr., Ed.

    This monograph addresses developmental education in the 21st Century, identifying the major issues and providing examples of successful developmental programs. The first chapter, "Access and the New America of the Twenty-First Century," emphasizes several changes in American society that have affected access to education and developmental…

  19. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...In this document, the Commission announces that it held a Town Hall meeting on The Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act (the Act or CVAA) hosted by the California State University at Northridge (CSUN). The Town Hall meeting provided an orientation to the Act, and discussed the advanced communications and video programming changes required by the...

  20. Gaga for Google in the Twenty-First Century Advanced Placement Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Devon Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The migration of online educational needs to tools like Google applications, coupled with the realization that today's twenty-first-century students are digital natives who have lived their entire lives exposed to current technology, forces educators to find ways to use technology to enhance traditional curriculum. In this article, the author…

  1. Education for Future-Oriented Citizenship: Implications for the Education of Twenty-First Century Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wing On

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and the knowledge economy have opened up worldwide agendas for national development. Following this is the emphasis on the social dimension, otherwise known as social capital. Much of social capital includes "soft skills" and "twenty-first century skills", which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information,…

  2. Career Learning and Development: A Social Constructivist Model for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the UK there have been several calls for new models "fit for purpose" for careers work in the twenty-first century and in response, this article presents a model for career learning and development. This brings together recent theory regarding the ways in which people make career decisions throughout their lives in rapidly changing, turbulent…

  3. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  4. Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-First Century College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heather G. S.

    2015-01-01

    "Violating Pedagogy: Literary Theory in the Twenty-first Century College Classroom" discusses the challenge of teaching literary theory to undergraduate and graduate students in a cultural atmosphere that may at times feel simultaneously anti-intellectual and overpopulated with competing scholarly concerns. Approaching theory as a…

  5. Adolescent Health and Well-Being in the Twenty-First Century: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Kathleen Thiede; Riedel, Aylin Altan; Hein, Karen; McLoyd, Vonnie; Petersen, Anne; Kipke, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Examines the current health and well-being of adolescents around the world. Considers the implications for adolescent health and well-being in the twenty-first century of societal trends, including growing poverty and income disparities, the changing health care system, increased migration and urbanization, and new information technology.…

  6. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  7. Becoming Numerate with Information and Communications Technologies in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola; Kilderry, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on data from a three-year Australian Research Council-funded study that examined the ways in which young children become numerate in the twenty-first century. We were interested in the authentic problem-solving contexts that we believe are required to create meaningful learning. This being so, our basic tenet was that such…

  8. Way Forward in the Twenty-First Century in Content-Based Instruction: Moving towards Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Cenoz, Jasone

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on the theoretical and methodological underpinnings that provide the basis for an understanding of Content-Based Instruction/Content and Language Integrated Learning (CBI/CLIL) in the field and its relevance in education in the twenty-first century. It is argued that the agenda of CBI/CLIL needs to move towards…

  9. The Effect of Participating in Indiana's Twenty-First Century Scholars Program on College Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Hossler, Don; DesJardins, Stephen L.; McCall, Brian; Gonzalez Canche, Manuel S.

    2015-01-01

    Our study adds to prior work on Indiana's Twenty-first Century Scholars(TFCS) program by focusing on whether participating in--rather than completing--the program affects the likelihood of students going to college and where they initially enrolled. We first employ binary and multinomial logistic regression to obtain estimates of the impact of the…

  10. Teaching Middle School Language Arts: Incorporating Twenty-First Century Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Roseboro, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching Middle School Language Arts" is the first book on teaching middle school language arts for multiple intelligences and related twenty-first-century literacies in technologically and ethnically diverse communities. More than 670,000 middle school teachers (grades six through eight) are responsible for educating nearly 13 million students…

  11. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  12. Forecasting Twenty-First Century Information Technology Skills: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jackie A.

    2012-01-01

    As cities and regions seek to increase the stock of college educated citizens in order to compete in the twenty-first century knowledge-economy, colleges and universities are realizing increased enrollment. At the same time, much is being written about the skills needed by graduates for the new economy. These studies articulate skills in critical…

  13. Why American business demands twenty-first century learning: A company perspective.

    PubMed

    Knox, Allyson

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft is an innovative corporation demonstrating the kind and caliber of job skills needed in the twenty-first century. It demonstrates its commitment to twenty-first century skills by holding its employees accountable to a set of core competencies, enabling the company to run effectively. The author explores how Microsoft's core competencies parallel the Partnership for 21st Century Skills learning frameworks. Both require advanced problem-solving skills and a passion for technology, both expect individuals to be able to work in teams, both look for a love of learning, and both call for the self-confidence to honestly self-evaluate. Microsoft also works to cultivate twenty-first century skills among future workers, investing in education to help prepare young people for competitive futures. As the need for digital literacy has become imperative, technology companies have taken the lead in facilitating technology training by partnering with schools and communities. Microsoft is playing a direct role in preparing students for what lies ahead in their careers. To further twenty-first century skills, or core competencies, among the nation's youth, Microsoft has established Partners in Learning, a program that helps education organizations build partnerships that leverage technology to improve teaching and learning. One Partners in Learning grantee is Global Kids, a nonprofit organization that trains students to design online games focused on global social issues resonating with civic and global competencies. As Microsoft believes the challenges of competing in today's economy and teaching today's students are substantial but not insurmountable, such partnerships and investments demonstrate Microsoft's belief in and commitment to twenty-first century skills. PMID:17017254

  14. Twenty-first century learning for teachers: helping educators bring new skills into the classroom.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John I

    2006-01-01

    The motivation behind every educator's dedication and hard work in the classroom is the knowledge that his or her teaching will result in students' success in life. Educators are committed to implementing twenty-first century skills; they have no question that students need such skills to be equipped for life beyond school. Members of the National Education Association are enthusiastic about the Partnership for 21st Century Skills framework, yet express frustration that many schools do not have adequate resources to make the necessary changes. Teaching these skills poses significant new responsibilities for schools and educators. To make it possible for teachers to build twenty-first century skills into the curriculum, physical and policy infrastructures must exist, professional development and curriculum materials must be offered, and meaningful assessments must be available. With an established understanding of what skills need to be infused into the classroom-problem solving, analysis, and com- munications-and educators' commitment to the new skill set, this chapter explores how to make such a dramatic reform happen. The author discusses existing strategies that will guide educators in infusing twenty-first century skills into traditional content areas such as math, English, geography, and science. Ultimately, public policy regarding educational standards, professional development, assessments, and physical school structures must exist to enable educators to employ twenty-first century skills, leading to student success in contemporary life. Any concern about the cost of bringing this nation's educational system up to par internationally should be offset by the price that not making twenty-first century skills a priority in the classroom will have on future economic well-being. PMID:17017265

  15. Effects of model structural uncertainty on carbon cycle projections: biological nitrogen fixation as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, William R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Lawrence, David M.; Bonan, Gordon B.

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainties in terrestrial carbon (C) cycle projections increase uncertainty of potential climate feedbacks. Efforts to improve model performance often include increased representation of biogeochemical processes, such as coupled carbon-nitrogen (N) cycles. In doing so, models are becoming more complex, generating structural uncertainties in model form that reflect incomplete knowledge of how to represent underlying processes. Here, we explore structural uncertainties associated with biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and quantify their effects on C cycle projections. We find that alternative plausible structures to represent BNF result in nearly equivalent terrestrial C fluxes and pools through the twentieth century, but the strength of the terrestrial C sink varies by nearly a third (50 Pg C) by the end of the twenty-first century under a business-as-usual climate change scenario representative concentration pathway 8.5. These results indicate that actual uncertainty in future C cycle projections may be larger than previously estimated, and this uncertainty will limit C cycle projections until model structures can be evaluated and refined.

  16. Taking the British Library Forward in the Twenty-First Century; Harvard's Library Digital Initiative: Building a First Generation Digital Library Infrastructure; Spoken Words, Unspoken Meanings: A DLI2 Project Ethnography; Resource Guide for the Social Sciences: Signposting a Dissemination and Support Route for Barefoot and Meta-Librarians in UK Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, Lynne; Flecker, Dale; Seadle, Michael; Huxley, Lesly; Ford, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss strategic planning in the British Library, including electronic strategies and collaborative partnerships; Harvard University's plans for a digital library infrastructure; the National Gallery of the Spoken Word, a Digital Library Initiative (DLI)-funded project that is language-related; and promoting networked…

  17. Evolving roles of life and health sciences librarians for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C J

    1998-01-01

    The twenty-first century will provide exciting challenges for life and health sciences librarians that will force us to redefine our position in the world of information. This rapidly changing environment influences the profession in a variety of ways including whom we serve and through what service, how and where we practice librarianship, and even the very composition of the profession itself. We must look at the changes in society and make the appropriate reciprocal changes in how we educate future librarians, how we market the profession, and how we develop the profession as a whole. We, as life and health sciences librarians, need to meet these challenges head on in order to continue the evolution of the profession well into the twenty-first century. PMID:9681173

  18. Establishing the R&D agenda for twenty-first century learning.

    PubMed

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    An infusion of twenty-first century skills into American public education necessitates a plan for research and development to further such reform. While the nation agrees that students must obtain critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication skills to succeed in the current global marketplace, this chapter puts forth a long-term, proactive agenda to invest in targeted research to propel and sustain this shift in education. The authors examine the impact such an R&D agenda would have on pedagogy and assessment and the implications for institutions of higher education. As the United States struggles to maintain dominance in the international economy, it faces a great challenge in keeping up with European and Asian competitors' strategies for preparing youth for the global marketplace. The authors hope the global reality will help contextualize the debate around American education--the current trend toward basics and accountability needs to be broadened. Building on frameworks created by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this chapter proposes questions to guide research around teaching, professional development, and assessment significant to twenty-first century skills. Knowing that educational change depends on providing teachers with the tools, support, and training to make fundamental changes in their practice, the authors argue for extensive research around best practices. In addition, if assessments are created to measure the desired outcomes, such measuring tools can drive reform. Furthermore, large-scale changes in teacher preparation programs must take place to allow teachers to adequately employ twenty-first century teaching and assessment strategies. PMID:17017258

  19. A history of meniscal surgery: from ancient times to the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, B; Moran, C J; Tarabella, V; Viganò, A; Tomba, P; Marcacci, M; Verdonk, R

    2016-05-01

    The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V. PMID:26231150

  20. Bits, Bytes and Dinosaurs: Using Levinas and Freire to Address the Concept of "Twenty-First Century Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benade, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of twenty-first century learning argues that education should prepare students for successful living in the twenty-first century workplace and society. It challenges all educators with the idea that contemporary education is unable to do so, as it is designed to replicate an industrial age model, essentially rear-focused, rather than…

  1. 78 FR 5557 - Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of the twenty-first meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision...

  2. A Comparison of Concept Age Gains of Kindergarten Children in Traditional and Twenty-First Century Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Patricia W.

    This study sought to determine whether kindergarten students in a "twenty-first century classroom" would have a greater gain in concept age than students in a traditional kindergarten classroom. Subjects were students, randomly assigned, in two kindergarten classrooms. The twenty-first century classroom incorporates five computers into the…

  3. Evolution and modulation of tropical heating from the last glacial maximum through the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Carlos D.; Webster, Peter J.

    2012-04-01

    Twentieth century observations show that during the last 50 years the sea-surface temperature (SST) of the tropical oceans has increased by ~0.5°C and the area of SST >26.5 and 28°C (arbitrarily referred to as the oceanic warm pool: OWP) by 15 and 50% respectively in association with an increase in green house gas concentrations, with non-understood natural variability or a combination of both. Based on CMIP3 projections the OWP is projected to double during twenty-first century in a moderate CO2 forcing scenario (IPCC A1B scenario). However, during the observational period the area of positive atmospheric heating (referred to as the dynamic warm pool, DWP), has remained constant. The threshold SST ( T H ), which demarks the region of net heating and cooling, has increased from 26.6°C in the 1950s to 27.1°C in the last decade and it is projected to increase to ~28.5°C by 2100. Based on climate model simulations, the area of the DWP is projected to remain constant during the twenty-first century. Analysis of the paleoclimate model intercomparison project (PMIP I and II) simulations for the Last Glacial maximum and the Mid-Holocene periods show a very similar behaviour, with a larger OWP in periods of elevated tropical SST, and an almost constant DWP associated with a varying T H . The constancy of the DWP area, despite shifts in the background SST, is shown to be the result of a near exact matching between increases in the integrated convective heating within the DWP and the integrated radiative cooling outside the DWP as SST changes. Although the area of the DWP remains constant, the total tropical atmospheric heating is a strong function of the SST. For example the net heating has increased by about 10% from 1950 to 2000 and it is projected to increase by a further 20% by 2100. Such changes must be compensated by a more vigorous atmospheric circulation, with growth in convective heating within the warm pool, and an increase of subsiding air and stability

  4. Project Kaleidoscope 2.0: Leadership for Twenty-First Century STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Susan

    2010-01-01

    It has been over twenty years since the publication of reports calling for increased efforts to reform undergraduate STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. There are more STEM classrooms today that utilize "pedagogies of engagement" than there were twenty years ago; however, these kinds of learning environments are…

  5. Twenty-first century changes in snowfall climate in Northern Europe in ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, Jouni

    2016-01-01

    Changes in snowfall in northern Europe (55-71°N, 5-35°E) are analysed from 12 regional model simulations of twenty-first century climate under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario. As an ensemble mean, the models suggest a decrease in the winter total snowfall in nearly all of northern Europe. In the middle of the winter, however, snowfall generally increases in the coldest areas. The borderline between increasing and decreasing snowfall broadly coincides with the -11 °C isotherm in baseline (1980-2010) monthly mean temperature, although with variation between models and grid boxes. High extremes of daily snowfall remain nearly unchanged, except for decreases in the mildest areas, where snowfall as a whole becomes much less common. A smaller fraction of the snow in the simulated late twenty-first century climate falls on severely cold days and a larger fraction on days with near-zero temperatures. Not only do days with low temperatures become less common, but they also typically have more positive anomalies of sea level pressure and less snowfall for the same temperature than in the present-day climate.

  6. Projected future changes in regional seasonal cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arizmendi, Fernando; Barreiro, Marcelo; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the consequences of climate change is relevant for social, biological and ecomical interests. Particularly, knowing the potential changes in the seasonal cycle is useful for taking the appropiate actions to prevent adverse circumstances. In this study, we aim to detect future changes in the surface air temperature (SAT) seasonal cycles. We do so by analyzing differences in the response of the SAT field to the solar annual forcing in different scenarios of models of the phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). With this approach, we are able to find well-localized areas where the temperature cycle change considerably.

  7. Expecting motherhood? Stratifying reproduction in twenty-first century Scottish abortion practice

    PubMed Central

    Beynon-Jones, Siân M.

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates how Scottish health professionals involved in contemporary abortion provision construct stratified expectations about women’s reproductive decision-making. Drawing on 42 semi-structured interviews I reveal the contingent discourses through which health professionals constitute the ‘rationality’ of the female subject who requests abortion. Specifically, I illustrate how youth, age, parity and class are mobilised as criteria through which to distinguish ‘types’ of patient whose requests for abortion are deemed particularly understandable or particularly problematic. I conceptualise this process of differentiation as a form of ‘stratified reproduction’ (Colen, 1995; Ginsburg and Rapp, 1995) and argue that it is significant for two reasons. Firstly, it illustrates the operation of dominant discourses concerning abortion and motherhood in twenty-first century Britain. Secondly, it extends the forms of critique which feminist scholarship has, to date, developed of the regulation of abortion provision in the UK. PMID:25774067

  8. The GI fluoroscopy suite in the early twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Boyajian, David A; Margulis, Alexander R

    2008-01-01

    Since the application of cross-sectional imaging to the examination of the gastrointestinal tract, dramatic changes have occurred in the modern gastrointestinal fluoroscopic suite. Besides the great decrease in use of fluoroscopy, the types of fluoroscopic examinations requested and performed nowadays are different from those of just 2 or 3 decades ago. This paper will review the recent history and the current uses of fluoroscopy in adults at the beginning of the twenty-first century, illustrated by case images and utilization data from a large academic medical center. Fluoroscopy survives because of its unique illustration of motility in real-time, its superior detection and accurate localization of leaks in post-operative patients, and its ability to provide immediate answers and targeted examinations tailored to the individual patient. PMID:17639382

  9. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities.

    PubMed

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Lawler, Joshua J; Olden, Julian D; Blumenthal, Dana M; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P; Sorte, Cascade J B; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  10. Civil Rights Laws as Tools to Advance Health in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Angela K; Lee, Mary M; Meneses, Cristina M; Perkins, Jane; Youdelman, Mara

    2016-01-01

    To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities--places where people live, learn, work, and play. Suggestions are offered for improving health and equity broadly, especially within societal groups and marginalized populations. These recommendations include multisectorial approaches that focus on the social determinants of health. PMID:26789383

  11. Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The opportunities for space science in the period from 1995 to 2015 are discussed. A perspective on progress in the six disciplines (the planet Earth; planetary and lunar exploration; solar system space physics; astronomy and astrophysics; fundamental physics and chemistry; and life sciences) of space science are reviewed. The prospectives for major achievements by 1995 from missions already underway or awaiting new starts are included. A set of long range goals for these disciplines are presented for the first two decades of the twenty-first century. Broad themes for future scientific pursuits are presented and some examples of high-priority missions for the turn of the century are highlighted. A few recommendations are cited for each discipline to suggest how these themes might be developed.

  12. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities

    PubMed Central

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  13. Funding research in the twenty-first century: current opinions and future directions.

    PubMed

    Squitieri, Lee; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-08-01

    For all academic biomedical researchers, the process of submitting grants and securing research funding is a critical part of advancing one's career. In the current era of decreasing new grant awards and renewals leading to significantly worse success rates, it is hard for young aspiring physician-scientists to remain optimistic regarding their future in academic medicine. It is important that today's young surgeon-scientists prepare for and adapt to the inevitably changing climate of research funding. This article provides a primer on developing a successful career as a funded surgeon-scientist and pathways for building a robust research platform worthy of extramural National Institutes of Health funding in the twenty-first century. PMID:25066856

  14. Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Edward M

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

  15. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of Junior Achievement Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Box, John M

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to increase after-school programming indicate the nation's concern about how youth are engaged during out-of-school time. There are clear benefits to extending the learning that goes on during the school day. Research from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice shows that after-school participants do better in school and have stronger expectations for the future than youth who are not occupied after school. And the need is evident: 14.3 million students return to an empty house after school, yet only 6.5 million children are currently enrolled in after-school programs. If an after-school program were available, parents of 15.3 million would enroll their child. JA Worldwide began in 1919 and has been rooted in the afterschool arena from its origins. Its after-school programs teach students about the free enterprise system through curriculum focusing on business, citizenship, economics, entrepreneurship, ethics and character, financial literacy, and career development. At the same time, JA Worldwide incorporates hands-on learning and engagement with adults as role models, both key elements to a successful after-school program. Now focused on developing curriculum emphasizing skills needed for the twenty-first century, JA adopted the key elements laid out for after-school programs by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. To ensure that the next generation of students enters the workforce prepared, America's education system must provide the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Programs such as JA Worldwide serve as models of how to provide the twenty-first century skills that all students need to succeed. PMID:17017264

  16. Evaluation of the twenty-first century RCM simulations driven by multiple GCMs over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önol, Barış; Bozkurt, Deniz; Turuncoglu, Ufuk Utku; Sen, Omer Lutfi; Dalfes, H. Nuzhet

    2014-04-01

    In this study, human-induced climate change over the Eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea region has been analyzed for the twenty-first century by performing regional climate model simulations forced with large-scale fields from three different global circulation models (GCMs). Climate projections have been produced with Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2, A1FI and B1 scenarios, which provide greater diversity in climate information for future period. The gradual increases for temperature are widely apparent during the twenty-first century for each scenario simulation, but ECHAM5-driven simulation generally has a weaker signal for all seasons compared to CCSM3 simulations except for the Fertile Crescent. The contrast in future temperature change between the winter and summer seasons is very strong for CCSM3-A2-driven and HadCM3-A2-driven simulations over Carpathians and Balkans, 4-5 °C. In addition, winter runoff over mountainous region of Turkey, which feeds many river systems including the Euphrates and Tigris, increases in second half of the century since the snowmelt process accelerates where the elevation is higher than 1,500 m. Moreover, analysis of daily temperature outputs reveals that the gradual decrease in daily minimum temperature variability for January during the twenty-first century is apparent over Carpathians and Balkans. Analysis of daily precipitation extremes shows that positive trend is clear during the last two decades of the twenty-first century over Carpathians for both CCSM3-driven and ECHAM5-driven simulations. Multiple-GCM driven regional climate simulations contribute to the quantification of the range of climate change over a region by performing detailed comparisons between the simulations.

  17. Rapid Cycling Synchrotron Option for Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Weiren

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an 8 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) option for Project X. It has several advantages over an 8 GeV SC linac. In particular, the cost could be lower. With a 2 GeV 10 mA pulsed linac as injector, the RCS would be able to deliver 4 MW beam power for a muon collider. If, instead, a 2 GeV 1 mA CW linac is used, the RCS would still be able to meet the Project X requirements but it would be difficult for it to serve a muon collider due to the very long injection time.

  18. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change in an ensemble of twenty first century scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, Fanny; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Jordà, Gabriel; Aznar, Roland; Déqué, Michel; Herrmann, Marine; Marcos, Marta; Dubois, Clotilde; Padorno, Elena; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique; Gomis, Damià

    2015-11-01

    The Mediterranean climate is expected to become warmer and drier during the twenty-first century. Mediterranean Sea response to climate change could be modulated by the choice of the socio-economic scenario as well as the choice of the boundary conditions mainly the Atlantic hydrography, the river runoff and the atmospheric fluxes. To assess and quantify the sensitivity of the Mediterranean Sea to the twenty-first century climate change, a set of numerical experiments was carried out with the regional ocean model NEMOMED8 set up for the Mediterranean Sea. The model is forced by air-sea fluxes derived from the regional climate model ARPEGE-Climate at a 50-km horizontal resolution. Historical simulations representing the climate of the period 1961-2000 were run to obtain a reference state. From this baseline, various sensitivity experiments were performed for the period 2001-2099, following different socio-economic scenarios based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. For the A2 scenario, the main three boundary forcings (river runoff, near-Atlantic water hydrography and air-sea fluxes) were changed one by one to better identify the role of each forcing in the way the ocean responds to climate change. In two additional simulations (A1B, B1), the scenario is changed, allowing to quantify the socio-economic uncertainty. Our 6-member scenario simulations display a warming and saltening of the Mediterranean. For the 2070-2099 period compared to 1961-1990, the sea surface temperature anomalies range from +1.73 to +2.97 °C and the SSS anomalies spread from +0.48 to +0.89. In most of the cases, we found that the future Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (MTHC) tends to reach a situation similar to the eastern Mediterranean Transient. However, this response is varying depending on the chosen boundary conditions and socio-economic scenarios. Our numerical experiments suggest that the choice of the near-Atlantic surface water evolution, which is very uncertain in

  19. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century. PMID:27047406

  20. From Decent Work to Decent Lives: Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM) in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to empirically test the theoretical model, Positive Self and Relational Management (PS&RM), for a sample of 184 Italian university students. The PS&RM model specifies the development of individuals' strengths, potentials, and talents across the lifespan and with regard to the dialect of self in relationship. PS&RM is defined theoretically by three constructs: Positive Lifelong Life Management, Positive Lifelong Self-Management, Positive Lifelong Relational Management. The three constructs are operationalized as follows: Positive Lifelong Life Management is measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM), and the Authenticity Scale (AS); Positive Lifelong Self-Management is measured by the Intrapreneurial Self-Capital Scale (ISC), the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS), and the Life Project Reflexivity Scale (LPRS); and Positive Lifelong Relational Management is measured by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), the Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Positive Relational Management Scale (PRMS). Confirmatory factor analysis of the PS&RM model was completed using structural equation modeling. The theoretical PS&RM model was empirically tested as defined by the three hypothesized constructs. Empirical support for this model offers a framework for further research and the design of preventive interventions to promote decent work and decent lives in the twenty-first century. PMID:27047406

  1. Psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: role of patient advocacy organisations in the twenty first century

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, G; Savage, L; Chandler, D; Maccarone, B

    2005-01-01

    All the psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis patient advocacy organisations are devoted to promoting public awareness and patient education; supporting access to effective treatments and physicians committed to the welfare of patients; working with physicians and other organisations to facilitate development of new treatments; and supporting research for more effective treatments and a cure for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They have participated in the remaking of health politics in the late twentieth century. This was an era in which small patient support and advocacy groups were transformed into sophisticated national health organisations integral to the formation of national health policy and research, treatment, and education funding by working with physicians, legislators, pharmaceutical companies, third party payors, and the media. As we enter the twenty first century, some of these groups have done critical surveys of patients and physicians to discern needs that are redirecting their programming and reshaping directions in the field. Many national leagues have united to form international organisations. Although differences in their national healthcare systems, the age of their organisations, and the diseases they cover are reflected in the focus of their individual activities, much unites them. Whatever their size, as their roles have come to be recognised in the healthcare community, the patient advocacy organisations welcome being invited to the decision making table. This report describes a sampling of these organisations. PMID:15708949

  2. History and evolution of surgical ethics: John Gregory to the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Namm, Jukes P; Siegler, Mark; Brander, Caroline; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lowe, Christian; Angelos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    As surgery grew to become a respected medical profession in the eighteenth century, medical ethics emerged as a response to the growing need to protect patients and maintain the public's trust in physicians. The early influences of John Gregory and Thomas Percival were instrumental in the formulation of patient-centered medical ethics. In the late nineteenth century, the modern surgical advances of anesthesia and antisepsis created the need for a discipline of ethics specific to surgery in order to confront new and evolving ethical issues. One of the founding initiatives of the American College of Surgeons in 1913 was to eliminate unethical practices such as fee-splitting and itinerant surgery. As surgery continued to advance in the era of solid organ transplantation and minimally invasive surgery in the latter half of the twentieth century, surgical innovation and conflict of interest have emerged as important ethical issues moving forward into the twenty-first century. Surgical ethics has evolved into a distinct branch of medical ethics, and the core of surgical ethics is the surgeon-patient relationship and the surgeon's responsibility to advance and protect the well-being of the patient. PMID:24763442

  3. World Trends And Issues In Adult Education On The Eve Of The Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1998-09-01

    The forces of globalization today seem to have overwhelmed the historical political-cultural mission of adult education. Both in the North and the South, adult education is asked to contribute directly to productivity and thereby to competitiveness in the global market. The social component that survives is expected to help in coping with globalization. Voices of conscience and sanity have been raised at world summits in Rio (1992), Cairo (1994), Copenhagen (1995), Beijing (1995), and elsewhere. However, policies, plans and practices have not matched the declarations and agendas from the summits. The programs spawned by the Education for All conference of 1990 side-lined adult education, and so did the Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (1996). The Fifth International Conference on Adult Education held in Hamburg during July 14-18, 1997 was marked by renewed commitment and solidarity. However, challenges of problematizing globalization, democratizing development, and socializing humanity for life together in the new century remain.

  4. How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century?

    PubMed

    Tuffen, Hugh

    2010-05-28

    Glaciers and ice sheets on many active volcanoes are rapidly receding. There is compelling evidence that melting of ice during the last deglaciation triggered a dramatic acceleration in volcanic activity. Will melting of ice this century, which is associated with climate change, similarly affect volcanic activity and associated hazards? This paper provides a critical overview of the evidence that current melting of ice will increase the frequency or size of hazardous volcanic eruptions. Many aspects of the link between ice recession and accelerated volcanic activity remain poorly understood. Key questions include how rapidly volcanic systems react to melting of ice, whether volcanoes are sensitive to small changes in ice thickness and how recession of ice affects the generation, storage and eruption of magma at stratovolcanoes. A greater frequency of collapse events at glaciated stratovolcanoes can be expected in the near future, and there is strong potential for positive feedbacks between melting of ice and enhanced volcanism. Nonetheless, much further research is required to remove current uncertainties about the implications of climate change for volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century. PMID:20403841

  5. Twenty-first DOE/NRC nuclear air-cleaning conference

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.; Moeller, D.W.; First, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Twenty-First Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Air-Cleaning Conference was held August 12-16, 1990, in San Diego, California. A total of 232 air-cleaning specialists attended the conference. The United States and 14 foreign countries were represented, and the specialists were affiliated with government agencies, educational institutions, and the nuclear industry. Several major topics were discussed during the conference, including development and use of industry codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; particulate filter developments, including filter testing and filter response to physical stress; development of adsorbents, including laboratory testing and in-place testing; incineration and vitrification; containment venting; reactor operations, including design and modeling; and measurement systems capable of verifying safe operation. The conference continued to provide a forum for direct and efficient interchange of technical and philosophical information among the participants. The high level of foreign participation and interest continues, as evidenced by over one half of the papers being sponsored by foreign interests, and one quarter of the attendees being from outside the United States. Further evidence of international interest was seen in a plenary session devoted to nuclear air-cleaning programs in nine different countries. A common concern throughout many of the sessions was the development of meaningful standards, their implementation for existing air-cleaning system, and the use of these standards by regulatory agencies. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO/sub 4/) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs.

  7. Civil engineering at the crossroads in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Francisco; Seco, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The twenty-first century presents a major challenge for civil engineering. The magnitude and future importance of some of the problems perceived by society are directly related to the field of the civil engineer, implying an inescapable burden of responsibility for a group whose technical soundness, rational approach and efficiency is highly valued and respected by the citizen. However, the substantial changes in society and in the way it perceives the problems that it considers important call for a thorough review of our structures, both professional and educational; so that our profession, with its undeniable historical prestige, may modernize certain approaches and attitudes in order to continue to be a reliable instrument in the service of society, giving priority from an ethical standpoint to its actions in pursuit of "the public good". It possesses important tools to facilitate this work (new technologies, the development of communications, the transmission of scientific thought.···); but there is nevertheless a need for deep reflection on the very essence of civil engineering: what we want it to be in the future, and the ability and willingness to take the lead at a time when society needs disinterested messages, technically supported, reasonably presented and dispassionately transmitted. PMID:21380736

  8. United Nations population conferences: shaping the policy agenda for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Finkle, Jason L; McIntosh, C Alison

    2002-03-01

    Population conferences have evolved through three overlapping stages, each stage reflecting a different perspective on the relationship between national policy formulation and the international system. Initially, at Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965, participants were invited on the basis of their expertise and were not expected to represent their governments. By the time of the Bucharest Conference in 1974, the United Nations, in an attempt to give conferences a greater role in shaping population policy and to inspire member governments to show greater concern for their own population problems, decided that conferences would be intergovernmental gatherings and that national delegations would be selected by governments. The effect of this change was that governments gave less weight to scientific expertise and, conversely, greater weight to political and bureaucratic considerations. At the present time, although conferences remain intergovernmental gatherings, the door has been opened for nongovernmental organizations--civil society--to play a more active role in the conference process and in deliberations. As conferences have become more inclusive, their focus has veered from what has conventionally been regarded as population concerns. The changing composition of participants at UN conferences has had the effect of altering the policy agenda in the international population field and, as some have argued since Cairo, has redefined the meaning of population. Conferences in the twenty-first century likely will be compelled to confront diverse demographic problems in addition to social issues demanding the attention of the political system at every level. PMID:11974415

  9. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Daniel R.; Algieri, Chris A.; Ong, Jonathan R.; Collins, William D.

    2011-05-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  10. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  11. Gendering inequality: a note on Piketty's Capital in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Perrons, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century is remarkable for moving inequality from the margins to mainstream debate through detailed analysis of longitudinal statistics and, for an economist, by advocating an interdisciplinary perspective and writing in a witty and accessible style. With reference to the post 1970 period, when wage increases are largely responsible for the increase in inequality, Piketty shows how patrimonial capitalists (elite managers) in the top decile and centile of the distribution appropriate a growing share of social wealth as a consequence of their 'power to set their own remuneration' in the context of tolerant social norms rather than through their productive contributions. Piketty raises but defers the question of where these social norms come from to other disciplines. A Feminist Economics perspective indicates that these questions are central to a more inclusive form of economic analysis and such an approach would enrich Piketty's analysis in two main ways. First, by paying greater attention to the processes and social norms through which inequalities are produced and justified and second by highlighting the ways in which inequality is experienced differently depending not only on class, but also on other aspects of identity including gender. This approach also suggests that it is necessary to supplement the ex-post redistributive policies recommended by Piketty: a global wealth tax and more steeply progressive income tax, with ex-ante measures to stop the rise in wage inequality in the first place, especially by bridging the huge gulf that exists between those who care for people and those who manage money. PMID:25516345

  12. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century

    PubMed Central

    Ganusov, Vitaly V.

    2016-01-01

    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest “strong inference in mathematical modeling” as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century. PMID:27499750

  13. Biobanking in the Twenty-First Century: Driving Population Metrics into Biobanking Quality.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Joseph N; Karvonen, Charlene; Graham, Kathryn; Weinfeld, Michael; Joy, Anil A; Koebel, Martin; Morris, Don; Robson, Paula J; Johnston, Randal N; Brockton, Nigel T

    2015-01-01

    Biospecimens are the essential substrates for human biomarker research. Across the globe, biobanks have developed the facilities and mechanisms to collect, process, store and distribute those substrates to researchers. However, despite some notable successes, less than one hundred of the tens of thousands of purported biomarkers have been independently validated. We propose the need for a new paradigm in biobanking; simply pursuing larger numbers of participants, larger networks of biobanks and higher sample integrity will not, in itself, transform the success rate or efficiency of biomarker research. We propose that biobanks must embrace the intrinsic observational nature of biospecimens and furnish the recipients of biospecimens with the population metrics (descriptive statistics) that can facilitate the scientific rigor that is mandated in other areas of observational research. In addition, we discuss the value of population-based ascertainment and recruitment and the importance of the timing of biospecimen collections. Any assessment of biospecimen quality must go beyond the sample itself and consider both the patient/participant selection and the most appropriate and informative timing for specimen collection, particularly prior to any treatment intervention in diseased populations. The examples and rationales that we present are based largely on cancer-related collections because the feasibility of population metrics is greatly assisted by the comprehensive registries that are more common for cancer than other chronic diseases. Changing the biobanking paradigm from tacitly 'experimental' to explicitly 'observational' represents a profound but urgent methodological shift that will influence the establishment, management, reporting and impact of biobanks in the twenty-first century. PMID:26420616

  14. Yeast culture collections in the twenty-first century: new opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; Glantschnig, Ewald; Roberts, Ian N; Yurkov, Andrey; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-07-01

    The twenty-first century has brought new opportunities and challenges to yeast culture collections, whether they are long-standing or recently established. Basic functions such as archiving, characterizing and distributing yeasts continue, but with expanded responsibilities and emerging opportunities. In addition to a number of well-known, large public repositories, there are dozens of smaller public collections that differ in the range of species and strains preserved, field of emphasis and services offered. Several collections have converted their catalogues to comprehensive databases and synchronize them continuously through public services, making it easier for users worldwide to locate a suitable source for specific yeast strains and the data associated with these yeasts. In-house research such as yeast taxonomy continues to be important at culture collections. Because yeast culture collections preserve a broad diversity of species and strains within a species, they are able to make discoveries in many other areas as well, such as biotechnology, functional, comparative and evolution genomics, bioprocesses and novel products. Due to the implementation of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Nagoya Protocol (NP), there are new requirements for both depositors and users to ensure that yeasts were collected following proper procedures and to guarantee that the country of origin will be considered if benefits arise from a yeast's utilization. Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are extremely relevant to the current access and benefit-sharing (ABS) mechanisms; most research and development involving genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge will be subject to this topic. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27144478

  15. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  16. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  17. Twenty-first-century warming of a large Antarctic ice-shelf cavity by a redirected coastal current.

    PubMed

    Hellmer, Hartmut H; Kauker, Frank; Timmermann, Ralph; Determann, Jürgen; Rae, Jamie

    2012-05-10

    The Antarctic ice sheet loses mass at its fringes bordering the Southern Ocean. At this boundary, warm circumpolar water can override the continental slope front, reaching the grounding line through submarine glacial troughs and causing high rates of melting at the deep ice-shelf bases. The interplay between ocean currents and continental bathymetry is therefore likely to influence future rates of ice-mass loss. Here we show that a redirection of the coastal current into the Filchner Trough and underneath the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf during the second half of the twenty-first century would lead to increased movement of warm waters into the deep southern ice-shelf cavity. Water temperatures in the cavity would increase by more than 2 degrees Celsius and boost average basal melting from 0.2 metres, or 82 billion tonnes, per year to almost 4 metres, or 1,600 billion tonnes, per year. Our results, which are based on the output of a coupled ice-ocean model forced by a range of atmospheric outputs from the HadCM3 climate model, suggest that the changes would be caused primarily by an increase in ocean surface stress in the southeastern Weddell Sea due to thinning of the formerly consolidated sea-ice cover. The projected ice loss at the base of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf represents 80 per cent of the present Antarctic surface mass balance. Thus, the quantification of basal mass loss under changing climate conditions is important for projections regarding the dynamics of Antarctic ice streams and ice shelves, and global sea level rise. PMID:22575964

  18. Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, A. K.; Braun, J. L.; Daanen, R. P.; Hock, R.; Liljedahl, A.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    In South-Central Alaska, the Susitna River is the site of a proposed hydroelectric dam. The catchment of the reservoir in the upper Susitna watershed (13,289 km^2, 450-4000 m a.s.l.) is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. Glaciers, permafrost, and the water cycle are expected to change in response to anticipated future atmospheric warming by the end of this century, thus impacting water yields to the hydroelectric reservoir. We aim to quantify future changes in glacier wastage, surface- and groundwater, permafrost, and evapotranspiration. We apply the physically-based hydrological model WaSiM using daily air temperature and precipitation data from station observations and gridded climate products. The model is calibrated with runoff and glacier mass balance measurements from the 1980s and validated with measurements from ongoing field campaigns which started in spring 2012. With the past and present data, the model is able to match both the magnitude and timing of observed river discharge. However, the scarcity of meteorological observations from the upper Susitna basin presents a major challenge to simulating the catchment hydrology. We present methods for extrapolation of the spatially-sparse long-term data across the catchment, with particular emphasis on high-elevation precipitation. To project future changes in river runoff, we run WaSiM with air temperature and precipitation downscaled from global climate models and compare results from several emission scenarios (selected from CMIP5). We discuss the anticipated changes in basin hydrology as the climate warms, permafrost thaws, and glaciers shrink.

  19. Statistical Projection of Solar Cycle 24 for the Exposure Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    A solar cycle statistical model has been developed based on the accumulating cycle sunspot data to estimate future levels of the solar cycle activity. Since the current solar cycle 24 has progressed about three years, the cycle activity levels are estimated with an accurately defined solar minimum 24. Then, solar cycle 24 is projected with the cycle activity levels using the statistical model. The projection of solar cycle 24 is then coupled to space related quantities of interest to radiation protection, because the interplanetary plasma and radiation fields are modulated by the degree of disturbance in the solar surface and the radiation doses received by astronauts in interplanetary space are likewise influenced. The resultant projection of solar cycle 24 provides a basis for estimating exposure in future space missions, and projection errors can be corrected as the cycle progresses and observations become available because this model is shown to be self-correcting.

  20. Mid-twenty-first century warm season climate change in the Central United States. Part I: regional and global model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patricola, Christina M.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2013-02-01

    A regional climate model (RCM) constrained by future anomalies averaged from atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) simulations is used to generate mid-twenty-first century climate change predictions at 30-km resolution over the central U.S. The predictions are compared with those from 15 AOGCM and 7 RCM dynamic downscaling simulations to identify common climate change signals. There is strong agreement among the multi-model ensemble in predicting wetter conditions in April and May over the northern Great Plains and drier conditions over the southern Great Plains in June through August for the mid-twenty-first century. Projected changes in extreme daily precipitation are statistically significant over only a limited portion of the central U.S. in the RCM constrained with future anomalies. Projected changes in monthly mean 2-m air temperature are generally consistent across the AOGCM ensemble average, North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program RCM ensemble average, and RCM constrained with future anomalies, which produce a maximum increase in August of 2.4-2.9 K over the northern and southern Great Plains and Midwest. Changes in extremes in daily 2-m air temperature from the RCM downscaled with anomalies are statistically significant over nearly the entire Great Plains and Midwest and indicate a positive shift in the warm tail of the daily 2-m temperature distribution that is larger than the positive shift in the cold tail.

  1. 76 FR 82353 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...In this document, the Commission adopts rules that implement provisions of section 104 of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA), Public Law 111-260, the most significant accessibility legislation since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990. A Proposed Rule relating to implementation of section 718 of the Communications Act......

  2. Imagination in Twenty-First Century Teaching and Learning Teachers as Creative-Adaptive Leaders in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Shamini Samanlatha Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explored the value and functions of imagination in leading learning in the twenty-first century, a knowledge-based age marked by diversity, change and unpredictability. In such a context, how can imagination enable teachers to be leaders of learning who optimally engage and prepare students for success? Research in cognitive…

  3. Noise Management in Twenty-First Century Libraries: Case Studies of Four U.S. Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Janet E.; Asher, Darla C.

    2014-01-01

    University libraries have had to provide acceptable noise levels for many years and this pressure has not diminished in the twenty-first century. Library space has to be utilized to ensure noise levels are best managed. A study was undertaken across four university libraries in South Florida to determine how universities utilized their limited…

  4. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2011-01-01

    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

  5. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: a Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barak, Miri

    2016-01-01

    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher educators, (b) identify attributes for learning and teaching in the twenty-first century, and (c) develop a pedagogical framework for promoting meaningful usage of advanced technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via an online survey, personal interviews, and written reflections with science teacher educators and student teachers. Findings indicated that teacher educators do not provide sufficient models for the promotion of reform-based practice via web 2.0 environments, such as Wikis, blogs, social networks, or other cloud technologies. Findings also indicated four attributes for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: (a) adapting to frequent changes and uncertain situations, (b) collaborating and communicating in decentralized environments, (c) generating data and managing information, and (d) releasing control by encouraging exploration. Guided by social constructivist paradigms and twenty-first century teaching attributes, this study suggests a pedagogical framework for fostering meaningful usage of advanced technologies in science teacher education courses.

  6. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past…

  7. Critical Pedagogy in the Twenty-First Century: A New Generation of Scholars. Critical Constructions: Studies on Education and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Curry Stephenson, Ed.; Porfilio, Bradley, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book simultaneously provides multiple analyses of critical pedagogy in the twenty-first century while showcasing the scholarship of this new generation of critical scholar-educators. Needless to say, the writers herein represent just a small subset of a much larger movement for critical transformation and a more humane, less Eurocentric, less…

  8. Preparing the Twenty-First Century Workforce: The Case of Curriculum Change in Radiation Protection Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Matthew; Easter, Matthew; Jonassen, David; Miller, William; Ionas, Gelu

    2008-01-01

    The advent of the global information society and a myriad of other rapidly changing variables are presenting many new and unique challenges for the twenty-first century workforce, and perhaps the most pressing of these challenges is actually meeting the needs for qualified workers to fill the positions in emerging and growing fields. One such…

  9. Review of Twenty-First Century Portable Electronic Devices for Persons with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Use of portable electronic devices by persons with moderate intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders is gaining increased research attention. The purpose of this review was to synthesize twenty-first century literature (2000-2010) focusing on these technologies. Twenty-one studies were identified which evaluated use of: (a) handheld…

  10. A Shift to Inquiry: The Heart of Effective Teaching and Professional Development for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini, Vicki; Worth, Karen; Jensen LaConte, Judy E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how an experienced teacher navigates the demands of curriculum to implement her inquiry-centered teaching and learning philosophy, and how administrators along the way supported her during this change. Interviews with this classroom teacher surface suggestions for twenty-first-century professional development and support,…

  11. The Bowker Annual of Library and Book Trade Information. Twenty-First Edition. With Cumulative Index 1972-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miele, Madeline, Ed.; And Others

    The twenty-first edition of the Bowker Annual serves as an almanac, handbook, and fact finder for the library and publishing fields. The first section, "Reports from National Associations and Agencies," summarizes the 1975 activities of 14 organizations. The second part, "Developments in Librarianship and Publishing," features articles on the…

  12. Assessing Twenty-First Century Skills through a Teacher Created Video Game for High School Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the…

  13. A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

  14. Professional Capabilities for Twenty-First Century Creative Careers: Lessons from Outstandingly Successful Australian Artists and Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgstock, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Artists and designers are positioned at the centre of the twenty-first century creative economy. In order to recognise and make the most of the opportunities afforded by this new era, artists and designers still require the creativity, disciplinary depth of knowledge and technical skills traditionally possessed by professionals in these…

  15. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  16. The Twenty-First Century and Legal Studies in Business: Preparing Students to Perform in a Globally Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Debra D.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Kemp, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    This article first examines the dynamic role business education must play in a flat world economy. Second, it explains how legal courses in the business curricula already equip students with portable twenty-first-century skills and relevant academic content. The article then advocates the acceptance of the Boyer Model of Scholarship, which defines…

  17. An Improved Solar Cycle Statistical Model for the Projection of Near Future Sunspot Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the current solar cycle 23 has progressed near the end of the cycle and accurate solar minimum and maximum occurrences have been defined, a statistical model based on the odd-even behavior of historical sunspot cycles was reexamined. Separate calculations of activity levels were made for the rising and declining phases in solar cycle 23, which resulted in improved projection of sunspots in the remainder of cycle 23. Because a fundamental understanding of the transition from cycle to cycle has not been developed, at this time it is assumed for projection purposes that solar cycle 24 will continue at the same activity level in the declining phase of cycle 23. Projection errors in solar cycle 24 can be corrected as the cycle progresses and observations become available because this model is shown to be self-correcting.

  18. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

  19. Container Refurbishment Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aloi, t.; anthony, p; blair, t; forester, c; hall, k; hawk, t; gordon, b; johnsen, s; keck, g; clifford, m; reichert, d; rogers, p; richards, w; smallen, p; tilley, e

    2000-05-15

    In mid-1999, a Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) project was initiated by senior management to improve the overall efficiency of the Container Refurbishment process. A cross-functional team was formed by the Industrial Engineering Services group within Product Certification Organization to evaluate the current process and to propose necessary changes for improvement. The CTR team efforts have resulted in increased productivity equaling approximately $450K per year. The effort also significantly reduced the wait time required necessary to start assembly work on the shop floor. Increasing daily production time and identifying delays were key team goals. Following is a brief summary of accomplishments: (A) Productivity Improvements: (1) Reduced Radcon survey time for empty containers: (i) 50% at 9720-3 (ii) 67% at 9204-2 and (iii) 100% at 9212; (2) Eliminated container inspections at 9720-3; (3) Reduced charged time (includes hands-on labor and support functions) per empty container by 25%; (4) Reduced cycle time to refurbish a container by 25%. (Dramatic wait time reduction -Assembly); (5) Reduced the time for 9212 to receive empty, refurbished containers by 67-80%; (6) Reduced the time for 9204-2E to receive empty, refurbished containers from 1 day to immediate; (7) Implemented software to track time charged per container for continuous improvement; (8) Initiated continuous improvement efforts between Workstream experts and Refurbishment personnel, reworded complex Workstream prompts to allow worker data corrections, and reduces time of support groups, Workstream personnel, and Refurbishment personnel; (9) Consolidated refurbished, container warehousing areas, eliminated long travel times to areas outside the protected area portals to an area in the vicinity of the refurbishment area and a process area, benefits are improved container flow and better housekeeping; and (10) improved overall communication of team by flowcharting entire process. B. Annual Cost Savings: $453K

  20. The U.S. Nuclear Data Network: Summary of the twenty-first meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The following progress reports and related documents from the members of the US Nuclear Data Network (USNDN) are included at attachments: INEL Decay Data and Mass-chain Evaluation Project; Decay-data Evaluation Project; Isotopes Project Report; Report on High-spin Data Evaluations; The NNDC Activity Report, Parts A and B; Nuclear Science References (NSR) Task Force Report; Status of Mass Chains A = 1 to 266; Nuclear Data Project Activity Report; and TUNL Nuclear Data Evaluation Project Report; The progress report of the Center for Nuclear Information Technology; An Overview of the USNDN; Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File-Status; Report on High-spin Evaluations for ENSDF since November 1994; The High-spin Data and the Workshop on Data Analysis; Decay Data Evaluation Project; Compilation of High Energy Heavy-ion and Electron Interaction Data; Dissemination/code development update; 8th Edition of the Table of Isotopes/VuENSDF; Bits of Power-Issues in the Transborder Flow of Scientific and Technical Data; Data activities at the Center for Nuclear Information Technology (CNIT), San Jose State University; The Agenda and the Minutes of the Formats and Procedures Subcommittee of the NSDD; A status report on the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN); Coordination/Cooperation and Communication as applied to the USNDN; Nuclear Structure Data Evaluations: Issues/Concerns; Electronic Publishing of Nuclear Data; The status of the Nuclear Astrophysics Data Project; and Nuclear Astrophysics Data needs for A=3-20/Possible contributions by TUNL. The attendees formed the three Discussion Groups. The charge to these Discussion Groups was how to achieve the goal of the USNDN to make the ENSDF and the NSR the best nuclear structure and bibliographic databases available, while maintaining a proper balance between evaluations and data dissemination.

  1. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian model of…

  2. Twenty-first century learning in school systems: the case of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, Indianapolis, Indiana.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Marcia; Knoderer, Troy

    2006-01-01

    To empower students with skills such as information and technological literacy, global awareness and cultural competence, self-direction, and sound reasoning, teachers must master these skills themselves. This chapter examines how the Digital Age Literacy Initiative of the Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township in Indianapolis, Indiana, which is funded by the Lilly Endowment, incorporated twenty-first century learning through a systemic approach involving teacher training and the use of data. The authors explain the district's content, process, and context goals toward accomplishing its mission of empowering students with the necessary twenty-first century skills to succeed in the digital age. The district places a strong emphasis on professional development for teachers. To support the necessary teacher learning and therefore sustain the work of the initiative, the district has adopted action research, self-assessment, and an online professional development network. To support teachers in implementing new strategies, master teachers serve as digital age literacy coaches. The chapter discusses the initiative's focus on evidence of progress. Through a partnership with the Metiri Group of California, the district has built a range of assessments including online inventories and twenty-first century skill rubrics. For example, the Mankato Survey collected teacher and student data around access, ability, and use of technology in the classroom in 2001 and then in 2004. This research showed significant gains in some technologies across all grade levels and consistent gains in nearly all technologies for middle and high school students. As it moves into the next phase of implementing the Digital Age Literacy Initiative, the district embraces the systemic shifts in school culture necessary to institutionalize twenty-first century learning. PMID:17017261

  3. A spent fuel transportation cask for the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, B.R.; Little, C.C.; Goedicke, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    An innovative transportation cask design for legal weight truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel is presented. The proposed approach presents a significant departure from conventional cask designs in that it uses titanium alloy, a material with a high strength-to-weight ratio which has no precedent in transportation cask certification. The significant increase in payload obtainable with the proposed approach, and the associated benefits such as reduced life cycle costs, lower personnel exposure, and lower transportation accident risks are discussed. Also included is the strategy for addressing the challenge of demonstration regulatory compliance for a transportation cask based on new technology. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Moving Teaching and Learning into the Twenty-first Century through Community-Based Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, Anne S.

    The Technical College of the Lowcountry (TCL), in South Carolina, is one of eight pilot community colleges involved in the Academy for Community College Leadership Advancement, Innovation, and Modeling (ACCLAIM). ACCLAIM is a demonstration project involving colleges in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina concerned with expanding…

  5. Home-School Literacy Bags for Twenty-First Century Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Marchand, Jessica; Lilly, Elizabeth; Child, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Combining home-school literacy bags with preschool family literature circles provided a strong foundation for family involvement at home and school during this year-long Reading Partners project, and helped parents become essential partners in their children's literacy development. Using home-school literacy bags, children and parents learned…

  6. Spinning Straw into Gold: A Community College Library's Twenty First Century Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Devin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a library renovation project in a community college that involved using existing space and reorganizing it to support the way students learn both individually and collaboratively. The article also looks at the importance of the academic library as place.

  7. Critical Digital Literacies: Following Feminist Composition Theories into Twenty-First Century Contact Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jessica B.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines how the interests of feminist composition theory, digital media, and new literacies studies intersect within the research context of the first-year writing classroom. Specifically, this project examines what happens to the "contact zone" (Pratt 1991; Bizzell 1994) of first-year composition when we introduce digital…

  8. Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    These proceedings contain 34 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to explosive fracturing for construction projects (tunnels, pipelines, dams), rock drilling for explosive fracturing, surface mining, rock fragmentation, environmental impacts, storage and transport of high explosives, underwater blasting, toxic fumes, and explosives malfunctions. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Management of healthcare waste: developments in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Kühling, Jan-Gerd; Pieper, Ute

    2012-09-01

    In many Southeast Asian countries, significant challenges persist with regard to the proper management and disposal of healthcare waste. The amount of healthcare waste in these countries is continuously increasing as a result of the expansion of healthcare systems and services. In the past, healthcare waste, if it was treated at all, was mainly incinerated. In the last decade more comprehensive waste management systems were developed for Southeast Asian countries and implementation started. This also included the establishment of alternative healthcare waste treatment systems. The developments in the lower-middle-income countries are of special interest, as major investments are planned. Based upon sample projects, a short overview of the current development trends in the healthcare waste sector in Laos, Indonesia and Vietnam is provided. The projects presented include: (i) Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (development of the national environmental health training system to support the introduction of environmental health standards and improvement of healthcare waste treatment in seven main hospitals by introducing steam-based treatment technologies); (ii) Indonesia (development of a provincial-level healthcare waste-management strategy for Province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) and introduction of an advanced waste treatment system in a tertiary level hospital in Makassar); and (iii) Vietnam (development of a healthcare waste strategy for five provinces in Vietnam and a World Bank-financed project on healthcare waste in Vietnam). PMID:22993139

  10. Atmospheric aerosols versus greenhouse gases in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Andreae, Meinrat O

    2007-07-15

    Looked at in a simplistic way, aerosols have counteracted the warming effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) over the past century. This has not only provided some 'climate protection', but also prevented the true magnitude of the problem from becoming evident. In particular, it may have resulted in an underestimation of the sensitivity of the climate system to the effect of GHG. Over the present century, the role of aerosols in opposing global warming will wane, as there are powerful policy reasons to reduce their emissions and their atmospheric lifetimes are short in contrast to those of the GHG. On the other hand, aerosols will continue to play a role in regional climate change, especially with regard to the water cycle. The end of significant climate protection by atmospheric aerosols, combined with the potentially very high sensitivity of the climate system, makes sharp and prompt reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2, very urgent. PMID:17513271

  11. A twenty-first century perspective. [NASA space communication infrastructure to support space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.; Miller, Albert

    1990-01-01

    The status of the NASA assets which are operated by the Office of Space Operations is briefly reviewed. These assets include the ground network, the space network, and communications and data handling facilities. The current plans for each element are examined, and a projection of each is made to meet the user needs in the 21st century. The following factors are noted: increasingly responsive support will be required by the users; operational support concepts must be cost-effective to serve future missions; and a high degree of system reliability and availability will be required to support manned exploration and increasingly complex missions.

  12. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered. PMID:17272236

  13. Estimating the potential for twenty-first century sudden climate change.

    PubMed

    Shindell, Drew

    2007-11-15

    I investigate the potential for sudden climate change during the current century. This investigation takes into account evidence from the Earth's history, from climate models and our understanding of the physical processes governing climate shifts. Sudden alterations to climate forcing seem to be improbable, with sudden changes instead most likely to arise from climate feedbacks. Based on projections from models validated against historical events, dramatic changes in ocean circulation appear unlikely. Ecosystem-climate feedbacks clearly have the potential to induce sudden change, but are relatively poorly understood at present. More probable sudden changes are large increases in the frequency of summer heatwaves and changes resulting from feedbacks involving hydrology. These include ice sheet decay, which may be set in motion this century. The most devastating consequences are likely to occur further in the future, however. Reductions in subtropical precipitation are likely to be the most severe hydrologic effects this century, with rapid changes due to the feedbacks of relatively well-understood large-scale circulation patterns. Water stress may become particularly acute in the Southwest US and Mexico, and in the Mediterranean and Middle East, where rainfall decreases of 10-25% (regionally) and up to 40% (locally) are projected. PMID:17666384

  14. Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century

    PubMed Central

    Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO2 rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified. PMID:20713397

  15. Radiochemistry in the twenty-first century: Strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goeij, J. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of radiochemistry and associated nuclear chemistry are discussed. For that purpose radiochemistry is subdivided into three categories. The first category covers fundamental aspects, e.g. nuclear reaction cross-sections, production routes with associated yields and radionuclidic impurities, decay schemes, radiochemical separations, recoil and hot-atom chemistry, isotope effects and fractionation, and interaction of radiation with matter and detection. The second category covers topics where radioactivity is inextricably involved, e.g. the nuclear fuel cycle, very heavy elements and other actinides, primordial and cosmogenic radioactivity, and radionuclide techniques for dating. The third category involves radioactivity as essential part of a technique. On one hand radioactivity is used here as source of ionising radiation for food conservation, polymerisation of plastics, sterilisation, radiotherapy and pain palliation. On the other hand it is used to get information on systems and materials, via radiotracer methods and nuclear activation techniques. In particular the latter field is experiencing strong competition with other, non-nuclear methods. In this frame it is indicated what is required to achieve a situation where nuclear analytical techniques may successfully be exploited to the full extent of their potentials, particularly in providing valuable and sometimes unique information.

  16. Fixing Freud: the Oedipus complex in early twenty-first century US American novels.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Robert Deam

    2011-01-01

    Representations of Sigmund Freud in early 21st century US American novels rely on and respond to the image of Freud that emerged from investigations by Paul Roazen ("Brother Animal," 1969) and Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson ("The Assault on Truth," 1984), which cast doubt on the validity of the Oedipus complex. Relying on Roazen, Brenda Webster's "Vienna Triangle" (2009) links Freud's oedipal thinking to paranoia and male masochism. Working with Masson, Selden Edwards's "The Little Book" (2008) takes Freud to task for abandoning the seduction theory in favor of the Oedipus complex. Jed Rubenfeld's "The Interpretation of Murder" (2006) rethinks the Oedipus complex as a projection of adults onto their children. All three novels seek to celebrate Freud's understanding of the human psyche, while shifting the focus of the oedipal structure away from the murderous and lustful child toward the adult. PMID:21970034

  17. A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, Dorte; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

    2013-01-01

    During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

  18. Twenty-first Century Challenges in Water Resources - A Land-Atmosphere Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Dirmeyer, P.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models show skill in simulating the 20th century observed warming rate (0.08 K/decade, global average). In the 21st century, the projected warming rate is significantly higher. For example, the 21st century global average temperature trend is four times higher in the 4.5 watts/m2 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 4.5), and nine times higher in 8.5 watts/m2 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5), compared to the 20th century simulated temperature trend. In this study, we have investigated changes in land-atmosphere interactions, which have important consequences for fresh water availability in the 21st century. A multi-model analysis of results from 16 CMIP5 climate models that have detailed land surface schemes has been examined. A correlation between changes in annual evapotranspiration and temperature (a surrogate for available energy) or changes in precipitation (a surrogate for water availability) among different climate simulations; a total of 103 climate realizations is used as metric to study land-atmosphere interactions. We found that in the highest emission scenario (RCP 8.5), the earth system could potentially see a major change during the 21st century, where much of the land surface will transition to a predominantly water-limited system, i.e., despite increases in precipitation the land surface transitions to a drier state (water-limited). Details of the transition from water and energy limited systems in the 20th century to only water limited systems in the 21st century is presented. Results from the intermediate emissions scenario (RCP4.5) will be also discussed. These results have important consequences for fresh water availability, such as decreased water availability for ground water recharge and runoff.

  19. The New Face of Genetics: Creating A Multimedia Educational Tool for the Twenty-First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Audrey

    In the study of certain genetic conditions, it is important to understand the specific "dysmorphology" associated with them. This describes the unique anatomical manifestations of the genetic condition. Traditionally, students learn about dysmorphology by reading text descriptions or looking at photographs of affected individuals. The New Face of Genetics is a film project that aims to teach students dysmorphology by featuring people who have specific genetic conditions. The goal is to enhance students' understanding of these conditions as well as to impart the humanity and beauty of the people who appear in the film. Students will have the opportunity to see dysmorphic features on the animated human form as well as meet individuals who are living with genetic difference. The target audience includes genetic counseling students and other medical professionals. Three short films were made in this format to demonstrate how this type of educational tool can be made. The featured conditions were Marfan syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Future work will be carried out by other genetic counseling students who will make additional films based on our templates. A compendium of approximately 20 films will be eventually completed and released to genetic counseling programs and medical schools.

  20. Dominating Controls for Wetter South Asian Summer Monsoon in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Rui; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dominguez, Francina

    2015-04-01

    We analyze a suite of Global Climate Models from the 5th Phase of Coupled Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives to understand the mechanisms behind a net increase in the South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in response to enhanced radiative forcing during the 21st century despite a robust weakening of dynamics governing the monsoon circulation. Combining the future changes in the contributions from various sources, which contribute to the moisture supply over South Asia, with those in monsoon dynamics and atmospheric moisture content, we establish a pathway of understanding that partly explains these counteracting responses to increase in radiative forcing. Our analysis suggests that both regional (local recycling, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal) and remote (mainly Indian Ocean) sources contribute to the moisture supply for precipitation over South Asia during the summer season that is facilitated by the monsoon dynamics. Increase in radiative forcing fuels an increase in the atmospheric moisture content through warmer temperatures. For regional moisture sources, the effect of excessive atmospheric moisture is offset by weaker monsoon circulation and uncertainty in the response of the evapotranspiration over land, so anomalies in their contribution to the total moisture supply are either mixed or muted. In contrast, weakening of the monsoon dynamics has less influence on the moisture supply from remote sources that not only is a dominant moisture contributor in the historical period, but is also the net driver of the positive summer monsoon precipitation response in the 21st century. Our results also indicate that historic measures of the monsoon dynamics may not be well suited to predict the non-stationary moisture driven South Asian summer monsoon precipitation response in the 21st century.

  1. Redesigning healthcare systems to meet the health challenges associated with climate change in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, climate change is emerging as a significant threat to the health and well-being of the public through links to the following: extreme weather events, sea level rise, temperature-related illnesses, air pollution patterns, water security, food security, vector-borne infectious diseases, and mental health effects (as a result of extreme weather events and climate change-induced population displacement). This article discusses how national healthcare systems can be redesigned through changes in its components such as human resources, facilities and technology, health information system, and health policy to meet these challenges. PMID:26150369

  2. Twenty-first century changes in the hydrology, glaciers, and permafrost of the Susitna Basin, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.; Wolken, G. J.; Zhang, J.; Whorton, E.; Braun, J. L.; Gusmeroli, A.; Liljedahl, A.; Schulla, J.

    2014-12-01

    In the face of climate change, the hydrology of the upper Susitna Basin in South-Central Alaska is expected to change. This would impact the quantity and seasonality of river flow into a proposed hydroelectric dam, if it were to be built. The upper Susitna Basin catchment area is 13,289 km², ranging from 450-4000 m a.s.l. It is 4% glacierized and is characterized by sparse vegetation, discontinuous permafrost, and little human development. We present field measurements and results from hydrological modeling. We present new field data from spring and fall 2014 along with field measurements from the 1980's, 2012, and 2013. These data are used to calibrate and validate the hydrological model. Traditional glacier mass balance measurements show that the glaciers lost more mass in 2012 and 2013 than in 1981, 1982, or 1983. Springtime snow radar surveys of the glaciers allow us to extrapolate from point measurements of snow depth to the whole glacier area. Snow depth measurements at tundra sites as well as tundra vegetation and soil characterizations help us choose appropriate model parameters for the tundra portions of the basin. Meteorological data (temperature, humidity, and precipitation) from over 20 stations in the basin show the summertime temperature lapse rate to be smaller over glacier surfaces compared to ice-free surfaces. Precipitation is highly variable across the basin. Energy balance measurements from two meteorological stations, one located on West Fork Glacier and one on a nunatak near Susitna Glacier, are used for more detailed modeling of summertime glacier melt and runoff. We run a physically-based hydrological model to project 21st century river discharge: Water Flow and Balance Simulation Model (WaSiM). Climate inputs come from a CCSM CMIP5 RCP6.0 scenario downscaled to a 20km-5km nested grid using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. From 2010-2029 to 2080-2099 the basin-wide mean-annual temperature will rise 2.5 degrees and total

  3. Academic tenure and higher education in the United States: implications for the dental education workforce in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Melanie R

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the literature related to the evolution and implementation of academic tenure (AT) in U.S. higher education. It is intended to highlight AT implications for the recruitment, retention, and development of the dental education workforce in the twenty-first century and the need for this workforce to implement change in dental education. The dental education workforce is shrinking, and a further decrease is projected, yet the demand for dental education is increasing. AT is becoming increasingly controversial, and the proportion of tenured to nontenured (i.e., contingent) faculty is declining within an already shrinking faculty pool. Confusion regarding the definition of scholarship and its relationship to research and publishing further confounds discussions about AT. Whether the principles of academic freedom and due process require tenure for their preservation in a democratic society is open to question. In view of competing time demands and increasing pressure to publish and apply for grants, factors including the seven-year probationary period for tenure, the decreased availability of tenured positions, and the often perceived inequities between tenured and contingent (i.e., nontenured track) faculty may pose an obstacle to faculty recruitment and retention. These factors may severely limit the diversity and skill mix of the dental education workforce, resulting in a decrease in staffing flexibility that appears to be needed in the twenty-first century. Politics, increasing dependence on grant funding by some institutions, resistance to change, and insufficient mentoring are all stimulating discussions about the future of tenure and its implications for U.S. dental education. PMID:17389570

  4. The Break the Cycle Evaluation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Aronoff, Jessica; Shelley, Gene A.

    2007-01-01

    Break the Cycle is a private, nonprofit organization that seeks to end domestic violence by working proactively with youth. Founded in 1996, it includes a preventive education and outreach program, a legal services program, and a peer leadership program. All three programs focus exclusively on youth aged 12-22 years. In 2000, Centers for Disease…

  5. Simulating changes in the leaf unfolding time of 20 plant species in China over the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Quansheng; Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu

    2014-05-01

    Recent shifts in phenology reflect the biological response to current climate change. Aiming to enhance our understanding of phenological responses to climate change, we developed, calibrated and validated spatio-temporal models of first leaf date (FLD) for 20 broadleaved deciduous plants in China. Using daily meteorological data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) created using three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B and B1), we described the FLD time series of each species over the past 50 years, extrapolating from these results to simulate estimated FLD changes for each species during the twenty-first century. Model validation suggests that our spatio-temporal models can simulate FLD accurately with R 2 (explained variance) >0.60. Model simulations show that, from 1952 to 2007, the FLD in China advanced at a rate of -1.14 days decade-1 on average. Furthermore, changes in FLD showed noticeable variation between regions, with clearer advances observed in the north than in the south of the country. The model indicates that the advances in FLD observed from 1952-2007 in China will continue over the twenty-first century, although significant differences among species and different climate scenarios are expected. The average trend of FLD advance in China during the twenty-first century is modeled as being -1.92 days decade-1 under the A2 scenario, -1.10 days decade-1 under the A1B scenario and -0.74 days decade-1 under the B2 scenario. The spatial pattern of FLD change for the period 2011-2099 is modeled as being similar but showing some difference from patterns in the 1952-2007 period. At the interspecific level, early-leafing species were found to show a greater advance in FLD, while species with larger distributions tended to show a weaker advance in FLD. These simulated changes in phenology may have significant implications for plant distribution as well as ecosystem structure and function.

  6. Simulating changes in the leaf unfolding time of 20 plant species in China over the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Ge, Quansheng; Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu

    2014-05-01

    Recent shifts in phenology reflect the biological response to current climate change. Aiming to enhance our understanding of phenological responses to climate change, we developed, calibrated and validated spatio-temporal models of first leaf date (FLD) for 20 broadleaved deciduous plants in China. Using daily meteorological data from the Chinese Meteorological Administration and the Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) created using three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B and B1), we described the FLD time series of each species over the past 50 years, extrapolating from these results to simulate estimated FLD changes for each species during the twenty-first century. Model validation suggests that our spatio-temporal models can simulate FLD accurately with R² (explained variance) >0.60. Model simulations show that, from 1952 to 2007, the FLD in China advanced at a rate of -1.14 days decade⁻¹) on average. Furthermore, changes in FLD showed noticeable variation between regions, with clearer advances observed in the north than in the south of the country. The model indicates that the advances in FLD observed from 1952-2007 in China will continue over the twenty-first century, although significant differences among species and different climate scenarios are expected. The average trend of FLD advance in China during the twenty-first century is modeled as being -1.92 days decade⁻¹ under the A2 scenario, -1.10 days decade⁻¹ under the A1B scenario and -0.74 days decade⁻¹ under the B2 scenario. The spatial pattern of FLD change for the period 2011-2099 is modeled as being similar but showing some difference from patterns in the 1952-2007 period. At the interspecific level, early-leafing species were found to show a greater advance in FLD, while species with larger distributions tended to show a weaker advance in FLD. These simulated changes in phenology may have significant implications for plant distribution as well as ecosystem structure and function

  7. Ocean heat transport into the Arctic in the twentieth and twenty-first century in EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenigk, Torben; Brodeau, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    The ocean heat transport into the Arctic and the heat budget of the Barents Sea are analyzed in an ensemble of historical and future climate simulations performed with the global coupled climate model EC-Earth. The zonally integrated northward heat flux in the ocean at 70°N is strongly enhanced and compensates for a reduction of its atmospheric counterpart in the twenty first century. Although an increase in the northward heat transport occurs through all of Fram Strait, Canadian Archipelago, Bering Strait and Barents Sea Opening, it is the latter which dominates the increase in ocean heat transport into the Arctic. Increased temperature of the northward transported Atlantic water masses are the main reason for the enhancement of the ocean heat transport. The natural variability in the heat transport into the Barents Sea is caused to the same extent by variations in temperature and volume transport. Large ocean heat transports lead to reduced ice and higher atmospheric temperature in the Barents Sea area and are related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The net ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea grows until about year 2050. Thereafter, both heat and volume fluxes out of the Barents Sea through the section between Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya are strongly enhanced and compensate for all further increase in the inflow through the Barents Sea Opening. Most of the heat transported by the ocean into the Barents Sea is passed to the atmosphere and contributes to warming of the atmosphere and Arctic temperature amplification. Latent and sensible heat fluxes are enhanced. Net surface long-wave and solar radiation are enhanced upward and downward, respectively and are almost compensating each other. We find that the changes in the surface heat fluxes are mainly caused by the vanishing sea ice in the twenty first century. The increasing ocean heat transport leads to enhanced bottom ice melt and to an extension of the area with bottom ice

  8. End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Jonathan L.; Clapham, Matthew E.

    2012-05-01

    The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (˜252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread ocean anoxia and the eruption of one of Earth's largest continental flood basalt provinces, the Siberian Traps. Volatile release from basaltic magma and sedimentary strata during emplacement of the Siberian Traps can account for most end-Permian paleontological and geochemical observations. Climate change and, perhaps, destruction of the ozone layer can explain extinctions on land, whereas changes in ocean oxygen levels, CO2, pH, and temperature can account for extinction selectivity across marine animals. These emerging insights from geology, geochemistry, and paleobiology suggest that the end-Permian extinction may serve as an important ancient analog for twenty-first century oceans.

  9. A Systems Development Life Cycle Project for the AIS Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Saemann, Georgia; Du, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) project was designed for use by an accounting information systems (AIS) class. Along the tasks in the SDLC, this project integrates students' knowledge of transaction and business processes, systems documentation techniques, relational database concepts, and hands-on skills in relational database use.…

  10. Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasinski, A.

    2011-11-01

    One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

  11. Biorefinery and Carbon Cycling Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    Das, K. C., Adams; Thomas, T; Eiteman, Mark A; Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Adolphson, Ryan

    2012-06-08

    In this project we focused on several aspects of technology development that advances the formation of an integrated biorefinery. These focus areas include: [ 1] pretreatment of biomass to enhance quality of products from thermochemical conversion; [2] characterization of and development of coproduct uses; [3] advancement in fermentation of lignocellulosics and particularly C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously, and [ 4] development of algal biomass as a potential substrate for the biorefinery. These advancements are intended to provide a diverse set of product choices within the biorefinery, thus improving the cost effectiveness of the system. Technical effectiveness was demonstrated in the thermochemical product quality in the form of lower tar production, simultaneous of use of multiple sugars in fermentation, use ofbiochar in environmental (ammonia adsorption) and agricultural applications, and production of algal biomass in wastewaters. Economic feasibility of algal biomass production systems seems attractive, relative to the other options. However, further optimization in all paths, and testing/demonstration at larger scales are required to fully understand the economic viabilities. The coproducts provide a clear picture that multiple streams of value can be generated within an integrated biorefinery, and these include fuels and products.

  12. The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity.

    PubMed

    Callard, Felicity; Smallwood, Jonathan; Golchert, Johannes; Margulies, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in direct response to experimenters' instructions or specific external sensory inputs). To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003 to 2012 (i) to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii) to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii) to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term "mind wandering" from 2006, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering into cognitive neuroscience (particularly in relation to research on the default mode and default mode network). If our article concludes that this might, indeed, be the "era of the wandering mind," it also calls for more explicit reflection to be given by researchers in this field to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focus on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore. PMID:24391606

  13. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model

    PubMed Central

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N.; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning. PMID:26501046

  14. Prehistorically modified soils of central Amazonia: a model for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Bruno

    2007-02-28

    Terra Preta soils of central Amazonia exhibit approximately three times more soil organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus and 70 times more charcoal compared to adjacent infertile soils. The Terra Preta soils were generated by pre-Columbian native populations by chance or intentionally adding large amounts of charred residues (charcoal), organic wastes, excrements and bones. In this paper, it is argued that generating new Terra Preta sites ('Terra Preta nova') could be the basis for sustainable agriculture in the twenty-first century to produce food for billions of people, and could lead to attaining three Millennium Development Goals: (i) to combat desertification, (ii) to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the long term, and (iii) to maintain biodiversity hotspots such as tropical rainforests. Therefore, large-scale generation and utilization of Terra Preta soils would decrease the pressure on primary forests that are being extensively cleared for agricultural use with only limited fertility and sustainability and, hence, only providing a limited time for cropping. This would maintain biodiversity while mitigating both land degradation and climate change. However, it should not be overlooked that the infertility of most tropical soils (and associated low population density) is what could have prevented tropical forests undergoing large-scale clearance for agriculture. Increased fertility may increase the populations supported by shifting cultivation, thereby maintaining and increasing pressure on forests. PMID:17255028

  15. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I. )

    1990-06-01

    Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law.

  16. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model.

    PubMed

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning. PMID:26501046

  17. Hydrological and biogeochemical constraints on terrestrial carbon cycle projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L.; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current Earth System Models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the projected terrestrial carbon cycle response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day Evapotranspiration (ET) and Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and projected changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on projected GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease of the projected GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction of the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between projected changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on Net Biome Productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the projected land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Also, the projected decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. Moreover, a similar strategy is used to provide constraints on the feedbacks involving the terrestrial carbon cycle and the climate system. The findings indicate that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change.

  18. Zoos in the twenty-first century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey-Platt, Lauren Kay

    As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern Western influence. The loss of these human and animal societies has occurred so rapidly that implications are largely unknown. Research on how modern Americans relate to animals, particularly wildlife, revealed a clear and disturbing incongruity best exemplified in the current paradigm of zoo exhibition and education. Although zoos purport to educate visitors about the ecology of natural environments and the universal plight of wildlife, research shows that people, particularly children, learn less about ecological principles in zoos with live animals than they do in non-living natural history exhibits. While designers employ a variety of visual techniques in natural history exhibition, environmental sound as an educational exhibit component is largely nonexistent. Many animal species communicate through sound, especially species in underwater environments. As the audio equivalent of a landscape, the soundscape is as important as any other habitat feature to the well-being of wildlife populations. Using recorded sounds of natural environments, an exhibition soundscape was designed and produced for Oceanario de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal---the centerpiece of the 1998 World Exposition in Lisbon, Portugal. With programmed sound serving as a major component of natural history exhibition, a conceptual design of a novel zoo for the twenty-first century was described. The "NewZew" concept is based on a growing awareness that the best way to save species is to salvage, preserve, and restore their natural habitats---activities that are largely antithetical to current zoo

  19. Error Cost Escalation Through the Project Life Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.; Dabney, Jim; Dick, Brandon; Haskins, Bill; Lovell, Randy; Moroney, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the costs to fix errors increase as the project matures, but how fast do those costs build? A study was performed to determine the relative cost of fixing errors discovered during various phases of a project life cycle. This study used three approaches to determine the relative costs: the bottom-up cost method, the total cost breakdown method, and the top-down hypothetical project method. The approaches and results described in this paper presume development of a hardware/software system having project characteristics similar to those used in the development of a large, complex spacecraft, a military aircraft, or a small communications satellite. The results show the degree to which costs escalate, as errors are discovered and fixed at later and later phases in the project life cycle. If the cost of fixing a requirements error discovered during the requirements phase is defined to be 1 unit, the cost to fix that error if found during the design phase increases to 3 - 8 units; at the manufacturing/build phase, the cost to fix the error is 7 - 16 units; at the integration and test phase, the cost to fix the error becomes 21 - 78 units; and at the operations phase, the cost to fix the requirements error ranged from 29 units to more than 1500 units

  20. Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the twenty-first century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addressing the problems of the twenty-first century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...

  1. Towards a Common Ground: Arab versus Western Views about Challenges of Islamic Religious Education Curriculum of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashed, Hazem

    2015-01-01

    The Islamic religious education curriculum of the twenty-first century is a cornerstone in a hot debate about necessary educational reforms in the Islamic World. This study aimed at investigating the depth of agreement/disagreement between Arab and Western educational views about challenges of this curriculum through reviewing academic…

  2. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in…

  3. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the Twenty-First Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…

  4. Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…

  5. Engagement and Resistance at Last Chance High: A Case Study of Twenty-First-Century Literacies and Identities in One English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mary Beth; Kersulov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the nature of student resistance to and engagement with digital media and twenty-first-century literacies in the English classroom at Last Chance High, an alternative high school. It traces the dynamic interplay of literacy practices and identity performances with and around digital media, exploring one student's…

  6. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Fourth Session (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    This session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century was preceded by a 2-day working group on the processes of education. The Commission also held an afternoon of hearings that included an in-depth exchange between Canadian educational leaders and the Commission members on a wide range of topics that included…

  7. Measuring Twenty-First Century Skills: Development and Validation of a Scale for In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Yueming; Oh, Youn Joo; Sibuma, Bernadette; LaBanca, Frank; Lorentson, Mhora

    2016-01-01

    A self-report scale that measures teachers' confidence in teaching students about twenty-first century skills was developed and validated with pre-service and in-service teachers. First, 16 items were created to measure teaching confidence in six areas: information literacy, collaboration, communication, innovation and creativity, problem solving,…

  8. Three Dialogs: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of Twenty-First-Century Literacy Practices, and Its Use in the Context of Game Design within "Gamestar Mechanic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Ivan Alex

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a framework for the analysis and assessment of twenty-first-century language and literacy practices in game and design-based contexts. It presents the framework in the context of game design within "Gamestar Mechanic", an innovative game-based learning environment where children learn the Discourse of game design. It…

  9. A Phenomenological Study of the Impact of Pre-Service and Inservice Training Regarding the Integration of Twenty-First Century Technologies into Selected Teachers' Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to understand how in-service teachers with three to five years of experience perceive their pre-service and in-service training regarding the integration of twenty-first century technology into their instruction. Twenty participants from a rural public school system in southeast North…

  10. Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the twenty-first century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges…

  11. Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochsner, Karl

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it

  12. Air-blown Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Clean Power Cogeneration, Inc. (CPC) has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design construction, and operation of a normal 1270 ton-per-day (120-MWe), air-blown integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) demonstration plant. The demonstration plant would produce both power for the utility grid and steam for a nearby industrial user. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate air-blown, fixed-bed Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The integrated performance to be demonstrated will involve all the subsystems in the air-blown IGCC system to include coal feeding; a pressurized air-blown, fixed-bed gasifier capable of utilizing caking coal; a hot gas conditioning systems for removing sulfur compounds, particulates, and other contaminants as necessary to meet environmental and combustion turbine fuel requirements; a conventional combustion turbine appropriately modified to utilize low-Btu coal gas as fuel; a briquetting system for improved coal feed performance; the heat recovery steam generation system appropriately modified to accept a NO{sub x} reduction system such as the selective catalytic reduction process; the steam cycle; the IGCC control systems; and the balance of plant. The base feed stock for the project is an Illinois Basin bituminous high-sulfur coal, which is a moderately caking coal. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century. Volume Two--The Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    This second volume of the Global 2000 study presents a technical report of detailed projections and analyses. It is a U.S. government effort to present a long-term global perspective on population, resources, and environment. The volume has four parts. Approximately half of the report, part one, deals with projections for the future in the areas…

  14. Projected changes in the annual wind-wave cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopa, Justin; Hemer, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The uneven distribution of the sun's energy directly and indirectly drives physical atmosphere and ocean processes. This creates intricate spatial patterns within the seasonal cycle where higher order harmonics are seen to play an important role in regional climates. The annual cycle and associated harmonics are the strongest oscillations within the climate system and describe the majority of variance across the oceans. Consequently when studying climate oscillations, it is common practice to remove the seasonal cycle in order to elucidate inter-annual cycles. Furthermore the annual cycle plays an important role in the evolution of other inter-annual oscillations through non-linear coupling (e.g ENSO). Despite the important role of the seasons within the climate system very few studies describe the seasonality with any rigor. Therefore our focus is to describe the higher harmonics linked to the annual cycle and how they are expected to evolve in a changing climate. Using simulations from the Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate Project, the seasonality of multiple mid and end of the 21st century wind-wave climate projections are analyzed relative to historical experiment forced simulations. A comparison of various GCM forced wave simulations to reanalysis datasets reveals that a multi-model ensemble best describes the seasons. This ensemble is used to describe the changes within the wave seasonality. A systematic analysis reveals the primary mode of the seasons is relatively unchanged in the mid and end century. The largest changes occur in the second and third modes. The second mode defines the shift or translation within the seasons while the third mode characterizes relative change between the seasonal extremes (ie sharpening or flattening of the waveform). The relative changes in the second and third modes are not homogeneous and intricate patterns are revealed. Certain regions have sharper contrast in seasonality while other regions have a longer strong season. In

  15. Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Mann, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights. The goals of this project were to: (1) understand the range of published results of LCAs of electricity generation technologies, (2) reduce the variability in published results that stem from inconsistent methods and assumptions, and (3) clarify the central tendency of published estimates to make the collective results of LCAs available to decision makers in the near term. The LCA Harmonization Project's initial focus was evaluating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity generation technologies. Six articles from this first phase of the project are presented in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA: coal (Whitaker et al. 2012), concentrating solar power (Burkhardt et al. 2012), crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PVs) (Hsu et al. 2012), thin-film PVs (Kim et al. 2012), nuclear (Warner and Heath 2012), and wind (Dolan and Heath 2012). Harmonization is a meta-analytical approach that addresses inconsistency in methods and assumptions of previously published life cycle impact estimates. It has been applied in a rigorous manner to estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from many categories of electricity generation technologies in articles that appear in this special supplemental supplemental issue, reducing the variability and

  16. Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

    PubMed

    Mårald, Erland; Langston, Nancy; Sténs, Anna; Moen, Jon

    2016-02-01

    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed. PMID:26744044

  17. Mir Cooperative Solar Array Project Accelerated Life Thermal Cycling Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Scheiman, David A.

    1996-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) project was a joint U.S./Russian effort to build a photovoltaic (PV) solar array and deliver it to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA will be used to increase the electrical power on Mir and provide PV array performance data in support of Phase 1 of the International Space Station. The MCSA was brought to Mir by space shuttle Atlantis in November 1995. This report describes an accelerated thermal life cycle test which was performed on two samples of the MCSA. In eight months time, two MCSA solar array 'mini' panel test articles were simultaneously put through 24,000 thermal cycles. There was no significant degradation in the structural integrity of the test articles and no electrical degradation, not including one cell damaged early and removed from consideration. The nature of the performance degradation caused by this one cell is briefly discussed. As a result of this test, changes were made to improve some aspects of the solar cell coupon-to-support frame interface on the flight unit. It was concluded from the results that the integration of the U.S. solar cell modules with the Russian support structure would be able to withstand at least 24,000 thermal cycles (4 years on-orbit). This was considered a successful development test.

  18. Residential construction demonstration project, Cycle II: Active ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the performance of natural and mechanical ventilation in Pacific Northwest homes. The analysis was part of Cycle II of the Residential Construction Demonstration Project, sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Since 1986, the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) has sponsored the collection of data on energy efficient homes in the Pacific Northwest that comply with these new standards and requirements. Cycle II of RCDP was conducted between September 1987 and April 1990. It concentrated on energy innovations in homes built to the Super Good Cents specification. All of the test homes have electric heat and mechanical ventilation systems. Seven different types of active ventilation systems are represented in the homes. Three of these system types are equipped with heat recovery devices, and are represented in approximately a quarter of the test homes. The potential for both natural and mechanical ventilation was measured. Potential structural leakage was measured by blower door testing. Flow rate and operating time of mechanical ventilation systems were measured with flow hoods and hour meters. Actual ventilation was measured by using a passive tracer gas technique for several weeks during the heating season and at times of normal occupancy.

  19. Residential construction demonstration project, Cycle II: Active ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report documents the analysis of the performance of natural and mechanical ventilation in Pacific Northwest homes. The analysis was part of Cycle II of the Residential Construction Demonstration Project, sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Since 1986, the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) has sponsored the collection of data on energy efficient homes in the Pacific Northwest that comply with these new standards and requirements. Cycle II of RCDP was conducted between September 1987 and April 1990. It concentrated on energy innovations in homes built to the Super Good Cents specification. All of the test homes have electric heat and mechanical ventilation systems. Seven different types of active ventilation systems are represented in the homes. Three of these system types are equipped with heat recovery devices, and are represented in approximately a quarter of the test homes. The potential for both natural and mechanical ventilation was measured. Potential structural leakage was measured by blower door testing. Flow rate and operating time of mechanical ventilation systems were measured with flow hoods and hour meters. Actual ventilation was measured by using a passive tracer gas technique for several weeks during the heating season and at times of normal occupancy.

  20. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-01-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, M.; Woods, J.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by modern-day society is that of global warming. An exclusive focus on reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not suffice and therefore technologies capable of removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere at low or minimal cost are gaining increased attention. The production and use of biochar is an example of such an emerging mitigation strategy. However, as with any novel product, process and technology it is vital to conduct an assessment of the entire life cycle in order to determine the environmental impacts of the new concept in addition to analysing the other sustainability criteria. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), standardized by ISO (2006a), is an example of a tool used to calculate the environmental impacts of a product or process. Imperial College London will follow the guidelines and recommendations of the ISO 14040 series (ISO 2002, ISO 2006a-b) and the International Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook (EC JRC IES, 2010a-e), and will use the SimaPro software to conduct a LCA of the biochar supply chains for the EuroChar project. EuroChar ('biochar for Carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere') is a project funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). EuroChar aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar and, in particular, explore a possible introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe, thereby moving closer to the determination of the true potential of biochar. EuroChar will use various feedstocks, ranging from wheat straw to olive residues and poplar, as feedstocks for biochar production and will focus on two conversion technologies, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Thermochemical Carbonization (TC), followed by the application of the biochar in crop-growth field trials in England, France and Italy. In April 2012, the EuroChar project will be at its halfway mark and

  2. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of

  3. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  4. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT.

    PubMed

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52% during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  5. The challenge of malaria eradication in the twenty-first century: research linked to operations is the key.

    PubMed

    Breman, Joel G; Brandling-Bennett, A David

    2011-12-30

    Interest and support for malaria control, eradication, and research has increased greatly over the past decade. This has resulted from appreciation of the huge medical, social, and economic burden that malaria exacts from endemic populations. Recent breakthroughs in drug development (artemisinin-based combination treatments), preventive interventions (long-lasting, insecticide-treated bed nets), improved diagnosis (rapid diagnostic tests), and community mobilization have resulted in deployment of new antimalarial tools. National programs supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the U.S. President's Malaria Initiative, and other donors have resulted in substantial reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. Bill and Melinda Gates have given great impetus to eradication with support for the development of key research strategies and direct funding of innovative research projects, including malaria vaccine and drug discovery, that could decrease disease and transmission. Linking research to field operations is a strategy that succeeded for smallpox eradication and will be required for the demise of malaria. PMID:22284402

  6. Y-12 Respirator Flow Cycle Time Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, C.T.; Rogers, P.E.

    2000-12-01

    In mid-July 2000, a Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) project was initiated by senior management to improve the flow and overall efficiency of the respirator distribution process at Y-12. A cross-functional team was formed to evaluate the current process and to propose necessary changes for improvement. Specifically, the team was challenged to make improvements that would eliminate production work stoppages due to the unavailability of respirators in Y-12 Stores. Prior to the team initiation, plant back orders for a specific model respirator were averaging above 600 and have been as high as 750+. The Cycle Time Reduction team segmented the respirator flow into detailed steps, with the focus and emphasis primarily being on the movement of dirty respirators out of work areas, transportation to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laundry, and return back to Y-12 Stores inventory. The team selected a popular model respirator, size large, to track improvements. Despite a 30 percent increase in respirator usage for the same period of time in the previous year, the team has reduced the back orders by 89% with a steady trend downward. Summary of accomplishments: A 47 percent reduction in the average cycle time for dirty respirators to be laundered and stocked for reuse at the Y-12 Complex; A 73 percent reduction in the average cycle time for dirty respirators to be laundered and stocked for reuse specifically for major users: Enriched Uranium Operations (EUO) and Facilities Maintenance Organization (FMO); Development of a performance measure for tracking back orders; An 89 percent reduction in the number of laundered respirators on back order; Implementation of a tracking method to account for respirator loss; Achievement of an annual cost savings/avoidance of $800K with a one-time cost of $20K; Implementation of a routine pick-up schedule for EUO (major user of respirators); Elimination of activities no longer determined to be needed; Elimination of routine complaint calls to

  7. A Conservation Ethic and the Collecting of Animals by Institutions of Natural Heritage in the Twenty-First Century: Case Study of the Australian Museum

    PubMed Central

    Ikin, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary It is a core task of collecting institutions like museums to take examples of animals and preserve them as specimens in collections. In the twenty-first century, museums are equally the places where research is conducted and education is promoted in the service of conservation of animals in an era of the decline of biodiversity. In this paper, the balance of co-operation between collecting of animals by museums and the promotion and scientific pursuit of conservation of fauna in those museums is considered. As a “challenge” to museum science, it is considered in the context of Australia's oldest museum, and its policy and practice in the current century. Abstract Collecting of animals from their habitats for preservation by museums and related bodies is a core operation of such institutions. Conservation of biodiversity in the current era is a priority in the scientific agendas of museums of natural heritage in Australia and the world. Intuitively, to take animals from the wild, while engaged in scientific or other practices that are supposed to promote their ongoing survival, may appear be incompatible. The Australian Museum presents an interesting ground to consider zoological collecting by museums in the twenty-first century. Anderson and Reeves in 1994 argued that a milieu existed that undervalued native species, and that the role of natural history museums, up to as late as the mid-twentieth century, was only to make a record the faunal diversity of Australia, which would inevitably be extinct. Despite the latter, conservation of Australia's faunal diversity is a key aspect of research programmes in Australia's institutions of natural heritage in the current era. This paper analyses collecting of animals, a core task for institutions of natural heritage, and how this interacts with a professed “conservation ethic” in a twenty-first century Australian setting. PMID:26486222

  8. Management Options and Outcomes for Neonatal Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome in the Early Twenty-First Century.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jason M; Canar, Jeff; Kalinowski, Valerie; Johnson, Tricia J; Hoehn, K Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Without surgical treatment, neonatal hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) mortality in the first year of life exceeds 90 % and, in spite of improved surgical outcomes, many families still opt for non-surgical management. The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in neonatal HLHS management and to identify characteristics of patients who did not undergo surgical palliation. Neonates with HLHS were identified from a serial cross-sectional analysis using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Kids' Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2012. The primary analysis compared children undergoing surgical palliation to those discharged alive without surgery using a binary logistic regression model. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine factors associated with treatment choice. A total of 1750 patients underwent analysis. Overall hospital mortality decreased from 35.3 % in 2000 to 22.9 % in 2012. The percentage of patients undergoing comfort care discharge without surgery also decreased from 21.2 to 14.8 %. After controlling for demographics and comorbidities, older patients at presentation were less likely to undergo surgery (OR 0.93, 0.91-0.96), and patients in 2012 were more likely to undergo surgery compared to those in prior years (OR 1.5, 1.1-2.1). Discharge without surgical intervention is decreasing with a 30 % reduction between 2000 and 2012. Given the improvement in surgical outcomes, further dialogue about ethical justification of non-operative comfort or palliative care is warranted. In the meantime, clinicians should present families with surgical outcome data and recommend intervention, while supporting their option to refuse. PMID:26541152

  9. The effectiveness of community-based cycling promotion: findings from the Cycling Connecting Communities project in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Encouraging cycling is an important way to increase physical activity in the community. The Cycling Connecting Communities (CCC) Project is a community-based cycling promotion program that included a range of community engagement and social marketing activities, such as organised bike rides and events, cycling skills courses, the distribution of cycling maps of the area and coverage in the local press. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of this program designed to encourage the use of newly completed off-road cycle paths through south west Sydney, Australia. Methods The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design that consisted of a pre- and post-intervention telephone survey (24 months apart) of a cohort of residents (n = 909) in the intervention area (n = 520) (Fairfield and Liverpool) and a socio-demographically similar comparison area (n = 389) (Bankstown). Both areas had similar bicycle infrastructure. Four bicycle counters were placed on the main bicycle paths in the intervention and comparison areas to monitor daily bicycle use before and after the intervention. Results The telephone survey results showed significantly greater awareness of the Cycling Connecting Communities project (13.5% vs 8.0%, p < 0.05) in the intervention area, with significantly higher rates of cycling in the intervention area (32.9%) compared with the comparison area (9.7%) amongst those aware of the project. There was a significant increase in use of bicycle paths in the intervention area (28.3% versus 16.2%, p < 0.05). These findings were confirmed by the bike count data. Conclusion Despite relatively modest resources, the Cycling Connecting Communities project achieved significant increases in bicycle path use, and increased cycling in some sub-groups. However, this community based intervention with limited funding had very limited reach into the community and did not increase population cycling levels. PMID:20181019

  10. Twenty-First-Century Kids, Twenty-First-Century Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by a new generation of librarians and children, Walter reconsiders the legacy passed on by the matriarchs of children's services and examines more recent trends and challenges growing out of changes in educational philosophy and information technology. This thoroughly researched book includes the current issues and trends of: (1)…