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E-print Network

­ accelerating light, 5 ­ accelerated electrons, 6 ­fast kicker - + accelerating laser pulse evaporatinglaser due to scattering on evaporated gas atoms u u 1- evaporating light, 2 ­ accelerating light, 3 ­ MgELECTRON INJECTION INTO CYCLIC ACCELERATOR USING LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATION Ya. V. Getmanov, O. A


Rf cavity primer for cyclic proton accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this note is to describe the electrical and mechanical properites of particle accelerator rf cavities in a manner which will be useful to physics and engineering graduates entering the accelerator field. The discussion will be limited to proton (or antiproton) synchrotron accelerators or storage rings operating roughly in the range of 20 to 200 MHz. The very high gradient, fixed frequency UHF or microwave devices appropriate for electron machines and the somewhat lower frequency and broader bandwidth devices required for heavy ion accelerators are discussed extensively in other papers in this series. While it is common pratice to employ field calculation programs such as SUPERFISH, URMEL, or MAFIA as design aids in the development of rf cavities, we attempt here to elucidate various of the design parameters commonly dealt with in proton machines through the use of simple standing wave coaxial resonator expressions. In so doing, we treat only standing wave structures. Although low-impedance, moderately broad pass-band travelling wave accelerating systems are used in the CERN SPS, such systems are more commonly found in linacs, and they have not been used widely in large cyclic accelerators. Two appendices providing useful supporting material regarding relativistic particle dynamics and synchrotron motion in cyclic accelerators are added to supplement the text.

Griffin, J.E.



Method of barrier voltages in cyclic accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principle of operation of barrier RF voltage systems that are used for stacking and acceleration of charged particles in proton synchrotrons and storage rings is presented. The description is based on two sample models of such systems: with rectangular and quasi-sinusoidal barriers. Two different methods are used for description of particle dynamics in synchrotrons with barrier RF voltage. The first method is "stepwise" analysis of particle motion in the "momentum-phase" space. This method allows to give a clear and simple description of physical principles of the method and to obtain its main properties in analytical form. However, this method is not always efficient. Therefore, a method of analysis of phase motion of particles in barrier systems based on solution of differential equations of phase motion is presented in the paper and is widely used in practice. This method allows both analytical calculations and numeric simulation, which is illustrated with the aid of supplied examples.

Meshkov, I. N.



Low-perturbation electron injector for cyclic accelerators  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to transporting electron beams without disturbance, and more particularly to a means of transporting an electron beam across magnetic field lines without adding much perpendicular velocity to the electrons. Discussed is a tapered z-pinch for externally introducing an electron beam into a particle accelerator that causes only a small development of perpendicular velocity in the electrons of the electron beam, and that causes only a small disturbance to the magnetic field lines of the particle accelerator.

Mako, F.; Manheimer, W.; Kapetanokos, C.A.; Sandel, F.



Accelerated cyclic corrosion testing of structural steels and its application to assess steel bridge coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine correlation between an accelerated cyclic corrosion test (S6-cycle test) specified in Japanese Industrial Standards K5621 and field exposure tests, and to open up applications of the accelerated tests in various regional environments. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The S6-cycle corrosion test was carried out on structural steels for 30, 60, 90, 120 and

Yoshito Itoh; In-Tae Kim



Exposure to stallion accelerates the onset of mares' cyclicity.  


Horses (Equus caballus) belong to the group of seasonally polyestrous mammals. Estrous cycles typically start with increasing daylight length after winter, but mares can differ greatly in the timing of onset of regular estrus cycles. Here, we test whether spatial proximity to a stallion also plays a role. Twenty-two anestrous mares were either exposed to one of two stallions (without direct physical contact) or not exposed (controls) under experimental conditions during two consecutive springs (February to April). Ovarian activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasound and stallion's direct contact time with each mare was determined three times per week for one hour each. We found that mares exposed to a stallion ovulated earlier and more often during the observational period than mares that were not exposed to stallions. Neither stallion identity nor direct contact time, mare age, body condition, size of her largest follicle at the onset of the experiment, or parasite burden significantly affected the onset of cyclicity. In conclusion, the timing of estrous cycles and cycle frequency, i.e., crucial aspects of female reproductive strategy, strongly depend on how the mares perceive their social environment. Exposing mares to the proximity of a stallion can therefore be an alternative to, for example, light programs or elaborated hormonal therapies to start the breeding season earlier and increase the number of estrous cycles in horses. PMID:24815602

Wespi, B; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C; Burger, D



Accelerated kinetics and mechanism of growth of boride layers on titanium under isothermal and cyclic diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tendency of titanium (Ti) and its alloys to wear, gall and seize during high contact stresses between sliding surfaces severely limits their applications in bearings, gears etc. One way to mitigate these problems is to modify their surfaces by applying hard and wear resistant surface coatings. Boriding, which involves solid state diffusion of boron (B) into Ti, thereby forming hard surface layers consisting of TiB2 and TiB compounds has been shown to produce extremely high wear resistant surfaces in Ti and its alloys. The growth kinetics of these layers are, however, limited by the low diffusivities of B in the high melting TiB2 and TiB compounds. On the basis of the fact that HCP metals such as Ti show enhanced (anomalous) self-diffusion near the phase transition temperature, the first hypothesis of this work has been that the diffusivity enhancement should cause rapid ingress of B atoms, thereby accelerating the growth of the hard boride layers. Isothermal boriding experiments were performed close to phase transition temperature (890, 910, and 915C) for time periods ranging from 3 to 24 hours. It was found that indeed a much deeper growth of TiB into the Ti substrate (75 mum) occurred at temperatures very close to the transition temperature (910C), compared to that obtained at 1050C. A diffusion model based on error-function solutions of Fick's second law was developed to quantitatively illustrate the combined effects of the normal B diffusion in the TiB phase and the anomalous B diffusion in Ti phase in accelerating TiB layer growth. Furthermore, isothermal boriding experiments close to transition temperature (900C) for a period of 71 hours resulted in coating thickness well above 100 mum, while at 1050C, the layer growth saturated after about 24 hours of treatment time. In the second part of this work, a novel approach named "cyclic-phase-changediffusion, (CPCD)," to create deeper TiB2 and TiB coating layers on CP-Ti by cyclic thermal processing, has been investigated. It was found that thermal cyclic B diffusion in Ti across the alpha(alpha)-beta(beta) phase transition temperature led to highly hardened surface layers enriched with TiB whiskers that grow to depths exceeding 120 mum. By solving the transient heat transport problem for cyclic changes in surface temperatures, it was found that there is a "heat-packet" that travels back and forth from the surface to the interior of the material. This heat-packet appears to transport B dissolved in beta-Ti into interior causing increased coating depths.

Sarma, Biplab



A cyclic peptide accelerates the loading of peptide antigens in major histocompatibility complex class II molecules.  


Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-loading enhancers (MLE) have recently attracted attention because of their ability to enhance the efficacy of peptide immunotherapeutics. As small molecular weight compounds, they influence the loading of peptides in MHC molecules by converting them from a non-receptive to a receptive state. Herein, we report a 14-mer cyclic peptide 1 (CP-1) as a new class of MLE-peptide. This peptide was used to investigate its loading on human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules. It was found that CP-1 strongly accelerates peptide-loading on both soluble and cell surface HLA-DR molecules in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was evident for all subsets of HLA-DR tested, including HLA-DRB1*1501, indicating that it acts independently of P1-pocket size, which is the canonical MLE-binding site. Importantly, increased peptide-loading by CP-1 was correlated with improved CD4(+) T cell responses in vitro, while propidium iodide staining indicated low peptide-induced cytotoxicity. Thus, this study revealed a new class of peptide-based enhancers that catalyze peptide-loading by allosteric interactions with MHC molecules. Because of its low cellular cytotoxicity and high MLE activity, it may be useful in stimulating antigen-specific T cell responses for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25522880

Afridi, Saifullah; Shaheen, Farzana; Roetzschke, Olaf; Shah, Zafar Ali; Abbas, Syed Comail; Siraj, Rizwana; Makhmoor, Talat



Transplantation of cyclic stretched fibroblasts accelerates the wound-healing process in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.  


Mechanical stimulation is a known modulator of survival and proliferation for many cells, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we found that mechanical strain prevents apoptosis and increases the adhesive ability of dermal fibroblasts in vitro and thus confers the survival advantage in vivo after transplantation of fibroblasts into the full-thickness wound of diabetic mice. Cyclic stretch at a frequency of 0.5 Hz and maximum elongation of 20% stimulates cellular survival mediated by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), and the serine/threonine kinase Akt (AKT). Stretching of the fibroblasts increases the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins and the formation of denser focal adhesion structures, both of which are required for fibroblast adhesion. The stretched fibroblasts also upregulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?), which enhanced wound healing in vivo. Indeed, preconditioning with mechanical stretch allows better survival of the transplanted fibroblasts, when compared to unstretched control cells, in the wound environment of mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and thus accelerates the wound-healing process in these mice. PMID:24622376

Lee, Eunkyung; Kim, Do Yeon; Chung, Eunkyung; Lee, Eun Ah; Park, Ki-Sook; Son, Youngsook




NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the purpose of particle accelerators? On this web page, part of a particle physics tutorial, students read that accelerators solve two problems. The accelerators provide an increase in momentum to produce particles of small wavelength, and the fast-moving particles can create new particles when smashed together. A photograph of the inside of a particle accelerator is provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Group, Lawrence B.



Cyclic Voltammetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cyclic voltammetry is a simple experiment that has become popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form which is easily obtained and interpreted. Discusses principles of the method and illustrates its use in the study of four electrode reactions. (Author/JN)

Evans, Dennis H.; And Others



Acceleration of cyclic electron flow in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) deficient in the PsbS protein of Photosystem II.  


When compared with Photosystem I (PSI) in wild-type (WT) rice plants, PSI in PsbS-knockout (KO) plants that lack the energy-dependent component of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) was less sensitive to photoinhibition. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between NPQ and cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI as a photoprotective mechanism. Activities of two CEF routes (PGR5-dependent or NDH-dependent) were compared between those genotypes by using both dark-adapted plants and pre-illuminated plants, i.e., those in which the Calvin-Benson cycle is de-activated and activated, respectively. In dark-adapted leaves activity of the PGR5-dependent route was determined as the rate of P700 photooxidation. Activity was higher in the mutants than in the WT. However, no difference was noted when plants of either genotype were pre-illuminated. When the electron transport pathway was switched to the cyclic mode by infiltrating leaf segments with 150mM sorbitol, 40?M DCMU, and 2mM hydroxylamine, the rate of P700 oxidation was faster in the mutant. That difference disappeared when leaves were infiltrated with antimycin A to inhibit the PGR5-dependent route. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) was also evaluated. To achieve an Fo level comparable to that of the WT, activation of the NDH-dependent route in the mutant required pre-illumination at a certain dose. Therefore, we propose that, as an alternate pathway for the photoprotection of photosystems in the absence of energy-dependent quenching, this PGR5-dependent route is more highly activated in the PsbS-KO mutants than in the WT. Moreover, that stronger activity is probably responsible for slower activation of the NDH-dependent route in the mutant. PMID:25306526

Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Tovuu, Altanzaya; Lee, Choon-Hwan



Low perturbation electron injector for cyclic accelerators  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for conducting an electron beam through a high intensity section of an external magnetic field, the high intensity section having a first side and a second side and being disposed therebetween. The apparatus consists of: a first region for conducting an electron beam through the high intensity external magnetic field, the first region being located in and running through the high intensity section of the external magnetic field from the first side to the second side thereof; means for producing a tapered current density having a localized azimuthal magnetic field within the first region, the localized azimuthal field being greater than the external field's transverse component within the first region; the tapered current density means located in the first region in such a way that the tapered current density begins on the first side and ends on the second side of the high intensity section of the external magnetic field, the tapered current density means being magnetically neutral outside the first region; and means for injecting an electron beam into the first region so the electron beam will be axially conducted through the tapered current density means.

Mako, F.; Manheimer, W.; Kapetanokos, C.A.; Sandel, F.



Cyclic phosphonium ionic liquids  

PubMed Central

Summary Ionic liquids (ILs) incorporating cyclic phosphonium cations are a novel category of materials. We report here on the synthesis and characterization of four new cyclic phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ILs with aliphatic and aromatic pendant groups. In addition to the syntheses of these novel materials, we report on a comparison of their properties with their ammonium congeners. These exemplars are slightly less conductive and have slightly smaller self-diffusion coefficients than their cyclic ammonium congeners. PMID:24605146

Mukhlall, Joshua A; Romeo, Alicia R; Gohdo, Masao; Ramati, Sharon; Berman, Marc; Suarez, Sophia N



No Arithmetic Cyclic Quadrilaterals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quadrilateral is arithmetic if its area is an integer and its sides are integers in an arithmetic progression, and it is cyclic if it can be inscribed in a circle. The author shows that no quadrilateral is both arithmetic and cyclic.

Beauregard, Raymond A.



Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cyclic voltammetry is an important component of the undergraduate chemical curriculum. Unfortunately, undergraduate students rarely have the opportunity to conduct experiments in cyclic voltammetry owing to the high cost of potentiostats, which are required to control these experiments. By using MicroLab data acquisition interfaces in conjunction

Stewart, Greg; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Amend, John R.; Collins, Michael J.



Cyclic control stick  


A cyclic control stick of the type used in helicopters for reducing the safety hazards associated with such a mechanism in the event of a crewman being thrown violently into contact with the cyclic control stick resulting from a crash or the like. The cyclic control stick is configured to break away upon the exertion of an impact force which exceeds a predetermined value and/or is exerted for more than a momentary time duration. The cyclic control stick is also configured to be adjustable so as to locate the grip thereof as far away from the crewman as possible for safety reasons without comprising the comfort of the crewman or the use of the control stick, and a crushable pad is provided on the top of the grip for impact energy absorbing purposes.

Whitaker, Charles N. (2834 S. Extension Rd., No. 2024, Mesa, AZ 85202); Zimmermann, Richard E. (425 E. Greenway, Tempe, AZ 85282)



Random cyclic matrices.  


We present a Gaussian ensemble of random cyclic matrices on the real field and study their spectral fluctuations. These cyclic matrices are shown to be pseudosymmetric with respect to generalized parity. We calculate the joint probability distribution function of eigenvalues and the spacing distributions analytically and numerically. For small spacings, the level spacing distribution exhibits either a Gaussian or a linear form. Furthermore, for the general case of two arbitrary complex eigenvalues, leaving out the spacings among real eigenvalues, and, among complex conjugate pairs, we find that the spacing distribution agrees completely with the Wigner distribution for a Poisson process on a plane. The cyclic matrices occur in a wide variety of physical situations, including disordered linear atomic chains and the Ising model in two dimensions. These exact results are also relevant to two-dimensional statistical mechanics and nu -parametrized quantum chromodynamics. PMID:18851127

Jain, Sudhir R; Srivastava, Shashi C L



Backbone cyclic insulin.  


Backbone cyclic insulin was designed and prepared by reverse proteolysis in partial organic solvent of a single-chain precursor expressed in yeast. The precursor contains two loops to bridge the two chains of native insulin. The cyclisation method uses Achromobacter lyticus protease and should be generally applicable to proteins with C-terminal lysine and proximal N-terminal. The presence of the ring-closing bond and the native insulin disulfide patterns were documented by LC-MS peptide maps. The cyclic insulin was shown to be inert towards degradation by CPY, but was somewhat labile towards chymotrypsin. Intravenous administration of the cyclic insulin to Wistar rats showed the compounds to be equipotent to HI despite much lower insulin receptor affinity. PMID:20641002

Andersen, Asser S; Palmqvist, Eva; Bang, Susanne; Shaw, Allan C; Hubalek, Frantisek; Ribel, Ulla; Hoeg-Jensen, Thomas



Flow in cyclic cosmology  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we use a known duality between expanding and contracting cosmologies to construct a dual of the inflationary flow hierarchy applicable to contracting cosmologies such as ekpyrotic and cyclic models. We show that the inflationary flow equations are invariant under the duality and therefore apply equally well to inflation or to cyclic cosmology. We construct a self-consistent small-parameter approximation dual to the slow-roll approximation in inflation, and calculate the power spectrum of perturbations in this limit. We also recover the matter-dominated contracting solution of Wands, and the recently proposed adiabatic ekpyrosis solution.

Kinney, William H.; Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States)



Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables

Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others



Radioimmunoassay for cyclic nucleotides  

SciTech Connect

An improved radioimmunoassay for the determination of cyclic nucleotides in body fluids which comprises adding a source of divalent cation prior to assay minimizes the effects of both endogenous calcium ion and EDTA used as an anticoagulant in blood plasma samples.

Chiang, C.S.



Cyclic Magnetic Field Reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a 2.5D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model, we study the magnetic field reconnection around the rotating plasma embedded in a magnetic field. Considering plasma rotation driven by an external electric field, it was found that during one rotational cycle, first the magnetic field energy increases and then decreases to its initial value. The magnetic reconnection occurring during this cycle plays two roles: first, it produces the closed magnetic islands and later on it reopens them to the initial form of magnetic field lines. Thus, the magnetic reconnection can be cyclically repeated in following plasma rotations. Simultaneously, the kinetic particle energy in the system increases due to dissipative processes in this externally driven plasma system. We think that this cyclic reconnection can operate around rapidly rotating stars and in the plasma vortices formed in unstable plasma flows.

Karlick, Marian



Turnaround in cyclic cosmology.  


It is speculated how dark energy in a brane world can help reconcile an infinitely cyclic cosmology with the second law of thermodynamics. A cyclic model is described, in which dark energy with w<-1 equation of state leads to a turnaround at a time, extremely shortly before the would-be big rip, at which both volume and entropy of our Universe decrease by a gigantic factor, while very many independent similarly small contracting universes are spawned. The entropy of our model decreases almost to zero at turnaround but increases for the remainder of the cycle by a vanishingly small amount during contraction, empty of matter, then by a large factor during inflationary expansion. PMID:17359014

Baum, Lauris; Frampton, Paul H



Is a decrease in cyclic AMP a necessary and sufficient signal for maturation of amphibian oocytes  

SciTech Connect

Acetylcholine rapidly lowered the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in stage 5 and 6 Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine alone did not induce oocyte maturation, though it did accelerate maturation induced by progesterone. The effect of acetylcholine on oocyte maturation was independent of extracellular calcium concentration. Adenosine increased cyclic AMP and abolished the progesterone-induced decrease in cyclic AMP levels in follicles and in denuded oocytes. This effect of adenosine was blocked by the Ra purinergic receptor antagonist, theophylline. Despite those effects, adenosine alone induced maturation in stage 6 oocytes and accelerated progesterone-induced maturation in both stage 5 and 6 cells. Adenosine also induced a significant increase in the rate of /sup 45/Ca efflux from oocytes in the presence and the absence of external calcium. We suggest that the activation of cell surface receptors involved in the release of calcium from cellular stores may induce or accelerate oocyte maturation independently of small changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration.

Gelerstein, S.; Shapira, H.; Dascal, N.; Yekuel, R.; Oron, Y.



Iontophoresis of cyclic AMP.  

PubMed Central

The design, calibration, and operation of a source of controlled amounts of cyclic AMP (c-AMP) are described. Typically, 1.5 s pulses containing 10(10)-10(-12) molecules of c-AMP can be delivered to a region about 10 mum in diameter on an agar plate. The resulting concentration profiles are given as functions of distance and time. The diffusion coefficient of c-AMP in agar was measured to be 0.97 times 10(-5) cm2-s-1 at 21 degrees C. PMID:167878

Cohen, M H; Drage, D J; Robertson, A



Epistemology in Cyclic Time  

E-print Network

Consider the scenario, in which human civilization undergoes periodic eras of progression and regression, and consequently, changes in cosmological knowledge are cyclic. There exist solutions of general theory of relativity, such as the G\\"{o}del universe, in which the cosmos is rotating. If the real universe is indeed rotating, than this would be a reversion to rotating universe models, used in ancient cosmological models. We argue that such reversions in physical models would be inevitable in a space-time in which time is having $S^1$ (circular) topology.

Moninder Singh Modgil



Cyclic AMP and gastric secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several reports have appeared in the literature implicating cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the mechanism of gastric acid secretion (1-4). Although no direct correlation has yet been established between the intracellular levels of the cyclic nucleotide and gastric secretion in vivo, the generally accepted view is that elevated intracellular levels of cyclic AMP possibly trigger increased levels of acid

M. Samir Amer



Cyclic generalized projection MRI.  


Progress in the development of portable MRI hinges on the ability to use lightweight magnets that have non-uniform magnetic fields. An image encoding method and mathematical procedure for recovering the image from the NMR signal from non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours is given. Individual frequencies in an NMR signal from an object in a non-uniform magnetic field give rise to integrals of the object along contours of constant magnetic field: generalized projections. With closed isomagnetic field contours a simple, cyclic, direct reconstruction of the image from the generalized projections is possible when the magnet and RF transmit coil are held fixed relative to the imaged object while the RF receive coil moves. Numerical simulations, using the Shepp and Logan mathematical phantom, were completed to show that the mathematical method works and to illustrate numerical limitations. The method is numerically verified and exact reconstruction demonstrated for discrete mathematical image phantoms. Correct knowledge of the RF receive field is necessary or severe image distortions will result. The cyclic mathematical reconstruction method presented here will be useful for portable MRI schemes that use non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours along with mechanically or electronically moving the RF receive coils. PMID:25532468

Sarty, Gordon E



GAF Domains: Cyclic Nucleotides Come Full Circle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cyclic nucleotides are ubiquitous signaling molecules that are present in life forms ranging from bacteria to yeast to humans. In higher eukaryotes, conserved molecular machinery processes signals through both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP). Hurley describes how one widespread cyclic nucleotide recognition module, the GAF (cyclic GMP, adenylyl cyclase, FhlA) domain, formerly thought to bind only cyclic GMP, has now been found to bind cyclic AMP as well. Recent structural analysis of a cyclic GMP-binding GAF domain shows how conserved elements among the cyclic nucleotide-binding subgroup of GAF domains recognize the common chemical moieties in the two compounds.

James H. Hurley (National Institutes of Health; Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases REV)



Method of controlling cyclic variation in engine combustion  


Cyclic variation in combustion of a lean burning engine is reduced by detecting an engine combustion event output such as torsional acceleration in a cylinder (i) at a combustion event (k), using the detected acceleration to predict a target acceleration for the cylinder at the next combustion event (k+1), modifying the target output by a correction term that is inversely proportional to the average phase of the combustion event output of cylinder (i) and calculating a control output such as fuel pulse width or spark timing necessary to achieve the target acceleration for cylinder (i) at combustion event (k+1) based on anti-correlation with the detected acceleration and spill-over effects from fueling.

Davis, Jr., Leighton Ira (Ann Arbor, MI); Daw, Charles Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Feldkamp, Lee Albert (Plymouth, MI); Hoard, John William (Livonia, MI); Yuan, Fumin (Canton, MI); Connolly, Francis Thomas (Ann Arbor, MI)



Method of controlling cyclic variation in engine combustion  


Cyclic variation in combustion of a lean burning engine is reduced by detecting an engine combustion event output such as torsional acceleration in a cylinder (i) at a combustion event (k), using the detected acceleration to predict a target acceleration for the cylinder at the next combustion event (k+1), modifying the target output by a correction term that is inversely proportional to the average phase of the combustion event output of cylinder (i) and calculating a control output such as fuel pulse width or spark timing necessary to achieve the target acceleration for cylinder (i) at combustion event (k+1) based on anti-correlation with the detected acceleration and spill-over effects from fueling. 27 figs.

Davis, L.I. Jr.; Daw, C.S.; Feldkamp, L.A.; Hoard, J.W.; Yuan, F.; Connolly, F.T.



Linear Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

Sidorin, Anatoly [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna (Russian Federation)



Cyclic Bonds in Branched Polymers  

E-print Network

In the gelation theory it has been implicitly assumed that (I) a cyclic bond is a finite bond that returns to itself; (II) cyclic bonds distribute at random in network structures. In this paper these two assumptions are reexamined from a new point of view. The physical soundness of the assumptions are assessed through comparison with experimental observations.

Kazumi Suematsu



Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes.  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is found in a variety of prokaryotes including both eubacteria and archaebacteria. cAMP plays a role in regulating gene expression, not only for the classic inducible catabolic operons, but also for other categories. In the enteric coliforms, the effects of cAMP on gene expression are mediated through its interaction with and allosteric modification of a cAMP-binding protein (CRP). The CRP-cAMP complex subsequently binds specific DNA sequences and either activates or inhibits transcription depending upon the positioning of the complex relative to the promoter. Enteric coliforms have provided a model to explore the mechanisms involved in controlling adenylate cyclase activity, in regulating adenylate cyclase synthesis, and in performing detailed examinations of CRP-cAMP complex-regulated gene expression. This review summarizes recent work focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of CRP-cAMP complex-mediated processes. For other bacteria, less detail is known. cAMP has been implicated in regulating antibiotic production, phototrophic growth, and pathogenesis. A role for cAMP has been suggested in nitrogen fixation. Often the only data that support cAMP involvement in these processes includes cAMP measurement, detection of the enzymes involved in cAMP metabolism, or observed effects of high concentrations of the nucleotide on cell growth. PMID:1315922

Botsford, J L; Harman, J G



Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Initially described in children, cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is an idiopathic disorder that affects patients of all ages and is characterized by recurrent episodes of vomiting separated by symptom-free intervals or baseline health. Frequent misdiagnoses and delays in diagnosis often lead to years of recurrent vomiting. Similarities in the clinical features and symptoms of children and adults with CVS are often linked to migraines. Association with mitochondrial disorders and neuroendocrine dysfunction have been described in the pediatric CVS literature, whereas migraines, anxiety, and panic are common in adults with CVS. Various psychological, infectious, and physical stressors commonly precipitate episodes of CVS. Treatment is mostly empiric, with few controlled therapeutic studies conducted thus far. Associations with migraines have aided in developing pharmacologic treatment strategies for prophylaxis as well as abortive therapy during episodes, including the use of trip-tans. Most children outgrow CVS with time, though some children transition to migraine headaches or continue to have CVS as adults. Improved recognition of CVS in adults, along with the emergence of data in the use of anticonvulsants and antiemetics, may help further delineate pathophysiologic connections and therapeutic options for this debilitating disorder.



Android Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students prepare for the associated activity in which they investigate acceleration by collecting acceleration vs. time data using the accelerometer of a sliding Android device. Based on the experimental set-up for the activity, students form hypotheses about the acceleration of the device. Students will investigate how the force on the device changes according to Newton's Second Law. Different types of acceleration, including average, instantaneous and constant acceleration, are introduced. Acceleration and force is described mathematically and in terms of processes and applications.

IMPART RET Program, College of Information Science & Technology,


Genetics Home Reference: Cyclic neutropenia  


... and proteins to help fight the infection. ELANE gene mutations that cause cyclic neutropenia lead to an abnormal neutrophil elastase ... pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to ... inherits the mutation from one affected parent. Other cases result from ...


Hyperbolic modules and cyclic subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a finite group of odd order, F a finite field of odd characteristic p, and B a finite-dimensional symplectic FG-module. We show that B is FG-hyperbolic, i.e., it contains a self-perpendicular FG-submodule, iff it is FN-hyperbolic for every cyclic subgroup N ofG.

Maria Loukaki



Hyperbolic modules and cyclic subgroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $G$ be a finite group of odd order, $\\\\F$ a finite field of odd characteristic $p$ and $\\\\B$ a finite--dimensional symplectic $\\\\F G$-module. We show that $\\\\B$ is $\\\\F G$-hyperbolic, i.e., it contains a self--perpendicular $\\\\F G$-submodule, iff it is $\\\\F N$-hyperbolic for every cyclic subgroup $N$ of $G$.

Maria Loukaki



Simulator for cyclic voltammetric responses  

SciTech Connect

Our effort to develop a cyclic voltammetry (CV) simulator was generated by the need for a simple and manageable way to analyze complex electrochemical responses. A cyclic voltammogram is a complicated, time-dependent function of a large number of physical and chemical parameters. Until now there has been no effective computational tool for describing the cyclic voltammetric responses for a wide range of mechanism - at least not without a lot of ad hoc adjustments. The simulator has already shown promise as a tool for teaching the fundamentals of CV in particular and of electrochemistry in general (75). The movielike presentation of concentration profiles as they evolve with time in response to the changing electrode potential offers additional insights into the physical and chemical phenomena controlling the cyclic voltammetric response. Expanding the capabilities of the simulator to include finite diffusion, the Frumkin effect, Marcusian heterogeneous kinetics, adsorption, disk and brand geometries, and some electroanalytical protocols in addition to CV should enhance its applicability. 75 refs., 6 figs.

Rudolph, M. (Friedrich-Schiller Universitaet, Jena (Germany)); Reddy, D.P. (Radio Logic, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)); Feldberg, S.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))



Cyclic stressstrain response and substructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of fully reversed cyclic strain tests have been conducted on a range of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. For metals with finely dispersed particles and single phase low stacking fault metals the stabilized hysteresis loops coincided with the cyclic stressstrain curve magnified by two (Masing behaviour). In this case the Bauschinger strain increased linearly with cyclic plastic strain. For

A Plumtree; H. A Abdel-Raouf



Modulators of cyclic AMP systems.  


On the basis of the data reported here, one may conclude that although many agents that act in the central nervous system are modulators of the action of cyclic AMP, it is difficult to establish a direct connection between the pharmacologic activity and the levels of cyclic AMP in the brain. This lack of interrelation applies to the benzodiazepines as well as to the pyrazolopyridines. The data for members of the latter group are somewhat frustrating in this regard, since an excellent correlation has been shown to exist between the potency of inhibition of PDE and activity in the antianxiety test. In measurements of steroidogenesis in the isolated adrenal cell, the correlation between activity in vito and the conflict assay is even better. The data presented here and reported elsewhere (Shimizu et al., 1974; Kelly et al., 1974; Mayer and King, 1974; King and Mayer, 1974) provide evidence that agents that act as inhibitors of PDE in cell-free systems exert their influence on cyclic AMP in tissue slices of the brain of guinea pigs by mechanisms that seem not to be related to an effect on PDE. Papaverine, and possibly chlordiazepoxide, may act by releasing agonists that, in turn, stimulate the accumulation of cyclic AMP. This activity is blocked bo other inhibitors of PDE, such as theophyline. Results obtained by the use of platelets are refreshingly clear. Inhibition of aggregation has been shown to occur when the level of cyclic AMP is raised, and a suggestive exists that the most potent inhibitors of platelet PDE are the best potentiators of the action of PGE1 in blocking aggregation. The study utilizing drugs collected from a large number of therapeutic classes makes clear that it is difficult to attribute the mechanism of action for any of the classes studied to modulation of cyclic AMP. An unexpected finding of this study, however, was the fact that pharmacologic agents include an unusually large number of inhibitors of PDE as compared with agents chosen at random. This finding provides a powerful tool for the biochemical pharmacologist who is examining large numbers of compounds in the search for potential drugs. PMID:242200

Hess, S M; Chasin, M; Free, C A; Harris, D N



Cyclic AMP Signaling in Trypanosomatids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curative interference with signal transduction pathways is a spectacularly successful concept in many domains of modern pharmacology; indeed, the wonder drug Viagra is but a humble inhibitor of a cyclic GMP (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase and, thus, interferes with cGMP-signaling in a strategic organ. In fact, about half of the 100 most successful drugs currently on the market act through modulating cellular

C Naula; T Seebeck



High-Intensity Proton Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

Jay L. Hirshfield



Cyclic Amplification of Prion Protein Misfolding  

PubMed Central

Protein Misfolfing Cyclic amplification (PMCA) is a technique that take advantage of the nucleation-dependent prion replication process to accelerate the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc in the test tube. PMCA uses ultrasound waves to fragment the PrPSc polymers, increasing the amount of seeds present in the infected sample without affecting their ability to act as conversion nucleus. Over the past 5 years PMCA has became an invaluable technique to study diverse aspects of prions. The PMCA technology has been used by several groups to understand the molecular mechanism of prion replication, the cellular factors involved in prion propagation, the intriguing phenomena of prion strains and species barriers, to detect PrPSc in tissues and biological fluids and to screen for inhibitors against prion replication. In this article we describe a detailed protocol of the PMCA technique, highlighting some of the important technical aspects to obtain a successful and reproducible application of the technology. PMID:22528092

Barria, Marcelo A; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Soto, Claudio



Cyclic Game Dynamics Driven by Iterated Reasoning  

PubMed Central

Recent theories from complexity science argue that complex dynamics are ubiquitous in social and economic systems. These claims emerge from the analysis of individually simple agents whose collective behavior is surprisingly complicated. However, economists have argued that iterated reasoningwhat you think I think you thinkwill suppress complex dynamics by stabilizing or accelerating convergence to Nash equilibrium. We report stable and efficient periodic behavior in human groups playing the Mod Game, a multi-player game similar to Rock-Paper-Scissors. The game rewards subjects for thinking exactly one step ahead of others in their group. Groups that play this game exhibit cycles that are inconsistent with any fixed-point solution concept. These cycles are driven by a hopping behavior that is consistent with other accounts of iterated reasoning: agents are constrained to about two steps of iterated reasoning and learn an additional one-half step with each session. If higher-order reasoning can be complicit in complex emergent dynamics, then cyclic and chaotic patterns may be endogenous features of real-world social and economic systems. PMID:23441191

Frey, Seth; Goldstone, Robert L.



Stretch stimulates cyclic nucleotide metabolism in the isolated frog ventricle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation has been made of the effect of stretch on cyclic nucleotide metabolism. The levels of endogenous adnosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) were measured during different patterns of stretch and release. Stretch to Lmax produced a moderate increase in cyclic AMP and a proportionately greater increase in cyclic GMP; as a result, the

Jaipaul Singh



Cyclically deformed defects and topological mass constraints  

E-print Network

A systematic procedure for obtaining defect structures through cyclic deformation chains is introduced and explored in detail. The procedure outlines a set of rules for analytically constructing constraint equations that involve the finite localized energy of cyclically generated defects. The idea of obtaining cyclically deformed defects concerns the possibility of regenerating a primitive (departing) defect structure through successive, unidirectional, and eventually irreversible, deformation processes. Our technique is applied on kink-like and lump-like solutions in models described by a single real scalar field, such that extensions to quantum mechanics follow the usual theory of deformed defects. The preliminary results show that the cyclic device supports simultaneously kink-like and lump-like defects into 3- and 4-cyclic deformation chains with topological mass values closed by trigonometric and hyperbolic deformations. In a straightforward generalization, results concerning with the analytical calculation of $N$-cyclic deformations are obtained and lessons regarding extensions from more elaborated primitive defects are depicted.

Alex E. Bernardini; Roldao da Rocha



Advances in targeting cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases  

PubMed Central

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyse the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, thereby regulating the intracellular concentrations of these cyclic nucleotides, their signalling pathways and, consequently, myriad biological responses in health and disease. Currently, a small number of PDE inhibitors are used clinically for treating the pathophysiological dysregulation of cyclic nucleotide signalling in several disorders, including erectile dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, acute refractory cardiac failure, intermittent claudication and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, pharmaceutical interest in PDEs has been reignited by the increasing understanding of the roles of individual PDEs in regulating the subcellular compartmentalization of specific cyclic nucleotide signalling pathways, by the structure-based design of novel specific inhibitors and by the development of more sophisticated strategies to target individual PDE variants. PMID:24687066

Maurice, Donald H.; Ke, Hengming; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Wang, Yousheng; Chung, Jay; Manganiello, Vincent C.



Cyclic Disilylated and Digermylated Germylenes  

PubMed Central

The preparation of triethylphosphine adducts of cyclic disilylated or digermylated germylenes was achieved by reaction of 1,4-dipotassio-1,1,4,4-tetrakis(trimethylsilyl)tetramethyltetrasilane with GeBr2(dioxane) and PEt3. Phosphine abstraction with B(C6F5)3 allowed formation of the base-free germylenes, which undergo 1,2-trimethylsilyl shifts to the germylene atom to form the respective silagermene or digermene, which further dimerize in [2 + 2] cycloadditions to tricyclic compounds. The reasons responsible for the germylenes completely different reactivities in comparison to the previously studied analogous stannylenes and plumbylenes were elucidated in a theoretical study. PMID:23874054



Cyclic statistics in three dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of anyons in two-dimensional systems is a well-known example of nonpermutation group statistics. In higher dimensions, however, it is expected that statistics is dictated solely by representations of the permutation group. Using basic elements from representation theory we show that this expectation is false in three-dimensions for a certain nongravitational system. Namely, we demonstrate the existence of "cyclic," or Zn, nonpermutation group statistics for a system of n>2 identical, unknotted rings embedded in R3. We make crucial use of a theorem due to Goldsmith in conjunction with the Fuchs-Rabinovitch relations for the automorphisms of the free product group on n elements.

Surya, Sumati



Acceleration of heavy ions to very high energies  

SciTech Connect

The current interest of physicists in the collisions of heavy ions closes an interesting circle in the technology of accelerator building. The first cyclic accelerator, built by R. Wideroe, was a linear accelerator designed to accelerate potassium ions. Subsequent to Wideroe's achievement, much of the art of accelerator construction has been devoted to creating energetic beams of electrons and protons. Now we find ourselves returning to the heavy ions, and Wideroe's linear accelerator structure still plays an important role in many acceleration schemes. Fortunately, while the particle physics community has concentrated on the electron and proton machines, the nuclear physicists have kept alive the interest in heavy ions. Now a host of electrostatic machines, cyclotrons, and heavy ion linear accelerators provide beams of all species of ions at energies from about 100 MeV per nucleon for light isotopes to 10 MeV per nucleon for the heaviest isotopes in support of vigorous physics programs.

Barton, M.Q.



Genetics Home Reference: Cyclic vomiting syndrome  


Cyclic vomiting syndrome Mitochondrial DNA References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and ...


[Chemistry of the cyclic tautomer of tryptophans].  


A historical development of the chemistry of cyclic tautomer of tryptophan is reviewed. The cyclic tautomer of tryptophan, pyrrolo [2,3-b]indole-2-carboxylic acid, was prepared by dissolving N-methoxycarbonyltryptophan ester derivatives in 85% phosphoric acid or trifluoroacetic acid. The cyclic tautomer can be reverted to the indolic form with a dilute acid. The cyclic tautomer is an aniline derivative and the enamine reactivity of the indole ring in tryptophan is protected. The electrophilic substitution and oxidation of these cyclic tautomers opened a new method to prepare 5-substituted and/or 6-substituted tryptophan derivatives such as 5-bromo-, 5-hydroxy, and 6-methoxy-tryptophans. The formation and reactions of cyclic tautomers of diketopiperazines containing tryptophan and 3-indoleacetamide are also discussed. Some indole alkaloids having substituents at the benzene ring such as fumitremorgins, flustramine B, and eudistomines were synthesized by the use of these reactions. Furthermore, enantioselective alkylations of the carbanion at the 2-position of the cyclic tautomer established a new route to optically pure alpha-substituted tryptophans. The 2,3-dehydro derivative of the cyclic tautomer is an alpha, beta-unsaturated ester and was found to be a good precursor of optically pure beta-substituted tryptophans. The 3a-position of the cyclic tautomer is a benzylic position and subjected to radical reactions to give 3a-substituted-pyrroloindoles. PMID:8831260

Hino, T



Acceleration switch  


The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)



Podcast: Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Podcast: Acceleration is a segment of the Force and Motion Short Course. The podcast is 2 minutes 13 seconds in duration. Presented by science experts and NSTA staff, the NSTA Online Short Courses are professional development opportunities de



Angular Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The simulation of a rotating wheel below shows the relationship between angular position, angular velocity, and angular acceleration. Graphs of angular position and angular velocity as a function of time are shown.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario



Ants, Crickets and Frogs in Cyclic Pursuit  

E-print Network

Ants, Crickets and Frogs in Cyclic Pursuit A.M. Bruckstein 1 , N. Cohen 2 , A. Efrat 1 Abstract. We consider a deterministic continuous pursuit, in which n ants chase each other in cyclic order Imagine n ants in the plane, searching for food. The leading ant determines the course; the second ant

Efrat, Alon


Modular arithmetic weight and cyclic shifting.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This note shows that the modular arithmetic weight of an integer is invariant to the cyclic shifts of its radix-2 form. This result leads to a reduced search for the minimum weight codeword in a cyclic AN-code as well as to a better understanding of previous work.

Hartman, W. F.



Transforming Cyclic Circuits Into Acyclic Equivalents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers and high-level synthesis tools can introduce unwanted cycles in digital circuits, and for certain combinational functions, cyclic circuits that are stable and do not hold state are the smallest or most natural representations. Cyclic combinational circuits have well-defined functional behavior yet wreak havoc with most logic synthesis and timing tools, which require combinational logic to be acyclic. As such,

Osama Neiroukh; Stephen A. Edwards; Xiaoyu Song



Dynamic equilibrium on a cyclic-interval schedule with a ramp  

PubMed Central

Five human subjects pressed a panel for money on a cyclic-interval schedule that arranged recurring periods of linearly increasing reinforcement rates (ramps). Response rate versus time functions for all subjects showed recurring periods of linearly increasing response rates. The responding of four of the five subjects was in phase with the reinforcement input. The remaining subject showed a two-minute phase shift. These results suggest that organisms may act like simple amplifiers on cyclic-interval schedules, that is, the form of the input signal is not changed by the organism, but is returned with amplification. By analogy with the variable-interval case, the controlling variable on cyclic-interval schedules with rate ramps may be the constant reinforcement acceleration that is arranged by the schedule. PMID:16812234

McDowell, J. J; Sulzen, Helena M.



Accelerator-induced transients in Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achieving higher particles energies and beam powers have long been the main focus of research in accelerator technology. Since Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (ADSRs) have become the subject of increasing interest, accelerator reliability and modes of operation have become important matters that require further research and development in order to accommodate the engineering and economic needs of ADSRs. This paper focuses on neutronic and thermo-mechanical analyses of accelerator-induced transients in an ADSR. Such transients fall into three main categories: beam interruptions (trips), pulsed-beam operation, and beam overpower. The concept of a multiple-target ADSR is shown to increase system reliability and to mitigate the negative effects of beam interruptions, such as thermal cyclic fatigue in the fuel cladding and the huge financial cost of total power loss. This work also demonstrates the effectiveness of the temperature-to-reactivity feedback mechanisms in ADSRs. A comparison of shutdown mechanisms using control rods and beam cut-off highlights the intrinsic safety features of ADSRs. It is evident that the presence of control rods is crucial in an industrial-scale ADSR. This paper also proposes a method to monitor core reactivity online using the repetitive pattern of beam current fluctuations in a pulsed-beam operation mode. Results were produced using PTS-ADS, a computer code developed specifically to study the dynamic neutronic and thermal responses to beam transients in subcritical reactor systems.

Ahmad, Ali; Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T.



Laser Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now a fact that focusing an intense ultra short laser pulse onto a gas jet or thin targets, generates energetic collimated electrons or ions forming ultra short beams of energies > 100 MeV. The different mechanisms to explain such laser accelerated electrons or ions will be discussed. Data obtained by recent experiments will be presented. We report the experiment planed to study laser accelerated ions and/or particles using picosecond and femtosecond high energy laser pulses focused to achieve intensities >1018 watts/cm2. The design of the interaction chamber and the choice of targets as well as the ultra fast detection techniques will be speculated. This source of accelerated ions having unique properties is expected to become an interesting tool for many fields in physics, chemistry and biology. It can enable advances of devices to be used in medicine.

El Nadi, Lotfia M.; Mansour, Mohy S.; Abdellatif, Galila; Reda, Mohamad Atef



Co-regulation of tracheal tone by cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms.  


The regulation of guinea pig tracheal muscle tone by cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic GMP-dependent relaxant mechanisms was investigated by studying the tracheal relaxant activities of forskolin, nitroprusside, N6-2'-O-dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and 8-bromoguanosine-cyclic GMP. In carbachol (3 X 10(-6) M)-contracted isolated tracheal rings, N6-2'-O-dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and 8-bromoguanosine-cyclic GMP each caused biphasic relaxation responses, which consisted of an acute relaxation followed by a sustained but lesser degree of relaxation. The biphasic nature of this response is suggested to result from a functional counter-balancing of cyclic nucleotide-dependent relaxant mechanisms and the contractile mechanisms stimulated by carbachol. The sensitivity of carbachol-contracted tracheal rings to forskolin and nitroprusside (activators of adenylate and guanylate cyclase, respectively) was generally not influenced by N6-2'-O-dibutyryl-cyclic AMP or 8-bromoguanosine-cyclic GMP in concentrations that induced up to 50% relaxation of the trachea. Furthermore, the partial relaxation of tracheal tension with one cyclic nucleotide analog did not alter the sensitivity of the tracheal rings to the other. These results demonstrate that cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms induce relaxations of the trachea that are functionally additive, each neither potentiating nor depressing the effects of the other. In the presence of 3 X 10(-6) M carbachol, the effectiveness of cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent relaxant mechanisms appears to be fixed, and independent of the amount of active tension being maintained by the tracheal muscle itself. PMID:2826752

Heaslip, R J; Giesa, F R; Rimele, T J; Grimes, D



Acceleration Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

Rogers, Melissa J. B.



Apparatus for accelerated degradation testing of concrete specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate chemical degradation of concrete in an automated and standardized way, an apparatus for accelerated degradation\\u000a tests was developed. Because alternated wetting and drying often accelerate concrete degradation, cylindrical test specimens\\u000a are subjected to a cyclic procedure of turning through an aggressive solution and drying by air. After every attack cycle\\u000a the test specimens are brushed with rotary brushes

N. De Belie; J. Monteny; L. Taerwe



Plasma accelerator  


There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Santa Fe, NM)



Accelerated Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission

Ford, William J.



Particle acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.



Cyclic block filtered multitone modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A filter bank modulation transceiver is presented. The idea is to obtain good sub-channel frequency confinement as it is done by the family of exponentially modulated filter banks that is typically referred to as filtered multitone (FMT) modulation. However, differently from conventional FMT, the linear convolutions are replaced with circular convolutions. Since transmission occurs in blocks, the scheme is referred to as cyclic block FMT (CB-FMT). This paper focuses on the principles, design, and implementation of CB-FMT. In particular, it is shown that an efficient realization of both the transmitter and the receiver is possible in the frequency domain (FD), and it is based on the concatenation of an inner discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and a bank of outer DFTs. Such an implementation suggests a simple sub-channel FD equalizer. The overall required implementation complexity is lower than in FMT. Furthermore, the orthogonal filter bank design is simplified. The sub-channel frequency confinement in CB-FMT yields compact power spectrum and lower peak-to-average power ratio than in OFDM. Furthermore, the FD equalization allows the exploitation of the transmission medium time and frequency diversity; thus, it potentially yields lower symbol error rate and higher achievable rate in time-variant frequency-selective fading.

Tonello, Andrea M.; Girotto, Mauro



Compact accelerator  


A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Los Alamos, NM)



Cyclic dynamics of eastern Canadian ermine populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on partial autocorrelation analysis, 20 ermine (Mustela erminea) populations in Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec demonstrated cyclic dynamics characterized by a latitudinal gradient of decreasing first-order feedback and increasing negativity of second-order feedback. Most of these populations exhibited three cyclic peaks and a 10-year interval of noncyclic dynamics during the sampling period (1915-1940). Changes in ermine density probably reflected those

Donald R. Johnson; Bradley J. Swanson; Judith L. Eger



Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases: Relating structure and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) comprise a superfamily of metallophosphohydrolases that specifically cleave the 3?, 5?-cyclic phosphate moiety of cAMP and\\/or eGMP to produce the corresponding 5?-nucleotide. PDEs are critical determinants for modulation of cellular levels of CAMP and\\/or eGMP by many stimuli. Eleven families of PDEs with varying selectivities for cAMP or cGMP have been identified in mammalian tissues. Within

Sharron H. Francis; Illarion V. Turko; Jackie D. Corbin



The evolution of momordica cyclic peptides.  


Cyclic proteins have evolved for millions of years across all kingdoms of life to confer structural stability over their acyclic counterparts while maintaining intrinsic functional properties. Here, we show that cyclic miniproteins (or peptides) from Momordica (Cucurbitaceae) seeds evolved in species that diverged from an African ancestor around 19 Ma. The ability to achieve head-to-tail cyclization of Momordica cyclic peptides appears to have been acquired through a series of mutations in their acyclic precursor coding sequences following recent and independent gene expansion event(s). Evolutionary analysis of Momordica cyclic peptides reveals sites that are under selection, highlighting residues that are presumably constrained for maintaining their function as potent trypsin inhibitors. Molecular dynamics of Momordica cyclic peptides in complex with trypsin reveals site-specific residues involved in target binding. In a broader context, this study provides a basis for selecting Momordica species to further investigate the biosynthesis of the cyclic peptides and for constructing libraries that may be screened against evolutionarily related serine proteases implicated in human diseases. PMID:25376175

Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Mylne, Joshua S; Poth, Aaron G; Swedberg, Joakim E; Kaas, Quentin; Schaefer, Hanno; Craik, David J



Accelerators and the Accelerator Community  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew



Analytical tools in accelerator physics  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a sub-set of my lectures presented in the Accelerator Physics course (USPAS, Santa Rosa, California, January 14-25, 2008). It is based on my notes I wrote during period from 1976 to 1979 in Novosibirsk. Only few copies (in Russian) were distributed to my colleagues in Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics. The goal of these notes is a complete description starting from the arbitrary reference orbit, explicit expressions for 4-potential and accelerator Hamiltonian and finishing with parameterization with action and angle variables. To a large degree follow logic developed in Theory of Cyclic Particle Accelerators by A.A.Kolmensky and A.N.Lebedev [Kolomensky], but going beyond the book in a number of directions. One of unusual feature is these notes use of matrix function and Sylvester formula for calculating matrices of arbitrary elements. Teaching the USPAS course motivated me to translate significant part of my notes into the English. I also included some introductory materials following Classical Theory of Fields by L.D. Landau and E.M. Liftsitz [Landau]. A large number of short notes covering various techniques are placed in the Appendices.

Litvinenko, V.N.



Measuring Cyclic Error in Laser Heterodyne Interferometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method and apparatus have been devised for measuring cyclic errors in the readouts of laser heterodyne interferometers that are configured and operated as displacement gauges. The cyclic errors arise as a consequence of mixing of spurious optical and electrical signals in beam launchers that are subsystems of such interferometers. The conventional approach to measurement of cyclic error involves phase measurements and yields values precise to within about 10 pm over air optical paths at laser wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. The present approach, which involves amplitude measurements instead of phase measurements, yields values precise to about .0.1 microns . about 100 times the precision of the conventional approach. In a displacement gauge of the type of interest here, the laser heterodyne interferometer is used to measure any change in distance along an optical axis between two corner-cube retroreflectors. One of the corner-cube retroreflectors is mounted on a piezoelectric transducer (see figure), which is used to introduce a low-frequency periodic displacement that can be measured by the gauges. The transducer is excited at a frequency of 9 Hz by a triangular waveform to generate a 9-Hz triangular-wave displacement having an amplitude of 25 microns. The displacement gives rise to both amplitude and phase modulation of the heterodyne signals in the gauges. The modulation includes cyclic error components, and the magnitude of the cyclic-error component of the phase modulation is what one needs to measure in order to determine the magnitude of the cyclic displacement error. The precision attainable in the conventional (phase measurement) approach to measuring cyclic error is limited because the phase measurements are af-

Ryan, Daniel; Abramovici, Alexander; Zhao, Feng; Dekens, Frank; An, Xin; Azizi, Alireza; Chapsky, Jacob; Halverson, Peter



Disiloxanes with cyclic or non-cyclic carbamate moieties as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.  


Novel liquid disiloxanes, containing an n-propylic spacer group between the disiloxane fragment and a cyclic or non-cyclic carbamate moiety, were synthesized and characterized as liquid electrolytes. The ionic conductivity, thermal properties, viscosity and relative permittivity of these new solvents have been investigated, taking into account steric factors. PMID:23287984

Jeschke, Steffen; Gentschev, Ann-Christin; Wiemhfer, Hans-Dieter



Cyclic Alternating Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (CAROMP). Rapid Access to Functionalized Cyclic Polymers  

PubMed Central

Catalysis of alternating ROMP with (H2IMes)Cl2Ru=CHPh(OiPr), the second generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst, provided an entirely cyclic alternating polymer. Conditions for the cyclic AROMP were used to prepare a polymer in which one of the repeat units bore a primary alkyl chloride that was used for further elaboration. PMID:20684538

Song, Airong; Parker, Kathlyn A.; Sampson, Nicole S.



Approximate Best Proximity Points of Cyclic Self-maps in Metric Spaces and Cyclic Asymptotic Regularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript investigates some relations and properties between 2-cyclic self-mappings. In particular, a formal development is given to link some concepts and their basic related properties like those of approximate best proximity points, approximate best proximity point property and cyclic asymptotic regularity.

De la Sen, M.



CyclicRainbow -A Multivariate Signature Scheme with a Partially Cyclic Public Key based on Rainbow  

E-print Network

CyclicRainbow - A Multivariate Signature Scheme with a Partially Cyclic Public Key based on Rainbow key size of the UOV scheme by a large factor. In this paper we extend this idea to the Rainbow of the public key by up to 62 %. Keywords: Multivariate Cryptography, Rainbow Signature Scheme, keysize


CyclicRainbow A Multivariate Signature Scheme with a Partially Cyclic Public Key based on Rainbow  

E-print Network

CyclicRainbow ­ A Multivariate Signature Scheme with a Partially Cyclic Public Key based on Rainbow key size of the UOV scheme by a large factor. In this paper we extend this idea to the Rainbow of the public key by up to 62 %. Keywords: Multivariate Cryptography, Rainbow Signature Scheme, keysize


Aircraft control by propeller cyclic blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory is developed for aircraft control obtained from the propeller forces and moments generated by blade angle variation during a blade revolution. The propeller blade is pitched harmonically one cycle per propeller revolution which results in vehicle control forces and moments, termed cyclic-control. Using a power series respresentation of an arbitrary function of cyclic-blade angle, cyclic-control theory is developed which leads to exact solutions in terms of derivatives of steady-state thrust and power with respect to blade angle. An alternative solution, when the cyclic-blade angle function is limited to a sinusoidal cycle, is in terms of Bessel functions. An estimate of non-steady azimuth angle change or lag is presented. Cyclic-control analysis applied to the counter-rotating propeller shows that control forces or moments can be uniquely isolated from each other. Thus the dual rotor, in hovering mode, has propulsion without rotor tilt or moments, or, when in propeller mode at the tail of an air ship or submarine, vehicle control with no vehicle movement. Control isolation is also attainable from three or more propellers in-line.

Deyoung, J.



Visualization of cyclic nucleotide dynamics in neurons  

PubMed Central

The second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) transduce many neuromodulatory signals from hormones and neurotransmitters into specific functional outputs. Their production, degradation and signaling are spatiotemporally regulated to achieve high specificity in signal transduction. The development of genetically encodable fluorescent biosensors has provided researchers with useful tools to study these versatile second messengers and their downstream effectors with unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution in cultured cells and living animals. In this review, we introduce the general design of these fluorescent biosensors and describe several of them in more detail. Then we discuss a few examples of using cyclic nucleotide fluorescent biosensors to study regulation of neuronal function and finish with a discussion of advances in the field. Although there has been significant progress made in understanding how the specific signaling of cyclic nucleotide second messengers is achieved, the mechanistic details in complex cell types like neurons are only just beginning to surface. Current and future fluorescent protein reporters will be essential to elucidate the role of cyclic nucleotide signaling dynamics in the functions of individual neurons and their networks. PMID:25538560

Gorshkov, Kirill; Zhang, Jin



Evaluation of homogeneous electrocatalysts by cyclic voltammetry.  


The pursuit of solar fuels has motivated extensive research on molecular electrocatalysts capable of evolving hydrogen from protic solutions, reducing CO2, and oxidizing water. Determining accurate figures of merit for these catalysts requires the careful and appropriate application of electroanalytical techniques. This Viewpoint first briefly presents the fundamentals of cyclic voltammetry and highlights practical experimental considerations before focusing on the application of cyclic voltammetry for the characterization of electrocatalysts. Key metrics for comparing catalysts, including the overpotential (?), potential for catalysis (E(cat)), observed rate constant (k(obs)), and potential-dependent turnover frequency, are discussed. The cyclic voltammetric responses for a general electrocatalytic one-electron reduction of a substrate are presented along with methods to extract figures of merit from these data. The extension of this analysis to more complex electrocatalytic schemes, such as those responsible for H2 evolution and CO2 reduction, is then discussed. PMID:25247280

Rountree, Eric S; McCarthy, Brian D; Eisenhart, Thomas T; Dempsey, Jillian L



Cyclic and low temperature effects on microcircuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyclic temperature and low temperature operating life tests, and pre-/post-life device evaluations were used to determine the degrading effects of thermal environments on microcircuit reliability. Low power transistor-transistor-logic gates and linear devices were included in each test group. Device metallization systems included aluminum metallization/aluminum wire, aluminum metallization/gold wire, and gold metallization/gold wire. Fewer than 2% electrical failures were observed during the cyclic and low temperature life tests and the post-life evaluations revealed approximately 2% bond pull failures. Reconstruction of aluminum die metallization was observed in all devices and the severity of the reconstruction appeared to be directly related to the magnitude of the temperature excursion. All types of bonds except the gold/gold bonds were weakened by exposure to repeated cyclic temperature stress.

Weissflug, V. A.; Sisul, E. V.



Treating childrens cyclic vomiting  

PubMed Central

QUESTION One of my pediatric patients was diagnosed with cyclic vomiting syndrome, and the parents are understandably frustrated with the recurrent yet unpredictable episodes that control and disrupt their family life. Are there any effective treatments for this condition? ANSWER There is currently no evidence-based treatment regimen for cyclic vomiting syndrome. Pharmacologic remedies, according to anecdotal cases, retrospective reports, and open-label trials, have found that some antimigraine, antiemetic, prokinetic, and anticonvulsant agents have been effective. Management focuses on correct diagnosis of the syndrome, avoidance of potential triggers, prophylactic pharmacotherapy, and supportive care for children and their families during episodes. PMID:17872673

Chow, Shirley; Goldman, Ran D.



A cyclic GMP-dependent signalling pathway regulates bacterial phytopathogenesis.  


Cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) is a second messenger whose role in bacterial signalling is poorly understood. A genetic screen in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Xcc) identified that XC_0250, which encodes a protein with a class III nucleotidyl cyclase domain, is required for cyclic GMP synthesis. Purified XC_0250 was active in cyclic GMP synthesis in vitro. The linked gene XC_0249 encodes a protein with a cyclic mononucleotide-binding (cNMP) domain and a GGDEF diguanylate cyclase domain. The activity of XC_0249 in cyclic di-GMP synthesis was enhanced by addition of cyclic GMP. The isolated cNMP domain of XC_0249 bound cyclic GMP and a structure-function analysis, directed by determination of the crystal structure of the holo-complex, demonstrated the site of cyclic GMP binding that modulates cyclic di-GMP synthesis. Mutation of either XC_0250 or XC_0249 led to a reduced virulence to plants and reduced biofilm formation in vitro. These findings describe a regulatory pathway in which cyclic GMP regulates virulence and biofilm formation through interaction with a novel effector that directly links cyclic GMP and cyclic di-GMP signalling. PMID:23881098

An, Shi-Qi; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Febrer, Melanie; McCarthy, Yvonne; Yang, Jauo-Guey; Liu, Chung-Liang; Swarbreck, David; Rogers, Jane; Maxwell Dow, J; Chou, Shan-Ho; Ryan, Robert P



Sequential Steam: An Engineered Cyclic Steaming Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic steam injection has been the most widely used EOR method in areas of the Potter sand in the Midway-Sunset field, Kern County, CA. This paper discusses the field pilot and the statistical and theoretical studies leading to the design of a sequential steaming process,plus the implementation of this process on three leases.

Jeff Jones; Gary Cawthon



The cyclic fatigue behaviour of adhesive joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work has progressed well and we have: (1) developed an automatic data acquisition method; (2) determined the compliance of the specimen, both experimentally and theoretically; (3) measured the static adhesive fracture energy, G sub c; and (4) measured the cyclic fatigue behavior at 25 deg C and 55% r.h.

Kinloch, A. J.; Fernando, M.; Lam, P.



Dynamic birefringence of cyclic olefin copolymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic birefringence and viscoelasticity of amorphous polymers containing cyclic olefins were simultaneously measured over a wide frequency region from the rubbery to the glassy zone. The obtained results are discussed in terms of optical anisotropy and main chain flexibility. For copolymers of ethyelene and cyclododecene, the stress optical coefficient in the rubbery region, C\\u000a R, decreased with increasing of cyclododecene

Gwan Kyo Oh; Tadashi Inoue




E-print Network

AVOIDING ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS IN CYCLIC GROUPS Lorenz & Stephanie Halbeisen Keywords: arithmetic-constant arithmetic progressions in one colour, i.e., for every length ` there are positive integers a and d such that all the numbers a; a + d; a + 2d; : : : ; a + `d have the same colour. Such arithmetic progressions

Halbeisen, Lorenz



E-print Network

AVOIDING ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS IN CYCLIC GROUPS Lorenz & Stephanie Halbeisen Keywords: arithmetic the maximum cardinality of a subset of Zn which does not contain any non-constant arithmetic progression the numbers a, a + d, a + 2d, . . . , a + d have the same colour. Such arithmetic progressions are called

Halbeisen, Lorenz


Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas

Wilkinson, Bruce H.



Original article Feed restriction in cyclic gilts  

E-print Network

in metabolic hormones, induced by feed restriction, can alter follicle distribution in swine ovaries throughOriginal article Feed restriction in cyclic gilts: Gonadotrophin-independent effects on follicular larger than 2 mm and increa- sed the number of follicles smaller than 1 mm. The feed restriction did

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


The Cyclic Butler University Game Aviezri Fraenkel  

E-print Network

In a previous book honoring Gardner, a 2-player coin-pushing game on a directed graph (=digraph) without cycles wins. We consider the same game, but where the digraph may be cyclic. Then there need not be a last, digraph. The game begins by placing coins on some or all of the nodes (buildings). A move consists

Fraenkel, Aviezri


Gene Assembly Through Cyclic Graph Decomposition  

E-print Network

Gene Assembly Through Cyclic Graph Decomposition A. Ehrenfeucht #3; T. Harju y G. Rozenberg zx Abstract We present in this paper a graph theoretical model of gene assem- bly, where (segments of) genes are distributed over a set of circular molecules. This model is motivated by the process of gene assembly

Harju, Tero


Enantioselective Construction of Cyclic Quaternary Centers: (-)-Mesembrine  

E-print Network

Enantioselective Construction of Cyclic Quaternary Centers: (-)-Mesembrine Douglass F. Taber next needed a dehydration method that would give predominantly the (E)-R, -unsaturated ester from) Gericke, N. P.; Van Wyk, B. E. World Patent 9746234, 1997. (2) For leading references to previous

Taber, Douglass


Catalytic kinetic resolution of cyclic secondary amines.  


The catalytic resolution of racemic cyclic amines has been achieved by an enantioselective amidation reaction featuring an achiral N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst and a new chiral hydroxamic acid cocatalyst working in concert. The reactions proceed at room temperature, do not generate nonvolatile byproducts, and provide enantioenriched amines by aqueous extraction. PMID:22082205

Binanzer, Michael; Hsieh, Sheng-Ying; Bode, Jeffrey W



Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"  

E-print Network

Meetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested by one of us for devices that produce beams of chemically interesting species at relative kinetic

Zare, Richard N.


Cyclic GMP System in Epidermis: I. Effect of Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

When keratome-sliced pig epidermis was floated on Hank's balanced salt solution, we observed a rapid decrease in the intracellular level of cyclic GMP. A portion of the lost cyclic GMP was detected in the incubation medium. When the epidermis was kept in air at room temperature, the cyclic GMP level also decreased rapidly but to a lesser degree. Incubating the

Hajime Iizuka; Kenji Adachi; Kenneth M. Halprin; Victor Levine



Cyclic AMP levels in Phycomyces during a response to light  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE of the many metabolic functions attributed to adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) is that of a mediator in the responses of living organisms to light stimulation. It has been associated with dopaminergic synaptic activities and also with the primary visual process in the retina. In the rod outer segments of the frog, Rana pipiens, cyclic AMP concentrations are diminished

Robert J. Cohen



Synthesis of cyclic sulfones by ring-closing metathesis.  


A general and highly efficient synthesis of cyclic sulfones based on ring-closing metathesis has been developed. The synthetic utility of the resulting cyclic sulfones was demonstrated by their participation in stereoselective Diels-Alder reactions and transformation to cyclic dienes by the Ramberg-Bcklund reaction. PMID:11820896

Yao, Qingwei



21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....



21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....



21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....



21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....



21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Clinical Chemistry Test Systems 862.1230 Cyclic... A cyclic AMP test system is a device intended...plasma, urine, and other body fluids....



Cyclic nucleotide metabolism in pineal homogenates.  


Adenylate cyclase (AC) in pineal particulate fractions from rabbit, rat, cow, and the vole Microtus montanus was stimulated by L-norepinephrine (NE) and L-isoproterenol (ISO). NE stimulation of rabbit and bovine pineal AC was biphasic, with a plateau between 0.01 microM and 1.0 microM and additional stimulation by NE above 1.0 microM. Stimulation by different ISO concentrations gave a typical hyperbolic curve, and optimal stimulation by ISO exceeded that by NE. Melatonin decreased ISO and NE stimulation of AC 10-20%. Although, alpha-adrenergic agonists increase beta-agonist-mediated adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation in intact pinealocytes, similar amplification of AC stimulation was not seen with broken-cell preparations. Most (60-70%) pineal guanylate cyclase (GC) was recovered in supernatant fractions after centrifugation of homogenates at 110,000 x g; this soluble GC was unaffected by potential agonists. Low concentrations (0.01-1 nM) of NE, ISO, and phenylephrine (PE) stimulated GC in impure and purified membrane fractions, but each inhibited at concentrations above 10 microM. All concentrations of ISO and NE inhibited GC in the presence of the alpha-agonist PE. Melatonin alone did not affect particulate GC, but L-ISO stimulation was not seen in the presence of equivalent concentrations of melatonin. The in vitro data are consistent with both alpha- and beta-receptor regulation of cyclic nucleotide metabolism in pinealocytes. Endogenous NE may differentially regulate cyclic AMP and guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in pineal; low NE concentrations that stimulate GC have only a slight effect on AC, but higher NE concentrations that inhibit GC maximally stimulate AC. Particulate GC and AC also were resolved by equilibrium centrifugation, to give several discrete peaks of enzyme activity. The results support the existence of several forms of AC and GC, which have different responses to adrenergic agonists. PMID:2905388

Sweat, F W; Carmack, C F; Jewell, L S



Covariant Uniform Acceleration  

E-print Network

We show that standard Relativistic Dynamics Equation F=dp/d\\tau is only partially covariant. To achieve full Lorentz covariance, we replace the four-force F by a rank 2 antisymmetric tensor acting on the four-velocity. By taking this tensor to be constant, we obtain a covariant definition of uniformly accelerated motion. We compute explicit solutions for uniformly accelerated motion which are divided into four types: null, linear, rotational, and general. For null acceleration, the worldline is cubic in the time. Linear acceleration covariantly extends 1D hyperbolic motion, while rotational acceleration covariantly extends pure rotational motion. We use Generalized Fermi-Walker transport to construct a uniformly accelerated family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the Weak Hypothesis of Locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K' to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. We obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system K' to an inertial frame K. We derive the general formula for the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We obtain a formula for the angular velocity of a uniformly accelerated object. Every rest point of K' is uniformly accelerated, and its acceleration is a function of the observer's acceleration and its position. We obtain an interpretation of the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation as an acceleration transformation from K' to K.

Yaakov Friedman; Tzvi Scarr



I. ACCELERATION A. Introduction  

E-print Network

I. ACCELERATION A. Introduction Following cooling and initial bunch compression, the beams must be rapidly accelerated. The acceleration needed for a Higgs collider is probably the most conventional part undertaken. A sequence of linacs would work, but would be expensive. Some form of circulating acceleration

McDonald, Kirk


Bouncing and cyclic string gas cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

We show that, in the presence of a string gas, simple higher-derivative modifications to the effective action for gravity can lead to bouncing and cyclic cosmological models. The modifications bound the expansion rate and avoid singularities at finite times. In these models the scale factors can have long loitering phases that solve the horizon problem. Adding a potential for the dilaton gives a simple realization of the pre-big bang scenario. Entropy production in the cyclic phase drives an eventual transition to a radiation-dominated Universe. As a test of the Brandenberger-Vafa scenario, we comment on the probability of decompactifying three spatial dimensions in this class of models.

Greene, Brian; Marnerides, Stefanos [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics and Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Kabat, Daniel [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics and Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, New York 10468 (United States)



Bouncing and cyclic string gas cosmologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that, in the presence of a string gas, simple higher-derivative modifications to the effective action for gravity can lead to bouncing and cyclic cosmological models. The modifications bound the expansion rate and avoid singularities at finite times. In these models the scale factors can have long loitering phases that solve the horizon problem. Adding a potential for the dilaton gives a simple realization of the pre-big bang scenario. Entropy production in the cyclic phase drives an eventual transition to a radiation-dominated Universe. As a test of the Brandenberger-Vafa scenario, we comment on the probability of decompactifying three spatial dimensions in this class of models.

Greene, Brian; Kabat, Daniel; Marnerides, Stefanos



Bouncing and cyclic string gas cosmologies  

E-print Network

We show that, in the presence of a string gas, simple higher-derivative modifications to the effective action for gravity can lead to bouncing and cyclic cosmological models. The modifications bound the expansion rate and avoid singularities at finite times. In these models the scale factors can have long loitering phases that solve the horizon problem. Adding a potential for the dilaton gives a simple realization of the pre-big bang scenario. Entropy production in the cyclic phase drives an eventual transition to a radiation-dominated universe. As a test of the Brandenberger-Vafa scenario, we comment on the probability of decompactifying three spatial dimensions in this class of models.

Greene, Brian; Marnerides, Stefanos



Microwave evaluation of accelerated chloride ingress in mortar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete structures can be induced by the presence of chloride ions near the steel/concrete interface. To show the potential of microwave nondestructive testing techniques for evaluating chloride ingress, 8?8?8? mortar specimens with different mixture designs were prepared. To accelerate chloride ingress, they were exposed to cyclical wet/dry conditions, where the wet condition included exposure to salt bath. A complete discussion of the results will be presented in this paper.

Hu, C.; Case, T.; Castle, M.; Zoughi, R.; Kurtis, K.



ACL graft migration under cyclic loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elongation and migration of ACL grafts will lead to a deterioration of the initial stability of ACL reconstructions. The graft\\u000a migration has been sparsely investigated independently from the elongation of the graftfixation complex. The hypothesis of\\u000a this investigation was that cyclic tensile loads cause a measurable migration of the grafts. Three graft\\/fixation combinations\\u000a were investigated in human femora (n=7): human

Christian Staerke; Andreas Mhwald; Karl-Heinz Grbel; Carsten Bochwitz; Roland Becker



The Hodge Filtration and Cyclic Homology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We relate the Hodge filtration of the cohomology of a complex algebraic variety X to the Hodge decomposition of its cyclic homology. If X is smooth and projective,\\u000a$$HC_n^{(i)} (X) $$\\u000a is the quotient of the Betti cohomology\\u000a$$H^{2i - n} (X(\\\\mathbb{C});\\\\mathbb{C}) $$\\u000a by the \\u000a$$(i + 1)^{st} $$\\u000a piece of the Hodge filtration.

Charles Weibel



Surface and interface properties of carbon fiber composites under cyclical aging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon fiber-reinforced BMI composites have been subjected to combination accelerated aging comprising a hygrothermal process, a thermal-oxidative process, and a freezing process in order to simulate their responses under complicated service environments. This cyclical condition, including the freezing process, has not been investigated by other researchers so far. The effects of this combination accelerated aging on the mechanical properties have been characterized by FTIR, SEM/EDXA, XRD, and moisture-uptake determination. The results indicated that combination accelerated aging had great effects on the mechanical properties of the composite, the network structure of the BMI matrix, and the moisture uptake by the composite. After a third cycle of accelerated aging, moisture reached the center layer of the composite and as a result led to an obvious decrease in ILSS due to deterioration of the carbon fiber-BMI interface. Sufficient moisture absorption on the composite surface made the network structure of the BMI matrix more open, which facilitated stress relaxation and the creation of micro-cracks, with a consequent obvious decrease in flexural strength. With increasing number of combined-action accelerated aging cycles, ever more moisture was absorbed during each hygrothermal process due to the plasticizing effect of water, and micro-cracks propagated as a result of internal stresses caused by the hygrothermal process, the thermal-oxidative process, and the freezing process of each cycle. XRD analysis indicated that moisture penetrated through the amorphous region of the BMI matrix.

Lv, Xinying; Wang, Rongguo; Liu, Wenbo; Jiang, Long



Cyclic dominance in evolutionary games: a review.  


Rock is wrapped by paper, paper is cut by scissors and scissors are crushed by rock. This simple game is popular among children and adults to decide on trivial disputes that have no obvious winner, but cyclic dominance is also at the heart of predator-prey interactions, the mating strategy of side-blotched lizards, the overgrowth of marine sessile organisms and competition in microbial populations. Cyclical interactions also emerge spontaneously in evolutionary games entailing volunteering, reward, punishment, and in fact are common when the competing strategies are three or more, regardless of the particularities of the game. Here, we review recent advances on the rock-paper-scissors (RPS) and related evolutionary games, focusing, in particular, on pattern formation, the impact of mobility and the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance. We also review mean-field and zero-dimensional RPS models and the application of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and we highlight the importance and usefulness of statistical physics for the successful study of large-scale ecological systems. Directions for future research, related, for example, to dynamical effects of coevolutionary rules and invasion reversals owing to multi-point interactions, are also outlined. PMID:25232048

Szolnoki, Attila; Mobilia, Mauro; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Szczesny, Bartosz; Rucklidge, Alastair M; Perc, Matja



Cyclic dominance in evolutionary games: a review  

PubMed Central

Rock is wrapped by paper, paper is cut by scissors and scissors are crushed by rock. This simple game is popular among children and adults to decide on trivial disputes that have no obvious winner, but cyclic dominance is also at the heart of predatorprey interactions, the mating strategy of side-blotched lizards, the overgrowth of marine sessile organisms and competition in microbial populations. Cyclical interactions also emerge spontaneously in evolutionary games entailing volunteering, reward, punishment, and in fact are common when the competing strategies are three or more, regardless of the particularities of the game. Here, we review recent advances on the rockpaperscissors (RPS) and related evolutionary games, focusing, in particular, on pattern formation, the impact of mobility and the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance. We also review mean-field and zero-dimensional RPS models and the application of the complex GinzburgLandau equation, and we highlight the importance and usefulness of statistical physics for the successful study of large-scale ecological systems. Directions for future research, related, for example, to dynamical effects of coevolutionary rules and invasion reversals owing to multi-point interactions, are also outlined. PMID:25232048

Szolnoki, Attila; Mobilia, Mauro; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Szczesny, Bartosz; Rucklidge, Alastair M.; Perc, Matja



Status of the Fatigue Studies on the CLIC Accelerating Structures  

E-print Network

The need for high accelerating gradients for the future multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) imposes considerable constraints on the materials of the accelerating structures. The surfaces exposed to high pulsed RF (Radio Frequency) currents are subject to cyclic thermal stresses which are expected to induce surface break up by fatigue. Since no fatigue data exists in the literature up to very large numbers of cycles and for the particular stress pattern present in RF cavities, a comprehensive study of copper alloys in this parameter range has been initiated. Fatigue data for selected copper alloys in different states are presented

Calatroni, S; Neupert, H; Wuensch, Walter; CERN. Geneva



Acceleration without Horizons  

E-print Network

We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

Alaric Doria; Gerardo Munoz



Acceleration without Horizons  

E-print Network

We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

Doria, Alaric



Cyclic Failure Mechanisms of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems Under Thermal Gradient Test Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 and mullite+BSAS/Si multilayer thermal and environmental barrier coating (TBC-EBC) systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrates were thermally cyclic tested under high thermal gradients using a laser high-heat-flux rig in conjunction with furnace exposure in water-vapor environments. Coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after exposure. Sintering kinetics of the coating systems were also independently characterized using a dilatometer. It was found that the coating failure involved both the time-temperature dependent sintering and the cycle frequency dependent cyclic fatigue processes. The water vapor environments not only facilitated the initial coating conductivity increases due to enhanced sintering and interface reaction, but also promoted later conductivity reductions due to the accelerated coating cracking and delamination. The failure mechanisms of the coating systems are also discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering and thermal stress behavior under the thermal gradient test conditions.

Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.



Long-Term Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Wrought Commercial Alloys at High Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation resistance of a high-temperature alloy is dependent upon sustaining the formation of a protective scale, which is strongly related to the alloying composition and the oxidation condition. The protective oxide scale only provides a finite period of oxidation resistance owing to its eventual breakdown, which is especially accelerated under thermal cycling conditions. This current study focuses on the long-term cyclic oxidation behavior of a number of commercial wrought alloys. The alloys studied were Fe- and Ni-based, containing different levels of minor elements, such as Si, Al, Mn, and Ti. Oxidation testing was conducted at 1000 and 1100 C in still air under both isothermal and thermal cycling conditions (1-day and 7-days). The specific aspects studied were the oxidation behavior of chromia-forming alloys that are used extensively in industry. The current study analyzed the effects of alloying elements, especially the effect of minor element Si, on cyclic oxidation resistance. The behavior of oxide scale growth, scale spallation, subsurface changes, and chromium interdiffusion in the alloy were analyzed in detail. A novel model was developed in the current study to predict the life-time during cyclic oxidation by simulating oxidation kinetics and chromium interdiffusion in the subsurface of chromia-forming alloys.

Bingtao Li



Uptake of Cyclic AMP by Natural Populations of Marine Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The major objective of this study was to describe the mechanism(s) of cyclic AMP uptake by natural populations of marine bacteria. A second objective was to determine whether this uptake could contribute to the intracellular regulatory pool of cyclic AMP. Using high-specific-activity 32P-labeled cyclic AMP, we found several high-affinity uptake systems. The highest-affinity system had a half-saturation constant of <10 pM. This system was extremely specific for cyclic nucleotides, particularly cyclic AMP. It appeared to meet the criteria for active transport. Uptake of cyclic AMP over a wide concentration range (up to 2 ?M) showed multiphasic kinetics, with half-saturation constants of 1 nM and greater. These lower-affinity systems were much less specific for cyclic nucleotides. Although much of the labeled cyclic AMP taken up by the high-affinity systems was metabolized, some remained as intact cyclic AMP within the cells during 1 h of incubation. This suggests that at least some of the bacteria use cyclic AMP dissolved in seawater to augment their intracellular pools. PMID:16345995

Ammerman, James W.; Azam, Farooq



Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein-Aequorin Molecular Switch for Cyclic AMP  

PubMed Central

Molecular switches are designer molecules that combine the functionality of two individual proteins into one, capable of manifesting an on/off signal in response to a stimulus. These switches have unique properties and functionalities and thus, can be employed as nanosensors in a variety of applications. To that end, we have developed a bioluminescent molecular switch for cyclic AMP. Bioluminescence offers many advantages over fluorescence and other detection methods including the fact that there is essentially zero background signal in physiological fluids, allowing for more sensitive detection and monitoring. The switch was created by combining the properties of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), a transcriptional regulatory protein from E. coli that binds selectively to cAMP with those of aequorin, a bioluminescent photoprotein native of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Genetic manipulation to split the genetic coding sequence of aequorin in two and genetically attach the fragments to the N and C termini of CRP, resulted in a hybrid protein molecular switch. The conformational change experienced by CRP upon the binding of cyclic AMP is suspected to result in the observed loss of bioluminescent signal from aequorin. The on/off bioluminescence can be modulated by cyclic AMP over a range of several orders of magnitude in a linear fashion in addition to the capacity to detect changes in cellular cyclic AMP of intact cells exposed to different external stimuli without the need to lyse the cells. We envision that the molecular switch could find applications in vitro as well as in vivo cyclic AMP detection and/or imaging. PMID:21329338

Scott, Daniel; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Ensor, C. Mark; Anderson, Kimberly W.; Daunert, Sylvia



Accelerated cleanup risk reduction  

SciTech Connect

There is no proven technology for remediating contaminant plume source regions in a heterogeneous subsurface. This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop the requisite new technologies so that will be rapidly accepted by the remediation community. Our technology focus is hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) which is a novel in situ thermal technique. We have expanded this core technology to leverage the action of steam injection and place an in situ microbial filter downstream to intercept and destroy the accelerated movement of contaminated groundwater. Most contaminant plume source regions, including the chlorinated solvent plume at LLNL, are in subsurface media characterized by a wide range in hydraulic conductivity. At LLNL, the main conduits for contaminant transport are buried stream channels composed of gravels and sands; these have a hydraulic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -2} cm/s. Clay and silt units with a hydraulic conductivity of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} cm/s bound these buried channels; these are barriers to groundwater movement and contain the highest contaminant concentrations in the source region. New remediation technologies are required because the current ones preferentially access the high conductivity units. HPO is an innovative process for the in situ destruction of contaminants in the entire subsurface. It operates by the injection of steam. We have demonstrated in laboratory experiments that many contaminants rapidly oxidize to harmless compounds at temperatures easily achieved by injecting steam, provided sufficient dissolved oxygen is present. One important challenge in a heterogeneous source region is getting heat, contaminants, and an oxidizing agent in the same place at the same time. We have used the NUFT computer program to simulate the cyclic injection of steam into a contaminated aquifer for design of a field demonstration. We used an 8 hour, steam/oxygen injection cycle followed by a 56 hour relaxation period in which the well was `capped`. Our results show the formation of an inclined gas phase during injection and a fast collapse of the steam zone within an hour of terminating steam injection. The majority of destruction occurs during the collapse phase, when contaminant laden water is drawn back towards the well. Little to no noncondensible gasses are created in this process, removing any possibility of sparging processes interfering with contaminant destruction. Our models suggest that the thermal region should be as hot and as large as possible. To have HPO accepted, we need to demonstrate the in situ destruction of contaminants. This requires the ability to inexpensively sample at depth and under high temperatures. We proved the ability to implies monitoring points at depths exceeding 150 feet in highly heterogeneous soils by use of cone penetrometry. In addition, an extractive system has been developed for sampling fluids and measuring their chemistry under the range of extreme conditions expected. We conducted a collaborative field test of HPO at a Superfund site in southern California where the contaminant is mainly creosote and pentachlorophenol. Field results confirm the destruction of contaminants by HPO, validate our field design from simulations, demonstrate that accurate field measurements of the critical fluid parameters can be obtained using existing monitoring wells (and minimal capital cost) and yield reliable cost estimates for future commercial application. We also tested the in situ microbial filter technology as a means to intercept and destroy the accelerated flow of contaminants caused by the injection of steam. A series of laboratory and field tests revealed that the selected bacterial species effectively degrades trichloroethene in LLNL Groundwater and under LLNL site conditions. In addition, it was demonstrated that the bacteria effectively attach to the LLNL subsurface media. An in-well treatability study indicated that the bacteria initially degrade greater than 99% of the contaminant, to concentrations less than regulatory limit

Knapp, R.B.; Aines, R.M.; Blake, R.G.; Copeland, A.B.; Newmark, R.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.



The role of peel stresses in cyclic debonding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When an adhesively bonded joint is undergoing cyclic loading, one of the possible damage modes that occurs is called cyclic debonding - progressive separation of the adherends by failure of the adhesive bond under cyclic loading. In most practical structures, both peel and shear stresses exist in the adhesive bonding during cyclic loading. The results of an experimental and analytical study to determine the role of peel stresses on cyclic debonding in a mixed mode specimen are presented. Experimentally, this was done by controlling the forces that create the peel stresses by applying a clamping force to oppose the peel stresses. Cracked lap shear joints were chosen for this study. A finite element analysis was developed to assess the effect of the clamping force on the strain energy release rates due to shear and peel stresses. The results imply that the peel stress is the principal stress causing cyclic debonding.

Everett, R. A., Jr.



Cyclic Dinucleotides and the Innate Immune Response  

PubMed Central

Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) have been previously recognized as important secondary signaling molecules in bacteria and, more recently, in mammalian cells. In the former case, they represent secondary messengers affecting numerous responses of the prokaryotic cell, whereas in the latter, they act as agonists of the innate immune response. Remarkable new discoveries have linked these two patterns of utilization of CDNs as secondary messengers and have revealed unexpected influences they likely had on shaping human genetic variation. This Review summarizes these recent insights and provides a perspective on future unanswered questions in this exciting field. PMID:23993090

Danilchanka, Olga; Mekalanos, John J.



Improved plasma accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

Cheng, D. Y.



A Solid state accelerator  

SciTech Connect

We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 10/sup 5/ TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.



May Cyclic Nucleotides Be a Source for Abiotic RNA Synthesis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleic bases are obtained by heating formamide in the presence of various catalysts. Formamide chemistry also allows the formation of acyclonucleosides and the phosphorylation of nucleosides in every possible position, also affording 2',3' and 3',5' cyclic forms. We have reported that 3',5' cyclic GMP and 3',5' cyclic AMP polymerize in abiotic conditions yielding short oligonucleotides. The characterization of this reaction is being pursued, several of its parameters have been determined and experimental caveats are reported. The yield of non-enzymatic polymerization of cyclic purine nucleotides is very low. Polymerization is strongly enhanced by the presence of base-complementary RNA sequences.

Costanzo, Giovanna; Pino, Samanta; Botta, Giorgia; Saladino, Raffaele; di Mauro, Ernesto



Acceleration-Induced Nonlocality  

E-print Network

The standard relativistic theory of accelerated reference frames in Minkowski spacetime is described. The measurements of accelerated observers are considered and the limitations of the standard theory, based on the hypothesis of locality, are pointed out. The physical principles of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers are presented. The implications of the nonlocal theory are briefly discussed.

Bahram Mashhoon



Acceleration: It's Elementary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between

Willis, Mariam



Direction of Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this short lab, students observe the movement of an air bubble in a small level, attached to a toy truck, as it is moved from a stop, to a steady speed and back to a stop. This gives a visual to the concepts positive acceleration, zero acceleration and negative acceleration.

Mary Spaulding, Clearbrook-Gonvick Public School, Clearbrook Minnesota, based on an original activity from Physics Principles and Problems (1995) page 75.


Force, mass and acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Force, mass and acceleration are everyday words but often used inaccurately. Force is a physical influence, which when applied to an object causes it to accelerate in the direction from which it was applied. Mass is the amount of matter in an object and is expressed in kilograms. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object in

Phil Dalrymple; Richard Griffiths



Angular Acceleration without Torque?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

Kaufman, Richard D.



Accelerating Research with  

E-print Network

Accelerating Academic Research with Cloud Computing Published: September 2014 For the latest information, please see #12;Accelerating Academic Research with Cloud Computing............................................................................................................................................................11 #12;1 Accelerating Academic Research with Cloud Computing Overview Universities today face

Bernstein, Phil



Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of an Ultrafine Particle Radio Frequency Quadrupole (UFP-RFQ) accelerator is discussed. The results indicate that it is possible to accelerate 1 pm radius Al particles to velocities around 100 km\\/s in 100 m RFQ length. This accelerator can provide variable output particle velocity, with capability of handling different particle materials with different sizes. There are scientific, industrial

D. A. Swenson; A. E. Dabiri; Z. Mikic; D. B. McCall; M. F. Scharff


Theoretical Studies of Some HEDM Species: Cyclic O4, Cyclic O3 and Cubane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations have been carried out for the HEDM species (cyclic O4, cyclic O3, and cubane) using CASSCF/derivative and CASSCF/ICCI methods. Cyclic O4 is of interest both as a potential HEDM species and because of its possible role in the ozone deficit problem in atmospheric chemistry. We have studied the pathway for decomposition from the D(2d) minimum and also have found the approximate location of the singlet triplet crossing. The barrier to decomposition is found to be about 9 kcal/mol and is not limited by the singlet triplet crossing. For cyclic O3 we have focused on the crossings between the lowest five surfaces (X(1)A(1), s(1)A(1), (1)A(2), (1)B(1), and (1)B(2)) to provide some insight into ways to form cyclic O3 photochemically. The crossing region between the X(1)A(1) and 2(1)A(1) surfaces is in agreement with the work of Xantheas et al. The calculations show that vertical excitation from the ground state to the (1)A(2) state leads to a crossing with the (1)A(1) manifold near the crossing region of the X(1)A(1) and 2(1)A(1) surfaces. We have studied the decomposition pathways for cubane to benzene plus acetylene and to cyclooctatetraene. We have also studied the ground and excited states for the photochemical ring closure step. The state which closes to cubane can be described as a double triplet pi to pi* excitation with respect to the ground state. Thus, this state has only a small oscillator strength with respect to the ground state. However, there is a singlet pi to pi* state at nearly the same energy and excitation to this state followed by intersystem crossing could lead to the triplet pi to pi* state.

Walch, Stephen P.; Langhoff, Steve R. (Technical Monitor)



Radioiodination of aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfates.  


Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), (124)I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes (124)I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel (124)I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [(124)I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester. PMID:23135631

Mushti, Chandra; Papisov, Mikhail I Papisov I



Backstress, The Bauschinger Effect, and Cyclic Deformation  

SciTech Connect

Backstresses or long range internal stresses (LRIS) in the past have been suggested by many to exist in plastically deformed crystalline materials. Elevated stresses can be present in regions of elevated dislocation density or dislocation heterogeneities in the deformed microstructures. The heterogeneities include edge dislocation dipole bundles (veins) and the edge dipole walls of persistent slip bands (PSBs) in cyclically deformed materials and cell and subgrain walls in monotonically deformed materials. The existence of long range internal stress is especially important for the understanding of cyclic deformation and also monotonic deformation. X-ray microbeam diffraction experiments performed by the authors using synchrotron x-ray microbeams determined the elastic strains within the cell interiors. The studies were performed using, oriented, monotonically deformed Cu single crystals. The results demonstrate that small long-range internal stresses are present in cell interiors. These LRIS vary substantially from cell to cell as 0% to 50% of the applied stress. The results are related to the Bauschinger effect, often explained in terms of LRIS.

Kassner, Michael E. [University of Southern California; Geantil, P. [University of Southern California; Levine, Lyle E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Larson, Ben C [ORNL



Backstress, the Bauschinger Effect and Cyclic Deformation  

SciTech Connect

Backstresses or long range internal stresses (LRIS) in the past have been suggested by many to exist in plastically deformed crystalline materials. Elevated stresses can be present in regions of elevated dislocation density or dislocation heterogeneities in the deformed microstructures. The heterogeneities include edge dislocation dipole bundles (veins) and the edge dipole walls of persistent slip bands (PSBs) in cyclically deformed materials and cell and subgrain walls in monotonically deformed materials. The existence of long range internal stress is especially important for the understanding of cyclic deformation and also monotonic deformation. X-ray microbeam diffraction experiments performed by the authors using synchrotron x-ray microbeams determined the elastic strains within the cell interiors. The studies were performed using, oriented, monotonically deformed Cu single crystals. The results demonstrate that small long-range internal stresses are present in cell interiors. These LRIS vary substantially from cell to cell as 0 % to 50 % of the applied stress. The results are related to the Bauschinger effect, often explained in terms of LRIS.

Kassner, Michael E. [University of Southern California; Geantil, P. [University of Southern California; Levine, Lyle E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Larson, Ben C [ORNL



Effect of Registration on Cyclical Kinematic Data  

PubMed Central

Given growing interest in Functional Data Analysis (FDA) as a useful method for analyzing human movement data, it is critical to understand the effects of standard FDA procedures, including registration, on biomechanical analyses. Registration is used to reduce phase variability between curves while preserving the individual curves shape and amplitude. The application of three methods available to assess registration could benefit those in the biomechanics community using FDA techniques: comparison of mean curves, comparison of average RMS values, and assessment of time-warping functions. Therefore, the present study has two purposes. First, the necessity of registration applied to cyclical data after time normalization is assessed. Second, we illustrate the three methods for evaluating registration effects. Masticatory jaw movements of 22 healthy adults (2 males, 21 females) were tracked while subjects chewed a gum-based pellet for 20 seconds. Motion data were captured at 60 Hz with two gen-locked video cameras. Individual chewing cycles were time normalized and then transformed into functional observations. Registration did not affect mean curves and warping functions were linear. Although registration decreased the RMS, indicating a decrease in inter-subject variability, the difference was not statistically significant. Together these results indicate that registration may not always be necessary for cyclical chewing data. An important contribution of this paper is the illustration of three methods for evaluating registration that are easy to apply and useful for judging whether the extra data manipulation is necessary. PMID:20537335

Crane, Elizabeth A.; Cassidy, Ruth B.; Rothman, Edward D.; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.



Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP may play opposing roles in influencing force of contraction in mammalian myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYCLIC AMP and cyclic GMP have been suggested to play opposing regulatory roles in several biological systems1. Supporting evidence for the yin yang hypothesis of opposing biological regulation has been obtained in sympathetic ganglia2,3 and pyramidal neurones in the rat cerebral cortex4. In the mammalian heart, the role of cyclic AMP in mediating the positive inotropic response to catecholamines was

Hermann Nawrath



Role of ecdysone, pupariation factors, and cyclic AMP in formation and tanning of the puparium of the fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata  

PubMed Central

Two pupariation factors, anterior retraction factor (ARF) and puparium tanning factor (PTF), are absent from the hemolymph of larvae at the time of tanning accelerated by ARF/PTF, cyclic AMP, or dopamine. ARF and PTF are not involved in derepression of dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase, aromatic L-amino-acid carboxy-lyase, EC synthesis initiated by ecdysone. Tanning is entirely inhibited by injection of two transcriptional inhibitors, actinomycin and BrdUrd, and two translational inhibitors, puromycin and cycloheximide. Retraction activity is more severely inhibited by the transcriptional than by the translational inhibitors. A tanning response is initiated by cyclic AMP in the presence of the transcriptional but not the translational inhibitors. Dihydric tanning substances (dopa, dopamine) initiate tanning in the presence of both types of inhibitors. Release of ARF and PTF from the central nervous system is inhibited by the four inhibitors. ARF totally reverses the inhibitory effects on retraction, whereas PTF does not reverse inhibition of tanning. These data are interpreted to mean that PTF is concerned with the regulation of two components of the tanning response: (i) acceleration of synthesis of a particular protein (associated with the tyrosine hydroxylation complex), and (ii) activation via cyclic AMP of a component of the tyrosine hydroxylating system. PMID:16592458

Seligman, Morris; Blechl, Ann; Blechl, James; Herman, Paul; Fraenkel, G.



Seismic Performance of Square Reinforced Concrete Columns under Combined Cyclic Flexural and Torsional Loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an experimental investigation on the behavior of reinforced concrete cantilevered columns subjected to combined cyclic bending and torsional loading. Seven columnar specimens with the same structural properties were tested under various loading conditions: cyclic torsion, cyclic uniaxial bending, and combined cyclic torsion and cyclic uniaxial bending with and without a constant axial compression force. Several combinations of

P. Tirasit; K. Kawashima



Entanglement of Accelerating Particles  

E-print Network

We study how the entanglement of a maximally entangled pair of particles is affected when one or both of the pair are uniformly accelerated, while the detector remains in an inertial frame. We find that the entanglement is unchanged if all degrees of freedom are considered. However, particle pairs are produced, and the entanglements of different bipartite systems may change with the acceleration. In particular, the entanglement between accelerating fermions is transferred preferentially to the produced antiparticles when the acceleration is large, and the entanglement transfer is complete when the acceleration approaches infinity. However, for scalar particles, no entanglement transfer to the antiparticles is observed.

W. L. Ku; M. -C. Chu



High brightness electron accelerator  


A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM); Young, Lloyd M. (Los Alamos, NM)



Acceleration in astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

Colgate, S.A.



Frequency dependence of cyclic AMP in mammalian myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH there is now good evidence that cyclic AMP is a mediator of positive inotropic effects of catecholamines in the heart, the details of the metabolism of this nucleotide in the intact myocardial cells are still unknown. It has been shown that the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP oscillates during each contraction cycle of the frog heart1,2. But little information

M. Endoh; O. E. Brodde; D. Reinhardt; H. J. Schmann



Nitric Oxide/Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling in the Central  

E-print Network

Nitric Oxide/Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling in the Central Complex of the Grasshopper oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway. The nitric oxide-donor sodium inhibited singing. To identify pu- tative sources of nitric oxide, brains of Ch. biguttulus were subjected

Ganter, Geoffrey


Efficient tracking of cyclic human motion by component motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of techniques are presented for Bayesian tracking of cyclic human motion based on decomposing a complex cyclic motion into component motions. Phases of the component motions are defined and two different mechanisms for coupling the phases are described: importance sampling and an observation model. The intensity of coupling is adaptively adjusted during tracking such that strong coupling is

Cheng Chang; Rashid Ansari; Ashfaq Khokhar



High-Temperature Cyclic Oxidation Data, Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This first in a series of cyclic oxidation handbooks contains specific-weight-change-versus-time data and X-ray diffraction results derived from high-temperature cyclic tests on high-temperature, high-strength nickel-base gamma/gamma' and cobalt-base turbine alloys. Each page of data summarizes a complete test on a given alloy sample.

Barrett, C. A.; Garlick, R. G.; Lowell, C. E.



Classifying spaces with virtually cyclic stabilizers for linear groups.  

E-print Network

We show that every discrete subgroup of $\\mathrm{GL}(n,\\mathbb{R})$ admits a finite dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers. Applying our methods to $\\mathrm{SL}(3,\\mathbb{Z})$, we obtain a four dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers and a decomposition of the algebraic $K$-theory of its group ring.

Dieter Degrijse; Ralf Khl; Nansen Petrosyan.


Reproductive changes in a cyclic population of snowshoe hares  

E-print Network

Abstract: Reproductive output was estimated for a cyclic population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanusIntroduction The causes of cyclic fluctuations in density of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations have been rendement de la reproduction a été estimé chez une population cyclique de Lièvres d'Amérique (Lepus

Krebs, Charles J.


Card-cyclic-to-random shuffling with Johan Jonasson  

E-print Network

Card-cyclic-to-random shuffling with relabeling Johan Jonasson March 11, 2014 Abstract The card-cyclic-to-random shuffle is the card shuffle where the n cards are labeled 1, . . . , n according to their starting positions. Then the cards are mixed by first picking card 1 from the deck and reinserting it at a uniformly

Jonasson, Johan


Variation potential influence on photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in pea  

PubMed Central

Cyclic electron flow is an important component of the total photosynthetic electron flow and participates in adaptation to the action of stressors. Local leaf stimulation induces electrical signals, including variation potential (VP), which inactivate photosynthesis; however, their influence on cyclic electron flow has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate VP's influence on cyclic electron flow in pea (Pisum sativum L.). VP was induced in pea seedling leaves by local heating and measured in an adjacent, undamaged leaf by extracellular electrodes. CO2 assimilation was measured using a portable gas exchange measuring system. Photosystem I and II parameters were investigated using a measuring system for simultaneous assessment of P700 oxidation and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heating-induced VP reduced CO2 assimilation and electron flow through photosystem II. In response, cyclic electron flow rapidly decreased and subsequently slowly increased. Slow increases in cyclic flow were caused by decreased electron flow through photosystem II, which was mainly connected with VP-induced photosynthetic dark stage inactivation. However, direct influence by VP on photosystem I also participated in activation of cyclic electron flow. Thus, VP, induced by local leaf-heating, activated cyclic electron flow in undamaged leaves. This response was similar to photosynthetic changes observed under the direct action of stressors. Possible mechanisms of VP's influence on cyclic flow were discussed. PMID:25610447

Sukhov, Vladimir; Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Katicheva, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir



Severe combined immune deficiency presenting with cyclic hematopoiesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

At age 2 months a male infant presented with a cyclic clinical syndrome every 1421 days that included pharyngeal aphthous ulcers, high fever, lymphadenopathy, pallor, and malaise. Serial blood studies indicated cycling of all blood cell elements, compatible with a diagnosis of cyclic hematopoiesis (CH). He also manifested a progressively severe immune deficiency, not described before in human CH. When

Anne K. Junker; Man-Chiu Poon; David I. Hoar; Paul C. J. Rogers



Building explicit induction schemas for cyclic induction reasoning  

E-print Network

Building explicit induction schemas for cyclic induction reasoning Sorin Stratulat Université de-based induction reasoning are distin- guished: cyclic and structural. Proving their equivalence is of great the- oretical and practical interest for the automated reasoning community. In [3,4], it has been shown how

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Dietary cyclic dipeptides, apoptosis and psychiatric disorders: a hypothesis.  


Cyclic dipeptides from food and intestinal yeast cyclic dipeptides may play a role in causing psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. From cancer research, cyclic dipeptides such as cyclo (proline-phenylalanine) have been found to activate the pathways of apoptosis and to cause programmed cell death. Activation of such pathways is also thought to be important in causing the neurodevelopmental abnormalities seen in disorders such as schizophrenia and autistic disorder, and also may be important in Alzheimer's. Cyclic dipeptides are found in foods such as malt and cocoa and beer. The intestinal yeast Candida albicans also synthesizes cyclic dipeptides. These dipeptides may be activating apoptosis pathways throughout fetal development and postnatal development, leading to some of the changes seen in brain in schizophrenia and in other psychiatric disorders. These compounds should be researched further to see if they play a role in causing these brain changes. In addition, these cyclic dipeptides are considered within the larger context of research on amino acids and other cyclic dipeptides in neurotransmission and neurophysiology. A better understanding of the role of these cyclic dipeptides in psychiatric disorders could lead to strategies for prevention and treatment of these disorders. PMID:24717821

Semon, Bruce A



Is the downturn in maquiladora employment cyclical or structural?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cyclical and structural factors on the decline of maquiladora employment. In addition to the US industrial production, the cyclical factors examined are relative Mexican US wages, the Mexican exchange rate relative to the US, and US foreign direct investment (FDI). The paper also explores the effect of

Kusum Mundra; Jim Gerber




EPA Science Inventory

Rajender S. Varma* and Yong-Jin Kim Cyclic ureas are useful intermediates for a variety of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. One of the attractive approaches for the synthesis of cyclic ureas uses condensation of diamines with urea as a carbonyl source under dynamic evacuation. ...


Technology evaluation of man-rated acceleration test equipment for vestibular research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The considerations for eliminating acceleration noise cues in horizontal, linear, cyclic-motion sleds intended for both ground and shuttle-flight applications are addressed. the principal concerns are the acceleration transients associated with change in direction-of-motion for the carriage. The study presents a design limit for acceleration cues or transients based upon published measurements for thresholds of human perception to linear cyclic motion. The sources and levels for motion transients are presented based upon measurements obtained from existing sled systems. The approaches to a noise-free system recommends the use of air bearings for the carriage support and moving-coil linear induction motors operating at low frequency as the drive system. Metal belts running on air bearing pulleys provide an alternate approach to the driving system. The appendix presents a discussion of alternate testing techniques intended to provide preliminary type data by means of pendulums, linear motion devices and commercial air bearing tables.

Taback, I.; Kenimer, R. L.; Butterfield, A. J.



Statistical cyclicity of the supercontinent cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supercontinents like Pangea impose a first-order control on Earth's evolution as they modulate global heat loss, sea level, climate, and biodiversity. In a traditional view, supercontinents form and break up in a regular, perhaps periodic, manner in a cycle lasting several 100 Myr as reflected in the assembly times of Earth's major continental aggregations: Columbia, Rodinia, and Pangea. However, modern views of the supercontinent cycle propose a more irregular evolution on the basis of an improved understanding of the Precambrian geologic record. Here we use fully dynamic spherical mantle convection models featuring plate-like behavior and continental drift to investigate supercontinent formation and breakup. We further dismiss the concept of regularity but suggest a statistical cyclicity in which the supercontinent cycle may have a characteristic period imposed by mantle and lithosphere properties, but this is hidden in immense fluctuations between different cycles that arise from the chaotic nature of mantle flow.

Rolf, T.; Coltice, N.; Tackley, P. J.



The prognosis of cyclical vomiting syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIMSThe medium term prognosis of cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) was studied to determine the proportion of affected individuals who had gone on to develop headaches fulfilling the International Headache Society criteria for migraine.?METHODSTwenty six (76%) of 34 CVS sufferers identified from the authors' clinical records were traced, and all agreed to participate. Each child was matched to a control, and telephone interviews were conducted using a standardised questionnaire.?RESULTSThirteen (50%) of the subjects had continuing CVS and/or migraine headaches while the remainder were currently asymptomatic. The prevalence of past or present migraine headaches in subjects (46%) was significantly higher than in the control population (12%).?CONCLUSIONResults support the concept that CVS is closely related to migraine.?? PMID:11124785

Dignan, F; Symon, D; AbuArafeh, I; Russell, G



Cyclic steps incised on experimental bedrock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rivers flowing in mountain areas, a series of steps are often observed on bedrock. They are thought to be cyclic steps formed due to erosion of bedrock, which should be driven by abrasion due to bedload sediment transport. We demonstrated a series of flume experiments of the formation of cyclic steps on bedrock by abrasion due to bedload transportation using weak mortar as the model bedrock. We also compared the shapes of the steps reproduced in the experiments with those obtained in the analysis. The experiments were conducted using a 1.5 m long, 2 cm wide, and 20 cm deep flume made of glass in Osaka Institute of Technology. The flume has 10-cm-high weirs at both ends, so that there is a 10-cm-deep reservoir. We put mortar into the reservoir and hardened it. In order to make a highly erodible mortar, we casted the mortar with extremely low amount of cement. The ratio of cement, sand (0.2 mm in diameter), and water is x:150:50 (x ranges 1-3). The flume is tilted by 10 degrees. The water and colored sand is supplied from a head tank to the upstream end of the flume, flows on 'model bedrock' in the flume, and was dropped from the downstream end. We observed morphological changes of the surface of the bedrock by photos. We also used a laser displacement sensor to measure the surface topography of the 'model bedrock' before and after each run. The configuration of steps largely depends on the hardness of model bedrocks. In the case of the softest model bedrock (cement-sand-water ratio is 1:150:50) with small amount of sand, long-drawn potholes tend to be formed. Clear cyclic steps are formed on harder model bedrocks with large cement-sand-water ratios such as 2:150:50 and 3:150:50. When a series of steps are formed on the bed, typical wavelength and wave height are approximately 20 cm, and 2 - 3 cm, respectively. The general shape of a step is characterized by a relatively long downward-inclined slope just upstream of a short upward-inclined slope. The feature of the step shape has been predicted by the mathematical model (Izumi et al., 2012). Among three cases of sediment supply: 1 g/sec, 3 g/sec, and 6 g/sec with fixed water discharge (52 g/sec), the erosion rate was maximized in the cases of the sediment supply of 3 g/sec both in the cement-sand-water ratios of 2:150:50 and 3:150:50. The erosion rate is higher in the case of the moderate amount of sediment supply rather than in the case of the largest amount of sediment supply in which the alluvial cover effect inhibited erosion. This result is consistent with that observed in previous studies (Sklar & Dietrich, 2004; Johnson & Whipple, 2010). References Izumi, N., Yokokawa, M. & Parker G. 2012. Cyclic step morphology formed on bedrock. Annual Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 68(4) : I_955-I_960. Johnson, J.P.L. & Whipple, K.X. 2010. Evaluating the controls of shear stress, sediment supply, alluvial cover, and channel morphology on experimental bedrock incision rate. Journal of Geophysical Research 115, F02018, doi:10.1029/2009JF001335. Sklar, L.S. & Dietrich, W.E. 2004. A mechanistic model for river incision into bedrock by sultating bedload. Water Resources Re-search 40, W06301, doi:10.1029/2003WR002496.

Yokokawa, M.; Kyogoku, A.; Kotera, A.; Izumi, N.



Cyclic dipeptides: from bugs to brain.  


Cyclic dipeptides (CDPs) are a group of hormone-like molecules that are evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans. In bacteria, CDPs are used in quorum sensing (QS) to communicate information about population size and to regulate a behavioural switch from symbiosis with their host to virulence. In mammals, CDPs have been shown to act on glial cells (macrophage-like cells) to control a conceptually homologous behavioural switch between homeostatic and inflammatory modes, with implications for the control of neurodegenerative disease. Here we argue that, because of their capacity to regulate inflammation via glial cells and induce a protective response in neuronal cells, CDPs have potential therapeutic utility in an array of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25217340

Bellezza, Ilaria; Peirce, Matthew J; Minelli, Alba



Porcine catabolin stimulates prostaglandin E2 secretion but does not affect intracellular cyclic AMP production in pig synovial fibroblasts.  

PubMed Central

Responses in vitro to partially purified porcine leucocyte catabolin were studied in pig synovial fibroblasts.In serum-free cultures catabolin was found to stimulate secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The initial stimulation of PGE2 secretion occurred only after a latent interval of six hours. In the same cell line catabolin was found to have no effect on the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) at times ranging from 30 s to 20 min, even at concentrations up to 15 times greater than that required to promote accelerated release of glycosaminoglycans from cultured bovine nasal cartilage. It is therefore concluded that in pig synovial fibroblasts catabolin evokes a delayed secretion of PGE2 but does not alter cyclic AMP production. PMID:2994582

Carroll, G J



Cyclic phosphatidic acid relieves osteoarthritis symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. Natural cPA and its chemically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA (2ccPA), inhibit chronic and acute inflammation, and 2ccPA attenuates neuropathic pain. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease frequently associated with symptoms such as inflammation and joint pain. Because 2ccPA has obvious antinociceptive activity, we hypothesized that 2ccPA might relieve the pain caused by OA. We aimed to characterize the effects of 2ccPA on the pathogenesis of OA induced by total meniscectomy in the rabbit knee joint. Results Intra-articular injection of 2ccPA (twice a week for 42days) significantly reduced pain and articular swelling. Histopathology showed that 2ccPA suppressed cartilage degeneration in OA. We also examined the effects of 2ccPA on the inflammatory and catabolic responses of human OA synoviocytes and chondrosarcoma SW1353 cells in vitro. 2ccPA stimulated synthesis of hyaluronic acid and suppressed production of the metalloproteinases MMP-1, -3, and -13. However, it had no effect on the production of interleukin (IL)-6, an inflammatory cytokine. The suppressive effect of 2ccPA on MMP-1 and -3 production in synoviocytes and on MMP-13 production in SW1353 cells was not mediated by the lysophosphatidic acid receptor, LPA1 receptor (LPA1R). Conclusions Our results suggest that 2ccPA significantly reduces the pain response to OA by inducing hyaluronic acid production and suppressing MMP-1, -3, and -13 production in synoviocytes and chondrocytes. PMID:25123228



Computational properties and convergence analysis of BPNN for cyclic and almost cyclic learning with penalty.  


Weight decay method as one of classical complexity regularization methods is simple and appears to work well in some applications for backpropagation neural networks (BPNN). This paper shows results for the weak and strong convergence for cyclic and almost cyclic learning BPNN with penalty term (CBP-P and ACBP-P). The convergence is guaranteed under certain relaxed conditions for activation functions, learning rate and under the assumption for the stationary set of error function. Furthermore, the boundedness of the weights in the training procedure is obtained in a simple and clear way. Numerical simulations are implemented to support our theoretical results and demonstrate that ACBP-P has better performance than CBP-P on both convergence speed and generalization ability. PMID:22622263

Wang, Jian; Wu, Wei; Zurada, Jacek M



Convergence of cyclic and almost-cyclic learning with momentum for feedforward neural networks.  


Two backpropagation algorithms with momentum for feedforward neural networks with a single hidden layer are considered. It is assumed that the training samples are supplied to the network in a cyclic or an almost-cyclic fashion in the learning procedure, i.e., in each training cycle, each sample of the training set is supplied in a fixed or a stochastic order respectively to the network exactly once. A restart strategy for the momentum is adopted such that the momentum coefficient is set to zero at the beginning of each training cycle. Corresponding weak and strong convergence results are then proved, indicating that the gradient of the error function goes to zero and the weight sequence goes to a fixed point, respectively. The convergence conditions on the learning rate, the momentum coefficient, and the activation functions are much relaxed compared with those of the existing results. PMID:21813357

Wang, Jian; Yang, Jie; Wu, Wei



Opposite effects of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP on Ca2+ current in single heart cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow inward Ca2+ current, ICa, is fundamental in the initiation of cardiac contraction and neurohormonal regulation of cardiac function1. It is increased by beta-adrenergic agonists, which stimulate synthesis of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation2-4. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine reduces ICa5-7 by an unknown mechanism8,9. There is strong evidence that acetylcholine reduces ICa by decreasing adenylate cyclase activity7, but cGMP

H. Criss Hartzell; Rodolphe Fischmeister



Linking numbers in rational homology 3-spheres, cyclic branched covers and infinite cyclic covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the linking numbers in a rational homology 3-sphere and in the infinite cyclic cover of the complement of a knot. They take values in $\\\\Bbb Q$ and in ${Q}({\\\\Bbb Z}[t,t^{-1}])$ respectively, where ${Q}({\\\\Bbb Z}[t,t^{-1}])$ denotes the quotient field of ${\\\\Bbb Z}[t,t^{-1}]$. It is known that the modulo-$\\\\Bbb Z$ linking number in the rational homology 3-sphere is determined by

Jozef H. Przytycki; Akira Yasuhara




SciTech Connect

The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S E



Linear induction accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A linear induction accelerator of charged particles, containing inductors and an acceleration circuit, characterized by the fact that, for the purpose of increasing the power of the accelerator, each inductor is made in the form of a toroidal line with distributed parameters, from one end of which in the gap of the line a ring commutator is included, and from the other end of the ine a resistor is hooked up, is described.

Bosamykin, V.S.; Pavlovskiy, A.I.



Optically pulsed electron accelerator  


An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

Fraser, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM)



Accelerators and Nobel Laureates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article written by Sven Kullander at the Nobel e-Museum discusses the importance of particle accelerators to physics in a historical context. After studying their basic operatation, users can then learn about the many accelerator inventions and their assistance in various discoveries such as x-rays and electrons. The website provides links to descriptions of the many Nobel Prize winners who have utilized accelerators in their important work. Users can view images of the large accelerators from all over the world including the United Kingdom, Sweden, and the United State.

Kullander, Sven


Charged particle accelerator grating  


A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

Palmer, Robert B. (Shoreham, NY)



Accelerator-based BNCT.  


The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. PMID:24365468

Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O



Android Acceleration Application  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first of two sequential lessons, students create mobile apps that collect data from an Android device's accelerometer and then store that data to a database. This lesson provides practice with MIT's App Inventor software and culminates with students writing their own apps for measuring acceleration. In the second lesson, students are given an app for an Android device, which measures acceleration. They investigate acceleration by collecting acceleration vs. time data using the accelerometer of a sliding Android device. Then they use the data to create velocity vs. time graphs and approximate the maximum velocity of the device.



Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.



Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.  


A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. PMID:2848508

Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Tllez-In, M T



Phorbol esters modulate cyclic AMP accumulation in porcine thyroid cells  

SciTech Connect

In cultured porcine thyroid cells, during 60 min incubation phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on basal cyclic AMP accumulation and slightly stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or forskolin. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was significantly stimulated by PMA. On the other hand, cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by prostaglandin E/sub 1/ or E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/) was markedly depressed by simultaneous addition of PMA. These opposing effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by PGE and cholera toxin were observed in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximal effect of around 10/sup -9/ M in either case. The almost same effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation in basal and stimulated conditions were also observed in freshly prepared thyroid cells. The present study was performed in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), indicating that PMA affected adenylate cyclase activity. Therefore, it is suggested that PMA may modulate the production of cyclic AMP in response to different stimuli, possibly by affecting several sites in the adenylate cyclase complex in thyroid cells.

Emoto, T.; Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Shimoda, S.



Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC



Acceleration Worksheet 8/24/2011 ACCELERATION WORKSHEET  

E-print Network

Acceleration Worksheet 8/24/2011 ACCELERATION WORKSHEET College of Arts and Sciences Name _____________ TO _____________ month/year month/year II. I meet the requirements for acceleration under [fill out either a) or b;Acceleration Worksheet 8/24/2011 Acceleration 2011-2012 Courses of Study The faculty of the college desires

Davis, H. Floyd


A study of cyclic pressuremeter testing for offshore applications  

E-print Network

in that clay of a cyclic threshold equal to about 70X of the limit pressure. Cycles performed with peak pressures larger than this threshold value led to peak cyclic strains which accumulated very rapidly. The magnitude of the pressure range over which... the cycles were performed had an influence on peak strain accumu- lation; this influence was less significant however than the influence of the peak cyclic pressure. The style and format of this paper follows that used by the Journal of the Geotechnical...

Riner, Kenneth Byard



Understanding Lipid Recognition by Protein-Mimicking Cyclic Peptides.  


This paper describes our investigation of the structural determinants of a designed cyclic peptide (cLac, cyclic peptide mimicking lactadherin)(1) for phosphatidylserine (PS) recognition. A highly efficient strategy that takes advantage of the native chemical ligation (NCL) chemistry has been developed for the synthesis and labeling of cyclic peptides in general. Ala scanning of the cLac peptide revealed a sophisticated model for PS binding, in which the peptide scaffold assembles multiple polar residues to balance the desolvation and electrostatic interactions (salt bridge and hydrogen bonding) to achieve lipid selectivity. The results suggest that cLac effectively mimics the membrane binding mechanism of the parent protein lactadherin. PMID:25419010

Hosseini, Azade S; Zheng, Hong; Gao, Jianmin




PubMed Central

While bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) remain the primary treatment modality for adult heart valve replacement, continued problems with durability remain. Several studies have implicated flexure as a major damage mode in porcine-derived heterograft biomaterials used in BHV fabrication. While conventional accelerated wear testing can provide valuable insights into BHV damage phenomena, the constituent tissues are subjected to complex, time-varying deformation modes (i.e. tension and flexure), that do not allow for the control of the amount, direction, and location of flexure. Thus, in the present study customized fatigue testing devices were developed to subject circumferentially oriented porcine BHV tissue strips to controlled cyclic flexural loading. By using this approach, we were able to study layer-specific structural damage induced by cyclic flexural tensile and compressive stresses alone. 10106, 25106 and 50106 cycle levels were used, with resulting changes in flexural stiffness and collagen structure assessed. Results indicated that flexural rigidity was markedly reduced after only 10106 cycles, and progressively decayed at a lower rate with cycle number thereafter. Moreover, the against-curvature fatigue direction induced the most damage, suggesting that the ventricularis and fibrosa layers have low resistance to cyclic flexural compressive and tensile loads, respectively. The histological analyses indicated progressive collagen fiber delamination as early as 10106 cycles, but otherwise no change in gross collagen orientation. Our results underscore that porcine-derived heterograft biomaterials are very sensitive to flexural fatigue, with delamination of the tissue layers the primary underlying mechanism. This appears to be in contrast to pericardial BHV, wherein high tensile stresses are considered to be the major cause of structural failure. These findings point towards the need for the development of chemical fixation technologies that minimize flexure induced damage to extend porcine heterograft biomaterial durability. PMID:20166221

Mirnajafi, Ali; Zubiate, Brett; Sacks, Michael S.



Accelerators (3/5)  


1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.




J-PARC Accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is under construction in Tokai site. The linac beam commissioning started last fall, while the beam commissioning of the 3-GeV Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) will start this fall. The status of the J-PARC accelerator is reported with emphasis on the technical development accomplished for the J-PARC.

Yamazaki, Yoshishige [J-PARC Center High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and Japan Atomic Energy Organization (JAEA) Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-Mura, Naka-Gun, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)



Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?  

SciTech Connect

Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?.

Lach, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O Box 500, Batavia Illinois (United States)



Acceleration of Gravity 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is between a Level 2 and Level 3 inquiry activity in that it should be assigned after students understand acceleration but before they learn about the acceleration gravity. Because there are many sources of error when using a pendulum, students c

Michael Horton



Particle Acceleration in Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma ray burst (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments.

Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi



Microscale acceleration history discriminators  


A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)




E-print Network

by Enrico Fermi in 1949, to explain heating of particles in cosmic rays. Fermi studied charged particles of the first papers on this subject was work of Enrico Fermi on the origin of cosmic radiation [22]. FermiFERMI ACCELERATION. DMITRY DOLGOPYAT Abstract. Fermi acceleration is a mechanism, first suggested

Dolgopyat, Dmitry


Diagnostics for induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

Fessenden, T.J.



Flow accelerated corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Flow accelerated corrosion has recently attracted attention in association with heat recovery steam generators. Apparently, the phenomenon is more widespread than is realized and has been misdiagnosed as simple erosion. This paper addresses the principal environmental conditions that have been linked to flow accelerated corrosion and it illustrates the phenomenon with case histories.

Port, R.D. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)



Accelerators (5/5)  


1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.




Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?  

SciTech Connect

Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab




SciTech Connect

ACCELERATOR RESEARCH STUDIES Task A: Study of the Physics of Space-Charge Dominated Beams for Advanced Accelerator Applications Task B: Studies of High-Power Gyroklystrons and Application to Linear Colliders Task C: Theory and Simulation of the Physics Space-Charge Dominated Beams Annual Report for the Period June 1, 2003 to May 31, 2004

P.G. O'Shea, M. Reiser, V. L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, I. Haber, R. Kishek



Scaling FFAG accelerator for muon acceleration  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators have opened new ways for lattice design, with straight sections, and insertions like dispersion suppressors. Such principles and matching issues are detailed in this paper. An application of these new concepts is presented to overcome problems in the PRISM project.

Lagrange, JB.; Planche, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University Katsura, Nishikyo-ku Kyoto, 615-8530 (Japan); Mori, Y. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka, 590-0494 (Japan)



Collinear wake field acceleration  

SciTech Connect

In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.



Symmetry Restoration By Acceleration  

E-print Network

The restoration of spontaneous symmetry breaking for a scalar field theory for an accelerated observer is discussed by the one-loop effective potential calculation and by considering the effective potential for composite operators. Above a critical acceleration, corresponding to the critical restoration temperature,T_c, for a Minkowski observer by Unruh relation, i.e. a_c/2\\pi=T_c, the symmetry is restored. This result confirms other recent calculations in effective field theories that symmetry restoration can occur for an observer with an acceleration larger than some critical value. From the physical point of view, a constant acceleration is locally equivalent to a gravitational field and the critical acceleration to restore the spontaneous symmetry breaking corresponds to a huge gravitational effect which, therefore, prevents boson condensation.

P. Castorina; M. Finocchiaro



Laser acceleration with open waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified framework based on solid-state open waveguides is developed to overcome all three major limitations on acceleration distance and hence on the feasibility of two classes of laser acceleration. The three limitations are due to laser diffraction, acceleration phase slippage, and damage of waveguide structure by a high power laser. The two classes of laser acceleration are direct-field acceleration

Ming Xie; Ming



Cyclic dynamics in simulated plant populations.  

PubMed Central

Despite the general interest in nonlinear dynamics in animal populations, plant populations are supposed to show a stable equilibrium that is attributed to fundamental differences compared with animals. Some studies find more complex dynamics, but empirical studies usually are too short and most modelling studies ignore important spatial aspects of local competition and establishment. Therefore, we used a spatially explicit individual-based model of a hypothetical, non-clonal perennial to explore which mechanisms might generate complex dynamics, i.e. cycles. The model is based on the field-of-neighbourhood approach that describes local competition and establishment in a phenomenological manner. We found cyclic population dynamics for a wide spectrum of model variants, provided that mortality is determined by local competition and recruitment is virtually completely suppressed within the zone of influence of established plants. This destabilizing effect of local processes within plant populations might have wide-ranging implications for the understanding of plant community dynamics and coexistence. PMID:12495487

Bauer, Silke; Berger, Uta; Hildenbrandt, Hanno; Grimm, Volker



Cyclic peptides as proteases: a reevaluation.  

PubMed Central

A recent report [Atassi, M. Z. and Manshouri, T. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 8282-8286] described the design and synthesis of two 29-amino acid cyclic peptides that were reported to hydrolyze both ester and amide bonds with chymotrypsin-like or trypsin-like specificity. We have synthesized the trypsin-mimic peptide (TrPepz) and detect no activity toward either ester or peptide substrates. The same result was independently obtained by Wells et al. [Wells, J. A., Fairbrother, W. J., Otlewski, J., Laskowski, M., Jr., & Burnier, J. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4110-4114.] Additionally, we found that Atassi and Manshouri failed to obtain accurate kinetic constants for trypsin- and chymotrypsin-catalyzed ester hydrolysis because the high concentrations of trypsin and chymotrypsin that they report using would have prevented evaluation of initial rates. These findings are incompatible with the claims, reported by Atassi and Manshouri, that TrPepz has trypsin-like activity. PMID:8183879

Corey, D R; Phillips, M A



Conformational analysis of cyclic peptides in solution.  


The strategy and tactics of conformational analysis of cyclic peptides in solution is demonstrated by the example of cyclo(-D-Pro-Phe-Thr-Phe-Trp-Phe-). Spin-locked experiments like rotating frame nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (ROESY), ROTO, and TOCSY are successfully applied to assign all proton signals and to obtain distance information. A crude conformational model was built using the nmr data. This starting model was refined by restrained molecular dynamics (MD) calculations using ROE derived distances and fixed bond angles as determined from homo- and heteronuclear coupling constants. To mimic the solvent and to reduce artifacts in an in vacuo calculation the charges of the solvent-exposed NH protons were gradually reduced according to the temperature gradients. The thus obtained "conformation" (mean of a 40 ps MD trajectory) shows very close similarity to x-ray structures in an orthorhombic and in two monoclinic crystal modifications of the same compound. The main difference is the breaking of an intermolecular hydrogen bond of the threonine hydroxyl group on dissolution of the crystal and forming an intramolecular hydrogen bond in solution. PMID:2720115

Kessler, H; Bats, J W; Wagner, K; Will, M



Cyclical vomiting syndrome: Recognition, assessment and management  

PubMed Central

Cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a functional, debilitating disorder of childhood frequently leading to hospitalization. Affected children usually experience a stereotypical pattern of vomiting though it may vary between different individuals. The vomiting is intense often bilious, and accompanied by disabling nausea. Identifiable precipitating factors for CVS include psychosocial stressors, infections, lack of sleep and occasionally even food triggers. Often, it may be difficult to distinguish episodes of CVS from other causes of acute abdomen and altered consciousness. Thus, the diagnosis of CVS remains largely one of exclusion. Investigations routinely done during the work-up of a child with suspected CVS include both blood and imaging modalities. Plasma lactate, ammonia, amino acid and acylcarnitine profiles as well as urine organic acid profile are indicated to exclude inborn errors of metabolism. The treatment remains challenging and targeted at prevention or shortening of the attacks and can be considered as abortive, supportive and prophylactic. Use of non-pharmacological therapy is also part of the management of CVS. The prognosis of CVS is variable. More insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder as well as role of non-pharmacological therapy is needed. PMID:25254185

Tan, Michelle LN; Liwanag, Maria Janelle; Quak, Seng Hock



Formation and polymerization of cyclic disilsesquioxanes  

SciTech Connect

Sol-gel polymerication of {alpha}, {omega}-bis(triethoxysilyl)alkanes normally leads to alkylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes in the form of insoluble, highly crosslinked polymeric gels. Hydrolysis of the six ethoxide groups on each monomer gives silanols that then condense to form a network of siloxane bonds. Unlike most Sol-gel precursors, these flexible hydrocarbon-bridged monomers can participate not only in intermolecular condensation reactions that lead to polymeric networks, but in intramolecular condensation reactions leading to cyclic disilsesquioxanes as well. Partitioning between these two reaction manifolds should be an important determinant of the manner in which the network polymer is assembled and, be an important determinant of the manner in which the network polymer is assembled and, ultimately, the final morphologies of the crosslinked gels. The relative importance of the two pathways should be dependent on a variety of factors, including the reaction mechanism (acid or base catalysis), the concentration of {alpha}, {omega}(triethoxysilyl)alkane and, most importantly for this study, the length of the alkylene bridging group.

Loy, D.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; Myers, S.A.; Assink, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Small, Greaves, J; Shea, K.J. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States)



Precipitation in solution-treated Al-4wt%Cu under cyclic strain  

SciTech Connect

Solution-treated Al-4wt%Cu was strain-cycled at ambient temperature and above and the precipitation behavior investigated by TEM. In the temperature range 100 C to 200 C precipitation of {Theta}'' appears to have been suppressed and precipitation of {Theta}' promoted via cyclic strain. Anomalously rapid growth of precipitates appears to have been facilitated by a vacancy supersaturation generated by dislocation motion, with a diminishing effect observed at higher temperatures due to the faster recovery of non-equilibrium vacancy concentrations. {Theta}' precipitates generated under cyclic strain are considerably smaller and more finely dispersed than those typically produced via quench-aging due to their heterogeneous nucleation on dislocations, and possess a low aspect ratio and rounded edges of the broad faces due to the introduction of ledges into the growing precipitates by dislocation cutting. Frequency effects indicate that dislocation motion, rather than the extremely small precipitate size, is responsible for the observed reduction in aspect ratio. Accelerated formation of grain boundary precipitates appears partially responsible for rapid intergranular fatigue failure following cycling at elevated temperatures, producing fatigue striations and ductile dimples coexistent on the fracture surface.

Farrow, Adam M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laird, Campbell [U PENN



Mechanistic understanding of surface plasmon assisted catalysis on a single particle: cyclic redox of 4-aminothiophenol  

PubMed Central

Surface plasmon assisted catalysis (SPAC) reactions of 4-aminothiophenol (4ATP) to and back from 4,4?-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) have been investigated by single particle surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, using a self-designed gas flow cell to control the reductive/oxidative environment over the reactions. Conversion of 4ATP into DMAB is induced by energy transfer (plasmonic heating) from surface plasmon resonance to 4ATP, where O2 (as an electron acceptor) is essential and H2O (as a base) can accelerate the reaction. In contrast, hot electron (from surface plasmon decay) induction drives the reverse reaction of DMAB to 4ATP, where H2O (or H2) acts as the hydrogen source. More interestingly, the cyclic redox between 4ATP and DMAB by SPAC approach has been demonstrated. This SPAC methodology presents a unique platform for studying chemical reactions that are not possible under standard synthetic conditions. PMID:24141289

Xu, Ping; Kang, Leilei; Mack, Nathan H.; Schanze, Kirk S.; Han, Xijiang; Wang, Hsing-Lin



Mechanistic understanding of surface plasmon assisted catalysis on a single particle: cyclic redox of 4-aminothiophenol.  


Surface plasmon assisted catalysis (SPAC) reactions of 4-aminothiophenol (4ATP) to and back from 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) have been investigated by single particle surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, using a self-designed gas flow cell to control the reductive/oxidative environment over the reactions. Conversion of 4ATP into DMAB is induced by energy transfer (plasmonic heating) from surface plasmon resonance to 4ATP, where O? (as an electron acceptor) is essential and H?O (as a base) can accelerate the reaction. In contrast, hot electron (from surface plasmon decay) induction drives the reverse reaction of DMAB to 4ATP, where H?O (or H?) acts as the hydrogen source. More interestingly, the cyclic redox between 4ATP and DMAB by SPAC approach has been demonstrated. This SPAC methodology presents a unique platform for studying chemical reactions that are not possible under standard synthetic conditions. PMID:24141289

Xu, Ping; Kang, Leilei; Mack, Nathan H; Schanze, Kirk S; Han, Xijiang; Wang, Hsing-Lin



Cyclic AMP Signaling: A Molecular Determinant of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Disruption of axonal integrity during injury to the peripheral nerve system (PNS) sets into motion a cascade of responses that includes inflammation, Schwann cell mobilization, and the degeneration of the nerve fibers distal to the injury site. Yet, the injured PNS differentiates itself from the injured central nervous system (CNS) in its remarkable capacity for self-recovery, which, depending upon the length and type of nerve injury, involves a series of molecular events in both the injured neuron and associated Schwann cells that leads to axon regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional restitution. Herein we discuss the essential function of the second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), in the PNS repair process, highlighting the important role the conditioning lesion paradigm has played in understanding the mechanism(s) by which cyclic AMP exerts its proregenerative action. Furthermore, we review the studies that have therapeutically targeted cyclic AMP to enhance endogenous nerve repair. PMID:25177696

Knott, Eric P.; Assi, Mazen; Pearse, Damien D.



Improving the Biopharmaceutical Properties of Cyclic Opioid Peptide Prodrugs  

E-print Network

In an attempt to improve the "drugability" of opioid peptides, cyclic prodrugs of the opioid peptide DADLE (H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH) were developed using a coumarinic acid linker (CA). CA-DADLE was metabolically ...

Nofsinger, Rebecca Anne




E-print Network

1 P3.1 AN ANALYSIS OF A PROLIFIC TORNADO PRODUCING CYCLIC SUPERCELL THUNDERSTORM IN NUCKOLLS COUNTY thunderstorm (hereafter referred to as the "Thayer County storm") near Hastings, Nebraska and moved through


Irreversible inhibition of calmodulin-sensitive cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase  

SciTech Connect

Photolysis of solutions containing 4-azido-7-phenylpyrazolo-(1,5a)-1,3,5-triazine (APPT) and calmodulin-sensitive cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase resulted in reduction of both cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP hydrolytic activity. The inactivation was dependent upon both time of exposure to ultraviolet irradiation and the initial concentration of APPT. The photo-induced inactivation could be attenuated by the presence of cyclic GMP, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, and papaverine. alpha-Chymotrypsin treatment caused the enzyme to be fully active in the absence of calmodulin but this treatment did not alter the ability of APPT to inactivate the enzyme. Thus, inhibition of calmodulin-binding did not contribute to the photo-induced inactivation. These data indicate that APPT acts as a photoaffinity agent to covalently modify the APPT-binding site of calmodulin-sensitive phosphodiesterase.

Sullivan, T.A.; Duemler, B.H.; Kuttesch, N.J.; Keravis, T.M.; Wells, J.N.



Pro-cyclical mortality across socioeconomic groups and health status.  


Using variation across geographic regions, a number of studies from the U.S. and other developed countries have found more deaths in economic upturns and less deaths in economic downturns. We use data from regions in Norway for 1977-2008 and find the same pro-cyclical patterns. Using individual-level register data for the identical population, we find that disadvantaged socioeconomic groups are not hit harder by pro-cyclical mortality than advantaged groups. We also find that other indicators of deteriorated health (than death), like becoming disabled, are pro-cyclical. Overall, our analysis suggests that pro-cyclical mortality is rather related to deaths of people already in deteriorated health than to people of low socioeconomic status. PMID:25205610

Haaland, Venke Furre; Telle, Kjetil



Atomistic mechanisms of cyclic hardening in metallic glass  

E-print Network

Molecular dynamics with an embedded-atom method potential is used to simulate the nanoindentation of Cu[subscript 63.5]Zr[subscript 36.5] metallic glasses. In particular, the effects of cyclic loading within the nominal ...

Deng, Chuang


THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility  

E-print Network

THE RADIOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACCELERATOR FACILITY 1 The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility for Radiological Research (CRR). Using the mi- crobeam facility, 10% of the cells were irradiated through


Processing of cosmological perturbations in a cyclic cosmology  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the spectrum of cosmological fluctuations from one cycle to the next is studied. It is pointed out that each cycle leads to a reddening of the spectrum. This opens up new ways to generate a scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations. The large increase in the amplitude of the fluctuations quickly leads to a breakdown of the linear theory. More generally, we see that, after including linearized cosmological perturbations, a cyclic universe cannot be truly cyclic.

Brandenberger, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)



Processing of Cosmological Perturbations in a Cyclic Cosmology  

E-print Network

The evolution of the spectrum of cosmological fluctuations from one cycle to the next is studied. It is pointed out that each cycle leads to a reddening of the spectrum. This opens up new ways to generate a scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations. The large increase in the amplitude of the fluctuations quickly leads to a breakdown of the linear theory. More generaly, we see that, after including linearized cosmological perturbations, a cyclic universe cannot be truly cyclic.

Brandenberger, Robert H



On Integer Sequences Associated With the Cyclic and Complete Graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study integer sequences associated with the cyclic graph C_r and the complete graph K_r. Fourier techniques are used to characterize the sequences that count walks of length n on both these families of graphs. In the case of the cyclic graph, we show that these sequences are associated with an induced colouring of Pascal's triangle. This extends previous results concerning the Jacobsthal numbers.

Barry, Paul



Alkyd resins modified with cyclic fatty acids a preliminary evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkyd resins were modified to 50% oil length with crude, flash-distilled, and 78% pure cyclic fatty acids. These resins were\\u000a compared with ones modified with naturally occurring fatty acids and with vegetable oils. Those modified with the cyclic acids\\u000a process more rapidly than those prepared with linseed, safflower, or soybean fatty acids, and they also have good nonyellowing\\u000a properties. Resins

W. R. Miller; H. M. Teeter; A. W. Schwab; J. C. Cowan



Phantom energy accretion onto black holes in a cyclic universe  

SciTech Connect

Black holes pose a serious problem in cyclic or oscillating cosmology. It is speculated that, in the cyclic universe with phantom turnarounds, black holes will be torn apart by phantom energy prior to turnaround before they can create any problems. In this paper, using the mechanism of phantom accretion onto black holes, we find that black holes do not disappear before phantom turnaround. But the remanent black holes will not cause any problems due to Hawking evaporation.

Sun Chengyi [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University Xian, 710069 (China)



A computer program for cyclic plasticity and structural fatigue analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized tool for the analysis of time independent cyclic plasticity structural response, life to crack initiation prediction, and crack growth rate prediction for metallic materials is described. Three analytical items are combined: the finite element method with its associated numerical techniques for idealization of the structural component, cyclic plasticity models for idealization of the material behavior, and damage accumulation criteria for the fatigue failure.

Kalev, I.



Template-constrained cyclic sulfopeptide HIV-1 entry inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Template-constrained cyclic sulfopeptides that inhibit HIV-1 entry were rationally designed based on a loop from monoclonal antibody (mAb) 412d. A focused set of sulfopeptides was synthesized using Fmoc-Tyr(SO3DCV)-OH (DCV = 2,2-dichlorovinyl). Three cyclic sulfopeptides that inhibit entry of HIV-1 and complement the activity of known CCR5 antagonists were identified. PMID:24065278

Rudick, Jonathan G.; Laakso, Meg M.; Schloss, Ashley C.; DeGrado, William F.



Amps particle accelerator definition study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

Sellen, J. M., Jr.



The MESA accelerator  

SciTech Connect

The MESA accelerator will operate for particle and nuclear physics experiments in two different modes. A first option is conventional c.w. acceleration yielding 150-200MeV spin-polarized external beam. Second, MESA will be operated as a superconducting multi-turn energy recovery linac (ERL), opening the opportunity to perform experiments with a windowless target with beam current of up to 10 mA. The perspectives for innovative experiments with such a machine are discussed together with a sketch of the accelerator physics issues that have to be solved.

Aulenbacher, Kurt [Institut fr Kernphysik, Johannnes-Gutenberg-Universitt Mainz (Germany)



Cyclical Regolith Processes on Hydrous Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous chondrites experienced and recorded a very wide range of chemical and physical processing in both nebular and asteroidal settings. Among the features arising from asteroidal processes are the following: (1) most of these meteorites are breccias; (2) some CV3s and CMs contain flattened chondrules and exhibit foliation; (3) veins are found in some CIs, CMs, CV3 dark inclusions; (4) CR2s, all CIs, some CR2s and CMs display weak alignment of matrix phyllosilicates, and (5) shearing (mylonitization) around lithic fragments. While these features have generally been assumed to have involved impact deformation in asteroidal regoliths, a process sometimes referred to as regolith or impact gardening, we suggest here that all of these particular features would have arisen naturally from cycles of wet-dry and freeze-thaw environmental conditions in asteroid regoliths. All of the extensively (Y82042, ALH 83100, Cold Bokkeveld, Y891198, EET 90047) and completely (ALH 88045, EET 83334, Kaidun CM1 lithology) altered CMs contain rounded to elliptical aggregates of phyllosilicates, carbonates, spinels (chromite and magnetite), Fe-Ni sulfides, and embayed olivines and pyroxenes, which we interpret as relict chondrules [1]; these sometimes define a definite foliation direction generally ascribed to impact shock [2&3]. We examined all available relict olivines from CMs showing the most pronounced chondrule flattening and foliation, and found only a few planar fractures in a single olivine grain in one sample (EET 90047), and no sign of shock effects in the others. We therefore suggest that static burial pressure was agent responsible for chondrule flattening in this case, and believe that the processes involved in burial compaction deserve more attention than they have hitherto received in the asteroid literature. It is probable that even in the wettest regions of an asteroid dry periods were experienced during the periodic breaching of an icy surficial rind [4], which could have occurred during impacts or "volcanic" venting of gas and heat from the interior (this assumes internal heating). Thus, there should have been multiple wet-dry cycles involved in the genesis of these materials. It is well-known to soil scientists that conditions of radically alternating humidity can have important morphologic and petrologic consequences. Grains and lithic clasts can become rotated, crushed and drawn out into linear features (shearing). Porosity (including contraction and shearing cracks) and other bulk physical properties will vary in dramatic manner. These effects would be most pronounced for the CI and CR chondrites, as well as the Kaidun CM1 lithology, where the swelling clay saponite is found in abundance. Easily altered materials will be dissolved while more resistant materials will be pulverized and mixed into matrix [5]. Another important process to be considered is periodic growth and melting of ice crystals in the regolith [6]. The positive molal volume change during crystallization of water will induce oriented microfabrics to develop in the regolith, normal to the direction of ice crystal growth. Thus, platy grains (such as phyllosilicates) will develop a pronounced compaction and preferred alignment. Since the orientation of the growing ice mass will vary for each succeeding generation of growth, the eventual result will be to impart a particular, invasive, regolith fabric consisting of anastomosing strings of phyllosilicates with roughly aligned basal directions for each string. Such textures are common in the wettest chondrites: CIs and CMs. Growth and collapse of these asteroidal icicles will also impart cyclical changes in bulk regolith porosity, induce rotation and movement of crystals and lithic fragments through frost heaving, and consequent shearing. This process could also account, to some degree, for the flattened chondrules. We therefore suggest that cyclical, indigenous environmental processes, rather than impact gardening, could be responsible for many (most?) of the late stage petrologic characteri

Zolensky, M. E.



Defense gene induction in tobacco by nitric oxide, cyclic GMP, and cyclic ADP-ribose  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species are believed to perform multiple roles during plant defense responses to microbial attack, acting in the initial defense and possibly as cellular signaling molecules. In animals, nitric oxide (NO) is an important redox-active signaling molecule. Here we show that infection of resistant, but not susceptible, tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus resulted in enhanced NO synthase (NOS) activity. Furthermore, administration of NO donors or recombinant mammalian NOS to tobacco plants or tobacco suspension cells triggered expression of the defense-related genes encoding pathogenesis-related 1 protein and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). These genes were also induced by cyclic GMP (cGMP) and cyclic ADP-ribose, two molecules that can serve as second messengers for NO signaling in mammals. Consistent with cGMP acting as a second messenger in tobacco, NO treatment induced dramatic and transient increases in endogenous cGMP levels. Furthermore, NO-induced activation of PAL was blocked by 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione and 1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, two inhibitors of guanylate cyclase. Although 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione fully blocked PAL activation, inhibition by 1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one was not entirely complete, suggesting the existence of cGMP-independent, as well as cGMP-dependent, NO signaling. We conclude that several critical players of animal NO signaling are also operative in plants. PMID:9707647

Durner, Jrg; Wendehenne, David; Klessig, Daniel F.



A cyclic multiaxial model for concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rate-independent plasticity constitutive model is proposed, for the stress-strain and strength behavior of plain concrete, under complex multiaxial stress-paths, including stress reversals. The only material parameters required by the model are the uniaxial cylinder strength f cand the strain at the peak of the monotonic stress-strain curve, ?0 . The model is based on a bounding surface in stress space, which is the outermost surface that can be reached by the stress point. When the size of the bounding surface decreases with increasing maximum compressive principal strain ?max on the material, strength degradation during cyclic loading as well as the falling post-failure branch of the stress-strain curves, can be modeled. The distance from the current stress point to the bounding surface, determines the values of the main parameters of the inelastic stress-strain relations, i.e. of the plastic shear modulus H P, and the shear-compaction/dilatancy factor ? Strains are almost completely inelastic from the beginning of deformation. The inelastic portion of the incremental strain is computed by superposition of 1) the deviatoric strain increment, which occurs in the direction of the deviatoric stress and is proportional to the octahedral shear stress increment and inversely proportional to the plastic shear modulus 2) the volumetric strain increment, which consists of a portion which is proportional to the hydrostatic stress increment, and another which equals the product of the octahedral shear strain increment and the shear compaction/dilatancy factor ? Stress reversals are defined separately for the hydrostatic and the deviatoric component of the stress tensor, and the parameters of the inelastic stress-strain relations are given as different functions of the stress and strain history, for virgin loading, unloading, reloading, or for the post-failure falling branch. The incremental stress-strain law is set in the form of incremental compliance and rigidity matrices, and implemented into a nonlinear dynamic finite element code.

Fardis, M. N.; Chen, E. S.



Highly Efficient Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification  

PubMed Central

Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) provides faithful replication of mammalian prions in vitro and has numerous applications in prion research. However, the low efficiency of conversion of PrPC into PrPSc in PMCA limits the applicability of PMCA for many uses including structural studies of infectious prions. It also implies that only a small sub-fraction of PrPC may be available for conversion. Here we show that the yield, rate, and robustness of prion conversion and the sensitivity of prion detection are significantly improved by a simple modification of the PMCA format. Conducting PMCA reactions in the presence of Teflon beads (PMCAb) increased the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc from ?10% to up to 100%. In PMCAb, a single 24-hour round consistently amplified PrPSc by 600-700-fold. Furthermore, the sensitivity of prion detection in one round (24 hours) increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Using serial PMCAb, a 1012-fold dilution of scrapie brain material could be amplified to the level detectible by Western blotting in 3 rounds (72 hours). The improvements in amplification efficiency were observed for the commonly used hamster 263K strain and for the synthetic strain SSLOW that otherwise amplifies poorly in PMCA. The increase in the amplification efficiency did not come at the expense of prion replication specificity. The current study demonstrates that poor conversion efficiencies observed previously have not been due to the scarcity of a sub-fraction of PrPC susceptible to conversion nor due to limited concentrations of essential cellular cofactors required for conversion. The new PMCAb format offers immediate practical benefits and opens new avenues for developing fast ultrasensitive assays and for producing abundant quantities of PrPSc in vitro. PMID:21347353

Ostapchenko, Valeriy G.; Savtchenk, Regina; Alexeeva, Irina; Rohwer, Robert G.; Baskakov, Ilia V.



Cyclic vomiting syndrome in Thai children.  


Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a severe childhood vomiting disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Clinical manifestations and prophylactic therapy of vomiting have been described in the literature. The data were limited in Asian children. The aim of this study was to study the clinical manifestation, to evaluate using antimigraine prophylactic drugs and response in Thai children with CVS. The medical records of children with a diagnosis of CVS in the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University from 1994 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, clinical manifestations, investigations, treatment and outcome were collected and analyzed. Twenty five patients were enrolled in this study including 13 females and 12 males. Their ages ranged from 2.3 years to 14 years (7.8 +/- 3.4 years). The age of onset was 5.2 +/- 3.2 years. They had 14.7 +/- 6.5 episodes per year with a duration of each attack 4 +/- 1.8 days. There were 8 mild, 10 moderate and 7 severe cases. There were only 6 patients (24%) who had headache and 50 per cent of these had a family history of migraine. Eight patients received pizotifen which had 3 good, 1 fair, and 4 poor responses. Of this group, in 3 patients pizotifen was changed to amitriptyline. Eighteen patients received amitriptyline and the result of treatments were 11 good, 4 fair, and 3 poor. The other 2 patients were on propranolol with one good and one poor responses. The efficacy of amitriptyline and pizotifen were compared (83.3% vs 50%) which revealed no statistical significance (p = 0.14). There was no side effect from any of the medication in this study. In conclusion, the present report showed similar data of clinical features, prophylactic treatment and outcome as previous reports, except for fewer migraine headaches in patients and their families. Amitriptyline and pizotifen were effective in prophylactic therapy of vomiting episodes. PMID:12403255

Aanpreung, Prapun; Vajaradul, Chirasri



Cyclic Peptidomimetics and Pseudopeptides from Multicomponent Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) that provide in the final product amides are suitable to produce peptides and peptide-like moieties. The Passerini and Staudinger reactions provide one amide bond, and the Ugi-four-component reaction generates two amides from three or even four (or more) components, respectively. The Ugi-reaction thus is most important to produce peptides and peptoids while the Passerini reaction is useful to generate depsipeptoid moieties. In order to produce cyclic peptides and pseudopeptides, the linear peptidic MCR products have to be cyclized, usually with the help of bifunctional or activatable building blocks. Orthogonal but cyclizable secondary functionalities that need no protection in isonitrile MCRs commonly include alkenes (for ring closing metathesis), azide/alkyne (for Huisgen click reactions) or dienes and enoates (Diels-Alder) etc. If MCR-reactive groups are to be used also for the cyclisation, monoprotected bifunctional building blocks are used and deprotected after the MCR, e.g. for Ugi reactions as Ugi-Deprotection-Cyclisation (UDC). Alternatively one of the former building blocks or functional groups generated by the MCR can be activated. Most commonly these are activated amides (from so-called convertible isonitriles) which can be used e.g. for Ugi-Activation-Cyclisation (UAC) protocols, or most recently for a simultaneous use of both strategies Ugi-Deprotection/Activation-Cyclisation (UDAC). These methods mostly lead to small, medicinally relevant peptide turn mimics. In an opposing strategy, the MCR is rather used as ring-closing reaction, thereby introducing a (di-)peptide moiety. Most recently these processes have been combined to use MCRs for both, linear precursor synthesis and cyclisation. These multiple MCR approaches allow the most efficient and versatile one pot synthesis of macrocyclic pseudopeptides known to date.

Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Rhoden, Cristiano R. B.; Rivera, Daniel G.; Vercillo, Otilie Eichler


Non-accelerator experiments  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses several topics which can be investigated without the use of accelerators. Topics covered are: (1) proton decay, (2) atmospheric neutrinos, (3) neutrino detection, (4) muons from Cygnus X-3, and (5) the double-beta decay.

Goldhaber, M.



Accelerator on a Chip  

SciTech Connect

SLAC's Joel England explains how the same fabrication techniques used for silicon computer microchips allowed their team to create the new laser-driven particle accelerator chips. (SLAC Multimedia Communications)

England, Joel



Accelerated test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief discussion on the accelerated testing of batteries is given. The statistical analysis and the various aspects of the modeling that was done and the results attained from the model are also briefly discussed.

Ford, F. E.; Harkness, J. M.



Charged particle accelerator grating  


A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

Palmer, R.B.



Accelerator Experiments for Astrophysics  

E-print Network

Many recent discoveries in astrophysics involve phenomena that are highly complex. Carefully designed experiments, together with sophisticated computer simulations, are required to gain insights into the underlying physics. We show that particle accelerators are unique tools in this area of research, by providing precision calibration data and by creating extreme experimental conditions relevant for astrophysics. In this paper we discuss laboratory experiments that can be carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and implications for astrophysics.

Johnny S. T. Ng



Breakthrough: Fermilab Accelerator Technology  

SciTech Connect

There are more than 30,000 particle accelerators in operation around the world. At Fermilab, scientists are collaborating with other laboratories and industry to optimize the manufacturing processes for a new type of powerful accelerator that uses superconducting niobium cavities. Experimenting with unique polishing materials, a Fermilab team has now developed an efficient and environmentally friendly way of creating cavities that can propel particles with more than 30 million volts per meter.




Laser electron accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intense electromagnetic pulse can create weak plasma oscillations through the action of the nonlinear ponderomotive force. Electrons trapped in the wake can be accelerated to high energy. Existing glass lasers of power density 10 to the 18th W\\/sq cm shone on plasmas of densities 10 to the 18th\\/cu cm can yield gigaelectronvolts of electron energy per centimeter of acceleration

T. Tajima; J. M. Dawson



Motion with Constant Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this experiment is to track the motion for an air cart on a sloped track to fall a distance x with constant acceleration a = g sinq. You will verify that the distance and velocity along the incline are given by the parabola x = xo + vo t +1/2at2 and the line v = vo +at. Finally, you will determine the acceleration due to gravity.

Dr. Russell Herman


Rolamite acceleration sensor  


A rolamite acceleration sensor is described which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently. 6 figures.

Abbin, J.P.; Briner, C.F.; Martin, S.B.



Rolamite acceleration sensor  


A rolamite acceleration sensor which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Briner, Clifton F. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Samuel B. (Albuquerque, NM)



Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.



Linear resonance ion accelerators with a focusing axisymmetric accelerating field  

SciTech Connect

The two-wave approximation is used to analyze the design of linear resonance ion accelerators with a focusing axisymmetric accelerating field in several cases of practical interest. Special features and characteristics are described, such as the length of the region of phase focusing, acceleration rate, maximum current, and type of accelerated ions.

Baev, V.K.; Gavrilov, N.M.; Minaev, S.A.; Shal'nov, A.V.



A Material Model for the Cyclic Behavior of Nitinol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uniaxial behavior of Nitinol in different forms and at different temperatures has been well documented in the literature. Mathematical models for the three-dimensional behavior of this class of materials, covering superelasticity, plasticity, and shape memory effects have been previously developed. Phenomenological models embedded in FEA analysis are part of common practice today in the development of devices made out of Nitinol. In vivo loading of medical devices has cyclic characteristics. There have been some indications in the literature that cyclic loading of Nitinol modifies substantially its behavior. A consortium of several stent manufacturers, Safe Technology and Dassault Systmes Simulia Corp., dedicated to the development of fatigue laws suitable for life prediction of Nitinol devices, has conducted an extensive experimental study of the modifications in uniaxial behavior of both Nitinol wire and tubing due to cyclic loading. The Abaqus Nitinol material model has been extended to capture some of the phenomena observed and is described in this article. Namely, a preload beyond 6% strain alters the transformation plateaus; if the cyclic load amplitude is large enough, permanent deformations (residual martensite) are observed; the lower plateau increases; and the upper plateau changes. The modifications to the upper plateau are very interesting in the sense that it appears broken: its start stress gets lowered creating a new plateau up to the highest level of cyclic strain, followed by resuming the original plateau until full transformation. Since quite often the geometry of a device at the point at which it is subjected to cyclic loading is very much dependent on the manufacturing, deployment, and preloading sequence, it is important that analyses be conducted with the original material behavior up to that point, and then with the cyclic behavior thereafter.

Rebelo, Nuno; Zipse, Achim; Schlun, Martin; Dreher, Gael



Substrate-directable electron transfer reactions. Dramatic rate enhancement in the chemoselective reduction of cyclic esters using SmI2-H2O: mechanism, scope, and synthetic utility.  


Substrate-directable reactions play a pivotal role in organic synthesis, but are uncommon in reactions proceeding via radical mechanisms. Herein, we provide experimental evidence showing dramatic rate acceleration in the Sm(II)-mediated reduction of cyclic esters that is enabled by transient chelation between a directing group and the lanthanide center. This process allows unprecedented chemoselectivity in the reduction of cyclic esters using SmI2-H2O and for the first time proceeds with a broad substrate scope. Initial studies on the origin of selectivity and synthetic application to form carbon-carbon bonds are also disclosed. PMID:24079360

Szostak, Michal; Spain, Malcolm; Choquette, Kimberly A; Flowers, Robert A; Procter, David J



Photon acceleration in laser wakefield accelerators  

SciTech Connect

If the index of a refraction of a dispersive medium, such as a plasma, changes in time, it can be used to change the frequency of light propagating through the medium. This effect is called photon acceleration. It has been predicted in both theory and simulations, and also been demonstrated experimentally for the case of moving ionization fronts in gases (the so-called ionization blueshift) as well as for laser-driven wakefields.Here, we present studies of photon acceleration in laser-driven plasma wakefields. The unique spectral characteristics of this process will be discussed, to distinguish it from e.g. photon acceleration by ionization fronts, frequency domain interferometry or self-phase modulation. The dynamics of the photons in laser-wakefield interaction are studied through both regular particle-in-cell and wave-kinetic simulations. The latter approach provides a powerful, versatile, and easy-to-use method to track the propagation of individual spectral components, providing new insight into the physics of laser-plasma interaction. Theory, simulations and experimental results will be brought together to provide a full understanding of the dynamics of a laser pulse in its own wakefield.Even though the wave-kinetic approach mentioned above has mainly been developed for the description of laser-plasma interaction, it can be applied to a much wider range of fast wave-slow wave interaction processes: Langmuir waves-ion acoustic waves, drift waves-zonal flow, Rossby waves-zonal flow, or even photons-gravitational waves. Several recent results in these areas will be shown, often with surprising results.

Trines, R. M. G. M. [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)



Physically Based Rendering Intersection Acceleration  

E-print Network

Physically Based Rendering (600.657) Intersection Acceleration #12;Intersection Testing Accelerated partitions: Group objects into clusters Cluster volumes may overlap #12;Uniform (Voxel) Grid Acceleration Acceleration · Trace rays through grid cells ­ Fast ­ Incremental A B C D E F Only check primitives

Kazhdan, Michael


Acceleration-resistant crystal resonator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crystal resonator features two crystals mounted such that the acceleration sensitivity vector of one crystal is in an antiparallel relationship to the acceleration sensitivity vector of the other crystal. The composite resonator eliminates acceleration-induced frequency shifts for acceleration in all directions.

Filler, R. L.



Plasma-based accelerator structures  

SciTech Connect

Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

Schroeder, Carl B.



Cyclic material properties tests supporting elastic-plastic analysis development  

SciTech Connect

Correlation studies have shown that hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS finite element code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture the inelastic strain reversals that occur due to structural rebounding from a rapidly applied transient dynamic load. The purpose of the Cyclic Material properties Test program was to obtain response data for the first several cycles of inelastic strain reversal from a cyclic properties test. This data is needed to develop elastic-plastic analysis methods that can accurately predict strains and permanent sets in structures due to rapidly applied transient dynamic loading. Test specimens were cycled at inelastic strain levels typical of rapidly applied transient dynamic analyses (0.5% to 4.0%). In addition to the inelastic response data, cyclic material properties for high yield strength (80 ksi) steel were determined including a cyclic stress-strain curve for a stabilized specimen. Two test methods, the Incremental Step method and the Companion specimen Method, were sued to determine cyclic properties. The incrementally decreasing strain amplitudes in the first loading block of the Incremental Step method test is representative of the response of structures subjected to rapidly applied transient dynamic loads. The inelastic strain history data generated by this test program will be used to support development of a material model that can accurately predict inelastic material behavior including inelastic strain reversals. Additionally, this data can be used to verify material model enhancements to elastic-plastic finite element analysis codes.

Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M. [Electric Boat Corp., Groton, CT (United States)



Cyclic beta-glucans of members of the family Rhizobiaceae.  

PubMed Central

Cyclic beta-glucans are low-molecular-weight cell surface carbohydrates that are found almost exclusively in bacteria of the Rhizobiaceae family. These glucans are major cellular constituents, and under certain culture conditions their levels may reach up to 20% of the total cellular dry weight. In Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species, these molecules contain between 17 and 40 glucose residues linked solely by beta-(1,2) glycosidic bonds. In Bradyrhizobium species, the cyclic beta-glucans are smaller (10 to 13 glucose residues) and contain glucose linked by both beta-(1,6) and beta-(1,3) glycosidic bonds. In some rhizobial strains, the cyclic beta-glucans are unsubstituted, whereas in other rhizobia these molecules may become highly substituted with moieties such as sn-1-phosphoglycerol. To date, two genetic loci specifically associated with cyclic beta-glucan biosynthesis have been identified in Rhizobium (ndvA and ndvB) and Agrobacterium (chvA and chvB) species. Mutants with mutations at these loci have been shown to be impaired in their ability to grow in hypoosmotic media, have numerous alterations in their cell surface properties, and are also impaired in their ability to infect plants. The present review will examine the structure and occurrence of the cyclic beta-glucans in a variety of species of the Rhizobiaceae. The possible functions of these unique molecules in the free-living bacteria as well as during plant infection will be discussed. PMID:8078434

Breedveld, M W; Miller, K J



Association of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase with neurofilaments.  

PubMed Central

Neurofilament preparations isolated from bovine spinal cord contain cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. Treatment of this preparation with cyclic AMP, to dissociate the regulatory subunit of the kinase from the catalytic subunit, resulted in retention of the kinase activity but loss of cyclic AMP regulation. This suggests that PKA is associated via its catalytic subunit with the neurofilament preparation. The association of exogenous PKA from bovine heart with the neurofilament preparation and with neurofilaments reconstituted from purified neurofilament proteins was also investigated. Either the free catalytic subunit or combinations of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA were incubated with the preparations, and the degree of association was determined as the level of kinase activity that co-sediments with neurofilaments. The results indicate that the free catalytic subunit of PKA co-sediments with neurofilaments reconstituted from purified proteins. The regulatory subunit of PKA from bovine heart, when pre-mixed with the catalytic subunit, decreased the level of kinase that co-sediments with the neurofilament fraction in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of the regulatory subunit was reversed by inclusion of cyclic AMP in the incubation medium before centrifugation. The above findings suggest that the regulatory subunit, when attached to the catalytic subunit, has an inhibitory effect on its association with neurofilaments, with the implication that the association may be a cyclic-AMP-regulated event. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1312331

Dosemeci, A; Pant, H C



Cyclic peptide-polymer complexes and their self-assembly.  


The efficient synthesis of novel chiral cyclic peptides cyclo[NHCHX-CH=CHCH(2)CO(NHCH(2)CH=CHCH(2)CO)(2)] designed to develop hydrogen-bonding interactions with suitable polymers is described. Complexation of a carboxylic acid derivatized cyclic peptide 2 (X = CH(2)OCOCH(2)CH(2)CO(2)H) capable of self-assembling as "endless" tubes, with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) led to a vast weak-interaction network, in which the cyclopeptide developed extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions with the hydroxyl groups of PVA through not only the carboxylic acid, but also its ester carbonyl and amide groups. In aqueous solution, the peptide/PVA complexes self-assemble into long-grain ricelike aggregates compatible with the stacking of cyclic peptides through intercycle hydrogen bonds. Upon casting on silicon wafer, the anisotropic aggregates can coalesce to form filaments tens of micrometers long. The study demonstrates that complexing functionalized cyclic peptides with polymers through hydrogen bonding is a useful approach for using polymers to mediate the self-assembly and self-organization of cyclic peptides. PMID:19263443

Blanger, Dominique; Tong, Xia; Soumar, Sadia; Dory, Yves L; Zhao, Yue



Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases: important signaling modulators and therapeutic targets.  


By catalyzing hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases are critical regulators of their intracellular concentrations and their biological effects. As these intracellular second messengers control many cellular homeostatic processes, dysregulation of their signals and signaling pathways initiate or modulate pathophysiological pathways related to various disease states, including erectile dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, acute refractory cardiac failure, intermittent claudication, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and psoriasis. Alterations in expression of PDEs and PDE-gene mutations (especially mutations in PDE6, PDE8B, PDE11A, and PDE4) have been implicated in various diseases and cancer pathologies. PDEs also play important role in formation and function of multimolecular signaling/regulatory complexes, called signalosomes. At specific intracellular locations, individual PDEs, together with pathway-specific signaling molecules, regulators, and effectors, are incorporated into specific signalosomes, where they facilitate and regulate compartmentalization of cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways and specific cellular functions. Currently, only a limited number of PDE inhibitors (PDE3, PDE4, PDE5 inhibitors) are used in clinical practice. Future paths to novel drug discovery include the crystal structure-based design approach, which has resulted in generation of more effective family-selective inhibitors, as well as burgeoning development of strategies to alter compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways by selectively targeting individual PDEs and their signalosome partners. PMID:25056711

Ahmad, F; Murata, T; Shimizu, K; Degerman, E; Maurice, D; Manganiello, V



Effects of cyclic lateral loads on piles in sand  

SciTech Connect

The effect of repetitive lateral loads on deflections of two drilled piers in Tampa Bay were significantly greater than predicted by a p-y procedure commonly used in practice. Reasons for the discrepancy between predicted and measured deflections are discussed. Two methods for predicting the effect of repetitive lateral loads are developed using results of 34 cyclic lateral load tests to quantify model parameters important to the behavior of piles subjected to repetitive lateral loading. The two methods model cyclic lateral load behavior of a pile by degrading soil resistance as a function of number of cycles of load, method of pile installation, soil density, and character of cyclic load. The two methods differ in the computational effort required to make the prediction. The first method is most suitable for hand calculation and rule-of-thumb estimation and is based upon a beam-on-an-elastic foundation model with a soil reaction modulus, K{sub h}, increasing proportionally with depth. The second method modifies nonlinear static p-y curves to derive a cyclic p-y curve. The two methods provides a simple means for estimating effects of cyclic lateral load.

Long, J.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Vanneste, G.



Cannabinoid hyperemesis: cyclical hyperemesis in association with chronic cannabis abuse  

PubMed Central

Background and aims: To explore the association between chronic cannabis abuse and a cyclical vomiting illness that presented in a series of cases in South Australia. Methods: Nineteen patients were identified with chronic cannabis abuse and a cyclical vomiting illness. For legal and ethical reasons, all patients were counselled to cease all cannabis abuse. Follow up was provided with serial urine drug screen analysis and regular clinical consultation to chart the clinical course. Of the 19 patients, five refused consent and were lost to follow up and five were excluded on the basis of confounders. The remaining nine cases are presented here and compared with a published case of psychogenic vomiting. Results: In all cases, including the published case, chronic cannabis abuse predated the onset of the cyclical vomiting illness. Cessation of cannabis abuse led to cessation of the cyclical vomiting illness in seven cases. Three cases, including the published case, did not abstain and continued to have recurrent episodes of vomiting. Three cases rechallenged themselves after a period of abstinence and suffered a return to illness. Two of these cases abstained again, and became and remain well. The third case did not and remains ill. A novel finding was that nine of the 10 patients, including the previously published case, displayed an abnormal washing behaviour during episodes of active illness. Conclusions: We conclude that chronic cannabis abuse was the cause of the cyclical vomiting illness in all cases, including the previously described case of psychogenic vomiting. PMID:15479672

Allen, J H; de Moore, G M; Heddle, R; Twartz, J C



Temperature Dependent Cyclic Deformation Mechanisms in Haynes 188 Superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cyclic deformation behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188, has been investigated over a range of temperatures between 25 and 1000 C under isothermal and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions. Constant mechanical strain rates (epsilon-dot) of 10(exp -3)/s and 10(exp -4)/s were examined with a fully reversed strain range of 0.8%. Particular attention was given to the effects of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on the stress-strain response and low cycle fatigue life. A correlation between cyclic deformation behavior and microstructural substructure was made through detailed transmission electron microscopy. Although DSA was found to occur over a wide temperature range between approximately 300 and 750 C the microstructural characteristics and the deformation mechanisms responsible for DSA varied considerably and were dependent upon temperature. In general, the operation of DSA processes led to a maximum of the cyclic stress amplitude at 650 C and was accompanied by pronounced planar slip, relatively high dislocation density, and the generation of stacking faults. DSA was evidenced through a combination of phenomena, including serrated yielding, an inverse dependence of the maximum cyclic hardening with epsilon-dot, and an instantaneous inverse epsilon-dot sensitivity verified by specialized epsilon-dot -change tests. The TMF cyclic hardening behavior of the alloy appeared to be dictated by the substructural changes occuring at the maximum temperature in the TMF cycle.

Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Castelli, Michael G.; Allen, Gorden P.; Ellis, John R.



Controlled Cyclic Stretch Bioreactor for Tissue-Engineered Heart Valves  

PubMed Central

A tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) represents the ultimate valve replacement, especially for juvenile patients given its growth potential. To date, most TEHV bioreactors have been developed based on pulsed flow of culture medium through the valve lumen to induce strain in the leaflets. Using a strategy for controlled cyclic stretching of tubular constructs reported previously, we developed a controlled cyclic stretch bioreactor for TEHVs that leads to improved tensile and compositional properties. The TEHV is mounted inside a latex tube, which is then cyclically pressurized with culture medium. The root and leaflets stretch commensurately with the latex, the stretching being dictated by the stiffer latex and thus controllable. Medium is also perfused through the lumen at a slow rate in a flow loop to provide nutrient delivery. Fibrin-based TEHVs prepared with human dermal fibroblasts were subjected to three weeks of cyclic stretching with incrementally increasing strain amplitude. The TEHV possessed the tensile stiffness and stiffness anisotropy of leaflets from sheep pulmonary valves and could withstand cyclic pulmonary pressures with similar distension as for a sheep pulmonary artery. PMID:19473698

Syedain, Zeeshan H.; Tranquillo, Robert T.



Fermi acceleration in astrophysical jets  

E-print Network

We consider the acceleration of energetic particles by Fermi processes (i.e., diffusive shock acceleration, second order Fermi acceleration, and gradual shear acceleration) in relativistic astrophysical jets, with particular attention given to recent progress in the field of viscous shear acceleration. We analyze the associated acceleration timescales and the resulting particle distributions, and discuss the relevance of these processes for the acceleration of charged particles in the jets of AGNs, GRBs and microquasars, showing that multi-component powerlaw-type particle distributions are likely to occur.

Frank M. Rieger; Valenti Bosch-Ramon; Peter Duffy



Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus  


An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)



Acoustic particle acceleration sensors  

SciTech Connect

A crossed dipole array provides a directional receiving capability in a relatively small sensor package and is therefore very attractive for many applications in acoustics. Particle velocity measurements on two axes perpendicular to each other are required to provide the dipole signals. These can be obtained directly using particle velocity sensors or via simple transfer functions using acceleration and displacement sensors. Also, the derivative of the acoustic pressure with respect to space provides a signal proportional to the particle acceleration and gives rise to the pressure gradient sensor. Each of these sensors has strengths and drawbacks depending on the frequency regime of interest, the noise background, and whether a point or a line configuration of dipole sensors is desired. In this paper, the performance of acceleration sensors is addressed using a sensor concept developed at DREA. These sensors exploit bending stresses in a cantilever beam of piezoelectric material to obtain wide bandwidth and high sensitivity. Models which predict the acceleration sensitivity, pressure sensitivity, and natural frequency for this type of sensor are described. Experimental results obtained using several different versions of these sensors are presented and compared with theory. The predicted performance of acceleration sensors are compared with that of pressure gradient arrays and particle velocity sensors. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Franklin, J.B. [Franklin Scientific Services (work performed while Mr. Franklin was employed by Defence Research Establishment Atlantic); Barry, P.J. [Defence Research Establishment Atlantic, P.O. Box 1012, Dartmouth, B2Y 3Z7 (CANADA)



Dielectric laser accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.



Human thyroid cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Its characterization and the effect of several hormones on the activity.  


Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities (3',5'-cyclic AMP 5'-nucleotidohydrolase, EC were investigated in the human thyroid gland from patients with hyperthyroidism. Low substrate concentration (0.4 muM) was used. About 60% of the cyclic-AMP and 80% of the cyclic-GMP hydrolytic activities in the homogenate were obtained in the soluble fraction (105 000 X g supernatant). The thyroid gland contains two forms of cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase, one with a Km of 1.3-10(-5) M and the second with a Km of 2-10(-6) M. Cyclic-AMP and cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase were purified by gel filtration on a Sepharose-6B column. Cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activities were found in a broad area corresponding to molecular weights ranging from approx. 200 000 to 250 000 and cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity was found in a single area corresponding to a molecular weight of 260 000. Cyclis-AMP phosphodiesterase activities were stimulated by the protein activator which was found in human thyroid and this stimulation was dependent on Ca2+. Stimulation of cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase by the activator was not significant even in the presence of enough Ca2+. The effect of D,L-triiodothyronine, D,L-thyroxine, L-diiodotyrosine, L-monoiodotyrosine, L-thyronine, L-diiodothyronine, thyrotropin, hydrocortisone, adrenocorticotropin, cyclic-AMP and cyclic-GMP on the phosphodiesterase activities was studied. Cyclic-AMP, cyclic-GMP, D,L-triiosothyronine, D,L-thyroxine, adrenocorticotropin and hydrocortisone where found to inhibit the phophodiesterase. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine inhibited cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase more effectively than cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase. Thyroxine was a more potent inhibitor than triiodothyronine. The concentration of cyclic AMP producing a 50% inhibition of cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activity was 5-10(-5) M, while the concentration of cyclic GMP producing a 50% inhibition of cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase was 3-10(-3) M. Both cyclic-AMP and cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase activities in the homogenate of hyperthyroidism, thyroid carcinoma and adenoma were higher than in normal thyroid tissue, when assayed with a low concentration of the substrate (0.4 muM). When a higher concentration (1 mM) of cyclic nucleotides was used as the substrate, cyclic-AMP hydrolytic activity in adenoma tissue was similar to that of normal tissue, while the other activities were higher than normal. PMID:182233

Nagasaka, A; Hidaka, H



Effects of cyclic loading on internal shear strength of unreinforced geosynthetic clay liner  

SciTech Connect

Stress-controlled static and cyclic shear tests were performed by using a direct simple shear device on samples of a geomembrane-supported geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). The dry material showed no degradation in shear strength during cyclic loading as long as the peak shear stress was less than the static shear strength of the GCL with no cyclic loading. Furthermore, cyclic loading slightly densified the dry bentonite and thus increased its shear resistance under subsequent static loading. On the other hand, the shear strength of the hydrated GCL was found to be reduced by cyclic loading. The number of cycles to cause failure decreased with increasing cyclic stress ratio (cyclic shear stress divided by undrained static shear strength); at a cyclic stress ratio of 0.67, failure occurred at 32 cycles of loading, but at a cyclic stress ratio of 0.53, failure did not occur until up to 200 cycles of loading.

Lai, J. [Ghaoyang Univ. of Technology, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Wright, S.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering



Comparing the effect of equiaxial cyclic mechanical stimulation on GATA4 expression in adipose-derived and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.  


Myocardium is prone to mechanical stimuli among which pulsatile blood flow exerts both radial and longitudinal strains on the heart. Recent studies have shown that mechanical stimulation can notably influence regeneration of cardiac muscle cells. GATA4 is a cardiac-specific transcription factor that plays an important role in late embryonic heart development. Our study aimed at investigating the effect of equiaxial cyclic strain on GATA4 expression in adipose-derived (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived (BMSCs) mesenchymal stem cells. For this reason, both ASCs and BMSCs were studied in four distinct groups of chemical, mechanical, mechano-chemical and negative control. According to this categorisation, the cells were exposed to cyclic mechanical loading and/or 5-azacytidine as the chemical factor. The level of GATA4 expression was then quantified using real-time PCR method on the first, fourth and seventh days. The results show that: (1) equiaxial cyclic stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells could promote GATA4 expression from the early days of induction and as it went on, its combination with chemical factor elevated expression; (2) cyclic strain could accelerate GATA4 expression compared to the chemical factor; (3) in this regard, these results indicate a higher capacity of ASCs than BMSCs to express GATA4. PMID:24123331

Amin, Susan; Banijamali, Seyede Elnaz; Tafazoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Haghighipour, Nooshin; Mahdian, Reza; Bayati, Vahid; Abbasnia, Pegah



The SU(3) Algebra in a Cyclic Basis  

E-print Network

With the couplings between the eight gluons constrained by the structure constants of the su(3) algebra in QCD, one would expect that there should exist a special basis (or set of bases) for the algebra wherein, unlike in a Cartan-Weyl basis, {\\em all} gluons interact identically (cyclically) with each other, explicitly on an equal footing. We report here particular such bases, which we have found in a computer search, and we indicate associated $3 \\times 3$ representations. We conjecture that essentially all cyclic bases for su(3) may be obtained from these making appropriate circulant transformations,and that cyclic bases may also exist for other su(n), n>3.

P. F. Harrison; R. Krishnan; W. G. Scott



Development of a viscoelastic continuum damage model for cyclic loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously developed spectrum model for linear viscoelastic behavior of solids is used to describe the rate-dependent damage growth of a time dependent material under cyclic loading. Through the use of the iterative solution of a special Volterra integral equation, the cyclic strain history is described. The spectrum-based model is generalized for any strain rate and any uniaxial load history to formulate the damage function. Damage evolution in the body is described through the use of a rate-type evolution law which uses a pseudo strain to express the viscoelastic constitutive equation with damage. The resulting damage function is used to formulate a residual strength model. The methodology presented is demonstrated by comparing the peak values of the computed cyclic strain history as well as the residual strength model predictions to the experimental data of a polymer matrix composite.

Sullivan, R. W.



Control of cyclic chromosome replication in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The biochemical basis for cyclic initiation of bacterial chromosome replication is reviewed to define the processes involved and to focus on the putative oscillator mechanism which generates the replication clock. The properties required for a functional oscillator are defined, and their implications are discussed. We show that positive control models, but not negative ones, can explain cyclic initiation. In particular, the widely accepted idea that DnaA protein controls the timing of initiation is examined in detail. Our analysis indicates that DnaA protein is not involved in the oscillator mechanism. We conclude that the generations of a single leading to cyclic initiation is separate from the initiation process itself and propose a heuristic model to focus attention on possible oscillator mechanisms. PMID:1943997

Bremer, H; Churchward, G



Yawing of wind turbines with blade cyclic-pitch variation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control system horizontal axis wind turbine is discussed. It incorporates two features: the application of blade cyclic pitch variation adopted from rotorcraft technology, and the use of yaw angle control, not only for wind direction following, but also for rotor speed or torque control. Cyclic pitch variation in a two-bladed rotor relieves the blades of all the gyroscopic and odd harmonic aerodynamic root moments. It makes rapid yaw rates of a two-bladed rotor possible without causing vibratory hub moments and without causing appreciable angular excursions of the blade tip path plane. Due to the allowable rapid yaw rates of wind turbines with blade cyclic pitch variation, the two conventional separate control systems - yaw control for wind direction following and blade feathering control for regulating rotor speed and torque - can be replaced by a system with only a single control variable, the rotor yaw angle.

Hohenemser, K. H.; Swift, A. H. P.; Peters, D. A.



Nanofiber formation of amphiphilic cyclic tri-beta-peptide.  


A novel amphiphilic cyclic peptide composed of two beta-glucosamino acids and one trans-2-aminocyclohexylcarboxylic acid was synthesized and investigated on assembly formation. The cyclic tri-beta-peptide was self-assembled into rodlike crystals or nanofibers depending on preparative conditions. The rodlike crystals showed a layer spacing of 4.8 A along the long axis, and columnar spacings of 10.8 and 21.5 A by electron diffraction analysis along the short axis. The former confirms the columnar structure upon molecular stacking, and the latter indicates triple bundle formation of the columnar assemblies. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurement of the fibrous assembly showed formation of homogeneous hydrogen bonds among amide groups, also supporting the molecular stacking of cyclic beta-peptides. Straight nanofibers with uniform diameter were also uniquely obtained. PMID:20063334

Ishihara, Yusuke; Kimura, Shunsaku



Low Severity Coal Liquefaction Promoted by Cyclic Olefins  

SciTech Connect

The development of the donor solvent technology for coal liquefaction has drawn a good deal of attention over the last three decades. The search for better hydrogen donors led investigators to a class of compounds known as cyclic olefins. Cyclic olefins are analogues of the conventional hydroaromatic donor species but do not contain aromatic rings. The cyclic olefins are highly reactive compounds which readily release their hydrogen at temperatures of 200 C or higher. Considerable effort has been o expended toward understanding the process of hydrogen donation. Most of this work was conducted in bomb reactors, with product analysis being carried out after the reaction was complete. Efforts directed towards fundamental studies of these reactions in situ are rare. The current work employs a high temperature and high pressure infrared cell to monitor in situ the concentrations of reactants and products during hydrogen release from hydrogen donor compounds.

Christine W. Curtis



On the connection between multigrid and cyclic reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is shown whereby it is possible to relate a particular multigrid process to cyclic reduction using purely mathematical arguments. This technique suggest methods for solving Poisson's equation in 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensions with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. In one dimension the method is exact and, in fact, reduces to cyclic reduction. This provides a valuable reference point for understanding multigrid techniques. The particular multigrid process analyzed is referred to here as Approximate Cyclic Reduction (ACR) and is one of a class known as Multigrid Reduction methods in the literature. It involves one approximation with a known error term. It is possible to relate the error term in this approximation with certain eigenvector components of the error. These are sharply reduced in amplitude by classical relaxation techniques. The approximation can thus be made a very good one.

Merriam, M. L.



Cyclic tetrapyrrole sulfonation, metals, and oligomerization in antiprion activity.  


Cyclic tetrapyrroles are among the most potent compounds with activity against transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs; or prion diseases). Here the effects of differential sulfonation and metal binding to cyclic tetrapyrroles were investigated. Their potencies in inhibiting disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein were compared in several types of TSE-infected cell cultures. In addition, prophylactic antiscrapie activities were determined in scrapie-infected mice. The activity of phthalocyanine was relatively insensitive to the number of peripheral sulfonate groups but varied with the type of metal bound at the center of the molecule. The tendency of the various phthalocyanine sulfonates to oligomerize (i.e., stack) correlated with anti-TSE activity. Notably, aluminum(III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was both the poorest anti-TSE compound and the least prone to oligomerization in aqueous media. Similar comparisons of iron- and manganese-bound porphyrin sulfonates confirmed that stacking ability correlates with anti-TSE activity among cyclic tetrapyrroles. PMID:17709470

Caughey, Winslow S; Priola, Suzette A; Kocisko, David A; Raymond, Lynne D; Ward, Anne; Caughey, Byron



Cyclic Tetrapyrrole Sulfonation, Metals, and Oligomerization in Antiprion Activity?  

PubMed Central

Cyclic tetrapyrroles are among the most potent compounds with activity against transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs; or prion diseases). Here the effects of differential sulfonation and metal binding to cyclic tetrapyrroles were investigated. Their potencies in inhibiting disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein were compared in several types of TSE-infected cell cultures. In addition, prophylactic antiscrapie activities were determined in scrapie-infected mice. The activity of phthalocyanine was relatively insensitive to the number of peripheral sulfonate groups but varied with the type of metal bound at the center of the molecule. The tendency of the various phthalocyanine sulfonates to oligomerize (i.e., stack) correlated with anti-TSE activity. Notably, aluminum(III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was both the poorest anti-TSE compound and the least prone to oligomerization in aqueous media. Similar comparisons of iron- and manganese-bound porphyrin sulfonates confirmed that stacking ability correlates with anti-TSE activity among cyclic tetrapyrroles. PMID:17709470

Caughey, Winslow S.; Priola, Suzette A.; Kocisko, David A.; Raymond, Lynne D.; Ward, Anne; Caughey, Byron



Pharmacological actions of some cyclic analogues of choline.  

PubMed Central

Two cyclic choline analogues (3-hydroxy-N,N- dimethylpiperidinium and 2-hydroxymethyl-N,N- dimethylpiperidinium ) and two cyclic homocholine analogues (4-hydroxy-N,N- dimethylpiperidinium and 3-hydroxymethyl-N,N- dimethylpiperidinium ) have been studied with regard to their actions at the cholinergic synapse. All the analogues had some direct depolarizing activity on the frog rectus abdominis muscle but they were less potent in this respect than acetylcholine. Compared to physostigmine, the analogues were weak inhibitors of cholinesterase enzymes. All the analogues were found to have a presynaptic blocking action on the rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, which was reversed by choline. In addition, they all inhibited the high affinity transport of choline into synaptosomes but only the cyclic choline analogues were found to be acetylated by soluble choline acetyltransferase in vitro. We conclude that the hydroxypiperidinium analogues caused the presynaptic block seen at the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting acetylcholine synthesis. PMID:6326923

Hemsworth, B. A.; Shreeve, S. M.; Veitch, G. B.



Medical uses of accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A variety of particle accelerators have either potential or already demonstrated uses in connection with medically-related research, diagnosis, and treatment. For cancer radiotherapy, nuclear particles including protons, neutrons, heavy ions, and negative pi mesons have advantages compared to conventional radiations in terms of dose localization and/or biological effectiveness. Clinical evaluations of these particles are underway at a number of institutions. Accelerator-produced radionuclides are in widespread use for research and routine diagnostic purposes. Elemental analysis techniques with charged particles and neutrons are being applied to bone, blood, and other tissues. Finally, low-dose medical imaging can be accomplished with accelerated protons and heavy ions. The status and future of these programs are discussed.

Bradbury, J.N.



Perturbations for transient acceleration  

SciTech Connect

According to the standard ?CDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

Vargas, Cristofher Zuiga; Zimdahl, Winfried [Universidade Federal do Esprito Santo, Departamento de Fsica, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitria, Esprito Santo (Brazil); Hiplito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Esprito Santo, Departamento de Cincias Naturais, Grupo de Fsica Terica, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km 60, Campus de So Mateus, CEP 29932-540, So Mateus, Esprito Santo (Brazil)



Diffusive Shock Acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

Baring, Matthew



Cyclic nucleotide regulation of teleost rod photoreceptor inner segment length  

PubMed Central

Retinal rod photoreceptors of teleost fish elongate in the light and shorten in the dark. Rod cell elongation and shortening are both mediated by actin-dependent mechanisms that occur in the inner segment myoid and ellipsoid. The intracellular signaling pathways by which light and dark regulate the actin cytoskeleton in the inner segment are unknown. To investigate the intracellular signals that regulate teleost rod motility, we have been using mechanically isolated rod inner/outer segments (RIS-ROS) obtained from the retinas of green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. In culture, RIS-ROS retain the ability to elongate in response to light; myoids elongate 15-20 microns in length during 45 min of light culture. A pharmacological approach was taken to investigate the role of cyclic nucleotides, cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases, and protein phosphatases in the regulation of RIS-ROS motility. Millimolar concentrations of cAMP and cGMP analogues were both found to inhibit light-induced myoid elongation and two cyclic nucleotide analogues, SpCAMPS and 8BrcGMP, promoted myoid shortening after RIS-ROS had elongated in response to light. The cyclic nucleotide- dependent kinase inhibitor, H8, mimicked light by promoting myoid elongation in the dark. The effects of H8 were dose dependent, with maximal elongation occurring at concentrations of approximately 100 microM. Similar to the effects of cyclic nucleotide analogues, the phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid (0.1-10 microM), inhibited light- induced elongation and promoted shortening. The results presented here suggest that RIS-ROS motility is regulated by protein phosphorylation: phosphorylation in the dark by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases promotes rod shortening, while dephosphorylation in the light promotes rod elongation. PMID:7690838



Cyclic nucleotide regulation of teleost rod photoreceptor inner segment length.  


Retinal rod photoreceptors of teleost fish elongate in the light and shorten in the dark. Rod cell elongation and shortening are both mediated by actin-dependent mechanisms that occur in the inner segment myoid and ellipsoid. The intracellular signaling pathways by which light and dark regulate the actin cytoskeleton in the inner segment are unknown. To investigate the intracellular signals that regulate teleost rod motility, we have been using mechanically isolated rod inner/outer segments (RIS-ROS) obtained from the retinas of green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. In culture, RIS-ROS retain the ability to elongate in response to light; myoids elongate 15-20 microns in length during 45 min of light culture. A pharmacological approach was taken to investigate the role of cyclic nucleotides, cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases, and protein phosphatases in the regulation of RIS-ROS motility. Millimolar concentrations of cAMP and cGMP analogues were both found to inhibit light-induced myoid elongation and two cyclic nucleotide analogues, SpCAMPS and 8BrcGMP, promoted myoid shortening after RIS-ROS had elongated in response to light. The cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinase inhibitor, H8, mimicked light by promoting myoid elongation in the dark. The effects of H8 were dose dependent, with maximal elongation occurring at concentrations of approximately 100 microM. Similar to the effects of cyclic nucleotide analogues, the phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid (0.1-10 microM), inhibited light-induced elongation and promoted shortening. The results presented here suggest that RIS-ROS motility is regulated by protein phosphorylation: phosphorylation in the dark by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases promotes rod shortening, while dephosphorylation in the light promotes rod elongation. PMID:7690838

Liepe, B A; Burnside, B



Accelerated molecular dynamics methods  

SciTech Connect

The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory



A Smoother Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some may argue that gifted children have many education options, but these options do not always help gifted students learn science. Unfortunately, gifted students often do not reach their full academic potential--they are frequently less motivated to succeed because they are not being academically challenged in regular classrooms (McCoach and Siegle 2003). To counter these problems, a strong option for educating gifted students is acceleration. This article describes the challenges that more and more gifted students face when accelerating, particularly when skipping an entire academic year. Strategies to lessen their intensity and duration and, ultimately, help gifted students to succeed are also included.

Chapman, Christine



Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

Shea, T.J.



Photocathodes in accelerator applications  

SciTech Connect

Some electron accelerator applications require bursts of short pulses at high microscopic repetition rates and high peak brightness. A photocathode, illuminated by a mode-locked laser, is well suited to filling this need. The intrinsic brightness of a photoemitter beam is high; experiments are under way at Los Alamos to study the brightness of short bunches with high space charge after acceleration. A laser-illuminated Cs/sub 3/Sb photoemitter is located in the first rf cavity of an injector linac. Diagnostics include a pepper-pot emittance analyzer, a magnetic spectrometer, and a streak camera.

Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.; Gray, E.R.; Giles, P.M.; Springer, R.W.; Loebs, V.A.



'Light Sail' Acceleration Reexamined  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of the acceleration of ultrathin foil targets by the radiation pressure of superintense, circularly polarized laser pulses is investigated by analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. By addressing self-induced transparency and charge separation effects, it is shown that for 'optimal' values of the foil thickness only a thin layer at the rear side is accelerated by radiation pressure. The simple 'light sail' model gives a good estimate of the energy per nucleon, but overestimates the conversion efficiency of laser energy into monoenergetic ions.

Macchi, Andrea [CNR/INFM/polyLAB, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica 'Enrico Fermi', Universita di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Veghini, Silvia; Pegoraro, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica 'Enrico Fermi', Universita di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)



An accelerator technology legacy  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator technology has been a major beneficiary of the investment made over the last decade. It is the intention of this paper to provide the reader with a glimpse of the broad nature of those advances. Development has been on a broad front and this paper can highlight only a few of those. Two spin-off applications will be outlined -- a concept for a compact, active, beam probe for solar body exploration and the concept for an accelerator-driven transmutation system for energy production.

Heighway, E.A.



Sandia LSI accelerated aging and data acquisition techniques  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Microelectronic Evaluation Laboratory at Sandia is to develop a program for evaluating CMOS LSI (complementary metal oxide silicon - large scale integrated) technology devices which are being used for the first time in a weapon system. These evaluations are based on accelerated aging studies and electrical tests to determine the reliability and life of the devices. In accelerated aging, specific, controlled stresses are applied to the device to accelerate time-to-failure. Data are used tin mathematical models to estimate life in acutal use. The stresses used for this technology are temperature and voltage. The devices are stored at temperatures with or without voltage applied (steady-state or cyclical) and periodically tested until at least 50% failures are encountered. Since most current technologies use epoxy-die-attachment, aging temperatures must be under 200/sup 0/C. This delays device failure, and a 16% failure level is used when this extrapolation is considered valid. Statistical analysis is performed on the resultant data to predict reliability with time. The equipment and procedures used for accelerated aging tests are described in detail. The data acquisition system and its use are discussed. All devices, after functional failure has occurred, are given to the failure analysis group for failure evaluations. In order to improve reliability predictions, failure analysis is most concerned with the separation of freak and main life mechanisms. Through these evaluations, higher reliability and longer device life have become a milestone of the future. (LCL)

Walker, J.E.



Bounce and cyclic cosmology in extended nonlinear massive gravity  

SciTech Connect

We investigate non-singular bounce and cyclic cosmological evolutions in a universe governed by the extended nonlinear massive gravity, in which the graviton mass is promoted to a scalar-field potential. The extra freedom of the theory can lead to certain energy conditions violations and drive cyclicity with two different mechanisms: either with a suitably chosen scalar-field potential under a given Stckelberg-scalar function, or with a suitably chosen Stckelberg-scalar function under a given scalar-field potential. Our analysis shows that extended nonlinear massive gravity can alter significantly the evolution of the universe at both early and late times.

Cai, Yi-Fu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, 650 E. Tyler Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Gao, Caixia [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Mississippi, 123 Lewis Hall, University, MS 38677 (United States); Saridakis, Emmanuel N., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece)



Computational balance in real-time cyclic spectral analysis  

SciTech Connect

Real-time cyclic spectral analysis is useful in many applications, but is difficult to achieve because of its computational complexity. This paper studies the distribution of complex multipliers in multiprocessor cyclic spectrum analyzers, with the objective of obtaining computational balance. Computationally balanced implementations efficiently use hardware so that computational bottlenecks are reduced and a smooth flow of data between computational sections of the analyzer is maintained. Tables are presented that give the number of complex multipliers required in each section of the analyzer to obtain computational balance.

Roberts, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loomis, H.H. Jr. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)



Botulinum toxin: a novel treatment for pediatric cyclic esotropia.  


Cyclic esotropia is a rare entity in which an esotropia presents in a regular 48-96 hour cycle, typically described as a 24-hour period of orthotropia followed by a 24-hour period of esotropia. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown. Treatment usually involves surgical correction of the manifest strabismus. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl whose cyclic esotropia was broken following injection of botulinum toxin to both medial rectus muscles. She has remained constantly esophoric for 1 year. PMID:25300669

Jones, Alistair; Jain, Saurabh



The Cyclic AMP Phenotype of Fragile X and Autism  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger involved in many processes including mnemonic processing and anxiety. Memory deficits and anxiety are noted in the phenotype of fragile X (FX), the most common heritable cause of mental retardation and autism. Here we review reported observations of altered cAMP cascade function in FX and autism. Cyclic AMP is a potentially useful biochemical marker to distinguish autism comorbid with FX from autism per se and the cAMP cascade may be a viable therapeutic target for both FX and autism. PMID:18601949

Kelley, Daniel J; Bhattacharyya, Anita; Lahvis, Garet P; Yin, Jerry CP; Malter, Jim; Davidson, Richard J



Monotonic and cyclic fatigue properties of automotive aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

Monotonic and strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted on 2014-T6, 6061-T6 and 7175-T73 hand-forgings, 5052-H32 and 6061-T6 sheet, and a 1983/84 production Chevrolet Corvette upper-control-arm-pivot shaft (UCAPS) cold-forged from 5454-H12 and 6061-T4 rolled rod (the 6061 UCAPS was artificially-aged to the -T6 temper, after forging). Various monotonic and cyclic fatigue stress-strain material properties are presented. The responses of the various alloys and product-forms in terms of cyclic hardening or softening are described.

Wong, W.A.



Thermal cyclic durability testing of ceramic materials for turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal cyclic durability of commercial ceramic materials for turbine engines was under evaluation since 1978. Ceramic materials are exposed to cyclic diesel-fired burner exhaust at either 1204 or 1371 C (2200 or 2500 F) for up to 3500 hours. The test conditions are selected to simulate the environment experienced by the hot flow path components in an automotive gas turbine engine. The silicon nitride and silicon carbide materials tested are the same ceramic materials currently used on the AGT100 and AGT101 ceramic turbine engine program.

Lindberg, L. J.



Acceleration of cheese ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic aroma, flavour and texture of cheese develop during ripening of the cheese curd through the action of numerous enzymes derived from the cheese milk, the coagulant, starter and non-starter bacteria. Ripening is a slow and consequently an expensive process that is not fully predictable or controllable. Consequently, there are economic and possibly technological incentives to accelerate ripening. The

P. F. Fox; J. M. Wallace; S. Morgan; C. M. Lynch; E. J. Niland; J. Tobin



Radioisotope Dating with Accelerators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a new method of detecting radioactive isotopes by counting their accelerated ions rather than the atoms that decay during the counting period. This method increases the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and allows one to find the ages of much older and smaller samples. (GA)

Muller, Richard A.



Convergence Acceleration Techniques  

E-print Network

This work describes numerical methods that are useful in many areas: examples include statistical modelling (bioinformatics, computational biology), theoretical physics, and even pure mathematics. The methods are primarily useful for the acceleration of slowly convergent and the summation of divergent series that are ubiquitous in relevant applications. The computing time is reduced in many cases by orders of magnitude.

U. D. Jentschura; S. V. Aksenov; P. J. Mohr; M. A. Savageau; G. Soff



Acceleration of Series  

E-print Network

The rate of convergence of infinite series can be accelerated b y a suitable splitting of each term into two parts and then combining the second part of the n-th term with the first part of the (n+1) -th term t get a new ...

Gosper, R.W.



The Physics Hypertextbook: Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online tutorial offers support in understanding acceleration from both a conceptual and a quantitative framework. It features a discussion of key concepts, practice problems with answers provided, and a list of links to related activities for high school students. This resource is part of an online textbook in introductory physics.

Elert, Glenn



Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed measurements of the axial velocity profile and electromagnetic structure of a high power, quasi-steady MPD discharge are used to formulate a gasdynamic model of the acceleration process. Conceptually dividing the accelerated plasma into an inner flow and an outer flow, it is found that more than two-thirds of the total power in the plasma is deposited in the inner flow, accelerating it to an exhaust velocity of 12.5 km/sec. The outer flow, which is accelerated to a velocity of only 6.2 km/sec, appears to provide a current conduction path between the inner flow and the anode. Related cathode studies have shown that the critical current for the onset of terminal voltage fluctuations, which was recently shown to be a function of the cathode area, appears to reach an asymptote for cathodes of very large surface area. Detailed floating potential measurements show that the fluctuations are confined to the vicinity of the cathode and hence reflect a cathode emission process rather than a fundamental limit on MPD performance.

Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.



Duff's Acceleration Apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some years ago I wrote a note about Packard's apparatus to honor an early physics teacher who designed apparatus. In this note I honor Dr. A. Wilmer Duff of Worchester Polytechnic Institute in Worchester, Mass., for his development of a simple and inexpensive method of studying uniformly accelerated motion.

Greenslade, Thomas B.




E-print Network

to the storing and presentation of all project documents, cads, etc; implementation and maintenance of a Project to the project. In the mean time, the international community interested in the development of the accelerator, FLUKA, GEANT, MCNPX,ANSYS · Controls R&D: Labview, memcache, mongoDB, etc · hardware has been installed

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)


Stacked insulator induction accelerator gaps  

SciTech Connect

Stacked insulators, with alternating layers of insulating material and conducting film, have been shown to support high surface electrical field stresses. We have investigated the application of the stacked insulator technology to the design of induction accelerator modules for the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator program. The rf properties of the accelerating gaps using stacked insulators, particularly the impedance at frequencies above the beam pipe cutoff frequency, are investigated. Low impedance is critical for Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator applications where a high current, bunched beam is trsnsported through many accelerating gaps. An induction accelerator module designs using a stacked insulator is presented.

Houck, T.I.; Westenskow, G.A.; Kim, J.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Vanecek, D.



Selective hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols to cyclic alcohols over tungsten oxide-palladium catalysts.  


Hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols such as 1,4-anhydroerythritol was conducted over catalysts containing both a noble metal and a group 5-7 transition-metal oxide. The combination of Pd and WOx allowed the removal of one of the two OH groups selectively. 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran was obtained from 1,4-anhydroerythritol in 72 and 74% yield over WOx -Pd/C and WOx -Pd/ZrO2 , respectively. The WOx -Pd/ZrO2 catalyst was reusable without significant loss of activity if the catalyst was calcined as a method of regeneration. Characterization of WOx -Pd/C with temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that Pd metal particles approximately 9 nm in size were formed on amorphous tungsten oxide particles. A reaction mechanism was proposed on the basis of kinetics, reaction results with tungsten oxides under an atmosphere of Ar, and density functional theory calculations. A tetravalent tungsten center (W(IV) ) was formed by reduction of WO3 with the Pd catalyst and H2 , and this center served as the reductant for partial hydrodeoxygenation. PMID:24974957

Amada, Yasushi; Ota, Nobuhiko; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi



Multigrid and cyclic reduction applied to the Helmholtz equation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the Helmholtz equation with a discontinuous complex parameter and inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions in a rectangular domain. A variant of the direct method of cyclic reduction (CR) is employed to facilitate the design of improved multigrid (MG) components, resulting in the method of CR-MG. We demonstrate the improved convergence properties of this method.

Brackenridge, Kenneth



Modeling Tracer Transport in an Osteon under Cyclic Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed to explain the fundamental conundrum as to how during cyclic mechanical loading there can be net solute (e.g., nutrient, tracer) transport in bone via the lacunar-canalicular porosity when there is no net fluid movement in the canaliculi over a loading cycle. Our hypothesis is that the fluid space in an osteocytic lacuna facilitates a nearly

Liyun Wang; Stephen C. Cowin; Sheldon Weinbaum; Susannah P. Fritton



Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily  

E-print Network

Novel Cyclic Sugar Imines: Carbohydrate Mimics and Easily Elaborated Scaffolds for Aza-Sugars functionalized aza-sugars through highly diastereoselective organometallic additions. Polyhydroxylated nitrogen heterocycle aza-sugars may be considered to be mimics of sugars in which the ring oxygen has been substituted

Davis, Ben G.



E-print Network

MODELING CYCLIC WAVES OF CIRCULATING T CELLS IN AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES JOSEPH M. MAHAFFY AND LEAH EDELSTEIN-KESHET Abstract. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells, notably T diabetes result once a large enough fraction of these beta cells have been destroyed. Recent investigation

Mahaffy, Joseph M.


COMMUNICATIONS Near-infrared femtosecond photoionization/dissociation of cyclic  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATIONS Near-infrared femtosecond photoionization/dissociation of cyclic aromatic, phenanthrene, and anthracene. The near-infrared ionization process leads to the production of intact molecular of femtoseconds in simple cluster systems.12­15 Here we report the near-infrared 780 nm photoioniza- tion

Levis, Robert J.


Micromechanical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Soil Interaction Under Cyclic Loading  

E-print Network

Micromechanical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Soil Interaction under Cyclic Loading By Anil Bhandari B.E., Tribhuvan University, Nepal, 2003 M.E., Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, 2006 Submitted to graduate degree program... ____________________ Committee members Dr. Anil Misra ____________________ Dr. Robert L. Parsons ____________________ Dr. Steven D. Schrock ____________________ Dr. W. Lynn Watney Date defended: ________ i The Dissertation Committee for Anil Bhandari certifies...

Bhandari, Anil



Behavior of Nonplastic Silty Soils under Cyclic Loading  

PubMed Central

The engineering behavior of nonplastic silts is more difficult to characterize than is the behavior of clay or sand. Especially, behavior of silty soils is important in view of the seismicity of several regions of alluvial deposits in the world, such as the United States, China, and Turkey. In several hazards substantial ground deformation, reduced bearing capacity, and liquefaction of silty soils have been attributed to excess pore pressure generation during dynamic loading. In this paper, an experimental study of the pore water pressure generation of silty soils was conducted by cyclic triaxial tests on samples of reconstituted soils by the slurry deposition method. In all tests silty samples which have different clay percentages were studied under different cyclic stress ratios. The results have showed that in soils having clay content equal to and less than 10%, the excess pore pressure ratio buildup was quicker with an increase in different cyclic stress ratios. When fine and clay content increases, excess pore water pressure decreases constant cyclic stress ratio in nonplastic silty soils. In addition, the applicability of the used criteria for the assessment of liquefaction susceptibility of fine grained soils is examined using laboratory test results. PMID:24672343

Ural, Nazile; Gunduz, Zeki




E-print Network

CYCLIC TRINUCLEAR GOLD(I) COMPOUNDS: SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURES AND SUPRAMOLECULAR ACID-BASE p, Table 1. 1.1. Synthesis The first CTC gold(I) compound was reported by Vaughan in 1970.[5] The complex A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA Trinuclear 9-membered rings can be formed by gold

Abdou, Hanan E.


Mobility Measurements of Freely-Standing Cyclic PS Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reductions in the glass transition temperature Tg have been observed for thin, freely-standing films of linear polystyrene (PS) (Forrest et al.), PRE 61, R53 (2000); Dalnoki-Veress et al., PRE, in press., which indicates increased segmental mobility. Despite topological differences between cyclic and linear PS, their bulk rheological properties are similar, apart from a factor of approximately two difference in zero shear viscosity, plateau modulus, and steady state recoverable compliance (McKenna et al.), Macromolecules 20, 489 (1987); 22, 1834 (1989).. We investigate the mobility of freely-standing films of cyclic and linear PS chains with molecular weight Mw ~ 200k and thicknesses 20 nm < h < 150 nm. Using ellipsometry, we have measured the temperature dependence of h and the index of refraction n of the films. In all cyclic PS films, we observe irreversible changes in h for temperatures T > 90^circC. For the thinnest cyclic PS films, irreversible changes in n are also observed for T > 90^circC. We relate the results of these measurements to the determination of T_g, chain diffusion and anisotropy within the films. Chain diffusion was further studied using optical microscopy to measure hole growth in the films as a function of h and T.

Murray, Chris A.; Dutcher, John R.; McKenna, Gregory B.



Shear strength of loam soils compacted by cyclic loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.On the basis of the results of investigating the shear strength of loams conducted with the use of a large compression-shear device and method of preliminary compaction of samples by various cyclic loads, an improved method of laboratory determination of the physical and mechanical characteristics corresponding to the technology of layered compaction of embankments by light, medium, and heavy

O. A. Pakhomov



Effects of cyclic hydraulic pressure on osteocytes , Yan Zhao b  

E-print Network

Effects of cyclic hydraulic pressure on osteocytes Chao Liu a , Yan Zhao b , Wing-Yee Cheung b: Osteocyte Mechanotransduction Hydraulic pressure Calcium Apoptosis Bone is able to adapt its composition and structure in order to suit its mechanical environment. Osteocytes, bone cells embedded in the calcified

You, Lidan


Highly Enantioselective Hydrogenation of Cyclic Enamides Catalyzed by a  

E-print Network

of cyclic enamides catalyzed by a Rh-PennPhos compound. In our continuing work on catalytic asymmetric of the asymmetric hydrogenation of enamides to include this unique catalytic system. N-(3,4-Dihydro-1-naphthyl H2 pressure of 40 psi at room temperature with a ratio of substrate/Rh/Me-PennPhos of 100

Zhang, Xumu


Damage induced anisotropy of polycrystals under complex cyclic loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by a low-cyclic fatigue micromechanical model proposed recently [1], qualitative and quantitative studies are performed emphasizing the concept of damage induced anisotropy. In this model, the plastic strain and local damage variables are examined at the crystallographic slip system scale for FCC metallic polycrystals. Determined at the macroscopic scale, the elastic behavior is initially assumed to be compressible and

T. B. Mounounga; A. Abdul-Latif; D. Razafindramary



Cyclic neutropenia in mammals Jorge M. Pacheco,1  

E-print Network

Cyclic neutropenia in mammals Jorge M. Pacheco,1 Arne Traulsen,2 Tibor Antal,3 and David Dingli4 of hematopoiesis is invariant across mammals, we use allometric scaling techniques to correctly pre- dict the period of cycling in the gray collie and extend it to other mammals from mice to elephants. This work

Traulsen, Arne


Multigrid and cyclic reduction applied to the Helmholtz equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the Helmholtz equation with a discontinuous complex parameter and inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions in a rectangular domain. A variant of the direct method of cyclic reduction (CR) is employed to facilitate the design of improved multigrid (MG) components, resulting in the method of CR-MG. We demonstrate the improved convergence properties of this method.

Brackenridge, Kenneth



Cyclic phase change in a cylindrical thermal energy storage capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with a practical melting\\/freezing problem in conjunction with the more realistic case of a cyclic phase change thermal energy storage device. In this model the phase change medium is encapsulated in long cylindrical tubes, the surface temperature of which is allowed to vary sinusoidally with time about the discrete freezing temperature. Initial temperature of the medium

M. Hasan; A. S. Mujumdar; M. E. Weber



Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...


Quantifying Self-Organization in Cyclic Cellular Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic cellular automata (CCA) are models of excitable media. Started from random initial conditions, they produce several different kinds of spatial structure, depending on their control parameters. We introduce new tools from information theory that let us calculate the dynamical information content of spatial random processes. This complexity measure allows us to quantitatively determine the rate of self-organization of these

Cosma Rohilla Shalizi; Kristina Lisa Shalizi



Quantifying self-organization in cyclic cellular automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic cellular automata (CCA) are models of excitable media. Started from random initial conditions, they produce several different kinds of spatial structure, depending on their control parameters. We introduce new tools from information theory that let us calculate the dynamical information content of spatial random processes. This complexity measure allows us to quantitatively determine the rate of self-organization of these

Cosma R. Shalizi; Kristina L. Shalizi



Cyclic mechanical property degradation during fatigue loading of cortical bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue damage accumulation has been demonstrated in living bone and postulated as a stimulus to the bone modeling and remodeling response. Mechanical property degradation is one manifestation of fatigue damage accumulation. This study examines changes in secant modulus and cyclic energy dissipation behavior during axial load-controlled fatigue loading of cortical bone specimens. The findings suggest that secant modulus degradation and

C. A. Pattin; W. E. Caler; D. R. Carter



Counting Subgroups in a Direct Product of Finite Cyclic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We calculate the number of subgroups in a direct product of finite cyclic groups by applying the fundamental theorem of finite abelian groups and a well-known structure theorem due to Goursat. We also suggest ways in which the results can be generalized to a direct product of arbitrary finite groups.

Petrillo, Joseph



Ratchetting of porcine skin under uniaxial cyclic loading.  


Skin soft tissue (e.g., porcine skin) was tested in vitro under uniaxial cyclic loading, and its biomechanical responses were investigated to realize some basic properties which are very significant in assessing the fatigue life of skin soft tissue. The results show that a cyclic accumulation of peak and valley strain, which can be terminologically called as ratchetting in terms of material science of metals, occurs in the porcine skin during cyclic tension-unloading, tension-tension and compression-unloading tests. Observed ratchetting of porcine skin depends on load level and loading orientation greatly and also presents remarkable rate dependence due to the viscosity of skin soft tissue. The ratchetting is much more remarkable during the test at lower loading rate than that at higher loading rate. Moreover, some basic properties of porcine skin were also investigated by monotonic tension, compression and creep tests in order to address the ratchetting more comprehensively. Finally, collagen fiber bundles in the porcine skin and their variation during monotonic and cyclic tension tests were observed microscopically in term of standard iron-hematoxylin staining method. The observations are useful to realize the micro-mechanism of ratchetting deformation. PMID:21316638

Kang, Guozheng; Wu, Xinfeng



SHORT COMMUNICATION The identification of novel cyclic AMP-dependent  

E-print Network

by Robin Leatherbarrow A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) localize cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. A computational model was created to identify AKAPs that bind to the docking/dimerization domain of the RII alpha/D) domain, and the D/D domain provides an interaction surface for A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs

Wang, Wei


Phosphodiesterases Maintain Signaling Fidelity via Compartmentalization of Cyclic Nucleotides  

PubMed Central

Novel technological advances have improved our understanding of how cyclic nucleotides are able to convey signals faithfully between cellular compartments. Phosphodiesterases play a crucial role in shaping these signals in health and disease. The concept of compartmentalization is guiding the search for therapies that have the potential to offer greater efficacy and tolerability compared with current treatments. PMID:24583770

Lomas, Oliver



Parametric analysis of a passive cyclic control device for helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A parametric study of a passive device which provides a cyclic longitudinal control moment for a helicopter rotor was performed. It utilizes a rotor blade tip which is structurally decoupled from the blade inboard section. This rotor configuration is generally called the Free-Tip Rotor. A two dimensional numerical model was used to review the Constant Lift Tip Rotor, a predecessor of the current configuration, and then the same model was applied to the Passive Cyclic Control Device. The Constant Lift Tip was proven to have the ability to suppress the vibratory lift loading on the tip around the azimuth and to eliminate a significant negative lift peak on the advancing tip. The Passive Cyclic Control Device showed a once-per-revolution lift oscillation with a large amplitude, while minimizing the higher harmonic terms of the lift oscillation. This once-per-revolution oscillation results in the cyclic moment to trim the rotor longitudinally. A rotor performance analysis was performed by a three dimensional numerical model. It indicated that the vortices shed from the junction between the tip and the inboard section has a strong influence on the tip, and it may severely limit the tip performance. It was also shown that the Free-Tip allows the inboard section to have a larger twist, which results in a better performance.

Kumagai, H.



Cyclic Oxidation Testing and Modelling: A NASA Lewis Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center has been heavily involved in the cyclic oxidation of high temperature materials for 30 years. Cyclic furnace and burner rig apparati have been developed, refined, and replicated to provide a large scale facility capable of evaluating many materials by a standard technique. Material behavior is characterized by weight change data obtained throughout the test, which has been modelled in a step-wise process of scale growth and spallation. This model and a coupled diffusion model have successfully described cyclic behavior for a number of systems and have provided insights regarding life prediction and variations in the spalling process. Performance ranking and mechanistic studies are discussed primarily for superalloys and coating alloys. Similar cyclic oxidation studies have been performed on steels, intermetallic compounds, thermal barrier coatings, ceramics, and ceramic composites. The most common oxidation test was performed in air at temperatures ranging from 800 deg. to 1600 C, for times up to 10000 h, and for cycle durations of 0.1 to 1000 h. Less controlled, but important, test parameters are the cooling temperature and humidity level. Heating and cooling rates are not likely to affect scale spallation. Broad experience has usually allowed for considerable focus and simplification of these test parameters, while still revealing the principal aspects of material behavior and performance. Extensive testing has been performed to statistically model the compositional effects of experimental alloys and to construct a comprehensive database of complex commercial alloys.

Smialek, J. L.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Barrett, C. A.; Lowell, C. E.



The Cyclic Theory of the Universe Paul J. Steinhardt  

E-print Network

fluctuations. The theory is based on three underlying notions: (1) the big bang is not the beginning of space of the universe is a radical alternative to the standard big bang/inflationary scenario that offers a new approach a second brane. The cyclic model proposes that the big bang is a collision between branes that occurs

Millis, Andrew


Periodic travelling waves in cyclic populations: field studies and  

E-print Network

-year cycles (table 1). The same period has seen significant advances in the mathematical understandingREVIEW Periodic travelling waves in cyclic populations: field studies and reaction­diffusion models Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK Periodic travelling waves have been reported

Sherratt, Jonathan A.


Methods and systems for the formation of cyclic carbonates  


Described herein are inventive methods for synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO.sub.2 and epoxide. In some embodiments, the methods are carried out in the presence of a catalyst comprising an electrophilic halogen. In some embodiments, the methods are carried out in a flow reactor.

Hatton, Trevor Alan; Jamison, Timothy F; Kozak, Jennifer Aiden; Simeon, Fritz; Wu, Jie



Business surveys modelling with Seasonal-Cyclical Long Memory models  

E-print Network

Business surveys modelling with Seasonal-Cyclical Long Memory models Ferrara L. and Guégan D. 2nd business surveys released by the European Commission. We introduce an innovative way for modelling those linear models. Keywords: Euro area, nowcasting, business surveys, seasonal, long memory. JEL

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Sub-nm porous membrane based on cyclic peptide nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous thin films containing subnanometer channels oriented normal to surface exhibit unique transport and separation properties and can serve as selective membranes for different applications. Generating flexible nanoporous films with densely packed vertical channels over large areas remains a significant challenge. We developed a new approach where the growth of cyclic peptide nanotubes can be directed in a structural framework set by the self-assembly of block copolymers. Conjugating polymers to cyclic peptides enables the nanotube subunits be selectively solubilized in one copolymer microdomain. Conjugated polymers mediate nanotube-polymer interaction to guide nanotube growth. This led to subnanometer porous membranes containing high-density arrays of through channels. In parallel, we also studied how to modify the interior of nanotubes with controlled geometry. Artificial amino acid is introduced in the primary sequence of cyclic peptide with a functional group presented in the nanotube interior without disrupting the high aspect ratio nanotubes. The new design of such a cyclic peptide enables one to modulate the nanotube growth process to be compatible with the polymer processing window, hence opening a viable way of fabricating polymeric membranes for different application

Zhang, Chen; Hourani, Rami; Li, Changyi; Helms, Brett; Xu, Ting



A Simulation of Counter-Cyclical Intervention: Some Practical Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author introduces a simulation of counter-cyclical interventions that highlights important issues surrounding the practice of government intervention. The simulation provides experiential insight as to why economists have long debated the degree of persistence exhibited by disequilibrating shocks and connects this debate to discussions about

Grawe, Nathan D.; Watts, Michael, Ed.



High-temperature cyclic oxidation data. Part 2: Turbine alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specific-weight-change-versus-time data and x ray diffraction results are presented derived from high temperature cyclic tests on high temperature, high strength nickel-base gamma/gamma prime and cobalt-base turbine alloys. Each page of data summarizes a complete test on a given alloy sample.

Barrett, Charles A.; Garlick, Ralph G.




E-print Network

NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES UNDER CYCLIC LOAD REVERSALS by Filip C. Filippou to develop improved analytical methods for predicting the nonlinear static and dynamic response of multistory in describing the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete frame elements is proposed. This approach

Filippou, Filip C.


Job enlargement and mechanical exposure variability in cyclic assembly work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic assembly work is known to imply a high risk for musculoskeletal disorders. To have operators rotate between work tasks is believed to be one way of decreasing this risk, since it is expected to increase variation in mechanical and psychological exposures (physical and mental loads). This assumption was investigated by assessing mechanical exposure variability in three assembly tasks in

Therse Mller; Svend Erik Mathiassen; Helena Franzon; Steve Kihlberg



Cyclic fluctuation of blood pressure in neonatal neuroblastoma.  


Herein is described a case of neonatal neuroblastoma with cyclic blood pressure fluctuation and elevated catecholamines. The fluctuations stabilized after treatment with ?-adrenergic blocker and the perioperative course was uneventful. The possibility of catecholamine-related symptoms including hypertension, heart failure, and blood pressure fluctuations should be considered in the treatment for neuroblastoma; if they are present, treatment with ?-blockers is effective. PMID:25521983

Fujishiro, Jun; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Uotani, Chizue; Tsuchida, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoto; Shiozawa, Ryosuke; Takita, Junko; Iwanaka, Tadashi



Resonant Column and Cyclic Triaxial Testing of Tailing Dam Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aseries of resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests has been conducted in the frame of the analysis of tailing dam stability during earthquakes, The investigation program for a silty sand fro m uranium tailings is presented. The paper describes the testing procedures and presents all significant results of these experiments, Single-stage and multi-stage resonant co lumn tests were performed in

S. A. Savidis; C. Vrettos


Three-dimensional stable matching with cyclic preferences  

E-print Network

[Alkan, A., 1988. Non- existence of stable threesome matchings. Mathematical Social Sciences 16, 207 Mathematics 286, 1­10] showed that if preferences are cyclic, and the number of agents is limited to three of each gender, then a stable matching always exists. Here we extend this result to four agents of each


A Geometric Construction of Cyclic Cocycles on Twisted Convolution Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we give a construction of cyclic cocycles on convolution algebras twisted by gerbes over discrete translation groupoids. In his seminal book, Connes constructs a map from the equivariant cohomology of a manifold carrying the action of a discrete group into the periodic cyclic cohomology of the associated convolution algebra. Furthermore, for proper tale groupoids, J.-L. Tu and P. Xu provide a map between the periodic cyclic cohomology of a gerbe twisted convolution algebra and twisted cohomology groups. Our focus will be the convolution algebra with a product defined by a gerbe over a discrete translation groupoid. When the action is not proper, we cannot construct an invariant connection on the gerbe; therefore to study this algebra, we instead develop simplicial notions related to ideas of J. Dupont to construct a simplicial form representing the Dixmier-Douady class of the gerbe. Then by using a JLO formula we define a morphism from a simplicial complex twisted by this simplicial Dixmier-Douady form to the mixed bicomplex of certain matrix algebras. Finally, we define a morphism from this complex to the mixed bicomplex computing the periodic cyclic cohomology of the twisted convolution algebras.

Angel, Eitan



Distributed Control of Spacecraft Formation via Cyclic Pursuit: Theory and Experiments  

E-print Network

In this paper we study distributed control policies for spacecraft formations that draw inspiration from the simple idea of cyclic pursuit. First, we extend existing cyclic-pursuit control laws devised for single-integrator ...

Frazzoli, Emilio


Strain and pore pressure behavior of fine grained soils subjected to cyclic shear loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of fine grained soils subjected to cyclic loading is investigated. Consolidated, constant volume, static (monotonic) and cyclic laboratory shear tests were performed using the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute direct simple shear device, which was modified for cyclic loading capabilities. All cyclic tests were performed with stress controlled square wave loading and most with complete and symmetric stress reversal. Pore pressure is found to be a basic indication of the degradation of a soil specimen subjected to shear. Pore pressure is used directly in predicting the behavior of soil specimens subjected to varying cyclic stress levels. A unique relationship between modulus and pore pressure for a particular soil subjected to cyclic loading is observed. If the cyclic shear strain at any test parameter combination (cyclic shear stress level and number of cycles) is determined (through constitutive relations or graphically), the resulting pore pressure is also determined from this unique relationship.

Dyvik, R.


Cyclic nucleotide responses and radiation-induced mitotic delay in Physarum polycephalum  

SciTech Connect

The response of the plasmodial levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in Physarum polycephalum to several putative phosphodiesterase inhibitors and to ionizing radiation has been measured. Isobutylmethylxanthine (2 mM) induces a rapid transient threefold elevation of cyclic AMP alone, with maximum response in about 10 min and return to the base line in about 30 min. Theophylline (2 mM) induces a rapid, sustained twofold elevation of cyclic GMP only. Caffeine (2mM) and Ro-20-1724 (18 both elicit a rapid transient rise in cyclic AMP, resembling the isobutylmethylxanthine response, and a slow transient elevation of the cyclic GMP level. Of particular interest is the rapid threefold transient elevation of the cyclic AMP, but not of the cyclic GMP, level by ..gamma.. radiation.

Daniel, J.W.; Oleinick, N.L.



7 CFR 1412.41 - Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract.  

... false Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract. 1412.41 Section 1412.41 Agriculture...and Counter-Cyclical Program and ACRE Program Contract Terms and Enrollment Provisions for Covered...



7 CFR 1412.41 - Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract. 1412.41 Section 1412.41 Agriculture...and Counter-Cyclical Program and ACRE Program Contract Terms and Enrollment Provisions for Covered...



7 CFR 1412.41 - Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract. 1412.41 Section 1412.41 Agriculture...and Counter-Cyclical Program and ACRE Program Contract Terms and Enrollment Provisions for Covered...



Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with resumption of ovarian cyclicity within 21 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Cows (n=768) from 2 herds in north Florida had their ovaries scanned at 173, 213, and 243 DIM. Cows that had a corpus luteum ?20mm at 173 or at 213 DIM or that had a corpus luteum <20mm in 2 consecutive examinations were determined to be cyclic by 213 DIM. The following information was collected for up to 14 DIM: calving season, parity, calving problems, metabolic problems, metritis, mastitis, digestive problems, lameness, body weight loss, dry period length, and average daily milk yield. Body condition was scored at 173 DIM. Multivariable mixed logistic regression analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Variables with P?0.2 were considered in each model. Herd was included as a random variable. Three models were constructed: model 1 included all cows, model 2 included only cows from dairy 1 that had daily body weights available, and model 3 included only multiparous cows with a previous dry period length recorded. In model 1, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 213 DIM were calving in the summer and fall rather than in the winter or spring, being multiparous rather than primiparous, and not having metabolic or digestive problems. In model 2, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 213 DIM were calving in the summer and fall, not having metritis or digestive problems and not losing >28 kg of BW within 14 DIM. In model 3, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 213 DIM were absence of metabolic problems and dry period ?76 d. In summary, cyclicity by 213 DIM was negatively associated with calving in winter or spring, primiparity, metritis, metabolic or digestive problems, loss of >28 kg of body weight, and a dry period >76d. Strategies preventing extended dry period length and loss of BW, together with reductions in the incidence of metritis as well as metabolic and digestive problems should improve early cyclicity postpartum. PMID:25465552

Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvo, K N



Acceleration and Classical Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-print Network

Classical radiation from an accelerated charge is reviewed along with the reciprocal topic of accelerated observers detecting radiation from a static charge. This review commemerates Bahram Mashhoon's 60th birthday.

E. N. Glass



Family of prokaryote cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels  

PubMed Central

Cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels are molecular pores that mediate the passage of ions across the cell membrane in response to cAMP or GMP. Structural insight into this class of ion channels currently comes from a related homolog, MloK1, that contains six transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic cyclic nucleotide binding domain. However, unlike eukaryote hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) and cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, MloK1 lacks a C-linker region, which critically contributes to the molecular coupling between ligand binding and channel opening. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of five previously unidentified prokaryote homologs with high sequence similarity (2432%) to eukaryote HCN and CNG channels and that contain a C-linker region. Biochemical characterization shows that two homologs, termed AmaK and SthK, can be expressed and purified as detergent-solubilized protein from Escherichia coli membranes. Expression of SthK channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes and functional characterization using the patch-clamp technique revealed that the channels are gated by cAMP, but not cGMP, are highly selective for K+ ions over Na+ ions, generate a large unitary conductance, and are only weakly voltage dependent. These properties resemble essential properties of various eukaryote HCN or CNG channels. Our results contribute to an understanding of the evolutionary origin of cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels and pave the way for future structural and functional studies. PMID:24821777

Brams, Marijke; Kusch, Jana; Spurny, Radovan; Benndorf, Klaus; Ulens, Chris



Cyclic Oxidation Modeling Program Rewritten for MS Windows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbine superalloy components are subject to high-temperature oxidation during operation. Protection is often conferred by coatings designed to form slow-growing, adherent oxide scales. Degradation by oxidation is exacerbated by the thermal cycling encountered during normal aircraft operations. Cooling has been identified as the major contributor to stresses in the oxidation scales, and it may often cause some oxide scale spallation with a proportional loss of protective behavior. Overall oxidation resistance is, thus, studied by the weight change behavior of alloy coupons during high-temperature cyclic oxidation in furnace or burner rig tests. The various characteristics of this behavior are crucial in understanding the performance of alloys at high temperatures. This new modeling effort helps in the understanding of the major factors involved in the cyclic oxidation process. Weight change behavior in cyclic oxidation is typified by an initial parabolic weight gain response curve that eventually exhibits a maximum, then transitions into a linear rate of weight loss due to spalling. The overall shape and magnitude of the curve are determined by the parabolic growth rate, kp, the cycle duration, the type of oxide scale, and the regular, repetitive spalling process. This entire process was modeled by a computer program called the Cyclic Oxidation Spalling Program (COSP) previously developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Thus, by supplying appropriate oxidation input parameters, one can determine the best fit to the actual data. These parameters describe real behavior and can be used to compare alloys and project cyclic oxidation behavior for longer times or under different cycle frequencies.

Smialek, James L.; Auping, Judith V.



Occurrence of cyclic layering: natural examples and numerical simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In shallow magmatic intrusions, a characteristic layering structure (here we call cyclic layering) can be sometimes observed. We present examples of cyclic layering in Japan and Scotland. The cyclic layering is visualized by differential weathering responding to the differential stiffness caused by the textural variation such as volume fraction, number density and size of vesicles or crystals. The spacing of layers follows a geometric progression like the Liesegang band of a diffusion-precipitation system. Their geological occurrences suggest the origin in which the interplay between double diffusion (mass and heat) and kinetics of crystallization or vesiculation plays an important role. In order to understand the development condition of cyclic layering and the characteristics such as spacing law and highly nonlinear shape of wavy profile of texture, we carried out the numerical experiment of crystallization process of a binary eutectic melt, in which the mass and thermal diffusion and kinetics of crystallization are taken into account. The mathematical model includes dimensionless control parameters describing diffusion (Le: Lewis number) and latent heat release (St: Stefan number). From results of numerical experiments, it is found that 1) no layering is developed for high Le and low St, 2) three types of layering structure or wavy profiles (longer, shorter and multiple waves) is developed mainly depending on Le, 3) the common ratio of geometric progression is function of Le and St. From estimated value of Le and St, it is concluded that the natural cyclic layering is the multiple or longer wave with the common ratio similar to numerical prediction.

Toramaru, A.; Matsumoto, M.



Family of prokaryote cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels.  


Cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels are molecular pores that mediate the passage of ions across the cell membrane in response to cAMP or GMP. Structural insight into this class of ion channels currently comes from a related homolog, MloK1, that contains six transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic cyclic nucleotide binding domain. However, unlike eukaryote hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) and cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, MloK1 lacks a C-linker region, which critically contributes to the molecular coupling between ligand binding and channel opening. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of five previously unidentified prokaryote homologs with high sequence similarity (24-32%) to eukaryote HCN and CNG channels and that contain a C-linker region. Biochemical characterization shows that two homologs, termed AmaK and SthK, can be expressed and purified as detergent-solubilized protein from Escherichia coli membranes. Expression of SthK channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes and functional characterization using the patch-clamp technique revealed that the channels are gated by cAMP, but not cGMP, are highly selective for K(+) ions over Na(+) ions, generate a large unitary conductance, and are only weakly voltage dependent. These properties resemble essential properties of various eukaryote HCN or CNG channels. Our results contribute to an understanding of the evolutionary origin of cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels and pave the way for future structural and functional studies. PMID:24821777

Brams, Marijke; Kusch, Jana; Spurny, Radovan; Benndorf, Klaus; Ulens, Chris



Mass spectrometry with accelerators.  


As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH?2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative methods of isobar separation. These techniques are discussed in the latter part of the review. PMID:22031277

Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E



ParCYCLIC: finite element modelling of earthquake liquefaction response on parallel computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the computational procedures and solution strategy employed in ParCYCLIC, a parallel non-linear finite element program developed based on an existing serial code CYCLIC for the analysis of cyclic seismically-induced liquefaction problems. In ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive model developed for simulating liquefaction-induced deformations is a main component of

Jun Peng; Jinchi Lu; Kincho H. Law; Ahmed Elgamal



ParCYCLIC: Finite Element Modeling of Earthquake Liquefaction Response on Parallel Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the computational procedures and solution strategy employed in ParCYCLIC, a parallel nonlinear finite element program developed based on an existing serial code CYCLIC for the analysis of cyclic seismically-induced liquefaction problems. In ParCYCLIC, finite elements are employed within an incremental plasticity, coupled solid-fluid formulation. A constitutive model developed for simulating liquefaction-induced deformations is a main component of

Jun Peng; Jinchi Lu; Kincho H. Law; Ahmed Elgamal


Analysing noisy time-series: describing regional variation in the cyclic dynamics of red grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a method for describing the periodicity of noisy 'quasi-cyclic' time-series based on integrals of their power spectra corresponding to different frequency intervals that we use to classify time-series as 'strongly cyclic', 'weakly cyclic' or 'non-cyclic'. We apply this analysis to over 300 time-series of shooting records of red grouse from 289 moors located in 20 regions of the

Daniel T. Haydon; Darren J. Shaw; Isabella M. Cattadori; Peter J. Hudson; Simon J. Thirgood



Constellation Acceleration Study December 18, 2008  

E-print Network

Constellation Acceleration Study Report December 18, 2008 #12;Constellation Acceleration Study ........................................................................................................... 31 #12;Constellation Acceleration Study Report 12/18/08 Executive Summary In 2004, the White House

Christian, Eric


Particle Acceleration at Relativistic Shocks  

E-print Network

I review the current status of Fermi acceleration theory at relativistic shocks. I first discuss the relativistic shock jump conditions, then describe the non-relativistic Fermi mechanism and the differences introduced by relativistic flows. I present numerical calculations of the accelerated particle spectrum, and examine the maximum energy attainable by this process. I briefly consider the minimum energy for Fermi acceleration, and a possible electron pre-acceleration mechanism.

Yves A. Gallant



Principles of Charged Particle Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning resources comprise a healthy introduction to charged particle acceleration. The site, by Stanley Humphries, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at University of New Mexico, amounts to an online textbook (.pdf) introducing the theory of charged particle acceleration. The book's fifteen chapters (with bibliography) summarize "the principles underlying all particle accelerators" and provide "a reference collection of equations and material essential to accelerator development and beam applications."



Overview of accelerators in medicine  

SciTech Connect

Accelerators used for medicine include synchrotrons, cyclotrons, betatrons, microtrons, and electron, proton, and light ion linacs. Some accelerators which were formerly found only at physics laboratories are now being considered for use in hospital-based treatment and diagnostic facilities. This paper presents typical operating parameters for medical accelerators and gives specific examples of clinical applications for each type of accelerator, with emphasis on recent developments in the field.

Lennox, A.J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (US)]|[Rush Univ., Chicago, IL (US)



Exploring Acceleration with an Android  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct an experiment to study the acceleration of a mobile Android device. During the experiment, they run an application created with MIT's App Inventor that monitors linear acceleration in one-dimension. Students use an acceleration vs. time equation to construct an approximate velocity vs. time graph. Students will understand the relationship between the object's mass and acceleration and how that relates to the force applied to the object, which is Newton's second law of motion.

IMPART RET Program, College of Information Science & Technology,


Acceleration in de Sitter spacetimes  

E-print Network

We propose a definition of uniform accelerated frames in de Sitter spacetimes exploiting the Nachtmann group theoretical method of introducing coordinates on these manifolds. Requiring the transformation between the static frame and the accelerated one to depend continuously on acceleration in order to recover the well-known Rindler approach in the flat limit, we obtain a new metric with a reasonable physical meaning.

Ion I. Cotaescu



I Investigation of Pellet Acceleration  

E-print Network

I Investigation of Pellet Acceleration by an Arc heated Gas Gun An Interim Report INVESTIGATION OP PELLET ACCELERATION BY AN ARC HEATED GAS GUN* An Interim Report on the Investigations carried above those obtained so far. An experimental setup designed for a study of acceleration of 3 mm0 pellets


Development of new wound dressing composed of spongy collagen sheet containing dibutyryl cyclic AMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al though cyclic AMP has been considered to regulate cell proliferation, the mechanism of this function is largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that cyclic AMP promotes the proliferation of skin cells in a dose-dependent manner. An ointment containing dibutyryl cyclic AMP has been used in the treatment of skin ulcers and found to be effective in promoting tissue repair. To

Hirotatsu Shibata; Nobuyuki Shioya; Yoshimitsu Kuroyanagi



DOI: 10.1002/chem.200802337 Cyclic PeptidePolymer Complexes and Their Self-Assembly  

E-print Network

DOI: 10.1002/chem.200802337 Cyclic Peptide­Polymer Complexes and Their Self-Assembly Dominique Rationally designed cyclic peptides with flat conformations can self-assemble into tubular nanostructures. In a recent study,[5] our groups found that the medium in which the self-assembly of cyclic peptides takes

Zhao, Yue


Elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and dietary fat intake in women with cyclic mastopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to examine the contribution of plasma lipids to the pathophysiology of cyclic mastopathy, before and after consideration of diet and sex hormones.STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-four women with severe cyclic mastopathy (case patients) and 29 women without cyclic mastopathy (control subjects) recorded their breast symptoms daily during 1 menstrual cycle. During each menstrual phase (follicular, early luteal,

Pamela J. Goodwin; Andrea Miller; M. Elisabeth Del Giudice; William Singer; Philip Connelly; J. W. Knox Ritchie



Stress state dependence of cyclic ratchetting behavior of two rail steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cumulative inelastic deformation or ratchetting occurs during cyclic loading in the presence of a mean stress. This problem has received considerable recent attention. The nonlinear kinematic hardening rule originally proposed by Armstrong and Frederick (AF rule) [1966] has been widely used for description of the overall character of hysteresis response during cyclic plasticity. However, this model generally overpredicts cyclic strain

D. L. McDowell



Accelerator research studies  

SciTech Connect

The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

Not Available



Review of ion accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here.

Alonso, J.



Hypervelocity plate acceleration  

SciTech Connect

Shock tubes have been used to accelerate 1.5-mm-thick stainless steel plates to high velocity while retaining their integrity. The fast shock tubes are 5.1-cm-diameter, 15.2-cm-long cylinders of PBX-9501 explosive containing a 1.1-cm-diameter cylindrical core of low-density polystyrene foam. The plates have been placed directly in contact with one face of the explosive system. Plane-wave detonation was initiated on the opposite face. A Mach disk was formed in the imploding styrofoam core, which provided the impulse required to accelerate the metal plate to high velocity. Parametric studies were made on this system to find the effect of varying plate metal, plate thickness, foam properties, and addition of a barrel. A maximum plate velocity of 9.0 km/s has been observed. 6 refs., 17 figs.

Marsh, S.P.; Tan, T.H.



Accelerometer: Centripetal Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work as physicists to understand centripetal acceleration concepts. They also learn about a good robot design and the accelerometer sensor. They also learn about the relationship between centripetal acceleration and centripetal forcegoverned by the radius between the motor and accelerometer and the amount of mass at the end of the robot's arm. Students graph and analyze data collected from an accelerometer, and learn to design robots with proper weight distribution across the robot for their robotic arms. Upon using a data logging program, they view their own data collected during the activity. By activity end , students understand how a change in radius or mass can affect the data obtained from the accelerometer through the plots generated from the data logging program. More specifically, students learn about the accuracy and precision of the accelerometer measurements from numerous trials.



Review of accelerator instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Some of the problems associated with the monitoring of accelerator beams, particularly storage rings' beams, are reviewed along with their most common solutions. The various electrode structures used for the measurement of beam current, beam position, and the detection of the bunches' transverse oscillations, yield pulses with sub-nanosecond widths. The electronics for the processing of these short pulses involves wide band techniques and circuits usually not readily available from industry or the integrated circuit market: passive or active, successive integrations, linear gating, sample-and-hold circuits with nanosecond acquisition time, etc. This report also presents the work performed recently for monitoring the ultrashort beams of colliding linear accelerators or single-pass colliders. To minimize the beam emittance, the beam position must be measured with a high resolution, and digitized on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Experimental results obtained with the Stanford two-mile Linac single bunches are included.

Pellegrin, J.L.



Adaptive control for accelerators  


An adaptive feedforward control loop is provided to stabilize accelerator beam loading of the radio frequency field in an accelerator cavity during successive pulses of the beam into the cavity. A digital signal processor enables an adaptive algorithm to generate a feedforward error correcting signal functionally determined by the feedback error obtained by a beam pulse loading the cavity after the previous correcting signal was applied to the cavity. Each cavity feedforward correcting signal is successively stored in the digital processor and modified by the feedback error resulting from its application to generate the next feedforward error correcting signal. A feedforward error correcting signal is generated by the digital processor in advance of the beam pulse to enable a composite correcting signal and the beam pulse to arrive concurrently at the cavity.

Eaton, Lawrie E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jachim, Stephen P. (Los Alamos, NM); Natter, Eckard F. (Santa Fe, NM)



Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data were combined with one-dimensional conservation relations to yield information on the energy deposition ratio in a parallel-plate accelerator, where the downstream flow was confined to a constant area channel. Approximately 70% of the total input power was detected in the exhaust flow, of which only about 20% appeared as directed kinetic energy, thus implying that a downstream expansion to convert chamber enthalpy into kinetic energy must be an important aspect of conventional high power MPD arcs. Spectroscopic experiments on a quasi-steady MPD argon accelerator verified the presence of A(III) and the absence of A(I), and indicated an azimuthal structure in the jet related to the mass injection locations. Measurements of pressure in the arc chamber and impact pressure in the exhaust jet using a piezocrystal backed by a Plexiglas rod were in good agreement with the electromagnetic thrust model.

Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.



An accelerated closed universe  

E-print Network

We study a model in which a closed universe with dust and quintessence matter components may look like an accelerated flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe at low redshifts. Several quantities relevant to the model are expressed in terms of observed density parameters, $\\Omega_M$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}$, and of the associated density parameter $\\Omega_Q$ related to the quintessence scalar field $Q$.

Sergio del Campo; Mauricio Cataldo; Francisco Pena



Accelerator simulation using computers  

SciTech Connect

Every accelerator or storage ring system consists of a charged particle beam propagating through a beam line. Although a number of computer programs exits that simulate the propagation of a beam in a given beam line, only a few provide the capabilities for designing, commissioning and operating the beam line. This paper shows how a multi-track'' simulation and analysis code can be used for these applications.

Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.; Corbett, W.



Accelerator simulation using computers  

SciTech Connect

Every accelerator or storage ring system consists of a charged particle beam propagating through a beam line. Although a number of computer programs exits that simulate the propagation of a beam in a given beam line, only a few provide the capabilities for designing, commissioning and operating the beam line. This paper shows how a ``multi-track`` simulation and analysis code can be used for these applications.

Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.; Corbett, W.



Progress of RIBF accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to greatly expand scientific opportunities with radioactive isotope (RI) beams, RIKEN has constructed a new heavy-ion accelerator facility, called "RI Beam Factory (RIBF)." Three new ring cyclotrons with K-values of 570 MeV, 980 MeV, and 2600 MeV, respectively, boost the energies of the output beams from the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron up to 440 MeV/u for light ions and 345 MeV/u for very heavy ions. These energetic heavy-ion beams are converted into intense radioactive isotope (RI) beams via projectile fragmentation of stable isotopes or in-flight fission of uranium isotopes by a superconducting fragment separator, BigRIPS. The three ring cyclotrons were commissioned in 2006, and RI beams from uranium were first obtained in 2007. The beam intensities and available ion species are increasing at RIBF, owing to the continuous efforts that have been made since the first beam. So far, we have accelerated deuteron, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, aluminum, calcium, zinc, krypton, xenon, and uranium beams with the superconducting ring cyclotron (SRC). The extracted beam intensities reached 1000 pnA for the helium and oxygen beams, and the calcium beam intensity exceeded 400 pnA recently. The intensities of the xenon and uranium beams are also increasing; they reached 24 and 3.6 pnA, respectively. This paper illustrates the construction, commissioning, and various improvements carried out for the RIBF accelerators, as well as the present accelerator performance.

Okuno, H.; Fukunishi, N.; Kamigaito, O.



Particle Acceleration Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review the possible mechanisms for production of non-thermal electrons which are responsible for the observed\\u000a non-thermal radiation in clusters of galaxies. Our primary focus is on non-thermal Bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering,\\u000a that produce hard X-ray emission. We first give a brief review of acceleration mechanisms and point out that in most astrophysical\\u000a situations, and in

V. Petrosian; A. M. Bykov



GPU accelerated dislocation dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we analyze the computational bottlenecks in discrete dislocation dynamics modeling (associated with segment-segment interactions as well as the treatment of free surfaces), discuss the parallelization and optimization strategies, and demonstrate the effectiveness of Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) computation in accelerating dislocation dynamics simulations and expanding their scope. Individual algorithmic benchmark tests as well as an example large simulation of a thin film are presented.

Ferroni, Francesco; Tarleton, Edmund; Fitzgerald, Steven



Linear induction accelerator  


A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.



Accelerating QDP++ using GPUs  

E-print Network

Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) are getting increasingly important as target architectures in scientific High Performance Computing (HPC). NVIDIA established CUDA as a parallel computing architecture controlling and making use of the compute power of GPUs. CUDA provides sufficient support for C++ language elements to enable the Expression Template (ET) technique in the device memory domain. QDP++ is a C++ vector class library suited for quantum field theory which provides vector data types and expressions and forms the basis of the lattice QCD software suite Chroma. In this work accelerating QDP++ expression evaluation to a GPU was successfully implemented leveraging the ET technique and using Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation. The Portable Expression Template Engine (PETE) and the C API for CUDA kernel arguments were used to build the bridge between host and device memory domains. This provides the possibility to accelerate Chroma routines to a GPU which are typically not subject to special optimisation. As an application example a smearing routine was accelerated to execute on a GPU. A significant speed-up compared to normal CPU execution could be measured.

Frank Winter



Oxidised cosmic acceleration  

SciTech Connect

We give detailed proofs of several new no-go theorems for constructing flat four-dimensional accelerating universes from warped dimensional reduction. These new theorems improve upon previous ones by weakening the energy conditions, by including time-dependent compactifications, and by treating accelerated expansion that is not precisely de Sitter. We show that de Sitter expansion violates the higher-dimensional null energy condition (NEC) if the compactification manifold M is one-dimensional, if its intrinsic Ricci scalar R-ring vanishes everywhere, or if R-ring and the warp function satisfy a simple limit condition. If expansion is not de Sitter, we establish threshold equation-of-state parameters w below which accelerated expansion must be transient. Below the threshold w there are bounds on the number of e-foldings of expansion. If M is one-dimensional or R-ring everywhere vanishing, exceeding the bound implies the NEC is violated. If R-ring does not vanish everywhere on M, exceeding the bound implies the strong energy condition (SEC) is violated. Observationally, the w thresholds indicate that experiments with finite resolution in w can cleanly discriminate between different models which satisfy or violate the relevant energy conditions.

Wesley, Daniel H., E-mail: [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)



Accelerator mass spectrometry.  


In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. PMID:18470926

Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Gran



Accelerated Profile HMM Searches.  


Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs) and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the "multiple segment Viterbi" (MSV) algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call "sparse rescaling". These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches. PMID:22039361

Eddy, Sean R




SciTech Connect

Recording setting changes within an accelerator facility provides information that can be used to answer questions about when, why, and how changes were made to some accelerator system. This can be very useful during normal operations, but can also aid with security concerns and in detecting unusual software behavior. The Set History System (SHS) is a new client-server system developed at the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide these capabilities. The SHS has been operational for over two years and currently stores about IOOK settings per day into a commercial database management system. The SHS system consists of a server written in Java, client tools written in both Java and C++, and a web interface for querying the database of setting changes. The design of the SHS focuses on performance, portability, and a minimal impact on database resources. In this paper, we present an overview of the system design along with benchmark results showing the performance and reliability of the SHS over the last year.




Equipartitioning in linear accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Emittance growth has long been a concern in linear accelerators, as has the idea that some kind of energy balance, or equipartitioning, between the degrees of freedom, would ameliorate the growth. M. Prome observed that the average transverse and longitudinal velocity spreads tend to equalize as current in the channel is increased, while the sum of the energy in the system stays nearly constant. However, only recently have we shown that an equipartitioning requirement on a bunched injected beam can indeed produce remarkably small emittance growth. The simple set of equations leading to this condition are outlined below. At the same time, Hofmann, using powerful analytical and computational methods, has investigated collective instabilities in transported beams and has identified thresholds and regions in parameter space where instabilities occur. This is an important generalization. Work that he will present at this conference shows that the results are essentially the same in r-z coordinates for transport systems, and evidence is presented that shows transport system boundaries to be quite accurate in computer simulations of accelerating systems also. Discussed are preliminary results of efforts to design accelerators that avoid parameter regions where emittance is affected by the instabilities identified by Hofmann. These efforts suggest that other mechanisms are present. The complicated behavior of the RFQ linac in this framework also is shown.

Jameson, R.A.



Accelerated Profile HMM Searches  

PubMed Central

Profile hidden Markov models (profile HMMs) and probabilistic inference methods have made important contributions to the theory of sequence database homology search. However, practical use of profile HMM methods has been hindered by the computational expense of existing software implementations. Here I describe an acceleration heuristic for profile HMMs, the multiple segment Viterbi (MSV) algorithm. The MSV algorithm computes an optimal sum of multiple ungapped local alignment segments using a striped vector-parallel approach previously described for fast Smith/Waterman alignment. MSV scores follow the same statistical distribution as gapped optimal local alignment scores, allowing rapid evaluation of significance of an MSV score and thus facilitating its use as a heuristic filter. I also describe a 20-fold acceleration of the standard profile HMM Forward/Backward algorithms using a method I call sparse rescaling. These methods are assembled in a pipeline in which high-scoring MSV hits are passed on for reanalysis with the full HMM Forward/Backward algorithm. This accelerated pipeline is implemented in the freely available HMMER3 software package. Performance benchmarks show that the use of the heuristic MSV filter sacrifices negligible sensitivity compared to unaccelerated profile HMM searches. HMMER3 is substantially more sensitive and 100- to 1000-fold faster than HMMER2. HMMER3 is now about as fast as BLAST for protein searches. PMID:22039361

Eddy, Sean R.



Timescale Correlation between Marine Atmospheric Exposure and Accelerated Corrosion Testing - Part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of metals to predict service life of metal-based structures in corrosive environments has long relied on atmospheric exposure test sites. Traditional accelerated corrosion testing relies on mimicking the exposure conditions, often incorporating salt spray and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and exposing the metal to continuous or cyclic conditions similar to those of the corrosive environment. Their reliability to correlate to atmospheric exposure test results is often a concern when determining the timescale to which the accelerated tests can be related. Accelerated corrosion testing has yet to be universally accepted as a useful tool in predicting the long-term service life of a metal, despite its ability to rapidly induce corrosion. Although visual and mass loss methods of evaluating corrosion are the standard, and their use is crucial, a method that correlates timescales from accelerated testing to atmospheric exposure would be very valuable. This paper presents work that began with the characterization of the atmospheric environment at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Beachside Corrosion Test Site. The chemical changes that occur on low carbon steel, during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions, were investigated using surface chemistry analytical methods. The corrosion rates and behaviors of panels subjected to long-term and accelerated corrosion conditions, involving neutral salt fog and alternating seawater spray, were compared to identify possible timescale correlations between accelerated and long-term corrosion performance. The results, as well as preliminary findings on the correlation investigation, are presented.

Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.



Uniqueness of current cosmic acceleration  

SciTech Connect

One of the strongest arguments against the cosmological constant as an explanation of the current epoch of accelerated cosmic expansion is the existence of an earlier, dynamical acceleration, i.e. inflation. We examine the likelihood that acceleration is an occasional phenomenon, putting stringent limits on the length of any accelerating epoch due to minimally coupled dark energy between recombination and the recent acceleration; such an epoch must last less than 0.05 e-fold (at z>2) or the matter power spectrum is modified by more than 20%.

Linder, Eric V. [Berkeley Lab and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) and Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)



Muon Acceleration - RLA and FFAG  

SciTech Connect

Various acceleration schemes for muons are presented. The overall goal of the acceleration systems: large acceptance acceleration to 25 GeV and 'beam shaping' can be accomplished by various fixed field accelerators at different stages. They involve three superconducting linacs: a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair of multi-pass Recirculating Linear Accelerators (RLA) and finally a non-scaling FFAG ring. The present baseline acceleration scenario has been optimized to take maximum advantage of appropriate acceleration scheme at a given stage. The solenoid based Pre-accelerator offers very large acceptance and facilitates correction of energy gain across the bunch and significant longitudinal compression trough induced synchrotron motion. However, far off-crest acceleration reduces the effective acceleration gradient and adds complexity through the requirement of individual RF phase control for each cavity. The RLAs offer very efficient usage of high gradient superconducting RF and ability to adjust path-length after each linac pass through individual return arcs with uniformly periodic FODO optics suitable for chromatic compensation of emittance dilution with sextupoles. However, they require spreaders/recombiners switchyards at both linac ends and significant total length of the arcs. The non-scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) ring combines compactness with very large chromatic acceptance (twice the injection energy) and it allows for large number of passes through the RF (at least eight, possibly as high as 15).

Alex Bogacz



Recent Advances in Plasma Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

The costs and the time scales of colliders intended to reach the energy frontier are such that it is important to explore new methods of accelerating particles to high energies. Plasma-based accelerators are particularly attractive because they are capable of producing accelerating fields that are orders of magnitude larger than those used in conventional colliders. In these accelerators a drive beam, either laser or particle, produces a plasma wave (wakefield) that accelerates charged particles. The ultimate utility of plasma accelerators will depend on sustaining ultra-high accelerating fields over a substantial length to achieve a significant energy gain. More than 42 GeV energy gain was achieved in an 85 cm long plasma wakefield accelerator driven by a 42 GeV electron drive beam in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) Facility at SLAC. Most of the beam electrons lose energy to the plasma wave, but some electrons in the back of the same beam pulse are accelerated with a field of {approx}52 GV/m. This effectively doubles their energy, producing the energy gain of the 3 km long SLAC accelerator in less than a meter for a small fraction of the electrons in the injected bunch. Prospects for a drive-witness bunch configuration and high-gradient positron acceleration experiments planned for the SABER facility will be discussed.

Hogan, Mark



Acceleration in Linear and Circular Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction of a simple accelerometer and explains its use in demonstrating acceleration, deceleration, constant speed, measurement of acceleration, acceleration and the inclined plane and angular and radial acceleration. (GS)

Kellington, S. H.; Docherty, W.



BotEC: Spacecraft Acceleration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Question Suppose someone offered you a ride to the nearest star in a new spacecraft that could travel at half the speed of light, or about 150,000 km/second. In order to reach such a cruising speed, you and the spacecraft must accelerate from a standstill to half the speed of light. Acceleration means uncomfortable (and maybe even fatal!) "g" forces, that pressed-into-the-seat feeling you get when a car or airplane accelerates. More than 3 g's of acceleration are tough to take for very long, so your spacecraft's engines are designed to accelerate you at not more than 29 meters/second/second (3 times the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface). How long will it take you and your spacecraft to accelerate to half light speed?

Barb Tewksbury


Evaluation of Cyclic Behavior of Aircraft Turbine Disk Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of the cyclic behavior of three aircraft engine turbine disk materials was conducted to compare their relative crack initiation and crack propagation resistance. The disk alloys investigated were Inconel 718, hot isostatically pressed and forged powder metallurgy Rene '95, and as-hot-isostatically pressed Rene '95. The objective was to compare the hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy alloy forms with conventionally processed superalloys as represented by Inconel 718. Cyclic behavior was evaluated at 650 C both under continuously cycling and a fifteen minute tensile hold time cycle to simulate engine conditions. Analysis of the test data were made to evaluate the strain range partitioning and energy exhaustion concepts for predicting hold time effects on low cycle fatigue.

Shahani, V.; Popp, H. G.



Effects of cyclic stress distribution models on fatigue life predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fatigue analysis of a wind turbine component typically uses representative samples of cyclic loads to determine lifetime loads. In this paper, several techniques currently in use are compared to one another based on fatigue life analyses. The generalized Weibull fitting technique is used to remove the artificial truncation of large-amplitude cycles that is inherent in relatively short data sets. Using data from the Sandia/DOE 34-m Test Bed, the generalized Weibull file technique is shown to be excellent for matching the body of the distribution of cyclic loads and for extrapolating the tail of the distribution. However, the data also illustrate that the fitting technique is not a substitute for an adequate data base.

Sutherland, H. J.; Veers, P. S.



Engine cyclic durability by analysis and material testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of calculating turbine engine component durability is addressed. Nonlinear, finite-element structural analyses, cyclic constitutive behavior models, and an advanced creep-fatigue life prediction method called strainrange partitioning were assessed for their applicability to the solution of durability problems in hot-section components of gas turbine engines. Three different component or subcomponent geometries are examined: a stress concentration in a turbine disk; a louver lip of a half-scale combustor liner; and a squealer tip of a first-stage high-pressure turbine blade. Cyclic structural analyses were performed for all three problems. The computed strain-temperature histories at the critical locations of the combustor linear and turbine blade components were imposed on smooth specimens in uniaxial, strain-controlled, thermomechanical fatigue tests of evaluate the structural and life analysis methods.

Kaufman, A.; Halford, G. R.



Engine cyclic durability by analysis and material testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of calculating turbine engine component durability is addressed. Nonlinear, finite-element structural analyses, cyclic constitutive behavior models, and an advanced creep-fatigue life prediction method called strainrange partitioning were assessed for their applicability to the solution of durability problems in hot-section components of gas turbine engines. Three different component or subcomponent geometries are examined: a stress concentration in a turbine disk; a louver lip of a half-scale combustor linear; and a squealer tip of a first-stage high-pressure turbine blade. Cyclic structural analyses were performed for all three problems. The computed strain-temperature histories at the critical locations of the combustor linear and turbine blade components were imposed on smooth specimens in uniaxial, strain-controlled, thermomechanical fatigue tests of evaluate the structural and life analysis methods.

Kaufman, A.; Halford, G. R.



High-Throughput Synthesis and Screening of Cyclic Peptide Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Cyclic Peptides are a rich source of biologically active compounds and are produced in nature by plants, bacteria, fungi, and lower sea animals. A high-throughput methodology has been developed for the combinatorial synthesis, screening, and identification of cyclic peptide natural product analogues with improved biological activities or useful new activities. The methodology was applied to generate a library of 1716 tyrocidine A analogues, which were screened for antibacterial activity in 96-well plates. The identity of the active peptides was determined by partial Edman degradation/mass spectrometry. This has resulted in the discovery of a series of tyrocidine analogues that have significantly improved therapeutic indices compared to the natural product. The availability of tyrocidine analogues with varying antibacterial activities has provided important insights into the structure-function relationship of tyrocidine A, which should help reveal its mechanism of action. PMID:17547386

Xiao, Qing; Pei, Dehua



Cyclic Plasticity under Shock Loading in an HCP Metal  

SciTech Connect

Plate impact experiments with pressures from 2 to 20 GPa, including one shock-partial release-reshock experiment, were performed on vacuum hot-pressed S-200F Beryllium. This hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metal shows significant plasticity effects in such conditions. The experiments were modeled in a Lagrangian hydrocode using an experimentally calibrated Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) constitutive model. By using the shock data to constrain a high rate portion of PTW, the model was able to generally match plasticity effects on the measured wave profile (surface velocity) during the shock loading, but not unloading. A backstress-based cyclic plasticity model to capture the quasi-elastic release (Bauschinger-type effect) was explored in order to match the unloading and reloading portions of the measured wave profiles. A comparison is made with other approaches in the literature to capture the cyclic plasticity in shock conditions.

Prime, Michael B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hunter, Abigail [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Canfield, Thomas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adams, Chris D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory



[Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and sperm function].  


The cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel is a nonselective cation channel and one of the main entrances of Ca2+ influxion into cells. CNG channels are opened by direct binding of cyclic nucleotides. Six different genes encode the CNG protein, 4 A subunits and 2 B subunits. The activity of CNG channels can be regulated by Ca2+/Ca(2+)-binding proteins (CaM) and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Recently, extensive attention has been drawn to the researches on CNG channels in the reproductive system, and many studies show that CNG channels play a pivotal role in sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. This article focuses on the relationship of CNG channels with sperm function. PMID:23700737

Xu, Jian-Hua; Du, Jing



Synthesis and properties of some cyclic AMP alkyl phosphotriesters  

PubMed Central

Cyclic AMP was converted to its phosphotriesters according to the classical approach of phosphate activation with a sulfonyl chloride, followed by esterification with an alcohol. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and cetyl triesters were prepared, and some of their physical-chemical properties determined. Alkaline hydrolysis of these alkyl phosphotriesters resulted predominantly in ring opening. On the other hand, nucleophilic attack by thiourea led to the formation of cAMP as the main product. The conclusion can be drawn from these results that cAMP phosphotriesters could serve as suitable storage forms of cAMP, and cyclic triesters may be the best vehicle of transporting nucleotides through biological membranes. PMID:4375277

Gohil, R.N.; Gillen, R.G.; Nagyvary, J.



Endometriosis of the conus medullaris causing cyclic radiculopathy.  


Intramedullary spinal cord hematomas are a rare neurosurgical pathological entity typically arising from vascular and neoplastic lesions. Endometriosis is an extremely rare cause of intramedullary spinal cord hematoma, with only 5 previously reported cases in the literature. Endometriosis is characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue, typically located in the female pelvic cavity, that causes a cyclical pain syndrome, bleeding, and infertility. In the rare case of intramedullary endometriosis of the spinal cord, symptoms include cyclical lower-extremity radiculopathies and voiding difficulties, and can acutely cause cauda equina syndrome. The authors report a case of endometriosis of the conus medullaris, the first to include radiological, intraoperative, and histopathological imaging. A brief review of the literature is also presented, with discussion including etiological theories surrounding intramedullary endometriosis. PMID:25192376

Steinberg, Jeffrey A; Gonda, David D; Muller, Karra; Ciacci, Joseph D



Ion Accelerator With Negatively Biased Decelerator Grid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-grid ion accelerator in which accelerator grid is biased at negative potential and decelerator grid downstream of accelerator grid biased at smaller negative potential. This grid and bias arrangement reduces frequency of impacts, upon accelerator grid, of charge-exchange ions produced downstream in collisions between accelerated ions and atoms and molecules of background gas. Sputter erosion of accelerator grid reduced.

Brophy, John R.



Cyclic AMP Diffusion Coefficient in Frog Olfactory Cilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the intracellular messengers that mediate odorant signal transduction in vertebrate olfactory cilia. Therefore, the diffusion coefficient of cAMP in olfactory cilia is an important factor in the transduction of the odorous signal. We have employed the excised cilium preparation from the grass frog (Rana pipiens) to measure the cAMP diffusion coefficient. In this preparation

Chunhe Chen; Tadashi Nakamura; Yiannis Koutalos



Sleep cyclic alternating pattern in normal school-age children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in sleep of school-age children in order to obtain a standardized database for CAP parameters in this age range.Methods: CAP parameters were quantified in 10 normal healthy subjects (6 males and 4 females, mean age 8.3 years; range 610 years). All subjects underwent polysomnography recordings for two consecutive nights in a standard laboratory

Oliviero Bruni; Raffaele Ferri; Silvia Miano; Elisabetta Verrillo; Elena Vittori; Giacomo Della Marca; Benedetto Farina; Gioacchino Mennuni



Aspects of String Gas Cosmology: Cyclic Models and Decompactification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

String gas cosmology is a natural approach to cosmology within string theory. Two of its novelties are that it provides means to replace the singular evolution of the early universe with a smooth cyclic phase and that it suggests a dynamical mechanism for selecting at most three spatial dimensions that can grow large cosmologically. This thesis presents progress in these two directions. By implementing corrections to gravitational dynamics, we show how string gas cosmology gives rise to cyclic and bouncing models in the early universe. In these models entropy production naturally leads to an exit from the cyclic phase and drives an eventual transition to a radiation dominated, expanding universe. Further, between the cyclic and radiation phases, the scale factors can have long loitering phases that can address the horizon problem of standard big-bang cosmology. We then address the decompactification mechanism, as originally suggested by Brandenberger and Vafa. This mechanism relies on the argument that winding string states generically intersect, and therefore interact appreciably, in at most three spatial dimensions. When these strings are not energetically favored they can decay to unwound strings and if not, they oppose the expansion of the dimensions they wrap. Since they interact efficiently in at most three dimensions this is the maximum number of dimensions that is allowed to expand. We show that a semiclassical treatment of fundamental string interactions makes this dimensional dependence manifest. This allows us to demonstrate in a cosmological setting that decompactification of d = 3 dimensions is largely favored over d > 3. We conclude with a study of the mechanism on anisotropic backgrounds.

Marnerides, Stefanos


Cyclical variation of blood pressure and heart rate in neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a computerised physiological monitoring system a cyclical variation in blood pressure (waves), with associated changes in heart rate and transcutaneous oxygen, was observed. Twenty five episodes were seen in 10 neonates, with a median gestation of 33 weeks (range 28-42 weeks). Eight neonates had an asphyxial injury. Blood pressure waves had a mean (SD) amplitude of 11.6 (5.6) mm

S Cunningham; S Deere; N McIntosh



Tandem catalysis: a new approach to polypeptides and cyclic carbonates.  


A new tandem catalytic system mediates very efficiently and selectively at room temperature two sequential reactions to produce relevant derivatives in one pot. Remarkably, this new concept of catalysis allows the facile synthesis of polypeptides and provides direct access to cyclic carbonates in high yields, through the incorporation of the carbon dioxide released from the initial step, thus achieving full-atom economy. PMID:25251079

Raman, Sumesh K; Brul, Emilie; Tschan, Mathieu J-L; Thomas, Christophe M



Fatigue damage initiation in Waspaloy under complex cyclic loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cycle fatigue damage initiation i n Waspaloy under complex cyclic loading (out-of-phase) is studied from experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Special emphasis is put on the transgranular damage development and results are compared to those reproduced in the literature. A physico-phenomenological model based on slip theory is used to predict the damage initiation lives as well as the directional aspect

A. Abdul-Latif; V. Ferney; K. Saanouni



Cyclic Leibniz rule: a formulation of supersymmetry on lattice  

E-print Network

For the purpose of constructing supersymmetric(SUSY) theories on lattice, we propose a new type relation on lattice -cyclic Leibniz rule(CLR)- which is slightly different from an ordinary Leibniz rule. Actually, we find that CLR can enlarge the number of SUSYs and construct more Nicolai mappings in a quantum-mechanical model. In this model, the exact mass degeneracy between fermion and boson is shown.

Mitsuhiro Kato; Makoto Sakamoto; Hiroto So



[The metabolites of cyclic peptides from three endophytic mangrove fungi].  


Nine secondary metaboites of cyclic peptide were isolated from three mangrove endophytic fungi Paecilomyces sp. (treel-7), 4557,ZZF65. They were viscumamide(1),cyclo(Pro-Iso)(2),cyclo(Phe-Gly)(3),cyclo(Phe-Ana)(4),cyclo(Gly-Pro) (5),cyclo(Gly-Leu)(6), cyclo(Trp-Ana)(7),neoechinulin A(8),cyclo(Pro-Thr)(9). The compounds 1,7,8,9 were firstly isolated from marine fungus. PMID:18422185

Guo, Zhi-yong; Huang, Zhong-jing; Wen, Lu; Wan, Qiao; Liu, Fan; She, Zhi-gang; Lin, Yong-cheng; Zhou, Shi-ning



Quantifying Self-Organization in Cyclic Cellular Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic cellular automata (CCA) are models of excitable media. Started from\\u000arandom initial conditions, they produce several different kinds of spatial\\u000astructure, depending on their control parameters. We introduce new tools from\\u000ainformation theory that let us calculate the dynamical information content of\\u000aspatial random processes. This complexity measure allows us to quantitatively\\u000adetermine the rate of self-organization of these

Cosma Rohilla Shalizi; Kristina Lisa Shalizi



Cyclic ADP Ribose as a Calcium-Mobilizing Messenger  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Perspective by Galione and Churchill is one in a series on intracellular calcium release mechanisms. The authors review the evidence for cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR) being a second messenger involved in regulating intracellular calcium. In addition, the physiological stimuli and responses mediated by cADPR are discussed. The Perspective is accompanied by a movie showing a calcium wave triggered by cADPR.

Antony Galione (Department of Pharmacology;University of Oxford REV); Grant C. Churchill (Department of Pharmacology;University of Oxford REV)



Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome: What a Gastroenterologist Needs to Know  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:CVS (cyclic vomiting syndrome) is a functional disorder that may occur in any age group of patients. In the past the disorder was considered to be fairly uncommon of unknown etiology. Treatment has generally been based on anecdotal reports.METHODS:Literature review was performed based on internet\\/Medline search as of April 2006.RESULTS:CVS is much more common than previously thought, especially in adults

Namita Pareek; David R. Fleisher; Thomas Abell



Menstrual Cyclicity After Metformin Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effect of insulin-lowering treatment on menstrual cyclicity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Forty oligoamenorrheic women with PCOS were recruited in a prospective clinical study to receive metformin for a minimum period of 6 months. Twenty-two women completed the study. Serum LH, FSH, free testosterone, and glucose and insulin response to oral glucose load were measured both

Elsy Velzquez M; Arnaldo Acosta; Soaira G Mendoza



Plasticity model for metals under cyclic large-strain loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with mathematical modeling of one of the effective technologies of plastic metal forming multistep cold metal forging. Experimental results are given on the plastic behavior of metals under cyclic loading at large strains accumulated for one cycle. Based on the experimental data obtained, a plasticity model is developed and shown to be effective in testing and improving the technology of forging a nut blank by using a computer-aided engineering analysis system.

Greshnov, V. M.; Puchkova, I. V.



Enhanced catalyst stability for cyclic co methanation operations  


Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is thereafter reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Enhanced catalyst stability for long term, cyclic operation is obtained by the incorporation of an alkali or alkaline earth dopant in a silica binding agent added to the catalyst-support additive composition.

Risch, Alan P. (New Fairfield, CT); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)



Cyclic variation in onset of central retinal vein occlusion.  

PubMed Central

We studied the seasonal incidence of onset of symptoms of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in 105 patients over a 5-year period. Their onset showed a significant cyclic variation (p less than 0.01), being most frequent in the months September through to February. We believe this seasonal variation may in part reflect seasonal changes in haemostasis and retinal perfusion, though other unidentified factors play a significant role. PMID:3814564

Lavin, M J; Dhillon, B J



Non Linear Modelling of Masonry Structures Under Cyclic Loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuum damage model for historical masonry, able to describe its non-linear behaviour under both static and dynamic cyclic\\u000a loads, is presented. The model is based on a micromechanical approach. The hypothesis of plane stress is considered. The finite\\u000a element method is adopted as a framework for numerical implementation.\\u000a \\u000a Masonry is considered as a composite material, constituted by a periodic

Chiara Calderini; Sergio Lagomarsino


Synthesis and aromatisation of cyclic enediyne-containing amino acids.  


A series of cyclic enediyne-containing amino acids with ring sizes varying from 10 to 12 atoms have been prepared starting from propargylglycine and homopropargylglycine. Their reactivity towards Bergman cyclisation under elevated temperatures has been explored. The enediynes displayed marked differences in cyclisation half-lives depending on the olefinic substituent and the ring size. A potential candidate for incorporation into peptides has been identified. PMID:19194585

Kaiser, Jasper; van Esseveldt, Bart C J; Segers, Margot J A; van Delft, Floris L; Smits, Jan M M; Butterworth, Sam; Rutjes, Floris P J T



A cyclic nucleotide-gated conductance in olfactory receptor cilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory transduction is thought to be initiated by the binding of odorants to specific receptor proteins in the cilia of olfactory receptor cells (reviewed in refs 1-3). The mechanism by which odorant binding could initiate membrane depolarization is unknown, but the recent discovery of an odorant-stimulated adenylate cyclase in purified olfactory cilia4,5 suggests that cyclic AMP may serve as an

Tadashi Nakamura; Geoffrey H. Gold



Bandwidth allocation scheme for cyclic-service fieldbus networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field devices in factory automation and process control systems generate time-critical, periodic, and time-available data that share the bandwidth of one fieldbus network medium. This paper presents a bandwidth allocation scheme that is applicable to cyclic-service fieldbus networks. The bandwidth allocation scheme transmits time-critical data as soon as the server is available. Transmission of periodic data is scheduled such that

Seung Ho Hong



Robust light emission from cyclic alkylaminoluciferin substrates for firefly luciferase  

PubMed Central

Firefly luciferase utilizes the chemical energy of ATP and oxygen to convert its substrate, D-luciferin, into an excited state oxyluciferin molecule. Relaxation of this molecule to the ground state is responsible for the yellow-green light emission. Synthetic cyclic alkylaminoluciferins are described that allow robust red-shifted light emission with the modified luciferase Ultra-Glo. Overall light emission is higher than that of acyclic alkylaminoluciferins, aminoluciferin, and the native substrate, D-luciferin. PMID:20828122

Reddy, Gadarla Randheer; Thompson, Walter C.



Replay behaviors in cyclic debugging of concurrent software  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION I. A Debugger Classification I. B Program Behavior I. C Cyclic Debugging I. D Goal . . II RELATED WORK II. A Interference: A Definition II. B Sequential Debugging Methods II. C Parallel Debugging Methods II. D Relevant Instructions 15 II... Sorted List Of Relevant Instructions 42 5 List Of Address Ranges 6 Example Of The Algorithm 7 Creating The Replay List 45 52 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Debugging is an iterative process of searching for a program error (bug) that causes incorrect...

Bhutkar, Arjun Vijay



Nicral ternary alloy having improved cyclic oxidation resistance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NiCrAl alloys are improved by the addition of zirconium. These alloys are in the Beta or gamma/gamma' + Beta region of the ternary system. Zirconium is added in a very low amount between 0.06 and 0.20 weight percent. There is a narrow optimum zirconium level at the low value of 0.13 weight percent. Maximum resistance to cyclic oxidation is achieved when the zirconium addition is at the optimum value.

Barrett, C. A.; Lowell, C. E.; Khan, A. S.



Area, Diagonals, and Circumcircle of a Cyclic Quadrilateral  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the seventh century, around 650 A.D., the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta came up with a remarkable formula expressing the area E of a cyclic quadrilateral in terms of the lengths a, b, c, d of its sides. In his formula E = [square root](s-a)(s-b)(s-c)(s-d), s stands for the semiperimeter 1/2(a+b+c+d). The fact that Brahmagupta's formula is

Ayoub, Ayoub B.



APT accelerator. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D. [comp.] [ed.



VLHC accelerator physics  

SciTech Connect

A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

Michael Blaskiewicz et al.



Accelerated Degradation of Polymers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this laboratory exercise, you will monitor changes in the visual appearance of the samples, chemical changes and molecular weight changes as a function of exposure condition. Analysis of the neat and degraded systems will be done using visual evaluation, FTIR analysis and GPC analysis. After in-class presentation, completion of hands-on laboratory experiment and review of the information provided, you should be able to: Confidently discuss the mechanism of breakdown for a polymeric material exposed to various environmental conditions. Prepare samples and record an accurate account of their preparation for use in an outdoor environment and in an accelerated weathering chamber (Q-sun).

Derosa, Rebecca L.



Plasma wake field accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A new scheme of electron acceleration, employing relativistic electron bunches in a cold plasma, is analyzed. The wake field of a leading bunch is derived in a single-particle model. We then extend the model to include finite bunch length effect. In particular, we discuss the relation between the charge distributions of the driving bunch and the energies transformable to the trailing electrons. It is shown that for symmetric charge distribution of the driving bunches, the maximum energy gain for a driven electron is 2..gamma../sub 0/mc/sup 2/. This limitation can be overcome by introducing asymmetric charge distributions. 13 refs., 5 figs.

Chen, P.; Dawson, J.M.



Accelerated Innovation Pilot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Opportunities: I. Engage NASA team (examples) a) Research and technology calls . provide suggestions to AES, HRP, OCT. b) Use NASA@Work to solicit other ideas; (possibly before R+D calls). II. Stimulate collaboration (examples) a) NHHPC. b) Wharton Mack Center for Technological Innovation (Feb 2013). c) International ] DLR ] :envihab (July 2013). d) Accelerated research models . NSF, Myelin Repair Foundation. III. Engage public Prizes (open platform: InnoCentive,, NTL; Rice Business Plan, etc.) IV. Use same methods to engage STEM.

Davis, Jeffrey



Laser plasma accelerators  

SciTech Connect

This review article highlights the tremendous evolution of the research on laser plasma accelerators which has, in record time, led to the production of high quality electron beams at the GeV level, using compact laser systems. I will describe the path we followed to explore different injection schemes and I will present the most significant breakthrough which allowed us to generate stable, high peak current and high quality electron beams, with control of the charge, of the relative energy spread and of the electron energy.

Malka, V. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)



Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.



Black holes at accelerators.  

E-print Network

ar X iv :h ep -p h/ 05 11 12 8v 3 6 A pr 2 00 6 Black Holes at Accelerators Bryan Webber Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK In theories with large extra dimensions and TeV-scale gravity, black holes... dimensions. 1. INTRODUCTION One of the most surprising and exciting possibilities for new physics at future colliders is the production of microscopic black holes [1, 2], which can occur in theories with large extra dimensions1 [3]. String theory suggests a...

Webber, Bryan R


Cyclic GMP recognition using ratiometric QD-fluorophore conjugate nanosensors.  


Novel luminescent ratiometric nanosensors (QD-NAPTHs) were prepared based on cadmium telluride (CdTe655) quantum dots as luminescent nanoscaffolds with naphthyridine dyes as fluorescent receptors. This biosensing bifluorophoric nanosystem has been designed to achieve detection of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in buffered media. Cyclic GMP is a secondary messenger that is an important factor for detecting cancer, diabetes and, cardiovascular diseases. Due to low concentration levels, even in pathological conditions, sensitive cGMP detection remains a challenge for modern biomedical diagnostics. Here, QD-NAPTH nanosensors were tested in the presence of a target nucleotide and with various structural cGMP analogues. Steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy was used to monitor a change in the nucleotide concentration. A 5-fold increase in naphthyridine fluorescence with a simultaneous decrease in QD luminescence was observed after adding 50 ?M of cGMP. Using this novel nanosystem with ratiometric detection, it was possible to recognize cGMP with limit of detection (3?) equal to 70 ng/ml. Moreover, the enhancement in fluorescence upon interaction with the target nucleotide constitutes a favourable approach towards the detection of cGMP in buffered media. These bifluorophoric nanosensors have a potential for application in fluorescence microscopy imaging and in-vitro assays. PMID:24071364

Cywinski, Piotr J; Moro, Artur J; Lhmannsrben, Hans-Gerd



Self-Assembled Surfactant Cyclic Peptide Nanostructures as Stabilizing Agents  

PubMed Central

A number of cyclic peptides including [FR]4, [FK]4, [WR]4, [CR]4, [AK]4, and [WK]n (n = 3-5) containing L-amino acids were produced using solid-phase peptide synthesis. We hypothesized that an optimal balance of hydrophobicity and charge could generate self-assembled nanostructures in aqueous solution by intramolecular and/or intermolecular interactions. Among all the designed peptides, [WR]n (n = 3-5) generated self-assembled vesicle-like nanostructures at room temperature as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and/or dynamic light scattering (DLS). This class of peptides represents the first report of surfactant-like cyclic peptides that self-assemble into nanostructures. A plausible mechanistic insight into the self-assembly of [WR]5 was obtained by molecular modeling studies. Modified [WR]5 analogues, such as [WMeR]5, [WR(Me)2]5, [WMeR(Me)2]5, and [WdR]5, exhibited different morphologies to [WR]5 as shown by TEM observations. [WR]5 exhibited a significant stabilizing effect for generated silver nanoparticles and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. These studies established a new class of surfactant-like cyclic peptides that self-assembled into nanostructures and could have potential applications for the stabilization of silver nanoparticles and protein biomolecules. PMID:24187575

Mandal, Dindyal; Oh, Donghoon; Ye, Guofeng; Banerjee, Antara; Yadav, Arpita; Parang, Keykavous



Cyclic GMP-AMP Displays Mucosal Adjuvant Activity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines. PMID:25295996

krnjug, Ivana



From pairwise to group interactions in games of cyclic dominance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the rock-paper-scissors game in structured populations, where the invasion rates determine individual payoffs that govern the process of strategy change. The traditional version of the game is recovered if the payoffs for each potential invasion stem from a single pairwise interaction. However, the transformation of invasion rates to payoffs also allows the usage of larger interaction ranges. In addition to the traditional pairwise interaction, we therefore consider simultaneous interactions with all nearest neighbors, as well as with all nearest and next-nearest neighbors, thus effectively going from single pair to group interactions in games of cyclic dominance. We show that differences in the interaction range affect not only the stationary fractions of strategies but also their relations of dominance. The transition from pairwise to group interactions can thus decelerate and even revert the direction of the invasion between the competing strategies. Like in evolutionary social dilemmas, in games of cyclic dominance, too, the indirect multipoint interactions that are due to group interactions hence play a pivotal role. Our results indicate that, in addition to the invasion rates, the interaction range is at least as important for the maintenance of biodiversity among cyclically competing strategies.

Szolnoki, Attila; Vukov, Jeromos; Perc, Matja



Cyclic sediment deposition within Amazon deep-sea fan  

SciTech Connect

The Upper and middle Amazon Fan has grown in a cyclic fashion. An individual deposition cycle consists of (1) a widespread basal, acoustically transparent seismic unit (interpreted as debris-flow deposits) that fills and levels preexisting topographic lows, and (2) a levee complex built of overlapping channel-levee systems. Two and possibly three cycles have been identified within the Amazon Fan. The levee complex beneath one debris flow originated from a different submarine canyon than did the levee complex above the debris flow, suggesting that these levee complexes formed during different sea level lowstands. Calculations based on present sediment discharge of the Amazon River suggest that an entire levee complex can form within the time span of a single glacial stage, such as the Wisconsin; however, the levee complex probably could not have formed during the relatively short time interval when sea level rose rapidly at the end of a glacial stage. The basal seismic units (debris-flow deposits) may have been deposited at any time during sea level fluctuations. Although seismic evidence suggests that this cyclic sedimentation pattern may be related to glacio-eustatic sea level variations, cyclic fan growth may be attributed to other processes as well. For example, a bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) observed within the upper fan appears to be a gas hydrate. Migration of the hydrate phase boundary during sea level fluctuations and diapiric activity may be mechanisms for initiating widespread debris flows. 10 figs.

Manley, P.L.; Flood, R.D.



Modeling Step-Strain Relaxation and Cyclic Deformations of Elastomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data for step-strain relaxation and cyclic compressive deformations of highly viscous short elastomer cylinders are modeled using a large strain rubber viscoelastic constitutive theory with a rate-independent friction stress term added. In the tests, both small and large amplitude cyclic compressive strains, in the range of 1% to 10%, were superimposed on steady state compressed strains, in the range of 5% to 20%, for frequencies of 1 and 10 Hz. The elastomer cylinders were conditioned prior to each test to soften them. The constants in the viscoclastic-friction constitutive theory are determined by employing a nonlinear least-squares method to fit the analytical stresses for a Maxwell model, which includes friction, to measured relaxation stresses obtained from a 20% step-strain compression test. The simulation of the relaxation data with the nonlinear model is successful at compressive strains of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Simulations of hysteresis stresses for enforced cyclic compressive strains of 20% +/- 5% are made with the model calibrated by the relaxation data. The predicted hysteresis stresses are lower than the measured stresses.

Johnson, A.R.; Mead, J. L.



Cyclic process for producing methane with catalyst regeneration  


Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. For practical commercial operations utilizing the two-step process of the invention of a cyclic basis, nickel, cobalt, ruthenium, thenium and alloys thereof are especially prepared for use in a metal state, with CO disproportionation being carried out at temperatures up to about C. and with the conversion of active surface carbon to methane being carried out by reaction with steam. The catalyst is employed in such cyclic operations without the necessity for employing a regeneration step as part of each processing cycle. Inactive carbon or coke that tends to form on the catalyst over the course of continuous operations utilizing such cyclic process is effectively and advantageously removed, on a periodic basis, in place of conventional burn off with an inert stream containing a low concentration of oxygen.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Risch, Alan P. (New Fairfield, CT)



Continuous Cellulosic Bioethanol Fermentation by Cyclic Fed-Batch Cocultivation  

PubMed Central

Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose fermentation using cocultivation. Cocultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum LQRI and saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus strain X514 were tested in the semicontinuous fermentor as a model system. Initial cellulose concentration and pH were identified as the key process parameters controlling cellulose fermentation performance in the fixed-volume cyclic fed-batch coculture system. At an initial cellulose concentration of 40 g liter?1, the concentration of ethanol produced with pH control was 4.5-fold higher than that without pH control. It was also found that efficient cellulosic bioethanol production by cocultivation was sustained in the semicontinuous configuration, with bioethanol production reaching 474 mM in 96 h with an initial cellulose concentration of 80 g liter?1 and pH controlled at 6.5 to 6.8. These results suggested the advantages of the cyclic fed-batch process for cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by the cocultures. PMID:23275517

Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wu, Liyou



Membrane-targeted self-assembling cyclic Peptide nanotubes.  


Peptide nanotubes are novel supramolecular nanobiomaterials that have a tubular structure. The stacking of cyclic components is one of the most promising strategies amongst the methods described in recent years for the preparation of nanotubes. This strategy allows precise control of the nanotube surface properties and the dimensions of the tube diameter. In addition, the incorporation of 3- aminocycloalkanecarboxylic acid residues in the nanotube-forming peptides allows control of the internal properties of the supramolecular tube. The research aimed at the application of membrane-interacting self-assembled cyclic peptide nanotubes (SCPNs) is summarized in this review. The cyclic peptides are designed to interact with phospholipid bilayers to induce nanotube formation. The properties and orientation of the nanotube can be tuned by tailoring the peptide sequence. Hydrophobic peptides form transmembrane pores with a hydrophilic orifice, the nature of which has been exploited to transport ions and small molecules efficiently. These synthetic ion channels are selective for alkali metal ions (Na(+), K(+) or Cs(+)) over divalent cations (Ca(2+)) or anions (Cl(-)). Unfortunately, selectivity was not achieved within the series of alkali metal ions, for which ion transport rates followed the diffusion rates in water. Amphipathic peptides form nanotubes that lie parallel to the membrane. Interestingly, nanotube formation takes place preferentially on the surface of bacterial membranes, thus making these materials suitable for the development of new antimicrobial agents. PMID:25515753

Rodriguez-Vazquez, Nuria; Ozores, H Lionel; Guerra, Arcadio; Gonzalez-Freire, Eva; Fuertes, Alberto; Panciera, Michele; Priegue, Juan M; Outeiral, Juan; Montenegro, Javier; Garcia-Fandino, Rebeca; Amorin, Manuel; Granja, Juan R



A case of systemic amyloidosis associated with cyclic neutropenia.  


Reactive AA amyloidosis is caused by the accumulation of the acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A (SAA), as a complication of chronic inflammatory conditions. Cyclic neutropenia is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by repeated episodes of neutropenia at regular intervals, with or without concurrent infection, and is known to be a rare cause of AA amyloidosis. Here, we report a case of a patient who developed systemic AA amyloidosis following a prolonged course of undiagnosed cyclic neutropenia. The patient had a history of recurrent infections since infancy and developed goiter, proteinuria, and azotemia at age 14 years. Her SAA level was markedly increased (601.8 ?g/mL, normal range <8 ?g/mL), and a thyroid and kidney biopsy revealed typical lesions of AA amyloidosis. Amyloid deposits were also detected in the myocardium, colon, and gallbladder. She had repeated episodes of neutropenia regularly at 3-week intervals and a pathogenic mutation in the ELA2 gene. After 10 months of treatment with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, her SAA level normalized (<2.5 ?g/mL), but her renal function did not recover. This case clearly shows that cyclic neutropenia can be complicated by AA amyloidosis unless it is detected early and treated adequately. PMID:21161286

Lee, HyunKyung; Han, Kyoung Hee; Jung, Yun Hye; Kang, Hee Gyung; Moon, Kyung Chul; Ha, Il Soo; Choi, Yong; Cheong, Hae Il



Particle Acceleration by MHD Turbulence  

E-print Network

Recent advances in understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence call for revisions in the picture of particle acceleration. We make use of the recently established scaling of slow and fast MHD modes in strong and weak MHD turbulence to provide a systematic study of particle acceleration in magnetic pressure (low-$\\beta$) and gaseous pressure (high-$\\beta$) dominated plasmas. We consider the acceleration by large scale compressions in both slow and fast particle diffusion limits. We compare the results with the acceleration rate that arises from resonance scattering and Transit-Time Damping (TTD). We establish that fast modes accelerate particles more efficiently than slow modes. We find that particle acceleration by pitch-angle scattering and TTD dominates acceleration by slow or fast modes when the spatial diffusion rate is small. When the rate of spatial diffusion of particles is high, we establish an enhancement of the efficiency of particle acceleration by slow and fast modes in weak turbulence. We show that highly supersonic turbulence is an efficient agent for particle acceleration. We find that even incompressible turbulence can accelerate particles on the scales comparable with the particle mean free path.

Jungyeon Cho; A. Lazarian



High-Heat-Flux Cyclic Durability of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. For the supersonic vehicles currently envisioned in the NASA fundamental aeronautics program, advanced gas turbine engines will be used to provide high power density thrust during the extended supersonic flight of the aircraft, while meeting stringent low emission requirements. Advanced ceramic coating systems are critical to the performance, life and durability of the hot-section components of the engine systems. In this work, the laser and burner rig based high-heat-flux testing approaches were developed to investigate the coating cyclic response and failure mechanisms under simulated supersonic long-duration cruise mission. The accelerated coating cracking and delamination mechanism under the engine high-heat-flux, and extended supersonic cruise time conditions will be addressed. A coating life prediction framework may be realized by examining the crack initiation and propagation in conjunction with environmental degradation under high-heat-flux test conditions.

Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis L.; Miller, Robert A.



Effective and reversible DNA condensation induced by a simple cyclic/rigid polyamine containing carbonyl moiety.  


The transfection of DNA in gene therapy largely depends on the possibility of obtaining its condensation. The details of nanoparticle formation are essential for functioning, as mediated by the diverse elements containing molecular structure, ionic strength in mediums, and condensing motivator. Here, we report two kinds of DNA condensing agents based on simple cyclic/rigid polyamine molecules, having evaluated their structural effect on nanoparticle formation. The reversible condensation-dissociation process was achieved by ion-switching, attributing to a possible condensing mechanism-competitive building of external hydrogen bonds. Using poly[(dA-dT)2] and poly[(dG-dC)2] as substrates, respectively, circular dichroism (CD) signals clearly presented dissimilar interactions between polyamines and both rich sequences, implying potential preference for G-C sequence. The presence of divalent ion Zn(2+) as an efficient motivator accelerated the achievement of DNA condensation, and an accessible schematic model was depicted to explain the promotion in detail. In addition, by comparison with the behaviors of linear polyamines, differences between condensation and aggregation were explicitly elucidated in aspects of morphology and surface charges, as well as induced condition. The present work may have the potential to reveal the precise mechanism of DNA nanoparticle formation and, in particular, be applied to gene delivery as an efficient nonviral vector. PMID:23734659

Li, Chao; Ma, Chunying; Xu, Pengxiang; Gao, Yuxing; Zhang, Jin; Qiao, Renzhong; Zhao, Yufen



Solid-phase synthesis of substituted imidazoline-tethered 2,3-diketopiperazines, cyclic ureas, and cyclic thioureas.  


Efficient methods for the solid-phase synthesis of imidazoline-tethered 2,3-diketopiperazines, cyclic ureas, and cyclic thioureas are described. Following the exhaustive reduction of resin-bound dipeptides derived from orthogonally protected diamino acids, the primary amine of the resulting tetraamines was selectively protected with Dde. The compounds were then selectively cyclized via their secondary amines with three different diimidazole derivatives ((COIm)(2), COIm(2), CSIm(2)). Upon Dde removal, the compounds were selectively N-acylated and dehydratively cyclized with POCl(3) to afford the imidazoline-tethered analogues in moderate yield and high purity. These procedures have been extended to prepare mixture-based combinatorial libraries. Details of the selection of building blocks for preparation of the positional scanning libraries based on the "libraries from libraries" approach are discussed. PMID:11703159

Acharya, A N; Ostresh, J M; Houghten, R A



Accelerated partial breast irradiation.  


Local therapies to treat newly diagnosed breast cancer include a lumpectomy with radiation therapy or a mastectomy. The 20-year data from studies about the safety and efficacy of lumpectomy with full-breast radiation therapy support the safety of this regimen and its role to decrease the risk of ipsilateral recurrence and increase long-term survivorship of women with breast cancer. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) provides radiation therapy to the tumor bed but spares the remaining breast tissue. APBI accelerates the time required to complete the therapy regimen, with a range of one intraoperative session to five consecutive days compared to five to seven weeks. Several techniques exist to administer APBI, including the insertion of a balloon into the lumpectomy space. Of interest is the widespread use of APBI in community and academic settings that has preceded outcomes of large, randomized clinical trials. Because of selection bias in a number of small, single-institution, nonrandomized studies, published data are of limited value to ensure APBI as a standard of care. PMID:25253109

Bauer, Elfrida; Lester, Joanne L



Optical Bragg accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is demonstrated that a Bragg waveguide consisting of a series of dielectric layers may form an excellent optical acceleration structure. Confinement of the accelerating fields is achieved, for both planar and cylindrical configurations by adjusting the first dielectric layer width. A typical structure made of silica and zirconia may support gradients of the order of 1GV/m with an interaction impedance of a few hundreds of ohms and with an energy velocity of less than 0.5c . An interaction impedance of about 1000? may be obtained by replacing the Zirconia with a (fictitious) material of ?=25 . Special attention is paid to the wake field developing in such a structure. In the case of a relatively small number of layers, it is shown that the total electromagnetic power emitted is proportional to the square of the number of electrons in the macrobunch and inversely proportional to the number of microbunches; this power is also inversely proportional to the square of the internal radius of the structure for a cylindrical structure, and to the width of the vacuum core in a planar structure. Quantitative results are given for a higher number of dielectric layers, showing that in comparison to a structure bounded by metallic walls, the emitted power is significantly smaller due to propagation bands allowing electromagnetic energy to escape.

Mizrahi, Amit; Schchter, Levi



Broadband accelerator control network  

SciTech Connect

A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel.

Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.



Effects of Cyclic Loading on the Uniaxial Behavior of Nitinol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread development and use of implants made from NiTi is accompanied by the publication of many NiTi material characterization studies. These publications have increased significantly the knowledge about the mechanical properties of NiTi. However, this knowledge also increased the complexity of the numerical simulation of NiTi implants or devices. This study is focused on the uniaxial behavior of NiTi tubing due to cyclic loading and had the goal to deliver both precise and application-oriented results. Single aspects of this study have already been published (Wagner in Ein Beitrag zur strukturellen und funktionalen Ermdung von Drhten und Federn aus NiTi-Formgedaechtnislegierungen, Ph.D. Thesis, 2005; Eucken and Duerig in Acta Metall 37:2245-2252, 1989; Yawny et al. in Z Metallkd 96:608-618, 2005); however, there is no publication known that shows all the single effects combined in a "duty cycle case." It was of particular importance to summarize the main effects of pre-strain and subsequent small or large strain amplitudes on the material properties. The phenomena observed were captured in an extended Abaqus Nitinol material model, presented by Rebelo et al. (A Material Model for the Cyclic Behavior of Nitinol, SMST Extended Abstracts 2010). The cyclic tensile tests were performed using a video extensometer to obtain accurate strain measurement on small electro-polished dog-bone specimen that were incorporated into a stent framework so that standard manufacturing methods could be used for the fabrication. This study indicates that a prestrain beyond 6% strain alters the transformation plateaus and if the cyclic displacement amplitude is large enough, additional permanent deformations are observed, the lower plateau and most notably the upper plateau change. The changes to the upper plateau are very interesting in the sense that an additional stress plateau develops: its "start stress" is lowered thereby creating a new plateau up to the highest level of cyclic strain, followed by resuming the original plateau until full transformation. This study was conducted in the course of the work of a consortium of several stent manufacturers, SAFE Technology Limited and Dassault Systmes Simulia Corp., dedicated to the development of fatigue laws suitable for life prediction of Nitinol devices.

Schlun, M.; Zipse, A.; Dreher, G.; Rebelo, N.



Detection of cyclic di-AMP using a competitive ELISA with a unique pneumococcal cyclic di-AMP binding protein.  


Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently recognized bacterial signaling molecule. In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of c-di-AMP was developed using a novel pneumococcal c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP). With this method, c-di-AMP concentrations in biological samples can be quickly and accurately quantified. PMID:25239824

Underwood, Adam J; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W; Bai, Guangchun



Accelerator simulation of astrophysical processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phenomena that involve accelerated ions in stellar processes that can be simulated with laboratory accelerators are described. Stellar evolutionary phases, such as the CNO cycle, have been partially explored with accelerators, up to the consumption of He by alpha particle radiative capture reactions. Further experimentation is indicated on reactions featuring N-13(p,gamma)O-14, O-15(alpha, gamma)Ne-19, and O-14(alpha,p)F-17. Accelerated beams interacting with thin foils produce reaction products that permit a determination of possible elemental abundances in stellar objects. Additionally, isotopic ratios observed in chondrites can be duplicated with accelerator beam interactions and thus constraints can be set on the conditions producing the meteorites. Data from isotopic fractionation from sputtering, i.e., blasting surface atoms from a material using a low energy ion beam, leads to possible models for processes occurring in supernova explosions. Finally, molecules can be synthesized with accelerators and compared with spectroscopic observations of stellar winds.

Tombrello, T. A.



Particle acceleration in pulsar magnetospheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of pulsar magnetospheres and the acceleration mechanism for charged particles in the magnetosphere was studied using a pulsar model which required large acceleration of the particles near the surface of the star. A theorem was developed which showed that particle acceleration cannot be expected when the angle between the magnetic field lines and the rotation axis is constant (e.g. radial field lines). If this angle is not constant, however, acceleration must occur. The more realistic model of an axisymmetric neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field aligned with the rotation axis was investigated. In this case, acceleration occurred at large distances from the surface of the star. The magnitude of the current can be determined using the model presented. In the case of nonaxisymmetric systems, the acceleration is expected to occur nearer to the surface of the star.

Baker, K. B.



Magnetic Insulation for Electrostatic Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The voltage gradient which can be sustained between electrodes without electrical breakdowns is usually one of the most important parameters in determining the performance which can be obtained in an electrostatic accelerator. We have recently proposed a technique which might permit reliable operation of electrostatic accelerators at higher electric field gradients, perhaps also with less time required for the conditioning process in such accelerators. The idea is to run an electric current through each accelerator stage so as to produce a magnetic field which envelopes each electrode and its electrically conducting support structures. Having the magnetic field everywhere parallel to the conducting surfaces in the accelerator should impede the emission of electrons, and inhibit their ability to acquire energy from the electric field, thus reducing the chance that local electron emission will initiate an arc. A relatively simple experiment to assess this technique is being planned. If successful, this technique might eventually find applicability in electrostatic accelerators for fusion and other applications.

Grisham, L. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P. O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)



Accelerator Technology for the Mankind  

E-print Network

Particle accelerators technology is one of the generic technologies which is locomotive of the development in almost all fields of science and technology. According to the U.S. Department of Energy: "Accelerators underpin every activity of the Office of Science and, increasingly, of the entire scientific enterprise. From biology to medicine, from materials to metallurgy, from elementary particles to the cosmos, accelerators provide the microscopic information that forms the basis for scientific understanding and applications. The combination of ground and satellite based observatories and particle accelerators will advance our understanding of our world, our galaxy, our universe, and ourselves." Because of this, accelerator technology should become widespread all over the world. Existing situation shows that a large portion of the world, namely the South and Mid-East, is poor on the accelerator technology. UNESCO has recognized this deficit and started SESAME project in Mid-East, namely Jordan. Turkic Acceler...

Sultansoy, S



Laser acceleration and its future  

PubMed Central

Laser acceleration is based on the concept to marshal collective fields that may be induced by laser. In order to exceed the material breakdown field by a large factor, we employ the broken-down matter of plasma. While the generated wakefields resemble with the fields in conventional accelerators in their structure (at least qualitatively), it is their extreme accelerating fields that distinguish the laser wakefield from others, amounting to tiny emittance and compact accelerator. The current research largely falls on how to master the control of acceleration process in spatial and temporal scales several orders of magnitude smaller than the conventional method. The efforts over the last several years have come to a fruition of generating good beam properties with GeV energies on a table top, leading to many applications, such as ultrafast radiolysis, intraoperative radiation therapy, injection to X-ray free electron laser, and a candidate for future high energy accelerators. PMID:20228616

Tajima, Toshiki



Activation of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of this study was to assess the involvement of the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway (AC) in endothelial cells (EC) exposed to different levels of mechanical strain. Bovine aortic EC were seeded to confluence on flexible membrane-bottom wells. The membranes were deformed with either 150 mm Hg (average 10% strain) or 37.5 mm Hg (average 6% strain) vacuum at 60 cycles per minute (0.5 s strain; 0.5 s relaxation) for 0-60 min. The results demonstrate that at 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain) there was a 1.5- to 2.2-fold increase in AC, cAMP, and PKA activity by 15 min when compared to unstretched controls. Further studies revealed an increase in cAMP response element binding protein in EC subjected to the 10% average strain (but not 6% average strain). These data support the hypothesis that cyclic strain activates the AC/cAMP/PKA signal transduction pathway in EC which may occur by exceeding a strain threshold and suggest that cyclic strain may stimulate the expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive promoter elements.

Cohen, C. R.; Mills, I.; Du, W.; Kamal, K.; Sumpio, B. E.



Solar particle acceleration and propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research performed in the period 1983-1986 on solar-particle acceleration and propagation is discussed. Special attention is given to satellite-based observations of large solar energetic particles and (He-3)-rich events; measurements of solar gamma rays, neutrons, and low-energy (1-100-keV) electrons; and observations related to the interplanetary propagation of fast particles. Consideration is also given to theoretical acceleration models based on satellite measurements of accelerated ions.

Lin, R. P.



Accelerating and Retarding Anomalous Diffusion  

E-print Network

In this paper Gaussian models of retarded and accelerated anomalous diffusion are considered. Stochastic differential equations of fractional order driven by single or multiple fractional Gaussian noise terms are introduced to describe retarding and accelerating subdiffusion and superdiffusion. Short and long time asymptotic limits of the mean squared displacement of the stochastic processes associated with the solutions of these equations are studied. Specific cases of these equations are shown to provide possible descriptions of retarding or accelerating anomalous diffusion.

Chai Hok Eab; S. C. Lim



EM Structures and Laser Acceleration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several dielectric optical acceleration structures that have been designed in recent years are being compared. The unique properties of these structures entail challenging design of an overall acceleration module. Four possible configurations are being analyzed. Two important concepts are discussed: train of micro-bunches and feedback loop. While the former facilitates acceleration of a large number of electrons, the latter enables energy recovery leading to higher efficiency. Their implications are considered and some rough estimates of luminosity are considered.

Schchter, Levi



Coherent Acceleration of Material Wavepackets  

E-print Network

We study the quantum dynamics of a material wavepacket bouncing off a modulated atomic mirror in the presence of a gravitational field. We find the occurrence of coherent accelerated dynamics for atoms. The acceleration takes place for certain initial phase space data and within specific windows of modulation strengths. The realization of the proposed acceleration scheme is within the range of present day experimental possibilities.

Farhan Saif; Pierre Meystre



Coherent multimoded dielectric wakefield accelerators.  

SciTech Connect

There has recently been a study of the potential uses of multimode dielectric structures for wakefield acceleration [1]. This technique is based on adjusting the wakefield modes of the structure to constructively interfere at certain delays with respect to the drive bunch, thus providing an accelerating gradient enhancement over single mode devices. In this report we examine and attempt to clarify the issues raised by this work in the light of the present state of the art in wakefield acceleration.

Power, J.



Amino acid/KI as multi-functional synergistic catalysts for cyclic carbonate synthesis from CO2 under mild reaction conditions: a DFT corroborated study.  


Naturally occurring amino acids were identified as efficient co-catalysts for the alkali metal halide-mediated synthesis of cyclic carbonates from carbon dioxide and epoxides under mild, solvent free reaction conditions. The binary system of histidine/potassium iodide gave an appreciable turnover number of 535 for propylene oxide in 3 h. Detailed studies evaluating a variety of amino acids revealed that the basic amino acids afforded better conversion rates. The formation of a seven membered ring involving the zwitterionic ends of the amino acid, the metal halide, and the epoxide was considered to accelerate the catalysis rate. Density functional theory calculations were performed for the first time on amino acid co-catalyzed cycloaddition to provide further evidence for this hypothesis. The iodide ions of the alkali metal halide displayed excellent synergism with the hydrogen bonding groups of the amino acids in the production of cyclic carbonates, whereas bromide and chloride anions functioned less efficiently. The utilization of amino acids to enhance the catalytic activity of the cheap and eco-friendly alkali metal halides for cyclic carbonate synthesis represents a cost-effective, greener route towards the chemical fixation of carbon dioxide. PMID:24270098

Roshan, Kuruppathparambil Roshith; Kathalikkattil, Amal Cherian; Tharun, Jose; Kim, Dong Woo; Won, Yong Sun; Park, Dae Won



Influence of the Combustion Energy Release on Surface Accelerations of an HCCI Engine  

SciTech Connect

Large cyclic variability along with increased combustion noise present in low temperature combustion (LTC) modes of internal combustion engines has driven the need for fast response, robust sensors for diagnostics and feedback control. Accelerometers have been shown as a possible technology for diagnostics and feedback control of advanced LTC operation in internal combustion engines. To make better use of this technology, an improved understanding is necessary of the effect of energy release from the combustion process on engine surface vibrations. This study explores the surface acceleration response for a single-cylinder engine operating with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Preliminary investigation of the engine surface accelerations is conducted using a finite element analysis of the engine cylinder jacket along with consideration of cylindrical modes of the engine cylinder. Measured in-cylinder pressure is utilized as a load input to the FE model to provide an initial comparison of the computed and measured surface accelerations. Additionally, the cylindrical cavity resonant modes of the engine geometry are computed and the in-cylinder pressure frequency content is examined to verify this resonant behavior. Experimental correlations between heat release and surface acceleration metrics are then used to identify specific acceleration frequency bands in which characteristics of the combustion heat release process is detected with minimal structural resonant influence. Investigation of a metric capable of indicting combustion phasing is presented. Impact of variations in the combustion energy release process on the surface accelerations is discussed.

Massey, Jeffery A [ORNL; Eaton, Scott J [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL




E-print Network

ACCELERATE YOUR FUTURE Israel Careers INNOVATE COLLABORATE EXECUTE Job Description Definition and innovative, · Capable of seeing the big picture and bring various approaches and parameters to problem

Rimon, Elon


High field gradient particle accelerator  


A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.



High field gradient particle accelerator  


A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

Nation, John A. (Ithaca, NY); Greenwald, Shlomo (Haifa, IL)



A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic nucleotides based on chemiluminescence energy transfer.  

PubMed Central

A chemiluminescent derivative of cyclic AMP, aminobutylethylisoluminol succinyl cyclic AMP (ABEI-scAMP), was synthesized in order to develop a homogeneous immunoassay based on non-radiative energy transfer. ABEI-scAMP was chemiluminescent (5.1 X 10(18) luminescent counts X mol-1 at pH 13), pure (greater than 95%) stable and immunologically active. A conventional immunoassay was established using ABEI-scAMP and a solid-phase anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G which could detect cyclic AMP at least down to 25fmol. A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic AMP was established by measuring the shift in wavelength from 460 to 525nm which occurred when ABEI-scAMP was bound to fluorescein-labelled anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G. The assay was at least as sensitive as the conventional radioimmunoassay using cyclic [3H]AMP and could measure cyclic AMP over the range 1-1000nM. The homogeneous chemiluminescent energy transfer assay was also able to quantify the association and dissociation of antibody-antigen complexes. Chemiluminescence energy transfer occurred between fluorescein-labelled antibodies and several other ABEI-labelled antigens (Mr values 314-150000) including progesterone, cyclic GMP, complement component C9 and immunoglobulin G. The results provide a homogeneous immunoassay capable of measuring free cyclic AMP under conditions likely to exist inside cells. PMID:6316935

Campbell, A K; Patel, A



Ethanol-induced loss of brain cyclic AMP binding proteins: correlation with growth suppression  

SciTech Connect

Brain hypoplasia secondary to maternal ethanol consumption is a common fetal defect observed in all models of fetal alcohol syndrome. The molecular mechanism by which ethanol inhibits growth is unknown but has been hypothesized to involve ethanol-induced changes in the activity of cyclic-AMP stimulated protein kinase. Acute and chronic alcohol exposure elevate cyclic AMP level in many tissues, including brain. This increase in cyclic AMP should increase the phosphorylating activity of kinase by increasing the amount of dissociated (active) kinase catalytic subunit. In 7-day embryonic chick brains, ethanol-induced growth suppression was correlated with increased brain cyclic AMP content but neither basal nor cyclic AMP stimulated kinase catalytic activity was increased. However, the levels of cyclic AMP binding protein (kinase regulatory subunit) were significantly lowered by ethanol exposure. Measured as either /sup 3/H cyclic AMP binding or as 8-azido cyclic AM/sup 32/P labeling, ethanol-exposed brains had significantly less cyclic AMP binding activity (51 +/- 14 versus 29 +/- 10 units/ protein for 8-azido cyclic AMP binding). These findings suggest that ethanol's effect on kinase activity may involve more than ethanol-induced activation of adenylate cyclase.

Pennington, S.; Kalmus, G.



Network acceleration techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)



Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera



MRI temporal acceleration techniques.  


In recent years, there has been an explosive growth of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that allow faster scan speed by exploiting temporal or spatiotemporal redundancy of the images. These techniques improve the performance of dynamic imaging significantly across multiple clinical applications, including cardiac functional examinations, perfusion imaging, blood flow assessment, contrast-enhanced angiography, functional MRI, and interventional imaging, among others. The scan acceleration permits higher spatial resolution, increased temporal resolution, shorter scan duration, or a combination of these benefits. Along with the exciting developments is a dizzying proliferation of acronyms and variations of the techniques. The present review attempts to summarize this rapidly growing topic and presents conceptual frameworks to understand these techniques in terms of their underlying mechanics and connections. Techniques from view sharing, keyhole, k-t, to compressed sensing are covered. PMID:22903655

Tsao, Jeffrey; Kozerke, Sebastian



Paraelectric gas flow accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A substrate is configured with first and second sets of electrodes, where the second set of electrodes is positioned asymmetrically between the first set of electrodes. When a RF voltage is applied to the electrodes sufficient to generate a discharge plasma (e.g., a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma) in the gas adjacent to the substrate, the asymmetry in the electrode configuration results in force being applied to the active species in the plasma and in turn to the neutral background gas. Depending on the relative orientation of the electrodes to the gas, the present invention can be used to accelerate or decelerate the gas. The present invention has many potential applications, including increasing or decreasing aerodynamic drag or turbulence, and controlling the flow of active and/or neutral species for such uses as flow separation, altering heat flow, plasma cleaning, sterilization, deposition, etching, or alteration in wettability, printability, and/or adhesion.

Sherman, Daniel M. (Inventor); Wilkinson, Stephen P. (Inventor); Roth, J. Reece (Inventor)



Pulsed Plasma Accelerator Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the main results of the modeling task of the PPA project. The objective of this task is to make major progress towards developing a new computational tool with new capabilities for simulating cylindrically symmetric 2.5 dimensional (2.5 D) PPA's. This tool may be used for designing, optimizing, and understanding the operation of PPA s and other pulsed power devices. The foundation for this task is the 2-D, cylindrically symmetric, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code PCAPPS (Princeton Code for Advanced Plasma Propulsion Simulation). PCAPPS was originally developed by Sankaran (2001, 2005) to model Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators (LLFA's), which are electrode based devices, and are typically operated in continuous magnetic field to the model, and implementing a first principles, self-consistent algorithm to couple the plasma and power circuit that drives the plasma dynamics.

Goodman, M.; Kazeminezhad, F.; Owens, T.



The Accelerating Universe  

SciTech Connect

From keV electrons in terrestrial aurorae to Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays from unidentified "Zevatrons", the cosmos shows a plutocratic proclivity to concentrate energy in a tiny minority of suprathermal particles. The mechanisms involved can be traced back to the ideas of Faraday, Fermi and Alfvn though we are learning that the details are idiosyncratic to the many environments that we have observed and that much can be learned from comparing and contrasting particle acceleration in laboratory and diverse astronomical locations. It will be argued that new mechanisms are required to account for recent observations of galactic nuclei, pulsar wind nebulae and interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic media and some candidates will be discussed.

Blandford, Roger [Stanford University



Pulsed electromagnetic acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct measurements of the power deposited in the anode of a multimegawatt MPD accelerator using thermocouples attached to a thin shell anode reveal a dramatic decrease in the fractional anode power from 50% at 200 KW input power to less than 10% at 20 MW power. The corresponding local power flux peak at a value of 10,000 W/sq cm at the lip of the anode exhaust orifice, a distribution traced to a corresponding peak in the local current density at the anode. A comparison of voltage-current characteristics and spectral photographs of the MPD discharge using quartz, boron nitride and plexiglas insulators with various mass injection configurations led to the identification of different voltage modes and regions of ablation free operation. The technique of piezoelectric impact pressure measurement in the MPD exhaust flow was refined to account for the effects due to probe yaw angle.

Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.



Accelerator mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) can be used for efficient detection of long-lived isotopes at part-per-quadrillion sensitivities with good precision. In this article we present an overview of AMS and its recent use in archaeology, geochemistry and biomolecular tracing. All AMS systems use cesium sputter ion sources to produce negative ions from a small button of a solid sample containing the element of interest, such as graphite, metal halide, or metal oxide, often mixed with a metal powder as binder and thermal conductor. Experience shows that both natural and biomedical samples are compatible in a single AMS system, but few other AMS sites make routine {sup 14}C measurements for both dating and tracing. AMS is, in one sense, just `a very sensitive decay counter`, but if AMS sensitivity is creatively coupled to analytical chemistry of certain isotopes, whole new areas of geosciences, archaeology, and life sciences can be explored. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.; Finkel, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nelson, D.E.



Muon Collider Progress: Accelerators  

SciTech Connect

A muon collider would be a powerful tool for exploring the energy-frontier with leptons, and would complement the studies now under way at the LHC. Such a device would offer several important benefits. Muons, like electrons, are point particles so the full center-of-mass energy is available for particle production. Moreover, on account of their higher mass, muons give rise to very little synchrotron radiation and produce very little beamstrahlung. The first feature permits the use of a circular collider that can make efficient use of the expensive rf system and whose footprint is compatible with an existing laboratory site. The second feature leads to a relatively narrow energy spread at the collision point. Designing an accelerator complex for a muon collider is a challenging task. Firstly, the muons are produced as a tertiary beam, so a high-power proton beam and a target that can withstand it are needed to provide the required luminosity of ~1 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup 1}. Secondly, the beam is initially produced with a large 6D phase space, which necessitates a scheme for reducing the muon beam emittance (cooling). Finally, the muon has a short lifetime so all beam manipulations must be done very rapidly. The Muon Accelerator Program, led by Fermilab and including a number of U.S. national laboratories and universities, has undertaken design and R&D activities aimed toward the eventual construction of a muon collider. Design features of such a facility and the supporting R&D program are described.

Zisman, Michael S.



Systemic Antibacterial Activity of Novel Synthetic Cyclic Peptides  

PubMed Central

Cyclic peptides with an even number of alternating d,l-?-amino acid residues are known to self-assemble into organic nanotubes. Such peptides previously have been shown to be stable upon protease treatment, membrane active, and bactericidal and to exert antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and other gram-positive bacteria. The present report describes the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of selected members of this cyclic peptide family. The intravenous (i.v.) efficacy of s