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Cyclopoid copepods.  


Cyclopoid copepods have proved more effective for practical mosquito control than any other invertebrate predator of mosquito larvae. Their operational potential is enhanced by the fact that mass production is relatively easy and inexpensive. The exceptional potential of copepods for mosquito control was first realized about 25 years ago. Since then, laboratory experiments with copepods and mosquito larvae around the world have shown: Only the larger copepod species (body length > 1.4 mm) are of practical use for mosquito control. They kill mainly 1st instar mosquitoes. The most effective species have the capacity to kill more than 40 Aedes larvae/copepod/day. They generally kill fewer Anopheles larvae and even fewer Culex larvae. Most field testing of copepods has been in Aedes container-breeding habitats. Field tests have shown that: The most effective copepod species maintain large populations in a container habitat for as long as there is water. They typically reduce Aedes production by 99-100%. They can cause local eradication of container-breeding Aedes mosquitoes if present in a high percentage of breeding sites. Field surveys in Anopheles, floodwater Aedes, and Culex breeding habitats have shown that natural copepod populations can substantially reduce, or even eliminate, mosquito production. Field trials in temporary pools, marshes, and rice fields have demonstrated that introduction of the right copepod species to the right habitat at the right time can eliminate Anopheles or floodwater Aedes larvae. As a rule, copepods cannot eliminate Culex production by themselves, but they can reinforce and augment control by other methods. The only large-scale operational use of copepods to date has been in Vietnam, which has achieved local eradication of Ae. aegypti in hundreds of villages. Conditions in Vietnam are particularly favorable because: Many Ae. aegypti breeding sites are water storage containers that are conspicuous and easily treated. Motivation to maintain copepods in containers for Ae. aegypti control is strong because of the high incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Copepod use is effectively managed by women's associations already experienced with neighborhood health services. Copepods have the potential for local eradication of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in many other countries besides Vietnam. Professional capacity for copepod management and social institutions for community participation to help with implementation and maintenance are the main factors limiting broader use of copepods for operational mosquito control at the present time. PMID:17853599

Marten, Gerald G; Reid, Janet W




PubMed Central

The fine structure of the abdominal musculature of the copepod Macrocyclops albidus was investigated by electron microscopy. Tubules penetrate into the muscle fibers from the sarcolemma, continuity between the wall of the tubules and the sarcolemma being clear. A dense network of tubules envelops the myofibrils, its interstices being occupied by cisternal elements. At the Z lines the tubules traverse the interior of myofibrils, giving off branches which course longitudinally within the substance of the myofibrils. These branches are also accompanied by elongate, non-intercommunicating cisternae. Comparison of this fast acting copepod muscle with other vertebrate and invertebrate muscles indicates that the complexity of the tubular system is a function of the myofibrillar geometry, whereas the degree of development of the cisternal system is related to the contraction speed of the muscle.

Fahrenbach, Wolf H.




Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton samples from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary collected by the California Department of Fish and Game and the United States Geological Survey were examined for cyclopoid copepods of the family Oithonidae. Of the three species found, Limnoithona sinensis, Oithona davisae, new species, and O. similis, the first two are described here, Lim- noithona sinensis, like its congener L. telraspina, has

Frank D. Ferrari; James Orsi


Comparison of the predation rate of freshwater cyclopoid copepod species on larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens.  


The predation rates of six copepod species: Acanthocyclops robustus G.O. Sars, Eucyclops neumani Pesta, Macrocyclops albidus Jurine, Mesocyclops longisetus Thibaud, Metacyclops grandis Kiefer and Metacyclops mendocinus Wierzejski (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) on mosquito larvae, Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) were assessed. Experiments consisted of 24-h incubations of one copepod and 10 larvae without extra food at 16 degrees C and 26 degrees C. Nine replicates were considered for each species and temperature. Predation rates (larvae per copepod per day) were: M. mendocinus (1.8), M. grandis (3.1), E. neumani (3.8), A. robustus (3.8), Ma. albidus (6.1) and Me. longisetus (7.0). There was a significant effect of both species and temperature on predation: all species experienced higher predation at 26 degrees C than at 16 degrees C, except for A. robustus whose predation rate was similar at both temperatures. These observations are consistent with previous results that point to Macrocyclops and Mesocyclops genera as important larval predators and suggest the need for field trials to evaluate the response of Ma. albidus and Me. longisetus under natural conditions in Uruguay. PMID:12941020

Calliari, D; Sanz, K; Martínez, M; Cervetto, G; Gómez, M; Basso, C



Giselinidae fam. nov., a new monophyletic group of cyclopoid copepods (Copepoda, Crustacea) from the Atlantic deep sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four new species of Cyclopoida from deep-sea waters are described and placed in two new genera: Giselina gen. n. and Sensogiselina gen. n. The new genera and species belong to a new monophyletic group within the cyclopinid cyclopoids. A new name, Giselinidae, is proposed for this monophylum. The new family is characterised by the combination of the following characters: (1) tergite of leg 1 fused to cephalosome dorsally, but incompletely fused laterally, (2) absence of aesthetascs on ancestral antennulary segments XVI, XXI and XXV, (3) absence of antennary exopodal setae, (4) presence of only three spines on distal exopodal segment of leg 1, (5) absence of inner setae on first endopodal segments of legs 1-4, (6) outer terminal and distal inner elements of distal endopodal segment of leg 4 transformed into spines, (7) distal outer element of leg 5 exopod transformed into a spine, (8) leg 6 with only one seta, and (9) furcal setae I and III located on dorsal margin.

Martínez Arbizu, Pedro



Feeding strategies of planktonic cyclopoids in lacustrine ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present knowledge of feeding tactics and behaviour, food composition and consumption, and feeding strategies of planktonic cyclopoid copepods is synthesized. Planktonic freshwater cyclopoids consume both plant and animal food. Predatory feeding is highly selective: prey species differ in their size, defense structures, the distance at which they are recognized by the cyclopoid, defensive behaviour when attacked, and their occurrence in the same space as the predator. Within a prey species, cyclopoids select for smaller individuals. The impact of cyclopoid predation on the other zooplankton may be an important source of mortality. However, algal material is consumed to a large extent by the adult and later developmental stages and is a necessary food source for the youngest stages, which have to compete with other planktonic herbivores. Some implications of these food requirements for life strategies of planktonic cyclopoid species in the seasonally changing environments are discussed.

Brandl, Zden?k



Interannual fluctuations in copepod abundance and contribution of small forms in the Drake Passage during austral summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative importance of small forms of copepods has been historically underestimated by the traditional use of 200-300-?m mesh nets. This work quantified the distribution and abundance of copepods, considering two size fractions (<300 ?m and >300 ?m), in superficial waters (9 m deep) of the Drake Passage and contributed to the knowledge of their interannual fluctuations among three summers. Four types of nauplii and eleven species of copepods at copepodite and adult stages were identified, with abundance values of up to 13 ind L-1 and 28,300 ?g C m-3. The <300-?m fraction, composed of Oithona similis, small cyclopoids and nauplii, dominated the copepod communities in the 3 years; it accounted for more than 77% of the total number and for between 40 and 63% of the total biomass. Changes in density and biomass values among the three cruises differed according to copepod size fraction and water mass; the >300-?m fraction showed no changes among the 3 years, both in Antarctic (density and biomass) and in Subantarctic waters (density), whereas the <300-?m fraction showed higher (density and biomass) values in 2001 both in Subantarctic and in Antarctic waters. Sea surface temperature and its anomaly accounted for the largest proportion of variability in copepod density and biomass, particularly for the <300-?m fraction.

Thompson, Gustavo A.; Dinofrio, Estela O.; Alder, Viviana A.



What factors drive copepod community distribution in the Gulf of Gabes, Eastern Mediterranean Sea?  


The spatial and temporal variations in copepod communities were investigated during four oceanographic cruises conducted between July 2005 and March 2007 aboard the R/V Hannibal. A close relationship was observed between the temperature, salinity, hydrographic properties and water masses characterising the Gulf of Gabes. Indeed, water thermal stratification began in May-June, and a thermocline was established at a 20-m depth, but ranged from 25 m in July to more than 30 m in September. The zooplankton community is dominated by copepods representing 69 % to 83 % of total zooplankton. Spatial and temporal variation of copepods in relation to environmental factors shows their close relationship with the hydrodynamic features of the water column. Thermal stratification in the column, established in summer, supports copepod development. In fact, copepod abundance increases gradually with rising water temperature and salinity, starting from the beginning of thermal stratification (May-June 2006) and lasting until its completion (July 2005 and September 2006). When the water column is well mixed (March 2007), copepod abundance decreased. Our finding shows that temperature and salinity seem to be the most important physical factors and thus strongly influence the taxonomic diversity and distribution of the copepod population. They are characterised by the dominance of Oithona nana, representing 75-86 % of total cyclopoid abundance. The most abundant species during the stratification period were O. nana, Acartia clausi and Stephos marsalensis in July 2005 and September 2006. However, during the mixing period, Euterpina acutifrons was more abundant, representing 21 % of the total. Unlike the copepod community, which is more abundant during the period of high stratification, phytoplankton proliferates during semi-mixed conditions. PMID:24170503

Drira, Zaher; Bel Hassen, Malika; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi



Copepod abundance and species composition in the Eastern subtropical/tropical Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abundance and species composition of copepods were studied during the expedition ANT XXI/1 on a latitudinal transect in the eastern Atlantic from 34°49.5'N to 27°28.1'S between 2-20 November 2002. Stratified zooplankton tows were carried out at 19 stations with a multiple opening-closing net between 300 m water depth and the surface. Cyclopoid and calanoid copepods showed similar patterns of distribution and abundance. Oithona was the most abundant cyclopoid genus, followed by Oncaea. A total of 149 calanoid copepod species were identified. Clausocalanus was by far the most abundant genus, comprising on average about 45% of all calanoids, followed by Calocalanus (13%), Delibus (9%), Paracalanus (6%), and Pleuromamma (5%). All other genera comprised on average less than 5% each, with 40 genera less than 1%. The calanoid copepod communities were distinguished broadly in accordance with sea surface temperature, separating the subtropical from the tropical stations, and were largely determined by variation in species composition and species abundance. Nine Clausocalanus species were identified. The most numerous Clausocalanus species was C. furcatus, which on average comprised half of all adult of this genus. C. pergens, C. paululus, and C. jobei, contributed an average of 19%, 9%, and 9%, respectively. The Clausocalanus species differed markedly in their horizontal and vertical distributions: C. furcatus, C. jobei, and C. mastigophorus had widespread distributions and inhabited the upper water layers. Major differences between the species were found in abundance. C. paululus and C. arcuicornis were biantitropical and were absent or occurred in very low numbers in the equatorial zone. C. parapergens was found at all stations and showed a bimodal distribution pattern with maxima in the subtropics. C. pergens occurred in higher numbers only at the southern stations, where it replaced C. furcatus in dominance. In contrast to the widespread species, the bulk of the C. paululus, C. arcuicornis, C. parapergens, and C. pergens populations was concentrated in the colder, deeper water layers below the thermocline, thereby avoiding the warm surface waters. C. lividus was found only at the most northern and C. ingens only at the most southern stations. Both species were found almost exclusively in the upper 50 m. The distinct differences in abundance and horizontal and vertical distribution suggest a strong ecological differentiation among the Clausocalanus species.

Schnack-Schiel, Sigrid B.; Mizdalski, Elke; Cornils, Astrid



[Molecular-phylogenetic analysis of cyclopoids (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin].  


Baikalian cyclopoids represent one of the richest endemic faunas of freshwater cyclopoid copepods. The genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is the most numerous by species number in the lake. In this work, molecular-phylogenetic analysis of 14 species and 1 sub-species from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin is performed. The regions of mitochondrial cytochrom-oxydase I (COI) and of nuclear small-subunit 18S rRNA were used as evolution markers. In the obtained set of nucleotide sequences of COT gene, an effect of synonymous substitution saturation is revealed. Baikalian representatives of the genus Diacyclops form at phylogenetic schemes by two markers a monophyletic griup, it suggest their origin from a common ancestral form. Preliminary estimate of the age of this group is 20-25 My. PMID:21261066

Ma?or, T Iu; Sheveleva, N G; Sukhanova, L V; Timoshkin, O A; Kiril'chik, S V



Copepod Predation on Anopheles quadrimaculatus Larvae in Rice Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclopoid copepods and mosquito larvae were surveyed in southwestern Louisiana rice fields. Almost every rice field had a natural population ofMesocyclops ruttneri, Acanthocyclops vernalis, or Macrocyclops albidus. Judging from the abundance of pupae, 29% of the fields were responsible for virtually all Anopheles quadrimaculatus production, apparently because larval mortality suppressed production in the other fields. Mesocyclops ruttneri had the strongest

Gerald G. Marten; Mieu Nguyen; Giai Ngo


Species composition of Black Sea marine planktonic copepods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the changes in the marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea species' list from the beginning of taxonomic research to the present day. The study was based on the SESAME biological database, unpublished data, literature and data obtained during the course of the SESAME project. Comparisons were made with the Guidebook for Marine Fauna of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, which revealed changes both in the taxonomic status of some species and in the structure of the copepod community. The taxonomic status of two species (Acartia clausi small form and Centropages kroyeri pontica) and the nomenclature of two species (Oihona minuta and Calanus helgolandicus) have been changed. Three native species (Acartia margalefi, Oithona nana, and Paracartia latisetosa) have disappeared. Two non-indigenous copepods (Acartia tonsa and Oithona davisae) became established in the Black Sea ecosystem in the 1970s and 2000s, respectively. The success of their establishment was determined by biological features of the species and vulnerability of the native copepod community to invasions. It is highly probable that both species were introduced to the Black Sea by vessel ballast water. The hypothesis of "mediterranization" of the Black Sea fauna does not appear to hold true for zooplankton. Numerous claims of alien copepod species in the Black Sea remain largely unverified due to insufficient information. Data on newly discovered species of the Acartia genus are not authenticated. An updated list of marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea is hereby presented.

Gubanova, A.; Altukhov, D.; Stefanova, K.; Arashkevich, E.; Kamburska, L.; Prusova, I.; Svetlichny, L.; Timofte, F.; Uysal, Z.



Colonization of a new man-made river (Marchfeldcanal, Lower Austria) by benthic copepods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of copepods in the colonization and emigration processes of benthos and drift of an irrigation canal were studied. During the 3 first years of existence of the canal, fifteen species of copepods were recorded (1 diaptomid, 11 cyclopoids, 3 harpacticoids). Copepod succession in the canal was initially represented by lentic species, then by predatory species like Macrocyclops albidus that developed with the proliferation of filamentous algae and epibionts during the first two years. Primary consumers appeared from the beginning of the flowing conditions but started to dominate only from the third year. Smaller species associated with the bed sediments like the harpacticoid species Nitocra hibernica, were late colonizers. The latter as well as Paracyclops fimbriatus and Eucyclops serrulatus were the dominant copepod species in the canal. Total copepod density in the benthos ranged from 15,800 to 68,000 ind./m 2, with a mean of 7.6% of the total zoobenthos. Copepods constituted up to 25% of the total faunal drift density, ranging from 50 to 140 ind./m 3. Their highest abundance was observed around midnight. A three-fold increase of the discharge temporarily affected the drift density, but did not change the diel rhythm of the drift. Cyclopoid copepods namely P. fimbriatus (54.77%), copepodid cyclopoids (20.76%) and E. serrulatus (16.11%) formed the main part of the drift samples. The harpacticoid Nitocra hibernica was a minor participant in the drift processes.

Gaviria, Santiago



The fluid dynamics of swimming by jumping in copepods  

PubMed Central

Copepods swim either continuously by vibrating their feeding appendages or erratically by repeatedly beating their swimming legs, resulting in a series of small jumps. The two swimming modes generate different hydrodynamic disturbances and therefore expose the swimmers differently to rheotactic predators. We developed an impulsive stresslet model to quantify the jump-imposed flow disturbance. The predicted flow consists of two counter-rotating viscous vortex rings of similar intensity, one in the wake and one around the body of the copepod. We showed that the entire jumping flow is spatially limited and temporally ephemeral owing to jump-impulsiveness and viscous decay. In contrast, continuous steady swimming generates two well-extended long-lasting momentum jets both in front of and behind the swimmer, as suggested by the well-known steady stresslet model. Based on the observed jump-swimming kinematics of a small copepod Oithona davisae, we further showed that jump-swimming produces a hydrodynamic disturbance with much smaller spatial extension and shorter temporal duration than that produced by a same-size copepod cruising steadily at the same average translating velocity. Hence, small copepods in jump-swimming are in general much less detectable by rheotactic predators. The present impulsive stresslet model improves a previously published impulsive Stokeslet model that applies only to the wake vortex.

Jiang, Houshuo; Ki?rboe, Thomas



Spatial and temporal changes in copepod zooplankton communities of Lake Tanganyika  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelagic Copepoda zooplankton in Lake Tanganyika were sampled over two years at three localities. When the data from both years were pooled, post-naupliar cyclopoids formed 76% of the pelagic post-naupliar Copepoda off Bujumbura, 83% off Kigoma and 62% off Mpulungu. During both sampling years, dry weight biomass of post-naupliar copepod stages decreased at sampling sites in the order Bujumbura >

H. Kurki; I. Vuorinen; E. Bosma; D. Bwebwa



Sensitivity to ocean acidification parallels natural pCO2 gradients experienced by Arctic copepods under winter sea ice  

PubMed Central

The Arctic Ocean already experiences areas of low pH and high CO2, and it is expected to be most rapidly affected by future ocean acidification (OA). Copepods comprise the dominant Arctic zooplankton; hence, their responses to OA have important implications for Arctic ecosystems, yet there is little data on their current under-ice winter ecology on which to base future monitoring or make predictions about climate-induced change. Here, we report results from Arctic under-ice investigations of copepod natural distributions associated with late-winter carbonate chemistry environmental data and their response to manipulated pCO2 conditions (OA exposures). Our data reveal that species and life stage sensitivities to manipulated OA conditions were correlated with their vertical migration behavior and with their natural exposures to different pCO2 ranges. Vertically migrating adult Calanus spp. crossed a pCO2 range of >140 ?atm daily and showed only minor responses to manipulated high CO2. Oithona similis, which remained in the surface waters and experienced a pCO2 range of <75 ?atm, showed significantly reduced adult and nauplii survival in high CO2 experiments. These results support the relatively untested hypothesis that the natural range of pCO2 experienced by an organism determines its sensitivity to future OA and highlight that the globally important copepod species, Oithona spp., may be more sensitive to future high pCO2 conditions compared with the more widely studied larger copepods.

Lewis, Ceri N.; Brown, Kristina A.; Edwards, Laura A.; Cooper, Glenn; Findlay, Helen S.



Sensitivity to ocean acidification parallels natural pCO2 gradients experienced by Arctic copepods under winter sea ice.  


The Arctic Ocean already experiences areas of low pH and high CO2, and it is expected to be most rapidly affected by future ocean acidification (OA). Copepods comprise the dominant Arctic zooplankton; hence, their responses to OA have important implications for Arctic ecosystems, yet there is little data on their current under-ice winter ecology on which to base future monitoring or make predictions about climate-induced change. Here, we report results from Arctic under-ice investigations of copepod natural distributions associated with late-winter carbonate chemistry environmental data and their response to manipulated pCO2 conditions (OA exposures). Our data reveal that species and life stage sensitivities to manipulated OA conditions were correlated with their vertical migration behavior and with their natural exposures to different pCO2 ranges. Vertically migrating adult Calanus spp. crossed a pCO2 range of >140 ?atm daily and showed only minor responses to manipulated high CO2. Oithona similis, which remained in the surface waters and experienced a pCO2 range of <75 ?atm, showed significantly reduced adult and nauplii survival in high CO2 experiments. These results support the relatively untested hypothesis that the natural range of pCO2 experienced by an organism determines its sensitivity to future OA and highlight that the globally important copepod species, Oithona spp., may be more sensitive to future high pCO2 conditions compared with the more widely studied larger copepods. PMID:24297880

Lewis, Ceri N; Brown, Kristina A; Edwards, Laura A; Cooper, Glenn; Findlay, Helen S



Copepod grazing on phytoplankton in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Polar Front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesozooplankton abundance, community structure and copepod grazing on phytoplankton were examined during the austral spring 1997 and summer 1998 as part of the US JGOFS project in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic polar front. Mesozooplankton abundance and biomass were highest at the polar front and south of the front. Biomass increased by 1.5-2-times during the course of the study . Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, C. simillimus, Rhincalanus gigas and Neocalanus tonsus were the dominant large copepods found in the study. Oithona spp and pteropods were numerically important components of the zooplankton community. The copepod and juvenile krill community consumed 1-7% of the daily chlorophyll standing stock, equivalent to 3-21% of the daily phytoplankton production. There was an increased grazing pressure at night due to both increased gut pigment concentrations as well as increases in zooplankton numbers. Phytoplankton carbon contributed a significant fraction (>50%) of the dietary carbon for the copepods during spring and summer. The relative importance of phytoplankton carbon to the diet increased south of the polar front, suggested that grazing by copepods could be important to organic carbon and biogenic silica flux south of the polar front.

Urban-Rich, Juanita; Dagg, Michael; Peterson, Jay


Freshwater copepods from the east coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detritus samples collected from freshwaters of the east coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula yielded 10 species of cyclopoid and 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, as follows: Macrocyclops albidus, Eucyclops serrulatus, E. speratus, Cyclops scutifer, Megacyclops viridis, Acanthocyclops vernalis, A. robustus, Diacyclops bicuspidatus, and Mesocyclops leuckarti; Attheyella nordenskjoldi, Maraenobiotus brucei, Epactophanes richardi, Moraria duthiei, Bryocamptus hiemalis, B. calvus, and B. umiatensis. Morphological variations of specimens from Alaskan and Japanese populations were examined. Elongation of the caudal rami of Eucyclops speratus and Diacyclops bicuspidatus, and fusion of the antennular articles of the latter species are noticeable.

Ishida, Teruo



Additions to Mexican freshwater copepods with the description of the female Leptodiaptomus mexicanus (Marsh)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey on 10 temporary and permanent water-bodies, located at more than 2000 m above the sea level in the central part of Mexico resulted in the presence of 17 cyclopoid and five calanoid copepods. From the total taxa found, seven are new to the country: Leptodiaptomus assiniboiaensis (Anderson), Microcyclops dubitabilis Kiefer, Ectocyclops rubescens Brady, Eucyplops cf. bondi Kiefer, Eucyclops cf. prionophorus Kiefer, Eucyclops pseudoensifer Dussart, and Eucyclops cf. solitarius. The female of Leptodiaptomus mexicanus, a species known only from a single male found near Mexico City in 1929, is here described for the first time. Copepod fauna for each of the systems was highly diverse, with up to 12 species co-occurring in temporary ponds. This study revealed a mixture of north and south American taxa in the area.

Grimaldo-Ortega, Diana; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Camacho-Lemus, Marina; Ciros-Pérez, Jorge



Billions of basepairs of recently expanded, repetitive sequences are eliminated from the somatic genome during copepod development  

PubMed Central

Background Chromatin diminution is the programmed deletion of DNA from presomatic cell or nuclear lineages during development, producing single organisms that contain two different nuclear genomes. Phylogenetically diverse taxa undergo chromatin diminution — some ciliates, nematodes, copepods, and vertebrates. In cyclopoid copepods, chromatin diminution occurs in taxa with massively expanded germline genomes; depending on species, germline genome sizes range from 15 – 75 Gb, 12–74 Gb of which are lost from pre-somatic cell lineages at germline – soma differentiation. This is more than an order of magnitude more sequence than is lost from other taxa. To date, the sequences excised from copepods have not been analyzed using large-scale genomic datasets, and the processes underlying germline genomic gigantism in this clade, as well as the functional significance of chromatin diminution, have remained unknown. Results Here, we used high-throughput genomic sequencing and qPCR to characterize the germline and somatic genomes of Mesocyclops edax, a freshwater cyclopoid copepod with a germline genome of ~15 Gb and a somatic genome of ~3 Gb. We show that most of the excised DNA consists of repetitive sequences that are either 1) verifiable transposable elements (TEs), or 2) non-simple repeats of likely TE origin. Repeat elements in both genomes are skewed towards younger (i.e. less divergent) elements. Excised DNA is a non-random sample of the germline repeat element landscape; younger elements, and high frequency DNA transposons and LINEs, are disproportionately eliminated from the somatic genome. Conclusions Our results suggest that germline genome expansion in M. edax reflects explosive repeat element proliferation, and that billions of base pairs of such repeats are deleted from the somatic genome every generation. Thus, we hypothesize that chromatin diminution is a mechanism that controls repeat element load, and that this load can evolve to be divergent between tissue types within single organisms.



Parasitic copepods on immigrant and native clupeid fishes caught in Egyptian coastal waters off Alexandria.  


Three species of parasitic copepods, one each from the siphonostomatoid families Lernanthropidae and Lernaeopodidae and one from the cyclopoid family Bomolochidae, are redescribed based on material collected from the gills of four fish species belonging to the family Clupeidae caught from coastal waters off Alexandria, Egypt. The recorded parasites are: Mitrapus oblongus (Pillai, 1964), found on Etrumeus teres (Dekay), an immigrant species from the Red Sea, and on Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, a native Mediterranean species; Clavellisa ilishae Pillai, 1962 found only on S. aurita; and Nothobomolochus fradei Marques, 1965 found on Herklotsichthys punctatus (Rüppell), an immigrant species from the Red Sea, and on Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum), a native Mediterranean species. The first two of these copepods have been reported before on clupeid hosts from the Indian Ocean. The third was known from the eastern South Atlantic and the Arabian Gulf. None of the copepods has previously been recorded in the Mediterranean. All of the parasites reported here constitute new records for these hosts. Two of the hosts are Erythrean (=Lessepsian) immigrants and were caught in Mediterranean waters off the Egyptian coast. The original description of N. fradei (Marques, 1965) is inadequate by modern standards. This species is fully described here for the first time. The male of M. oblongus was briefly described by Pillai (1964), but its mouthparts are described in detail here for the first time. PMID:20401576

El-Rashidy, Hoda; Boxshall, Geoff A



Prey-predator relationship between the cyclopoids Mesocyclops longisetus and Mesocyclops meridianus with Anopheles aquasalis larvae.  


Copepods from the genus Mesocyclops are considered predators and potential biological control for mosquito larvae. Two copepod species M. meridianus and M. longisetus were found in natural developmental habitat for malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis in Paria, Venezuela. Predatory potential on 1st-stage mosquito larvae An. aquasalis was evaluated under laboratory conditions for the 2 species of copepod. Further records of both copepod life cycle and body size were taken. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used, consisting of 1:1 and 10:1 prey-predator ratios with and without interspecific interactions. Despite significant body-size differences, M. longisetus and M. meridianus reached maturity 17 days after hatching with no significant differences. Life cycle span of both copepod species are described for the first time. The 2 species showed the same predatory potential despite larval (prey) abundance variation. PMID:17847849

Pernía, Javier; de Zoppi, Roa Evelyn; Palacios-Cáceres, Mario



Advanced recruitment and accelerated population development in Arctic calanoid copepods of the North Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of copepodite recruitment and population development of copepods in spring and early summer (April-July) were compared between the North Water polynya and Barrow Strait, a non-polynya region in the Canadian Archipelago. In the North Water, young copepodites (CI-CIII) of calanoid herbivores were concentrated in the cold and chlorophyll-rich water at the base of the Arctic surface layer, while later stages (CIV-CV) invaded the warmer surface layer. The phytoplankton bloom and the recruitment of the first cohort of copepodites of Calanus hyperboreus, C. glacialis, and Pseudocalanus spp started in May-June, some 1.5-3 months earlier than in Barrow Strait. Consistent with a precocious summer recruitment, population stage structure of these species in early spring (April-May) was more advanced in the North Water than in Barrow Strait. The recruitment in June of CI of the omnivore Metridia longa was advanced by at least 5 weeks in the polynya relative to Barrow Strait. We found no evidence for an acceleration of the population development of the small Microcalanus pygmaeus, Oithona similis or Oncaea borealis in the polynya. Once the recruitment of young copepodites had started, recruitment success (i.e. % of young copepodites in the population) increased primarily with Chl a concentration for C. hyperboreus, with both sea-surface temperature and Chl a for C. glacialis, and with temperature only for Pseudocalanus spp. Hence, depending on the species, both greater food availability and higher temperature resulting from reduced ice cover contributed to improve reproductive success in herbivorous copepods in the North Water relative to Barrow Strait. A climate-induced reduction of ice cover duration is predicted to favour the population growth of the predominant large calanoid copepods and Pseudocalanus on Arctic shelves.

Ringuette, Marc; Fortier, Louis; Fortier, Martin; Runge, Jeffrey A.; Bélanger, Simon; Larouche, Pierre; Weslawski, Jan-Marcin; Kwasniewski, Slawek



Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the morphology and variability of the poorly known cyclopoid Cyclops ladakanus from the mountain lakes Karakul (3950 m above sea level) and Shorkul (3782 m above sea level) in the Pamirs (Tajikistan) are presented. The synonymy of Cyclops ladakanus Kiefer, 1936 and Cyclops pamirensis Gurvich, 1959 is confirmed.

Iskandar M. Mirabdullayev; Zuri A. Mustafaeva


Harpacticoid and cyclopoid fauna of groundwater and springs in southern Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The groundwater fauna, of which scarcely anything has previously been studied in formerly glaciated areas, was richest close to the water table and diminished markedly at greater depths. However, few individuals were generally recorded per 1 m 3 of water. Bryocamptus minutus was the most abundant species of copepod at an esker site, the other species recorded being Attheyella crassa, Bryocamptus pygmaeus, Moraria brevipes and Parastenocaris phyllura, and some species from the genus Diacyclops. At a shore bank infiltration site M. brevipes was the most numerous species. However, one esker site examined did not have any animals. Springs, which were grouped into those in a natural state and those under anthropogenic influence, had some species in common with esker groundwater, but also Paracyclops fimbriatus, Acanthocyclops robustus, Acanthocyclops vernalis, Diacyclops bicuspidatus, Megacyclops viridis, and the harpacticoid species Bryocamptus cuspidatus, Bryocamptus echinatus and Canthocamptus staphylinus. Of the spring copepods, P. fimbriatus appeared to withstand the influence of road de-icing with NaCl, but numbers of Moraria brevipes were reduced under this influence. Bryocamptus echinatus was more numerous in springs having a high oxygen content and high pH. The species found in esker groundwaters and springs were in part the same evidently cold-stenotherm species which inhabit the profundal zone of oligotrophic lakes.

Särkkä, Jukka; Levonen, Leena; Mäkelä, Jorma



Molecular Systematic of Three Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from the Atlantic Ocean: Comparative Analysis Using 28S rDNA  

PubMed Central

Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) are highly abundant, ecologically important, and widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Although there are valid and detailed descriptions of the species, routine species identifications remain challenging due to their small size, subtle morphological diagnostic traits, and the description of geographic forms or varieties. This study examined three species of Oithona (O. similis, O. atlantica and O. nana) occurring in the Argentine sector of the South Atlantic Ocean based on DNA sequence variation of a 575 base-pair region of 28S rDNA, with comparative analysis of these species from other North and South Atlantic regions. DNA sequence variation clearly resolved and discriminated the species, and revealed low levels of intraspecific variation among North and South Atlantic populations of each species. The 28S rDNA region was thus shown to provide an accurate and reliable means of identifying the species throughout the sampled domain. Analysis of 28S rDNA variation for additional species collected throughout the global ocean will be useful to accurately characterize biogeographical distributions of the species and to examine phylogenetic relationships among them.

Cepeda, Georgina D.; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Bucklin, Ann; Beron, Corina M.; Vinas, Maria D.



Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior  

PubMed Central

Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.



Observing copepods through a genomic lens  

PubMed Central

Background Copepods outnumber every other multicellular animal group. They are critical components of the world's freshwater and marine ecosystems, sensitive indicators of local and global climate change, key ecosystem service providers, parasites and predators of economically important aquatic animals and potential vectors of waterborne disease. Copepods sustain the world fisheries that nourish and support human populations. Although genomic tools have transformed many areas of biological and biomedical research, their power to elucidate aspects of the biology, behavior and ecology of copepods has only recently begun to be exploited. Discussion The extraordinary biological and ecological diversity of the subclass Copepoda provides both unique advantages for addressing key problems in aquatic systems and formidable challenges for developing a focused genomics strategy. This article provides an overview of genomic studies of copepods and discusses strategies for using genomics tools to address key questions at levels extending from individuals to ecosystems. Genomics can, for instance, help to decipher patterns of genome evolution such as those that occur during transitions from free living to symbiotic and parasitic lifestyles and can assist in the identification of genetic mechanisms and accompanying physiological changes associated with adaptation to new or physiologically challenging environments. The adaptive significance of the diversity in genome size and unique mechanisms of genome reorganization during development could similarly be explored. Genome-wide and EST studies of parasitic copepods of salmon and large EST studies of selected free-living copepods have demonstrated the potential utility of modern genomics approaches for the study of copepods and have generated resources such as EST libraries, shotgun genome sequences, BAC libraries, genome maps and inbred lines that will be invaluable in assisting further efforts to provide genomics tools for copepods. Summary Genomics research on copepods is needed to extend our exploration and characterization of their fundamental biological traits, so that we can better understand how copepods function and interact in diverse environments. Availability of large scale genomics resources will also open doors to a wide range of systems biology type studies that view the organism as the fundamental system in which to address key questions in ecology and evolution.



Occurrence of heavy copepod infestation on Hemiramphus lutkei and double parasitisms on Hemiramphus far with copepod (Lernaeenicus hemiramphi) and isopod (Mothocya plagulophora).  


In the present study about, 66 copepod parasites of Lernaeenicus hemiramphi of two Hemiramphus sp., H. far (17 copepod) and H. lutkei (49 copepod), and an isopod (Mothocya plagulophora) on the gill chamber were observed. H. lutkei was added as a new host for L. hemiramphi. The copepod infestation was almost on the ventral side of the hosts. PMID:25035596

Vijayakumar, R; Raja, K; Velvizhi, S; Sinduja, K; Gopalakrishnan, A



Bacteria as food for marine harpacticoid copepods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding experiments were carried out on the harpacticoid copepods Tisbe holothuriae and Paramphiascella vararensis, using various species of marine and brackish water bacteria as food. Short-term experiments with 3H-labelled bacteria are described, as well as experiments covering longer periods of time using non-labelled, dried bacteria. Results show that for both T. holothuriae and P. vararensis, the amount of dry bacteria

M. Rieper



Sexual dimorphism in calanoid copepods: morphology and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate location and recognition are essentially asymmetrical processes in the reproductive biology of calanoid copepods with the active partner (the male) locating and catching the largely passive partner (the female). This behavioural asymmetry has led to the evolution of sexual dimorphism in copepods, playing many pivotal roles during the various successive phases of copulatory and post-copulatory behaviour. Sexually dimorphic appendages

Susumu Ohtsuka; Rony Huys



Grazing patterns of copepods in the upwelling system off Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of food eaten by copepods of three genera (estimated from chlorophyll and pheophytin in the guts of the animals) was measured to determine the depth and also the time of day of the maximum and minimum intensity of feeding. Copepods were taken with a large volume (800 liters .min-') pumping system at five depths (O-85 m) and twelve




Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa and fixed across a species' range. Such interspecific and regional differences in life history traits need to be incorporated in models simulating Eastern Boundary Current pelagic ecosystem dynamics.

Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane



Sexual dimorphism in calanoid copepods: morphology and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate location and recognition are essentially asymmetrical processes in the reproductive biology of calanoid copepods with\\u000a the active partner (the male) locating and catching the largely passive partner (the female). This behavioural asymmetry has\\u000a led to the evolution of sexual dimorphism in copepods, playing many pivotal roles during the various successive phases of\\u000a copulatory and post-copulatory behaviour. Sexually dimorphic appendages

Susumu Ohtsuka; Rony Huys


Copepod Population-Specific Response to a Toxic Diatom Diet  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are key phytoplankton organisms and one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. However, many diatom species produce a series of secondary metabolites, collectively termed oxylipins, that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers, such as copepods, that feed on these unicellular algae. We hypothesized that different populations of copepods may deal differently with the same oxylipin-producing diatom diet. Here we provide comparative studies of expression level analyses of selected genes of interest for three Calanus helgolandicus populations (North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea) exposed to the same strain of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi using as control algae the flagellate Rhodomonas baltica. Expression levels of detoxification enzymes and stress proteins (e.g. glutathione S-transferase, glutathione synthase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, aldehyde dehydrogenases and heat shock proteins) and proteins involved in apoptosis regulation and cell cycle progression were analyzed in copepods after both 24 and 48 hours of feeding on the diatom or on a control diet. Strong differences occurred among copepod populations, with the Mediterranean population of C. helgolandicus being more susceptible to the toxic diet compared to the others. This study opens new perspectives for understanding copepod population-specific responses to diatom toxins and may help in underpinning the cellular mechanisms underlying copepod toxicity during diatom blooms.

Lauritano, Chiara; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Miralto, Antonio; Procaccini, Gabriele; Ianora, Adrianna



Flow modes and modulation in copepod generated flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calanoid copepods are small (0.1-10 mm) crustaceans living in oceans and fresh waters. They are of prime importance in marine ecosystems because many are herbivorous, feeding on the phytoplankton, and forming a direct link between it and fish. Previous observations using high-speed microcinematography have found that many copepods display various behaviors to generate water flows around their body. (For example, hovering/slow-swimming behaviors create the feeding currents to capture algae.) A hydrodynamic model has been developed to study the copepod generated flows, in which the Navier-Stokes equations are properly coupled with the dynamic equations for the copepod's body. The hydrodynamic study has shown that several flow modes of distinct flow-field patterns exist among the various behaviors. Combining video observations and the hydrodynamic modeling, a recent study further reveals that copepods are able to modulate the flow modes to achieve an unsteady feeding current. The role of this modulation in the capturing of food particles is discussed.

Jiang, Houshuo; Strickler, J. Rudi



Hydrocarbon Contamination Decreases Mating Success in a Marine Planktonic Copepod  

PubMed Central

The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

Seuront, Laurent



Meiofauna on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum : population characteristics of harpacticoid copepods and associations with algal epiphytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and abundance of bladedwelling meiofauna was determined over a 15 mo period (1983–1984) from a Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König meadow near Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Harpacticoid copepods, copepod nauplii, and nematodes were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa on T. testudinum blades. Temporal patterns in species composition and population life-history stages were determined for harpacticoid copepods, the numerically

M. O. Hall; S. S. Bell



Detecting In Situ Copepod Diet Diversity Using Molecular Technique: Development of a Copepod/Symbiotic Ciliate-Excluding Eukaryote-Inclusive PCR Protocol  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of in situ copepod diet diversity is crucial for accurately describing pelagic food web structure but is challenging to achieve due to lack of an easily applicable methodology. To enable analysis with whole copepod-derived DNAs, we developed a copepod-excluding 18S rDNA-based PCR protocol. Although it is effective in depressing amplification of copepod 18S rDNA, its applicability to detect diverse eukaryotes in both mono- and mixed-species has not been demonstrated. Besides, the protocol suffers from the problem that sequences from symbiotic ciliates are overrepresented in the retrieved 18S rDNA libraries. In this study, we designed a blocking primer to make a combined primer set (copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-common: CEEC) to depress PCR amplification of symbiotic ciliate sequences while maximizing the range of eukaryotes amplified. We firstly examined the specificity and efficacy of CEEC by PCR-amplifying DNAs from 16 copepod species, 37 representative organisms that are potential prey of copepods and a natural microplankton sample, and then evaluated the efficiency in reconstructing diet composition by detecting the food of both lab-reared and field-collected copepods. Our results showed that the CEEC primer set can successfully amplify 18S rDNA from a wide range of isolated species and mixed-species samples while depressing amplification of that from copepod and targeted symbiotic ciliate, indicating the universality of CEEC in specifically detecting prey of copepods. All the predetermined food offered to copepods in the laboratory were successfully retrieved, suggesting that the CEEC-based protocol can accurately reconstruct the diets of copepods without interference of copepods and their associated ciliates present in the DNA samples. Our initial application to analyzing the food composition of field-collected copepods uncovered diverse prey species, including those currently known, and those that are unsuspected, as copepod prey. While testing is required, this protocol provides a useful strategy for depicting in situ dietary composition of copepods.

Li, Tao; Carpenter, Edward J.; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie



High Speed Tomographic PIV Measurements of Copepod Sensory Cues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A steady siphon flow is commonly used to mimic the aquatic suction feeding of piscine predators in studies of zooplankton sensory ecology. The sensory and escape behavior of copepods, with their long, highly enervated, setae-bearing antennules, has been investigated using this prescribed flow field, modeled analytically as a point sink. The position of the animal when it escapes provides a threshold for the species-specific strain rate value (as low as 0.4 s-1) that evokes this ecologically-important behavior. Understanding the actual mechanics of copepod sensing, however, requires more than just correlation analysis based on position in the strain rate field. Knowledge of the setae-bending flow field along the length of the antennules during the time leading up to the escape jump is needed to fully understand the sensory mechanism. Measurements of this type have not been practical using traditional planar PIV techniques. We present time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements of the flow around the sensory appendages of Acartia spp. copepods responding to siphon flow and provide insight into copepod behavior in response to fluid mechanical stimuli.

Webster, Donald R.; Murphy, David; Yen, Jeannette



Spatial heterogeneity of zooplankton abundance and diversity in the Saudi coastal waters of the Southern Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The horizontal distribution, abundance and diversity of zooplankton has been studied at 50 stations along the Saudi coastal waters of the southern Red Sea (27 stations around Farasan archipelago, 9 around Al-Qunfodah and 14 around Al-Lith) during March-April 2011 using a plankton net of 150 µm. The zooplankton standing crop fluctuated between 1058 and 25787 individuals/m3 with an average of 5231 individuals/m3. Zooplankton was dominated by holoplanktonic forms that representing 80.26 % of total zooplankton, while meroplanktonic constituting 19.74% and dominated by mollusc larvae. Copepods appeared to be the predominant component, formed an average of 69.69 % of the total zooplankton count followed by chaetognaths and urochordates (4.5 and 4.1% of total zooplankton respectively). A total of 100 copepods species in addition to several species of other planktonic groups (cladocerans, chaetognaths, urochordates) were recorded in the study area. The copepod diversity decreased northward (94, 69 and 62 species at Farasan, Al-Qunfodah and Al-Lith respectively). In general, adult cyclopoid copepods dominated the zooplankton community in term of abundance and species number (19.55 %, 65 species) with dominance of Oncaea media, Oithona similis and Farranula carinata followed by adult calanoid copepods (19.38%, 35 species) with dominance of Paracalanus aculeatus, Clausocalanus minor, Acartia (Acanthacartia) fossae and Centropages orsinii. Harapacticoids densities were low in abundance, represented only by 5 species and dominated mainly by Euterpina acutifronis. Some copepod species decreased northward: Acartia amboinensis, Canthocalanus pauper, Labidocera acuta, Corycaeus flaccus, C. typicus, C. agilis, C. catus, C. giesbrechti, C. latus, C. furcifer and Euterpina acutifronis, while others increased northward (Acartia fossae, Undinula vulgaris and Centropages orsinii). Among copepod orders, Monstrilloida and Siphonostomatoida were observed only in southern area (Farasan archipelago). Keywords: Zooplankton, copepods, abundance, diversity, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Aidaroos, Ali; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen; Mantha, Gopikrishna



Circular polarization of transmitted light by sapphirinidae copepods.  


Circularly polarized light, rare in the animal kingdom, has thus far been documented in only a handful of animals. Using a rotating circular polarization (CP) analyzer we detected CP in linearly polarized light transmitted through epipelagic free living Sapphirina metallina copepods. Both left and right handedness of CP was detected, generated from specific organs of the animal's body, especially on the dorsal cephalosome and prosome. Such CP transmittance may be generated by phase retardance either in the muscle fibers or in the multilayer membrane structure found underneath the cuticle. Although the role, if any, played by circularly polarized light in Sapphirinidae has yet to be clarified, in other animals it was suggested to take part in mate choice, species recognition, and other forms of communication. Highlights: Planktonic Sapphirinidae copepods were found to circularly polarize the light passing through them. Circular polarization may be created by unique, multilayered features of the membrane structure found under their cuticle or by organized muscle fibers. PMID:24465916

Baar, Yuval; Rosen, Joseph; Shashar, Nadav



The assimilation of elements ingested by marine copepods  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency with which a variety of ingested elements (Ag, Am, C, Cd, P, S, Se, and Zn) were assimilated in marine calanoid copepods fed uniformly radiolabeled diatoms ranged from 0.9% for Am to 97.1% for Se. Assimilation efficiencies were directly related to the cytoplasmic content of the diatoms. This relation indicates that the animals obtained nearly all their nutrition from this source. The results suggest that these zooplankton, which have short gut residence times, have developed a gut lining and digestive strategy that provides for assimilation of only soluble material. Because the fraction of total cellular protein in the cytoplasm of the diatoms increased markedly with culture age, copepods feeding on senescent cells should obtain more protein than those feeding on rapidly dividing cells. Elements that are appreciably incorporated into algal cytoplasm and assimilated in zooplankton should be recycled in surface waters and have longer oceanic residence times than elements bound to cell surfaces.

Reinfelder, J.R.; Fisher, N.S. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States))



Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates  

PubMed Central

Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea.

Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik



Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates.  


Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea. PMID:16769640

Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik



Life cycle strategy of the Antarctic calanoid copepod Stephos longipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the life strategy of the small calanoid copepod Stephos longipes were carried out in the eastern Weddell Sea during four expeditions (January\\/February 1985, August 1986, October\\/December 1986 and April\\/May 1992). Samples were taken from the water column, the ice\\/water interface and the sea ice. In winter (August 1986) S. longipes copepodite stage CIV occurred mainly in the upper

Sigrid B. Schnack-Schiel; David Thomas; Gerhard S. Dieckmann; Hajo Eicken; Rolf Gradinger; Michael Spindler; Jürgen Weissenberger; Elke Mizdalski; Kerstin Beyer



Calanoid copepod escape behavior in response to a visual predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calanoid copepods typically exhibit escape reactions to hydrodynamic stimuli such as those generated by the approach of a\\u000a predator. During the summers of 2000, 2001 and 2004, two small calanoid species, Temora turbinata Dana, 1849 and Paracalanus parvus Claus, 1863 were exposed to a visual predatory fish, the blenny Acanthemblemaria spinosa Metzelaar, 1919, and their predator–prey interactions were recorded using

Rebecca J. Waggett; Edward J. Buskey



Modelling copepod development: current limitations and a new realistic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

To predict the influence of environmental variability on copepod dynamics and production, models must account for the effects of temperature and food on stage-dependent time-scales. Here, data for development-time means and variance of Calanus finmarchicus are used to quantify the limitations of existing models. Weight-based individual models are sensitive to uncertain parameters, such as moulting weights, assimilation efficiency, and environmental

W. C. Gentleman; A. B. Neuheimer; R. G. Campbell



Complex trophic interactions of calanoid copepods in the Benguela upwelling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life-cycle adaptations, dietary preferences and trophic levels of calanoid copepods from the northern Benguela Current off Namibia were determined via lipid classes, marker fatty acids and stable isotope analyses, respectively. Trophic levels of copepod species were compared to other zooplankton and top consumers. Lipid class analyses revealed that three of the dominant calanoid copepod species stored wax esters, four accumulated triacylglycerols and another three species were characterised by high phospholipid levels. The two biomarker approaches (via fatty acids and stable isotopes) revealed a complex pattern of trophic positions for the various copepod species, but also highlighted the dietary importance of diatoms and dinoflagellates. Calanoides carinatus and Nannocalanus minor occupied the lowest trophic level (predominantly herbivorous) corresponding to high amounts of fatty acid markers for diatoms (e.g. 16:1(n - 7)) and dinoflagellates (e.g. 18:4(n - 3)). These two copepod species represent the classical link between primary production and higher trophic levels. All other copepods belonged to secondary or even tertiary (some deep-sea copepods) consumers. The calanoid copepod species cover the entire range of ?15N ratios, as compared to ?15N ratios of all non-calanoid taxa investigated, from salps to adult fish. These data emphasise that the trophic roles of calanoid copepods are far more complex than just interlinking primary producers with pelagic fish, which should also be considered in the process of developing realistic food-web models of coastal upwelling systems.

Schukat, Anna; Auel, Holger; Teuber, Lena; Lahajnar, Niko; Hagen, Wilhelm



Global latitudinal variations in marine copepod diversity and environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Latitudinal gradients in diversity are among the most striking features in ecology. For terrestrial species, climate (i.e. temperature and precipitation) is believed to exert a strong influence on the geographical distributions of diversity through its effects on energy availability. Here, we provide the first global description of geographical variation in the diversity of marine copepods, a key trophic link between phytoplankton and fish, in relation to environmental variables. We found a polar–tropical difference in copepod diversity in the Northern Hemisphere where diversity peaked at subtropical latitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, diversity showed a tropical plateau into the temperate regions. This asymmetry around the Equator may be explained by climatic conditions, in particular the influence of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, prevailing mainly in the northern tropical region. Ocean temperature was the most important explanatory factor among all environmental variables tested, accounting for 54 per cent of the variation in diversity. Given the strong positive correlation between diversity and temperature, local copepod diversity, especially in extra-tropical regions, is likely to increase with climate change as their large-scale distributions respond to climate warming.

Rombouts, Isabelle; Beaugrand, Gregory; Ibanez, Frederic; Gasparini, Stephane; Chiba, Sanae; Legendre, Louis



Contrasting Ecosystem-Effects of Morphologically Similar Copepods  

PubMed Central

Organisms alter the biotic and abiotic conditions of ecosystems. They can modulate the availability of resources to other species (ecosystem engineering) and shape selection pressures on other organisms (niche construction). Very little is known about how the engineering effects of organisms vary among and within species, and, as a result, the ecosystem consequences of species diversification and phenotypic evolution are poorly understood. Here, using a common gardening experiment, we test whether morphologically similar species and populations of Diaptomidae copepods (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi, Hesperodiaptomus franciscanus, Skistodiaptomus oregonensis) have similar or different effects on the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. We found that copepod species had contrasting effects on algal biomass, ammonium concentrations, and sedimentation rates, and that copepod populations had contrasting effects on prokaryote abundance, sedimentation rates, and gross primary productivity. The average size of ecosystem-effect contrasts between species was similar to those between populations, and was comparable to those between fish species and populations measured in previous common gardening experiments. Our results suggest that subtle morphological variation among and within species can cause multifarious and divergent ecosystem-effects. We conclude that using morphological trait variation to assess the functional similarity of organisms may underestimate the importance of species and population diversity for ecosystem functioning.

Matthews, Blake; Hausch, Stephen; Winter, Christian; Suttle, Curtis A.; Shurin, Jonathan B.



Global latitudinal variations in marine copepod diversity and environmental factors.  


Latitudinal gradients in diversity are among the most striking features in ecology. For terrestrial species, climate (i.e. temperature and precipitation) is believed to exert a strong influence on the geographical distributions of diversity through its effects on energy availability. Here, we provide the first global description of geographical variation in the diversity of marine copepods, a key trophic link between phytoplankton and fish, in relation to environmental variables. We found a polar-tropical difference in copepod diversity in the Northern Hemisphere where diversity peaked at subtropical latitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, diversity showed a tropical plateau into the temperate regions. This asymmetry around the Equator may be explained by climatic conditions, in particular the influence of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, prevailing mainly in the northern tropical region. Ocean temperature was the most important explanatory factor among all environmental variables tested, accounting for 54 per cent of the variation in diversity. Given the strong positive correlation between diversity and temperature, local copepod diversity, especially in extra-tropical regions, is likely to increase with climate change as their large-scale distributions respond to climate warming. PMID:19515670

Rombouts, Isabelle; Beaugrand, Grégory; Ibanez, Frédéric; Gasparini, Stéphane; Chiba, Sanae; Legendre, Louis



Copepod communities along an Atlantic Meridional Transect: Abundance, size structure, and grazing rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale variability in copepod abundance, size structure, and ingestion rates on phytoplankton was investigated during the cruise Atlantic Meridional Transect-13. The main aim of the study was to assess the relative importance of small copepods and copepod nauplii in different regions (Temperate N and S, Oligotrophic N and S, Equatorial and Mauritanian upwelling). Samples were fractionated into four size fractions (<200, 200-500, 500-1000, and >1000 ?m). The only factor that significantly affected copepod biomass was chlorophyll concentration, which explained 71% of the variation. The gut fluorescence technique was used to estimate ingestion rates and experiments were performed to obtain naupliar gut evacuation rates. We found a similar relationship between nauplii gut evacuation rates and temperature as that described by Dam and Peterson [1988. The effect of temperature on the gut clearance rate constant of planktonic copepods. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 123, 1-14] for larger copepods. Chlorophyll ingested daily by copepods was higher in regions affected by Mauritanian and Equatorial upwellings and the South Subtropical Convergence. Copepods were found to be major grazers of phytoplankton. Grazing impact upon primary production was more important for upwelling areas, with values higher than 100% of primary production at some stations. Even in oligotrophic gyres, where the relative importance of protists increases, copepods exert substantial feeding impact on their autotrophic prey. In oligotrophic gyres, small copepods and nauplii were relatively more abundant, and accounted for a higher amount of total chlorophyll ingestion than larger ones. Thus, studies with 200 ?m mesh nets in oligotrophic areas are seriously underestimating nauplii and copepod abundance and grazing impact on phytoplankton.

López, Eva; Anadón, Ricardo



Dissolved solids do not induce diapause in the calanoid copepod Aglaodiaptomus leptopus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different total dissolved solid levels (TDS) was investigated as a predictor of diapause induction in the calanoid copepod Aglaodiaptomus leptopus. We collected adult copepods in the field and monitored seasonal changes in diapause egg production. We determined total dissolved solid levels, conductivity and temperature values from five ponds. In experimental work, females bearing clutches, collected from the

Steve S. Di Lonardo; Edward J. Maly



Active swimming in meiobenthic copepods of seagrass beds: geographic comparisons of abundances and reproductive characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entry of meiobenthic copepods from sediments or seagrass blades into the water column and reproductive characteristics of actively migrating fauna were investigated from 1981–1986 in a temperate intertidal Zostera capricorni seagrass bed in Pautahanui Inlet, New Zealand and in a subtidal Thalassia testudinum bed in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Emergence of copepods in New Zealand varied over a tidalcycle,

S. S. Bell; G. R. F. Hicks; K. Walters



Local Recreational Parks as Hospitable Habitats for Small Aquatic Animals: Examples of Copepod Crustaceans in Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copepod microcrustaceans were collected from wetlands in five county parks and one privately managed neighborhood park in the Piedmont region of Virginia. A total of 43 species was found, 9 to 19 copepod species in each park. First state records were established for 16 species: Acanthocyclops brevispinosus, A. exilis, A. parasensitivus, A. robustus, Ectocyclops phaleratus, Eucyclops conrowae, Itocyclops yezoensis, Megacyclops

Janet W. Reid


Sympatry of distinct mitochondrial DNA lineages in a copepod inhabiting estuarine creeks in the southeastern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population genetic structure of the meiobenthic harpacticoid copepod Microarthridion littorale (Poppe) was examined with a geographic survey of a 348 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Copepods were collected from ten locations on the coast from North Carolina to Georgia, USA, from January 1997 to November 1998. Sequence divergence among 198 individuals was as much as 4.3%,

N. V. Schizas; B. C. Coull; G. Chandler; J. Quattro



Copepod photobehavior in a simulated natural light environment and its relation to nocturnal vertical migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the roles of light in initiating, controlling and directing nocturnal vertical migration, photoresponses of the adult, female copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were measured under simulated natural underwater light conditions using a video system. Copepods were adapted to a range of background light levels and tested with the following stimuli: absolute quantal intensity, absolute change in quantal intensity and

D. E. Stearns; R. B. Forward



Grazing impact of the copepod community in the Oyashio region of the western subarctic Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of copepod grazing on the ecosystem dynamics in the Oyashio region, western subarctic Pacific was investigated during six cruises from June 2001 to June 2002. In situ grazing rates of the copepod community (CGR) were measured by the gut fluorescence method in respect to developmental stages of dominant species. In terms of biomass, more than 80% of the

Kazutaka Takahashi; Akira Kuwata; Hiroaki Saito; Keiichiro Ide



Feeding and reproductive responses of marine copepods in South China Sea to toxic and nontoxic phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of the toxic and nontoxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense and the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii on the feeding and reproductive responses of the calanoid copepods Calanus sinicus and Paracalanus crassirostris were examined. Experiments were carried out to investigate the functional feeding response of copepods at different food concentrations for toxic and nontoxic A. tamarense and diatoms. Egg production of the

S. Liu; W.-X. Wang



Spatial and temporal variations in calanoid copepod distribution in the Straits of Malacca  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and abundance of planktonic calanoid copepods were studied from samples collected at 13–20 stations during four oceanographic cruises (pre- and post- monsoons, and during northeast (NE) and southwest (SW) monsoons) performed between 1998 and 2000 in the Straits of Malacca. Space and time variations of calanoid copepods were described using univariate (number of species, diversity indices, abundance) as

Hamid Rezai; Aziz Arshad; Othman Ross



Niche segregation and habitat specialisation of harpacticoid copepods in a tropical seagrass bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several harpacticoid copepod species are adapted to an epiphytic lifestyle. Previous studies on tropical seagrass meiofauna mainly focussed on the epiphytic communities and neglected the benthic com- ponent. The present study aims to document the benthic harpacticoid copepod communities sampled from dif- ferent sediment depth horizons adjacent to five seagrass species in the intertidal and subtidal zone of a tropical

M. De Troch; M. Vincx



Niche segregation and habitat specialisation of harpacticoid copepods in a tropical seagrass bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several harpacticoid copepod species are adapted to an epiphytic lifestyle. Previous studies on tropical seagrass meiofauna mainly focussed on the epiphytic communities and neglected the benthic component. The present study aims to document the benthic harpacticoid copepod communities sampled from different sediment depth horizons adjacent to five seagrass species in the intertidal and subtidal zone of a tropical seagrass bed

M. De Troch; F. Fiers; M. Vincx



Cross-shelf distribution of copepods and fish larvae across the central Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of total dry weight of zooplankton, copepod numbers and ichthyoplankton across the outer continental shelf in the central Great Barrier Reef was examined at bi-weekly intervals for three months over summer of 1983. Copepods were sampled (236 µm net) within 10 m of the surface and within 10 m of the bottom. Mean densities in surface waters decreased

D. Mc B. Williams; P. Dixon; S. English



Probability Models for the Distribution of Copepods in Different Coastal Ecosystems Along the Straits of Malacca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copepods are the most abundant microcrustaceans in the marine waters and are the major food resource for many commercial fish species. In addition, changes in the distribution and population composition of copepods may also serve as an indicator of global climate changes. Therefore, it is important to model the copepod distribution in different ecosystems. Copepod samples were collected from three different ecosystems (seagrass area, cage aquaculture area and coastal waters off shrimp aquaculture farm) along the coastal waters of the Malacca Straits over a one year period. In this study the major statistical analysis consisted of fitting different probability models. This paper highlights the fitting of probability distributions and discusses the adequateness of the fitted models. The usefulness of these fitted models would enable one to make probability statements about the distribution of copepods in three different ecosystems.

Matias-Peralta, Hazel Monica; Ghodsi, Alireza; Shitan, Mahendran; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.


Paternal inheritance of the primary sex ratio in a copepod.  


Uniparentally inherited genetic elements are under strong selection to manipulate sex determination in their host and shift the host sex ratio towards the transmitting sex. For any sex-ratio trait, lineage analysis and quantitative genetics are important tools for characterizing the mode of inheritance (biparental vs. maternal vs. paternal) thereby narrowing the field of possible sex-determining mechanisms (e.g. polygenic, sex chromosomes with meiotic drive, cytoplasmic microorganisms). The primary sex ratio of the harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus californicus is often male-biased and is highly variable among full sib families. We found that this extra-binomial variation for the primary sex ratio is paternally but not maternally transmitted in T. californicus. Paternal transmission of the primary sex ratio has been well documented in the haplo-diploid hymenoptera but is relatively rare in diplo-diploid organisms. If the sex-ratio trait is paternally transmitted in other closely related harpacticoid copepods it would explain why male biased primary sex ratios are so common in this group. PMID:16135125

Voordouw, M J; Robinson, H E; Anholt, B R



Assimilation and regeneration of trace elements by marine copepods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of five trace elements (Am, Cd, Co, Se, and Zn) and carbon by neritic copepods (Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis) feeding at different food concentrations and on different food types (diatoms, green algae, flagellates, dinoflagellates, and Fe oxides) were measured with radiotracer techniques. Food concentration had little influence on AEs of C, Cd, Co, and Se within a range of 16-800 ?? C liter-1. AEs of Am and Zn were highest at low food concentrations (16-56 ??g C liter-1) but remained relatively constant when food levels exceeded 160 ??g C liter-1. Different algal diets had no major influence on AEs, which generally were in the order Cd > Se > Zn > Co > Am. Metals (Cd, Co, and Zn) were assimilated from Fe oxides with 50% less efficiency than from algal cells. Element regeneration into the dissolved phase was a significant route for the release of ingested elements by copepods and increased with increased food concentration. Element regeneration rates for Cd, Se, and Zn were comparable to the regeneration rates of major nutrients such as P (30-70% daily). Retention half-times of elements in decomposing fecal pellets ranged from 10 d (Am). The efficient assimilation and regeneration of Cd, Se, and Zn can significantly lengthen the residence time of these elements in ocean surface waters.

Wang, W. -X.; Reinfelder, J. R.; Lee, B. -G.; Fisher, N. S.



Comparison of different DNA-extraction techniques to investigate the bacterial community of marine copepods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine zooplanktic organisms, such as copepods, are usually associated with large numbers of bacteria. Some of these bacteria live attached to copepods’ exoskeleton, while others prevail in their intestine and faecal pellets. Until now, general conclusions concerning the identity of these bacteria are problematic since the majority of previous studies focused on cultivable bacteria only. Hence, to date little is known on whether copepod genera or species harbour distinct bacterial populations and about the nature of this association. To shed more light on these copepod/bacteria consortia, the focus of this study was the development and evaluation of a suitable approach to extract bacterial DNA from different North Sea copepod genera. Furthermore, the bacterial DNA was analysed by PCR-DGGE and subsequent sequencing of excised bands. The result of this work was an appropriate extraction method for batches of ten to one copepod specimens and offered first insights as to which bacteria are attached to the copepods Acartia sp . and Temora sp . from Helgoland Roads (German Bight) and a laboratory-grown Acartia tonsa culture. It revealed the prevalence of Alphaproteobacteria.

Brandt, Petra; Gerdts, Gunnar; Boersma, Maarten; Wiltshire, Karen H.; Wichels, Antje



[Response of copepod community characteristics to environmental factors in the Backshore Wetland of Expo Garden, Shanghai].  


The Backshore Wetland of Expo Garden was the emphasis of the World Expo construction project in Shanghai in 2010, China programming district. We carried out studies on the community structure and spatial-temporal variation of copepod from September 2009 to August 2010. Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) was used for relevant statistical analysis between physicochemical parameters and copepod standing crop. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was applied to further explore the correlation between copepod species and environmental parameters using CANOCO 4.5. A total of 23 copepod species in 11 genera, 6 families were identified. 5 dominant species of copepod were recorded during the survey period. They were Eucyclops serrulatus, Thermocyclops taihokuensis, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops brevifurcatus and Microcyclops varicans. The annual mean density of copepod was (8.6 +/- 16.6) ind x L(-1) and the biomass was (0.083 6 +/- 0.143 1) mg x L(-1). The standing crop of copepod had its first peak in July, the second in October and the bottom in January. The highest trophic level was measured at Site 1, decreasing along the flowing direction of the water current, and the lowest level was found at Site 10. The Margelf index remained low in winter and spring, but was increased in summer and autumn. The community structure of copepod was analyzed in relation to water quality parameters by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Water temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, TN, TP and dissolved oxygen were strongly correlated with the copepod community structure. PMID:23323429

Chen, Li-Jing; Wu, Yan-Fang; Jing, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Yin-Jiang



Seasonality of the copepod assemblages associated with interplay waters off northeastern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated copepod assemblages in the regime around Turtle Island off northern Taiwan to trace South China Sea water (SCSW) flowing northward with the Kuroshio Current. Seasonal variations of copepod assemblages demonstrated a dynamic succession of changes in copepod populations; the average abundance for total copepods ranged from 102.58 ± 53.38 in December to 1669.89 ± 1866.17 in March (individuals m-3). A total of 87 copepod species representing 36 genera and 21 families were identified. Among all samples, Temora turbinata dominated the copepods by a relative abundance (RA) of 26.89 %, followed by Paracalanus parvus (RA: 22.34 %) and Corycaeus ( Ditrichocorycaeus) affinis (RA: 12.77 %). Only the Acrocalanus gracilis species was recorded in all samples. Results of one-way ANOVA revealed that the number of copepod species, indices of richness, evenness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity differed significantly in five different cruises. The density of five copepod species ( Gaetanus minor, Calanus sinicus, Eucalanus elongates, Rhincalanus nasutus, and Rhincalanus rostrifrons) exhibited a significant negative correlation with seawater temperature. In contrast, the density of Canthocalanus pauper and Undinula vulgaris was significantly positively correlated with seawater temperature. The cold-water indicator species, C. sinicus, recorded in samples of March and May indicated the effect of China Coast Water (CCW) on copepod communities in the study area. Furthermore, the presence of Calanoides philippinensis in May samples strongly indicated that the SCSW may reach the Turtle Island area. Consequently, C. philippinensis and C. sinicus can be used to trace SCSW and CCW, respectively, in the study area.

Tseng, Li-Chun; Hung, Jia-Jang; Chen, Qing-Chao; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou



Copepod feeding in a tuna fishery area of the tropical Atlantic Ocean.  


Biomass, feeding and metabolic rates of planktonic copepods were studied in an oligotrophic area of the tropical Atlantic Ocean during an instability wave period (boreal summer) and a stratified period (boreal winter). In summer, zooplankton biomass was higher than in winter, showing a positive effect of the instability wave. Moreover, feeding equilibrated metabolic expenditures of copepods in most cases during the instability. In contrast, in stratified conditions copepods did not equilibrate their metabolic budget. Our results suggest that the microbial loop was the dominant trophic pathway during both periods but with a quicker cycling during the instability. PMID:11980178

Champalbert, Gisèle; Pagano, Marc



Effects of Diet on Growth and Survival of Larval Wallyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of diet quality on larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) growth and survival are described. The cyclopoid copepod Diacyclops thomasi consumed larval walleyes within 10 min at dense copepod concentrations and within 1 day at lower densi...

K. E. F. Hokanson G. J. Lien



Heritability of sex tendency in a harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus californicus.  


Systems with genetic variation for the primary sex ratio are important for testing sex-ratio theory and for understanding how this variation is maintained. Evidence is presented for heritable variation of the primary sex ratio in the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus californicus. Variation in the primary sex ratio among families cannot be accounted for by Mendelian segregation of sex chromosomes. The covariance in sex phenotype between full-sibling clutches and between mothers and offspring suggests that this variation has a polygenic basis. Averaged over four replicates, the full-sibling heritability of sex tendency is 0.13 +/- 0.040; and the mother-offspring heritability of sex tendency is 0.31 +/- 0.216. Genetic correlations in the sex phenotype across two temperature treatments indicate large genotype-by-temperature interactions. Future experiments need to distinguish between zygotic, parental, or cytoplasmic mechanisms of sex determination in T. californicus. PMID:12389720

Voordouw, Maarten J; Anholt, Bradley R



Effects of dispersant and oil on survival and swimming activity in a marine copepod.  


Knowledge of lethal and sublethal effects of crude oil and dispersants on mesozooplankton are important to understanding ecosystem impacts of oil spills in marine environments. Here we (1) establish median lethal concentrations for water accommodated fractions of Corexit EC9500A dispersant, MC-252 crude oil (WAF), and dispersed crude oil (CEWAF) for the coastal copepod Labidocera aestiva, and (2) assess acute effects on L. aestiva swimming activity. Mortality assays with L. aestiva support that copepods are more sensitive than other zooplankton taxa to dispersant toxicity, while WAF and CEWAF are generally similar in their toxicity to this copepod species and other zooplankton. Acute effects on L. aestiva activity included impaired swimming upon WAF and CEWAF exposure. These results highlight that copepods are particularly sensitive to dispersant exposure, with acute effects on survival most evident with dispersant alone, and on swimming behavior when dispersant is mixed with crude oil. PMID:24402000

Cohen, Jonathan H; McCormick, Lillian R; Burkhardt, Stephanie M



Lipid sac area as a proxy for individual lipid content of arctic calanoid copepods  

PubMed Central

We present an accurate, fast, simple and non-destructive photographic method to estimate wax ester and lipid content in single individuals of the calanoid copepod genus Calanus and test this method against gas-chromatographic lipid measurements.

Vogedes, Daniel; Varpe, ?ystein; S?reide, Janne E.; Graeve, Martin; Berge, J?rgen; Falk-Petersen, Stig



Crustaceans from bitumen clast in Carboniferous glacial diamictite extend fossil record of copepods.  


Copepod crustaceans are extremely abundant but, because of their small size and fragility, they fossilize poorly. Their fossil record consists of one Cretaceous (c. 115?Ma) parasite and a few Miocene (c. 14?Ma) fossils. In this paper, we describe abundant crustacean fragments, including copepods, from a single bitumen clast in a glacial diamictite of late Carboniferous age (c. 303?Ma) from eastern Oman. Geochemistry identifies the source of the bitumen as an oilfield some 100-300?km to the southwest, which is consistent with an ice flow direction from glacial striae. The bitumen likely originated as an oil seep into a subglacial lake. This find extends the fossil record of copepods by some 188?Ma, and of free-living forms by 289?Ma. The copepods include evidence of the extant family Canthocamptidae, believed to have colonized fresh water in Pangaea during Carboniferous times. PMID:20975721

Selden, Paul A; Huys, Rony; Stephenson, Michael H; Heward, Alan P; Taylor, Paul N



Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute silver effects on whole-body ion regulation and Na+,K+-ATPase activity were evaluated in the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa. Experiments were run at 20°C, three different salinities (5, 15 and 30ppt), in either the absence or the presence of food (diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii; 2×104cells\\/mL). Standard static-renewal procedures were used. Copepods were acutely (48h) exposed to silver (AgNO3) concentrations equivalent to the

Mariana S. Pedroso; Grasiela L. L. Pinho; Sandra C. Rodrigues; Adalto Bianchini



Fatty acid metabolism in the calanoid copepod Paracalanus parvus : 1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic fate of radioactive linoleate and ?-linolenate administered to the South Atlantic copepodParacalanus parvus was studied. The wild copepod was able to incorporate the labeled acids dissolved in seawater. The radioactive linoleate\\u000a was elongated to 20?2?6 and 22?2?6 and desaturated by a ?6 desaturase to 18?3?6. ?-Linolenate was also desaturated by a ?6\\u000a desaturase to 18?4?3 and elongated to

Victor J. Moreno; Julia E. A. De Moreno; Rodolfo R. Brenner



Comparison of different DNA-extraction techniques to investigate the bacterial community of marine copepods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine zooplanktic organisms, such as copepods, are usually associated with large numbers of bacteria. Some of these bacteria\\u000a live attached to copepods’ exoskeleton, while others prevail in their intestine and faecal pellets. Until now, general conclusions\\u000a concerning the identity of these bacteria are problematic since the majority of previous studies focused on cultivable bacteria\\u000a only. Hence, to date little is

Gunnar Gerdts; Maarten Boersma; Karen H. Wiltshire; Antje Wichels



Glutathione transferase activity and oocyte development in copepods exposed to toxic phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms present a series of cellular mechanisms to avoid the effects of toxic compounds. Such mechanisms include the increase in activity of detoxification enzymes [e.g., 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)], which could explain the low retention of ingested toxins generally observed in copepods. In addition, decreasing gross growth efficiency (GGE) of copepods with increasing concentration of toxic diets could

Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki; Marja Koski; Eric Hallberg; Rita Wallén; Per Carlsson



Copepod feeding response to varying Alexandrium spp. cellular toxicity and cell concentration among natural plankton samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We challenged four species of copepod grazers (Acartia hudsonica, Centropages hamatus, Eurytemora herdmani, Calanus finmarchicus) with natural water samples containing non-toxic algae mixed with one of three clones of Alexandrium spp.—A. tamarense GTCN16 (non-toxic), A. fundyense GTCA28 (moderate toxicity), and A. fundyense BC1 (higher toxicity), each at relatively high (105cellsL?1) and low (104cellsL?1) concentrations. Within any one copepod species, significant

Gregory J. Teegarden; Robert G. Campbell; Dean T. Anson; Aaron Ouellett; Benjamin A. Westman; Edward G. Durbin



Distribution, diversity and density of wolbachial infections in cladocerans and copepods from Thailand.  


Species of the genus Wolbachia comprise a group of Rickettsia-like, maternally-inherited bacteria that cause several reproductive alterations in arthropod hosts. The best known are cytoplasmic incompatibility and feminization. Here, the first systematic surveys of wolbachial infections in cladocerans and copepods from six geographic regions of Thailand, including Northern, Northeastern, Western, Central, Eastern and Southern are reported. Using gene amplification assays with wsp and groE primers, wolbachiae were detected in 239 (4 spp.) of 1885 (57 spp.) copepods and cladocerans from all regions of Thailand surveyed. Screening results obtained with wsp primers or groE primers were similar in all cases. The presence of wolbachiae was only detected in copepods, not in cladocerans. Sex ratio analyses of the progeny of two species of copepods, Mesocyclops aspericornis and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, naturally or artificially infected with wolbachiae showed infection causes feminization (female-bias). The relative density if infection in naturally infected populations of three copepod species, M. thermocyclopoides, Heliodiaptomus elegans and Neodiaptomus blachei, were determined using real-time quantitative PCR assay based on the wsp gene. The density of wolbachiae in M. thermocyclopoides was significantly higher than in the other two species. These results suggest that wolbachial infections are distributed throughout Thailand, and that possibly the natural occurrence of these in copepods may be due to their predation on mosquito larvae. This apparent novel biology may have importance as a genetic drive system for control of vector borne diseases in the future. PMID:24080157

Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun



Danger of zooplankton feeding: the fluid signal generated by ambush-feeding copepods  

PubMed Central

Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly and therefore perform occasional upward repositioning jumps. We quantified the fluid disturbance generated by repositioning jumps in a millimetre-sized copepod (Re ? 40). The kick of the swimming legs generates a viscous vortex ring in the wake; another ring of similar intensity but opposite rotation is formed around the decelerating copepod. A simple analytical model, that of an impulsive point force, properly describes the observed flow field as a function of the momentum of the copepod, including the translation of the vortex and its spatial extension and temporal decay. We show that the time-averaged fluid signal and the consequent predation risk is much less for an ambush-feeding than a cruising or hovering copepod for small individuals, while the reverse is true for individuals larger than about 1 mm. This makes inefficient ambush feeding feasible in small copepods, and is consistent with the observation that ambush-feeding copepods in the ocean are all small, while larger species invariably use hovering or cruising feeding strategies.

Ki?rboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo; Colin, Sean P.




EPA Science Inventory

Extensive multi-generational microplate culturing (copepod hatching stage through two broods) experiments were completed with the POPs lindane, DDD and fipronil sulfide.  Identical tandem microplate experiments were run concurrently to yield sufficient copepod biomass for li...


Grazing by the copepod community does not control phytoplankton production in the subarctic Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The copepod community of the subarctic Pacific Ocean is dominated by large-bodied species. Peak reproduction is during fall and winter. It has long been thought that the resultant grazing capacity, in place at the onset of the spring increase in phytoplankton production, prevents the accumulation of phytoplankton stock to “spring bloom” concentrations. In this paper, grazing by the copepod community is compared to phytoplankton production during the spring to determine if ingestion rates are sufficient to balance or control phytoplankton production. Feeding rates on phytoplankton were measured for the dominant copepod species, Neocalanus plumchrus, N. flemingeri, N. cristatus, Eucalanus bungii, and some smaller species, during spring cruises in 1983, 1984, 1987 and 1988, by two independent methods. Feeding rates of individual organisms were applied to appropriate abundance measurements to determine the grazing contribution of each species. Community grazing rate was calculated by summing the grazing contributions of all species. For 1987 and 1988, community grazing rates were compared to phytoplankton production rates measured during the same periods. The copepod community ingested between 6 and 15% of the daily phytoplankton production. Direct grazing on phytoplankton by the copepod community does not prevent the accumulation of phytoplankton production to “bloom” concentrations in the subarctic Pacific Ocean.

Dagg, Michael


Ingestion and sublethal effects of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil on marine planktonic copepods.  


Planktonic copepods play a key function in marine ecosystems, however, little is known about the effects of dispersants and chemically dispersed crude oil on these important planktonic organisms. We examined the potential for the copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Parvocalanus crassirostris to ingest crude oil droplets and determined the acute toxicity of the dispersant Corexit(®) 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed crude oil to these copepods. We detected ingestion of crude oil droplets by adults and nauplii of the three copepod species. Exposure to crude oil alone (1 µL L(-1), 48 h) caused a reduction of egg production rates (EPRs) by 26-39 %, fecal pellet production rates (PPRs) by 11-27 %, and egg hatching (EH) by 1-38 % compared to the controls, depending on the species. Dispersant alone (0.05 µL L(-1), 48 h) produced a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 20-35, 12-23 and 2-11 %, respectively. Dispersant-treated crude oil was the most toxic treatment, ~1.6 times more toxic than crude oil alone, causing a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 45-54, 28-41 and 11-31 %, respectively. Our results indicate that low concentrations of dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil are toxic to marine zooplankton, and that the ingestion of crude oil droplets by copepods may be an important route by which crude oil pollution can enter marine food webs. PMID:24756329

Almeda, Rodrigo; Baca, Sarah; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J



Modeling the impacts of multiple environmental stress factors on estuarine copepod populations.  


Many studies have focused on natural stress factors that shape the spatial and temporal distribution of calanoid copepods, but bioassays have shown that copepods are also sensitive to a broad range of contaminants. Although both anthropogenic and natural stress factors are obviously at play in natural copepod communities, most studies consider only one or the other. In the present investigation, we modeled the combined impact of both anthropogenic and natural stress factors on copepod populations. The model was applied to estimate Eurytemora affinis densities in the contaminated Scheldt estuary and the relatively uncontaminated Darß-Zingst estuary in relation to temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and sediment concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc. The results indicated that temperature was largely responsible for seasonal fluctuations of E. affinis densities. Our model results further suggested that exposure to zinc and copper was largely responsible for the reduced population densities in the contaminated estuary. The model provides a consistent framework for integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple anthropogenic and natural stress factors on copepod populations. It facilitates the extrapolation of laboratory experiments to ecologically relevant end points pertaining to population viability. PMID:24758200

Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; De Hoop, Lisette; Mialet, Benoit; Maris, Tom; Tackx, Micky L M; Hendriks, A Jan



On the role of copepod antennae in the production of hydrodynamic force during hopping.  


We integrate high-resolution experimental observations of a freely hopping copepod with three-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the role of the copepod antennae in production of hydrodynamic force during hopping. The experimental observations revealed a distinctive asymmetrical deformation of the antennae during the power and return strokes, which lead us to the hypothesis that the antennae are active contributors to the production of propulsive force with kinematics selected in nature in order to maximize net thrust. To examine the validity of this hypothesis we carried out numerical experiments using an anatomically realistic, tethered, virtual copepod, by prescribing two sets of antenna kinematics. In the first set, each antenna moves as a rigid, oar-like structure in a reversible manner, whereas in the second set, the antenna is made to move asymmetrically as a deformable structure as revealed by the experiments. The computed results show that for both cases the antennae are major contributors to the net thrust force during hopping, and the results also clearly demonstrate the significant hydrodynamic benefit in terms of thrust enhancement and drag reduction derived from the biologically realistic, asymmetric antenna motion. This finding is not surprising given the low local Reynolds number environment within which the antenna operates, and points to striking similarities between the copepod antenna motion and ciliary propulsion. Finally, the simulations provide the first glimpse into the complex, highly 3-D structure of copepod wakes. PMID:20709931

Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Joseph




EPA Science Inventory

The roles of copepod sensory systems in the recognition of food were investigated using the 'Bugwatcher', a video-computer system designed to track and describe quantitatively the swimming patterns of aquatic organisms. Copepods acclimated, or non-acclimated to a chemosensory sti...


Food quality effects on copepod growth and development: implications for bioassays in ecotoxicological testing.  


We evaluated effects of six algal species in 25 combinations on growth and reproduction of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes. In the first lifecycle test, Rhodomonas salina, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Dunaliella tertiolecta were used. The results showed that R. salina was the best food, whereas P. tricornutum (0% development success) and D. tertiolecta (41.7% malformations) were poor food items. In the second lifecycle test, a mixture of R. salina, Tetraselmis suecica, and Thalassiosira weisflogii (selected from screening tests) was tested together with a mono-diet of R. salina. Also in this test, copepods fed R. salina performed better (i.e. had higher survival and reproductive success) compared with the other treatment. We conclude that R. salina is appropriate to use as food in toxicity testing with N. spinipes, whereas some of the algae commonly used as feed in ecotoxicological tests with other copepods had detrimental effects on the development, reproduction, and survival of N. spinipes. PMID:18514311

Dahl, Ulrika; Lind, Charlotta Rubio; Gorokhova, Elena; Eklund, Britta; Breitholtz, Magnus



Grazing impact of copepods and salps on phytoplankton in the Atlantic sector of the Southern ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the SO-JGOFS- Polarstern cruise in October/November 1992, grazing of the dominant calanoid copepods ( Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus and Rhincalanus gigas) and of Salpa thompsoni was determined. Calanoides acutus and R. gigas were very abundant in the Polar Frontal region (PFr). Calanus propinquus was abundant at the ACC-Weddell Gyre Boundary (AWB). Grazing by copepods was very low and accounted for less than 1% of the primary production (PP) for all three species. Salpa thompsoni occurred in swarms in the southern part of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) where its ingestion rates accounted for more than 100% of the PP. We conclude that grazing by copepods had a negligible effect on build-up of the phytoplankton biomass recorded in the PFr and-to a much lesser extent-at the AWB, whereas high grazing pressure of S. thompsoni was likely to have constrained phytoplankton biomass levels in the ACC.

Dubischar, Corinna D.; Bathmann, Ulrich V.


Experimental studies on the development of Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in copepod and fish paratenic hosts.  


The larval development of the nematode Contracaecum rudolphii (Rudolphi, 1819), a common parasite of the proventriculus of cormorants, was experimentally studied. Within the eggs cultivated in freshwater under laboratory temperatures of 20-22 degrees C, the developing larva undergoes two moults on days 4-5, attaining the third larval stage. Most of the ensheathed third-stage larvae, 291-457 microm long, hatch spontaneously from egg shells on days 5-6. Experiments have indicated that hatched ensheated third-stage larvae and those still inside egg capsules are already infective to copepods and fishes, which both can be considered paratenic (meta-paratenic) hosts. Five copepod species, Acanthocyclops vernalis, Cyclops strenuus, Ectocyclops phaleratus, Eucyclops serrulatus and Megacyclops viridis, the isopod Asellus aquaticus and small carps Cyprinus carpio were infected by feeding them these larvae. In addition, 9 fish species, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Anguilla anguilla, Barbatula barbatula, Cyprinus carpio, Gobio gobio, Perca fluviatilis, Phoxinus phoxinus, Poecilia reticulata and Tinca tinca, were successfully infected by feeding them copepods previously infected with C. rudolphii third-stage larvae. In fishes, larvae from copepods penetrate through the intestinal wall to the body cavity, where, in a few weeks, they become encapsulated; the larvae substantially grow in fish, attaining the body length up to 4.87 mm. In carp fry, the nematode third-stage larvae survived for about 15 months (up to 18 months in fish infected directly, i.e., without copepods). One small cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) was successfully infected by feeding it with copepods harbouring C. rudolphii third-stage larvae. PMID:19827362

Moravec, Frantisek



DNA barcoding of marine copepods: assessment of analytical approaches to species identification.  


More than 2,500 species of copepods (Class Maxillopoda; Subclass Copepoda) occur in the marine planktonic environment. The exceptional morphological conservation of the group, with numerous sibling species groups, makes the identification of species challenging, even for expert taxonomists. Molecular approaches to species identification have allowed rapid detection, discrimination, and identification of species based on DNA sequencing of single specimens and environmental samples. Despite the recent development of diverse genetic and genomic markers, the barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene remains a useful and - in some cases - unequaled diagnostic character for species-level identification of copepods. This study reports 800 new barcode sequences for 63 copepod species not included in any previous study and examines the reliability and resolution of diverse statistical approaches to species identification based upon a dataset of 1,381 barcode sequences for 195 copepod species. We explore the impact of missing data (i.e., species not represented in the barcode database) on the accuracy and reliability of species identifications. Among the tested approaches, the best close match analysis resulted in accurate identification of all individuals to species, with no errors (false positives), and out-performed automated tree-based or BLAST based analyses. This comparative analysis yields new understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of DNA barcoding and confirms the value of DNA barcodes for species identification of copepods, including both individual specimens and bulk samples. Continued integrative morphological-molecular taxonomic analysis is needed to produce a taxonomically-comprehensive database of barcode sequences for all species of marine copepods. PMID:24987576

Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Cornils, Astrid; Copley, Nancy; Bucklin, Ann



DNA Barcoding of Marine Copepods: Assessment of Analytical Approaches to Species Identification  

PubMed Central

More than 2,500 species of copepods (Class Maxillopoda; Subclass Copepoda) occur in the marine planktonic environment. The exceptional morphological conservation of the group, with numerous sibling species groups, makes the identification of species challenging, even for expert taxonomists. Molecular approaches to species identification have allowed rapid detection, discrimination, and identification of species based on DNA sequencing of single specimens and environmental samples. Despite the recent development of diverse genetic and genomic markers, the barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene remains a useful and – in some cases – unequaled diagnostic character for species-level identification of copepods. This study reports 800 new barcode sequences for 63 copepod species not included in any previous study and examines the reliability and resolution of diverse statistical approaches to species identification based upon a dataset of 1,381 barcode sequences for 195 copepod species. We explore the impact of missing data (i.e., species not represented in the barcode database) on the accuracy and reliability of species identifications. Among the tested approaches, the best close match analysis resulted in accurate identification of all individuals to species, with no errors (false positives), and out-performed automated tree-based or BLAST based analyses. This comparative analysis yields new understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of DNA barcoding and confirms the value of DNA barcodes for species identification of copepods, including both individual specimens and bulk samples. Continued integrative morphological-molecular taxonomic analysis is needed to produce a taxonomically-comprehensive database of barcode sequences for all species of marine copepods.

Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Cornils, Astrid; Copley, Nancy; Bucklin, Ann



Seasonal variation in the molt status of an oceanic copepod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of diapause, or suppressed development, in the dominant California Current copepod Calanus pacificus was examined in two ways. Diapause timing was inferred from changes in the abundance of deep, diapausing C. pacificus over a full year at a station off southern California, USA. Jaw phase and ecdysteroid content, indicators of molt cycle status in C. pacificus, were also examined to determine if shifts toward early molt phases, as are observed in diapausing Calanus, were also found among surface C. pacificus during periods when the abundance of deep, diapausing C. pacificus was increasing. The abundance of diapausing C. pacificus in deep water increased from June to mid-October, then declined from October to March. The percentage of surface-living C. pacificus CV with postmolt jaws, the earliest jaw phase, was significantly higher from June to mid-October than at other times. The ecdysteroid content of surface-living C. pacificus CV was also significantly lower during June to mid-October than during late October to May. Both of these changes indicate a shift to earlier molt phases in surface-living C. pacificus CV during periods of onset of diapause. However, the molt status of surface CV was variable from June to mid-October, suggesting that preparation for diapause was spatially or temporally heterogeneous. Hypotheses about environmental cues that induce diapause were evaluated, although the effect of cues on possibly sensitive stages could not be considered. The abundance of diapausing C. pacificus increased during a period of warm upper water column temperature and generally high and declining photoperiod; however, evaluation of the cues inducing diapause was inconclusive.

Johnson, Catherine Lynn



Contrasting patterns of MAAs accumulation in two populations of the copepod Boeckella gracilipes.  


The bio-accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) is common in planktonic copepods that inhabit environments exposed to high levels of solar radiation. MAAs accumulation in copepods can be affected both by extrinsic (environmental) and intrinsic factors (local adaptation, genotype, etc.). Laboratory experiments were performed to study the bio-accumulation of MAAs in two geographically-isolated populations of Boeckella gracilipes from a mountain and a piedmont lake of North Patagonia. We performed two series of 10-day incubations of B. gracilipes from the different lakes applying two radiation conditions (PAR + UVR and darkness), at five different temperatures (5 to 20 °C) and providing a MAA-free flagellate as food. We assumed that differences in final MAAs concentrations between copepod populations should be exclusively due to environmental factors, and that any difference in the patterns of MAAs accumulation should exclusively arise from differences in MAAs concentration at the time of collection. MAAs concentration was three fold higher in B. gracilipes from Lake Verde than in copepods from the Lake Morenito. The MAAs suite was dominated (?90%) by a combination of porphyra-334 and mycosporine-glycine in copepods from Lake Verde, and porphyra-334 and MAA-332 in those from Lake Morenito. Two exclusive MAA compounds were identified, mycosporine-glycine in copepods from Lake Verde and shinorine in the copepod population from Lake Morenito. Laboratory experiments showed that: (i) exposure to PAR + UVR stimulated the accumulation of MAAs in both copepod populations; (ii) temperature affected the response of MAAs and, remarkably, low temperatures stimulated MAAs accumulation even in dark incubations, (iii) the response to radiation and temperature in MAAs accumulation was more pronounced in the population with low initial MAAs than in the population with high initial MAAs concentrations. The differences in intrinsic factors between B. gracilipes populations, such as local adaptation to contrasting UV and temperature scenarios, among others, appear to play an important role in determining levels and patterns of MAAs accumulation in B. gracilipes. PMID:24715094

Garcia, Patricia E; Ferraro, Marcela A; Perez, A Patricia; Zagarese, Horacio E; Dieguez, Maria C



Prevalence of the parasitic copepod Haemobaphes intermedius on juvenile buffalo sculpins from Washington State  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The parasitic copepod, Haemobaphes intermedius, was detected in 62% of juvenile buffalo sculpins Enophrys bison, a previously unreported host, from the San Juan Islands archipelago in Washington State. Most infestations were characterized by the presence of a single female copepod infestations with multiple H. intermedius occurred either unilaterally or bilaterally in 29% of parasitized individuals. Impaired condition of parasitized hosts was indicated by significantly lower total lengths and weights (34.9 mm; 1.6 g) than in unparasitized cohorts (38.9 mm; 2.1 g). Host specificity was indicated by the failure to detect H. intermedius in 43 sympatric great sculpins Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus from the same location.

Halpenny, C. M.; Kocan, R. M.; Hershberger, P. K.



Symbolic dynamics and entropies of copepod behaviour under non-turbulent and turbulent conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider here behavioural activity of copepods as a succession of symbols associated with swimming states: slow swimming, fast swimming, break and grooming. We characterise these symbolic sequences using tools from symbolic dynamics: probability density function of the residence times in each state; transition probability at each time step; Shannon entropy and dynamic entropy. This approach is applied to the swimming behaviour of Centropages hamatus which we have analyzed as an example of application, in order to stress the differences associated with turbulent and non-turbulent conditions. We characterise in this theoretical framework the behavioural changes exhibited by the copepod under turbulent conditions.

Moison, Maud; Schmitt, François G.; Souissi, Sami; Seuront, Laurent; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou



Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.  


Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally. PMID:23024768

Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie



Prevalent Ciliate Symbiosis on Copepods: High Genetic Diversity and Wide Distribution Detected Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene  

PubMed Central

Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie



Copepods in Turbid Shallow Soda Lakes Accumulate Unexpected High Levels of Carotenoids  

PubMed Central

Carotenoids are protective pigments present in many aquatic organisms that reduce the photooxidative stress induced by short-wavelenght solar radiation, yet increase their susceptibility to predators. Arctodiaptomus spinosus, a calanoid copepod typically found in many fishless shallow soda lakes, shows large between-lake differences in pigmentation. Here, we attribute these differences to the environmental state of these ecosystems, namely, ‘dark water’ lakes with submersed vegetation and turbid ‘white’ lakes lacking macrophytes. Copepod carotenoid concentration in the turbid ‘white’ lakes was significantly (about 20-fold) higher than in the ‘dark water’ ones, although the latter systems were characterized by higher transparency. In addition, males had on a dry weight basis around three times higher carotenoid concentrations than females. Mycosporine-like amino acids (direct UV screening substances) were found in all cases, but in low concentration. The environmental conditions in these ecosystems were largely shaped by the presence/absence of submersed macrophytes Thus, in the turbid lakes, the strong wind-driven mixis allows for copepods to be brought to the surface and being exposed to solar radiation, whereas in ‘dark water’ ones, macrophytes reduce water turbulence and additionally provide shelter. Our results explain the counter-intuitive notion of strong red pigmentation in copepods from a turbid ecosystem and suggest that factors other than high UV transparency favor carotenoid accumulation in zooplankton.

Schneider, Tobias; Herzig, Alois; Koinig, Karin A.; Sommaruga, Ruben



Copepods in turbid shallow soda lakes accumulate unexpected high levels of carotenoids.  


Carotenoids are protective pigments present in many aquatic organisms that reduce the photooxidative stress induced by short-wavelenght solar radiation, yet increase their susceptibility to predators. Arctodiaptomus spinosus, a calanoid copepod typically found in many fishless shallow soda lakes, shows large between-lake differences in pigmentation. Here, we attribute these differences to the environmental state of these ecosystems, namely, 'dark water' lakes with submersed vegetation and turbid 'white' lakes lacking macrophytes. Copepod carotenoid concentration in the turbid 'white' lakes was significantly (about 20-fold) higher than in the 'dark water' ones, although the latter systems were characterized by higher transparency. In addition, males had on a dry weight basis around three times higher carotenoid concentrations than females. Mycosporine-like amino acids (direct UV screening substances) were found in all cases, but in low concentration. The environmental conditions in these ecosystems were largely shaped by the presence/absence of submersed macrophytes Thus, in the turbid lakes, the strong wind-driven mixis allows for copepods to be brought to the surface and being exposed to solar radiation, whereas in 'dark water' ones, macrophytes reduce water turbulence and additionally provide shelter. Our results explain the counter-intuitive notion of strong red pigmentation in copepods from a turbid ecosystem and suggest that factors other than high UV transparency favor carotenoid accumulation in zooplankton. PMID:22916208

Schneider, Tobias; Herzig, Alois; Koinig, Karin A; Sommaruga, Ruben



New stygobiont copepods (Calanoida; Misophrioida) from Bundera Sinkhole, an anchialine cenote in north-western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new taxa in the copepod orders Calanoida and Misophrioida are described from the flooded coastal karst of north-western Australia. Stygocyclopia australis sp. nov. is the first pseudocyclopiid calanoid to be reported from the continent, with other congeners distributed in anchialine environments of the Philippine, Balearic, and Canary archipelagos. The presence of a supernumerary spine on the outer margin of




Sigecheres Brittae Gen. Et SP. Nov., a Parasitic Copepod from the Polychaete Sige Fusigera Malmgren.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both sexes of Sigecheres brittae gen. et sp. nov., a parasitic copepod found on the phyllodocid polychaete Sige fusigera in Danish waters, are described and figured. The systematic relations of the new genus are discussed and it is concluded that it is ra...

J. Bresciani



Ingestion of the dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, by the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, can form harmful algal blooms in estuarine environments. The dominant copepod species usually found in these waters is Acartia tonsa. We tested the ability of A. tonsa to graze the non-toxic zoospore stage of P. piscicida and thus serve as a potential biological control of blooms of this algal species. A. tonsa grazed the non-toxic zoospore

Michael R. Roman; Matthew L. Reaugh; Xinsheng Zhang



Copepods of the family Ergasilidae (Poecilostomatoida) parasitic on fishes from Khor al-Zubair Lagoon, Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of ergasilid copepods were collected from gill filaments of three species of fishes from Khor al-Zubair Lagoon, Iraq. The mugilid Liza subviridis hosted the new species Ergasilus iraquensis and Ergasilus pararostralis. Ergasilus synanceienis sp. n. was found on the synanceiid Leptosynanceia melanostigma(Day). The fourth species, Dermoergasilus varicoleus Ho, Jayarajan & Radhakrishnan, 1992 was found parasitizing the mugilid Liza

Maria Auxiliadora Pinto da Motta Amado; Carlos Eduardo Falavigna da Rocha; Wojciech Piasecki; Salem A. M. Al-Daraji; Furhan T. Mhaisen



Life in the extreme environment at a hydrothermal vent: haemoglobin in a deep-sea copepod.  

PubMed Central

This is the first study, to my knowledge, quantifying the respiratory pigment haemoglobin discovered in a deep-sea copepod. Haemoglobin in copepods has previously been documented in only one other species from the deep water of an Italian lake. Specimens of the siphonostomatoid Scotoecetes introrsus Humes were collected during submersible dives at 2500 m depth near a hydrothermal vent at the East Pacific Rise (9 degrees N). The haemoglobin content in the copepods' haemolymph was 4.3 +/- 0.6 micrograms per individual female (n = 6) and 1.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms per individual male (n = 6). Weight-specific concentrations of haemoglobin were identical for females and males (0.25 +/- 0.04 and 0.26 +/- 0.02 microgram per microgram dry weight, respectively). These haemoglobin concentrations are higher than those found in other small crustaceans. Activity of the electron transport system indicated that the respiration rates in S. introrsus (13.7 +/- 7.7 microliters O2 per milligram dry weight per hour) were similar to those in the shallow-water copepod Acartia tonsa (9.1 +/- 1.3 microliters O2 per milligram dry weight per hour). It was concluded that the possession of highly concentrated haemoglobin allows S. introrsus to colonize a geologically young, thermally active site such as the vicinity of a hydrothermal vent, despite the prevailing oxygen depletion.

Sell, A F



Projected marine climate change: effects on copepod oxidative status and reproduction.  


Zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish. Therefore, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria on the calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. Acidification together with higher temperature reduced copepod antioxidant capacity. Higher temperature also decreased egg viability, nauplii development, and oxidative status. Exposure to cyanobacteria and its toxin had a negative effect on egg production but, a positive effect on oxidative status and egg viability, giving no net effects on viable egg production. Additionally, nauplii development was enhanced by the presence of cyanobacteria, which partially alleviated the otherwise negative effects of increased temperature and decreased pH on the copepod recruitment. The interactive effects of temperature, acidification, and cyanobacteria on copepods highlight the importance of testing combined effects of climate-related factors when predicting biological responses. PMID:24340194

Vehmaa, Anu; Hogfors, Hedvig; Gorokhova, Elena; Brutemark, Andreas; Holmborn, Towe; Engström-Öst, Jonna



Evaluation of dietary microalgae for culture of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of various dietary microalgae on survival, reproduction, sex ratio, fecundity, time to first maturation, brood interval, brood size, total nauplii production, and population development of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Three experiments utilized 10 reproductive pairs of adults cultured in 1L beakers. In the first experiment, the microalga Isochrysis

Cortney L. Ohs; Kelly L. Chang; Scott W. Grabe; Matthew A. DiMaggio; Erik Stenn




EPA Science Inventory

It has recently been demonstrated that acute midultraviolet irradiation (UV-B, 290 to 320 nm) of the marine copepod Acartia clausii results in reduced survival and fecundity. In the present study, immature late copepodites were separated by sex and exposed to three UV-B exposure ...



EPA Science Inventory

Demographic responses of the estuarine copepod Eurytemora herdmani to several combinations of temperature and salinity were evaluated in the laboratory. Observed values of the intrinsic rate of population increase, r, ranged from -0.069/d to 0.088/d. Over the experimental range o...


Changes in the distribution of copepods in the Gironde estuary: A warming and marinisation consequence?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gironde is the largest estuary of South-West Europe and is one of the best monitored estuarine systems in the world. This macrotidal estuary is characterized by a low biodiversity in both oligo- and mesohaline zones. Its zooplankton community is constituted by only five major species, three calanoid copepods (including one invasive species) and two mysids. Retrospective analyses have already documented a warming associated to a phenomenon of marinisation. Here, we investigate the influence of both marinisation and warming on the spatial distribution and the abundance of copepods (i.e. Eurytemora affinis, Acartia bifilosa and neritic species) in the Gironde estuary. We modelled the environmental envelope of the copepods as a function of salinity and temperature to demonstrate that the alteration of their longitudinal distribution in the estuary between 1975 and 2003 was the result of both changing temperature and salinity. Although the upstream movement of neritic species was mostly related to salinity, we show that the augmentation of both temperature and salinity was at the origin of the upstream progression of both A. bifilosa and E. affinis. These results suggest that the distribution of copepods can be affected by both anthropogenic forcing and climatic change, which modulate the physic-chemistry of the Gironde estuary.

Chaalali, Aurélie; Chevillot, Xavier; Beaugrand, Grégory; David, Valérie; Luczak, Christophe; Boët, Philippe; Sottolichio, Aldo; Sautour, Benoît



Marine Landscapes and Faunal Recruitment: A Field Test with Seagrasses and Copepods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of plant landscapes on recruitment of meiofaunal copepods was investigated in a New Zealand seagrass bed. Artificial plant mimics were placed into sediments at levels equivalent to natural blade densities (100 units per 0.5 x 0.25 m plot) in a variety of experimental treatments and retrieved 3 or 5 d later. To assess the effect of plant arrangement

Susan S. Bell; G. R. F. Hicks



Calanoid copepods from South Georgia, with special reference to size dimorphism within the genus Pseudoboeckella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of calanoid copepods, Boeckella michaelseni, Parabroteas sarsii and Pseudoboeckella poppei were recorded from 6 freshwater localities in the Husvik area, South Georgia. Of the latter species two distinct size morphs occurred, with no overlap in size even in closely situated populations. The large morph was recorded in lakes, the small was found in ponds. The small morph did

Dag O. Hessen; Steinar Sandøy; Preben Ottesen



Meiofauna winners and losers of coastal hypoxia: case study harpacticoid copepods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of anoxia on meiobenthic copepod species was assessed by means of a field experiment. Four plexiglass chambers were deployed in situ in 24 m depth to simulate an anoxic event of 9 days, 1 month, 2 months and 10 months. From normoxic to anoxic conditions, we recorded a drop in copepod density and species richness. With increasing duration of anoxia the relative abundance of the individuals of the family Cletodidae increased, and they survived the 1 month and 2 month anoxia, the latter with few specimens. They were the true "winners" of the experimentally induced anoxia. Dominance did not increase in the deployments because not one, but several species from this family were tolerant to anoxia. The overall rate of survival was the same for males and females, but no juvenile stages of copepods survived in anoxia. During a recovery phase of 7 days after a short-term anoxia of 9 days, harpacticoid copepod density did not increase significantly, and there was only a slight increase in species diversity. We concluded that no substantial colonisation from the surrounding sediment took place. The survivors, however, showed a high potential for recovery according to the number of gravid females, whose number increased significantly once the oxygen was available again. These findings imply that substantial energy is allocated to reproduction in the recovery phase.

Grego, M.; Riedel, B.; Stachowitsch, M.; De Troch, M.



The Endemic Copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a Potential Vector of White Spot Syndrome Virus.  


Abstract The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. Received May 22, 2013; accepted October 2, 2013. PMID:24895865

Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge



Grazing impact of the copepod community in the Oyashio region of the western subarctic Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of copepod grazing on the ecosystem dynamics in the Oyashio region, western subarctic Pacific was investigated during six cruises from June 2001 to June 2002. In situ grazing rates of the copepod community (CGR) were measured by the gut fluorescence method in respect to developmental stages of dominant species. In terms of biomass, more than 80% of the copepod community was dominated by six large calanoid species ( Neocalanus cristatus, Neocalanus flemingeri, Neocalanus plumchrus, Eucalanus bungii, Metridia pacifica and Metridia okhotensis) throughout the year. Resulting from the observed pattern of the interzonal migrating copepods, the CGR in the Oyashio region was divided into three phases, i.e. spring (bloom), summer (post-bloom) and autumn-winter phase. During the spring bloom, late copepodites of the interzonal migrating species, N. cristatus, N. flemingeri and E. bungii appeared in the surface layer (0-50 m) to consume the production of the bloom, resulting in a high grazing rate of the copepod community (7.9 mg Chl m -2 d -1), though its impact on phytoplankton community was low due to the high primary productivity. During the post-bloom period, although the copepod community which was dominated by N. cristatus, N. plumchrus, M. pacifica and newly recruited E. bungii still maintained a high biomass, the CGR was generally lower (1.8-2.6 mg Chl m -2 d -1 for June and August 2001), probably due to the lower availability of phytoplankton. Nevertheless, the highest CGR was also observed during this period (10.5 mg Chl m -2 d -1 in June 2002). The high CGR on autotrophic carbon accounted for 69% of the primary production, suggesting that the copepod community in the Oyashio region potentially terminates the phytoplankton bloom. Abundant occurrence of young E. bungii, which is a characteristic phenomenon in the Oyashio region, was largely responsible for the high grazing pressure in June 2002 suggesting that success of reproduction, growth, and survival in E. bungii during the spring bloom is an important factor in controlling phytoplankton abundance during the post-bloom season. During autumn and winter, CGR was the lowest in the year (0.29-0.38 mg Chl. m -2 d -1) due to the disappearance of the interzonal migrating copepods from the surface layer. Diel migrant M. pacifica was the most important grazer during this period. The annual ingestion of the copepod community is estimated as 37.7 gC m -2 on autotrophic carbon (converted using C:Chl ratio of 30) or 137.9 gC m -2 on suspended particles (using C:Chl ratio of in situ value, 58-191), accounting for 13% and 46% of annual primary production, respectively. This study confirms that copepod grazing is an important pathway in carbon flow in the Oyashio region and in particular their role in the phytoplankton dynamics is significant for the termination of the spring bloom.

Takahashi, Kazutaka; Kuwata, Akira; Saito, Hiroaki; Ide, Keiichiro



Vertical zonation and distributions of calanoid copepods through the lower oxycline of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the first comprehensive analysis of calanoid copepod vertical zonation and community structure at midwater depths (300-1000 m) through the lower oxygen gradient (oxycline) (0.02 to ?0.3 ml/L) of an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Feeding ecology was also analyzed. Zooplankton were collected with a double 1 m 2 MOCNESS plankton net in day and night vertically-stratified oblique tows from 1000 m to the surface at six stations during four seasons as part of the 1995 US Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea project. The geographic comparison between a eutrophic more oxygenated onshore station and an offshore station with a strong OMZ served as a natural experiment to elucidate the influence of depth, oxygen concentration, season, food resources, and predators on the copepod distributions. Copepod species and species assemblages of the Arabian Sea OMZ differed in their spatial and vertical distributions relative to environmental and ecological characteristics of the water column and region. The extent and intensity of the oxycline at the lower boundary of the OMZ, and its spatial and temporal variability over the year of sampling, was an important factor affecting distributional patterns. Calanoid copepod species showed vertical zonation through the lower OMZ oxycline. Clustering analyses defined sample groups with similar copepod assemblages and species groups with similar distributions. No apparent diel vertical migration for either calanoid or non-calanoid copepods at these midwater depths was observed, but some species had age-related differences in vertical distributions. Subzones of the OMZ, termed the OMZ Core, the Lower Oxycline, and the Sub-Oxycline, had different copepod communities and ecological interactions. Major distributional and ecological changes were associated with surprisingly small oxygen gradients at low oxygen concentrations. The calanoid copepod community was most diverse in the most oxygenated environments (oxygen >0.14 ml/L), but the rank order of abundance of species was similar in the Lower Oxycline and Sub-Oxycline. Some species were absent or much scarcer in the OMZ Core. Two copepod species common in the Lower Oxycline were primarily detritivorous but showed dietary differences suggesting feeding specialization. The copepod Spinocalanus antarcticus fed primarily on components of the vertical particulate flux and suspended material, a less versatile diet than the co-occurring copepod Lucicutia grandis. Vertical zonation of copepod species through the lower OMZ oxycline is probably a complex interplay between physiological limitation by low oxygen, potential predator control, and potential food resources. Pelagic OMZ and oxycline communities, and their ecological interactions in the water column and with the benthos, may become even more widespread and significant in the future ocean, if global warming increases the extent and intensity of OMZs as predicted.

Wishner, Karen F.; Gelfman, Celia; Gowing, Marcia M.; Outram, Dawn M.; Rapien, Mary; Williams, Rebecca L.



Explaining regional variability in copepod recruitment: Implications for a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing environmental effects on copepod production and their ecological roles is complicated by multiple physical (e.g. temperature) and biological (e.g. food, predation) factors controlling multiple aspects of copepod physiology and demography. For example, data for two regions in eastern Canada (St. John’s, Newfoundland and Halifax, Nova Scotia) indicate that subtle differences in environmental conditions lead to significant differences in seasonal copepod ( Calanus finmarchicus) recruitment timing and magnitude. Here, we quantify how environmental variability influences C. finmarchicus physiology and demography leading to observed regional and seasonal variations in abundance off St. John’s and Halifax. We apply a stochastic individual-based model (IBM) for copepod population dynamics to simulate the seasonal variation in C. finmarchicus abundance of egg through copepodite 1 (C1) stages at the two sites using year-specific local forcing from multi-year data. The model includes individual variability in development, egg production and mortality rates with resulting seasonal C1 abundance averaged among years and compared to analogous observations. We find temperature has a dominant effect on both development and egg production rates while egg recruitment is affected by temperature and female abundance at both sites. We show that mortality rate characterization has a strong influence on modeled abundances, and site-specific environmentally dependent mortality rates are necessary to produce results consistent with observations (temperature vs. food vs. cannibalism via females). Results indicate that prediction of climate change effects on copepod abundance and their ecological roles requires consideration of biological (e.g. chlorophyll a, female abundance) as well as physical (e.g. temperature) factors. In particular, estimates of abundances during the onset of C1 recruitment (i.e. their arrival on the larval fish prey field) are improved by 67-94% when the influence of biological factors on mortality rates are considered.

Neuheimer, A. B.; Gentleman, W. C.; Pepin, P.; Head, E. J. H.



Tools for crushing diatoms - opal teeth in copepods feature a rubber-like bearing composed of resilin  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are generally known for superior mechanical properties of their mineralised shells. Nevertheless, many copepod crustaceans are able to crush such shells using their mandibles. This ability very likely requires feeding tools with specific material compositions and properties. For mandibles of several copepod species silica-containing parts called opal teeth have been described. The present study reveals the existence of complex composite structures, which contain, in addition to silica, the soft and elastic protein resilin and form opal teeth with a rubber-like bearing in the mandibles of the copepod Centropages hamatus. These composite structures likely increase the efficiency of the opal teeth while simultaneously reducing the risk of mechanical damage. They are supposed to have coevolved with the diatom shells in the evolutionary arms race, and their development might have been the basis for the dominance of the copepods within today's marine zooplankton.

Michels, Jan; Vogt, Jurgen; Gorb, Stanislav N.



Latitudinal metazoan plankton zones in the antarctic circumpolar current along 6°W during austral spring 1992  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the ANT X/6 cruise of R.V. Polarstern as a part of Southern Ocean JGOFS, the mesozooplankton and smaller metazoans were sampled from five depth layers between 0 and 500 m, and daily egg production was measured in copepods. The latitudinal and vertical abundance, biomass and species distribution were recorded twice along the 6°W meridian between the Weddell Gyre and the Polar Frontal Zone in October and November 1992. Carbon weight-length relationships are presented for the dominant copepod species Calanoides acutus, Rhincalanus gigas, Metridia gerlachei and Oithona similis. Total biomass measured by weighing filters of two size fractions and calculated from specific abundance and length estimations both averaged to about 5 g ashfree dry weight (AFDW) per m 2 in the Polar Frontal region (PFr), somewhat lower in October than in November, and 2 g AFDW m -2 in the Antarctic Zone (AZ) between the PFr and the Weddell Gyre. Antarctic calanoid copepods as a group dominated biomass in both regions, but the cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis had the highest numerical abundance and in general also the highest biomass of all species. Mean copepodid abundance below 100 m was not different in the PFr and the AZ, but the abundance in the upper 100 m was much higher in the PFr. Daily egg production of Calanoides acutus was highest in the PFr. The community composition in the PFr and the AZ indicated that accumulation in the Antarctic convergence or a difference in timing of the spring rise to the surface was not the main cause of the latitudinal spring peak in the PFr. Probably the physical conditions are most favourable here for zooplankton to sustain populations. This seems most advantageous for species with a long reproductive period, allowing them to produce several generations per year. Life cycle strategies of Antarctic zooplankton species only can be compared in the framework of their specific conditions for growth and persistence in different latitudinal zones, and the distribution and transport patterns of their populations.

Fransz, H. G.; Gonzalez, S. R.


Ingestion and regurgitation of living and inert materials by the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis (Poppe) and the influence of salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eurytemora affinis (Poppe) fed on cultured Thalassiosira weissflogii (Grunnow) at rates of 200-34000 cells copepod -1 h -1. Feeding was delayed and diminished in bright light. In dim light, feeding was initially faster in 15‰ (27000-34000 copepod -1 h -1) than in 10‰ (23000-25000 copepod -1 h -1) and much faster than in 3‰ (6000 copepod -1 h -1). After 1-3 h, feeding continued more steadily in 3‰ (1200-6500 copepod -1 h -1) but slowed drastically in 10 and 15‰ to 200-5000 copepod -1 h -1). These patterns were maintained when copepods were first acclimated briefly to the test salinities. E. affinis fed at slightly higher rates on sterile latex beads of similar size to T. weissfloggi, fastest in 10‰ and slowest in 3‰. While the beads appeared in the guts, they did not appear in the faecal pellets and after 1 h (10, 15‰) or 3 h (3‰), their numbers in suspension recovered close to original counts. In contrast, beads infected with a marine bacterium were similarly eaten (at slightly higher rates than the sterile beads), and appeared in the guts and then in the faecal pellets, while numbers in suspension continued to fall or remained low. The contrasts between initial rapid feeding in 10-15‰ and slower steadier feeding in 3‰, and between regurgitation of swallowed sterile beads and passage through the gut of bacterially-contaminated beads, have significance for the biology of a copepod living in the upper reaches of an estuary.

Powell, Mark D.; Berry, A. J.



Feeding, Respiration and Excretion of the Copepod Calanus hyperboreus from Baffin Bay, Including Waters Contaminated by Oil Seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic processes in eastern arctic copepods Culunus hyperboreus were analyzed during the post-bloom period (August-September). Mixed adult and subadult copepods were collected from 12 stations in Baffin Bay (Davis Strait to Lancaster Sound) by trawling from 0-300 m. Measurements were made of clearance rate, 02-consumption and NH3 excretion. The cruise track included 6 stations in oil-seep contaminated waters of Scott




Demographic characteristics of the copepod Acanthocyclops americanus (Sars, 1863) (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) fed mixed algal ( Scenedesmus acutus )rotifer ( Brachionus havanaensis ) diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predatory copepod Acanthocyclops americanus is commonly found in shallow ponds and lakes in Mexico. We tested the survivorship and reproduction-related variables of\\u000a this copepod, isolated from Lake Huetzalin (Xochimilco, Mexico City), on four mixed diets comprising two algal concentrations\\u000a (0.8 × 106 and 1.6 × 106 cells ml?1 of Scenedesmus acutus) and two rotifer densities (1 and 8 ind. ml?1 of Brachionus havanaensis). Survivorship patterns

Cecilia Enríquez García; S. Nandini; S. S. S. Sarma



Copepod omnivory in the North Water Polynya (Baffin Bay) during autumn: spatial patterns in lipid composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To deduce spatial patterns in copepod lipid composition and feeding strategy (i.e., degree of omnivory) in the North Water Polynya (Baffin Bay), three dominant species were sampled extensively over a broad geographical area (˜75-78°N; 77-69°W). Calanus hyperboreus CV, C. glacialis CV and Metridia longa females were collected in shallow and deep strata at 16 stations during autumn 1999 (August-October). Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that all species fed omnivorously in the southeastern (SE) region of the polynya. Here, copepods generally had elevated levels of carnivorous (e.g., 18:1(n-9)), dinoflagellate (e.g., 18:4(n-3); 22:6(n-3)) and bacterial fatty acid markers (e.g., odd-numbered and/or branched; 18:1( n-7)). Copepods in the SE contained low proportions of diatom (e.g., 16:4(n-1); 20:5(n-3)) and phytoplankton (e.g., polyunsaturated fatty acids) markers, relative to animals from northwest stations. Values of the omnivory index 'UC' (i.e., unsaturation coefficient) were also low in SE copepods, which implied reduced phytoplankton ingestion. Spatial patterns in seston fatty acid composition resembled the dietary signatures in that dinoflagellate and bacterial indices were highest in SE waters. Estimates of primary production, particulate organic carbon, carbon to chlorophyll ratios, and abundances of diatoms, dinoflagellates and bacteria, provided further evidence of the importance of the microbial loop at SE stations. Comparable spatial patterns in feeding strategy were observed in both sampling layers, indicating that copepods from the entire water column were feeding on a similar food source. Several interesting species-specific trends also emerged from the PCA. In general, C. hyperboreus fed the most herbivorously, followed by C. glacialis and M. longa. C. glacialis showed a stronger connection to the microbial food web than the other two species, and M. longa fed herbivorously throughout much of the polynya. These latter two findings contradict the conventional wisdom and highlight the need for future work. In particular, the microbial community should be emphasized and characterized in subsequent studies on the feeding ecology of C. glacialis. Although the three species investigated responded quite differently to available prey by adopting specialized feeding strategies, copepod omnivory in the polynya was generally inversely related to the availability of diatoms.

Stevens, Catherine J.; Deibel, Don; Parrish, Christopher C.



Copepod grazing during spring blooms: Does Calanus pacificus avoid harmful diatoms?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During late winter and spring of 2002 and 2003, 24, 2-3 day cruises were conducted to Dabob Bay, Washington State, USA, to examine the grazing, egg production, and hatching success rates of adult female Calanus pacificus and Pseudocalanus newmani. The results of the copepod grazing experiments for C. pacificus are discussed here. Each week, copepod grazing incubation experiments from two different depth layers were conducted. Grazing was measured by both changes in chlorophyll concentration and cell counts. In 2002, there was one moderate bloom consisting mainly of Thalassiosira spp. in early February, and a larger bloom in April comprised of two Chaetoceros species and Phaeocystis sp. Similarly, in 2003, there were two blooms, an early one dominated by Thalassiosira spp., and a later one consisting of Chaetoceros spp. and Thalassiosira spp. Clearance rates on individual prey species, as calculated by cell counts, showed that C. pacificus are highly selective in their feeding, and may have much higher clearance rates on individual taxa than rates calculated from bulk chlorophyll disappearance. During weeks of high phytoplankton concentration, the copepods generally ate phytoplankton. However, they often rejected the most abundant phytoplankton species, particularly certain Thalassiosira spp., even though the rejected prey were often of the same genus and similar size to the preferred prey. It is speculated that this avoidance may be related to the possible deleterious effects that certain of these diatom species have on the reproductive success of these copepods. During weeks of medium to low phytoplankton concentration, the copepods selectively ate certain species of phytoplankton, and often had high electivity for microzooplankton. The selection mechanism must consist of active particle rejection most likely based on detection of surface chemical properties, since the diatoms that were selected were of the same genus, nearly the same size, and at lower numerical abundance than those cells that were avoided. The grazing choices made by these copepods may have important consequences for the overall ecosystem function within coastal and estuarine systems through changes in the transfer efficiency of energy to higher trophic levels.

Leising, Andrew W.; Pierson, James J.; Halsband-Lenk, Claudia; Horner, Rita; Postel, James



Microcystin-LR toxicity on dominant copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi of the upper San Francisco Estuary.  


This study investigates the toxicity and post-exposure effects of dissolved microcystin (MC-LR) on the dominant copepods of the upper San Francisco Estuary (SFE), where blooms of the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa coincide with record low levels in the abundance of pelagic organisms including phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish. The potential negative impact of Microcystis on the copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi has raised concern for further depletion of high quality fish food. Response of copepods to MC-LR (MC) was determined using a 48-h standard static renewal method for acute toxicity testing. Following exposure, a life table test was performed to quantify any post-exposure impacts on survival and reproduction. The 48-h LC-50 and LC-10 values for MC were 1.55 and 0.14 mg/L for E. affinis; and 0.52 and 0.21 mg/L for P. forbesi. Copepod populations recovered once dissolved MC was removed and cultures returned to optimal conditions, suggesting no post-exposure effects of MC on copepod populations. Dissolved microcystin above 0.14 mg/L proved likely to have chronic effects on the survival of copepods in the SFE. Since such high concentrations are unlikely, toxicity from dissolved microcystin is not a direct threat to zooplankton of the SFE, and other mechanisms such as dietary exposure to Microcystis constitute a more severe risk. PMID:19539351

Ger, Kemal A; Teh, Swee J; Goldman, Charles R



Copepod feeding in the ocean: scaling patterns, composition of their diet and the bias of estimates due to microzooplankton grazing during incubations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report insights from the compilation and analysis of data on marine calanoid copepod feeding rates in the ocean.\\u000a Our study shows that food availability and body weight are major factors shaping copepod feeding rates in the field, with\\u000a a relatively minor role of temperature. Although the maximal feeding rates of copepods that are observed in the field agree

Enric Saiz; Albert Calbet



Impact of the copepod Mytilicola orientalis on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in Ireland.  


Infections of a population of Crassostrea gigas by the copepod Mytilicola orientalis were examined at an oyster growing site at Dungarvan, County Waterford, Ireland. Twenty-one samples, each consisting of 20 to 30 oysters have been examined over 2 yr. Condition, sex, reproductive stage, length, weight, glycogen content and other parasite burdens of the oysters were examined in relation to the degree of infection of M. orientalis; 14.38% of oysters were infested. Mean abundance was 0.6 oyster(-1) The maximum number of copepods in an oyster was 20. M. orientalis had no effect on condition, growth, sex, stage or glycogen content of the oyster but correlated with shell burrowing by Polydora sp. PMID:11775796

Steel, S; Mulcahy, M F



Development and growth of ontogenetically migrating copepods during the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Oyashio region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have evaluated development and growth of the ontogenetically migrating copepods in the northwestern subarctic Pacific by frequent sampling and by molting rate experiments during the spring phytoplankton bloom. Since different water masses frequently moved into the surface layers at our sampling station, the copepod abundance and species composition fluctuated greatly. Early copepodite stages of Eucalanus bungii and Neocalanus plumchrus appeared abundantly when a warmer and more saline water mass was present. Despite the fluctuating temporal pattern, the population structure revealed that each copepod species had a different life history strategy during the bloom. Eucalanus bungii were in the stages of gonad maturation, spawning and naupliar development when chlorophyll a concentrations were high. The phytoplankton bloom was utilized for development and lipid accumulation by late copepodites of Neocalanus cristatus and Neocalanus flemingeri and for development of nauplii and early copepodites of N. plumchrus. Molting experiments showed that carbon weight of 'molters' in the incubations was greater than that of 'non-molters', indicating that primarily animals with heavier body weight are those that molt into the next stage. Mean stage durations estimated by the molting rate method were on the order of 9.7 (C3) to 16.6 days (C4) for N. flemingeri, 13.9 (C3) to 29.1 days (C4) for N. plumchrus, and 12.2 days (C2) for E. bungii. Large fluctuations were observed for stage duration estimates, suggesting different development histories (i.e. ages-within-stage distributions) among the replicate incubations. From these results, we discuss development and growth of the ontogenetically migrating copepods during strongly fluctuating hydrographic conditions in the Oyashio.

Kobari, T.; Ueda, A.; Nishibe, Y.



Lipid composition of the copepod Calanus hyperboreas from the Arctic Ocean. Changes with depth and season  

Microsoft Academic Search

A build-up of reserve lipid, predominantly wax esters, occurred during the summer in the copepod Calanus hyperboreas, collected off an Arctic ice-island. This lipid storage was correlated with a phytoplankton bloom and was followed by a progressive decrease of lipid from 2.1 mg per individual in September to 0.4 mg in June. There was a rapid decrease in lipid utilization

R. F. Lee



Temperature effects on fecundity, development and survival of the benthopelagic calanoid copepod, Pseudocyclops xiphophorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shallow-living, benthopelagic copepod species Pseudocyclops xiphophorus Wells (R Soc Edimburg 67:1967), collected over a yearly cycle from the fouling material in the brackish water Lake Faro (North-eastern\\u000a Sicily), showed marked seasonal fluctuations in population abundances, with maximum numbers recorded in autumn. Highest in\\u000a situ egg production rates coincided with periods of low adult and juvenile densities and vice versa,

Cinzia Brugnano; Letterio Guglielmo; Adrianna Ianora; Giacomo Zagami



Towards a global model of in situ weight-specific growth in marine planktonic copepods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependency of in situ weight-specific fecundity of adult females (as egg production) and growth of juveniles (as somatic\\u000a production) upon individual body weight in marine planktonic copepods was examined. A compilation was made of results where\\u000a wild-caught individuals were incubated in natural seawater (often pre-screened to remove large organisms), at near in situ\\u000a temperatures, over short periods of the

A. G. Hirst; R. S. Lampitt



Rapid assessment of copepod ( Calanus helgolandicus ) embryo viability using fluorescent probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vital fluorescent probes have routinely been used to distinguish viable from non-viable embryos in various veterinary and aquaculture studies. Here, we present new protocols to rapidly detect embryo viability in the copepod Calanus helgolandicus using three of these probes, fluorescein diacetate (FDA), SYTOX green and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD), and the confocal laser scanning microscope. The percentage of fluorescent-FDA embryos and non-fluorescent

I. Buttino; M. do Espirito Santo; A. Ianora; A. Miralto



Species diversity and community structure of pelagic copepods in the marine lakes of Palau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community structure and diversity patterns of pelagic copepods were investigated for the coastal areas and in the marine lakes\\u000a of the Palau islands in the West Pacific. We conducted field surveys during 2004–2007 and collected zooplankton samples from\\u000a eight coastal areas and 16 marine lakes. The marine lakes in the islands of Palau are limnologically classified into two types,\\u000a meromictic

Shin-ichi Saitoh; Hidekatsu Suzuki; Naoto Hanzawa; Hidetoshi B. Tamate



Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to the copepod Acartia tonsa, exposed through a phytoplankton diet.  


Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are being increasingly utilized in a variety of products and applications and are therefore commonly discharged into aquatic environments, increasing exposure and potentially impacting aquatic organisms. Zinc oxide nanoparticles can depress growth of some marine phytoplankton, and several examples of nanoparticle trophic transfer have been documented, although not within planktonic communities. The authors test whether feeding on ZnO-exposed phytoplankton could cause toxic effects in a widespread and ecologically important marine grazer, the copepod Acartia tonsa. The authors exposed the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii to ZnO nanoparticles for 7?d and measured growth, zinc accumulation, and zinc distribution within the algal cells to elucidate bioavailability to grazing copepods. Thalassiosira weissflogii cultured with nano-ZnO were continuously fed to A. tonsa for 7?d, and reproduction and survival were quantified. A dose-dependent growth reduction was observed in T. weissflogii exposed to nano-ZnO, with a 20% effective concentration (EC20) of 70?µg/L Zn and a lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of 99?µg/L Zn. Zinc accumulation in the algae occurred dose-dependently over time, with the majority of the zinc partitioning into the cell wall fraction. Feeding on ZnO-exposed diatoms led to a decrease in copepod survival and reproduction. The EC20s corresponding to the dissolved zinc concentration in the T. weissflogii exposure media were 112?µg/L (13?µg/g dry wt) and 143?µg/L (16?µg/g dry wt), and the LOECs were 168?µg/L (17?µg/g dry wt) and 263?µg/L (21?µg/g dry wt) for copepod survival and reproduction, respectively. These results provide evidence of trophic transfer of metal contaminants associated with metal oxide nanomaterials within a marine plankton community, leading to a reduction in individual demographic performance of an important coastal marine grazer. PMID:23417698

Jarvis, Tayler A; Miller, Robert J; Lenihan, Hunter S; Bielmyer, Gretchen K



Molecular Evidence of the Toxic Effects of Diatom Diets on Gene Expression Patterns in Copepods  

PubMed Central

Background Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world's oceans and are considered essential in the transfer of energy through marine food chains. However, these unicellular plants at times produce secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes and other products deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids that are collectively termed oxylipins. These cytotoxic compounds are responsible for growth inhibition and teratogenic activity, potentially sabotaging future generations of grazers by inducing poor recruitment in marine organisms such as crustacean copepods. Principal Findings Here we show that two days of feeding on a strong oxylipin-producing diatom (Skeletonema marinoi) is sufficient to inhibit a series of genes involved in aldehyde detoxification, apoptosis, cytoskeleton structure and stress response in the copepod Calanus helgolandicus. Of the 18 transcripts analyzed by RT-qPCR at least 50% were strongly down-regulated (aldehyde dehydrogenase 9, 8 and 6, cellular apoptosis susceptibility and inhibitor of apoptosis IAP proteins, heat shock protein 40, alpha- and beta-tubulins) compared to animals fed on a weak oxylipin-producing diet (Chaetoceros socialis) which showed no changes in gene expression profiles. Conclusions Our results provide molecular evidence of the toxic effects of strong oxylipin-producing diatoms on grazers, showing that primary defense systems that should be activated to protect copepods against toxic algae can be inhibited. On the other hand other classical detoxification genes (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome P450) were not affected possibly due to short exposure times. Given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments these results offer a plausible explanation for the inefficient use of a potentially valuable food resource, the spring diatom bloom, by some copepod species.

Lauritano, Chiara; Borra, Marco; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Biffali, Elio; Miralto, Antonio; Procaccini, Gabriele; Ianora, Adrianna



Copepod grazing during spring blooms: Can Pseudocalanus newmani induce trophic cascades?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During late winter and spring of 2002 and 2003, 24 two- to three-day cruises were conducted to Dabob Bay, Washington State, USA, to examine the grazing, egg production, and hatching success rates of adult female Calanus pacificus and Pseudocalanus newmani. Here, we discuss the results of our grazing experiments for P. newmani. Each week, we conducted traditional microzooplankton dilution experiments and “copepod dilution” experiments, each from two different layers. Grazing was measured by changes in chlorophyll concentration and direct cell counts. Clearance rates on individual prey species, as calculated by cell counts, showed that Pseudocalanus are highly selective in their feeding, and may have much higher grazing rates on individual taxa than calculated from bulk chlorophyll disappearance. The grazing rates of the copepods, however, are typically an order of magnitude lower than the grazing rates of the microzooplankton community, or the growth rates of the phytoplankton. P. newmani ingested diatoms, but, at certain times fed preferentially on microzooplankton, such as ciliates, tintinnids, and larger dinoflagellates. Removal of the microzooplankton may have released the other phytoplankton species from grazing pressure, allowing those species’ abundance to increase, which was measured as an apparent “negative” grazing on those phytoplankton species. The net result of grazing on some phytoplankton species, while simultaneously releasing others from grazing pressure resulted in bulk chlorophyll-derived estimates of grazing which were essentially zero or slightly negative; thus bulk chlorophyll disappearance is a poor indicator of copepod grazing. Whether copepods can significantly release phytoplankton from the grazing pressure by microzooplankton in situ, thus causing a trophic cascade, remains to be verified, but is suggested by our study.

Leising, Andrew W.; Pierson, James J.; Halsband-Lenk, Claudia; Horner, Rita; Postel, James



Intermittent turbulence and copepod dynamics: Increase in encounter rates through preferential concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulence has a strong influence on plankton contact rate, which is a crucial parameter for plankton ecology. In the field of particle-turbulence interactions, it is now well known that fully developed turbulence does not always homogenise particle distributions, but instead creates, in some well-defined conditions, preferential concentrations of heavy particles. Many studies have considered the influence of this type of preferential concentration on particle contact rate. We consider here the possible application of these results to copepods, assuming that some results obtained for heavy particles are still valid for light particles. Using parameter values representative of copepod species in coastal waters and open ocean, we numerically estimate the possible enhancement of copepod contact rates due to the preferential concentration by turbulence. The assessment is done by using data from a laboratory experiment: we find from the trajectory analysis of small neutrally buoyant particles, that the preferential concentration effect increases the contact rate up to 140%. We argue that this effect may be more pronounced for higher Reynolds numbers, and may have important ecological applications.

Schmitt, François G.; Seuront, Laurent


Habitat temperature is an important determinant of cholesterol contents in copepods  

PubMed Central

Summary Effects of habitat and acclimation temperature on cholesterol contents were examined in oceanic and inshore species of copepods. The cholesterol content of five species of thermally acclimated copepods was determined, and nine species (representing six families) were sampled to assess the role of habitat temperature. The species selected have maximum habitat temperatures (and temperature tolerances) that vary at least twofold. Levels of dietary cholesterol required to achieve maximum growth were also studied at different acclimation temperatures in a eurythermal copepod. Both eggs and copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus had higher cholesterol levels at the warm acclimation temperature (16°C) than at the cooler temperature (6°C). Neither Acartia tonsa, Acartia hudsonica, Temora longicornis nor Eurytemora affinis altered cholesterol contents with acclimation temperature. Maximum growth rates were achieved at fourfold higher concentrations of dietary cholesterol in warm-acclimated Eurytemora affinis than in cold-acclimated animals. The most consistent trend is the positive relationship between cholesterol content and habitat temperature. Species residing in warmer habitats (e.g. Centropages typicus, Eurytemora affinis) had approximately twice the cholesterol of species living in colder waters (e.g. Calanus glacialis, Euchaeta norvegica). A similar pattern was observed for comparisons of species within genera (Calanus, Acartia and Centropages), with the species abundant at lower latitudes having more cholesterol than the northern congener. These data indicate that habitat temperature is an important determinant of cholesterol content, and cholesterol endows membranes with the stability required for a range of body temperatures.

Hassett, R. Patrick; Crockett, Elizabeth L.



First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A., II



Sublethal stress: Impact of solar UV radiation on protein synthesis in the copepod Acartia tonsa  

PubMed Central

Aquatic organisms respond to environmental challenges such as thermal stress with the rapid induction of highly conserved polypeptides known as stress proteins or heat shock proteins (Hsps). Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm) is an important environmental stressor in marine ecosystems. Here, we present results of experiments conducted with the marine copepod Acartia tonsa to follow the de novo protein synthesis and measure the level of constitutive and inducible isoforms of the Hsp70 gene family of stress proteins after UV exposure. Animals were collected from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA), and exposed to solar radiation (full spectrum), UV-A (320–400 nm) and PAR (400–700 nm), or PAR only, for periods of 0.5–4 h. Controls were kept in the dark. Protein synthesis was robust under all treatments when the copepods were exposed to low solar radiation intensities. Conversely, high solar radiation intensities (both UV-B and UV-A) caused an overall suppression in the protein synthesis of the copepods with no detectable induction of stress-inducible isoforms of Hsps. Immunochemical assays (western blotting) showed that UVR increased levels (3.5–4-fold increase compared to the dark control) of the constitutively expressed 70 kDa heat-shock (Hsc70) protein in A. tonsa, without indication of inducible isoform upregulation.

Tartarotti, Barbara; Torres, Joseph J.



First report of ciliate (Protozoa) epibionts on deep-sea harpacticoid copepods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first observations of ciliate epibionts on deep-sea, benthic harpacticoid copepods. One ciliate epibiont species belonged to class Karyorelictea, one to subclass Suctoria, and one to subclass Peritrichia. Our samples came from the continental rise off central California (36.709°N, 123.523°W, 3607 m depth). We found that adult harpacticoids carried ciliate epibionts significantly more frequently than did subadult copepodids. The reason for the pattern is unknown, but it may involve differences between adults and subadult copepodids in size or in time spent swimming. We also found that the ciliate epibiont species occurred unusually frequently on the adults of two species of harpacticoid copepod; a third harpacticoid species just failed the significance test. When we ranked the 57 harpacticoid species in our samples in order of abundance, three species identified were, as a group, significantly more abundant than expected by chance if one assumes that the abundance of the group and the presence of ciliate epibionts on them were uncorrelated. High abundance may be among the reasons a harpacticoid species carries a ciliate epibiont species disproportionately frequently. For the combinations of harpacticoid species and ciliate epibiont species identified, we found one in which males and females differed significantly in the proportion that carried epibionts. Such a sex bias has also been reported for shallow-water, calanoid copepods.

Sedlacek, Linda; Thistle, David; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Carman, Kevin R.; Barry, James P.



Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Copepod Calanus sinicus Using 454 GS FLX  

PubMed Central

Background Despite their species abundance and primary economic importance, genomic information about copepods is still limited. In particular, genomic resources are lacking for the copepod Calanus sinicus, which is a dominant species in the coastal waters of East Asia. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a large number of expressed sequence tags for the copepod C. sinicus. Results Copepodid larvae and adults were used as the basic material for transcriptome sequencing. Using 454 pyrosequencing, a total of 1,470,799 reads were obtained, which were assembled into 56,809 high quality expressed sequence tags. Based on their sequence similarity to known proteins, about 14,000 different genes were identified, including members of all major conserved signaling pathways. Transcripts that were putatively involved with growth, lipid metabolism, molting, and diapause were also identified among these genes. Differentially expressed genes related to several processes were found in C. sinicus copepodid larvae and adults. We detected 284,154 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that provide a resource for gene function studies. Conclusion Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptome resource available for C. sinicus. This resource allowed us to identify genes associated with primary physiological processes and SNPs in coding regions, which facilitated the quantitative analysis of differential gene expression. These data should provide foundation for future genetic and genomic studies of this and related species.

Ning, Juan; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Song



Differential gene expression profile of the calanoid copepod, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, in response to nickel exposure.  


To better understand the underlying mechanisms of reactions of copepods exposed to elevated level of nickel, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to elucidate the response of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei to nickel exposure at the gene level. P. annandale is one of a few copepod species that can be cultured relatively easy under laboratory condition, and it is considered to be a potential model species for toxicity study. In the present study, P. annandalei were exposed to nickel at a concentration of 8.86 mgL(-1) for 24h, after which the RNA was prepared for SSH using unexposed P. annandalei as drivers. A total of 474 clones on the middle scale in the SSH library were sequenced. Among these genes, 129 potential functional genes were recognized based on the BLAST searches in NCBI and Uniprot databases. These genes were then categorized into nine groups in association with different biological processes using AmiGO against the Gene Ontology database. Of the 129 genes, 127 translatable DNA sequences were predicted to be proteins, and the putative amino acid sequences were searched for conserved domains (CD) and proteins using the CD-Search service and BLASTp. Among 129 genes, 119 (92.2%) were annotated to be involved in different biological processes, while 10 genes (7.8%) were classified as an unknown-function gene group. To further confirm the up-regulation of differentially expressed genes, the quantitative real time PCR were performed to test eight randomly selected genes, in which five of them, i.e. ?-tubulin, ribosomal protein L13, ferritin, separase and Myohemerythrin-1, exhibited clear up-regulation after nickel exposure. In addition, MnSOD was further studied for the differential expression pattern after nickel exposure and the results showed that MnSOD had a time- and dose-dependent expression pattern in the copepod after nickel exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to investigate the toxicity effects of nickel on a copepod at molecular level. PMID:23164661

Jiang, Jie-Lan; Wang, Gui-Zhong; Mao, Ming-Guang; Wang, Ke-Jian; Li, Shao-Jing; Zeng, Chao-Shu



Intraspecific Differences in Lipid Content of Calanoid Copepods across Fine-Scale Depth Ranges within the Photic Layer  

PubMed Central

Copepods are among the most abundant and diverse groups of mesozooplankton in the world's oceans. Each species has a certain depth range within which different individuals (of the same life stage and sex) are found. Lipids are accumulated in many calanoid copepods for energy storage and reproduction. Lipid content in some species increases with depth, however studies so far focused mostly on temperate and high-latitude seasonal vertically migrating copepods and compared lipid contents among individuals either from coarse layers or between diapausing, deep-dwelling copepods and individuals found in the photic, near-surface layer. Here we examined whether lipid contents of individual calanoid copepods of the same species, life stage/sex differ between finer depth layers within the upper water column of subtropical and Arctic seas. A total of 6 calanoid species were collected from samples taken at precise depths within the photic layer in both cold eutrophic and warm oligotrophic environments using SCUBA diving, MOCNESS and Multinet. Measurements of lipid content were obtained from digitized photographs of the collected individuals. The results revealed significant differences in lipid content across depth differences as small as 12–15 meters for Mecynocera clausi C5 and Ctenocalanus vanus C5 (Red Sea), Clausocalanus furcatus males and two clausocalanid C5s (Mediterranean Sea), and Calanus glacialis C5 (Arctic). We suggest two possible explanations for the differences in lipid content with depth on such a fine scale: predator avoidance and buoyancy.

Zarubin, Margarita; Farstey, Viviana; Wold, Anette; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Genin, Amatzia



Intraspecific differences in lipid content of calanoid copepods across fine-scale depth ranges within the photic layer.  


Copepods are among the most abundant and diverse groups of mesozooplankton in the world's oceans. Each species has a certain depth range within which different individuals (of the same life stage and sex) are found. Lipids are accumulated in many calanoid copepods for energy storage and reproduction. Lipid content in some species increases with depth, however studies so far focused mostly on temperate and high-latitude seasonal vertically migrating copepods and compared lipid contents among individuals either from coarse layers or between diapausing, deep-dwelling copepods and individuals found in the photic, near-surface layer. Here we examined whether lipid contents of individual calanoid copepods of the same species, life stage/sex differ between finer depth layers within the upper water column of subtropical and Arctic seas. A total of 6 calanoid species were collected from samples taken at precise depths within the photic layer in both cold eutrophic and warm oligotrophic environments using SCUBA diving, MOCNESS and Multinet. Measurements of lipid content were obtained from digitized photographs of the collected individuals. The results revealed significant differences in lipid content across depth differences as small as 12-15 meters for Mecynocera clausi C5 and Ctenocalanus vanus C5 (Red Sea), Clausocalanus furcatus males and two clausocalanid C5s (Mediterranean Sea), and Calanus glacialis C5 (Arctic). We suggest two possible explanations for the differences in lipid content with depth on such a fine scale: predator avoidance and buoyancy. PMID:24667529

Zarubin, Margarita; Farstey, Viviana; Wold, Anette; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Genin, Amatzia



Effect of Grazing-Mediated Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) Production on the Swimming Behavior of the Copepod Calanus helgolandicus  

PubMed Central

Chemical interactions play a fundamental role in the ecology of marine foodwebs. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a ubiquitous marine trace gas that acts as a bioactive compound by eliciting foraging behavior in a range of marine taxa including the copepod Temora longicornis. Production of DMS can rapidly increase following microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. Here, we investigated whether grazing-induced DMS elicits an increase in foraging behavior in the copepod Calanus helgolandicus. We developed a semi-automated method to quantify the effect of grazing-mediated DMS on the proportion of the time budget tethered females allocate towards slow swimming, typically associated with feeding. The pooled data showed no differences in the proportion of the 25 min time budget allocated towards slow swimming between high (23.6 ± 9.74%) and low (29.1 ± 18.33%) DMS treatments. However, there was a high degree of variability between behavioral responses of individual copepods. We discuss the need for more detailed species-specific studies of individual level responses of copepods to chemical signals at different spatial scales to improve our understanding of chemical interactions between copepods and their prey.

Breckels, Mark N.; Bode, Nikolai W. F.; Codling, Edward A.; Steinke, Michael



Effects of advection on the seasonal abundance patterns of three species of planktonic calanoid copepods in Dabob Bay, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The copepodid stage abundances of Calanus marshallae, Calanus pacificus and Metridia pacifica in Dabob Bay, Washington were followed through two years. Based on the species' life histories, vertical distributions, abundances inside and outside the bay, and the hydrographic setting, times when advection was important were explored. During the first study-year, 1973, advection acted to keep the copepod concentrations inside and outside Dabob Bay similar through the early summer. During the summer, a period of very little advective exchange, the copepod concentrations diverged at the two stations. In the fall, when advection picked up again, the copepod concentrations at the two stations once again became similar. During the summer of the other study-year, 1982, flow of deep water into Dabob Bay occurred. This may have caused some of the differences observed in the abundances of the copepods during the summer of 1982 vs 1973. Due in part to the advective events, the seasonal abundance patterns of the copepods could not be predicted based upon their locally expressed life history patterns. The most striking example of this was C. pacificus. Its population decreased during the spring and increased during the fall, despite having its major reproductive peak in the spring. Advective effects clearly contributed to this.

Osgood, Kenric E.; Frost, Bruce W.



Effects of food quality on growth and biochemical composition of a calanoid copepod, Argyrodiaptomus furcatus , and its importance as a natural food source for larvae of two tropical fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, reproduction and biochemical composition were analyzed for the copepod Argyrodiaptomus furcatus fed on the alga Ankistrodesmus gracilis grown in different media. The ingestion of this copepod by larvae of two species of tropical fishes was also evaluated. The mean peak density of the copepod population was 1369 individuals 1-1 for all four diets used, and the highest was 1387

Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares; Maria Adriana Bachion; Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga


Effects of food quality on growth and biochemical composition of a calanoid copepod, Argyrodiaptomus furcatus, and its importance as a natural food source for larvae of two tropical fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, reproduction and biochemical composition were analyzed for the copepod Argyrodiaptomus furcatus fed on the alga Ankistrodesmus gracilis grown in different media. The ingestion of this copepod by larvae of two species of tropical fishes was also evaluated. The mean peak density of the copepod population was 1369 individuals l-1 for all four diets used, and the highest was 1387

Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares; Maria Adriana Bachion; Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga



Vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the coastal Canadian Beaufort Sea in summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper contributes to baseline knowledge of lower trophic levels that is necessary to monitor the impact of oil and gas development on the Canadian Beaufort Sea ecosystem. As part of the Nahidik Program, the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton was studied along two transects in the coastal Canadian Beaufort Sea in the summer of 2009. Mesozooplankton was collected with 153 ?m conical net in two hydrologically distinct layers - the upper layer which was fresher and warmer due to the Mackenzie River runoff, and the lower layer which was colder and more saline. Two separate mesozooplankton assemblages were distinguished in the individual layers. The average zooplankton abundance in the two layers was 3120 ± 2860 ind. m- 3 and 4200 ± 5550 ind. m- 3 in the upper and lower layer, respectively. The upper layer was largely inhabited by meroplanktonic Polychaeta (752 ± 1038 ind. m- 3) and Bivalvia larvae (228 ± 307 ind. m- 3) as well as by youngest stages of Pseudocalanus spp. (245 ± 499 ind. m- 3). Conversely, the lower layer was mainly occupied by typical marine taxa such as Calanus glacialis (95 ± 76 ind. m- 3), C. hyperboreus (27 ± 12 ind. m- 3) and Triconia borealis (111 ± 81 ind. m- 3). Oithona similis, a widely distributed eurytopic cyclopoid copepod, showed no consistent pattern of vertical distribution (280 and 291 ind. m- 3, in the lower and upper layer, respectively).

Walkusz, Wojciech; Williams, William J.; Kwasniewski, Slawomir



Trade-offs between predation risk and growth benefits in the copepod Eurytemora affinis with contrasting pigmentation.  


Intraspecific variation in body pigmentation is an ecologically and evolutionary important trait; however, the pigmentation related trade-offs in marine zooplankton are poorly understood. We tested the effects of intrapopulation phenotypic variation in the pigmentation of the copepod Eurytemora affinis on predation risk, foraging, growth, metabolic activity and antioxidant capacity. Using pigmented and unpigmented specimens, we compared (1) predation and selectivity by the invertebrate predator Cercopagis pengoi, (2) feeding activity of the copepods measured as grazing rate in experiments and gut fluorescence in situ, (3) metabolic activity assayed as RNA:DNA ratio in both experimental and field-collected copepods, (4) reproductive output estimated as egg ratio in the population, and (5) total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) COI gene variation was analysed. The pigmented individuals were at higher predation risk as evidenced by significantly higher predation rate by C. pengoi on pigmented individuals and positive selection by the predator fed pigmented and unpigmented copepods in a mixture. However, the antioxidant capacity, RNA:DNA and egg ratio values were significantly higher in the pigmented copepods, whereas neither feeding rate nor gut fluorescence differed between the pigmented and unpigmented copepods. The phenotypic variation in pigmentation was not associated with any specific mtDNA genotype. Together, these results support the metabolic stimulation hypothesis to explain variation in E. affinis pigmentation, which translates into beneficial increase in growth via enhanced metabolism and antioxidant protective capacity, together with disadvantageous increase in predation risk. We also suggest an alternative mechanism for the metabolic stimulation via elevated antioxidant levels as a primary means of increasing metabolism without the increase in heat absorbance. The observed trade-offs are relevant to evolutionary mechanisms underlying plasticity and adaptation and have the capacity to modify strength of complex trophic interactions. PMID:23940745

Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Motwani, Nisha H



Distribution and Ecophysiology of Calanoid Copepods in Relation to the Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic  

PubMed Central

Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) affect distribution patterns, community structure and metabolic processes of marine organisms. Due to the prominent role of zooplankton, especially copepods, in the marine carbon cycle and the predicted intensification and expansion of OMZs, it is essential to understand the effects of hypoxia on zooplankton distribution and ecophysiology. For this study, calanoid copepods were sampled from different depths (0–1800 m) at eight stations in the eastern tropical Atlantic (3°47?N to 18°S) during three expeditions in 2010 and 2011. Their horizontal and vertical distribution was determined and related to the extent and intensity of the OMZ, which increased from north to south with minimum O2 concentrations (12.7 µmol kg?1) in the southern Angola Gyre. Calanoid copepod abundance was highest in the northeastern Angola Basin and decreased towards equatorial regions as well as with increasing depth. Maximum copepod biodiversity was observed in the deep waters of the central Angola Basin. Respiration rates and enzyme activities were measured to reveal species-specific physiological adaptations. Enzyme activities of the electron transport system (ETS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) served as proxies for aerobic and anaerobic metabolic activity, respectively. Mass-specific respiration rates and ETS activities decreased with depth of occurrence, consistent with vertical changes in copepod body mass and ambient temperature. Copepods of the families Eucalanidae and Metridinidae dominated within the OMZ. Several of these species showed adaptive characteristics such as lower metabolic rates, additional anaerobic activity and diel vertical migration that enable them to successfully inhabit hypoxic zones.

Teuber, Lena; Schukat, Anna; Hagen, Wilhelm; Auel, Holger



Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants.  


Estuarine waters contain a variety of chemicals which affect to various extents the behavior of aquatic organisms. Little is known, however, on the behavioral response of copepods. The present study shows the results of laboratory experiments investigating the immediate effects of sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly found contaminants on the three-dimensional swimming behavior of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Nonylphenol at 2 ?g L?¹, cadmium at 45 n gL?¹ and a mixture of low to medium molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 40 ng L?¹ all affected the swimming behavior of E. affinis adults, increasing both swimming speed and activity. In most cases, effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted or faded during a period of depuration in uncontaminated water of similar duration. In ovigerous females exposed to Cd and PAHs, effects appeared to be more pronounced during the depuration period, suggesting that carrying ovisacs may impair recovery. We quantified differences in the distribution of swimming speed values by considering the relative frequencies of periods of break, slow and fast swimming and we observed a trend toward faster movements in the presence of pollutants. The degree of trajectory complexity, estimated through their fractal dimension, was unaffected by pollutants. Since both narcotic and non-narcotic pollutants induced hyperactivity, our results suggest that changes in behavior after a short-term exposure may be independent of the general mode of action of the chemicals. The increase in speed and activity resembles an escape reaction permitting copepods to evade stressful conditions. Overall, these results indicate that environment-relevant concentrations of pollutants can induce rapid changes in copepod behavior. Since behavioral processes represent a fundamental element in the ecology of copepods, our results raise concern about the effects of background levels of pollution on a major component of the plankton community. The long-term response of copepods to waterborne pollutants, their synergistic effects and their interactions with other environmental factors need further investigation. PMID:23735933

Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Menu, Dominique; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Souissi, Sami



Trade-Offs between Predation Risk and Growth Benefits in the Copepod Eurytemora affinis with Contrasting Pigmentation  

PubMed Central

Intraspecific variation in body pigmentation is an ecologically and evolutionary important trait; however, the pigmentation related trade-offs in marine zooplankton are poorly understood. We tested the effects of intrapopulation phenotypic variation in the pigmentation of the copepod Eurytemora affinis on predation risk, foraging, growth, metabolic activity and antioxidant capacity. Using pigmented and unpigmented specimens, we compared (1) predation and selectivity by the invertebrate predator Cercopagis pengoi, (2) feeding activity of the copepods measured as grazing rate in experiments and gut fluorescence in situ, (3) metabolic activity assayed as RNA:DNA ratio in both experimental and field-collected copepods, (4) reproductive output estimated as egg ratio in the population, and (5) total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) COI gene variation was analysed. The pigmented individuals were at higher predation risk as evidenced by significantly higher predation rate by C. pengoi on pigmented individuals and positive selection by the predator fed pigmented and unpigmented copepods in a mixture. However, the antioxidant capacity, RNA:DNA and egg ratio values were significantly higher in the pigmented copepods, whereas neither feeding rate nor gut fluorescence differed between the pigmented and unpigmented copepods. The phenotypic variation in pigmentation was not associated with any specific mtDNA genotype. Together, these results support the metabolic stimulation hypothesis to explain variation in E. affinis pigmentation, which translates into beneficial increase in growth via enhanced metabolism and antioxidant protective capacity, together with disadvantageous increase in predation risk. We also suggest an alternative mechanism for the metabolic stimulation via elevated antioxidant levels as a primary means of increasing metabolism without the increase in heat absorbance. The observed trade-offs are relevant to evolutionary mechanisms underlying plasticity and adaptation and have the capacity to modify strength of complex trophic interactions.

Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Motwani, Nisha H.



Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.  


Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis proved to be a valuable tool in these toxicity assessments, and is recommended for use in tropical marine toxicity assessments for northern Australia. PMID:23932510

Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S



Eight new species of ascidicolous copepods from the eastern coast of Korea (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight new species of copepods associated with shallow-water ascidians are described from the eastern coast of Korea. They are Ascidicola secundus n. sp. from a Pyura sp., Enteropsis nudus n. sp. from Pyura sacciformis (Drasche), Mycophilus capillatus n. sp. from a compound ascidian, Bonnierilla yangpoensis n. sp. from Phallusia cf. nigra Savigny, Janstockia truncata n. sp. from Chelyosoma siboja Oka, Pholeterides pilosa n. sp. from a compound ascidian, Pachypygus spinosus n. sp. from a solitary ascidian, and Paranotodelphys unguifer n. sp. from Ascidia samea Oka.

Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong



New hyperbenthic species of Misophriopsis and Misophriella, first record of misophrioid copepods (Crustacea) from Antarctic waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

??Misophrioid copepods are reported for the first time from Antarctic waters. A species of each of the genera Misophriopsis and Misophriella is described from hyperbenthic layers of the continental shelf of the eastern Weddell Sea. The genus Misophria is also reported from these waters. Misophriopsis australis sp. nov. is the fifth representative of this widely distributed genus, previously reported from the North Atlantic, the China Sea, and both NW and NE quadrants of the Pacific Ocean. Misophriella schminkei sp. nov. is the second representative of the genus, known to date only from a single female caught in North Atlantic bathyal depths. Traces of subdivisions on antennary exopodal segments of the latter species suggest that the first segment may be a triple segment, while the second and terminal segments may be double segments. In addition, the mandibular exopod of this taxon indicates that a six-segmented ramus with setal formula 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2 may represent the ground pattern in Copepoda. The presence of parts of a cyclopinid copepod in the gut of M. schminkei sp. nov. indicates that this species may be carnivorous.

Arbizu, P. Martínez; Jaume, D.


A model study with light-dependent mortality rates of copepod stages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is based on an advanced ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea (ERGOM [ J. Mar. Sys. 25 (3-4) (2005) 405]), but with an increased resolution of the zooplankton stage variable [ J. Plankton Res. 23 (2001) 1217; ICES Marine Science 219 (2003) 208]. The model copepods are represented by five stages: eggs, an aggregated variable of nauplii, two aggregated groups of copepodites and adults. The transfer among the stages, i.e., hatching, molting and reproduction, is controlled by food availability and temperature. As usual, the model food web is truncated at the level of zooplankton. The study explores the effects of different parametrization of zooplankton mortality and looks in particular on light-dependent rates. The light climate may serve a proxy for the effects of visual feeding of fish larvae and fish. Different choices of the mortality parameters can result in remarkable differences in abundances and biomass of the model zooplankton and in the timing of its development. It is found that the different choices of mortality affect the development of populations in several ways: Relative small initial differences of abundances at the beginning of the spring bloom are important for the development of the model populations. Higher mortality rates are less important at food rich conditions than at scarce resources. At low phytoplankton levels, the individual development of the copepods through the stages can be faster for elevated mortality rates because then less animals have to share the available food.

Neumann, Thomas; Kremp, Christine



Feeding behavior of large calanoid copepods Neocalanus cristatus and N. plumchrus from the subarctic Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic waters of the subarctic Pacific exhibit a special ecological feature, a virtually seasonally invariant standing stock of phytoplankton (measured as chlorophyll a), that seems to reflect a balance, at least during spring and summer, between phytoplankton growth and zooplankton grazing. The grazers presumed to be responsible for the balance are the calanoid copepods Neocalanus cristatus and N. plumchrus. Shipboard grazing experiments, utilizing both natural suspended particulate material and cultured phytoplankton as food for the copepods, showed that both species have at least three attributes of feeding behavior required to maintain steady standing stock of phytoplankton. That is, the Neocalanus species can feed at the low concentrations of phytoplankton that prevail in the open subarctic Pacific, they feed at similar rates on a broad range of particlessizes including the predominant particles, and they respond to small increases in phytoplankton concentration by proportionately larger increases in their feeding rate. Although both species of Neocalanus attain larger body sizes than co-occurring Calanus pacificus and Pseudocalanus sp., they have morphological specializations that seem to account for their unexpected ability to feed on very dilute suspensions of small phytoplankton cells. It appears that the perpetually low phytoplankton concentrations in the open subarctic Pacific do not permit maximum feeding effort by the species of Neocalanus.

Frost, B. W.; Landry, M. R.; Hassett, R. P.



The fluid mechanics of copepod feeding in a turbulent flow: A theoretical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important area of biodynamics research is the interaction between predator and prey in nature. Several scales are significant for interactions between predator and prey over the life cycle of each organism. A key factor is the encounter probability (group and individual). On the basis of physical considerations, the group encounter probability depends upon the respective patch sizes (on the order of 10s of km) and their relative dispersion (or aggregation) rates in turbulent systems. The encounter probability at the individual level is affected by the relative motion of the predator and the prey and is controlled by the velocity spectrum. In addition, at the individual level, the striking distance of a predator will depend on motility and perception of the prey. Here we address the mechanics of copepod predation on phytoplankton and the coupling with the physics of turbulent fluid motions. Our aim is to review pertinent fluid dynamics, on scales of less than a few metres, to provide a framework in which to consider the role of fluctuating fluid velocities on copepod feeding.

Granata, T. C.; Dickey, T. D.


Effects of dispersed oil on reproduction in the cold water copepod Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus).  


Following a 120-h exposure period to 3 concentrations of oil dispersions (0.022?mg?L(-1) , 1.8?mg?L(-1) , and 16.5?mg?L(-1) , plus controls) generated from a North Sea crude oil and a subsequent 21-d recovery, mortality, and several reproduction endpoints (egg production rates, egg hatching success, and fraction of females participating in reproduction) in Calanus finmarchicus were studied. Concentration-dependent mortality was found during exposure, averaging to 6%, 3%, 15%, and 42% for the controls and 3 exposure levels, respectively. At the start of the recovery period, mean egg production rates of surviving females from the highest concentrations were very low, but reproduction subsequently improved. In a 4-d single female reproduction test starting 13 d postexposure, no significant differences in egg production rates or hatching success were found between reproducing control and exposed copepods. However, a significantly lower portion of the surviving females from the highest exposure participated in egg production. The results indicate that although short-term exposure to oil-polluted water after an oil spill can induce severe mortality and temporarily suspend reproduction, copepods may recover and produce viable offspring soon after exposure. The results might imply that for C. finmarchicus populations, the impact from short-term exposure to an oil spill might be predicted from acute mortality and that delayed effects make only a limited contribution to population decrease. PMID:23661343

Olsen, Anders Johny; Nordtug, Trond; Altin, Dag; Lervik, Morten; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik



Cryptic diversity of the 'cosmopolitan' harpacticoid copepod Nannopus palustris: genetic and morphological evidence.  


Nannopus palustris Brady, 1880 is a free-living widely distributed harpacticoid copepod, which has been formerly assumed to be a single, cosmopolitan but highly variable species. We compared several geographically distant N. palustris populations in terms of their morphology and genetics. Populations from the White Sea (WS), the North Sea (NS), the Black Sea (BS) and two sympatric morphs from South Carolina, USA (SC notched and SC straight morphs), were considered. The NS, BS and to a lesser extent SC notched specimens were morphologically similar and partly coincided to the 'canonical' description of the species. By contrast, WS population showed remarkable anatomical and morphometric peculiarities that correspond to some earlier descriptions. Genetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (28S rDNA) genes demonstrated the significant distinctness among WS, both SC and (NS+BS) populations, the latter two being genetically indistinguishable. Concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees and morphological data supports that N. palustris is in fact composed of several pseudo-sibling species, which are genetically and morphologically divergent. Neither correlation between genetic divergence and geographical distance nor significant intrapopulation diversity was found for these species. Taxonomic status, distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the species within the Nannopus genus need to be reconsidered. A further subdivision of species complexes might have important implications for the analysis of biodiversity of benthic copepods and consequently for the interpretation of their (species-specific) ecological function. PMID:22989315

Garlitska, Lesya; Neretina, Tatyana; Schepetov, Dimitry; Mugue, Nikolai; De Troch, Marleen; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Azovsky, Andrey



Tolerance and genetic relatedness of three meiobenthic copepod populations exposed to sediment-associated contaminant mixtures: Role of environmental history  

SciTech Connect

Meiobenthic copepod populations (Microarthridion littoral) were collected from three South Carolina, USA, estuaries having different pollution stress histories (i.e., pristine sediments, high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon [PAH] sediments, high metals/moderate PAH sediments) and then assayed for survival and reproductive output in 14-d exposures to pristine and heavily PAH/metals-contaminated sediment mixture exhibited differential survival and reproductive outputs as a function of previous environmental histories and whether genetic relatedness among populations measured as DNA sequences of the mitochondrial gene, cytochrome apoenzyme b, were linked to copepod contaminant tolerance. Overall, adult survival and reproductive success in contaminated sediments were significantly reduced relative to controls for all three populations irrespective of environmental histories. Differential resistance to sediment-contaminant mixtures by the two copepod populations inhabiting the contaminated sites was not found, despite their previous exposures to mixed contaminants at {Sigma}PAH and {Sigma}Metal concentrations of 7,287 to 2,467 ng/g dry wt and 461 to 3,497 {micro}g/g, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation, however, was found between copepod populations from the control and the two contaminated sites. Generally, cross-population survival and reproductive outputs were not significantly different and could not be linked to genetic differentiation at the population level.

Kovatch, C.E.; Schizas, N.V.; Chandler, G.T.; Coull, B.C.; Quattro, J.M.



Short-term temporal variation in population structure of two harpacticoid copepods, Zausodes arenicolus and Paradactylopodia brevicornis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of the population biology of two harpacticoid copepod species [Zausodes arenicolus Wilson and Paradactylopodia brevicornis (Claus)] living in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, were studied on time scales of hours to days during November 1983. Fluctuations in population agestructure, adult sex-ratio, and proportion of ovigerous females were determined for these two species in a control plot and in an experimental

J. C. Kern; S. S. Bell



The use of harpacticoid copepods as live prey for Amphiprion clarkii larviculture: Effects on larval survival and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe spp as prey in Amphiprion clarkii larviculture. After hatching, A. clarkii larvae were divided in four experimental groups for feeding studies as follows: group A (control group) fed rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) followed by Artemia nauplii; group B fed a mixed diet of rotifers and

I. Olivotto; F. Capriotti; I. Buttino; A. M. Avella; V. Vitiello; F. Maradonna; O. Carnevali



Salinity acclimation and free amino acid enrichment of copepod nauplii for first-feeding of larval marine fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live foods used in a marine fish hatchery must provide the nutrients needed for the rapidly developing larvae. Marine pelagic fish eggs can contain up to 50% of their total amino acid pool as free amino acids (FAA), of which most is used up shortly after the onset of exogenous feeding as a source of energy. Copepod nauplii are richer

L. C. Lindley; R. P. Phelps; D. A. Davis; K. A. Cummins



Two new species of siphonostomatoid copepods (crustacea) associated with the stoloniferan coral tubipora musica (Linnaeus) from Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species of siphonostomatoid copepods, Asterocheres tubiporae n. sp. and Entomopsyllus stocki n. sp., associated with the stoloniferan coral Tubipora musica (Linnaeus) are described from Madagascar. Asterocheres tubiporae is characterized by the possession of a large posteroventral process on the caudal ramus and the elongated free segment of leg 5. Entomopsyllus stocki is readily distinguished from its congeners by



Suppression subtractive hybridization library prepared from the copepod Calanus finmarchicus exposed to a sublethal mixture of environmental stressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A library of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was constructed by the use of suppression subtractive hybridization polymerase chain reaction (SSH PCR) technique from the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Samples used were from controls (seawater, 10 °C) and exposed (sublethal mixture) individuals. The sublethal exposure regime consisted of a mixture of mono ethanol amine (MEA), water-soluble fractions of oil (WSFs), copper (Cu)

Bjørn Henrik Hansen; Dag Altin; Trond Nordtug; Anders J. Olsen



Expression of glutathione S-transferase ( GST) genes in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to trace metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus has been recognized as a potential model species for marine pollution toxicity testing. Toxicity ranges of several biocides, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and trace metals are known in T. japonicus. A large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic DNA are also sequenced from T. japonicus. In this study, expression of ten glutathione S-transferase (GST)

Kyun-Woo Lee; Sheikh Raisuddin; Jae-Sung Rhee; Dae-Sik Hwang; In Tag Yu; Young-Mi Lee; Heum Gi Park; Jae-Seong Lee



Ingestion of 15 N 2 -labelled Trichodesmium spp. and ammonium regeneration by the harpacticoid copepod Macrosetella gracilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pelagic harpacticoid copepod, Macrosetella gracilis (A. Scott), is found in association with colonies of the nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic), bloomforming cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. in tropical and subtropical waters. M. gracilis is one of the few direct grazers of these often toxic cyanobacteria. Experiments investigating NH+4regeneration by M. gracilis were conducted in the Caribbean in September 1992 and the Coral Sea, Australia

J. M. O'Neil; P. M. Metzler; P. M. Glibert



Calanoid copepods assemblages in Pearl River Estuary of China in summer: Relationships between species distribution and environmental variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the relationships between species distribution and environmental variables, calanoid copepods were classified and enumerated, and environmental variables were analyzed along 91 sites of the Pearl River Estuary (China) and adjacent waters. The 91 sites were divided into 3 groups based on surface salinity: the Inner area had salinity level below 10‰ and was mostly located in the Pearl River Estuary, the Coastal area had salinity between 10‰ and 32‰ and was almost located along the coastline, while the Offshore area had salinity level higher than 32‰ and was mainly located in the open area. Indicator Species Analysis was conducted to identify the indicator species within each group from among all calanoid copepods taxa. We found that the Inner area was characterized by Acartiella sinensis, Pseudodiaptomus poplesia and Pseudodiaptomus inopinus, the coastal area was characterized by Temora turbinata and Subeucalanus subcrassus, and the Offshore area was characterized by Paracandacia truncata, Subeucalanus subtenuis, Euchaeta rimana, Pareucalanus attenuatus, Rhincalanus cornutus, Cosmocalanus darwini, Centropages gracilis, Undinula vulgaris, Nannocalanus minor and Paraeuchaeta russelli. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to identify relevant biotic and abiotic parameters that can best explain the distribution of calanoid copepods. CCA showed that during the summer of 2006, salinity, nutrient variables, especially SiO 3-Si, NO 3-N and DTN, Depth and Chl a were the environmental variables that strongly impacted the distribution and community structure of calanoid copepods.

Lin, Duan; Li, XiuQin; Fang, HongDa; Dong, YanHong; Huang, ZhuoXuan; Chen, JiaHui



The Role of the Predaceous Copepod Parabroteas Sarsi in the Pelagic Food Web of a Large Deep Andean Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parabroteas sarsi is a predaceous calanoid copepod that inhabits both shallow temporary fishless ponds and deep fish lakes of Patagonia and Antarctica. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of P. sarsi on the plankton structure of a deep Andean lake (>100 m depth) and the zooplankton vertical distribution in order to asses a possible vertical refuge

Mariana Reissig; Beatriz Modenutti; Esteban Balseiro; Claudia Queimaliños




EPA Science Inventory

Pure microcosm-cultured populations of benthic copepods were established from pristine or pesticide-impacted Spartina marsh creeks and used as efficient bioassay groups to assess lethal and sublethal effects of sediment-bound pesticide residues. espite a broad data base showing e...


Seasonal fluctuations of the copepod resting egg bank in the middle Seine estuary, France: Impact on the nauplii recruitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine the role of resting eggs in the plankton dynamic of the main calanoid copepods species of the Seine estuary, 30 sediment cores of approx. 10 cm were sampled over one year in the subtidal area of the middle Seine estuary (France). The resting eggs of calanoid copepods were extracted from the 10 surficial cm of sediment, quantified (abundance), and then incubated, either immediately after extraction or after one month at low temperature, in order to determine the hatching success, the type of eggs (quiescent, diapause) and species. Viable resting eggs were found, with total abundances ranging from 0.06 ± 0.05 to 2.33 ± 1.40 × 107 eggs m?3 and higher values in early summer and mid autumn. This study indicated that the production of resting eggs may act in both short-term (continuous emergence, reinforcement of post winter production) and long-term survival (formation of an egg bank) for the key copepod species of the Seine estuary (Acartidae, Eurytemora affinis and Temora longicornis). With a hatching success of 3.5%, 11,644, 710,267 and 52,397 nauplii m?3 month?1 were estimated emerging from surficial sediments respectively for Acartia spp., T. longicornis and E. affinis; demonstrating the significant role of resting eggs in the population dynamic of the main calanoid copepods species in the Seine estuary.

Glippa, Olivier; Denis, Lionel; Lesourd, Sandric; Souissi, Sami



Mosquitocidal activity of Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract and copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides for the control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti.  


The present study was carried out on Solanum xanthocarpum fruit extract and copepods Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, which were assessed for the control of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The medicinal plants were collected from the outskirts of Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The shade-dried fruit materials were extracted by employing the Soxhlet apparatus with methanol (organic solvent) 8 h and the extracts were filtered through a Buchner funnel with Whatman number 1 filter paper. The fruit extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. S. xanthocarpum fruit extract (SXFE) at 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 ppm caused significant mortality of Ae. aegypti. The LC(50) and LC(90) of S. xanthocarpum against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae were 170.91, 195.07, 221.45, 253.18, and 279.52 ppm and 320.62, 366.48, 410.20, 435.16, and 462.10 ppm, respectively. A study was conducted to test whether the predatory efficiency of copepods on first instars changed in the presence of SXFE. The percentage of predatory efficiency of copepod was 6.5 % in treatments without SFXE and the percentage of predatory efficiency increased up to 8.7 % when copepods were combined with SFXE. This increase in predation efficiency may be caused by detrimental effects of the SFXE active principle compound (solanocarpine and solanocarpidine) on the mosquito larvae. Repeated application of fruit extract of S. xanthocarpum does not cause changes in copepod populations because fruit extract is highly degradable in the environment. Therefore, the present investigation clearly exhibits that the fruit extract of S. xanthocarpum and copepod M. thermocyclopoides could serve as a potential of highest mortality rate against the mosquito larvae under laboratory conditions. This is a new eco-friendly approach for the control of Ae. aegypti mosquito as target species. Therefore, this study provides the first report on the combined effect of mosquitocidal activity of this fruit extract and copepods of M. thermocyclopoides against dengue vector Ae. aegypti from India. PMID:22398832

Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Prasanna Kumar, Kanagarjan; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Nataraj, Thiyagarajan



Biosynthesis of coelenterazine in the deep-sea copepod, Metridia pacifica  

SciTech Connect

Coelenterazine is an imidazopyrazinone compound (3,7-dihydroimidazopyrazin-3-one structure) that is widely distributed in marine organisms and used as a luciferin for various bioluminescence reactions. We have used electrospray ionization-ion trap-mass spectrometry to investigate whether the deep-sea luminous copepod Metridia pacifica is able to synthesize coelenterazine. By feeding experiments using deuterium labeled amino acids of L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine, we have shown that coelenterazine can be synthesized from two molecules of L-tyrosine and one molecule of L-phenylalanine in M. pacifica. This is the first demonstration that coelenterazine is biosynthesized from free L-amino acids in a marine organism.

Oba, Yuichi; Kato, Shin-ichi; Ojika, Makoto [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-860 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-860 (Japan); Inouye, Satoshi, E-mail: [Yokohama Research Center, Chisso Co., 5-1 Okawa, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8605 (Japan)] [Yokohama Research Center, Chisso Co., 5-1 Okawa, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8605 (Japan)



Life cycle of Schizochytriodinium calani nov. gen. nov. spec., a dinoflagellate parasitizing copepod eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Polarstern-cruise ARK IV/2 June 1987, in the Fram Strait, dinophytes parasitizing copepod eggs were observed. In the laboratory on board, vegetative reproduction was documented and re-infection of Calanus glacialis and C. hyperboreus eggs was experimentally established. During food uptake, a primary cyst produces successively several secondary cysts, all separating immediately after formation from the primary cyst. In every one of these free floating secondary cysts up to 256 dinospores are formed by palintomy. Re-infection only occurred after a “maturation time” of at least 2 days after formation of the dinospores. The life cycle is compared to that of other similar parasitic dinophyte genera: Apodinium Chatton, Chytriodinium Chatton, Dissodinium Klebs in Pascher and Myxodinium Cachon, Cachon & Bouquaheux. As the taxon under discussion does not fit in with any species or genus known so far, it is described as Schizochytriodinium calani nov. gen. nov. spec.

Elbrächter, Malte



Bacterial exopolymer utilization by a harpacticoid copepod: A methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

Exopolymer mucus secretions of bacteria and diatoms are potential foods for benthic animals. These secretions are coincidently ingested by animals during consumption of microbial cells and sediments. The utilization of microbial secretions was investigated with exopolymer derived from a marine bacterium (pseudomonas sp.) from seagrass beds and a harpacticoid copepod Laophonte sp. from the same habitat. A new technique was developed to examine ingestion, absorption, and absorption efficiencies of these bacterial secretions by consumers. Exopolymer mucus (from the bacterium in stationary phase) was labeled with {sup 14}C, collected, purified, and bound onto bacterium-sized beads. The exopolymer slime coating mimicked the coatings associated with many marine bacteria. Results from feeding experiments where the coated beads were mixed with sediment demonstrated that the mucus-exopolymer secretions of bacteria were ingested and utilized by Laophonte sp. Absorption efficiencies, determined directly, were > 80% in the presence of other food resources, indicating that exopolymer is potentially a highly labile C resource for this animal.

Decho, A.W.; Moriarty, D.J.W. (C.S.I.R.O. Marine Labs., Cleveland (Australia))



An X-ray analytical study of mandibles from calanus pacificus, an herbivorous copepod  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) coupled to the Oxford scanning proton microprobe (SPM) has been used to investigate the abundance and spatial distribution of inorganic elements in mandibles from the marine copepod calanus pacificus. X-ray spectra, elemental maps and point analytical data were collected. The mandible cutting edge is heavily silicified and has associated with it low levels of zinc. Chlorine, bromine and iodine are found in the lower half of the teeth and in the gum region. The mandibular blade is chitinous and low levels of phosphorous, sulphur, calcium, iron and copper are present throughout. The incorporation of zinc and halogens into the cutting edge is discussed in relation to feeding habit.

Perry, C. C.; Grime, G. W.; Watt, F.



Community structure of mesopelagic copepods (>500 ?m) in the Ligurian Sea (Western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of mesopelagic copepods between 250 and 1000 m depth was studied along a transect off the coast of Villefranche-sur-Mer in June 1991 by means of a BIONESS multiple-net sampler. Among the most abundant species at all stations were Pleuromamma gracilis, Paraeuchaeta acuta and overwintering Calanus helgolandicus CV copepodites, each species inhabiting different depth layers with maximum abundances in the 250-350 m, 450-550 m and the 700-850 m layer, respectively. Cluster analysis of the vertical distribution of all species caught revealed three distinct strata (`TOP', `INTERMEDIATE', `BOTTOM') consisting of characteristic species that occurred in the same stratum at all stations. Differences in total abundances of the species assemblage occupying each layer are discussed with regard to predation pressure by mesopelagic macroplanktonic crustaceans and fish. We show that each stratum is characterized by distinct trophic interactions and life strategies, which play an important role in the structuring of mesopelagic zooplankton communities.

Gasser, B.; Payet, G.; Sardou, J.; Nival, P.



Syltodinium listii gen. et spec. nov., a marine ectoparasitic dinoflagellate on eggs of copepods and rotifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syltodinium listii is described as a new marine ectoparasitic dinoflagellate. In culture experiments the species was found feeding on eggs of planktonic copepods and rotifers. The dinospore penetrates the host by a peduncle, and transforms into a trophont by sucking out the egg contents phagotrophically. After detaching from the host, the mature trophont settles down to become a palmelloid multiplication stage. By repeated binary fission, up to 16 or 32 gymnodinoid, colourless dinospores are formed inside a gelatinous envelope. The parasite retains its dinoflagellate (monadoid) nature throughout its whole vegetative life cycle. Even during the trophic and multiplication phase the species remains latently motile. Despite some resemblance to Dissodinium, there are sufficient reasons for the establishment of the new genus Syltodinium.

Drebes, Gerhard



Seasonal lipid dynamics in dominant Antarctic copepods: Energy for overwintering or reproduction?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copepodite stages V and females of four dominant Antarctic species of calanoid copepods were collected during various expeditions to the eastern Weddell Sea in mid-winter, late winter to early spring, summer and autumn. Analyses of total lipid content and sexual maturity showed some general similarities between species concerning the seasonal cycle of energy reserves and gonad maturation, but also revealed important interspecific differences in the life histories of these copepods. Calanus propinquus and Metridia gerlachei exhibited a seasonal lipid pattern with maxima in autumn and lipid minima during spring. Lipid decrease in the females usually coincided with gonad maturation, which proceeded well before the onset of phytoplankton production. This basic pattern was not as clearly discernible in the females of Calanoides acutus and Rhincalanus gigas. In the Weddell Sea, C. propinquus and C. acutus reached much higher lipid levels and seemed to rely more on internal energy depots than did M. gerlachei and R. gigas. The specific timing of reproduction in the Weddell Sea also differed among the species. M. gerlachei had the longest reproductive period, probably extending from September to March, followed by C. propinquus (October-February) and C. acutus (November-March). In contrast, R. gigas seemed to reproduce only from late December to February in the eastern Weddell Sea. Our findings emphasize the importance of lipid reserves for fueling reproductive processes before the spring phytoplankton bloom becomes available. Only a smaller portion of the accumulated energy stores appears to be utilized for metabolic maintenance during the food-limited winter period.

Hagen, Wilhelm; Schnack-Schiel, Sigrid B.



Gonad morphology, oocyte development and spawning cycle of the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on gonad morphology and its relation to basic reproductive parameters such as clutch size and spawning frequency is lacking for Acartia clausi, a dominant calanoid copepod of the North Sea. To fill this gap, females of this species were sampled at Helgoland Roads from mid March to late May 2001. Gonad structure and oogenesis were studied using a combination of histology and whole-body-analysis. In addition, clutch size and spawning frequency were determined in incubation experiments, during which individual females were monitored at short intervals for 8 and 12 h, respectively. The histological analysis revealed that the ovary of A. clausi is w-shaped with two distinct tips pointing posteriorly. It is slightly different from that of other Acartia species and of other copepod taxa. From the ovary, two anterior diverticula extend into the head region, and two posterior diverticula extend to the genital opening in the abdomen. Developing oocytes change in shape and size, and in the appearance of the nucleus and the ooplasm. Based on these morphological characteristics, different oocyte development stages (OS) were identified. Mitotically dividing oogonia and young oocytes (OS 0) were restricted to the ovary, whereas vitellogenic oocytes (OS 1 4) were present in the diverticula. The development stage of the oocytes increased with distance to the ovary in both, anterior and posterior diverticula. Most advanced oocytes were situated ventrally, and their number varied between 1 and 18, at a median of 4. All oocyte development stages co-occur indicating that oogenesis in A. clausi is a continuous process. These morphological features reflect the reproductive traits of this species. In accordance with the low numbers of mature oocytes in the gonads, females usually produced small clutches of one to five eggs. Clutches were released throughout the entire observation period at intervals of 90 min (median) resulting in mean egg production rates of 18 28 eggs female-1 day-1.

Eisfeld, Sonja M.; Niehoff, Barbara



An assessment of three harpacticoid copepod species for use in ecotoxicological testing.  


The relatively short life cycles of harpacticoid copepods makes them appropriate animals for use in tests that rapidly assess the acute, sublethal, or chronic effects of sediment contaminants. In this study, four harpacticoid copepod species (Nitocra spinipes, Tisbe tenuimana, Robertgurneya hopkinsi, and Halectinosoma sp.) were isolated from clean marine sediments, and procedures for laboratory culturing were developed. Halectinosoma sp. was abandoned due to handling difficulties. For the remaining species, the influence of food type and quantity on life-cycle progression was assessed. A mixed diet, comprising two species of algae (Tetraselmis sp. and Isochrysis sp.) and fish food (Sera Micron) was found to maintain healthy cultures and was fed during laboratory tests. Water-only exposure to dissolved copper (Cu) showed that the times (range) required to cause 50% lethality (LT(50)) were 24 (22-27) h at 50 ?g Cu/l for T. tenuimana; 114 (100-131) and 36 (32-40) h for 200 and 400 ?g Cu/l, respectively, for N. spinipes; and 119 (71-201) and 25 (18-33) h for 200 and 400 ?g Cu/l, respectively, for R. hopkinsi. 96-h LC(50) (concentration causing 50% lethality) were also determined for adult N. spinipes exposed to cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, and phenol. A ranking system was generated based on the ease handling and culturing, rate of maturity, food selectivity and sensitivity to Cu. From this ranking, N. spinipes was determined to be the most suitable species for use in developing sediment-toxicity tests. The measurement of total reproductive output of N. spinipes during 10-day exposure to whole sediment was found to provide a useful end point for assessing the effects of sediment contamination. PMID:21305275

Ward, Daniel J; Perez-Landa, Victor; Spadaro, David A; Simpson, Stuart L; Jolley, Dianne F



The influence of contact chemical signals on mate recognition in an harpacticoid copepod  

PubMed Central

Among copepods, reproduction is facilitated by a combination of sensory modalities, such as mechano- and chemoreception. The role of chemical communication in copepod mate recognition was assessed using behavioural bioassays that were based on precopulatory behaviours of an estuarine harpacticoid, Coullana canadensis, and the sibling species Coullana sp. Intra- and interspecific crosses demonstrated that males recognize genetically distinct conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that prezygotic isolation remains incomplete. There was no association between the frequency of mate-guarding behaviour and geographic distance between populations of C. canadensis. However, reduced levels of interspecific mate guarding relative to intraspecific frequencies suggest the existence of a species-specific mate-recognition system. Lectins, which possess strong affinities for specific carbohydrate groups, were used to confirm that glycoproteins on the surface of females function as mate-recognition factors. Information regarding the chemical composition of these molecules was derived from observed effects of lectin binding to females on male mate-guarding behaviour. Mate guarding was inhibited within all tested populations when treated with Triticum vulgaris, a lectin that possesses an affinity for carbohydrates of the N-acetylglucosamine group. Surface glycoproteins responsible for mate recognition in the two species of Coullana may be glycosylated with monosaccharides from this group. Differential responses to lectin treatments suggested that composition of the contact chemical cues vary among populations of C. canadensis and between species. Yet, populations that appeared most similar based on shared lectin responses successfully discriminated against each other in mate-selection experiments. These findings indicate that contact chemical cues probably act in concert with additional factors to promote effective mate recognition and thereby contribute to reproductive success.

Frey, M. A.



Following the invisible trail: kinematic analysis of mate-tracking in the copepod Temora longicornis.  

PubMed Central

We have analysed the fine-scale kinematics of movement of male and female copepods, Temora longicornis, to resolve how these small animals find their mates. Location of the trail initially involves rapid random turning and high rates of directional change. Males subsequently increase their rate of movement as they follow the trail, and execute a regular pattern of counter turns in both x,z and y,z planes to stay near or within the central axis of the odour field. Pursuit behaviour of males is strongly associated with female swimming behaviour, suggesting that quantifiable variations in the structure of the odour signal released by females affects male tracking. The behavioural components of mate tracking in Temora are very similar to those of other animals that employ chemically mediated orientation in their search for mates and food, and we conclude that male Temora find their mates using chemoperception. The kinematic analysis indicates both sequential and simultaneous taxis mechanisms are used by Temora to follow the odour signal. This, in turn, indicates that rather than responding to a diffuse plume, males are following a signal more accurately characterized as a chemical trail, and copepods appear to use mechanisms that are similar to those employed by trail-following terrestrial insects such as ants. While Temora expresses similar behaviours to those of a variety of chemosensory organisms, the ability to track a three-dimensional odour trail appears unique, and possibly depends on the persistence of fluid-borne odour signals created in low Reynolds number hydrodynamic regimes.

Weissburg, M J; Doall, M H; Yen, J




EPA Science Inventory

The harpacticoid copepod Microarthridion littorale (Poppe) was tested for interaction effects between salinity change and acute pesticide exposure on the survival and genotypic composition of a South Carolina population. Previous data suggested a significant link betwee...


Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing



Effects of toxic Alexandrium minutum strains on the feeding and survival rates of pelagic marine copepods Acartia grani and Euterpina acutifrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding and survival experiments with three different toxic strains of Alexandrium minutum (AL1V, AL2V, and AMINAR1) revealed that copepods Acartia grani and Euterpina acutifrons were able to consume all A. minutum strains to a similar extent at which they fed on the non-toxic and similar-sized Scrippsiella trochoidea (strain S. T.). Feeding of both copepod species showed a typical satiation response to

Rauquírio Marinho da Costa; Luci Cajueiro Carneiro Pereira; Felipe Fernández



The concept of specificity in the procercoid-copepod system: Bothriocephalus claviceps (Cestoda) a parasite of the eel (Anguilla anguilla).  


This paper describes experimental work on parasite specificity in the copepod-procercoid system of Bothriocephalus claviceps. Two criteria were used to characterize five potential host species Macrocyclops albidus, Macrocyclops fuscus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Acanthocyclops robustus and Macrocyclops viridis viridis. The first criterion involves susceptibility of the copepods to infection. The results show random or aggregative distributions and variable susceptibilities according to the species. We observed an ethological barrier to infection in M. viridis viridis and M. fuscus. The second criterion involves the growth and development of the procercoid. Three factors modify the profiles of the growth curves: host species, sex and intensity of infection. The growth of the procercoids is density-dependent, whereas their development is independent of density. This last characteristic is interpreted as a factor favouring the aggregation of procercoid populations. The two most susceptible hosts are M. albidus and A. robustus. PMID:3575289

Dupont, F; Gabrion, C



Taxonomy and zoogeography of euchaetid copepods (Calanoida, Clausocalanoidea) from Korean waters, with notes on their female genital structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Euchaetid copepods (Calanoida, Clausocalanoidea) were collected from the southeastern region of Korea and the East/Japan Sea from June 2007 to August 2008. Seven species were found and redescribed in this study: five species from the genus Euchaeta ( E. concinna, E. indica, E. longicornis, E. plana and E. rimana) and two species from the genus Paraeuchaeta ( P. elongata and P. russelli). Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed detailed taxonomic features with special references to their genital structure. The euchaetid copepods show speciesspecific characteristics on their genital structures, in particular on the shapes of genital operculum and genital flange. Their zoogeographies were also discussed. They can be regarded as an indicator species of the Tsushima Warm Current and East Sea Intermediate Water.

Jeong, Man-Ki; Suh, Hae-Lip; Soh, Ho Young



Long-term effects of elevated CO? and temperature on the Arctic calanoid copepods Calanus glacialis and C. hyperboreus.  


The sensitivity of copepods to ocean acidification (OA) and warming may increase with time, however, studies >10 days and on synergistic effects are rare. We therefore incubated late copepodites and females of two dominant Arctic species, Calanus glacialis and Calanushyperboreus, at 0 °C at 390 and 3000 ?atm pCO? for several months in fall/winter 2010. Respiration rates, body mass and mortality in both species and life stages did not change with pCO?. To detect synergistic effects, in 2011 C. hyperboreus females were kept at different pCO? and temperatures (0, 5, 10 °C). Incubation at 10°C induced sublethal stress, which might have overruled effects of pCO?. At 5 °C and 3000 ?atm, body carbon was significantly lowest indicating a synergistic effect. The copepods, thus, can tolerate pCO? predicted for a future ocean, but in combination with increasing temperatures they could be sensitive to OA. PMID:24529340

Hildebrandt, Nicole; Niehoff, Barbara; Sartoris, Franz Josef



The ecological significance of the relationship between temperature and duration of embryonic development in planktonic freshwater copepods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embryonic development times of six planktonic freshwater copepods from Austrian waters (Eudiaptomus gracilis, Arctodiaptomus bacillifer, Arctodiaptomus spinosus, Mixodiaptomus kupelwieseri, Cyclops abyssorum, Mesocyclops leuckarti) were determined at constant temperatures ranging from 1.4°C to 27.3°C. In most experiments the hatching success was very high, low survival occurring only when experimental temperatures closely approached lower and upper lethal ranges. Development times usually

Alois Herzig



An all-conquering ecological journey: from the sea, calanoid copepods mastered brackish, fresh, and athalassic saline waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is commonly acknowledged that calanoid copepods inhabiting fresh water evolved from marine ancestors via the brackish\\u000a water of estuaries, it is less well appreciated that a restricted number of species with freshwater affinities have conquered\\u000a athalassic saline waters. The global importance of the latter habitat has been under-estimated and, with climate change and\\u000a human population growth, it is

Ian A. E. Bayly; Geoffrey A. Boxshall



Vulnerability of the copepod Acartia tonsa to predation by the scyphomedusa Chrysaora quinquecirrha?: effect of prey size and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although scyphomedusae have received increased attention in recent years as important predators in coastal and estuarine\\u000a environments, the factors affecting zooplankton prey vulnerability to these jellyfish remain poorly understood. Current models\\u000a predicting feeding patterns of cruising entangling predators, such as Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Desor, 1948), fail to account for the selection of fast-escaping prey such as copepods. Nevertheless, our analysis of

C. L. Suchman; B. K. Sullivan



Mesoscale structure of copepod assemblages in the coastal transition zone and oceanic waters off central-southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Humboldt Current System, the region off central-southern Chile has relatively high eddy kinetic energy, generating an extensive coastal transition zone (?600 km offshore) in which coastally derived eddies are recurrent features. This energy might promote strong exchanges of water, biogeochemical properties, and plankton between the coastal upwelling band and the adjacent oceanic zone. In this study, the mesoscale structure of epipelagic copepod assemblages and its relationship to environmental variability and the eddy field in the coastal transition zone and oceanic areas off Concepción (34-39°S, 73-84°W) were investigated. Zooplankton samples were collected during cruises of opportunity carried out during the 2006 coastal upwelling season and the oceanographic conditions were derived from satellite data on sea surface height, temperature, and chlorophyll a. The use of cluster analyses and indicator species revealed two main copepod assemblages: (i) species with a mainly coastal distribution, the maximum in total abundance being found nearshore and (ii) species with a mainly oceanic distribution (beyond ?500 km from the coast), where a secondary maximum was observed. Both types of assemblages, however, included species widely distributed in the coastal transition zone. An ordination analysis identified sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a as the main factors affecting the distribution of most species and the clustering of stations resembled the distribution of these variables. Some of the large calanoid species that are common in shelf waters were more abundant within nearshore eddies rich in chlorophyll a and other cyclonic eddies far offshore; however, the eddy field alone did not explain the copepod mesoscale distribution. Altogether, the wide distribution of shelf/slope copepod species in this region suggests that physical and biological mechanisms might be acting to extend the productive area of the coastal upwelling zone.

Morales, Carmen E.; Loreto Torreblanca, M.; Hormazabal, Samuel; Correa-Ramírez, Marco; Nuñez, Sergio; Hidalgo, Pamela



Preferential accumulation of carotenoids rather than of mycosporine-like amino acids in copepods from high altitude Himalayan lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton species have evolved several adaptive strategies to minimize damage caused by exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation,\\u000a but the environmental conditions favoring one strategy or another are not yet fully understood. Here, I quantified the concentration\\u000a of photoprotective compounds (carotenoids and mycosporine-like amino acids or MAAs) and assessed the photorepair activity\\u000a (photolyase assay) in populations of the calanoid copepod, Arctodiaptomus

Ruben Sommaruga



Effects of Phenanthrene and Metal-Contaminated Sediment on the Feeding Activity of the Harpacticoid Copepod, Schizopera knabeni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sediments contaminated with sublethal concentrations of phenanthrene (PAH) and metals (Cd, Hg, Pb) were evaluated\\u000a in relation to their influence on the feeding activity of a harpacticoid copepod, Schizopera knabeni. A metal mixture (at the ratio of 5Pb:3Cd:2Hg) and Cd alone reduced grazing rates of S. knabeni feeding on 14C-labeled microalgae. Cadmium alone and Cd combined with

Soraya J. Silva; Kevin R. Carman; John W. Fleeger; Tonya Marshall; Sidney J. Marlborough



Expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to trace metals.  


The intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus has been recognized as a potential model species for marine pollution toxicity testing. Toxicity ranges of several biocides, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and trace metals are known in T. japonicus. A large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic DNA are also sequenced from T. japonicus. In this study, expression of ten glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes was studied in the copepods exposed to trace metals. Expression of these genes was also studied against exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) used as a positive control with prooxidant activity. Of all genes, expression of GST-Sigma (GSTS) was highly upregulated in H(2)O(2) as well as trace metal-exposed copepods. In the time-course study, expression of GSTS mRNA was more consistent compared to other GSTs such as GST-Omega, GST-Delta1, GST-Theta3 or microsomal GST1 (mGST1). GSTS is predominantly reported from the insects. Coupled with the previous study of the in vitro antioxidant role of T. japonicus GSTS, these findings imply an antioxidant role for GSTS and highlight its importance as a biomarker of exposure to trace metals in T. japonicus. However, further validation and field trials would be necessary to propose GSTS gene expression as biomarker of exposure to trace metals, as for some trace metals such as silver the response was not consistent in concentration and time-series exposure experiments. PMID:18676034

Lee, Kyun-Woo; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Yu, In Tag; Lee, Young-Mi; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong



Evolution in the deep sea: biological traits, ecology and phylogenetics of pelagic copepods.  


Deep-sea biodiversity has received increasing interest in the last decade, mainly focusing on benthic communities. In contrast, studies of zooplankton in the meso- to bathypelagic zones are relatively scarce. In order to explore evolutionary processes in the pelagic deep sea, the present study focuses on copepods of two clausocalanoid families, Euchaetidae and Aetideidae, which are abundant and species-rich in the deep-sea pelagic realm. Molecular phylogenies based on concatenated-portioned data on 18S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), were examined on 13 species, mainly from Arctic and Antarctic regions, together with species-specific biological traits (i.e. vertical occurrence, feeding behaviour, dietary preferences, energy storage, and reproductive strategy). Relationships were resolved on genus, species and even sub-species levels, the latter two established by COI with maximum average genetic distances ranging from ?5.3% at the intra-specific, and 20.6% at the inter-specific level. There is no resolution at a family level, emphasising the state of Euchaetidae and Aetideidae as sister families and suggesting a fast radiation of these lineages, a hypothesis which is further supported by biological parameters. Euchaetidae were similar in lipid-specific energy storage, reproductive strategy, as well as feeding behaviour and dietary preference. In contrast, Aetideidae were more diverse, comprising a variety of characteristics ranging from similar adaptations within Paraeuchaeta, to genera consisting of species with completely different reproductive and feeding ecologies. Reproductive strategies were generally similar within each aetideid genus, but differed between genera. Closely related species (congeners), which were similar in the aforementioned biological and ecological traits, generally occurred in different depth layers, suggesting that vertical partitioning of the water column represents an important mechanism in the speciation processes for these deep-sea copepods. High COI divergence between Arctic and Antarctic specimens of the mesopelagic cosmopolitan Gaetanus tenuispinus and the bipolar Aetideopsis minor suggest different geographic forms, potentially cryptic species or sibling species. On the contrary, Arctic and Antarctic individuals of the bathypelagic cosmopolitans Gaetanus brevispinus and Paraeuchaeta barbata were very similar in COI sequence, suggesting more gene flow at depth and/or that driving forces for speciation were less pronounced in bathypelagic than at mesopelagic depths. PMID:22842293

Laakmann, Silke; Auel, Holger; Kochzius, Marc




EPA Science Inventory

The effects of diet quality on larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) growth and survival are described. The cyclopoid copepod Diacyclops thomasi consumed larval walleyes within 10 min at dense copepod concentrations and within 1 day at lower densities (500 organisms/L). A...


Acute and chronic bioassays with New Zealand freshwater copepods using pentachlorophenol  

SciTech Connect

The suitability for laboratory culture and comparative sensitivity of three species of New Zealand freshwater copepod (Calamoecia lucasi Brady, Boeckella delicata Percival, and Mesocyclops cf. leuckarti Claus) to pentachlorophenol (PCP) was assessed. Acute bioassays used two life stages (nauplii and adults). Acute 48-h lethality tests were conducted at 22 C with laboratory-cultured animals of all species and at varying temperatures with seasonally collected C. lucasi adults. Mean 48-h median lethal concentration values for nauplii ranged from 52 to 227 {micro}g/L PCP for C. lucasi and B. delicata, respectively, and from 106 to 173 {micro}g/L for adult C. Lucasi and M. Leuckarti, respectively. The survival rate in controls was {ge}95% in acute tests, with the exception of C. lucasi nauplii, in which it was 60%. Mean 48-h median lethal concentration values for seasonally collected C. lucasi adults were significantly higher in summer than in all other seasons. Chronic sublethal tests starting with nauplii <24 h old measured time to metamorphosis. Pentachlorophenol delayed metamorphosis in all species. Chronic toxicity values were 14.61, and 104 {micro}g/L PCP for C. lucasi, B. delicata, and M. leuckarti, respectively. The mortality rate in controls was also high in C. lucasi sublethal tests (65%), and of the three species, they were the most difficult to culture.

Willis, K.J.



Trade-offs, geography, and limits to thermal adaptation in a tide pool copepod.  


Antagonistic correlations among traits may slow the rate of adaptation to a changing environment. The tide pool copepod Tigriopus californicus is locally adapted to temperature, but within populations, the response to selection for increased heat tolerance plateaus rapidly, suggesting either limited variation within populations or costs of increased tolerance. To measure possible costs of thermal tolerance, we selected for increased upper lethal limits for 10 generations in 22 lines of T. californicus from six populations. Then, for each line, we measured six fitness-related traits. Selected lines showed an overall increase in male and female body sizes, fecundity, and starvation resistance, suggesting a small benefit from (rather than costs of) increased tolerance. The effect of selection on correlated traits also varied significantly by population for five traits, indicating that the genetic basis for the selection response differed among populations. Our results suggest that adaptation was limited by the presence of variation within isolated populations rather than by costs of increased tolerance. PMID:23669546

Kelly, Morgan W; Grosberg, Richard K; Sanford, Eric



Role of kairomones in host location of the pennellid copepod parasite, Lernaeocera branchialis (L. 1767).  


The life cycle of the parasitic copepod Lernaeocera branchialis involves 2 hosts, typically a pleuronectiform host upon which development of larvae and mating of adults occurs and a subsequent gadoid host, upon which the adult female feeds and reproduces. Both the copepodid and adult female stages must therefore locate and identify a suitable host to continue the life cycle. Several mechanisms are potentially involved in locating a host and ensuring its suitability for infection. These may include mechano-reception to detect host movement and chemo-reception to recognize host-associated chemical cues, or kairomones. The aim of this study was to identify the role of kairomones in host location by adult L. branchialis, by analysing their behaviour in response to fish-derived chemicals. Experiments demonstrated that water conditioned by immersion of whiting, Merlangius merlangus, elicited host-seeking behaviour in L. branchialis, whereas cod- (Gadus morhua) conditioned water did not. Lernaeocera branchialis are considered a genetically homogeneous population infecting a range of gadoids. However, their differential response to whiting- and cod-derived chemicals in this study suggests that either there are genetically determined subspecies of L. branchialis or there is some form of environmental pre-conditioning that allows the parasite to preferentially recognize the host species from which it originated. PMID:23369461

Brooker, A J; Shinn, A P; Souissi, S; Bron, J E



Occurrence of parasitic copepods in Carangid fishes from Parangipettai, Southeast coast of India.  


In the present study, 68 fishes were infested out of 544 specimens examined from six different species of Carangid fishes which were collected from Parangipettai coastal waters. Eight species of parasitic copepods were found on gill filaments, body surface and nasal capsule regions. The maximum prevalence was recorded in Carangoides malabaricus (22.5 %) and minimum was noticed in (2.4 %) Selaroides leptolepis. The intensity of infection ranged from 1 to 1.2. Thus, considerable variation in the respiratory area was observed owing to the attachment of parasites in the infected fishes. Caligus sp. and C. epidemicus parasites were attached to body surface and only one Sphyriid sp. parasites were found in nasal capsule region. It is very difficult to estimate the actual harm to fish caused by the presence of parasites; if this is uneasy in cultured fish, it is almost impossible in feral fish populations. It should also be emphasized that the presence of a parasite does not necessarily imply manifestation of a disease. In aquaculture, some parasites are able to reproduce rapidly and heavily infect a large proportion of fish which may lead to diseases with significant economic consequences. PMID:25035593

Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Venmathi Maran, B A



Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod.  


Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

Barreto, Felipe S; Burton, Ronald S



Cryptic speciation on the high seas; global phylogenetics of the copepod family Eucalanidae.  

PubMed Central

Few genetic data are currently available to assess patterns of population differentiation and speciation in planktonic taxa that inhabit the open ocean. A phylogenetic study of the oceanic copepod family Eucalanidae was undertaken to develop a model zooplankton taxon in which speciation events can be confidently identified. A global survey of 20 described species (526 individuals) sampled from 88 locations worldwide found high levels of cryptic diversity at the species level. Mitochondrial (16S rRNA, CO1) and nuclear (ITS2) DNA sequence data support 12 new genetic lineages as highly distinct from other populations with which they are currently considered conspecific. Out of these 12, at least four are new species. The circumglobal, boundary current species Rhincalanus nasutus was found to be a cryptic species complex, with genetic divergence between populations unrelated to geographic distance. 'Conspecific' populations of seven species exhibited varying levels of genetic differentiation between Atlantic and Pacific basins, suggesting that continental landmasses form barriers to dispersal for a subset of circumglobal species. A molecular phylogeny of the family based on both mitochondrial (16S rRNA) and nuclear (ITS2, 18S rRNA) gene loci supports monophyly of the family Eucalanidae, all four eucalanid genera and the 'pileatus' and 'subtenuis' species groups.

Goetze, Erica



Genetic and Physiological Adaptation of the Copepod EURYTEMORA AFFINIS to Seasonal Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Evidence of significant additive genetic (genic) variance in temperature tolerance of the copepod Eurytemora affinis was derived from several sources. Differences were observed between average tolerances of progeny of animals exposed and not exposed to heat shock in a power plant. Genic variance was estimated using offspring-parent regressions, full-sib, and half-sib covariances, with quite consistent results. Expressed genic variance between male progeny was always higher than that among female progeny.—The pairs of estimates obtained were as follows: female heritabilities first, 0.40 ± 0.09 and 0.84 ± 0.35 (half-sibs); 0.20 ± 0.09 and 0.79 ± 0.24 (full-sibs); 0.11 ± 0.10 and 0.89 ± 0.45 (full-sibs); 0.28 ± 0.18 and 0.78 ± 0.29 (full-sibs); 0.11 ± 0.44 and 0.72 ± 0.26 (offspring-parent regression). There was no evidence of either nonadditive genetic variance or common environmental (maternal and brood) effects, implying that the genetic variance was mostly additive and was not maintained because of heterozygous advantage.—The presence of so much genetic variance is surprising in view of the high physiological adaptation found earlier, especially in females.

Bradley, Brian P.



Genotype-by-environment interaction for salinity tolerance in the freshwater-invading copepod Eurytemora affinis.  


This study examined the extent of phenotypic plasticity for salinity tolerance and genetic variation in plasticity in the invasive copepod Eurytemora affinis. Euryemora affinis is a species complex inhabiting brackish to hypersaline environments but has invaded freshwater lakes and reservoirs within the past century. Reaction norm experiments were performed on a relatively euryhaline population collected from a brackish lake with fluctuating salinity. Life history traits (hatching rate, survival, and development time) were measured for 20 full-sib clutches that were split and reared at four salinities (fresh, 5, 10, and 27 practical salinity units [PSU]). On average, higher salinities (10 and 27 PSU) were more favorable for larval growth, yielding greater survival and faster development rate. Clutches differed significantly in their response to salinity, with a significant genotype-by-environment interaction for development time. In addition, genetic (clutch) effects were evident in response to low salinity, given that survival in fresh (lake) water was significantly positively correlated with survival at 5 PSU for individual clutches. Clutches raised in fresh water could not survive beyond metamorphosis, suggesting that acclimation to fresh water could not occur in a single generation. Results suggest the importance of natural selection during freshwater invasion events, given the inability of plasticity to generate a freshwater phenotype, and the presence of genetic variation for plasticity upon which natural selection could act. PMID:12324889

Lee, Carol Eunmi; Petersen, Christine H



Diversity and abundance of littoral cladocerans and copepods in nine Ecuadorian highland lakes.  


The diversity and abundance of littoral cladocerans and copepods were studied in nine lakes at Reserva Ecológica Cayambe-Coca (Páramo de Guamaní), Ecuador. Six samples were taken in the littoral zone of each lake using a 500 microm mesh plankton conic net. One species of cladocerans (Ephemeroporus acanthoides) is reported for the first time in Ecuador. The diversity (H') and evenness (E) of the lakes were determined and correlated with PCA axes based on their environmental variables. The principal parameters that distinguished these lakes were altitude and pH, an unexpected finding considering that the altitudinal range was very small. Lake size is of secondary importance for this group of lakes. None of the environmental axes correlated with H' or E; nevertheless, a larger than expected species richness was found in a small oligotrophic lake with a high level of DO. Based on our results, we hypothesize that altitude and pH are important factors determining the zooplankton diversity (directly or indirectly) in highland lakes. PMID:18457182

Torres, Leticia E; Rylander, Kent



Climate, copepods and seabirds in the boreal Northeast Atlantic - current state and future outlook.  


The boreal Northeast Atlantic is strongly affected by current climate change, and large shifts in abundance and distribution of many organisms have been observed, including the dominant copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which supports the grazing food web and thus many fish populations. At the same time, large-scale declines have been observed in many piscivorous seabirds, which depend on abundant small pelagic fish. Here, we combine predictions from a niche model of C. finmarchicus with long-term data on seabird breeding success to link trophic levels. The niche model shows that environmental suitability for C. finmarchicus has declined in southern areas with large breeding seabird populations (e.g. the North Sea), and predicts that this decline is likely to spread northwards during the 21st century to affect populations in Iceland and the Faroes. In a North Sea colony, breeding success of three common piscivorous seabird species [black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), common guillemot (Uria aalge) and Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica)] was strongly positively correlated with local environmental suitability for C. finmarchicus, whereas this was not the case at a more northerly colony in west Norway. Large seabird populations seem only to occur where C. finmarchicus is abundant, and northward distributional shifts of common boreal seabirds are therefore expected over the coming decades. Whether or not population size can be maintained depends on the dispersal ability and inclination of these colonial breeders, and on the carrying capacity of more northerly areas in a warmer climate. PMID:23504776

Frederiksen, Morten; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Beaugrand, Grégory; Wanless, Sarah



Interannual variations in vital rates of copepods and euphausiids during the RISE study 2004-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The River Influences on Shelf Ecosystems (RISE) program investigated the role of the Columbia River plume in enhancing productivity in the upwelling zone off Washington during four cruises from 2004 to 2006. Measurements of growth rates and brood sizes of euphausiids and egg production rates of copepods were used as indices of secondary production to determine whether these rates differed (1) among cruises as a function of differences in upwelling strength and (2) with latitude, both within the RISE study area and between the coastal waters of Washington and Oregon. Euphausia pacifica growth rates were significantly higher during June 2006 than during July 2004 and June 2005 but not significantly different between the RISE study area and Newport Hydrographic (NH) Line, Oregon. Euphausiid brood sizes were significantly higher during August 2005 than during any other cruise for both E. pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera; our experiments did not indicate that brood sizes were higher in the northern part of the RISE study region. E. pacifica broods were larger for NH than RISE, but T. spinifera broods were not. Significant differences in egg production rates (EPRs) were found among cruises for both Calanus pacificus and C. marshallae, with higher EPRs during August 2005. EPRs on other cruises were less than half the maximum rates known for these species. EPRs of C. marshallae were similar between RISE and NH; C. pacificus EPRs were significantly higher (lower) in the RISE region in 2005 (2006). Interannual differences in ocean conditions affected zooplankton production more strongly than differences in latitude.

Shaw, C. Tracy; Feinberg, Leah R.; Peterson, William T.



Functional genomics resources for the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus: EST database and physiological microarray  

PubMed Central

The copepod, Calanus finmarchicus is a keystone species for the North Atlantic. Because of recent changes in the geographic distribution of this species, there are questions as to how this organism responds physiologically to environmental cues. Molecular techniques allow for examination and new understanding of these physiological changes. Here, we describe the development of a microarray for high-throughput studies of the physiological ecology of C. finmarchicus. An EST database was generated for this species using a normalized cDNA library derived from adult and sub-adult individuals. Sequence data were clustered into contigs and annotated using Blastx. Target transcripts were selected, and unique, 50 base-pair, oligomer probes were generated for 995 genes. Blast2GO processing provided detailed information on gene function. The selected targets included broad representation of biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. The microarray was tested in two sets of comparisons: adult females maintained at different food concentrations and field-caught sub-adults showing differences in lipid storage. Up-regulated and down-regulated transcripts were identified for both comparisons. Only a small subset of the genes up-regulated in low food individuals were also up-regulated in lipid-poor animals; no overlap was seen between the genes down-regulated in the two comparisons.

Lenz, Petra H.; Unal, Ebru; Hassett, R. Patrick; Smith, Christine M.; Bucklin, Ann; Christie, Andrew E.; Towle, David W.



To eat and not be eaten: optimal foraging behaviour in suspension feeding copepods.  


Zooplankton feed on microscopic prey that they either entrain in a feeding current or encounter as they cruise through the water. They generate fluid disturbances as they feed and move, thus elevating their risk of being detected and encountered by predators. Different feeding modes generate different hydrodynamic signals to predators and different predator encounter speeds but may also differ in their efficiency; the optimal behaviour is that which maximizes the net energy gain over the predation risk. Here, we show by means of flow visualization and simple hydrodynamic and optimization models that copepods with a diversity of feeding behaviours converge on optimal, size-independent specific clearance rates that are consistent with observed clearance rates of zooplankton, irrespective of feeding mode, species and size. We also predict magnitudes and size-scaling of swimming speeds that are consistent with observations. The rationalization of the magnitude and scaling of the clearance rates of zooplankton makes it more suitable for development of models of marine ecosystems, and is particularly relevant in predicting the size structure and biomass of pelagic communities. PMID:23075546

Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, Houshuo



Acclimation and adaptation to common marine pollutants in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.  


Establishing water quality criteria using bioassays is complicated by variation in chemical tolerance between populations. Two major contributors to this variation are acclimation and adaptation, which are both linked to exposure history, but differ in how long their effects are maintained. Our study examines how tolerance changes over multiple generations of exposure to two common marine pollutants, copper (Cu) and tributyltin oxide (TBTO), in a sexually reproducing marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus. Lines of T. californicus were chronically exposed to sub-lethal levels of Cu and TBTO for 12 generations followed by a recovery period of 3 generations in seawater control conditions. At each generation, the average number of offspring produced and survived to 28d was determined and used as the metric of tolerance. Lines exposed to Cu and TBTO showed an overall increase in tolerance over time. Increased Cu tolerance arose by generation 3 in the chronically exposed lines and was lost after 3 generations in seawater control conditions. Increased TBTO tolerance was detected at generation 7 and was maintained even after 3 generations in seawater control conditions. It was concluded from this study that tolerance to Cu is consistent with acclimation, a quick gain and loss of tolerance. In contrast, TBTO tolerance is consistent with adaptation, in which onset of tolerance was delayed relative to an acclimation response and maintained in the absence of exposure. These findings illustrate that consideration of exposure history is necessary when using bioassays to measure chemical tolerance. PMID:25048941

Sun, Patrick Y; Foley, Helen B; Handschumacher, Lisa; Suzuki, Amanda; Karamanukyan, Tigran; Edmands, Suzanne



Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE). In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based prediction needs further investigation.

Lin, K. Y.; Sastri, A.; Gong, G. C.; Hsieh, C. H.



Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE). In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

Lin, K. Y.; Sastri, A. R.; Gong, G. C.; Hsieh, C. H.



Feeding and survival rates of the copepods Euterpina acutifrons Dana and Acartia grani Sars on the dinoflagellates Alexandrium minutum Balech and Gyrodinium corsicum Paulmier and the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica Karsten  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we studied the feeding performances and survival rates of the copepods Euterpina acutifrons and Acartia grani exposed to cultures of the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium minutum and Gyrodinium corsicum and the nontoxic Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. The presence of hemolysins in G. corsicum was also analysed. For both copepod species, high ingestion rates on A. minutum and lower but similar rates

Rauqu??rio Marinho da Costa; Felipe Fernández



Impact of the diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehyde 2-trans,4-trans decadienal on the feeding, survivorship and reproductive success of the calanoid copepod Temora stylifera.  


Many diatoms, a major class of unicellular algae contributing to over 45% of oceanic primary production, are known to induce deleterious effects on reproductive processes in crustacean copepods. This is mainly due to the production of teratogenic oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs). Here we tested the direct effect of the PUA 2E,4E-decadienal (DD) on feeding activity, survivorship and reproductive success of the calanoid copepod Temora stylifera. DD-inoculated cultures induced high mortality at concentrations above 3 ?g mL(-1) compared to controls in both males and females, with males having a higher mortality. Low DD concentrations triggered an increase in female filtration and ingestion rates. Egg production rates and hatching times were also higher in the presence of DD, whereas egg hatching success decreased with increasing DD concentration. Our study shows, for the first time, that the presence of diatom PUAs may increase feeding rates in copepods. PMID:23992954

Kâ, Samba; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Romano, Giovanna; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna



Maternal effects may act as an adaptation mechanism for copepods facing pH and temperature changes.  


Acidification of the seas, caused by increased dissolution of CO(2) into surface water, and global warming challenge the adaptation mechanisms of marine organisms. In boreal coastal environments, temperature and pH vary greatly seasonally, but sometimes also rapidly within hours due to upwelling events. We studied if copepod zooplankton living in a fluctuating environment are tolerant to climate change effects predicted for 2100, i.e., a temperature increase of 3°C and a pH decrease of 0.4. Egg production of the copepod Acartia sp. was followed over five consecutive days at four temperature and pH conditions (17°C/ambient pH; 17°C/low pH; 20°C/ambient pH; 20°C/low pH). Egg production was higher in treatments with warmer temperature but the increase was smaller when copepods were simultaneously exposed to warmer temperature and lowered pH. To reveal if maternal effects are important in terms of adaptation to a changing environment, we conducted an egg transplantation experiment, where the produced eggs were moved to a different environment and egg hatching was monitored for three days. When pH changed between the egg production and hatching conditions, it resulted in lower hatching success, but the effect was diminished over the course of the experiment possibly due to improved maternal provisioning. Warmer egg production temperature induced a positive maternal effect and increased the egg hatching rate. Warmer hatching temperature resulted also in earlier hatching. However, the temperature effects appear to be dependent on the ambient sea temperature. Our preliminary results indicate that maternal effects are an important mechanism in the face of environmental change. PMID:23119052

Vehmaa, Anu; Brutemark, Andreas; Engström-Öst, Jonna



Laboratory and field efficacy of Pedalium murex and predatory copepod, Mesocyclops longisetus on rural malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the potentiality of the leaf extract of Pedalium murex (P. murex) and predatory copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (M. longisetus) in individual and combination in controlling the rural malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies) in laboratory and field studies. Methods P. murex leaves were collected from in and around Erode, Tamilnadu, India. The active compounds were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. Laboratory studies on larvicidal and pupicidal effects of methanolic extract of P. murex tested against the rural malarial vector, An. culicifacies were significant. Results Evaluated lethal concentrations (LC50) of P. murex extract were 2.68, 3.60, 4.50, 6.44 and 7.60 mg/L for I, II, III, IV and pupae of An. culicifacies, respectively. Predatory copepod, M. longisetus was examined for their predatory efficacy against the malarial vector, An. culicifacies. M. longisetus showed effective predation on the early instar (47% and 36% on I and II instar) when compared with the later ones (3% and 1% on III and IV instar). Predatory efficacy of M. longisetus was increased (70% and 45% on I and II instar) when the application was along with the P. murex extract. Conclusions Predator survival test showed that the methanolic extract of P. murex is non-toxic to the predatory copepod, M. longisetus. Experiments were also conducted to evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of P. murex and M. longisetus in the direct breeding sites (paddy fields) of An. culicifacies. Reduction in larval density was very high and sustained for a long time in combined treatment of P. murex and M. longisetus.

Chitra, Thangadurai; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kumar, Arjunan Naresh; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Nataraj, Thiyagarajan; Indumathi, Duraisamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou



Interannual variability in copepod community composition at a coastal station in the northern California Current: a multivariate approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We sampled a single station in the coastal zone off Newport OR ( 9 km from shore; 60 m water depth) on 206 occasions during 12 years: 1969-1973, 1983 and 1996-2001. We used cluster analysis, ordinations, and indicator species analysis (ISA) to describe temporal variations in copepod community composition. Copepod community structure during summer was distinctly different from winter. Cluster analysis showed that the transition between winter and summer communities occurred early March/April in the 1970s, late (May/June) in the late 1990s, but in (March/April) since spring 2000. Seven copepod assemblages were identified: four were found during the summer upwelling season, two during large El Niño events, and one during winter. Interannual variations in the composition of the summer assemblages was seen: most sampling dates from the summers of 1970, 1973, 2000 and 2001 clustered into one group, and dates from 1971, 1972, and 1999 clustered into a second group. The 1983 and 1998 El Niño events clustered together, but subdivided into "early El Niño" and "late El Niño" communities. The summer of 1969 corresponded with a weak El Niño event but clustered differently from both the other El Niño events and other summer clusters. Samples collected during the 1972 El Niño event clustered with "normal" summers. Non-metric multidimensional ordination analysis showed that two axes accounted for 87% of the variability in community composition; Axis 1 was associated with the influence of El Niño events and seasonal downwelling, and Axis 2 was associated with upwelling-induced productivity. ISA showed Centropages abdominalis, Acartia longiremis, and Microcalanus pusillus as indicators of upwelling; Corycaeus anglicus, Calanus pacificus, and Ctenocalanus vanus as good indicators of El Niño; and Ctenocalanus vanus, Clausocalanus, and Calocalanus styliremis as good indicators of winter conditions.

Peterson, William T.; Keister, Julie E.



Spatiotemporal distribution of protozooplankton and copepod nauplii in relation to the occurrence of giant jellyfish in the Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, has been a frequent phenomenon in the Yellow Sea. However, the relationship between the giant jellyfish and protozoa, in particular ciliates, remains largely unknown. We investigated the distribution of nanoflagellates, ciliates, Noctiluca scintillans, and copepod nauplii along the transect 33°N in the Yellow Sea in June and August, 2012, during an occurrence of the giant jellyfish, and in October of that year when the jellyfish was absent. The organisms studied were mainly concentrated in the surface waters in summer, while in autumn they were evenly distributed in the water column. Nanoflagellate, ciliate, and copepod nauplii biomasses increased from early June to August along with jellyfish growth, the first two decreased in October, while N. scintillans biomass peaked in early June to 3 571 ?g C/L and decreased in August and October. In summer, ciliate biomass greatly exceeded that of copepod nauplii (4.61-15.04 ?g C/L vs. 0.34-0.89 ?g C/L). Ciliate production was even more important than biomass, ranging from 6.59 to 34.19 ?g C/(L·d) in summer. Our data suggest a tight and positive association among the nano-, micro-, and meso-zooplankton in the study area. Statistical analysis revealed that the abundance and total production of ciliate as well as loricate ciliate biomass were positively correlated with giant jellyfish biomass, indicating a possible predator-prey relationship between ciliates and giant jellyfish. This is in contrast to a previous study, which reported a significant reduction in ciliate standing crops due to the mass occurrence of N. nomurai in summer. Our study indicates that, with its high biomass and, in particular, high production ciliates might support the mass occurrence of giant jellyfish.

Wang, Lu; Xu, Kuidong



Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles of Paralichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods ( S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than those fed with the other two organisms ( P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others ( P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia ( P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui



Distribution of dominant copepods in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean, in summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton were collected from five depth strata (0-25-50-100-200-500 m) at 12 stations along two sections across the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean in July/August 1987. Vertical and horizontal distribution of biomass and abundance of the four dominant copepod species Calanus finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus and Metridia longa, together with their gonad maturity state, are presented. Egg production of C. finmarchicus, C. glacialis and Metridia longa was measured from concurrent Bongo net samples in the upper 80 m. Four biological provinces were distinguished, which closely agreed with the hydrographic regimes. In the south, the Barents Shelf slope and the Southern Transition were located in the boundary current system of Atlantic water flowing eastward along the Eurasian shelves. They were characterized by the dominance of Calanus finmarchicus. The Barents Shelf slope, representing the core of the boundary current, hosted large populations of C. hyperboreus and Metridia longa. Metridia longa, with its main occurrence in the depth of the Atlantic layer, was the biological marker of this province. The southern provinces were separated from the Central Nansen Basin and the Nansen-Gakkel Ridge by a sharp discontinuity in biomass, stage distribution and gonad maturity of the three Calanus species north of 83°N. This faunistic boundary coincided with a well defined hydrographic frontal zone. Apparently, zooplankton distribution followed closely the flow of Atlantic water below 60-200 m eastward, although the three Calanus species had their center of abundance in the surface layer consisting of polar water, which supposedly follows the Transpolar Drift westward.

Hirche, H.-J.; Mumm, N.


Lipid and fatty acid composition of parasitic caligid copepods belonging to the genus Lepeophtheirus.  


Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites that constitute a major barrier to the sustainability and economic viability of marine finfish aquaculture operations worldwide. In particular, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses a considerable problem for salmoniculture in the northern hemisphere. The free-swimming nauplii and infective copepodids of L. salmonis are lecithotrophic, subsisting principally on maternally-derived lipid reserves. However, the lipids and fatty acids of sea lice have been sparsely studied and therefore the present project aimed to investigate the lipid and fatty acid composition of sea lice of the genus Lepeophtheirus obtained from a variety of fish hosts. Total lipid was extracted from eggs and adult female L. salmonis obtained from both wild and farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) sampled at two time points, in the mid 1990s and in 2009. In addition, L. salmonis from wild sea trout (Salmo trutta L.) and L. hippoglossi from wild Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) were sampled and analyzed. The lipids of both females and egg strings of Lepeophtheirus were characterized by triacylglycerol (TAG) as the major neutral (storage) lipid with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar (membrane) lipids. The major fatty acids were 22:6n-3 (DHA), 18:1n-9 and 16:0, with lesser amounts of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 18:0. L. salmonis sourced from farmed salmon was characterized by higher levels of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 than lice from wild salmon. Egg strings had higher levels of TAG and lower DHA compared to females, whereas L. hippoglossi had lower levels of TAG and higher DHA than L. salmonis. The results demonstrate that the fatty acid compositions of lice obtained from wild and farmed salmon differ and that changes to the lipid and fatty acid composition of feeds for farmed salmon influence the louse compositions. PMID:20206710

Tocher, J A; Dick, J R; Bron, J E; Shinn, A P; Tocher, D R



Microbial colonization of copepod body surfaces and chitin degradation in the sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Next to cellulose, chitin (composed of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine sugar units) is the most frequently occurring biopolymer in nature. Among the most common sources of chitin in the marine environment are copepods and the casings of their fecal pellets. During the mineralization of chitin by microorganisms, which occurs chiefly by means of exoenzymes, nitrogen and carbon are returned to the nutrient cycle. In this study, the microbial colonization of the moults (exuviae), carcasses and fecal pellets of Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) was examined in the laboratory. Results obtained with DAPI staining indicated that a succession of microorganisms from rodshaped bacteria and cocci to starlike aggregates took place, followed by the yeastlike fungus Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud. No differences were noted between moults from various developmental stages, from nauplius to adult. The ventral sides and extremities of exuviae and carcasses were more rapidly colonized than other parts of the bodies. The casings of fecal pellets were frequently surrounded by bacteria with fimbriae or slime threads. In situ studies of chitin degradation (practical grade chitin from crustacean shells) with the mesh bag technique showed that about 90% of the original substance was lost after 3 months exposure in seawater at temperatures between 10 and 18°C. Chitinase activity was measured in the water at two stations near Helgoland, an island in the North Sea. A higher exoenzymatic activity was found in the rocky intertidal zone, compared to the Station Cable Buoy located between the main and Düne island. These values correspond to the higher bacteria numbers (cfu ml-1) found in the rocky intertidal: 10 to 100× greater than those found at the Cable Buoy Station.

Kirchner, M.



Cryptic diversity and comparative phylogeography of the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa on the US Atlantic coast.  


Unexpectedly strong geographic structures in many cosmopolitan species of marine holoplankton challenge the traditional view of their unrestrained dispersal and presumably high gene flow. We investigated cryptic lineage diversity and comparative phylogeography of a common estuarine copepod, Acartia tonsa, on the US Atlantic coast, using mitochondrial (mtCOI) and nuclear (nITS) gene markers. Three broadly sympatric lineages (F, S, X) were defined by genealogically concordant clades across both gene trees, strongly supporting recognition as reproductively isolated species. Limited dispersal seems to have had a major role in population differentiation of A. tonsa in general, with gene flow propensities rank ordered X?>?S?>?F. Geographic structure was found only at large scales (1000-2000 km) in X and S. Phylogeographic patterns in all three lineages were mostly concordant with previously recognized zoogeographic provinces but a large mid-Atlantic gap in the occurrence of lineage X, coupled with its presence in Europe, suggests possible nonindigenous origins. For lineage F, physiological adaptation to low-salinity environments is likely to have accentuated barriers to gene flow and allopatric differentiation at both regional and continental scales. Three allopatric F sublineages inferred a southern centre of origin and a stepwise northward diversification history at the continental scale. The most recently derived F sublineages, in the mid-Atlantic Bight, showed strong phylogeographic patterns at nITS albeit weaker at mtCOI. Applying a crustacean mtCOI molecular clock suggests that A. tonsa lineages diverged pre-Pleistocene but mid-Atlantic F lineage diversification may be post-Pleistocene. PMID:21521392

Chen, Gang; Hare, Matthew P



Acute toxicity of naturally and chemically dispersed oil on the filter-feeding copepod Calanus finmarchicus.  


Following oil spills in the marine environment, natural dispersion (by breaking waves) will form micron-sized oil droplets that disperse into the pelagic environment. Enhancing the dispersion process chemically will increase the oil concentration temporarily and result in higher bioavailability for pelagic organisms exposed to oil-dispersant plume. The toxicity of dispersed oil to pelagic organisms is a critical component in evaluating the net environmental consequences of dispersant use or non-use in open waters. To assess the potential for environmental effects, numerical models are being used, and for these to reliably predict the toxicity of chemically dispersed oil, it is essential to know if the dispersant affects the specific toxicity of the oil itself. In order to test the potential changes in specific toxicity of the oil due to the presence of chemical dispersant, copepods (Calanus finmarchicus) were subjected to a continuous exposure of chemically (4 percent Dasic w/w dispersant) and naturally dispersed oil (same droplet size range and composition) for four days. On average the addition of dispersant decreased 96h LC(50)-values by a factor of 1.6, while for LC(10) and LC(90) these factors were 2.9 and 0.9, respectively. This indicates that after 96h of exposure the dispersant slightly increased the specific toxicity of the oil at median and low effect levels, but reduced the toxicity at high effect levels. Decreased filtrations for the exposed groups were confirmed using particle counting and fluorescence microscopy. However, no differences in these endpoints were found between chemically and naturally dispersed oil. The ultimate goal was to evaluate if models used for risk and damage assessment can use similar specific toxicity for both chemically and naturally dispersed oil. The slight differences in toxicity between chemically and naturally dispersed oil suggest that risk assessment should be based on the whole concentration response curve to ensure survival of C. finmarchicus. PMID:23063079

Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Olsen, Anders J; Nordtug, Trond



Effects of Diet on Growth and Survival of Larval Walleyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of diet quality on larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) growth and survival are described. The cyclopoid copepod Diacyclops thomasi consumed larval walleyes within 10 min at dense copepod concentrations and within 1 d at lower densities (500 organisms\\/L). At initial feeding, larval walleyes consumed both copepods and cladocerans 500-1,100 ?m total length. Postlarva-II walleyes fed four different diets

Kenneth E. F. Hokanson; Gregory J. Lien



Evaluation of Costa Rican copepods (Crustacea: Eudecapoda) for larval Aedes aegypti control with special reference to Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides.  


This study attempted to find organisms for the biological control of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Costa Rica. Copepods of the genera Arctodiaptomus, Eucylops, Mesocyclops, Megacyclops, and Thermocyclops were collected in several parts of the country and cultured for laboratory evaluations. Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides was the most successful species in reducing the number of larval Ae. aegypti (7.3 larvae in 24 h at a density of 200 Aedes/liter). Arctodiaptomus dorsalis, Eucyclops cf. bondi, Eucyclops leptacanthus, Megacyclops sp., and Thermocyclops decipens were not effective predators. In cage simulation trials, M. thermocyclopoides showed 100% larval reduction after 4 wk and adult mosquitoes disappeared after 7 wk. The copepod was able to survive in Aechmea sp. bromeliads under laboratory conditions. In field trials under 3 different climatic conditions M. thermocyclopoides survived 2-5 months in bromeliad leaf axils and 3-6 months in used car tires. In tires, this species reduced the number of larval Ae. aegypti 79, 90, and 99% in tropical dry, moderate, and humid climates, respectively. An El Niño phenomenon affected the results by drought, which apparently also caused a decline in the population of the predatory mosquito Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis superbus. Considering these severe test conditions, M. thermocyclopoides might be a promising predator for mosquito control in Costa Rica. PMID:10612615

Schaper, S



Resource utilization and trophic position of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods in and adjacent to Zostera noltii beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the resource use and trophic position of nematodes and harpacticoid copepods at the genus/species level in an estuarine food web in Zostera noltii beds and in adjacent bare sediments, using the natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Microphytobenthos is among the main resources of most taxa, but seagrass-associated resources (i.e. seagrass detritus and epiphytes) also contribute to meiobenthos nutrition, with seagrass detritus being available also in deeper sediments and in unvegetated patches close to seagrass beds. A predominant dependence on chemoautotrophic bacteria was demonstrated for the nematode genus Terschellingia and the copepod family Cletodidae. A predatory feeding mode is illustrated for Paracomesoma and other Comesomatidae, which were previously considered first-level consumers (deposit feeders) according to their buccal morphology. The considerable variation found in both resource use and trophic level among nematode genera from the same feeding type, and even among congeneric nematode species, shows that interpretation of nematode feeding ecology based purely on mouth morphology should be avoided.

Vafeiadou, A.-M.; Materatski, P.; Adão, H.; De Troch, M.; Moens, T.



Altered grazing patterns in an experimental copepod-alga ecosystem exposed to naphthalene and Kuwait crude oil  

SciTech Connect

The authors became interested in the potential disruption of predator-prey relationships after they observed that naphthalene, as well as a number of oils, changed the swimming behavior of the unicellular flagellate alga Pavlova lutheri (formerly Monochrysis lutheri). Reasoning that alterations in the motility of a prey species would render it more susceptible to predation, the authors examined the hydrocarbon-induced changes in predation success in a simple two-member prey-predator system consisting only of P. lutheri and the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. The organisms were exposed, together, to low concentrations of either naphthalene or Kuwait crude oil dissolved in seawater, and the feeding efficiency of the copepods under these conditions was measured by counting the survival of algal cells. Naphthalene was chosen because it is a relatively simple toxic aromatic hydrocarbon, common to all crude oils and most refined products and their aqueous extracts. Kuwait crude oil was used as a representative oil mixture more commonly encountered under spillage conditions.

Vandermeulen, J.H.



Copepod feeding and reproduction in relation to phytoplankton development during the PeECE III mesocosm experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the frame of the Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III) experiment, reproduction and feeding of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was monitored in relation to phytoplankton development in two mesocosms, at present 1× (350 ?atm) and ca 3× present (1050 ?atm) CO2 concentrations, respectively. Both mesocosms showed rapid phytoplankton growth after the initial nutrient additions and reached maximum chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations around day 10. Flow-cytometry and specific pigment analysis (HPLC-CHEMTAX), showed that diatoms and prymnesiophyceae (Emiliania huxleyi (Ehux) and other nanoplankton) dominated the biomass. Feeding and egg production rates of C. finmarchicus developed similarly in both mesocosms, and were positively correlated with Chla, Ehux, diatom and prymnesiophyceae concentrations. Although the total number of copepod nauplii recruited during the experiment was similar in 1× and 3×, significantly less nauplii were recruited in 3× during the peak of the bloom compared to in 1×. We conclude that the algae responsible for the higher biomass in 3× during the peak of the bloom (diatoms and Ehux), may have been relatively inferior food for C. finmarchicus naupliar recruitment, possibly due to a high C:N ratio (>8). Nevertheless, the 3 fold increase in CO2 concentration did not show any clear overall effect on bulk phytoplankton or zooplankton development over the whole experiment, suggesting a more complex coupling between increased CO2 and the nutritional status of the system.

Carotenuto, Y.; Putzeys, S.; Simonelli, P.; Paulino, A.; Meyerhöfer, M.; Suffrian, K.; Antia, A.; Nejstgaard, J. C.



Copepod Distribution in Relation to Seasonal Hydrographics and Spatial Structure in the North-western Mediterranean (Golfe du Lion)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copepod abundance and hydrography from the upper 50 m in the Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranean) were studied during 1986-88. Seasonal distributions of eight genera and 35 species at 87 stations were analysed by means of numerical classification. An obvious distinction can be observed between near-coastal/neritic stations and oceanic stations. Most abundant copepods were epipelagic and non-migrating like: Clausocalanidae, Oithonidae, Paracalanus parvus, Oncaeidae, Centropages typicus and Temora stylifera. Inverse analysis demonstrated (1) High densities for the epipelagic, non-migrating Clausocalanidae and Oithonidae over many clustered station groups. Paracalanus parvus and C. typicus were abundant during the summer sampling periods whereas T. stylifera was abundant in September. Common were some vertical migrators like: Calanus helgolandicus, Pleuromamma gracilis, Candacia armata and Euchaeta marina. (2) Rare, bathypelagic species were collected during the February and July sampling periods in the upper 50 m. In February this synchronized with vertical mixing of the water column, in July with locally upwelled deep intermediate water, remaining below the thermocline. Relatively high mean subsurface temperatures were measured in December and February. Salinities showed a considerable variation in Rhône influence between the different seasons. Species with mainly herbivorous feeding habits were more abundant than those of more diverse omnivorous or carnivorous feeding habits.

Kouwenberg, Juliana H. M.



Dietary Carotenoids Regulate Astaxanthin Content of Copepods and Modulate Their Susceptibility to UV Light and Copper Toxicity  

PubMed Central

High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans where, among other functions, it scavenges free radicals thus protecting cell compounds against oxidation. Four diets with different carotenoid composition were used to culture the meiobenthic copepod Amphiascoides atopus to assess how its astaxanthin content modulates the response to prooxidant stressors. A. atopus had the highest astaxanthin content when the carotenoid was supplied as astaxanthin esters (i.e., Haematococcus meal). Exposure to short wavelength UV light elicited a 77% to 92% decrease of the astaxanthin content of the copepod depending on the culture diet. The LC50 values of A. atopus exposed to copper were directly related to the initial astaxanthin content. The accumulation of carotenoids may ascribe competitive advantages to certain species in areas subjected to pollution events by attenuating the detrimental effects of metals on survival, and possibly development and fecundity. Conversely, the loss of certain dietary items rich in carotenoids may be responsible for the amplification of the effects of metal exposure in consumers.

Caramujo, Maria-Jose; de Carvalho, Carla C. C. R.; Silva, Soraya J.; Carman, Kevin R.



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulation by meiobenthic copepods inhabiting a superfund site: techniques for micromass body burden and total lipid analysis.  


Microtechniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) body burden and total lipid analysis were developed and applied to determine the first lipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors for a hydrophobic organic toxicant in a meiobenthic organism (0.063-0.500 mm) living in field-contaminated sediments. The total lipid microtechnique combines the standard Bligh-Dyer extraction method with a colorimetric quantification method for analysis of samples containing I to 50 microg lipid. The microtechnique for body burden analysis quantifies PAHs from tissue samples containing as little as 10 pg PAH. Fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were determined for the meiobenthic copepod Microarthridion littorale living in an estuarine U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. Gravid female, nongravid female, and male BSAFs were 0.82, 0.54, and 0.36, respectively, for fluoranthene; 0.50, 0.44, and 0.40, respectively, for benz[a]anthracene; and 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15, respectively, for benzo[a]pyrene. Comparison of nonlipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) to BSAFs indicates that M. littorale bioaccumulated PAHs on a gram lipid basis. The BSAFs declined consistently with increasing PAH log K(ow) for all copepod sex and reproductive stages. Sex- and stage-specific comparisons of BSAFs suggest that differences in lipid content and quality may lead to differences in BSAF values depending on PAH molecular weight and/or hydrophobicity. PMID:12389911

Klosterhaus, Susan L; Ferguson, P Lee; Chandlert, G Thomas



Effects of developmental acclimation on adult salinity tolerance in the freshwater-invading copepod Eurytemora affinis.  


Invasive species are commonly thought to have broad tolerances that enable them to colonize new habitats, but this assumption has rarely been tested. In particular, the relative importance of acclimation (plasticity) and adaptation for invasion success are poorly understood. This study examined effects of short-term and developmental acclimation on adult salinity tolerance in the copepod Eurytemora affinis. This microcrustacean occurs in estuarine and salt marsh habitats but has invaded freshwater habitats within the past century. Effects of short-term acclimation were determined by comparing adult survival in response to acute versus gradual salinity change to low salinity (fresh water). Effects of developmental acclimation on adult tolerance were determined using a split-brood 4 x 2 factorial experimental design for one brackish-water population from Edgartown Great Pond, Massachusetts. Twenty full-sib clutches were split and reared at four salinities (fresh, 5, 10, and 27 practical salinity units [PSU]). On reaching adulthood, clutches from three of the salinity treatments (no survivors at fresh) were split into low- (fresh) and high- (40 PSU) salinity stress treatments, at which survival was measured for 24 h. Short-term acclimation of adults did not appear to have a long-term affect on low-salinity tolerance, given that gradual transfers to fresh water enhanced survival relative to acute transfers in the short term (after 7 h) but not over a longer period of 8 d. Developmental acclimation had contrasting effects on low- versus high-salinity tolerance. Namely, rearing salinity had a significant effect on tolerance of high-salinity (40 PSU) stress but no significant effect on tolerance of low-salinity (freshwater) stress. In addition, there was a significant effect of clutch on survival under freshwater conditions, indicating a genetic component to low-salinity tolerance but no significant clutch effect in response to high salinity. While developmental acclimation might enhance survival at higher salinities, the minimal effect of acclimation and significant effect of clutch on low-salinity tolerance suggest the importance of natural selection during freshwater invasion events. PMID:12905115

Lee, Carol Eunmi; Petersen, Christine H



The first record of two demersal calanoid copepods, Pseudodiaptomus poplesia and P. nihonkaiensis in Korea, with remarks on morphology of the genital area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demersal calanoid copepods Pseudodiaptomus nihonkaiensis Hirakawa, 1983 and P. poplesia (Shen, 1955) are redescribed from Korean waters. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examine the morphology of the female genital systems of four species of Pseudodiaptomus (P. inopinus, P. marinus, P. nihonkaiensis and P. poplesia), revealing interspecific differences. The zoogeography of these four species is discussed.

Ho Young Soh; Hae-Lip Suh; Ok Hwan Yu; Susumu Ohtsuka



Heterogeneity within the native range: population genetic analyses of sympatric invasive and noninvasive clades of the freshwater invading copepod Eurytemora affinis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species are often composed of highly differentiated populations or sibling species distributed across their native ranges. This study analysed patterns of distribution and the evolutionary and demographic histories of populations within the native range of the copepod species complex Eurytemora affinis. Genetic structure was analysed for samples from 17 locations from both the invaded and native ranges in the




Response of microzooplankton (protists and small copepods) to an iron-induced phytoplankton bloom in the Southern Ocean (EisenEx)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics, composition and grazing impact of microzooplankton were studied during the in situ iron fertilisation experiment EisenEx in the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone in austral spring (November 2000). During the 21 day experiment, protozooplankton and small metazooplankton were sampled from the mixed layer inside and outside the patch using Niskin bottles. Aplastidic dinoflagellates increased threefold in abundance and biomass in the first 10 days of the experiment, but decreased thereafter to values twofold higher than pre-fertilisation values. The decline after day 10 is attributed to increasing grazing pressure by copepods. They also constrained ciliate abundances and biomass which were higher inside the fertilised patch than outside but highly variable. Copepod nauplii abundance remained stable whereas biomass doubled. Numbers of copepodites and adults of small copepod species (<1.5 mm) increased threefold inside the patch, but doubled in surrounding waters. Grazing rates estimated using the dilution method suggest that microzooplankton grazing constrained pico- and nanoplankton populations, but species capable of feeding on large diatoms (dinoflagellates and small copepods including possibly nauplii) were selectively predated by the metazoan community. Thus, iron fertilisation of a developing spring phytoplankton assemblage resulted in a trophic cascade which favoured dominance of the bloom by large diatoms.

Henjes, Joachim; Assmy, Philipp; Klaas, Christine; Verity, Peter; Smetacek, Victor



Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu ectoparasitic on the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis with the emphasis on TTX  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 50 bacterial isolates was obtained from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu, which is a common parasite, collected from the body surface of the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis. On the basis of colony characteristics, these bacterial isolates were grouped into six types, of which only two (Types-I and -II) showed a high affinity for adhesion to the carapace of

B. A. Venmathi Maran; Emi Iwamoto; Jun Okuda; Shuhei Matsuda; Shigeto Taniyama; Yasuo Shida; Manabu Asakawa; Susumu Ohtsuka; Toshihiro Nakai; Geoffrey A. Boxshall



Influence of water temperature, salinity, and pH on survival and growth of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serovar 01 associated with live copepods in laboratory microcosms.  

PubMed Central

The influence of water temperature, salinity, and pH on the multiplication of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serovar O1 cells and their attachment to live planktonic crustaceans, i.e., copepods, was investigated by using laboratory microcosms. By increasing water temperatures up to 30 degrees C, a pronounced effect on the multiplication of V. cholerae was demonstrated, as was attachment of the cells to live copepods. These were measured by culturable counts on agar plates and direct observation by scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Of the three salinities examined (5, 10, and 15%), maximum growth of V. cholerae and attachment to copepods occurred at 15%. An alkaline pH (8.5) was optimal both for attachment and multiplication of V. cholerae, as compared with pH 6.5 and 7.5. It is concluded that conditions affecting attachment of V. cholerae serovar O1 to live copepods observed under laboratory conditions may also occur in the natural estuarine environment and, thereby, are significant in the epidemiology of cholera. Images

Huq, A; West, P A; Small, E B; Huq, M I; Colwell, R R



An analysis of a zooplankton sampling-gear change in the CalCOFI long-term monitoring program, with implications for copepod population abundance trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has been systematically sampling zooplankton off the west coast of North America since 1949. In 1978, the 1-m diameter ring net used by the program was replaced with a bongo net, which consists of two 0.71-m diameter nets on a single frame. This study compares paired zooplankton samples taken with a ring net and a 0.71-m or 0.6-m bongo net to determine the relative performances of the two net types for catching calanoid copepods. Thirty-one species and stages were enumerated, along with the category ‘total female calanoids’. Twenty-one categories of calanoid copepods were abundant enough to test for effects of changes in net type. No significant differences between the nets were found after correcting for multiple testing. Statistical power was then estimated for a range of potential net effects equivalent to ratios of copepod densities between the nets of 1.1-3.0. The probability of detecting differences greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 was high (?80%) for total female calanoids, Metridia pacifica, Pleuromamma abdominalis edentata, P. borealis, Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus. For these categories of copepods, any population changes greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 that might be found from the CalCOFI data set can be assumed to be the result of factors other than the change in net type.

Rebstock, Ginger A.


Responses of the chaetognath, Sagitta elegans, and larval Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, to spring diatom and copepod blooms in a temperate fjord (Dabob Bay, Washington)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a broader field study examining the potentially deleterious effects of diatoms on planktonic food webs, we examined the abundance, stage composition, diet, and feeding success of the chaetognath, Sagitta elegans, and the abundance and morphometric condition of larval Pacific hake, Merluccius productus. Our objective was to look for a relationship between spring phytoplankton blooms and planktonic predators, as mediated by their copepod prey, with special reference to possible deleterious effects of diatoms. Zooplankton were collected weekly during February-May and in mid-summer of 2002 and 2003 in Dabob Bay, Washington State, USA. S. elegans abundance was high in summer of both years and was higher in spring 2003 than spring 2002. Larval chaetognaths dominated the population in early spring and remained present throughout sampling. S. elegans consumed mostly copepods. The abundance of larval S. elegans was correlated with the abundance of copepodites, although no relationship between chaetognath feeding success and prey abundance was found. Larval Pacific hake abundance was high (1200 larvae per square meter) in late February and early March of 2002 and 2003 and decreased rapidly in late spring. The morphometric condition of M. productus was not significantly related to copepod abundance. These results indicate that any deleterious effects of diatoms on copepod abundance, at the scale seen during spring 2002 and 2003 in Dabob Bay, did not greatly affect the next higher trophic level.

Fulmer, Julia H.; Bollens, Stephen M.




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract The acute effects of many individual, seawater-solubilized metals on meiobenthic copepods and nematodes are well known. In sediments, however, metals most often occur as mixtures, and it is not known whether such mixtures exhibit simple additive toxicity to me...


Acute and chronic toxicity study of the water accommodated fraction (WAF), chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of crude oil and dispersant in the rock pool copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  


We determined the toxicity of the water accommodated hydrocarbon fraction (WAF), two chemically enhanced WAFs (CEWAFs; CEWAF-C, Crude oil+Corexit 9500 and CEWAF-H, Crude oil+Hiclean) of crude oil and two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and Hiclean) to the rock pool copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In the acute toxicity test, Corexit 9500 was the most toxic of all the chemicals studied. The nauplius stage of T. japonicus was more susceptible to the toxic chemicals studied than the adult female. The toxicity data using the nauplius stage was then considered as baseline to determine the spiking concentration of chemicals for chronic toxicity tests on the copepod. As the endpoints in the chronic toxicity test, survival, sex ratio, developmental time and fecundity of the copepod were used. All chemicals used in this study resulted in increased toxicity in the F1 generation. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect (LOAE) concentrations of WAF, CEWAF-H, CEWAF-C, Hiclean and Corexit 9500 were observed to be 50%, 10%, 0.1%, 1% and 1%, respectively. The results in present study imply that copepods in marine may be negatively influenced by spilled oil and dispersant. PMID:23466279

Lee, Kyun-Woo; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Kang, Jung-Hoon



Evolutionary strategies and adaptations for survival between mosquito-parasitic microsporidia and their intermediate copepod hosts: a comparative examination of Amblyospora connecticus and Hyalinocysta chapmani (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae).  


The epizootiology, transmission dynamics, and survival strategies employed by two mosquito-parasitic microsporidia that utilize copepods as intermediate hosts are examined in relation to the biological attributes of their hosts and the environments in which they inhabit. Amblyospora connecticus Andreadis, 1988, a parasite of Ochlerotatus cantator (Coquillett) and Acanthocyclops vernalis (Fischer) is found in an unstable salt marsh environment that is subject to periodic flooding and drying. Both hosts have distinct non-overlapping generations. A. connecticus exhibits a well-defined seasonal transmission cycle that relies heavily on maternal-mediated transovarial transmission by female O. cantator during the summer, and horizontal transmission via the copepod host during the spring (copepod to mosquito) and fall (mosquito to copepod). Its survival strategies include: delayed virulence, low pathogenicity and high tissue specificity that allow for transstadial transmission of horizontally acquired infections and maximum spore production, reliance on living hosts throughout most of its life cycle with overwintering in the copepod, polymorphic development that is well synchronized with host physiology, and production and dissemination of infectious spores that are coincident with the seasonal occurrence of susceptible stages in each host. Hyalinocysta chapmani Hazard et Oldacre, 1975, a parasite of Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) and Orthocyclops modestus (Herrick) is found in a comparatively stable, subterranean habitat that is inundated with water throughout the year. Copepods are omnipresent and C. melanura has overlapping broods. H. chapmani is maintained in a continuous cycle of horizontal transmission between each host throughout the summer and fall but lacks a developmental sequence leading to transovarial transmission in the mosquito host. It relies on living hosts for most of its life cycle and overwinters in diapausing mosquito larvae. Transstadial transmission does not occur and there is no dimorphic development in the mosquito host. The spatial and temporal overlap of both mosquito and copepod hosts during the summer and fall affords abundant opportunity for continuous horizontal transmission and increases the likelihood that H. chapmani will find a target host, thus negating the need for a transovarial route. It is hypothesized that natural selection has favoured the production of meiospores in larval female mosquitoes rather than congenital transfer of infection to progeny via ovarian infection as a strategy for achieving greater transmission success. Analysis of the molecular phylogeny data suggest that (1) transovarial transmission and the developmental sequence leading to ovarian infection have been secondarily lost in H. chapmani, as they occur in all other closely related genera, (2) the ancestral state included complex life cycles involving transovarial transmission and an intermediate host, and (3) mosquito-parasitic microsporidia are adjusting their life cycles to accommodate host ecological conditions. PMID:16004361

Andreadis, Theodore G



Toxicity effect of Delonix elata (Yellow Gulmohr) and predatory efficiency of Copepod, Mesocyclops aspericornis for the control of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the toxicity, predatory efficiency of Delonix elata (D. elata) and Mesocyclops aspericornis (M. aspericornis) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods A mosquitocidal bioassay was conducted at different concentration of plant extract followed by WHO standard method. The probit analysis of each tested concentration and control were observed by using software SPSS 11 version package. The each tested concentration variable was assessed by DMRT method. The predatory efficiency of copepod was followed by Deo et al., 1988. The predator, M. aspericornis was observed for mortality, abnormalities, survival and swimming activity after 24 h treatment of plant and also predation on the mosquito larvae were observed. Results D. elata were tested for biological activity against the larvae, and pupae of Ae. aegypti. Significant mortality effects were observed in each life stage. The percentage of mortality was 100% in first and second instars whereas 96%, 92% in third and fourth instars. Fitted probit-mortality curves for larvae indicated the median and 90% lethal concentrations of D. elata for instars 1-4 to be 4.91 (8.13), 5.16 (8.44), 5.95 (7.76) and 6.87 (11.23), respectively. The results indicate that leaf extract exhibits significant biological activity against life stages. The present study revealed that D. elata is potentially important in the control of Ae. aegypti. Similar studies were conducted for predatory efficiency of Copepod, M. aspericornis against mosquito vector Ae. Aegypti. This study reported that the predatory copepod fed on 39% and 25% in I and III instar larvae of mosquito and in combined treatment of D. elata and copepod maximum control of mosquito larval states and at 83%, 80%, 75% and 53% in I, II, III and IV instars, respectively. Conclusions The combined action of plant extract and predatory copepod to effectively control mosquito population and reduce the dengue transmitting diseases.

Vasugi, Chellamuthu; Kamalakannan, Siva; Murugan, Kadarkarai



Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host  

PubMed Central

Background For parasites with complex life cycles, size at transmission can impact performance in the next host, thereby coupling parasite phenotypes in the two consecutive hosts. However, a handful of studies with parasites, and numerous studies with free-living, complex-life-cycle animals, have found that larval size correlates poorly with fitness under particular conditions, implying that other traits, such as physiological or ontogenetic variation, may predict fitness more reliably. Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, we evaluated how parasite size, age, and ontogeny in the copepod first host interact to determine performance in the stickleback second host. Methods We raised infected copepods under two feeding treatments (to manipulate parasite growth), and then exposed fish to worms of two different ages (to manipulate parasite ontogeny). We assessed how growth and ontogeny in copepods affected three measures of fitness in fish: infection probability, growth rate, and energy storage. Results Our main, novel finding is that the increase in fitness (infection probability and growth in fish) with larval size and age observed in previous studies on S. solidus seems to be largely mediated by ontogenetic variation. Worms that developed rapidly (had a cercomer after 9?days in copepods) were able to infect fish at an earlier age, and they grew to larger sizes with larger energy reserves in fish. Infection probability in fish increased with larval size chiefly in young worms, when size and ontogeny are positively correlated, but not in older worms that had essentially completed their larval development in copepods. Conclusions Transmission to sticklebacks as a small, not-yet-fully developed larva has clear costs for S. solidus, but it remains unclear what prevents the evolution of faster growth and development in this species.



Distinctive mitochondrial genome of Calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus with multiple large non-coding regions and reshuffled gene order: Useful molecular markers for phylogenetic and population studies  

PubMed Central

Background Copepods are highly diverse and abundant, resulting in extensive ecological radiation in marine ecosystems. Calanus sinicus dominates continental shelf waters in the northwest Pacific Ocean and plays an important role in the local ecosystem by linking primary production to higher trophic levels. A lack of effective molecular markers has hindered phylogenetic and population genetic studies concerning copepods. As they are genome-level informative, mitochondrial DNA sequences can be used as markers for population genetic studies and phylogenetic studies. Results The mitochondrial genome of C. sinicus is distinct from other arthropods owing to the concurrence of multiple non-coding regions and a reshuffled gene arrangement. Further particularities in the mitogenome of C. sinicus include low A + T-content, symmetrical nucleotide composition between strands, abbreviated stop codons for several PCGs and extended lengths of the genes atp6 and atp8 relative to other copepods. The monophyletic Copepoda should be placed within the Vericrustacea. The close affinity between Cyclopoida and Poecilostomatoida suggests reassigning the latter as subordinate to the former. Monophyly of Maxillopoda is rejected. Within the alignment of 11 C. sinicus mitogenomes, there are 397 variable sites harbouring three 'hotspot' variable sites and three microsatellite loci. Conclusion The occurrence of the circular subgenomic fragment during laboratory assays suggests that special caution should be taken when sequencing mitogenomes using long PCR. Such a phenomenon may provide additional evidence of mitochondrial DNA recombination, which appears to have been a prerequisite for shaping the present mitochondrial profile of C. sinicus during its evolution. The lack of synapomorphic gene arrangements among copepods has cast doubt on the utility of gene order as a useful molecular marker for deep phylogenetic analysis. However, mitochondrial genomic sequences have been valuable markers for resolving phylogenetic issues concerning copepods. The variable site maps of C. sinicus mitogenomes provide a solid foundation for population genetic studies.



Comparison of six sewage effluents treated with different treatment technologies--population level responses in the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes.  


Since conventional treatment technologies may fail in removing many micro-pollutants, there is currently a focus on the potential of additional treatment technologies for improved sewage treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different effluents from Henriksdal Sewage Treatment Plant in Stockholm, Sweden. The effluents were; conventionally treated effluent (chemical phosphorous removal in combination with an activated sludge process, including biological nitrogen removal and a sand filter), with additional treatments individually added to the conventional treatment; active carbon filtration, ozonation at 5 mg l(-1), ozonation at 15 mg l(-1), ozonation at 5 mg l(-1)+moving bed biofilm reactor and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide. The evaluation was done by characterizing and comparing the effluents using a Lefkovitch matrix model based on a life cycle test with the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes, combined with analysis of juvenile development and survival over time. The conventionally treated effluent resulted in the most negative effects, leading to the conclusion that all additional treatments in the present study created effluents with less negative impacts on the copepod populations. The ozone treatments with the low dose treatment in particular, resulted in the overall least negative effects. Moving bed biofilm reactor combined with ozone did not improve the quality of the effluent in the sense that slightly more negative effects on the population abundance were seen for this treatment technology compared to ozonation alone. The active carbon treatment had more negative effects than the ozone treatments, most of which could possibly be explained by removal of essential metal ions. The effluent which was treated with ultraviolet radiation+hydrogen peroxide resulted in few developmental and survival effects over time, but still showed negative effects on the population level. Matrix population modeling proved a useful tool for biologically characterizing and comparing the effluents. Basing the assessment either on the individual level data (development and survival over time or total reproductive output) or the population level data (lambda values and projected population abundances) would not have resulted in the same conclusions as combining both analyses. The juvenile development and survival over time allowed for closer monitoring of the important molting process, whereas the population modeling provided an integrated measure of potential effects at the population level. If the dilution of the effluent in the recipient is considered, the biological effects recorded in the present study were not of substantial significance for the copepod populations, regardless of treatment technology. PMID:20022642

Lundström, Elin; Björlenius, Berndt; Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Persson, Jan-Olov; Breitholtz, Magnus



Effect of bis(tributyltin) oxide on reproduction and population growth rate of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full life-cycle toxicity test, combined with histology, on calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia was used to study the effect of bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBTO). The results indicate no sex-specific differences in TBTO toxicity. Long-term mortalities of the copepods exposed to concentrations higher than 20 ng TBTO L-1 were significantly elevated compared with that of control, and larval development was inhibited when they were exposed to 40 and 60 ng TBTO L-1. The percentages of ovigerous females were reduced compared with the control ( P<0.01) after 24 days exposure to concentrations higher than 10 ng TBTO L-1. Histological examinations suggest that exposure to TBTO might block the posterior end of the diverticula and inhibits the production of egg sacs. A modified Euler-Lotka equation was used to calculate a population-level endpoint, the intrinsic rate of natural increase ( r m), from individual life-table endpoints, i.e. mortality rate, time of release of first brood, sex ratio, the fraction of ovigerous females among all females as well as the number of nauplii per ovigerous female. Apart from the highest TBTO concentration (60 ng L-1), where all females aborted their egg sacs, 20 ng TBTO L-1 was the only concentration that significantly decreased r m compared with that of control (an effect associated with decreased sex ratio). The results show that the S. poplesia is affected by prolonged exposure to low concentrations of TBTO. The full life-cycle toxicity test combined with histology experiments provides more integral understanding of the toxicity of endocrine disrupters.

Huang, Ying; Zhu, Liyan; Qiu, Xuchun; Zhang, Tianwen



Diversity and community structure of harpacticoid copepods associated with cold-water coral substrates in the Porcupine Seabight (North-East Atlantic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of microhabitat type on the diversity and community structure of the harpacticoid copepod fauna associated with\\u000a a cold-water coral degradation zone was investigated in the Porcupine Seabight (North-East Atlantic). Three substrate types\\u000a were distinguished: dead fragments of the cold-water coral Lophelia\\u000a pertusa, skeletons of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes bocagei and the underlying sediment. At the family level, it

Hendrik Gheerardyn; Marleen De Troch; Magda Vincx; Ann Vanreusel



Molecular taxonomy confirms morphological classification of deep-sea hydrothermal vent copepods (Dirivultidae) and suggests broad physiological tolerance of species and frequent dispersal along ridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dirivultid copepods are among the most successful organisms at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, as this family includes 50 morphologically\\u000a described species. We studied COI diversity of some species in various geographical areas and vent fluid regimes, in order\\u000a to gain a better understanding of true species diversity, dispersal strategies, and evolution. DNA taxonomy revealed the same\\u000a entities as described with morphological

Sabine Gollner; Diego Fontaneto; Pedro Martínez Arbizu



Individual-based models of copepod populations in coastal upwelling regions: implications of physiologically and environmentally influenced diel vertical migration on demographic success and nearshore retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

We link a two-dimension coastal upwelling circulation hydrodynamic-ecosystem (NPZ) model with an individual-based model (IBM) for an intermediate sized (ca. 2.5 mm) copepod capable of diel vertical migration (DVM) at larger sizes. The NPZ model is that of Franks, Wroblewski and Flierl (1986), with the zooplankton state variable parameterized for macrozooplankton. IBM simulations are done with different scenarios for behavioral

Harold P. Batchelder; Christopher A. Edwards; Thomas M. Powell



Attenuation of the vertical flux of copepod fecal pellets under Arctic sea ice: evidence for an active detrital food web in winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variable fraction of fecal pellets produced in the epipelagic layer is intercepted and retained before reaching the bottom.\\u000a We assessed fecal pellet retention in the ice-covered Beaufort Sea in early February by comparing the shape and size-frequency\\u000a distribution of pellets collected by a sediment trap moored at 210 m to that produced in vitro. Appendicularian ellipsoidal\\u000a and copepod cylindrical pellets

Makoto Sampei; Alexandre Forest; Hiroshi Sasaki; Hiroshi Hattori; Ryosuke Makabe; Mitsuo Fukuchi; Louis Fortier



Effects of temperature and nutritional state on the toxicity of acridine to the calanoid copepod, Diaptomus clavipes Schacht. [Diaptomus claripes, Daphnia magna  

SciTech Connect

Acute and chronic bioassays were performed on the calanoid copepod, Diaptomus clavipes, using the azaarene, acridine, as the test compound. Tests were performed at three temperatures (16/sup 0/, 21/sup 0/, 26/sup 0/C) and over a range of nutritional conditions. Survival, growth, development, and reproduction were all affected by exposure to acridine. These effects were modified by temperature and nutritional state of the animals.

Cooney, J.D.; Gehrs, C.W.; Bunting, D.L. II



Evidence for the copepods Acanthocyclops robustus and Mesocyclops edax as competent intermediate hosts for Coelomomyces punctatus during an epizootic in a larval population of the mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus.  


Field and laboratory experiments were conducted during an epizootic of Coelomomyces punctatus (Chytridiomycetes: Blastocladiales) in a population of the mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus in a North Carolina farm pond to examine the interactions of several potential copepod hosts with the mosquito and fungus. The diel vertical migratory behavior of the copepod species Acanthocyclops robustus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Macrocyclops albidus, and Mesocyclops edax were monitored in relation to infection rates in sentinel mosquito larvae. Mosquito infection occurred primarily around dusk, the same period during which A. robustus and E. serrulatus were most abundant near the surface of the pond. However, exposure of A. robustus, E. serrulatus, M. albidus, M. edax, Microcyclops varicans, and Paracyclops poppei to fungal meiospores in the laboratory showed that only A. robustus and M. edax were competent intermediate hosts for C. punctatus. Laboratory studies of the diel periodicity of gametangial dehiscence in A. robustus and M. edax infected with C. punctatus revealed that gamete release and zygote formation also occurred around dusk. The combined results of the laboratory and field studies on copepod abundance, susceptibility to infection, and periodicity of gametangial dehiscence suggest that A. robustus was the principal intermediate host for C. punctatus during the epizootic, though it is probable that M. edax also contributed importantly to the overall rate of larval infection. PMID:1431194

Apperson, C S; Federici, B A; Stewart, W; Tarver, F R



Short-term changes in population structure and vertical distribution of mesopelagic copepods during the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Oyashio region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the responses to the spring phytoplankton bloom, short-term changes in population structure and vertical distribution of mesopelagic copepods (Gaetanus simplex, Gaidius variabilis, Pleuromamma scutullata, Paraeuchaeta elongata, P. birostrata, Heterorhabdus tanneri and Heterostylites major) were studied in the Oyashio region. Samples were collected with a 60 ?m mesh VMPS from 9 strata between 0 and 1000 m both day and night on five occasions during March-April 2007. All the species except Heterorhabdidae species performed reproduction during the spring phytoplankton bloom, while no recruitment to copepodid stages was detected because the newly born individuals were eggs or nauplii. The shallower-living species, G. simplex, P. scutullata and P. elongata had nocturnal ascent diel vertical migration (DVM). While suspension feeding copepods cease DVM after 11 April (P. scutullata) or 23 April (G. simplex), carnivorous P. elongata continued DVM over the study period. Since the gut contents of G. simplex showed a nocturnal increment even in the period of no DVM (23 and 29 April), they might be feeding at depth without DVM. Thus, the cessation of DVM in mesopelagic suspension feeding copepods would be induced by the increase of sinking particles (e.g. food for suspension feeders) during the spring phytoplankton bloom.

Abe, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Ken-ichiro; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Imai, Ichiro


The influence of phytoplankton productivity, temperature and environmental stability on the control of copepod diversity in the North East Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patterns of copepod species richness (S) and their relationship with phytoplankton productivity, temperature and environmental stability were investigated at climatological, seasonal and year-to-year time scales as well as scales along latitudinal and oceanic-neritic gradients using monthly time series of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) Survey collected in the North East Atlantic between 1958 and 2006. Time series analyses confirmed previously described geographic patterns. Equatorward and towards neritic environments, the climatological average of S increases and the variance explained by the seasonal cycle decreases. The bi-modal character of seasonality increases equatorward and the timing of the seasonal cycle takes place progressive earlier equatorward and towards neritic environments. In the long-term, the climatological average of S decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between 1958 and 2006 in the Bay of Biscay and North Iberian shelf at a rate of ca. 0.04 year-1, and increased at the same rate between 1991 and 2006 in the northernmost oceanic location. The climatological averages of S correlate positively with those of the index of seasonality of phytoplankton productivity (ratio between the minimum and maximum monthly values of surface chlorophyll) and sea surface temperature, and negatively with those of the proxy for environmental stability (monthly frequency of occurrence of daily averaged wind speed exceeding 10 m s-1). The seasonal cycles of S and phytoplankton productivity (surface chlorophyll as proxy) exhibit similar features in terms of shape, timing and explained variance, but the relationship between the climatological averages of both variables is non-significant. From year-to-year, the annual averages of S correlate negatively with those of phytoplankton productivity and positively with those of sea surface temperature along the latitudinal gradient, and negatively with those of environmental stability along the oceanic-neritic gradient. The annual anomalies of S (i.e. factoring out geographic variation) show a unimodal relationship with those of sea surface temperature and environmental stability, with S peaking at intermediate values of the anomalies of these variables. The results evidence the role of seasonality of phytoplankton productivity on the control of copepod species richness at seasonal and climatological scales, giving support to the species richness-productivity hypothesis. Although sea surface temperature (SST) is indeed a good predictor of richness along the latitudinal gradient, it is unable to predict the increase of richness form oceanic to neritic environments, thus lessening the generality of the species richness-energy hypothesis. Meteo-hydrographic disturbances (i.e. SST and wind speed anomalies as proxies), presumably through its role on mixed layer depth dynamics and turbulence and hence productivity, maximise local diversity when occurring at intermediate frequency and or intensity, thus providing support to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis on the control of copepod diversity.

Nogueira, Enrique; González-Nuevo, Gonzalo; Valdés, Luis



Gamma rays induce DNA damage and oxidative stress associated with impaired growth and reproduction in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  


Nuclear radioisotope accidents are potentially ecologically devastating due to their impact on marine organisms. To examine the effects of exposure of a marine organism to radioisotopes, we irradiated the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus with several doses of gamma radiation and analyzed the effects on mortality, fecundity, and molting by assessing antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression patterns. No mortality was observed at 96h, even in response to exposure to a high dose (800Gy) of radiation, but mortality rate was significantly increased 120h (5 days) after exposure to 600 or 800Gy gamma ray radiation. We observed a dose-dependent reduction in fecundity of ovigerous females; even the group irradiated with 50Gy showed a significant reduction in fecundity, suggesting that gamma rays are likely to have a population level effect. In addition, we observed growth retardation, particularly at the nauplius stage, in individuals after gamma irradiation. In fact, nauplii irradiated with more than 200Gy, though able to molt to copepodite stage 1, did not develop into adults. Upon gamma radiation, T. japonicus showed a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, and expression of double-stranded DNA break damage genes (e.g. DNA-PK, Ku70, Ku80). At a low level (sub-lethal dose) of gamma irradiation, we found dose-dependent upregulation of p53, implying cellular damage in T. japonicus in response to sub-lethal doses of gamma irradiation, suggesting that T. japonicus is not susceptible to sub-lethal doses of gamma irradiation. Additionally, antioxidant genes, phase II enzyme (e.g. GSTs), and cellular chaperone genes (e.g. Hsps) that are involved in cellular defense mechanisms also showed the same expression patterns for sublethal doses of gamma irradiation (50-200Gy). These findings indicate that sublethal doses of gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage and increase the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins with chaperone-related functions, thereby significantly affecting life history parameters such as fecundity and molting in the copepod T. japonicus. PMID:24800869

Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Bo-Young; Hwang, Un-Ki; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Lee, Yong Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong



Meiobenthic diversity in space and time: The case of harpacticoid copepods in two Mediterranean microtidal sandy beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meiobenthic data from two microtidal sandy beaches of the eastern Mediterranean (Crete, Greece) were used to investigate patterns of both alpha and beta diversity in space and time. Copepod assemblages and environmental variables related to sediment characteristics, morphodynamics and food were studied over a year at four distinct habitats at each beach; the retention, resurgence and saturation zones of Salvat's intertidal scheme (midlittoral zone), and the surf zone of the sublittoral. ?lpha diversity analysis indicated similar species richness at both beaches when the whole 13-month data set was considered but was higher at the sheltered site when each sampling period was examined separately. Both beaches supported higher diversity in the sublittoral zone. Species richness increased seawards at the midlittoral zone of the sheltered site whereas, no pattern was evident at the exposed site, where the intense hydrodynamic conditions homogenized the sediments. Beta diversity increased markedly towards the sublittoral, indicating greater differences in alpha diversity between the sublittoral and the midlittoral zone. Species turnover was more variable at the exposed beach and at the most landward stations, where environmental conditions change often between extremes. A proportion of the variation in alpha diversity was explained by food availability at both beaches and additionally by grain size at the sheltered site. However, no environmental variable explained beta diversity patterns. Although the results of our study support the hypothesis of Multicausal Environmental Severity proposed for sandy beach macrofauna, we believe the classic Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis is a more appropriate framework for the meiofauna communities of the studied sites.

Sevastou, Katerina; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Eleftheriou, Anastasios



Sexual dimorphism in Grp78 and Hsp90A heat shock protein expression in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis.  


Aquatic organisms are constantly exposed to both natural and anthropogenic stressors. Under stress conditions, they elicit a cellular stress response, involving heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs are essential to protect proteins against aggregation and to help in the folding of native proteins or refolding of damaged ones. Because of their conservation among taxons and their inducibility after environmental/chemical stress, HSPs are commonly used as ecological and ecotoxicological biomarkers. However, the appropriate use of such molecular tools requires the investigation of the influence of biotic factors on their basal levels. As a first step in biomarker characterization, the present study aims to evaluate the impact of the reproductive cycle on the expression of the two major HSPs, Grp78 and Hsp90A in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis. The constitutive expression of both genes in males was weak when compared to female levels suggesting gender-specific stress tolerance. Transcript levels gradually increased during oogenesis and maximal levels were recorded in ovigerous females. The present data support the view that the reproductive condition of individuals has to be considered as a confounding factor in stress evaluation by HSP quantification. PMID:24337963

Boulangé-Lecomte, Celine; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Xuereb, Benoit



Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia.  


The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid-protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from ?-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous ?-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin-protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton. PMID:24803335

Mojib, Nazia; Amad, Maan; Thimma, Manjula; Aldanondo, Naroa; Kumaran, Mande; Irigoien, Xabier



Expression, purification and characterization of the secreted luciferase of the copepod Metridia longa from Sf9 insect cells  

PubMed Central

Metridia luciferase is a secreted luciferase from a marine copepod and uses coelenterazine as a substrate to produce a blue bioluminescence (?max = 480 nm). This luciferase has been successfully applied as a bioluminescent reporter in mammalian cells. The main advantage of secreted luciferase as a reporter is the capability of measuring intracellular events without destroying the cells or tissues and this property is well suited for development of high throughput screening technologies. However because Metridia luciferase is a Cys-rich protein, E. coli expression systems produce an incorrectly folded protein, hindering its biochemical characterization and application for development of in vitro bioluminescent assays. Here we report the successful expression of Metridia luciferase with its signal peptide for secretion, in insect (Sf9) cells using the baculovirus expression system. Functionally active luciferase secreted by insect cells into the culture media has been efficiently purified with a yield of high purity protein of 2–3 mg/L. This Metridia luciferase expressed in the insect cell system is a monomeric protein showing 3.5-fold greater bioluminescence activity than luciferase expressed and purified from E. coli. The near coincidence of the experimental mass of Metridia luciferase purified from insect cells with that calculated from amino acid sequence, indicates that luciferase does not undergo posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation or glycosylation and also, the cleavage site of the signal peptide for secretion is at VQA-KS, as predicted from sequence analysis.

Stepanyuk, Galina A.; Xu, Hao; Wu, Chia-Kuei; Markova, Svetlana V.; Lee, John; Vysotski, Eugene S.; Wang, Bi-Cheng



Toxicity of blooms of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium to zooplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine filamentous bloom-forming cyanobacteria Trichodesmium thiebautii and T. erythraeum were collected at locations in the Carribean during Jan.–Feb. 1991. They were screened for toxicity using Artemia salina and several species of copepods, which were harpacticoid grazers, filter-feeding calanoids, or cyclopoid copepods. Approximately\\u000a 50% of the 89 T. thiebautii samples caused> 50% lethality of A. salina, though none of the

S. P. Hawser; J. M. O'Neil; M. R. Roman; G. A. Coddl



Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is structurally suitable for ovigerity. Species with Pseudocalanus-type gonads are present from polar seas to the tropics, some of them being key species. The Acartia-type was scarce, found in only one species, Acartia clausi. Here all oocyte developmental stages are present, including intermediate stages, but only a few oocytes mature synchronously and are released together. High spawning frequency compensates for the small clutches, and hence egg production rate may be as high as in Calanus-type gonads. In the Aetidius-type gonad, the total number of oocytes in the diverticula is low as is the number of oocytes maturing synchronously. Less is known about the reproductive biology of species with Aetidius-type gonads; however, their distribution and feeding patterns suggest that this type is common in species inhabiting environments of low food availability. The differences in gonad structures also lead to differences in the egg size:female size ratio, as the space available for each mature oocyte depends on the total number of oocytes. Independent from gonad-type, the eggs are relatively large in species in which the gonads contain only few oocytes, whereas small eggs are produced by species with gonads filled with many oocytes. Since all species carrying their eggs in external sacs until hatching (ovigerous species) have Pseudocalanus-type gonads, the scatter in their egg size:female size ratio is low. The broadcast spawning species are of all gonad-types, and consequently the scatter among them is high. A major factor affecting the timing and magnitude of spawning of calanoid copepods is the energy supply for gonad development. Therefore, part of the review elucidates the role of internal and external resources in fuelling egg production. In many species, freshly assimilated food is transferred into egg material within a short period of time, and clutch size and spawning frequency are the two parameters that allow adjustment of egg production to food availability and temperature. However, internal body reserves may also fuel oocyte development. The extent to which oogene

Niehoff, Barbara



Diversity and community structure of harpacticoid copepods associated with cold-water coral substrates in the Porcupine Seabight (North-East Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of microhabitat type on the diversity and community structure of the harpacticoid copepod fauna associated with a cold-water coral degradation zone was investigated in the Porcupine Seabight (North-East Atlantic). Three substrate types were distinguished: dead fragments of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, skeletons of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes bocagei and the underlying sediment. At the family level, it appears that coral fragments and underlying sediment do not harbour distinctly different assemblages, with Ectinosomatidae, Ameiridae, Pseudotachidiidae, Argestidae and Miraciidae as most abundant. Conclusions on assemblage structure and diversity of the sponge skeletons are limited as only two samples were available. Similarity analysis at species level showed a strong variation in the sediment samples, which did not harbour a distinctly different assemblage in opposition to the coral and sponge samples. Several factors (sediment infill on the hard substrates, mobility of the copepods, limited sample sizes) are proposed to explain this apparent lack of a distinct difference between the microhabitats. Coral fragments and sediment were both characterised by high species diversity and low species dominance, which might indicate that copepod diversity is not substantially influenced by hydrodynamical stress. The additive partitioning of species diversity showed that by adding locations species richness was greatly enhanced. The harpacticoid community in the cold-water coral degradation zone is highly diverse and includes 157 species, 62 genera and 19 families. Information from neighbouring soft-bottom regions is necessary to assess whether total species diversity is increased by the presence of these complex habitat-providing substrates.

Gheerardyn, Hendrik; de Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Vanreusel, Ann



Acidophilic granulocytes in the gills of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata: evidence for their responses to a natural infection by a copepod ectoparasite.  


Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the gills of gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., naturally infected with the copepod ectoparasite Ergasilus lizae (Krøyer, 1863) in order to assess pathology and the host immune cell response. Gills of 56 gilthead seabream were screened for ectoparasites; 36 specimens (64.3%) harbored E. lizae. Intensity of infection was 32.7 ± 8.7 (mean ± SE). Pathological alterations to the gills of the host were more pronounced in close proximity to the copepod site of attachment. The parasite attached to the gills by means of its modified second antennae, occluded the arteries, provoked epithelial hyperplasia and hemorrhages and most often caused lamellar disruption. Numerous granular cells were encountered near the site of E. lizae attachment. In both infected and uninfected gills, the granular cells lay within the filaments and frequently occurred within the connective tissue inside and outside the blood vessels of the filaments. The type of granular cell was identified by immunohistochemical staining by using the monoclonal antibody G7 (mAb G7), which specifically recognizes acidophilic granulocytes (AGs) of S. aurata and with an anti-histamine antibody (as a marker for mast cells, MCs) on sections from 13 uninfected gills and 21 parasitized gills. The use of mAb G7 revealed that, in gills harboring copepods, the number of G7-positive cells (i.e., AGs; 32.9 ± 3.9, mean number of cells per 45,000 ?m2 ± SE) was significantly higher than the density of the same cells in uninfected gills (15.3 ± 3.8; ANOVA, P < 0.05). Few histamine-positive granular cells (i.e., MCs) were found in the uninfected and parasitized gills. Here, we show, for the first time in S. aurata infected gills, that AGs rather than MCs are recruited and involved in the response to E. lizae infection in seabream. PMID:23644766

Lui, Alice; Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa; Mulero, Victoriano; Dezfuli, Bahram Sayyaf



Spatio-Temporal Variability of Copepod Abundance along the 20?S Monitoring Transect in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System from 2005 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Long-term data sets are essential to understand climate-induced variability in marine ecosystems. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of longer-term temporal and spatial variations in zooplankton abundance and copepod community structure in the northern Benguela upwelling system from 2005 to 2011. Samples were collected from the upper 200 m along a transect at 20°S perpendicular to the coast of Namibia to 70 nm offshore. Based on seasonal and interannual trends in surface temperature and salinity, three distinct time periods were discernible with stronger upwelling in spring and extensive warm-water intrusions in late summer, thus, high temperature amplitudes, in the years 2005/06 and 2010/11, and less intensive upwelling followed by weaker warm-water intrusions from 2008/09 to 2009/10. Zooplankton abundance reflected these changes with higher numbers in 2005/06 and 2010/11. In contrast, zooplankton density was lower in 2008/09 and 2009/10, when temperature gradients from spring to late summer were less pronounced. Spatially, copepod abundance tended to be highest between 30 and 60 nautical miles off the coast, coinciding with the shelf break and continental slope. The dominant larger calanoid copepods were Calanoides carinatus, Metridia lucens and Nannocalanus minor. On all three scales studied, i.e. spatially from the coast to offshore waters as well as temporally, both seasonally and interannually, maximum zooplankton abundance was not coupled to the coldest temperature regime, and hence strongest upwelling intensity. Pronounced temperature amplitudes, and therefore strong gradients within a year, were apparently important and resulted in higher zooplankton abundance.

Bode, Maya; Kreiner, Anja; van der Plas, Anja K.; Louw, Deon C.; Horaeb, Richard; Auel, Holger; Hagen, Wilhelm



Structure determinants for the substrate specificity of acyl-CoA ?9 desaturases from a marine copepod.  


In contrast to soluble acyl-ACP desaturases from plants, little is known about the structure-guiding principle underlying substrate specificity and regioselectivity of membrane-bound acyl-CoA desaturases from animals, mainly due to lack of the three-dimensional structure information. Here we report identification of two homologous membrane-bound acyl-CoA ?9 desaturases (ChDes9-1 and ChDes9-2) from the marine copepod Calanus hyperboreus that accumulates more than 90% of total storage lipids in the form of wax esters. ChDes9-2 is a common ?9 desaturase with substrate specificity to long chain fatty acid 18:0, while ChDes9-1 is a new type of ?9 desaturase introducing a ?9 double bond into a wide range of very long chain fatty acids ranging from 20:0 to 26:0. Reciprocal domain swapping and site-directed mutagenesis guided by the membrane topology revealed that presence or absence of an amphipathic and bulky residue, tyrosine, in the middle of the second transmembrane domain was important in determining the substrate specificity of the two desaturases. To examine the mechanistic structure for the substrate specificity, tyrosine-scanning mutagenesis was employed to systematically substitute the residues in the transmembrane domain of the very long chain desaturase. The results showed that the transmembrane domain formed an ?-helix structure probably involved in formation of the substrate-binding pocket and the corresponding residue of the tyrosine likely resided at the critical position within the pocket mediating the interaction with the substrates, thereby specifying the chain length of the substrates. PMID:24475735

Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Qiu, Xiao



Extreme population genetic differentiation and secondary contact in the freshwater copepod Acanthodiaptomus pacificus in the Japanese Archipelago.  


We investigated the sequence variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mtCOI) gene and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ncITS) of the calanoid copepod Acanthodiaptomus pacificus in Japan. A. pacificus individuals were divided into three divergent mtCOI lineages (mt-A, -B and -C). mt-A was distributed in the northernmost part of Japan, from Hokkaido to the northern part of Honshu Island, whereas mt-C was the southernmost lineage, distributed from central Honshu to Shikoku and Kyushu Islands. mt-B was distributed between these former two lineages, resulting in parapatry with mt-C and mt-A. In all lineages, 80% of the localities were fixed for a single haplotype, and different localities tended to have different haplotypes. The degree of genetic differentiation among these lineages (15-22%) was at an interspecific level, according to the criteria of the DNA barcode technique. However, the topology of ncITS was not congruent with that of mtCOI, as the reciprocal monophyly was not observed within mt-B and mt-C. Therefore, we merged them into the Southern Lineage and separated it from the Northern Lineage (i.e. mt-A). Evidence of introgression was found within the Southern Lineage, while gene flow was not observed between the Northern and Southern Lineages, suggesting that A. pacificus is a cryptic species complex. We also argue that genetic differentiations of A. pacificus in Japan may reflect the history of separation, transgression and regression of the landmass during the formation of current Japanese Archipelago. PMID:19674306

Makino, Wataru; Tanabe, Akifumi S



Long-term decline in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in central Chesapeake Bay, USA: An indirect effect of eutrophication?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term abundance record of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay was compiled from 1966 to 2002. A significant downward trend in the summertime abundance of Acartia tonsa was found in central Chesapeake Bay. We propose that environmental and food web changes occurred as the Chesapeake Bay became increasingly impacted by human activity which eventually led to the overall decline of A. tonsa. Environmental changes included a long-term rise in water temperature and the volume of hypoxic water during the summer. These changes occurred during the same time period as increases in chlorophyll a concentration, declines in the landings of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, and declines in abundance of the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha. A CUSUM analysis showed that each time-series experienced a change point during over the past 50 years. These changes occurred sequentially, with chlorophyll a concentration increasing beginning in 1969, water temperature and hypoxic volume increasing beginning in the early 1980s, more recent Maryland C. virginica landings begin declining in the early 1980s and A. tonsa and C. quinquecirrha declining starting in 1989. A stepwise regression analysis revealed that the reduction in A. tonsa abundance appeared to be most associated with a decreasing trend in C. quinquecirrha abundance, though only when trends in the two time-series were present. The drop in C. quinquecirrha abundance is associated with reduced predation on the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, a key predator of A. tonsa. The long-term decline of A. tonsa has likely impacted trophic transfer to fish, particularly the zooplanktivorous bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). A time-series of bay anchovy juvenile index showed a negative trend and the CUSUM analysis revealed 1993 as its starting point. Total fisheries landings, excluding menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), in Chesapeake Bay have also declined during the same period and this also began in 1993, further suggesting a potential fisheries impact from the decline in A. tonsa abundance.

Kimmel, David G.; Boynton, Walter R.; Roman, Michael R.



Community structure and estimated contribution of primary consumers (Nematodes and Copepods) of decomposing plant litter (Juncus roemerianus and Rhizophora mangle) in South Florida  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the meiofauna associated with decomposing leaf litter from two species of coastal marshland plants: the black needle rush, Juncus roemerianus and the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The following aspects were investigated: (1) types of meiofauna present, especially nematodes; (2) changes in meiofaunal community structures with regard to season, station location, and type of plant litter; (3) amount of nematode and copepod biomass present on the decomposing plant litter; and (4) an estimation of the possible role of the nematodes in the decomposition process. 28 references, 5 figures, 9 tables. (ACR)

Fell, J.W.; Cefalu, R.



Generation time of Acanthocyclops robustus in relation to food availability and temperature in a shallow eutrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation time of the predatory cyclopoid copepod Acanthocyclops robustus was estimated on 11 occasions during the years 1980 to 1982 in Alderfen Broad. In a multiple regression model, generation time was found to be uncorrelated with temperature, positively correlated (p Bosmina longirostris and rotifers, and negatively correlated (p Eudiaptomus gracilis. It is suggested that generation time was determined largely

Martin Cryer; Colin R. Townsend



Spatial and temporal variation of cestode infection and its effect on two small barbs (Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis in two closely related small barbs and the effects of the parasites on

E. Dejen; J. Vijverberg; F. A. Sibbing



Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica, los microcrustáceos: Subclase Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eigthy species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families.

Alvaro Morales-Ramírez



Dissimilarity of Species and Forms of Planktonic Neocalanus Copepods Using Mitochondrial COI, 12S, Nuclear ITS, and 28S Gene Sequences  

PubMed Central

Background A total of six Neocalanus species inhabit the oceans of the world. Of these, three species plus form variants (N. cristatus, N. plumchrus, N. flemingeri large form, and N. flemingeri small form), which constitute a monophyletic group among Neocalanus copepods, occur in the Northwestern Pacific off Japan. In the present study, we have tried to discriminate the three species plus form variants of Neocalanus copepods based on sequences of four DNA marker regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Discrimination was performed based on the DNA sequence information from four genetic markers, including the mitochondrial COI, 12S, nuclear ITS, and 28S gene regions. Sequence dissimilarity was compared using both distance- and character-based approaches. As a result, all three species were confirmed to be distinct based on the four genetic marker regions. On the contrary, distinction of the form variants was only confirmed based on DNA sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene region. Conclusions/Significance Although discrimination was not successful for the form variants based on the mitochondrial 12S, nuclear ITS, and 28S genes, diagnostic nucleotide sequence characters were observed in their mitochondrial COI gene sequences. Therefore, these form variants are considered to be an important unit of evolution below the species level, and constitute a part of the Neocalanus biodiversity.

Machida, Ryuji J.; Tsuda, Atsushi



Body mass and lipid dynamics of Arctic and Antarctic deep-sea copepods (Calanoida, Paraeuchaeta): ontogenetic and seasonal trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ontogenetic and seasonal trends in body dry mass (DM) and total lipid content were studied in polar species of the predatory calanoid copepod genus Paraeuchaeta. Analyses included the Arctic representatives Paraeuchaeta glacialis, P. norvegica, P. barbata, and P. polaris as well as the Antarctic congener P. antarctica and one sample of P. cf. biloba. A total of 567 samples including 7007 individuals collected during four Antarctic and six Arctic research cruises was processed to provide seasonal coverage from spring to fall for both areas investigated, the Antarctic Weddell Sea and Arctic Fram Strait. All epipelagic species, i.e. P. glacialis, P. norvegica, and P. antarctica, showed a continuous increase in body DM from early copepodite stage CI onwards to stage CV. On average, body mass tripled with every moult. In females, body mass tripled again during the last moult to adulthood, whereas adult males, which have reduced mouthparts and do not feed at all, did not significantly increase their body mass after moulting from the CV stage. In contrast, early stages, i.e. nauplii to copepodids CII, of the bathypelagic species P. barbata remained at similar DMs. The deepest living species P. polaris was characterised by relatively large juvenile stages but small adult females, resulting in a rather small increase in body mass during ontogenetic development. Total lipid content decreased from maximum values of 60-70% of DM in eggs and early copepodite stages to <20-30% DM in stage CIII. Starting with stage CIV, lipids were again accumulated leading to high values of 40% to >50% DM in adult females. Distinct differences were detected with regard to seasonal trends of body mass and lipid content between epipelagic and bathypelagic species: Copepodids CIV, CV and adult females of epipelagic species exhibited highest body masses and lipid contents in fall, whereas for the deeper-living P. barbata maximum values occurred in spring. These discrepancies are discussed in relation to reproductive patterns and differences in abiotic and biotic environmental factors between the epipelagic and bathypelagic zones.

Auel, Holger; Hagen, Wilhelm



Basin-scale population genetic structure of the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pelagic marine invertebrates have extensive potential for gene flow, although barriers to gene flow and entrainment in ocean currents may lead to reproductive isolation or drift, and thus to genetic differentiation of populations. The planktonic calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus shows significant geographic variation in life history traits across subarctic zones of the N. Atlantic Ocean. Population genetic analysis of C. finmarchicus examined allelic variation at 24 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites in three nuclear protein-coding genes: citrate synthase, heat-shock protein-70, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Samples were collected during 2005 from 10 areas representing the Northwest (NW), North Central (NC), and Northeast (NE) Atlantic gyres. Hypotheses of two or more distinct populations of C. finmarchicus were examined based on SNP variation within the three genes analyzed both separately and together using AMOVA ( Arlequin Ver. 3.11), CLUMPP (Ver. 1.1), GENALEX (Ver. 6.2), Genepop (Ver. 4.0.10), and Structure (Ver. 2.3). All analyses revealed evidence of small but significant differentiation among areas within gyres (e.g., FSC = 0.0306, p < 0.0001 for two populations; FSC = 0.0344, p < 0.0001 for three populations; pairwise FST values for all 10 areas ranged from 0.0000 to 0.2400), which may reflect ecologically-important, short-term (on the order of months) variation driven by geographic variation in life history traits. Support for underlying large-scale differentiation, which may reflect persistent barriers to gene flow associated with entrainment in ocean gyres, was provided by various analyses, with numbers of distinct C. finmarchicus populations ranging from two to four. Analysis of molecular variation supported two populations, while clustering and population assignment supported two, three, or four populations. The Barents Sea sample was especially distinctive: one test using AMOVA was non-significant among gyres without this sample and differentiation among area populations within gyres was reduced. Analysis of additional genes, higher resolution sampling, and comparisons across different years are needed to resolve the spatial limits and number of distinct C. finmarchicus populations across the N. Atlantic Ocean basin.

Unal, Ebru; Bucklin, Ann



Feeding ecology of the copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis near the lower interface of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding ecology of the calanoid copepod Lucicutia aff. L. grandis collected in the Arabian Sea at one station during the Spring Intermonsoon and during the Southwest Monsoon of 1995 was studied with transmission electron microscopy of gut-contents. Highest abundances of these animals occurred from ˜400 to 1100 m, near the lower interface of the oxygen minimum zone and at the inflection point where oxygen starts to increase. We expected that their gut-contents would include particles and cells that had sunk relatively undegraded from surface waters as well as those from within the oxygen minimum zone, and that gut-contents would differ between the Spring Intermonsoon and the more productive SW Monsoon. Overall, in both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis was omnivorous, and consumed a variety of detrital particles, prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs, gram-negative bacteria including metal-precipitating bacteria, aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, microheterotrophs, virus-like particles and large virus-like particles, as well as cuticle and cnidarian tissue. Few significant differences in types of food consumed were seen among life stages within or among various depth zones. Amorphous, unidentifiable material was significantly more abundant in guts during the Spring Intermonsoon than during the late SW Monsoon, and recognizable cells made up a significantly higher portion of gut-contents during the late SW Monsoon. This is consistent with the Intermonsoon as a time when organic material is considerably re-worked by the surface water microbial loop before leaving the euphotic zone. In both seasons Lucicutia aff. L. grandis had consumed what appeared to be aggregates of probable gram-positive bacteria, similar to those we had previously found in gut-contents of several species of zooplankton from the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern tropical Pacific. By intercepting sinking material, populations of Lucicutia aff. L. grandis act as a filter for carbon sinking to the sea floor. They also modify sinking carbon in several ways: enhancing pelagic-abyssal coupling of carbon from cyanobacteria, eliminating part of the deep-sea microbial loop by direct consumption of bacterial aggregates, and redistributing particulate manganese and iron from association with suspended cells or aggregates to containment in rapidly sinking fecal pellets. Lucicutia aff. L. grandis can be viewed as representative of deep-dwelling detritivorous mesozooplankton. Assessing the magnitude of the effects of such organisms on carbon flux in the Arabian Sea will require data on feeding rates.

Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.


Antimicrobial composition from copepods  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to an antimicrobial composition, and to a process for the preparation of such a composition. The invention also relates to the use of such an antimicrobial composition. The present invention further relates to the use of the antimicrobial composition as a pharmaceutical.



Bathymetric patterns of ? and ? diversity of harpacticoid copepods at the genus level around the Ryukyu Trench, and turnover diversity between trenches around Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of harpacticoid copepods was investigated around the Ryukyu Trench (430–7150 m), which lies below an oligotrophic subtropical ocean. The ? diversity, which is based on the number of genera and Shannon diversity decreased with increasing water depth. The community structure of harpacticoids gradually changed as the water depth increased from the bathyal zone to the hadal zone. Turnover (?) diversity values were equally high between the trench slope, trench floor and abyssal plain. We compared the harpacticoid assemblage obtained from the Ryukyu region with the assemblage from a region around the Kuril Trench (Kitahashi et al., 2013). Turnover diversity values between the two regions (? diversity) were relatively low at shallow depths, but they increased with increasing water depth and reached their maximum between the trench floors and abyssal plains. These findings indicate that the bathymetric patterns of harpacticoid assemblages differ among regions and that these discrepancies reflect differences in environmental conditions, such as primary productivity level.

Kitahashi, Tomo; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Kojima, Shigeaki; Shimanaga, Motohiro



Isolation and characterization of bacteria from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu ectoparasitic on the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis with the emphasis on TTX.  


A total of 50 bacterial isolates was obtained from the copepod Pseudocaligus fugu, which is a common parasite, collected from the body surface of the panther puffer Takifugu pardalis. On the basis of colony characteristics, these bacterial isolates were grouped into six types, of which only two (Types-I and -II) showed a high affinity for adhesion to the carapace of the banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis. These two types of adhesive bacteria were identified through 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Shewanella woodyi (Type-I) and Roseobacter sp. (Type-II). Representative isolates of these two adhesive bacteria were examined for tetrodotoxin (TTX) production by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorometric system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). It was rather unexpectedly revealed that TTX and anhydroTTX were present in the supernatant of culture of the Type-II isolate Roseobacter sp. PMID:17698158

Maran, B A Venmathi; Iwamoto, Emi; Okuda, Jun; Matsuda, Shuhei; Taniyama, Shigeto; Shida, Yasuo; Asakawa, Manabu; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Nakai, Toshihiro; Boxshall, Geoffrey A



Seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the hyperparasitic monogenean Udonella fugu on the caligid Copepod Pseudocaligus fugu infecting the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal occurrence and microhabitat of the monogenean Udonella fugu that hyperparasitizes exclusively on adults of the caligid copepod Pseudocaligus fugu that infects the skin of the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles were investigated in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan from November 2004 to December 2006. The udonellids occurred and bred mostly during the occurrence of P. fugu on the fish host. The average prevalence and intensity of U. fugu on P. fugu during the whole investigation were 29% and 3.6, respectively. The main attachment sites of U. fugu were the posterior side of leg 3 and the dorsal marginal side of the cephalothorax for feeding and copulation, while eggs were predominantly located on the ventral side of the urosome to avoid detachment. More attention should be paid to the ecology of U. fugu, due to recent high prevalence of P. fugu on cultured tiger puffer in western Japan.

Okawachi, Hiroko; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Ismail, Norshida Binti; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Ogawa, Kazuo



Gyrodinium undulans Hulburt, a marine dinoflagellate feeding on the bloom-forming diatom Odontella aurita, and on copepod and rotifer eggs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine dinoflagellate Gyrodinium undulans was discovered as a feeder on the planktonic diatom Odontella aurita. Every year, during winter and early spring, a certain percentage of cells of this bloom-forming diatom, in the Wadden Sea along the North Sea coast, was regularly found affected by the flagellate. Supplied with the food diatom O. aurita the dinoflagellate could be maintained successfully in clonal culture. The vegetative life cylce was studied, mainly by light microscopy on live material, with special regard to the mode of food uptake. Food is taken up by a so-called phagopod, emerging from the antapex of the flagellate. Only fluid or tiny prey material could be transported through the phagopod. Larger organelles like the chloroplasts of Odontella are not ingested and are left behind in the diatom cell. Thereafter, the detached dinoflagellate reproduces by cell division, occasionally followed by a second division. As yet, stages of sexual reproduction and possible formation of resting cysts could not be recognized, neither from wild material nor from laboratory cultures. Palmelloid stages (sometimes with a delicate wall) occurring in ageing cultures may at least partly function as temporary resting stages. The winter species G. undulans strongly resembles Syltodinium listii, a summer species feeding on copepod and rotifer eggs. Surprisingly, in a few cases this prey material was accepted by G. undulans as well, at least under culture conditions. When fed with copepod eggs, the dinoflagellate developed into a large trophont, giving rise thereafter by repeated binary fission to 4, 8 or 16 flagellates, as a result of a single feeding act. A re-examination of both species under simultaneous culture conditions is planned.

Drebes, G.; Schnepf, E.



Investigating the molecular basis of local adaptation to thermal stress: population differences in gene expression across the transcriptome of the copepod Tigriopus californicus  

PubMed Central

Background Geographic variation in the thermal environment impacts a broad range of biochemical and physiological processes and can be a major selective force leading to local population adaptation. In the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus, populations along the coast of California show differences in thermal tolerance that are consistent with adaptation, i.e., southern populations withstand thermal stresses that are lethal to northern populations. To understand the genetic basis of these physiological differences, we use an RNA-seq approach to compare genome-wide patterns of gene expression in two populations known to differ in thermal tolerance. Results Observed differences in gene expression between the southern (San Diego) and the northern (Santa Cruz) populations included both the number of affected loci as well as the identity of these loci. However, the most pronounced differences concerned the amplitude of up-regulation of genes producing heat shock proteins (Hsps) and genes involved in ubiquitination and proteolysis. Among the hsp genes, orthologous pairs show markedly different thermal responses as the amplitude of hsp response was greatly elevated in the San Diego population, most notably in members of the hsp70 gene family. There was no evidence of accelerated evolution at the sequence level for hsp genes. Among other sets of genes, cuticle genes were up-regulated in SD but down-regulated in SC, and mitochondrial genes were down-regulated in both populations. Conclusions Marked changes in gene expression were observed in response to acute sub-lethal thermal stress in the copepod T. californicus. Although some qualitative differences were observed between populations, the most pronounced differences involved the magnitude of induction of numerous hsp and ubiquitin genes. These differences in gene expression suggest that evolutionary divergence in the regulatory pathway(s) involved in acute temperature stress may offer at least a partial explanation of population differences in thermal tolerance observed in Tigriopus.



A common-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary processes in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis  

PubMed Central

Background The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a common-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. Results With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. Conclusions To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a common-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance development and other evolutionary questions in parasitic copepods.



Crude oil exposure results in oxidative stress-mediated dysfunctional development and reproduction in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus and modulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes.  


In this study, we investigated the effects of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil on the development and reproduction of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus through life-cycle experiments. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of WAF on this benthic organism by studying expression patterns of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Development of T. japonicus was delayed and molting was interrupted in response to WAF exposure. Hatching rate was also significantly reduced in response to WAF exposure. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) were increased by WAF exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicated that WAF exposure resulted in oxidative stress, which in turn was associated with dysfunctional development and reproduction. To evaluate the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, we cloned the entire repertoire of CYP genes in T. japonicus (n=52) and found that the CYP genes belonged to five different clans (i.e., Clans 2, 3, 4, mitochondrial, and 20). We then examined expression patterns of these 52 CYP genes in response to WAF exposure. Three TJ-CYP genes (CYP3024A2, CYP3024A3, and CYP3027C2) belonging to CYP clan 3 were significantly induced by WAF exposure in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. We identified aryl hydrocarbon responsive elements (AhRE), xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs), and metal response elements (MRE) in the promoter regions of these three CYP genes, suggesting that these genes are involved in detoxification of toxicants. Overall, our results indicate that WAF can trigger oxidative stress and thus induce dysfunctional development and reproduction in the copepod T. japonicus. Furthermore, we identified three TJ-CYP genes that represent potential biomarkers of oil pollution. PMID:24813263

Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Yong Sung; Leung, Kenneth Mei-Yee; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong



Gene expression analyses of immune responses in Atlantic salmon during early stages of infection by salmon louse ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis ) revealed bi-phasic responses coinciding with the copepod-chalimus transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer), an ectoparasitic copepod with a complex life cycle causes significant losses in salmon aquaculture. Pesticide treatments\\u000a against the parasite raise environmental concerns and their efficacy is gradually decreasing. Improvement of fish resistance\\u000a to lice, through biological control methods, needs better understanding of the protective mechanisms. We used a 21 k oligonucleotide\\u000a microarray and RT-qPCR

Tariku Markos Tadiso; Aleksei Krasnov; Stanko Skugor; Sergey Afanasyev; Ivar Hordvik; Frank Nilsen



Population structure, egg production and gut content pigment of large grazing copepods during the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Oyashio region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a basis for analyzing development of six large grazing copepods ( Eucalanus bungii, Metridia pacifica, M. okhotensis, Neocalanus cristatus, N. flemingeri and N. plumchrus) in the Oyashio region, quasi-daily twin-NORPAC net (0.33 and 0.10 mm mesh) hauls were taken through the upper 150 m and 500 m at a station southwest of Hokkaido before (9-14 March) and after (6-30 April) the onset of the phytoplankton bloom in 2007. Based on additional fresh specimens collected from 0-150 m, egg production of E. bungii, M. pacifica and M. okhotensis, and gut pigments of late copepodid stages in each species were evaluated. Total zooplankton biomass was greater from 10 April onward by a factor of 2- to 8-fold the previous levels. This increase of the 0-150 m biomass was caused by development of Neocalanus spp. copepodids and upward migration of resting E. bungii. Egg production of E. bungii peaked on 18 April, while abundance of its nauplii and C1 peaked on 20 and 25 April, respectively. Sex ratio and C6-female gonad maturation index of E. bungii showed new recruitment to C6 during 20-30 April, likely derived from a population that over-wintered as C3 or C4. Egg production and hatchability of M. pacifica and M. okhotensis were highly variable and no temporal trend was detected. Comparison with field abundance data for Metridia spp. suggests that our estimates of egg production and hatchability are too low, despite care with experimental conditions. All the Neocalanus species utilize the bloom as energy for juvenile growth. Neocalanus cristatus developed from C2 through C4, and stage duration of C3 was estimated to be 24 days. Neocalanus flemingeri also developed from C1 through C3, and stage durations of C1 and C2 were estimated to be 7-9 days. Neocalanus plumchrus occurred in small numbers from mid-April onward. The stage duration estimates for Neocalanus spp. are similar to those reported from the high-nutrition southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Gut pigment variation clearly showed nocturnal feeding by Metridia spp., while no diel changes in gut pigment were recognized for E. bungii or Neocalanus spp. The diel changes in gut pigment of Metridia spp. were related to their diel vertical migrations. The calendar of sequential responses of copepods to the phytoplankton bloom is summarized.

Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Onishi, Yuka; Omata, Aya; Kawai, Momoka; Kaneda, Mariko; Ikeda, Tsutomu



Four new species of splanchnotrophid copepods (Poecilostomatoida) parasitic on doridacean nudibranchs (Gastropoda, Opistobranchia) from Japan, with proposition of one new genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Four new species of splanchnotrophid copepods are described based on specimens collected from 5 species of doridacean nudibranchs from coastal waters of Japan. They belong to 3 genera, one of which, Majimun gen. n., is new. The parasites and their hosts are as follows: Ceratosomicola japonica sp. n. ex Hypselodoris festiva (A. Adams); Splanchnotrophus helianthus sp. n. ex Thecacera pennigera (Montagu); Splanchnotrophus imagawai sp. n. ex Trapania miltabrancha Gosliner & Fahey; and Majimun shirakawai gen. et sp. n. ex Roboastra luteolineata (Baba) and Roboastra gracilis (Bergh). Ceratosomicola japonica sp. n. is the fifth species of Ceratosomicola and is characterized by the shape and armature of the prosome in females. Both Splanchnotrophus helianthus sp. n. and Splanchnotrophus imagawai sp. n. are differentiated from 4 known congeners by the absence of posterolateral processes or lobes on the prosome in females, and the females of these 2 new species are separated from each other by the shape and armature of the genito-abdomen, the mandible, and the swimming legs. Majimun gen. n. is distinguished from other splanchnotrophid genera by the segmentation of the antennule as well as the combination of the following characters in females: 2 postgenital somites and the shape of the antenna, the mandible and the swimming legs.

Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya



Assemblages gradually change from bathyal to hadal depth: A case study on harpacticoid copepods around the Kuril Trench (north-west Pacific Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the genus diversity and community composition of harpacticoid copepods and their relationship with environmental factors around the Kuril Trench (490-7090 m). Harpacticoid densities did not decrease with water depth and were highest at 1000 m water depth. Diversity values based on the number of genera, Shannon diversity and the expected number of genera (rarefaction) indicated unimodal patterns with water depth, with peaks at intermediate depth; genus evenness increased with water depth and slightly decreased at hadal depths. This result suggested that the general relationship between water depth and diversity described for macrofauna and megafauna could be extended to meiofauna across all depth ranges. However, the regulating factor that affects harpacticoid diversity could not be identified. The community composition of harpacticoids gradually changed with water depth (from bathyal to hadal depths). In addition, comparison of assemblages between the trench slope, trench floor and abyssal plain suggested that the community found at hadal depth was largely different from those found on the trench slope and abyssal plain. Multivariate analyses suggested that water depth, or certain factors associated with water depth, affects harpacticoid assemblages around the Kuril Trench.

Kitahashi, Tomo; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Kojima, Shigeaki; Shimanaga, Motohiro



Acute waterborne copper toxicity to the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa at different salinities: influence of natural freshwater and marine dissolved organic matter.  


The influence of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) on acute waterborne Cu toxicity was evaluated in the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa at 3 different water salinities. Three sources of freshwater DOM (extracted by reverse osmosis) and 2 sources of marine DOM (extracted using a solid-phase technique) were used. Artificial salt water was used to prepare the experimental media. Different combinations of Cu concentrations and DOM sources and concentrations were tested at salinities of 5, 15, and 30 ppt. Toxicity data (48-h median lethal concentration [LC50] values) were calculated based on dissolved Cu concentrations. In a broad view, data showed that increasing salinity was protective against the acute waterborne Cu toxicity. In general, Cu toxicity was also lower in the presence than in the absence of DOM. Toxicity (48-h LC50) values from all treatments at the same salinity showed a positive linear relationship with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, the protective effect of DOM against the acute Cu toxicity seems to be dependent mainly on the DOM concentration. However, it seems also to be dependent to some extent on the source of DOM used. In summary, findings reported in the present study clearly indicate that both salinity and DOM (source and concentration) should be taken into account in the development of an estuarine version of the biotic ligand model. PMID:23427042

Monteiro, Sandra Carvalho Rodrigues; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Hoffmann, Karine; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto



High resolution vertical distribution of the copepod Calanus chilensis in relation to the shallow oxygen minimum zone off northern Peru using LOKI, a new plankton imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical distribution of copepodite stage V and adult Calanus chilensis was studied on two transects across the Humboldt Current System off northern Peru using the LOKI system. LOKI is an optical plankton recorder, which simultaneously collects images of zooplankton and environmental data such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, and fluorescence. Image quality allowed determination of CV, females and males and identification of C. chilensis from 3 co-occurring Calanid copepods. C. chilensis was inhabiting the upper 250 m. Highest abundances with a maximum of ca. 44.000 Ind. m-2 were observed in a narrow band within Cold Coastal Water at stations closest to the coast, coinciding with the Poleward Undercurrent. This raises questions for the life cycle closure within the Humboldt Current system. In contrast to observations in the southern part of the Humboldt Current System, the three stages studied were most abundant in hypoxic waters at oxygen concentrations between 5 and 50 ?M. Thus C. chilensis seems to be the only species of the family Calanidae where not only a resting stage can tolerate hypoxia, but also both adult stages. This impacts availability to predators, as despite a locally high biomass only part of the population is available to anchovy and other important fish species which are restricted to waters with higher oxygen concentrations.

Hirche, H. J.; Barz, K.; Ayon, P.; Schulz, J.



Interannual and seasonal variation of the population structure, abundance, and biomass of the arctic copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of multiyear observations of the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the population structure, abundance, and biomass of the arctic calanoids copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea are presented. The spring season represents the most crucial period for the population’s seasonal dynamics. During the spring, the maximal abundance, biomass, and contribution of C. glacialis to the total zooplankton biomass is observed. The interannual variability of the abundance is closely related to the timing of the spring warming of the upper water column and the respective shifts of the onset of reproduction and the offspring development. The development of a new generation to the overwintering copepodite stage IV is usually completed three to four weeks later in the cold years compared to the warm ones. Our multiyear observations suggest that C. glacialis could be more tolerant of Arctic warming than it is usually believed. The high abundance of the C. glacialis population in the White Sea indicates that this arctic species is able to cope with the seasonal surface warming and should continue to do so, being provided with the cold water “refuge” in the deep sea.

Pertsova, N. M.; Kosobokova, K. N.



Copepods in ice-covered seas—Distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a seasonal ice cover limits light penetration into both polar seas for up to ten months a year, its presence is not entirely negative. The mixed layer under sea ice will generally be shallower than in open water at the same latitude and season. Ice forms a substrate on which primary production can be concentrated, a condition which contrasts with the generally dilute nutritional conditions which prevail in the remaining ocean. The combination of a shallow, generally stable mixed layer with a close proximity to abundant food make the under-ice zone a suitable nursery for both pelagic and benthic species, an upside-down benthos for opportunistic substrate browsers, and a rich feeding environment for species often considered to be neritic in temperate environments. Where the ice cover is not continuous there may be a retreating ice edge that facilitates the seasonal production of phytoplankton primarily through increased stability from the melt water. Ice edge blooms similarly encourage secondary production by pelagic animals. Pseudocalanus acuspes, which may be the most abundant and productive copepod in north polar latitudes, initiates growth at the start of the "spring bloom" of epontic algae, reaching sexual maturity at breakup or slightly before. In the Southern Hemisphere, the small neritic copepod Paralabidocera antarctica and adult krill have been observed to utilize ice algae. Calanus hyperboreus breeds in the dark season at depth and its buoyant eggs, slowly developing on the ascent, reach the under-ice layer in April as nauplii ready to benefit from the primary production there. On the other hand, C. glacialis may initiate ontogenetic migrations and reproduction in response to increased erosion of ice algae due to solar warming and melting at the ice-water interface. While the same species in a phytoplankton bloom near the ice edge reproduces actively, those under still-consolidated ice nearby can have immature gonads. Diel migration and diel feeding rhythms under or near the ice have also been observed for several species. In the Northern Hemisphere larger zooplanktonic species may take two, three, or possibly more years to reach maturity, but the grand strategy, apparently used by all, is to assure that their young have reached active feeding stages by the time of maximum primary production in the water column so that maximum growth, often, but not always, with emphasis on lipid storage, can occur during the often brief, but usually intense, summer bloom. The rate of growth of arctic or antarctic zooplankton is not so important as assuring a high level of fecundity when maturity comes. Overwintering is probably not a great hardship and diapause may not be a useful strategy because the environmental temperature is constantly near the freezing point of sea water, and basal metabolism accordingly low. Nonetheless, feeding behaviour and metabolic rates have strong seasonal signals. In the absence of other stimuli, light must be involved in the transformation from winter to summer metabolism and visa versa but the mechanisms still remain obscure.

Conover, R. J.; Huntley, M.



Low concentrations, potential ecological consequences: synthetic estrogens alter life-history and demographic structures of aquatic invertebrates.  


Contraceptive drugs are nowadays found in aquatic environments around the globe. Particularly, 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2) may act even at low concentrations, such as those recorded in natural ecosystems. We evaluated the physiological effects of EE2 on cyclopoids and calanoids, common copepods in both marine and freshwater communities. We used three EE2 concentrations and assessed its impact on activity of different physiological endpoints: Acetylcholinesterase (neurotransmission), Glutathione S-transferase (detoxifying system), and Caspase-3 (apoptosis). While EE2 exerts, distinctive effect on detoxifying and apoptotic systems, no effect on AChE was observed at environmental doses. Our results show that EE2 exposure affects differently copepod physiology endpoints, altering moulting process, adult recruitment in calanoids and calanoid to cyclopoid ratio. The ecological consequences of this underlying physiological process may affect since life history to population and community structures, and this represent a new aspects of this xenobiotic in natural systems. PMID:23584603

Souza, María Sol; Hallgren, Per; Balseiro, Esteban; Hansson, Lars-Anders



Effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on early developmental stages of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus Gunnerus (Copepoda: Calanoidae).  


Ocean acidification poses an ongoing threat to marine organisms, and early life stages are believed to be particularly sensitive. The boreal calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus seasonally dominates the standing stock of zooplankton in the northern North Sea and North Atlantic, and due to its size and abundance is considered an ecological key species linking energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. To examine whether the early stages of C. finmarchicus are particularly vulnerable to elevated levels of CO2, eggs and nauplii were subjected to different levels of CO2-acidified seawater for 1 wk. The first experiment, with eggs as the starting point, revealed no marked effect on hatching success, but a significant reduction in nauplii survival during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2. In addition, a significant decrease in ontogenetic development rate during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2 was observed in this experiment. In the second experiment, where third-stage nauplii represented the starting point, no significant effects on ontogenetic development and survival following exposure to pCO2 ? 7700 ppm were observed. Data suggest that the two first nauplii stages, which are fed endogenously, may be more vulnerable and therefore likely to represent the "bottleneck" for this species in a more acidic ocean. However, the absence of significant effects in the most sensitive stages during exposure to 2800 ppm CO2, a level that is well above worst-case scenario predictions for year 2300 (approximately 2000 ppm CO2), suggests that this species may be generally robust to direct effects of ocean acidification. PMID:24754390

Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Våge, Vegard Thorset; Olsen, Anders Johny; Hammer, Karen Marie; Altin, Dag



Distribution of C-type allatostatin (C-AST)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus  

PubMed Central

The C-type Allatostatins (C-ASTs) are a family of highly pleiotropic arthropod neuropeptides. In crustaceans, transcriptomic/mass spectral studies have identified C-ASTs in the nervous systems of many species; the cellular distributions of these peptides remain unknown. Here, the distribution of C-AST was mapped in the nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the major contributor to the North Atlantic’s zooplanktonic biomass; C-AST-immunopositive neurons were identified in the protocerebrum, in several peripheral ganglia associated with feeding appendages, and in the ganglia controlling the swimming legs, with immunopositive axons present throughout the ventral nerve cord. In addition, axons innervating the dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal muscles of the body wall of the metasome were labeled by the C-AST antibody. While the distribution of C-AST-like immunoreactivity was similar between sexes, several differences were noted, i.e. two pair of somata located at the deutocerebral/tritocerbral border in males and immunopositive fibers that surround the genital opening in females. To place the C-AST-like labeling into context with those of several previously mapped peptides, i.e. A-type allatostatin (A-AST) and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), we conducted double-labeling studies; the C-AST-like immunopositive neurons appear distinct from those expressing either A-AST or TRP (and through extrapolation, pigment dispersing hormone). Collectively, our data represent the first mapping of C-AST in crustacean neural tissue, show that sex-specific differences in the distribution of C-AST exist in the C. finmarchicus CNS, and suggest that the peptide may be involved in the modulation of both feeding and postural control/locomotion.

Wilson, Caroline H.; Christie, Andrew E.



Spatial variability in the abundance of pelagic invertebrate predators in relation to depth and turbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of pelagic invertebrate predators in relation to turbidity and depth gradients in Lake Hiidenvesi (southern\\u000a Finland) were studied. In the shallow (<5 m) and the most turbid (up to 75 NTU) part of the lake, the community of invertebrate\\u000a predators consisted of cyclopoid copepods (max biomass >500 ?g dw l?1) and Leptodora kindtiii (Focke) (17 ?g dw l?1), while in the less turbid (10–40 NTU)

Anne Liljendahl-Nurminen; Jukka Horppila; Laura Uusitalo; Juha Niemistö



Spatial and Temporal Variation of Cestode Infection and its Effects on Two Small Barbs ( Barbus humilis and B. tanapelagius ) in Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudophyllidean cestodes as Ligula have a complex life cycle with cyclopoid copepods as first intermediate host, zooplanktivorous fish as second, and piscivorous\\u000a birds as final host. We studied the effects of diet, season and habitat occupation on the prevalence of plerocercoid larvae\\u000a of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis in two closely related small barbs and the effects of the parasites on

Eshete Dejen; Jacobus Vijverberg; Ferdinand A. Sibbing



Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination  

PubMed Central

Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13). Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions These results suggest that cortisol-induced stress does not affect the level of infection of Atlantic salmon with the parasite, however, it may retard repair of skin. The cortisol induced changes are in close concordance with the existing concept of wound healing cascade.



Comparing seasonal dynamics of the Lake Huron zooplankton community between 1983-1984 and 2007 and revisiting the impact of Bythotrephes planktivory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zooplankton community composition can be influenced by lake productivity as well as planktivory by fish or invertebrates. Previous analyses based on long-term Lake Huron zooplankton data from August reported a shift in community composition between the 1980s and 2000s: proportional biomass of calanoid copepods increased while that of cyclopoid copepods and herbivorous cladocerans decreased. Herein, we used seasonally collected data from Lake Huron in 1983–1984 and 2007 and reported similar shifts in proportional biomass. We also used a series of generalized additive models to explore differences in seasonal abundance by species and found that all three cyclopoid copepod species (Diacyclops thomasi, Mesocylops edax, Tropocyclops prasinus mexicanus) exhibited higher abundance in 1983–1984 than in 2007. Surprisingly, only one (Epischura lacustris) of seven calanoid species exhibited higher abundance in 2007. The results for cladocerans were also mixed with Bosmina spp. exhibiting higher abundance in 1983–1984, while Daphnia galeata mendotae reached a higher level of abundance in 2007. We used a subset of the 2007 data to estimate not only the vertical distribution of Bythotrephes longimanus and their prey, but also the consumption by Bythotrephes in the top 20 m of water. This epilimnetic layer was dominated by copepod copepodites and nauplii, and consumption either exceeded (Hammond Bay site) or equaled 65% (Detour site) of epilimnetic zooplankton production. The lack of spatial overlap between Bythotrephes and herbivorous cladocerans and cyclopoid copepod prey casts doubt on the hypothesis that Bythotrephes planktivory was the primary driver underlying the community composition changes in the 2000s.

Bunnell, David B.; Keeler, Kevin M.; Puchala, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Bruce M.; Pothoven, Steven A.



Metazooplankton communities in the Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia): spatiotemporal variations and trophic relationships.  


Metazooplankton abundance, biomass (<80 ?m, 200-500 ?m and >500 ?m) and community structure in the Ahe atoll were studied together with their relationships with environmental factors (temperature, salinity, wind) and trophic factors (phytoplankton, bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and ciliates) during three periods in 2008-2009. Meroplankton, mainly bivalve and gastropod larvae, was dominant. Holoplankton was dominated by copepods, the main species being Oithona spp., Paracalanus parvus, Clausocalanus spp., Corycaeus spp., Acartia fossae and Undinula vulgaris. The results suggest a clear wind influence on the structure and horizontal distribution of the zooplankton communities. The metazooplankton appeared to be controlled mainly by food resources, suggesting a bottom-up control. The low nanophytoplankton biomass in contrast to the high abundance of picophytoplankton, HNF and nano-particle grazers (mainly Oithona spp., Paracalanus and bivalve larvae) highlighted the importance of the microbial loop in the food web. PMID:22330075

Pagano, Marc; Sagarra, Pascual-Boi; Champalbert, Gisèle; Bouvy, Marc; Dupuy, Christine; Thomas, Yoann; Charpy, Loïc



Longitudinal distribution of Copepoda populations in the transition zone of Paranapanema River and Jurumirim Reservoir (São Paulo, Brazil) and interchange with two lateral lakes.  


Longitudinal changes in composition, abundance, and distribution of copepods were studied at the transition zone of Paranapanema River-Jurumirim Reservoir (SP, Brazil). The interchange of biotic material between marginal lakes and the river system was also examined. Water samples were obtained from 6 stations along a stretch of 13 km of the Paranapanema River, from an upstream reach with high water velocity up to the river mouth into Jurumirim Reservoir. Two other sites in lateral lakes were also sampled. Nine copepod taxa were identified: 3 calanoids (Argyrodiaptomus furcatus Sars, Notodiaptomus iheringi Wright, and N. conifer Sars) and 6 cyclopoids (Eucyclops Claus, Microcyclops Claus, Mesocyclops longisetus Thiébaud, Thermocyclops decipiens Fischer, T. minutus Lowndes, and Paracyclops Claus). Harpacticoids were also collected. Calanoid and cyclopoid nauplii and copepodids, and harpacticoids were the most abundant organisms. In general, there was a longitudinal decrease in copepod abundance, whereas an increase was detected near the lakes. The abundance of most copepods was inversely correlated with current velocity and suspended solids. Higher abundance was observed in the river main course during the rainy season, during which there is a higher connectivity between the lakes and the main river. This promotes exportation of biologic material from marginal lakes to the river system, a biotic exchange reflecting the importance of marginal lakes to the river community structure. PMID:15195360

Casanova, S M; Henry, R



Distribution and diets of larval and juvenile fishes: Influence of salinity gradient and turbidity maximum in a temperate estuary in upper Ariake Bay, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the fish assemblage and distribution, diversity, and diets in relation to copepod prey communities along the Chikugo estuarine gradient in the Ariake Bay, Japan. Larval and juvenile fish samples, ambient copepod samples were collected and major hydrographic parameters were recorded at seven selected sampling stations (salinity range: 0.4-28.8 psu) during four sampling cruises in spring 2001. A zone of estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) was identified in the upper part of the estuary which was characterized by low salinity. Two different fish and copepod communities based on the spatial distribution patterns were identified: the oligohaline community in the upper estuary, which was associated with the ETM; and the euryhaline community in the lower estuary, downstream of the ETM. The oligohaline fish community was composed of Acanthogobius flavimanus, Acanthogobius hasta, Coilia nasus, Neosalanx reganius, and Trachidermus fasciatus while the euryhaline community was composed of Engraulis japonicus and Sebastes inermis. Lateolabrax japonicus was distributed over wide spatial areas. Sinocalanus sinensis was the single dominant member of the oligohaline copepod community while the euryhaline community was dominated by Oithona davisae, Acartia omorii and Paracalanus parvus. Strong dietary relationships were identified between fishes and copepods in the same community. ETM appears to have significant influence on the distribution and abundance of the oligohaline copepod S. sinensis and this prey copepod appears to have strong influence on the fishes in the oligohaline regions. Most of the fishes were distributed in the low saline upper estuary where they foraged on the single dominant copepod S. sinensis which contributes the majority of the copepod standing biomass of the estuary and thus appear to support nursery for fishes. It was concluded that the ETM-based copepod S. sinensis plays a key role in survival and distribution of larval and juvenile fishes in Chikugo estuary.

Islam, Md. Shahidul; Hibino, Manabu; Tanaka, Masaru



Changes in seasonal expression patterns of ecdysone receptor, retinoid X receptor and an A-type allatostatin in the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, in a sea loch environment: an investigation of possible mediators of diapause.  


The marine copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, is a crucial component of the pelagic food web in the North Atlantic and peripheral seas where it is a major player in biogeochemical cycles and the productivity of commercially important fisheries. A key stage in its life cycle is the emergence of the pre-adult, copepodite developmental stage five (CV) from a period of overwintering dormancy, known as diapause. As is the case in many insect species, diapause is also likely to be under endocrine control in C. finmarchicus. To investigate the hormonal regulation of diapause behaviour of stage CV C. finmarchicus, the expression of three key genes: ecdysone receptor (EcR), retinoid X receptor (RXR) and an A-type allatostatin (A-type AST), were measured in specimens collected at monthly intervals from Loch Etive, a ca. 150m deep sea loch on the west coast of Scotland, between June 2006 and May 2007. The full length RXR gene was cloned and sequenced from C. finmarchicus, and was found to share 49-53% total identity with equivalent genes encoding proteins from other crustaceans, and >80% identity in the DNA binding domain with other crustaceans, insects and vertebrates. EcR expression was least in December when the animals are expected to be in diapause, but began to increase in January, when the animals were terminating diapause. Concomittant with the rise in EcR in January was low expression of A-type AST and high expression of RXR. PMID:23603431

Clark, Katie A J; Brierley, Andrew S; Pond, David W; Smith, Valerie J



Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for glutathione S-transferase (GST-S) protein in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus and its application for environmental monitoring.  


To utilize the GST-S protein as a useful biomarker for environmental contamination, we developed a polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Two polyclonal antibodies, TJ-GST-S1 and TJ-GST-S2, were raised against two TJ-GST-S synthetic peptides. Also a recombinant TJ-GST-S protein was purified as a standard for ELISA development. Each polyclonal antibody was tested by Western blot analysis and indirect ELISA. Of two polyclonal antibodies, TJ-GST-S2 ELISA was further employed due to its wide range of detection and the limit of specificity compared to those of TJ-GST-S1 ELISA system. After exposure to 4 metals (Ag, As, Cd, and Cu) to T. japonicus, the amount of TJ-GST-S protein was significantly elevated in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, TJ-GST-S protein was upregulated at relative high concentrations of B[?]P, PCB, and TBT. In this paper, we suggest that T. japonicas ELISA for TJ-GST-S2 is useful as a potential indicator system for marine contaminants. PMID:24112658

Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Jae-Seong



The diversity of microsporidia in parasitic copepods (Caligidae: Siphonostomatoida) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean with description of Facilispora margolisi n. g., n. sp. and a new Family Facilisporidae n. fam.  


Three distinct microsporidia were identified from parasitic copepods in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequence identified a genetically distinct variety of Desmozoon lepeophtherii from Lepeophtheirus salmonis on cultured Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and this was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis resolved the SSU rDNA sequence of the second organism in a unique lineage that was most similar to microsporidia from marine and brackish water crustaceans. The second occurred in L. salmonis on Atlantic, sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka, chum O. keta and coho O. kisutch salmon, in Lepeophtheirus cuneifer on Atlantic salmon, and in Lepeophtheirus parviventris on Irish Lord Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus. Replication occurred by binary fission during merogony and sporogony, diplokarya were not present, and all stages were in contact with host cell cytoplasm. This parasite was identified as Facilispora margolisi n. g., n. sp. and accommodated within a new family, the Facilisporidae n. fam. The third, from Lepeophtheirus hospitalis on starry flounder Platichthys stellatus, was recognized only from its unique, but clearly microsporidian SSU rDNA sequence. Phylogenetic analysis placed this organism within the clade of microsporidia from crustaceans. PMID:22452386

Jones, Simon R M; Prosperi-Porta, Gina; Kim, Eliah



Sequence, biochemical characteristics and expression of a novel Sigma-class of glutathione S-transferase from the intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus with a possible role in antioxidant defense.  


Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a major role in detoxification of xenobiotics and antioxidant defense. Here we report full-length cDNA sequence of a novel Sigma-class of GST (GST-S) from the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The full sequence was of 1,136 bp in length containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 651 bp that encoded 217 amino acid residues. The recombinant Tigriopus GST-S was highly expressed in transformed Escherichia coli. Kinetic properties and effects of pH, temperature and chemical inhibitors on Tigriopus GST-S were also studied. The expression of GST-S was studied using real-time RT-PCR in response to exposure to two oxidative stresses-inducing agents, viz., hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and heavy metals (copper, manganese). It was observed that H(2)O(2) (2mM) exposure down-regulated its expression at the initial stage but there was recovery and up-regulation shortly afterwards. In case of heavy metal exposure there was concentration-dependent increase in Tigriopus GST-S gene expression up to 24h. These results suggest that Tigriopus GST-S expression is modulated by prooxidant chemicals and it may play a role against oxidative stress. A majority of other GST isoforms is known to play an important role in antioxidant defense. This study provides a preliminary insight into the possible antioxidant role for Sigma-class of GST in T. japonicus. PMID:17659322

Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Park, Hyun; Park, Heum Gi; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Ahn, In-Young; Lee, Jae-Seong



Diffusible gas transmitter signaling in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus: Identification of the biosynthetic enzymes of nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using a de novo assembled transcriptome.  


Neurochemical signaling is a major component of physiological/behavioral control throughout the animal kingdom. Gas transmitters are perhaps the most ancient class of molecules used by nervous systems for chemical communication. Three gases are generally recognized as being produced by neurons: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As part of an ongoing effort to identify and characterize the neurochemical signaling systems of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the biomass dominant zooplankton in much of the North Atlantic Ocean, we have mined a de novo assembled transcriptome for sequences encoding the neuronal biosynthetic enzymes of these gases, i.e. nitric oxide synthase (NOS), heme oxygenase (HO) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), respectively. Using Drosophila proteins as queries, two NOS-, one HO-, and one CBS-encoding transcripts were identified. Reverse BLAST and structural analyses of the deduced proteins suggest that each is a true member of its respective enzyme family. RNA-Seq data collected from embryos, early nauplii, late nauplii, early copepodites, late copepodites and adults revealed the expression of each transcript to be stage specific: one NOS restricted primarily to the embryo and the other was absent in the embryo but expressed in all other stages, no CBS expression in the embryo, but present in all other stages, and HO expressed across all developmental stages. Given the importance of gas transmitters in the regulatory control of a number of physiological processes, these data open opportunities for investigating the roles these proteins play under different life-stage and environmental conditions in this ecologically important species. PMID:24747481

Christie, Andrew E; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C; Lenz, Petra H



Zooplankton distribution and feeding in the Arctic Ocean during a Phaeocystis pouchetii bloom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early summer 2007 we determined the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton (>200 ?m) and assessed the copepod feeding rates in 19 stations distributed along the East Greenland Current and the Fram Strait. The study coincided with a bloom of the haptophyte Phaeocystis pouchetii in the colonial form. Copepods dominated the zooplankton community numerically, and were mainly distributed within the upper 150 m (except for Metridia longa and Oithona spp., that inhabited deeper waters), without showing a clear avoidance of the P. pouchetii layer. Copepod diet was diverse, ciliates having a relevant share (40% of the diet). Copepods also displayed active grazing upon the colonies of P. pouchetii. In general, feeding rates were low (on average, daily ration was 1.6% of body carbon), likely due to the scarcity of nano and microplankton during the study (<100 ?g C L-1). Consequently, the trophic impacts on both the nano- and microplankton standing stocks and on primary production were negligible. These results suggest that during the period of study the transfer of carbon and energy from lower trophic levels towards copepods was low.

Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Isari, Stamatina; Antó, Meritxell; Velasco, Eva M.; Almeda, Rodrigo; Movilla, Juancho; Alcaraz, Miquel



The Lake Ontario zooplankton community before (1987-1991) and after (2001-2005) invasion-induced ecosystem change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We assessed changes in Lake Ontario zooplankton biomass, production, and community composition before (1987–1991) and after (2001–2005) invasion-induced ecosystem changes. The ecosystem changes were associated with establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels and invasive predatory cladocerans (Bythotrephes and Cercopagis). Whole-lake total epilimnetic plus metalimnetic zooplankton production declined by approximately half from 42.45 (g dry wt?m?2? year?1) during 1987–1991 to 21.91 (g dry wt?m?2? year?1) in 2003 and averaged 21.01 (g dry wt?m?2? year?1) during 2001–2005. Analysis of two independent data sets indicates that the mean biomass and biomass proportion of cyclopoid copepods declined while the same measures increased for the invasive predatory cladocerans. Changes in means and proportions of all other zooplankton groups were not consistent between the data sets. Cyclopoid copepod biomass and production declined by factors ranging from 3.6 to 5.7. Invasive predatory cladoceran biomass averaged from 5.0% to 8.0% of the total zooplankton biomass. The zooplankton community was otherwise resilient to the invasion-induced disruption as zooplankton species richness and diversity were unaffected. Zooplankton production was likely reduced by declines in primary productivity but may have declined further due to increased predation by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Shifts in zooplankton community structure were consistent with increased predation pressure on cyclopoid copepods by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Predicted declines in the proportion of small cladocerans were not evident. This study represents the first direct comparison of changes in Lake Ontario zooplankton production before and after the invasion-induced disruption and will be important to food web-scale investigations of invasion effects.

Stewart, T. J.; Johannsson, O. E.; Holeck, K.; Sprules, W. G.; O'Gorman, R.



Three species of Agetus (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Corycaeidae) new to Korean taxa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genus Agetus (Cyclopoida, Corycaeidae) has so far been identified by insufficient taxonomic information due to lack of morphological details such as mouthparts, spine lengths of each leg, ornamentation on surface of second urosomal somite. These features are considered as important morphological characteristics in classifying small cyclopoid copepods through taxonomic studies. In this study, some distinct and minute morphological characteristics are used to separate each species within Agetus, with the first redescription of A. typicus, A. flaccus, and A. limbatus from Korean waters. All three species are carefully well redescribed and comparisons with past records from other localities are provided. The zoogeographical distribution has also been summarized.

Wi, Jin Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Soh, Ho Young



Carbon intake by zooplankton. Importance and role of zooplankton grazing in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ingestion by mesozooplankton and micronekton was monitored during two of the ANTARES cruises in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean in spring and summer. The composition of the mesozooplankton populations varied in space and with season. Copepods always dominated in number and biomass, but salps and pteropods were present in the northern part of the transect in summer. Five species of large copepod ( Calanus simillimus, Calanoides acutus, Rhincalanus gigas, Calanus propinquus and Metridia gerlachei) dominated the biomass with a North-South gradient. Smaller species ( Oithona spp., Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus laticeps) were also present. Biomass showed a definite trend with highest levels towards the polar front zone and permanent open-ocean area. Feeding activity was monitored either for the total population (summer) or specific individuals (spring). In summer, depending on the area considered, grazing rates by mesozooplankton appeared to have a significant impact on phytoplankton primary production. In the northern part of the transect (polar front zone or PFZ), salps and to a minor extent pteropods and copepods contributed mostly to the feeding pressure. Maximum intensity was observed in the Coastal Antarctic Zone (CCSZ) where Euphausia superba (adults and calyptopis larvae) could ingest more than 100% of the daily primary production. In spring, the impact of copepods dominated the zooplankton community. Small calanoids and young stages of large species of copepods rather than adult stages were the dominant contributors to grazing pressure. In summer, respiration rates of the dominant copepod species showed that energy expenditure exceeded by far chlorophyll ingestion. This is generally interpreted as the consequence of ingestion of alternate non-chlorophyll food source. The inverse correlation between the biomass of microzooplankton and the area of maximum difference between grazing and respiration confirmed that in summer the protozoans are strongly controlled by the copepod community.

Mayzaud, P.; Tirelli, V.; Errhif, A.; Labat, J. P.; Razouls, S.; Perissinotto, R.


Abundance, composition, and distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to hypolimnetic oxygen depletion in west-central Lake Erie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of crustacean zooplankton were collected monthly in west-central Lake Erie in April and June to October 1968, and in July and August 1970, before and during periods of hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion. The water column at offshore stations was thermally stratified from June through September 1968, and the hypolimnion contained no DO in mid-August of 1968 or 1970. Composition, abundance, and vertical distribution of crustacean zooplankton changed coincidentally with oxygen depletion. From July to early August, zooplankton abundance dropped 79% in 1968 and 50% in 1970. The declines were attributed largely to a sharp decrease in abundance of planktonic Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi. Zooplankton composition shifted from mainly cyclopoid copepods in July to mainly cladocerans and copepod nauplii in middle to late August. We believe that mortality of adults and dormancy of copepodites in response to anoxia was the probable reason for the late summer decline in planktonic C. b. thomasi.

Heberger, Roy F.; Reynolds, James B.



Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and hypolimnion, leaving limited refuge for zooplankton prey. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Bunnell, D. B.; Davis, B. M.; Warner, D. M.; Chriscinske, M. A.; Roseman, E. F.



Composition of phytoplankton communities and their contribution to secondary productivity in Carolina Bays on the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the this three year project is to determine the importance of phytoplankton (microscopic algae) as a component of the food chain base in SRS cardine bays. To summarize specific year three results: Total phytoplankton abundance in Flamingo bay was greatest during early spring 1989, declined during spring and summer, but increased again during early fall. Most of this phytoplankton density was composed of genus Chlamydomonas sp. Ellenton bay demonstrated a similar decline in phytoplankton numbers during midspring 1989, but increased in density during midsummer. As observed in Flamingo bay, much of this variation was due to changes in Chlamydomonas sp. numbers. In Flamingo bay the blue-green alga Anabaena sp. was low in concentration throughout the 1989 flooded season until August, however the diatom Pinnularia sp. displayed a pattern of abundance similar to Chlamydomonas sp. In Ellenton bay Pinnularia sp. peaked during early summer and Anabaena sp. reached highest densities in late spring. For zooplankton in Flamingo bay, the calanoid copepods were higher in early and late spring, similar to the cyclopoid copepods. Cladocera in Ellenton bay were highest in numbers during May 1989, while cladocera in Flamingo bay displayed patterns similar to Flamingo bay cyclopoid copepods. Laboratory experiments exposing Chlamydomonas sp. cultures to known mixtures of {sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} and {sup 12}C-CO{sub 2} seem to indicate that some isotope preference may exist during photosynthesis, however these results have not been analyzed statistically yet. Phytoplankton samples collected for Flamingo bay indicated that a seasonal change in isotope ratios may be occurring in algae tissues, however further analyses are being conducted to determine whether this may also be due to species shifts. 3 refs., 14 figs.

Williams, J.B.



A Molecular and Co-Evolutionary Context for Grazer Induced Toxin Production in Alexandrium tamarense  

PubMed Central

Marine dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are the proximal source of neurotoxins associated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The production of these toxins, the toxin biosynthesis and, thus, the cellular toxicity can be influenced by abiotic and biotic factors. There is, however, a lack of substantial evidence concerning the toxins' ecological function such as grazing defense. Waterborne cues from copepods have been previously found to induce a species-specific increase in toxin content in Alexandrium minutum. However, it remains speculative in which context these species-specific responses evolved and if it occurs in other Alexandrium species as well. In this study we exposed Alexandrium tamarense to three copepod species (Calanus helgolandicus, Acartia clausii, and Oithona similis) and their corresponding cues. We show that the species-specific response towards copepod-cues is not restricted to one Alexandrium species and that co-evolutionary processes might be involved in these responses, thus giving additional evidence for the defensive role of phycotoxins. Through a functional genomic approach we gained insights into the underlying molecular processes which could trigger the different outcomes of these species-specific responses and consequently lead to increased toxin content in Alexandrium tamarense. We propose that the regulation of serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways has a major influence in directing the external stimuli i.e. copepod-cues, into different intracellular cascades and networks in A. tamarense. Our results show that A. tamarense can sense potential predating copepods and respond to the received information by increasing its toxin production. Furthermore, we demonstrate how a functional genomic approach can be used to investigate species interactions within the plankton community.

Wohlrab, Sylke; Iversen, Morten H.; John, Uwe



A molecular and co-evolutionary context for grazer induced toxin production in Alexandrium tamarense.  


Marine dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium are the proximal source of neurotoxins associated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning. The production of these toxins, the toxin biosynthesis and, thus, the cellular toxicity can be influenced by abiotic and biotic factors. There is, however, a lack of substantial evidence concerning the toxins' ecological function such as grazing defense. Waterborne cues from copepods have been previously found to induce a species-specific increase in toxin content in Alexandrium minutum. However, it remains speculative in which context these species-specific responses evolved and if it occurs in other Alexandrium species as well. In this study we exposed Alexandrium tamarense to three copepod species (Calanus helgolandicus, Acartia clausii, and Oithona similis) and their corresponding cues. We show that the species-specific response towards copepod-cues is not restricted to one Alexandrium species and that co-evolutionary processes might be involved in these responses, thus giving additional evidence for the defensive role of phycotoxins. Through a functional genomic approach we gained insights into the underlying molecular processes which could trigger the different outcomes of these species-specific responses and consequently lead to increased toxin content in Alexandrium tamarense. We propose that the regulation of serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways has a major influence in directing the external stimuli i.e. copepod-cues, into different intracellular cascades and networks in A. tamarense. Our results show that A. tamarense can sense potential predating copepods and respond to the received information by increasing its toxin production. Furthermore, we demonstrate how a functional genomic approach can be used to investigate species interactions within the plankton community. PMID:21124775

Wohlrab, Sylke; Iversen, Morten H; John, Uwe



Surface patterns of zooplankton spatial variability detected by high frequency sampling in the NW Mediterranean. Role of density fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High frequency sampling was performed in daylight hours along a 35 km transect in the Ligurian Sea to investigate the upper layer zooplankton distribution during the spring phytoplankton bloom. The results show detailed spatial structure and biomass of key zooplankton functional groups, copepods, salps and krill larvae, within the different water masses characterizing this region. Although observed values of total copepod biomass distribution were rather constant along the transect, species-specific patterns were observed in the copepod spatial distribution. The larger species Calanus helgolandicus, as well as Centropages typicus, Oithona spp., and Oncaea spp., were associated with the frontal zone. However, Acartia spp. had a scattered distribution, and Clausocalanus/Paracalanus did not have a clear pattern. In addition, krill larvae were concentrated in the frontal area and salps had a scattered pattern. The cross-shore zooplankton distribution appeared strongly influenced by both the Northern Ligurian current governing inshore waters, which acts as a major flushing forcing, and the Ligurian front, which governs offshore waters and may act as retention area for zooplankton.

Molinero, Juan Carlos; Ibanez, Frédéric; Souissi, Sami; Bosc, Emmanuel; Nival, Paul


Zooplankton distribution in the western Arctic during summer 2002: Hydrographic habitats and implications for food chain dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is presently a widely accepted phenomenon with a broad range of anticipated impacts on marine ecosystems. Alterations in temperature, circulation and ice cover in Arctic seas may result in changes in food chain dynamics, beginning with planktonic processes. As part of the Shelf-Basin Interactions (SBI) program, we conducted zooplankton surveys during summer 2002 to assess the biomass, distribution and abundance of copepods and other pelagic zooplankton over the Chukchi and Beaufort shelves, slope regions and the adjacent Canada Basin. The motivation for our fieldwork was the question, "Will global change, particularly warming, result in more large-sized zooplankton which support a pelagic food web of fish, birds, and certain mammals over the Chukchi and Beaufort shelves or in more smaller-sized zooplankton which will diminish the fish, birds and mammals and favor sedentary benthic organisms?" The objectives of the present study were 1) to census the regional zooplankton community and establish a baseline for comparisons with historical and future studies and 2) to determine whether large-bodied copepods associated with deep waters of the Bering Sea or the Canada Basin were transported to the shelves in sufficient numbers to modify the food web in a region where smaller copepods often dominate the zooplankton numerically. Spatial distributions of zooplankton communities were clearly associated with hydrographic habitats determined by the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of the upper water layer. Smaller taxa dominated the shelf communities while offshore zooplankton assemblages were characterized by large-bodied copepods. The mesozooplankton community was numerically dominated by copepod nauplii and small-bodied juveniles, including Pseudocalanus spp. and Oithona similis. We observed very few large-bodied copepods from the Bering Sea. However, much of the shelf region surveyed included relatively numerous Calanus glacialis juveniles and adults, suggesting that these copepods were advected onto the shelf and possibly reproducing there. Juvenile stages of the large-bodied copepod Calanus hyperboreus were found in relative abundance on the Chukchi shelf in the vicinity of Hanna Canyon. These observations suggest that large-bodied, deep-water species from the basin are advected onto the Chukchi Shelf where they may impact the fate of shelf-derived primary production and alter the food webs of the shelves. Regional comparisons of abundances of selected taxa enumerated in the present study with sample data from the early 1950s suggested that some taxa were more abundant in the SBI region in 2002 than ca. 50 years ago. Long-term changes in planktonic populations are expected to have significant implications for shelf-basin exchange of biogenic material in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and the adjacent Arctic Basin.

Lane, Peter V. Z.; Llinás, Leopoldo; Smith, Sharon L.; Pilz, Dora


Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The two estuarine systems composing San Francisco Bay have distinct zooplankton communities and seasonal population dynamics. In the South Bay, a shallow lagoon-type estuary, the copepods Acartia spp. and Oithona davisae dominate. As in estuaries along the northeast coast of the U.S., there is a seasonal succession involving the replacement of a cold-season Acartia species (A. clausi s.l.) by a warm-season species (A. californiensis), presumably resulting from the differential production and hatching of dormant eggs. Oithona davisae is most abundant during the fall. Copepods of northern San Francisco Bay, a partially-mixed estuary of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers, organize into discrete populations according to salinity distribution: Sinocalanus doerrii (a recently introduced species) at the riverine boundary, Eurytemora affinis in the oligohaline mixing zone, Acartia spp. in polyhaline waters (18-30\\%), and neritic species (e.g., Paracalanus parvus) at the seaward boundary. Sinocalanus doerrii and E. affinis are present year-round. Acartia clausi s.l. is present almost year-round in the northern reach, and A. californiensis occurs only briefly there in summer-fall. The difference in succession of Acartia species between the two regions of San Francisco Bay may reflect differences in the seasonal temperature cycle (the South Bay warms earlier), and the perennial transport of A. clausi s.l. into the northern reach from the seaward boundary by nontidal advection. Large numbers (>106 m-3) of net microzooplankton (>64 ??m), in cluding the rotifer Synchaeta sp. and three species of tintinnid ciliates, occur in the South Bay and in the seaward northern reach where salinity exceeds about 5-10??? Maximum densities of these microzooplankton are associated with high concentrations of chlorophyll. Meroplankton (of gastropods, bivalves, barnacles, and polychaetes) constitute a large fraction of zooplankton biomass in the South Bay during winter-spring and in the northern reach during summer-fall. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton abundance appear to be constant among years (1978-1981) and are similar in the deep (>10 m) channels and lateral shoals (<3 m). The seasonal zooplankton community dynamics are discussed in relation to: (1) river discharge which alters salinity distribution and residence time of plankton; (2) temperature which induces production and hatching of dormant copepod eggs; (3) coastal hydrography which brings neritic copepods of different zoogeographic affinities into the bay; and (4) seasonal cycles of phytoplankton. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

Ambler, J. W.; Cloern, J. E.; Hutchinson, A.



Diet, prey selection and daily ration of Stomolophus meleagris, a filter-feeding scyphomedusa from the NE Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 20 prey taxa were identified from gut contents of Stomolophus meleagris medusae in the north-eastern Gulf of Mexico; seven taxa formed over 98% of the total. Bivalve veligers (mostly Crassostrea virginica) dominated, constituting 56% of the total. Other significant prey were copepod eggs, nauplii, copepodites and adults, gastropod veligers, and Oikopleura sp. Mean numbers of prey in the guts of S. meleagris medusae (bell height ranged from 1·5 to 10 cm) varied from 400 to 9300. Numbers of prey were an exponential function of medusan biomass, increasing from 700 prey at 9 g wet weight to 6000 prey at 325 g wet weight. Mean numbers of ingested prey ranged from 4000 to > 65000 prey day -1 medusa -1. Bivalve veligers made up 47% of the daily ration. The daily ration was estimated to range from 20 to 100 mg C medusa -1, depending on size of the medusa. Bivalve veligers were selected over all other kinds of prey. Fish eggs were the next preferred prey followed by harpacticoids, larvaceans and tintinnids, all with selectivities near zero. Lowest selectivity values were for copepod nauplii, and cyclopoid and calanoid copepods. Estimated in situ clearance rates were highly variable depending on the prey and size of the medusa, and ranged from < 1 to 135 l h -1 medusa -1. A description of the possible mechanism of feeding and mode of prey selection is presented. Filter-feeding in rhizostomes probably evolved in response to small prey size in tropical waters.

Larson, Ronald J.



Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species.  


The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens. PMID:16341431

Silva, W M; Matsumura-Tundisi, T



Carnivorous planktonic Difflugia (Protista, Amoebina Testacea) and their predators.  


Four planktonic species of Difflugia co-occurring in a south Chinese reservoir were found to be carnivorous, but the diet was widest in the largest species (D. tuberspinifera) and narrowest in the smallest (D. hydrostatica). It included rotifers, ciliates, dinoflagellates, floating eggs, and small particles associated with organic debris. Scavenging and cannibalism were also observed. Species with a collared test (D. biwae, D. mulanensis) showed a form of suction-feeding, while species with teeth on the pseudostome used these, together with their pseudopods, as "inverted crown corks", providing leverage for opening the lorica of their (rotifer) prey. Predators of Difflugia included cyclopoid copepods. In addition, the rotifers Asplanchna priodonta, Ploesoma hudsoni and, occasionally, big ciliates (Stentor sp.) all ingested their prey as a whole. PMID:21632222

Han, Bo-Ping; Wang, Tian; Xu, Lei; Lin, Qiu Qi; Jinyu, Zhang; Dumont, Henri J



Food and feeding in Northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars).  


Early feeding studies on Meganyctiphanes norvegica described the morphology of the feeding appendages and the actual process of food uptake and digestion. Insights into diurnal, seasonal and ontogenetic pattern in feeding activity and diet were derived from field studies on the Clyde Sea population. Since then, technical advances have confirmed some of the early assumptions and rejected others. Submersible, remotely operated vehicles and echosounders, for instance, proved that M. norvegica stay often close to the seabed and feed on particles in the epibenthic layer and sediment-water interface. Scanning electron microscopy showed that mandibles of the so-called carnivorous M. norvegica have an elaborated grinding region, which allows efficient feeding on diatoms. Three-dimensional silhouette video imaging revealed mechanoreception, not vision, as the main sensory modality involved in proximity prey detection by M. norvegica. Fatty acid analysis and stomach content microscopy have now been conducted on M. norvegica across a range of environments including the Gulf of Maine, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea, Scandinavian fjords, the Kattegat and Mediterranean Sea. Regional and seasonal differences in the trophic environment are reflected in their daily ration and in the relative importance of copepods versus phytoplankton in their diet. Overall, phytoplankton is an important food source for M. norvegica during the spring bloom and part of the summer, but copepods are dominant in autumn and winter. Depending on their vertical co-occurrence, M. norvegica can feed on a range of copepods from early stages of Oithona spp. up to adult Calanus spp. There are clear ontogenetic differences in diet, with adults feeding more on copepods and benthic food items than early post-larvae. Future studies should link diet to simultaneously measured growth and reproduction and emphasise comparison across the spectrum of environments inhabited by this versatile species. PMID:20955891

Schmidt, Katrin



Mesozooplankton community response during the SERIES iron enrichment experiment in the subarctic NE Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the mesozooplankton community was examined during the development and early decline of the Subarctic Ecosystem Response to Iron Enrichment Study diatom bloom in July 2002. No significant changes in species composition were observed during this period. In terms of abundance, the community was dominated by small copepods ( Oithona spp. and Pseudocalanus spp.). The abundance of large herbivorous calanoids of the genus Neocalanus ( N. plumchrus, N. cristatus and N. flemingeri) was already low at the start of the experiment as most of these animals had already descended to their overwintering depth. Mesozooplankton biomass was dominated by the calanoids Eucalanus bungii, Calanus pacificus, Metridia pacifica and, to a lesser extent, late stage copepodites (CIV, CV) of Neocalanus spp. In general, the abundance of all copepod species tended to increase inside the patch (relative to conditions outside the patch) during the experiment. However, mean species-specific abundances were not significantly different inside and outside of the patch, except for a significant increase of E. bungii ( p<0.05) that occurred between Days 10 and 13 inside the iron-fertilized patch. By Day 8, most of the E. bungii population had shifted its vertical distribution into the surface mixed layer. We hypothesize that a wind event displacing the surface mixed layer coincident with continued immigration from below the thermocline facilitated this increase in abundance. Here we address this higher trophic level response to pulsed primary production in terms of potential mechanisms and their potential impact on the diatom bloom.

Sastri, Akash R.; Dower, John F.



Deep-water zooplankton of the Guaymas basin hydrothermal vent field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton from the Guaymas Basin deep-sea vent field were collected with a 1 m 2 MOCNESS to examine the distribution of total standing stock, taxonomic composition, size-frequency distribution of zooplankton, and the species composition of calanoid copepods. Low altitude (˜ 100 m above the bottom) horizontal tows along and across the axis of the basin's southern trough, and oblique tows from the bottom of the basin (˜ 2000 m) to the surface were made. Total biomass in near-bottom samples (range: 13-46 cc/1000 m 3) was only about a factor of 10 lower than in the upper 100 m. However, there was little or no evidence for enrichment of biomass in the ˜ 100 m zone above the vent site relative to biomass at the same depth horizon over non-vent areas. Total numbers of individuals ranged between 2600 and 4800/1000 m 3. Calanoid copepods consistently ranked first in abundance of counts of the taxa, followed by cyclopoid copepods, ostracods, chaetognaths, and amphipods. Other less abundant taxa, but in some cases important contributors to total biomass, were coelenterates (siphonophores, medusae), decapod shrimp, and polychaetes. Size-frequency analysis of individuals from each taxon indicated that the biomass and abundance spectra do not fit the theoretically expected spectra based on weight-dependent metabolism and growth. The pyramid of biomass was substantially different from the pyramid of numbers in this deep-sea community. Of the 67 species of copepods identified in two samples taken on low altitude tows, only 15 co-occurred in both samples. Many of the species in this relatively diverse community remain to be described. Larval and post-larval forms of benthic clams, gastropods, polychaetes, and crustaceans associated with the vents were collected 100-200 m above the southern trough, indicating the post-larvae may play an active role in dispersal of hydrothermal vent species.

Wiebe, Peter H.; Copley, Nancy; Van Dover, Cindy; Tamse, Armando; Manrique, Fernando



Secondary production at the Polar Front, Barents Sea, August 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate spatial patterns of secondary production we sampled four core hydrographical regions of the Polar Front in the Barents Sea (Arctic Water, ArW; Polar Front Water, PFW; Atlantic Water, AtW; and Melt Water, MW) by towing an undulating instrument platform along a transect crossing the front from August 8-9, 2007. Sensors mounted on the platform provided data on the hydrography (CTD), fluorescence (Fluorometer, F) and zooplankton abundance in the size range between 0.1 and 30 mm (Laser Optical Plankton Counter, LOPC). These continuous, biophysical data with high-spatial resolution were supplemented by discrete water and zooplankton net samples at stations for sensor calibrations. After in depth quality assessments of the biophysical data, estimates were made of the vital rates based on biovolume spectrum theory. Five size groups were distinguished from the LOPC data: small (S), mainly Oithona spp. and the appendicularian Fritillaria sp.; medium (M), mainly Pseudocalanus spp. and Calanus spp. CI-CIII; large (L), mainly Calanus spp. CIV-CV; and extra large (XL and 2XL), juvenile and adult euphausids. Size groups were further divided based on transparency of organisms. Vital rates based on the biophysical in situ data in combination with biovolume spectrum theories agreed generally well with data from empirical and numerical models in the literature. ArW was characterised by subsurface maxima of chlorophyll a (chl a), and an estimated population growth of ca. 13 mg C m- 3 d- 1 for CI-CIII Calanus spp. and some older Pseudocalanus within the chl a maxima. Frontal waters were characterised by low chl a concentrations, but high abundances and production (around 1 g C m- 3 d- 1) of small copepods (Oithona spp.) and appendicularians (Fritillaria sp.). The estimated production of small-size zooplankton was an order of magnitude higher than the production of all other size groups combined, including large copepods. The high loss rates (- 166 to - 271 mg C m- 3 d- 1) of small zooplankton may contribute a substantial amount of carbon to the benthos and to pelagic predators such as young capelin. AtW was the most productive water mass, with surface chl a maxima and an estimated population growth of 134 mg C m- 3 d- 1 for small zooplankton, 3.6 mg C m- 3 d- 1 for medium-sized copepods and 0.9 mg C m- 3 d- 1 for CIV-CVI Calanus. For those Calanus spp. in the surface layer, the estimated specific mortality rates were up to - 0.35 d- 1, partly due to high predation pressure by hydrozoans and chaetognaths.

Basedow, Sünnje L.; Zhou, Meng; Tande, Kurt S.



Diapause in Calanoid Copepods: within-clutch hatching patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diapause is a major life history feature of many invertebrate organisms. Determining the phenology of diapause is critical for understanding survival and reproductive success of individuals as well as the long-term viability of many populations. The time spent in dormancy by individuals and variability among offspring in the duration of dormancy are two important aspects of invertebrate life histories. Some




Concentration of Pelagic Copepods in the Santa Barbara Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A combination of instruments (zooplankton nets, optical plankton counter, and acoustic Doppler current profiler) was used to asses the temporal and spatial extent of a dense, deep aggregation of diapausing, C5 Calanus pacificus in the Santa Barbara Basin ...

K. Osgood



[Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, the microcrustacea: Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)].  


This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eighty species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families. Moreover, thirteen benthonic species distributed into six families, all harparticoids, are reported. Among the pelagic families, Pontellidae has six species, while Paracalanidae and Eucalanidae had five each. Other families, like Calanidae, Pseudodiaptomidae and Acartiidae had four species and most families only one. Forty five species are reported only for the Pacific coast, thirteen for the Caribbean coast, only nine species occurred in both coasts; being a direct consequence of the more intensive research effort in the Pacific. Pelagic copepod biodiversity reflects different oceanographic conditions in both coasts. Typical estuarine species were found in the lower region of the Gulf of Nicoya, while a mixture of estuarine and oceanic species were found in Golfo Dulce. Diversity in the Caribbean, specially at the Cahuita coral reef is lower in comparison with the copepod diversity found in other regions in the Caribbean sea. This may be due to the high sediment resuspension rate characteristic of the Cahuita coral reef, which could affect the reproduction of many holozooplankters, specially copepods. Although sixty seven pelagic copepod species appears to be in low numbers, in terms of specific biodiversity it is as high when compared to numbers found in other tropical areas. Thirteen species are reported in the literature, all harparticoids. Five species, three sub-species and one genera were new to science. Balacopsylla is reported for the first time from a neotropical regions, while the genus Karllangia, represented by two coexisting species in the Caribbean coast, belong to a few circumtropical-subtropical genera. The most diverse family was Tetragonicipitidae. This is the first effort to summarize the available information about the biodiversity of marine copepods for Costa Rica's coasts. PMID:15264526

Morales-Ramírez, A



Multisensor sampling of pelagic ecosystem variables in a coastal environment to estimate zooplankton grazing impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sampling was conducted on the west Florida continental shelf ecosystem modeling site to estimate zooplankton grazing impact on primary production. Samples were collected with the high-resolution sampler, a towed array bearing electronic and optical sensors operating in tandem with a paired net/bottle verification system. A close biological-physical coupling was observed, with three main plankton communities: 1. a high-density inshore community dominated by larvaceans coincident with a salinity gradient; 2. a low-density offshore community dominated by small calanoid copepods coincident with the warm mixed layer; and 3. a high-density offshore community dominated by small poecilostomatoid and cyclopoid copepods and ostracods coincident with cooler, sub-pycnocline oceanic water. Both high-density communities were associated with relatively turbid water. Applying available grazing rates from the literature to our abundance data, grazing pressure mirrored the above bio-physical pattern, with the offshore sub-pycnocline community contributing ˜65% of grazing pressure despite representing only 19% of the total volume of the transect. This suggests that grazing pressure is highly localized, emphasizing the importance of high-resolution sampling to better understand plankton dynamics. A comparison of our grazing rate estimates with primary production estimates suggests that mesozooplankton do not control the fate of phytoplankton over much of the area studied (<5% grazing of daily primary production), but "hot spots" (˜25-50% grazing) do occur which may have an effect on floral composition.

Sutton, Tracey; Hopkins, Thomas; Remsen, Andrew; Burghart, Scott



Effects of alewife predation on zooplankton populations in Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The zooplankton populations in southeastern Lake Michigan underwent striking, size-related changes between 1954 and 1966. Forms that decline sharply were the largest cladocerans (Leptodora kindtii, Daphnia galeata, and D. retrocurva), the largest calanoid copepods (Limnocalanus macrurus, Epischura lacustris, and Diaptomus sicilis), and the largest cyclopoid copepod (Mesocyclops edax). Two of these, D. galeata and M. edax (both abundant in 1954), became extremely rare. Certain medium-sized or small species increased in numbers: Daphnia longiremis, Holopedium gibberum, Polyphemus pediculus, Bosmina longirostris, Bosmina coregoni, Ceriodaphnia sp., Cyclops bicuspidatus, Cyclops vernalis, and Diaptomus ashlandi. Evidence is strong that the changes were due to selective predation by alewives. The alewife was uncommon in southeastern Lake Michigan in 1954 but had increased to enormous proportions by 1966; there was a massive dieoff in spring 1967, and abundance remained relatively low in 1968. The composition of zooplankton populations in 1968 generally had shifted back toward that of 1954, although D. galeata and M. edax remained rare. The average size, and size at onset of maturity, of D. retrocurva decreased noticeably between 1954 and 1966 but increased between 1966 and 1968.

Wells, LaRue



Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich



Diversity and Seasonality of Bioluminescent Vibrio cholerae Populations in Chesapeake Bay?  

PubMed Central

Association of luminescence with phenotypic and genotypic traits and with environmental parameters was determined for 278 strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from the Chesapeake Bay during 1998 to 2000. Three clusters of luminescent strains (A, B, and C) and two nonluminescent clusters (X and Y) were identified among 180 clonal types. V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during pandemics and endemic cholera in the Ganges Delta were related to cluster Y. Heat-stable enterotoxin (encoded by stn) and the membrane protein associated with bile resistance (encoded by ompU) were found to be linked to luminescence in strains of cluster A. Succession from nonluminescent to luminescent populations of V. cholerae occurred during spring to midsummer. Occurrence of cluster A strains in water with neutral pH was contrasted with that of cluster Y strains in water with a pH of >8. Cluster A was found to be associated with a specific calanoid population cooccurring with cyclopoids. Cluster B was related to cluster Y, with its maximal prevalence at pH 8. Occurrence of cluster B strains was more frequent with warmer water temperatures and negatively correlated with maturity of the copepod community. It is concluded that each cluster of luminescent V. cholerae strains occupies a distinct ecological niche. Since the dynamics of these niche-specific subpopulations are associated with zooplankton community composition, the ecology of luminescent V. cholerae is concluded to be related to its interaction with copepods and related crustacean species.

Zo, Young-Gun; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Grim, Christopher; Arakawa, Eiji; Watanabe, Haruo; Colwell, Rita R.



Food habits of Juvenile American Shad and dynamics of zooplankton in the lower Columbia River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As many as 2.4 million adult American shad annually pass John Day Dam, Columbia River to spawn upriver, yet food web interactions of juvenile shad rearing in John Day Reservoir are unexplored. We collected zooplankton and conducted mid-water trawls in McNary (June-July) and John Day reservoirs (August-November) from 1994 through 1996 during the outmigration of subyearling American shad and Chinook salmon. Juvenile American shad were abundant and represented over 98% of the trawl catch in late summer. The five major taxa collected in zooplankton tows were Bosmina longirostris, Daphnia, cyclopoid cope-pods, rotifers, and calanoid copepods. We evaluated total crustacean zooplankton abundance and Daphnia biomass in relation to water temperature, flow, depth, diel period, and cross-sectional location using multiple regression. Differences in zooplankton abundance were largely due to differences in water temperature and flow. Spatial variation in total zooplankton abundance was observed in McNary Reservoir, but not in John Day Reservoir. Juvenile American shad generally fed on numerically abundant prey, despite being less preferred than larger bodied zooplankton. A decrease in cladoceran abundance and size in August coupled with large percentages of Daphnia in juvenile American shad stomachs indicated heavy planktivory. Smaller juvenile American shad primarily fed on Daphnia in August, but switched to more evasive copepods as the mean size of fish increased and Daphnia abundance declined. Because Daphnia are particularly important prey items for subyearling Chinook salmon in mainstem reservoirs in mid to late summer, alterations in the cladoceran food base is of concern for the management of outmigrating salmonids and other Columbia River fishes. ?? 2006 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

Haskell, C. A.; Tiffan, K. F.; Rondorf, D. W.



Modeling selenium bioaccumulation through arthropod food webs in San Francisco Bay, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trophic transfer is the main process by which upper trophic level wildlife are exposed to selenium. Transfers through lower levels of a predator's food web thus can be instrumental in determining the threat of selenium in an ecosystem. Little is known about Se transfer through pelagic, zooplankton-based food webs in San Francisco Bay ([SFB], CA, USA), which serve as an energy source for important predators such as striped bass. A dynamic multipathway bioaccumulation model was used to model Se transfer from phytoplankton to pelagic copepods to carnivorous mysids (Neomysis mercedis). Uptake rates of dissolved Se, depuration rates, and assimilation efficiencies (AE) for the model were determined for copepods and mysids in the laboratory. Small (73-250 ??m) and large (250-500 ??m) herbivorous zooplankton collected from SFB (Oithona/Limnoithona and Acartia sp.) assimilated Se with similar efficiencies (41-52%) from phytoplankton. Mysids assimilated 73% of Se from small herbivorous zooplankton; Se AE was significantly lower (61%) than larger herbivorous zooplankton. Selenium depuration rates were high for both zooplankton and mysids (12-25% d-1), especially compared to bivalves (2-3% d-1). The model predicted steady state Se concentrations in mysids similar to those observed in the field. The predicted concentration range (1.5-5.4 ??g g -1) was lower than concentrations of 4.5 to 24 ??g g-1 observed in bivalves from the bay. Differences in efflux between mysids and bivalves were the best explanation for the differences in uptake. The results suggest that the risk of selenium toxicity to predators feeding on N. mercedis would be less than the risk to predators feeding on bivalves. Management of selenium contamination should include food webs analyses to focus on the most important exposure pathways identified for a given watershed.

Schlekat, C. E.; Purkerson, D. G.; Luoma, S. N.



Temporal changes in the sensitivity of coastal Antarctic zooplankton communities to diesel fuel: a comparison between single- and multi-species toxicity tests.  


Despite increasing human activity and risk of fuel spills in Antarctica, little is known about the impact of fuel on Antarctic marine fauna. The authors performed both single- and multi-species (whole community) acute toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of an Antarctic coastal zooplankton community to the water-accommodated fraction of Special Antarctic Blend diesel. Single-species tests using abundant copepods Oncaea curvata, Oithona similis, and Stephos longipes allowed comparisons of sensitivity of key taxa and of sensitivity estimates obtained from traditional single-species and more novel multi-species tests. Special Antarctic Blend diesel caused significant mortality and species compositional change in the zooplankton community within 4 d to 7 d. The sensitivity of the community also increased across the summer sampling period, with decreasing 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) values for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH): 1091 µg TPH/L in early January 2011, 353 µg TPH/L in mid January 2011, and 186 µg TPH/L in early February 2011. Copepods showed similar sensitivities to Special Antarctic Blend diesel in single-species tests (7-d LC50s: O. curvata, 158 µg TPH/L; O. similis, 176 µg TPH/L; S. longipes, 188 µg TPH/L). The combined use of single- and multi-species toxicity tests is a holistic approach to assessing the sensitivity of key species and the interactions and interdependence between species, enabling a broader understanding of the effects of fuel exposure on the whole zooplankton community. PMID:24590679

Payne, Sarah J; King, Catherine K; Zamora, Lara Marcus; Virtue, Patti



Mesozooplankton community development at elevated CO2 concentrations: results from a mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuels leads to increasing pCO2 and decreasing pH in the world ocean. These changes may have severe consequences for marine biota, especially in cold-water ecosystems due to higher solubility of CO2. However, studies on the response of mesozooplankton communities to elevated CO2 are still lacking. In order to test whether abundance and taxonomic composition change with pCO2, we have sampled nine mesocosms, which were deployed in Kongsfjorden, an Arctic fjord at Svalbard, and were adjusted to eight CO2 concentrations, initially ranging from 185 ?atm to 1420 ?atm. Vertical net hauls were taken weekly over about one month with an Apstein net (55 ?m mesh size) in all mesocosms and the surrounding fjord. In addition, sediment trap samples, taken every second day in the mesocosms, were analysed to account for losses due to vertical migration and mortality. The taxonomic analysis revealed that meroplanktonic larvae (Cirripedia, Polychaeta, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, and Decapoda) dominated in the mesocosms while copepods (Calanus spp., Oithona similis, Acartia longiremis and Microsetella norvegica) were found in lower abundances. In the fjord copepods prevailed for most of our study. With time, abundance and taxonomic composition developed similarly in all mesocosms and the pCO2 had no significant effect on the overall community structure. Also, we did not find significant relationships between the pCO2 level and the abundance of single taxa. Changes in heterogeneous communities are, however, difficult to detect, and the exposure to elevated pCO2 was relatively short. We therefore suggest that future mesocosm experiments should be run for longer periods.

Niehoff, B.; Schmithüsen, T.; Knüppel, N.; Daase, M.; Czerny, J.; Boxhammer, T.



Comparison between zooplankton data collected by the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey in the English Channel and by WP-2 nets at station L4, Plymouth (UK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zooplankton sampling has been carried out by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey since the 1930s enabling the study of long-term changes in plankton populations, the elucidation of seasonal patterns of abundance, and more recently providing zooplankton biomass estimates for ecosystem models. Data for zooplankton abundance collected by CPR tows in the Western English Channel (between 1988 and 1998) were compared to vertically integrated samples collected from station L4 off Plymouth, UK. Comparisons were made for locally abundant copepods (including Acartia, Calanus, Para/ Pseudocalanus, Centropages, Oithona and Temora) collected by CPR and WP-2 nets. All dominant species recorded at L4 were also common to the CPR data. However, the position of the taxa in the two datasets was not equivalent. Seasonal cycles revealed by CPR data were significantly similar to those recorded throughout the water column at L4 for most taxa. However, absolute levels of abundance differed for the two datasets: abundances were underestimated by CPR samples when compared to those of vertically integrated samples by a factor of between 2 and 35, with the exception of Centropages. The differing mesh sizes (200 and 270 ?m) of the WP-2 net and CPR mesh could only partially explain these differences in abundance, implying that the behaviour of individual taxa and their depth in the water column also influenced the abundance recorded.

John, Eurgain H.; Batten, Sonia D.; Harris, Roger P.; Hays, Graeme C.



Directional Darwinian Selection in proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular evolution is a very active field of research, with several complementary approaches, including dN/dS, HON90, MM01, and others. Each has documented strengths and weaknesses, and no one approach provides a clear picture of how natural selection works at the molecular level. The purpose of this work is to present a simple new method that uses quantitative amino acid properties to identify and characterize directional selection in proteins. Methods Inferred amino acid replacements are viewed through the prism of a single physicochemical property to determine the amount and direction of change caused by each replacement. This allows the calculation of the probability that the mean change in the single property associated with the amino acid replacements is equal to zero (H0: ? = 0; i.e., no net change) using a simple two-tailed t-test. Results Example data from calanoid and cyclopoid copepod cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence pairs are presented to demonstrate how directional selection may be linked to major shifts in adaptive zones, and that convergent evolution at the whole organism level may be the result of convergent protein adaptations. Conclusions Rather than replace previous methods, this new method further complements existing methods to provide a holistic glimpse of how natural selection shapes protein structure and function over evolutionary time.



Zooplankton community resilience and aquatic environmental stability on aquaculture practices: a study using net cages.  


Fish farming in net cages causes changes in environmental conditions. We evaluated the resilience of zooplankton concerning this activity in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples were taken near the net cages installed at distances upstream and downstream, before and after net cage installation. The resilience was estimated by the decrease in the groups' abundance after installing the net cages. The zooplankton community was represented by 106 species. The most abundant species were Synchaeta pectinata, S. oblonga, Conochilus coenobasis, Polyarthra dolichoptera and C. unicornis (Rotifera), Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Moina minuta, Bosmina hagmanni and C. silvestrii (Cladocera) and Notodiaptomus amazonicus (Copepoda). The resilience of microcrustaceans was affected in the growing points as this activity left the production environment for longer, delaying the natural ability of community responses. Microcrustaceans groups, mainly calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, had a different return rate. The net cage installation acted as a stress factor on the zooplankton community. Management strategies that cause fewer risks to the organisms and maximize energy flow may help in maintaining system stability. PMID:22437379

Dias, J D; Simões, N R; Bonecker, C C



Competition between larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) for zooplankton  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diet and growth of larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were compared in mesocosm experiments in a small mesotrophic lake in southeastern Michigan. Fish were sampled from single-species and mixed assemblages in 2-m3 cages for 8 weeks during April and May. Both species initially ate mostly cyclopoid copepodites and small cladocerans (Bosmia spp.). Schoener's index of diet overlap showed considerable overlap (70-90%). Lake whitefish ate Daphnia spp. and adult copepods about 2 weeks earlier than did lake herring, perhaps related to their larger mean mouth gape. Lake whitefish were consistently larger than lake herring until the eighth week, especially in the sympatric treatments. Lake whitefish appeared to have a negative effect on the growth of lake herring, as lake herring in mixed-species treatments were smaller and weighed less than lake herring reared in single-species treatments. The diet similarities of lake whitefish and lake herring larvae could make them competitors for food in the Great Lakes. The greater initial size of lake whitefish could allow them to eat larger prey earlier and thereby limit availability of these prey to lake herring at a crucial period of development.

Davis, Bruce M.; Todd, Thomas N.



Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.



Endemism of subterranean Diacyclops in Korea and Japan, with descriptions of seven new species of the languidoides-group and redescriptions of D. brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 and D. suoensis Ito, 1954 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida).  


Copepods have been poorly studied in subterranean habitats in Korea. Previous records have indicated mostly the presence of species already described from Japan, with very few endemic elements. This commonality has usually been explained by repeated dispersal across the land bridges that connected the two countries several times during the Pleistocene glacial cycles. However, the Korean Peninsula is known for pockets of Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks, with more than 1,000 caves already having been explored. The relative isolation of these carbonate pockets makes for an enormous speciation potential, and the development of a high level of short-range endemism of subterranean copepods should be expected. Representatives of the genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 are here investigated from a range of subterranean habitats in South Korea, with comparative material sampled from central Honshu in Japan. Morphological analyses of microcharacters, many of which are used in cyclopoid taxonomy for the first time herein, reveal high diversity in both countries. No subterranean species is found in common, although the existence of four sibling species pairs in Korea and Japan may be indicative of relatively recent speciation. We describe seven new stygobiotic species, including three from Korea (Diacyclops hanguk sp. n., Diacyclops leeae sp. n., and Diacyclops parasuoensis sp. n.) and four from Japan (Diacyclops hisuta sp. n., Diacyclops ishidai sp. n., Diacyclops parahanguk sp. n., and Diacyclops pseudosuoensis sp. n.). Diacyclops hanguk, Diacyclops parasuoensis, Diacyclops ishidai, and Diacyclops parahanguk are described from newly collected material, while the other three new species are proposed for specimens previously identified as other, widely distributed species. Diacyclops brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 is redescribed from the holotype female, and Diacyclops suoensis Ito, 1954 is redescribed from material newly collected near the ancient Lake Biwa in Japan. This research provides evidence for the importance of subterranean habitats as reservoirs of biodiversity, and also demonstrates the inadequacy of current morphological methods of identifying closely related species of copepods. The disproportionately high diversity discovered around Lake Biwa provides further evidence in support of the hypothesis about the role of ancient lakes as biodiversity pumps for subterranean habitats. A key to the East Asian species of the languidoides-group is provided. PMID:23653520

Karanovic, Tomislav; Grygier, Mark J; Lee, Wonchoel



Endemism of subterranean Diacyclops in Korea and Japan, with descriptions of seven new species of the languidoides-group and redescriptions of D. brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 and D. suoensis Ito, 1954 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Copepods have been poorly studied in subterranean habitats in Korea. Previous records have indicated mostly the presence of species already described from Japan, with very few endemic elements. This commonality has usually been explained by repeated dispersal across the land bridges that connected the two countries several times during the Pleistocene glacial cycles. However, the Korean Peninsula is known for pockets of Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks, with more than 1,000 caves already having been explored. The relative isolation of these carbonate pockets makes for an enormous speciation potential, and the development of a high level of short-range endemism of subterranean copepods should be expected. Representatives of the genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 are here investigated from a range of subterranean habitats in South Korea, with comparative material sampled from central Honshu in Japan. Morphological analyses of microcharacters, many of which are used in cyclopoid taxonomy for the first time herein, reveal high diversity in both countries. No subterranean species is found in common, although the existence of four sibling species pairs in Korea and Japan may be indicative of relatively recent speciation. We describe seven new stygobiotic species, including three from Korea (Diacyclops hanguk sp. n., Diacyclops leeae sp. n., and Diacyclops parasuoensis sp. n.) and four from Japan (Diacyclops hisuta sp. n., Diacyclops ishidai sp. n., Diacyclops parahanguk sp. n., and Diacyclops pseudosuoensis sp. n.). Diacyclops hanguk, Diacyclops parasuoensis, Diacyclops ishidai, and Diacyclops parahanguk are described from newly collected material, while the other three new species are proposed for specimens previously identified as other, widely distributed species. Diacyclops brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 is redescribed from the holotype female, and Diacyclops suoensis Ito, 1954 is redescribed from material newly collected near the ancient Lake Biwa in Japan. This research provides evidence for the importance of subterranean habitats as reservoirs of biodiversity, and also demonstrates the inadequacy of current morphological methods of identifying closely related species of copepods. The disproportionately high diversity discovered around Lake Biwa provides further evidence in support of the hypothesis about the role of ancient lakes as biodiversity pumps for subterranean habitats. A key to the East Asian species of the languidoides-group is provided.

Karanovic, Tomislav; Grygier, Mark J.; Lee, Wonchoel



Heliodiaptomus phuthaiorum n. sp., a New Freshwater Copepod (Calanoida, Diaptomidae) from Temporary Ponds in Northeast Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An illustrated description of a new species, Heliodiaptomus phuthaiorum n. sp., from nine of the 456 sampled localities in northeast Thailand, is presented. Morphologically, it is closely related to the Indian H. pulcher (Gurney, 1907). The new species is characterized in the male by the prominent, spinulose knob on the inner margin of the right basis; the finely serrated inner margin of the right second exopodite-segment; and the extraordinary large, tongue-like projection on proximal inner margin of the left basis. In the female, the genital somite is unusually long, much longer than the other two urosomites combined. This new species is rare and has been found only in temporary ponds in Nakhon Pranom and Nong Khai Provinces. It usually co-occurs with 1-5 other diaptomids; the most frequently co-occurring species are Neodiaptomus blachei (Brehm, 1951), N. yangtsekiangensis Mashiko, 1951 and Eodiaptomus phuphanensis Sanoamuang, 2001. (

Sanoamuang, La-Orsri



The Copepods South of Dog Keys Pass: Their Abundance, Distribution, Seasonal Variation, Temperature and Salinity Tolerances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two hundred and fifty-four plankton collections made by the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory personnel were used in this study. Aliquots of the samples were taken and estimations of the numbers of each species in each sample were made. Temperature-Salinity-...

D. J. Acosta



Intermittent turbulence and copepod dynamics: Increase in encounter rates through preferential concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbulence has a strong influence on plankton contact rate, which is a crucial parameter for plankton ecology. In the field of particle-turbulence interactions, it is now well known that fully developed turbulence does not always homogenise particle distributions, but instead creates, in some well-defined conditions, preferential concentrations of heavy particles. Many studies have considered the influence of this type of

François G. Schmitt; Laurent Seuront



Can different mesh sizes affect the results of copepod community studies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mesozooplankton are important components of aquatic food webs and biogeochemical cycling, this plankton fraction is inadequately described and quantified. Standardized sampling procedures for its worldwide characterization are lacking as yet, affecting meaningful comparisons between regional situations. Mesh sizes in use vary greatly among studies, raising the possibility that sampling method bias results for size-related phenomena of the plankton, such

Li-Chun Tseng; Hans-Uwe Dahms; Jia-Jang Hung; Qing-Chao Chen; Jiang-Shiou Hwang



Long-term monitoring of fish farms: application of Nematode/Copepod index to oligotrophic conditions.  


Interannual variability (2003-2008) of meiofaunal assemblages were analyzed in sediments beneath fish cages (Impact group) and in areas not affected by aquaculture activities (Control group). Organisms responded with spatial and seasonal variation in meiofauna assemblages, with an abrupt increase of abundances in locations beneath fish cages throughout the study period. This increase was greater during the last sampling year (2008) and mainly due to high abundances of nematodes. Univariate analyses showed differences between control and impacted sites at both sites, however, only significant variations were found in Los Gigantes, which are consistent with seasonal meiofauna variations throughout the study period. These results are partially explained by differences in current velocity between both sampling areas. The Ne/Co index showed the same trend and it seems to be a reliable index in sediment slightly affected by aquaculture wastes. This index is especially recommended in oligotrophic areas (e.g. Canary Islands) where meiofaunal assemblages are poorly represented in terms of abundances. PMID:22317790

Riera, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Rodríguez, Myriam; Monterroso, Oscar; Ramos, Eva



Overwintering Strategies of the Calanoid Copepod Calanus plumchrus in a Periodically Anoxic British Columbia Fjord.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to determine the excretion physiology and feeding behaviour of overwintering Calanus plumchrus V in Saanich Inlet, B.C. In December, no C. plumchrus V were found above 75m. 48% of the population was within 25m of the bottom. Oxygen c...

M. B. Cowen




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Life-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven ...


Bioactive Compounds Offered in Microcapsules to Determine the Nutritional Value of Copepods' Natural Diet  

PubMed Central

Experiments were performed, feeding Calanus pacificus seston and a food consisting of seston and microcapsules (?-caps), i.e., protein and lipid ?-caps to test for potential biochemical limitation. Seston was collected off Scripps Pier (La Jolla, CA, USA). Whereas protein ?-caps were too small to be efficiently ingested, lipid ?-caps rich in ?3-highly-unsaturated fatty acids (?3-HUFA) were ingested similarly to natural seston and lipids were assimilated. However, egg production experiments exhibited that animals fed with lipid ?-caps didn’t produce significantly more eggs than with seston of equal carbon concentration and egg production even declined when the diet consisted of 50% lipid ?-caps. Thus, the content of certain ?3-HUFA seemed to have been sufficiently high in seston to prevent limitation. Algal counts revealed that seston consisted mainly of plankton rich in those fatty acids, such as cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, diatoms, and ciliates in the edible size range. This might be characteristic for upwelling systems like the area off Southern California which are known for high trophic transfer efficiency.

Muller-Navarra, Dorthe C.; Huntley, Mark E.



Ocean acidification impact on copepod swimming and mating behavior: consequences for population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now ample evidence that ocean acidification caused by the uptake of additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at the ocean surface will severely impact on marine ecosystem structure and function. To date, most research effort has focused on the impact of ocean acidification on calcifying marine organisms. These include the dissolution of calcifying plankton, reduced growth and shell

L. Seuront



Asterocheres reginae , a new species of parasitic copepod (Siphonostomatoida: Asterocheridae) from a sponge in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asterocheres reginae n. sp., of the family Asterocheridae, is described from the spongeAgelas clathrodes (Schmidt) collected at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. It inhabits the internal canal system of its sponge host. A detailed description of both sexes is presented, and emphasis has been placed on the recognition of homologies between the limb segments and armature elements in accordance with the

Geoffrey A. Boxshall; Rony Huys



Onset of Dormancy in the Copepod Calanus pacificus californicus Off Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This grant supported the Ph.D. dissertation research of Catherine L. Johnson. Dr. Johnson was awarded her Ph.D. in May 2003. The research conducted under this grant examined the onset of and emergence from dormancy of C. pacificus californicus and its dis...

D. M. Checkley



Bioactive compounds offered in microcapsules to determine the nutritional value of copepods' natural diet.  


Experiments were performed, feeding Calanus pacificus seston and a food consisting of seston and microcapsules (?-caps), i.e., protein and lipid ?-caps to test for potential biochemical limitation. Seston was collected off Scripps Pier (La Jolla, CA, USA). Whereas protein ?-caps were too small to be efficiently ingested, lipid ?-caps rich in ?3-highly-unsaturated fatty acids (?3-HUFA) were ingested similarly to natural seston and lipids were assimilated. However, egg production experiments exhibited that animals fed with lipid ?-caps didn't produce significantly more eggs than with seston of equal carbon concentration and egg production even declined when the diet consisted of 50% lipid ?-caps. Thus, the content of certain ?3-HUFA seemed to have been sufficiently high in seston to prevent limitation. Algal counts revealed that seston consisted mainly of plankton rich in those fatty acids, such as cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, diatoms, and ciliates in the edible size range. This might be characteristic for upwelling systems like the area off Southern California which are known for high trophic transfer efficiency. PMID:23857112

Müller-Navarra, Dörthe C; Huntley, Mark E



Variation in Body Shape across Species and Populations in a Radiation of Diaptomid Copepods  

PubMed Central

Inter and intra-population variation in morphological traits, such as body size and shape, provides important insights into the ecological importance of individual natural populations. The radiation of Diaptomid species (~400 species) has apparently produced little morphological differentiation other than those in secondary sexual characteristics, suggesting sexual, rather than ecological, selection has driven speciation. This evolutionary history suggests that species, and conspecific populations, would be ecologically redundant but recent work found contrasting ecosystem effects among both species and populations. This study provides the first quantification of shape variation among species, populations, and/or sexes (beyond taxonomic illustrations and body size measurements) to gain insight into the ecological differentiation of Diaptomids. Here we quantify the shape of five Diaptomid species (family Diaptomidae) from four populations each, using morphometric landmarks on the prosome, urosome, and antennae. We partition morphological variation among species, populations, and sexes, and test for phenotype-by-environment correlations to reveal possible functional consequences of shape variation. We found that intraspecific variation was 18-35% as large as interspecific variation across all measured traits. Interspecific variation in body size and relative antennae length, the two traits showing significant sexual dimorphism, were correlated with lake size and geographic location suggesting some niche differentiation between species. Observed relationships between intraspecific morphological variation and the environment suggest that divergent selection in contrasting lakes might contribute to shape differences among local populations, but confirming this requires further analyses. Our results show that although Diaptomid species differ in their reproductive traits, they also differ in other morphological traits that might indicate ecological differences among species and populations.

Hausch, Stephen; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Matthews, Blake




EPA Science Inventory

This research is part of an ongoing project designed to determine the effect of humic acid on the uptake and transfer of metals by marine organisms at the lower end of the food chain. Binding affinities for Cu, Cd, Zn, and Cr to Suwannee River humic acid were determined at variou...


The reproductive cycle and life history of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variations in the gonad development and sex ratio of copepodite stage V (CV) and adults were examined from February\\u000a to November in order to understand the reproductive cycle and the life history of Calanus glacialis in the White Sea. Gonad maturation, sexual differentiation and moulting to adults take place during the 2nd year of development.\\u000a Energy accumulation takes place

K. N. Kosobokova



The influence of advection on zooplankton community composition in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous, high-resolution time series of zooplankton and hydrographic data were collected from Kongsfjorden between April and September 2002 using a sediment trap and instrumentation deployed on a mooring. The time series has, for the first time, demonstrated the close relationship between water mass advection and changes in zooplankton community structure in Kongsfjorden. Zooplankton identified in the trap samples included 31 species/genera and seven higher taxa representing ubiquitous, boreal and Arctic biogeographic origins. Correspondence Analysis (CA) identified three phases of zooplankton community composition in 2002. Phase I, from 18 April to 29 May, consisted primarily of resident Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus glacialis stage CVI females. Phase II, from 30 May to 23 June, was dominated by meroplankton, Oikopleura cf. vanhoeffeni, C. finmarchicus early life stages (CI to CIII), Calanus hyperboreus and Themisto abyssorum. Phase III, from 4 July to 8 September, comprised C. finmarchicus (predominantly CV), C. glacialis CV, C. hyperboreus CIV and a greater diversity of other copepod species, in particular, increasing numbers of Oithona similis. Transition between the zooplankton community phases was abrupt and clearly associated with the advection of water masses into the fjord from the adjacent shelf. Peaks of the Arctic species C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus and T. abyssorum in late May were associated with a change in the dominant fjordic water mass from local Winter Cooled Water (WCW) to an influx of Arctic Water (ArW) from the coastal current. A temperature increase of 2.75 °C in the upper water column signified the transition from Phase II to Phase III with the dominant water mass changing from ArW to Atlantic Water (AW) from the West Spitsbergen Current.

Willis, Kate; Cottier, Finlo; Kwasniewski, Slawek; Wold, Anette; Falk-Petersen, Stig



Zooplankton community structure and dynamics in the Arctic Canada Basin during a period of intense environmental change (2004-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

were sampled in the Canada Basin in the summers of 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and fall 2009. Six taxa (Calanus hyperboreus, Calanus glacialis, Oithona similis, Limacina helicina, Microcalanus pygmaeus, and Pseudocalanus spp.) accounted for 77-91% of the abundance in all years, and 70-80% of biomass in 2004-2008. The biomass of C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis was reduced in 2009, likely due to seasonal migration below the sampling depth. Mean abundance was consistent across surveys while biomass increased from 18.92 to 32.56 mg dry weight m-3 between 2004 and 2008. Multivariate analysis identified a clear separation between shelf and deep basin (>1000 m) assemblages. Within the deep basin abundance and biomass were higher in the west, associated with a higher chlorophyll maximum. In 2007 and 2008 considerable heterogeneity developed in the assemblage structure, associated with variability in the contribution of the short-lived (<1 year) copepod species O. similis and M. pygmaeus. Conversely, the long lived (?2 years) C. hyperboreus and C. glacialis showed an increasingly consistent spatial distribution of high biomass from 2004 to 2008. We propose that a greater dependence on autochthonous basin production by the short-lived species resulted in their decreased secondary production in the freshening Beaufort Gyre in 2007 and 2008. Conversely, long-lived species were supported by high allochthonous production on the Beaufort and Chukchi shelves and lipid stores accumulated from this source enabled them to persist in the low chlorophyll a biomass conditions of the Canada Basin.

Hunt, Brian P. V.; Nelson, R. John; Williams, Bill; McLaughlin, Fiona A.; Young, Kelly V.; Brown, Kristina A.; Vagle, Svein; Carmack, Eddy C.



Mesoscale distribution and community composition of zooplankton in the Mozambique Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown the Mozambique Channel to exhibit high mesoscale variability, but how mesoscale features influence the zooplankton community in this region is not known. The biovolume, biomass, vertical distribution and community composition of mesozooplankton (>200 µm) associated with mesoscale eddies in the Mozambique Channel was investigated during four cruises in September 2007, December 2008, November 2009 and April/May 2010. Stations were categorized according to their location in cyclonic (cold-core) or anticyclonic (warm-core) eddies, frontal, divergence or shelf regions. Mean mesozooplankton biovolume in the upper 200 m was 0.33 ml m-3, with zooplankton largely concentrated in the upper 100 m during all four cruises (weighted mean depth=66.6 m). Sampling depth was the most important predictor of biovolume, which was greatest for net samples with a mid-depth of 0-40 m, but declined deeper in the water column. Biovolume at the shelf (0.37 ml m-3), divergence and cyclonic eddy stations (0.31 ml m-3) was significantly greater than at frontal and anticyclonic eddy stations (0.20 ml m-3). Mean biovolume was significantly higher during 2008 and 2010 compared to 2007 and 2009, and was also significantly higher for samples collected at night (and twilight) than during the day. The mesozooplankton community in 2007 was strongly dominated by small copepods (~70-80% abundance) followed by appendicularians (10%), ostracods (8%) and chaetognaths (7%). The most abundant copepods were the Paracalanids, Oncaea spp., Oithona spp. and Corycaeus spp. Multivariate analysis showed that the communities in 2007 and 2008 were most strongly structured by depth, but classification (cyclonic/anticyclonic) was also important in 2007 when mesoscale features were more strongly developed. Zooplankton assemblages showed a high degree of homogeneity, with differences between mesoscale features largely due to differing abundances of similar taxa. These observations suggest that mesoscale eddy and shelf interactions play a fundamental role in shaping the Mozambique Channel pelagic ecosystem through the concentration, enhanced growth and redistribution of zooplankton communities. Although frontal areas between eddies were poor in zooplankton biomass, the extensive inter-eddy divergence areas were as rich in biomass as the small cyclonic eddy core regions. These patterns are important for understanding the favorability of observed foraging areas for higher trophic levels.

Huggett, Jenny A.



Pattern and persistence of a nearshore planktonic ecosystem off Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three related data sets from a baseline environmental survey on the continental shelf at San Onofre, California, consisting of: (1) zooplankton pumped from discrete depths on transects between the 8- and 30-m contours, sampled from 1976 to 1980; (2) zooplankton from oblique net hauls on a transect from 8 to 100 m sampled at 2-week intervals for 1 y, 1978-1979; and (3) vertical profiles of temperature, nutrients and plant pigments corresponding closely in time and space to the oblique net hauls, are used to describe cross-shelf zooplankton abundance patterns, community composition, and seasonal and shorter-term variations in cross-shelf zonation and their relation to variations in physical and chemical measures. Of 15 taxa tested for multiyear average patterns, three—the copepods Acartia clausi and Oithona oculata, and barnacle larvae—had centers of abundance shoreward of the 30-m contour and near the bottom. No differences were detected in the cross-shelf pattern between San Onofre and a transect 12 km southeast. Throughout the year, nearshore and offshore assemblages were distinguishable, the change occurring at about the 30-m contour. The offshore one, represented by the copepods Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus, occupied water having less chlorophyll and less near-surface nutrient, i.e. of more oceanic character. In spring and summer, most nearshore taxa shifted slightly seaward, leaving a third assemblage, characterized by a very high abundance of Acartia spp. copepodids and maximum abundances of A. clausi and O. oculata near the beach. Three upwelling episodes resulted in marked increases in chlorophyll and nutrients, but not in cross-shelf gradients of these properties, as were noted at most other times. Maximum disturbance of cross-shelf zooplankton zonation was observed during a wintertime intrusion of offshore surface water, but the zonation was never obliterated. Nearshore zooplankton patterns appear to be protected from dislocation by the shallow shelf and sustained by phytoplankton distributed in a manner peculiar to the nearshore zone. Typically, shallow nearshore waters were richer in chlorophyll and nutrients than offshore waters of the same depth. The cross-shelf chlorophyll and nutrient profiles, in turn, appear to result from increased eddy diffusion and nutrient recycling in shallow waters, perhaps augmented by longshore transport from quasi-permanent, local upwelling nodes.

Barnett, Arthur M.; Jahn, Andrew E.



Mesozooplankton community structure in the Scotia Sea during the CCAMLR 2000 survey: January February 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of mesozooplankton community structure in the Scotia Sea was carried out, based on 123 RMT1 double oblique hauls (0-200 m) taken during the CCAMLR 2000 Survey. Standardized sample data (log abundance per 1000 m 3) were grouped into taxonomic categories and subjected to cluster analysis and multi-dimensional scaling. Two ordinations were performed, the first based on a reduced taxonomic dataset (31 categories out of a full 120) obtained by pooling ontogenetic stages within species and by including only those taxa that contributed at least 4% to total abundance at any one station. This disclosed two major station groups, which separated north and south, forming 'warm' and 'cold' water communities respectively, whereas four minor groups were mainly associated with stations around the Antarctic Peninsula and within the Weddell Scotia Confluence. Mean zooplankton abundance (238 000 individuals per 1000 m 3) within the northerly group G1 was up to 12 times higher than in other groups. The second ordination using all taxonomic categories disclosed an additional intermediate group (G1a), which was geographically consistent with the southern part of the northern group 1 from the previous ordination. However, because of taxonomic similarities between all the major station groups it was concluded that they represented a single community, which differed only in its phenological development and the mass occurrence of patchily distributed organisms such as krill larvae. Testing the relationships of station groups with the position of water masses and frontal boundaries indicated that the Weddell Front was broadly coincident with the boundary of the northern and southern communities over much of its length. However, the presence of stations belonging to group G2, to the north of the Weddell Front, to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, and around the South Sandwich Islands, was consistent with the distribution of ice-influenced surface water. Low zooplankton abundance and species developmental composition suggested that this 'community' was largely in an over-wintered state. Copepods and euphausiids dominated the mesozooplankton throughout the study area with small copepods ( Oithona spp., Ctenocalanus spp. and Metridia spp.) particularly abundant.

Ward, Peter; Grant, Sharon; Brandon, Mark; Siegel, Volker; Sushin, Vyacheslav; Loeb, Valerie; Griffiths, Huw



Effect of shallow-water hydrothermal venting on the biota of Matupi Harbour (Rabaul Caldera, New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal hydrothermal vents in the depth range 0-27 m were studied in Matupi Harbour, a marine bight that is partly isolated from the open sea on the north-east coast of New Britain, Papua New Guinea, where volcanoes are active. Planktonic and benthic communities (including bacteria) in the Harbour were compared with adjacent fully marine areas. The environmental parameters assessed included temperature, salinity, O 2, H 2, hydrocarbons, metals, some species of nitrogen and sulphur, inorganic phosphate, silicate and chlorophyll a. There was pronounced stratification of the waters in the Harbour as a result of inflow of heated volcanic fluids, most evident in the surface 0-3 m layer. The volcanic fluids are rich in phytoplankton nutrients and reduced compounds which stimulate growth of bacterial plankton, bacterial production and enhance primary production. The highest values of photosynthetic fixation (almost 100 mg C m 3 d) and bacterial production (216 mg C m 3 d) found in the Harbour are much greater than previously reported for marine ecosystems. The chemosynthetic fraction of bacterial production varied from 15 to 60%, with highest values in the surface and the near-bottom layers. The zooplankton in the Harbour was dominated by cyclopoid copepods and was low in diversity. Bacterial mats were very evident at the areas of venting, dominated by Thiodendron-like species, but both epifauna and infauna were sparse at the vents. However, areas adjacent to the hydrothermal vents showed the richest benthic communities, with epifauna dominated by corals and sponges and infauna by nematodes. It appeared that benthic community development was inhibited by the hot sediment, rapid sedimentation, lack of hard substratum and large numbers of sponge spicules in the sediment. From dating of the last major volcanic eruption (1943), the Harbour provides an excellent model for studying processes of succession and adaptation in marine communities stressed by shallow-water gasohydrothermal activity.

Tarasov, V. G.; Gebruk, A. V.; Shulkin, V. M.; Kamenev, G. M.; Fadeev, V. I.; Kosmynin, V. N.; Malakhov, V. V.; Starynin, D. A.; Obzhirov, A. I.



Ecological interactions affecting population-level responses to chemical stress in Mesocyclops leuckarti.  


Higher tiers of ecological risk assessment (ERA) consider population and community-level endpoints. At the population level, the phenomenon of density dependence is one of the most important ecological processes that influence population dynamics. In this study, we investigated how different mechanisms of density dependence would influence population-level ERA of the cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti under toxicant exposure. We used a combined approach of laboratory experiments and individual-based modelling. An individual-based model was developed for M. leuckarti to simulate population dynamics under triphenyltin exposure based on individual-level ecological and toxicological data from laboratory experiments. The study primarily aimed to-(1) determine which life-cycle processes, based on feeding strategies, are most significant in determining density dependence (2) explore how these mechanisms of density dependence affect extrapolation from individual-level effects to the population level under toxicant exposure. Model simulations showed that cannibalism of nauplii that were already stressed by TPT exposure contributed to synergistic effects of biotic and abiotic factors and led to a twofold stress being exerted on the nauplii, thereby resulting in a higher population vulnerability compared to the scenario without cannibalism. Our results suggest that in population-level risk assessment, it is easy to underestimate toxicity unless underlying ecological interactions including mechanisms of population-level density regulation are considered. This study is an example of how a combined approach of experiments and mechanistic modelling can lead to a thorough understanding of ecological processes in ecotoxicology and enable a more realistic ERA. PMID:25048925

Kulkarni, Devdutt; Hommen, Udo; Schäffer, Andreas; Preuss, Thomas G



Plankton and seston size spectra estimated by the LOPC and ZooScan in the Abrolhos Bank ecosystem (SE Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomass size spectrum provides valuable information about the functioning of plankton systems. We evaluated hydrographic and bathymetric influences on biomass size spectra and on vertical distributions of plankton and seston above the Abrolhos Bank and in adjacent oceanic areas off Eastern Brazil. We used both in situ Laser Optical Particle Counter (LOPC) and preserved plankton samples analyzed with a ZooScan system to determine seston and plankton abundances, size distributions, and biomasses. Shelf stations, including those on the Abrolhos Bank, had higher particle concentrations and mesozooplankton biomasses than the vertically stratified oceanic stations. The latter were influenced by cold, nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) below the mixed layer, particularly toward the south of the study area. Small particles (<1 mm) were more abundant above and within the pycnocline, whereas large particles (>1 mm) had a more heterogeneous vertical distribution, but were more abundant above the pycnocline, especially at the oceanic stations. Calanoid copepods usually dominated the mesozooplankton biomass spectra, but were accompanied by cyclopoids, appendicularians, and ostracods, the latter being particularly abundant during nighttime stations on the Abrolhos Bank. Both LOPC and ZooScan data showed significant differences in NBSS slopes and intercepts between shelf and oceanic stations. The higher intercepts and steeper slopes over the shelf are characteristic of higher productivity. The shallower slopes and presence of more biomass in larger particles indicate a more important contribution of large organisms and higher energy transfer efficiencies at the open ocean stations. Our results highlight the importance of the Abrolhos Bank for pelagic production in an otherwise oligotrophic ocean.

Marcolin, Catarina da Rocha; Schultes, Sabine; Jackson, George A.; Lopes, Rubens M.



Influence of food quality on egg production and viability of the marine planktonic copepod Acartia omorii [review article  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Egg production, egg viability and fecal pellet production were determined for individual Acartia omorii, which were fed diets of two species of diatoms ( Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and three species of dinoflagellates ( Scrippsiella trochoidea, Heterocapsa triquetra and Cochlodinium polykrikoides). Diets were analyzed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Depending on the diet, egg production of A. omorii varied over time, diminishing with some diets ( S. trochoidea, C. polykrikoides, P. tricornutum). This rate of reduction was much more rapid for a diet of C. polykrikoides, which caused egg production to decrease to ca. 2.4 eggs f -1 d -1 in only four days. As for all diets, egg viability was high at the beginning but with the C. polykrikoides and P. tricornutum diets, it rapidly decreased with time. Fecal pellet production also varied with time, depending on the diet. Egg production rate was closely correlated with fecal pellet production. There was no direct relationship between egg viability and egg production rate, but both egg production and viability were affected by the nutritional quality of food. Egg viability was also highly dependent on the composition of fatty acids in the eggs. Egg viability showed positive correlation with the ratio of ?3:?6 groups among egg fatty acids, and negative correlation with the ratio of 20:5 ( n-3) : 22:6 ( n-3). While comparing several diets, egg production rate was higher on diets ( H. triquetra and S. trochoidea) containing ample amounts of essential fatty acids such as 18:4 ( n-3) and 22:6 ( n-3). The results suggest that fertility of A. omorii was dependent upon the quality of the food, and dinoflagellate diets, with the exception of C. polykrikoides, were preferable to diatom diets.

Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jang, Min-Chul; Jang, Pung-Kuk; Ju, Se-Jong; Lee, Tea-Kyun; Chang, Man




Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellogenin (VTG) has been widely used as a biomarker of estrogenic exposure in fish, leading to the development of standardized assays for VTG quantification. However, standardized quantitative assays for invertebrate, particularly crustacean, lipovitellin (also known as vitellin (VTN)) are lacking. In this study, a fluorescence-based VTN enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to quantify microquantities of VTN in the estuarine,

David C. Volz; G. Thomas Chandler



Infection of wild fishes by the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus on the south east coast of Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural Caligus elongatus Nordmann infections of wild coastal fishes on the Norwegian south east coast were monitored at various times of the year from 2002 to 2004. The prevalence for all coastal fish (n = 4427) pooled was 15%, and there were great differences between fish species and seasons. Lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus L.spawners were the most infected fish, with a

P. A. Heuch; Ø. Øines; J. A. Knutsen; T. A. Schram



Composition of the zooplankton community, with emphasis in copepods, in Punta Morales, Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the mesozooplanktonic community was studied in the Punta Morales estuary, Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, during 1997. Oblique plankton hauls were performed during high and low tide using a 280 µm mesh screen net equipped with a flowmeter. The community was characterized by holoplanktonic and meroplanktonic organisms. For the holoplanktonic community, the main groups

Ernesto Brugnoli-Olivera; Edgardo Díaz-Ferguson; Mariana Delfino-Machin