Sample records for cyclopoid copepod oithona

  1. Cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical collections of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepod crustaceans in the Great Lakes have mainly been based on samples taken with plankton nets in deeper waters (>5 m). Of the non-calanoid copepod species known from the Great Lakes, 58 or 64 live primarily on or in the sediments and rarely are collected in plankton samples. Because of their small size, they are rarely retained in the coarse sieves used to concentrate samples of benthic invertebrates. Thus, the abundance and distribution of most species of these two groups of copepods have never been adequately documented in the Great Lakes. We examined the stomach contents of small, bottom-feeding fishes such as slimy sculpin which feed on benthic copepods that live in deep, inaccessible rocky areas of the Great Lakes to collect some of the material. We also collected in shallow nearshore habitats, including wetlands. We present an annotated checklist of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods based on published records and our recent collections in the Great Lakes. We have added 14 species of cyclopoid copepods to the Great Lakes record, increasing the total to 30. Because we probably have accounted for most of the cyclopoid species, we provide a key to the identification of this group. We have added 19 species of harpacticoid copepods to the 15 previously known to the Great Lakes, and suspect that additional species remain to be discovered. In individual lakes, there were approximately as many species of cyclopoids as harpacticoids; the total number of species per lake ranged from 35 to 57. The most speciose genera were Bryocamptus (7), Canthocamptus (5), and Moraria (5) in the Harpacticoida, and Diacyclops (6) and Acanthocyclops (5) in the Cyclopoida. The origin of introduced species, our ability to classify copepod habitat, and the ecological significance of copepods are discussed.

  2. Cyclopoid copepods associated with antipatharian coelenterates in Madagascar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Humes

    1969-01-01

    Previous work (in i960) at Nosy Bé, in northwestern Madagascar, resulted in the collection by dredging of the antipatharian Stichopathes echinulata Brook parasitized by the copepod Vahinius petax Humes, 1967. More recently (in 1964 and 1967) I have obtained by SCUBA diving several other antipatharians with which the copepods described below were associated. The collection in 1964 was made as

  3. THE SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM OF STRIATED MUSCLE OF A CYCLOPOID COPEPOD

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenbach, Wolf H.

    1963-01-01

    The fine structure of the abdominal musculature of the copepod Macrocyclops albidus was investigated by electron microscopy. Tubules penetrate into the muscle fibers from the sarcolemma, continuity between the wall of the tubules and the sarcolemma being clear. A dense network of tubules envelops the myofibrils, its interstices being occupied by cisternal elements. At the Z lines the tubules traverse the interior of myofibrils, giving off branches which course longitudinally within the substance of the myofibrils. These branches are also accompanied by elongate, non-intercommunicating cisternae. Comparison of this fast acting copepod muscle with other vertebrate and invertebrate muscles indicates that the complexity of the tubular system is a function of the myofibrillar geometry, whereas the degree of development of the cisternal system is related to the contraction speed of the muscle. PMID:19866629

  4. OITHONA DA VISAE, NEW SPECIES, AND LIMNOITHONA SINENSIS (BURCKHARDT. 1912) (COPEPODA: OITHONIDAE) FROM THE SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN ESTUARY, CALIFORNIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank D. Ferrari; James Orsi

    Zooplankton samples from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Estuary collected by the California Department of Fish and Game and the United States Geological Survey were examined for cyclopoid copepods of the family Oithonidae. Of the three species found, Limnoithona sinensis, Oithona davisae, new species, and O. similis, the first two are described here, Lim- noithona sinensis, like its congener L. telraspina, has

  5. RNA-seq based whole transcriptome analysis of the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana focusing on xenobiotics metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Choi, Beom-Soon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Choi, Ah Young; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Choi, Ik-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwi; Om, Ae-Son; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-09-01

    Copepods are among the most abundant taxa in marine invertebrates, and cyclopoid copepods include more than 1500 species and subspecies. In marine ecosystems, planktonic copepods play a significant role as food resources in the food web and sensitively respond to environmental changes. The copepod Paracylopina nana is one of the planktonic brackish water copepods and considered as a promising model species in ecotoxicology. We sequenced the whole transcriptome of P. nana using RNA-seq technology. De novo sequence assembly by Trinity integrated with TransDecoder produced 67,179 contigs including putative alternative spliced variants. A total of 12,474 genes were identified based on BLAST analysis, and gene sequences were most similar to the sequences of the branchiopod Daphnia. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis showed that most transcripts annotated were involved in pathways of various metabolisms, immune system, signal transduction, and translation. Considering numbers of sequences and enzymes involved in the pathways, particularly attention was paid to genes potentially involved in xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism. With regard to xenobiotics metabolism, various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes such as oxidases, dehydrogenases, and transferases were obtained from the annotated transcripts. The whole transcriptome analysis of P. nana provides valuable resources for future studies of xenobiotics-related metabolism in this marine copepod species. PMID:26001055

  6. Observations on the reproductive biology of two cyclopoid copepods: Oncaea media and O. scottodicarloi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyttis, Georgios; Demetriou, Monica; Di Capua, Iole; Samuel-Rhoads, Yianna

    2015-04-01

    The small cyclopoid copepods Oncaea media and O. scottodicarloi are important components of the zooplanktonic communities in the Mediterranean Sea due to their numerical abundance and common distribution in coastal and open waters. However, knowledge on their biology is still limited. The present study was aimed to acquire data on their reproductive traits to highlight any difference between these two co-occurring oncaeids that are very similar in size and morphology. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory by monitoring groups of Oncaea ovigerous females (O. media + O. scottodicarloi) sorted from zooplankton samples collected in February and March 2013 from coastal waters in the inner Gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean). The females were incubated individually at in situ temperature (15 ° C) in cell culture plates containing oxygenated seawater with food particles that was changed every other day. The plates were inspected daily under an inverted microscope to count the hatched nauplii and measure the interclutch period, until all females were dead and subsequently identified as O. media or O. scottodicarloi. Both species carry the eggs in two dorsal sacs where the eggs are densely packed and cannot be precisely counted. The clutch size was therefore estimated from egg sacs detached from ovigerous females sorted from the same samples and fixed. The average number of eggs per sac was 35.2±6.6 (range 20-52) for O. media and 24.4±4.5 (range 14-32) for O. scottodicarloi. Egg production rates (EPR) were estimated to be on average 8.75 eggs female-1 day-1 for O. media and 6.15 eggs female-1 day-1 for O. scottodicarloi. The average egg development time was 8.05±3.78 days for O. media and 7.9±0.89 days for O. scottodicarloi. The interclutch period for the females that produced new egg sacs was 2.2±1.3 days for O. media and 3±2.7 days for O. scottodicarloi. The average recruitment of O. media was 7.6±3.7 nauplii f-1 d-1, with the minimum number of hatched nauplii being 4 and the maximum 93. O. scottodicarloi recruited on average 6.5±4.4 nauplii f-1 d-1, with the minimum number of hatched nauplii from one female being 17 and the maximum 50. O. media and O. scottodicarloi differed significantly (p

  7. Effect of culture density and antioxidants on naupliar production and gene expression of the cyclopoid copepod, Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyun-Woo; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Han, Jeonghoon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2012-02-01

    Although attempts have been made to use mass cultures of marine copepods as live foods in marine aquaculture, some limitations such as low density culture still exist. The brackish water cyclopoid copepod, Paracyclopina nana has the potential for mass culturing as live food. In this study, we not only investigated the effect of culture density on the naupliar production and specific gene expressions of P. nana, but also the effect of several antioxidants under the conditions of a high density culture. The naupliar production of the copepod decreased with increasing culture density. The expression of glutathione reductase (GR), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx), glutathione S-transferase kappa (GST kappa), heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40), and Hsp70 genes of P. nana increased in the high density treatment but vitellogenin genes (Vg1 and Vg2) showed downregulation. In the condition with 20 inds./mL, vitamin C had a significant decrease but sodium selenite induced the naupliar production of P. nana greatly. The expressions of GR, SeGPx, Hsp70, and Vg genes increased with the vitamin C treatment. Sodium selenite caused a decrease of SeGPx and Hsp40 but GST kappa increased in the treatment with 20 inds./mL. These results suggest that sodium selenite is a positive antioxidant which can increase the culture efficiency of the copepod. PMID:22062798

  8. First report of the planktonic copepod Oithona davisae in the northern Wadden Sea (North Sea): Evidence for recent invasion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornils, Astrid; Wend-Heckmann, Britta

    2015-06-01

    In October 2010, specimens of Oithona were taken from the List Tidal Basin in the northern Wadden Sea (North Sea) for a biogeographic study on Oithona similis. These specimens could not be assigned to O. similis or any of the other Oithona species known from the North Sea genetically. These specimens were identified as Oithona davisae Ferrari and Orsi 1984, a Northwest Pacific species, known as an invasive species from the Black Sea and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Recent sampling provided evidence that O. davisae is still present in the northern Wadden Sea and may thus now be a permanent plankton species.

  9. Life cycle of Oithona   similis (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in Kola Bay (Barents Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Dvoretsky; A. G. Dvoretsky

    2009-01-01

    The annual population dynamics (nauplii, old copepodites CIV–CV and adults) and seasonal variations in reproductive parameters\\u000a of the cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis were investigated on the basis of the data 1999–2006 in Kola Bay, a large subarctic fjord in the Barents Sea. Population\\u000a density of O. similis ranged from 110 to 9,630 ind m?3 and averaged 1,020 ± 336 ind m?3. The relative abundance of adults was high

  10. Ten new species of parasitic cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) belonging to the families Bomolochidae, Philichthyidae, and Taeniacanthidae from marine fishes in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong

    2013-12-01

    Ten new species of cyclopoid copepods are described as parasites of marine fishes from Korea. Three new species of the family Bomolochidae are described as gill parasites: Orbitacolax pteragogi n. sp. from Pteragogus flagellifer (Valenciennes), Orbitacolax trichiuri n. sp. from Trichurus lepturus Linnaeus, and Orbitacolax unguifer n. sp. from Evynnis japonica Tanaka. Four species of the genus Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 of the family Philichthyidae are described as internal parasites: Colobomatus unimanus n. sp. from Pseudolabrus eoethinus (Richardson), Colobomatus recticaudatus n. sp. from Halichoeres poecilopterus (Temminck and Schlegel), Colobomatus floridus n. sp. from Hapalogenys mucronatus (Eydoux and Souleyet), and Colobomatus orientalis n. sp. from Johnius grypotus (Richardson). Three new species of the family Taeniacanthidae, including a new species belonging to a new genus, are described as gill parasites: Taeniacanthus singularis n. sp. from Halieutaea fumosa Alcock, Triacanthus luteus n. gen. n. sp. from Odontamblyopus lacepedii (Temminck and Schlegel), and Umazuracola geminus n. sp. from Stephonolepis cirrhifer (Temminck and Schlegel).

  11. Feeding strategies of planktonic cyclopoids in lacustrine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, Zden?k

    1998-06-01

    Present knowledge of feeding tactics and behaviour, food composition and consumption, and feeding strategies of planktonic cyclopoid copepods is synthesized. Planktonic freshwater cyclopoids consume both plant and animal food. Predatory feeding is highly selective: prey species differ in their size, defense structures, the distance at which they are recognized by the cyclopoid, defensive behaviour when attacked, and their occurrence in the same space as the predator. Within a prey species, cyclopoids select for smaller individuals. The impact of cyclopoid predation on the other zooplankton may be an important source of mortality. However, algal material is consumed to a large extent by the adult and later developmental stages and is a necessary food source for the youngest stages, which have to compete with other planktonic herbivores. Some implications of these food requirements for life strategies of planktonic cyclopoid species in the seasonally changing environments are discussed.

  12. Spatial patterns of copepod biodiversity in relation to a tidal front system in the main spawning and nursery area of the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temperoni, B.; Viñas, M. D.; Martos, P.; Marrari, M.

    2014-11-01

    Copepods play an important role in marine ecosystems as a direct link of energy transfer between primary producers and higher trophic level consumers, such as fish. In the Argentine Sea, the Patagonian stock of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi spawns from late austral spring (December) to early autumn (April) in the northern Patagonian shelf region (43°-45°30?S), in association with a highly productive tidal front system. Since hake larvae prey mainly upon copepods, the objective of this study was to assess the spatial variability in the abundance and diversity of these potential food items in different sectors of the front, as one of the possible factors affecting hake recruitment success. Two complementary mesh sizes (67 and 300 ?m) were used to accurately target the entire copepod size spectrum. The copepod community was dominated by developmental stages < 1 mm in total length (eggs, nauplii, copepodites of cyclopoids and calanoids), and adults of the species Oithona helgolandica, Microsetella norvegica, Ctenocalanus vanus and Drepanopus forcipatus. Their spatial distribution was highly influenced by the across-shelf characteristics of the tidal front system, highlighting the impact of environmental features, mainly bottom temperature and salinity, in shaping the community. Abundances were higher in the transitional relative to the stratified sector of the system. Such sector would provide the appropriate conditions to sustain M. hubbsi larval growth resulting from high availability of adequate prey, the suitable thermal ranges, and the existence of retention mechanisms.

  13. Identification of the Full 46 Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Complement and Modulation of CYP Expression in Response to Water-Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil in the Cyclopoid Copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Hui-Su; Nelson, David R; Lee, Su-Jae; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-06-01

    The 46 cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily was identified in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana after searching an RNA-seq database and comparing it with other copepod CYP gene families. To annotate the 46 Pn-CYP genes, a phylogenetic analysis of CYP genes was performed using a Bayesian method. Pn-CYP genes were separated into five different clans: CYP2, CYP3, CYP20, CYP26, and mitochondrial. Among these, the principal Pn-CYP genes involved in detoxification were identified by comparing them with those of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus and were examined with respect to their responses to exposure to a water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and to the alkylated forms of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; phenanthrene and fluorene). The expression of two Pn-CYP3027 genes (CYP3027F1 and CYP3027F2) was increased in response to WAF exposure and also was upregulated in response to the two alkylated PAHs. In particular, Pn-CYP3027F2 showed the most notable increase in response to 80% WAF exposure. These two responsive CYP genes (Pn-CYP3027F1 and CYP3027F2) were also phylogenetically clustered into the same clade of the WAF- and alkylated PAH-specific CYP genes of the copepod T. japonicus, suggesting that these CYP genes would be those chiefly involved in detoxification in response to WAF exposure in copepods. In this paper, we provide information on the copepod P. nana CYP gene superfamily and also speculate on its potential role in the detoxification of PAHs in marine copepods. Despite the nonlethality of WAF, Pn-CYP3027F2 was rapidly and significantly upregulated in response to WAF that may serve as a useful biomarker of 40% or higher concentration of WAF exposure. This paper will be helpful to better understand the molecular mechanistic events underlying the metabolism of environmental toxicants in copepods. PMID:25942333

  14. [Molecular-phylogenetic analysis of cyclopoids (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin].

    PubMed

    Ma?or, T Iu; Sheveleva, N G; Sukhanova, L V; Timoshkin, O A; Kiril'chik, S V

    2010-11-01

    Baikalian cyclopoids represent one of the richest endemic faunas of freshwater cyclopoid copepods. The genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is the most numerous by species number in the lake. In this work, molecular-phylogenetic analysis of 14 species and 1 sub-species from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin is performed. The regions of mitochondrial cytochrom-oxydase I (COI) and of nuclear small-subunit 18S rRNA were used as evolution markers. In the obtained set of nucleotide sequences of COT gene, an effect of synonymous substitution saturation is revealed. Baikalian representatives of the genus Diacyclops form at phylogenetic schemes by two markers a monophyletic griup, it suggest their origin from a common ancestral form. Preliminary estimate of the age of this group is 20-25 My. PMID:21261066

  15. A numerical investigation of the impact of turbulence on the feeding rates of Oithona davisae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizio; Botte, Vincenzo; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio

    Individual based numerical simulations of the copepod, Oithona davisae, feeding on motile prey, Oxyrrhis marina, under variable turbulent conditions are performed. These simulations correspond to laboratory observations conducted by Saiz et al. [Saiz, E., Calbet, A., and Broglio, E., 2003. Effects of small-scale turbulence on copepods: the case of Oithona Davisae. Limnol. Oceanogr., 48:1304-1311.]. The flow field in the simulation is reconstructed by a kinematic simulation whose characteristic scales are derived from the grid mesh and the dissipation rates of the laboratory experiments. The kinematic simulation provides a simplified model, which while not fully realistic, captures the basic relevant feature of turbulence. A hop and sink swimming behaviour is prescribed for O. davisae, while O. marina moves along helical paths with random changes of directions. Three possible effects are tested: the existence of a time threshold in the duration of the contacts between predator and prey, a progressive reduction of the perceptive distance with increasing turbulence level and an abrupt reduction in feeding of O. davisae when the flow speed, in relation to the copepod position, is higher than a prescribed threshold. This last approach introduces an intermittency in the feeding which depends on the variations of velocity both in space and time within the numerical box. The introduction of the time threshold causes a dome-shaped relationship between the simulated enhancement factor and the dissipation rate, while with the other two effects, a monotonic decrease in the enhancement factor is observed, with values reasonably close to the ones observed in the laboratory experiment. In all the cases, the use of realistic values of biological parameters (e.g. swimming behaviour) reproduces response curves in the range of the observations.

  16. Trophic implications of cross-shelf copepod distributions in the Southeastern Bering Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Cooney; K. O. Coyle

    1982-01-01

    Spring distributions of some numerically dominant copepods reflect associations with two distinct water masses separated along the 80- to 100-m isobaths. Seaward of this middle shelf front, the oceanic Bering Sea hosts populations of Calanus cristatus, C. plumchrus, and Eucalanus bungii bungii; Metridia pacifica, Oithona similis, and Pseudocalanus spp. are also present. The large oceanic species are much less abundant

  17. Annual cycle in abundance, distribution, and size in relation to hydrography of important copepod species in the western Arctic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carin J Ashjian; Robert G Campbell; Harold E Welch; Mari Butler; Donna Van Keuren

    2003-01-01

    A yearlong study of the zooplankton biomass and the abundance, vertical distribution, life stage proportions, and body size and condition for five target copepod species (Calanus glacialis, C. hyperboreus, Metridia longa, Microcalanus pygmaeus, Oithona similis) was conducted from October 1997 to October 1998 in the Western Arctic Ocean. The research was staged from Ice Station SHEBA that drifted from Canadian

  18. Coprorhexy, coprophagy, and coprochaly in the copepods Calanus helgolandicus, Pseudocalanus elongatus, and Oithona similis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morten H. Iversen; Louise K. Poulsen

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fecal pellet flux show that a large percentage of pellets produced in the upper ocean is degraded within the surface waters. It is therefore important to investigate these degrada- tion mechanisms to understand the role of fecal pellets in the oceanic carbon cycle. Degradation of pellets is mainly thought to be caused by coprophagy (ingestion of fecal pellets)

  19. Using ZooImage automated system for the estimation of biovolume of copepods from the northern Argentine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, R.; Cepeda, G.; Capitanio, F.; Viñas, M. D.

    2011-08-01

    A total of 46 samples from coastal and shelf sectors from the northern Argentine Sea (34°-41° S) were digitized to compare the performance of the new ZooImage analysis method for copepod abundance and biovolume estimations. A training set of 1437 objects were used for automatic discrimination using a Random Forest algorithm with a general accuracy of 83.92%. A total of 11 taxa were automatically classified. Copepods were divided in three categories: Large calanoids, small calanoids and cyclopoids and identified with an accuracy of 83.15%, 79.5% and 85.7% respectively. The discriminant analysis revealed both the equivalent circular diameter (ECD) and the area were the best variables to differentiate the three copepod categories. Samples were previously quantified by optical methods in order to compare with automated results. Automated copepod biovolume measurements were estimated from individual calculations applying new ZooImage allometric parameters, and were compared with manual calculations using specific size/biovolume equations. It was demonstrated that ZooImage can potentially be used as a tool for abundance and biovolume estimations of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods and allow us to obtain results more rapidly by reducing the time lag involved using traditional measuring methods.

  20. Sensitivity to ocean acidification parallels natural pCO2 gradients experienced by Arctic copepods under winter sea ice

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ceri N.; Brown, Kristina A.; Edwards, Laura A.; Cooper, Glenn; Findlay, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean already experiences areas of low pH and high CO2, and it is expected to be most rapidly affected by future ocean acidification (OA). Copepods comprise the dominant Arctic zooplankton; hence, their responses to OA have important implications for Arctic ecosystems, yet there is little data on their current under-ice winter ecology on which to base future monitoring or make predictions about climate-induced change. Here, we report results from Arctic under-ice investigations of copepod natural distributions associated with late-winter carbonate chemistry environmental data and their response to manipulated pCO2 conditions (OA exposures). Our data reveal that species and life stage sensitivities to manipulated OA conditions were correlated with their vertical migration behavior and with their natural exposures to different pCO2 ranges. Vertically migrating adult Calanus spp. crossed a pCO2 range of >140 ?atm daily and showed only minor responses to manipulated high CO2. Oithona similis, which remained in the surface waters and experienced a pCO2 range of <75 ?atm, showed significantly reduced adult and nauplii survival in high CO2 experiments. These results support the relatively untested hypothesis that the natural range of pCO2 experienced by an organism determines its sensitivity to future OA and highlight that the globally important copepod species, Oithona spp., may be more sensitive to future high pCO2 conditions compared with the more widely studied larger copepods. PMID:24297880

  1. Seasonal variation in community structure and body length of dominant copepods around artificial reefs in Xiaoshi Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaohong; Liang, Zhenlin; Zou, Jixin; Wang, Longxiang

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the seasonal variations in copepod community structure and prosome length of dominant species from March 2009 to January 2010 around artificial reefs in Xiaoshi Island, Yellow Sea, Weihai, China. Samples were collected using two types of plankton net (Model I and Model II) for different-sized copepods. The number of taxon was calculated from the data of both the net types, while the copepod abundance was done using the samples from Model II only. Sixteen species of planktonic copepods, including 5 dominant species, were recorded. Results reveal that Oithona similis was the first dominant species from March to June, and was replaced by Paracalanus parvus in September; both dominated the copepod community in January. Acartia hongi was the second dominant species from March to September. Centropages abdominalis was the third dominant species from March to June, and was replaced by O. similis in September and Corycaeus affinis in January. C. affinis was the fourth dominant species in September. Population density of the dominant copepods was compared with that of other similar regions. We found that the dominant species were mostly small copepods (<1 mm) except for adult Centrapages abdominalis. Seasonal variation in prosome length of O. similis, C. abdominalis, and C. affinis, and their copepodites were studied for the first time in China. For P. parvus and A. hongi, seasonal trends in prosome length variation were similar with those in Jiaozhou Bay, Yellow Sea, Qingdao, China, in a similar temperate domain. The results are helpful for future calculation of copepod biomass and production, and for investigation of the relationship between copepods and fish resources.

  2. A lightning stab in the dark: fluid dynamics of attack jumps of ambush feeding copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders; Langlois, Vincent; KiØRboe, Thomas; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2009-11-01

    A large class of marine zooplankton, in particular among copepods, are ``ambush feeders'', who wait for their prey and capture them by surprise attacks. The successful attack must happen so rapidly and unexpectedly that the prey cannot escape and the fluid disturbances created by the attack must be so small that the prey is not pushed away by the flow created by the much larger approaching copepod. Detailed high speed video in vivo reveals that the nearly blind copepod manages to perform the attack by precision maneuvering during a rapid jump of a few milliseconds moving approximately one body length. The prey is pushed only by around 10% of this distance, and thus the bulk flow must be close to potential with small boundary layers. From this, we argue that the smallest ambush feeding copepod, Oithona davisae, is close to the size limit for the ambush feeding strategy. REF: T. Kiørboe, A. Andersen, V. J. Langlois, H. H. Jakobsen and T. Bohr, PNAS (2009)

  3. Copepod Web Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pesce, G.L.

    The Copepod Web Portal, from the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of L'Aquila in Italy, provides a comprehensive and nicely designed set of online resources for those interested in this "largest and most diversified group of crustaceans." The site includes a detailed review of copepod systematics; an international directory of copepodologists; a sizeable list of references; and numerous links to related books, journals, papers, and other resources -- including downloadable version of Monoculus: The Copepod Newsletter. A small number of links lead to sites not accessible without special permission.

  4. Sensitivity and response time of three common Antarctic marine copepods to metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Lara Marcus; King, Catherine K; Payne, Sarah J; Virtue, Patti

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the sensitivity of Antarctic marine organisms to metals is essential in order to manage environmental contamination risks. To date toxicity studies conducted on Antarctic marine species are limited. This study is the first to examine the acute effects of copper and cadmium on three common coastal Antarctic copepods: the calanoids Paralabidocera antarctica and Stephos longipes, and the cyclopoid Oncaea curvata. These copepods responded slowly to metal exposure (4-7d) emphasising that the exposure period of 48-96 h commonly used in toxicity tests with temperate and tropical species is not appropriate for polar organisms. We found that a longer 7 d exposure period was the minimum duration appropriate for Antarctic copepods. Although sensitivity to metal exposure varied between species, copper was more toxic than cadmium in all three species. P.antarctica was the most sensitive with 7d LC50 values for copper and cadmium of 20 ?g L(-1) and 237 ?g L(-1) respectively. Sensitivities to copper were similar for both O. curvata (LC50=64 ?g L(-1)) and S. longipes (LC50=56 ?g L(-1)), while O. curvata was more sensitive to cadmium (LC50=901 ?g L(-1)) than S. longipes (LC50=1250 ?g L(-1)). In comparison to copepods from lower latitudes, Antarctic copepods were more sensitive to copper and of similar sensitivity or less sensitive to cadmium. This study highlights the need for longer exposure periods in toxicity tests with slow responding Antarctic biota in order to generate relevant sensitivity data for inclusion in site-specific environmental quality guidelines for Antarctica. PMID:25128632

  5. A new species of philichthyid copepod (Crustacea: Cyclopoida) parasitic on
    Stellifer spp. (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pombo, Maíra; Turra, Alexander; Paschoal, Fabiano; Luque, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    A new species of copepod, Colobomatus stelliferi n. sp., belonging to the cyclopoid family Philichthyidae Vogt, 1877 is proposed based on female specimens collected from the mandibular canals of three species of sciaenid teleosts: Stellifer brasiliensis (Schultz) (type-host), S. rastrifer (Jordan) and S. stellifer (Bloch), collected in Caraguatatuba Bay, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its closest congeners by the absence of lateral processes in the genital somite, the presence of one cephalic process in the cephalosome and one pair of dorso-lateral processes on the fused pedigerous somites. This is the first species of Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 described as parasites of species of the teleost genus Stellifer. PMID:25781754

  6. PREDICTING DEVELOPMENT RATE OF COPEPOD EGGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper is part of a continuing study of intrinsic controls of growth. develop ment and, implicitly, productivity of marine zooplankton. Copepods are particularly suitable for comparative studies of embryonic development rate because most spe cies hatch at a morphologically equivalent first naupliar stage. The effect of tem perature on size varies markedly among different geographical populations of the copepod

  7. The Copepods of the Mississippi Delta region 

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Juan Gerardo

    1957-01-01

    OF SCIENCE August, 1957 1'. ajor Subject; Oceanography THE COPEPODS OF THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA REGION A Thesis By Juan Gerardo Gonzalez Approved as to style and content by: S~ig H Chairman of Committee Head, Department, of Oceanography and Meteorology... OF STUDY 16 18 VI, COPEPODS IDENTIFIED FROM THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA REGION . 19 1. Suborder: Calanoida 19 Family: Calanidae Family: Paracalanidae Family: Pasudocalanidae Fami. ly: Aetideidae Family: Euchaetidas Family; Phaennidae Family...

  8. Molecular Systematic of Three Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from the Atlantic Ocean: Comparative Analysis Using 28S rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Georgina D.; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Bucklin, Ann; Berón, Corina M.; Viñas, María D.

    2012-01-01

    Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) are highly abundant, ecologically important, and widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Although there are valid and detailed descriptions of the species, routine species identifications remain challenging due to their small size, subtle morphological diagnostic traits, and the description of geographic forms or varieties. This study examined three species of Oithona (O. similis, O. atlantica and O. nana) occurring in the Argentine sector of the South Atlantic Ocean based on DNA sequence variation of a 575 base-pair region of 28S rDNA, with comparative analysis of these species from other North and South Atlantic regions. DNA sequence variation clearly resolved and discriminated the species, and revealed low levels of intraspecific variation among North and South Atlantic populations of each species. The 28S rDNA region was thus shown to provide an accurate and reliable means of identifying the species throughout the sampled domain. Analysis of 28S rDNA variation for additional species collected throughout the global ocean will be useful to accurately characterize biogeographical distributions of the species and to examine phylogenetic relationships among them. PMID:22558245

  9. Interactions between calanoid copepod hosts and their associated microbiota

    E-print Network

    Almada, Amalia Aruda

    2015-01-01

    Zooplankton, such as copepods, are highly abundant environmental reservoirs of many bacterial pathogens. Although copepods are known to support diverse and productive bacterial communities, little is understood about whether ...

  10. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  11. A plea for the use of copepods in freshwater ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Devdutt; Gergs, André; Hommen, Udo; Ratte, Hans Toni; Preuss, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Standard species used in ecological risk assessment are chosen based on their sensitivity to various toxicants and the ease of rearing them for laboratory experiments. However, this mostly overlooks the fact that species in the field that may employ variable life-history strategies, which may have consequences concerning the vulnerability of such species to exposure with contaminants. We aimed to highlight the importance of copepods in ecology and to underline the need to include freshwater copepods in ecotoxicology. We carried out a literature search on copepods and Daphnia in ecology and ecotoxicology to compare the recognition given to these two taxa in these respective fields. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the literature on copepods and their current role in ecotoxicology to characterize the scale and depth of the studies and the ecotoxicological information therein. The literature on the ecology of copepods outweighed that in ecotoxicology when compared with daphnids. Copepods, like other zooplankton, were found to be sensitive to toxicants and important organisms in aquatic ecosystems. The few studies that were conducted on the ecotoxicology of copepods mainly focused on marine copepods. However, very little is known about the ecotoxicology of freshwater copepods. To enable a more realistic risk higher tier environmental risk assessment, we recommend considering freshwater copepods as part of the hazard assessment process. This could include the establishment of laboratory experiments to analyse the effects of toxicants on copepods and the development of individual-based models to extrapolate effects across species and scenarios. PMID:22899440

  12. Evidence for sex pheromones in planktonic copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN K. KATONA

    1973-01-01

    When in the presence of potential mates, males of the copepods Ezcrytemorn affinis, Eurytemora he&man& and Pseuclodiuptomus coronatus performed mate-seeking behavior which appeared to be oriented. Males of E. affinis and P. coronutus located stationary females from up to 20 mm away. Males of E. affinis also chased and found secured females moved by a mechanical clevice. Eurytemora affinis males

  13. Open Water Processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From Physical Forcing to Biological Responses

    E-print Network

    Kimmerer, Wim

    2004-01-01

    for zooplankton (Daphnia) in a tidal freshwater system (the zooplankton into three categories: freshwater, brackish,Freshwater copepods including the calanoid Diaptomus spp. , cyclopoid copepods, and Zooplankton

  14. Computational analysis and functional expression of ancestral copepod luciferase.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Noda-Ogura, Akiko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Gojobori, Takashi; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2013-10-10

    We recently reported the cDNA sequences of 11 copepod luciferases from the superfamily Augaptiloidea in the order Calanoida. They were classified into two groups, Metridinidae and Heterorhabdidae/Lucicutiidae families, by phylogenetic analyses. To elucidate the evolutionary processes, we have now further isolated 12 copepod luciferases from Augaptiloidea species (Metridia asymmetrica, Metridia curticauda, Pleuromamma scutullata, Pleuromamma xiphias, Lucicutia ovaliformis and Heterorhabdus tanneri). Codon-based synonymous/nonsynonymous tests of positive selection for 25 identified copepod luciferases suggested that positive Darwinian selection operated in the evolution of Heterorhabdidae luciferases, whereas two types of Metridinidae luciferases had diversified via neutral mechanism. By in silico analysis of the decoded amino acid sequences of 25 copepod luciferases, we inferred two protein sequences as ancestral copepod luciferases. They were expressed in HEK293 cells where they exhibited notable luciferase activity both in intracellular lysates and cultured media, indicating that the luciferase activity was established before evolutionary diversification of these copepod species. PMID:23886588

  15. Grazing patterns of copepods in the upwelling system off Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARL M. BOYD; SHARON L. SMITH; TIMOTHY J. COWLES

    1980-01-01

    The amount of food eaten by copepods of three genera (estimated from chlorophyll and pheophytin in the guts of the animals) was measured to determine the depth and also the time of day of the maximum and minimum intensity of feeding. Copepods were taken with a large volume (800 liters .min-') pumping system at five depths (O-85 m) and twelve

  16. Photoprotection by carotenoid pigments in the copepod Diaptomus nevadensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Hairston; N. G. Jr

    1976-01-01

    Individuals of the copepod Diaptomus nevadensis that contain high concentrations of caratenoids survive significantly better in natural intensities of visible light than less pigmented copepods. Vertical migration and behavior in light of different wave lengths are related to the degree of pigmentation.

  17. The Copepods of the Mississippi Delta region

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Juan Gerardo

    1957-01-01

    as Wilson (1932), Sara (1903), Rose (1933), and Giesbrecht (1892) (ave shown, it was first thought that it might be another species. However, Fleminger (1957b) says that in a population of this species, the form of that spine may vary. Other records... OF SCIENCE August, 1957 1'. ajor Subject; Oceanography THE COPEPODS OF THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA REGION A Thesis By Juan Gerardo Gonzalez Approved as to style and content by: S~ig H Chairman of Committee Head, Department, of Oceanography and Meteorology...

  18. Mesozooplankton of the Arabian Sea: Patterns influenced by seasons, upwelling, and oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. L.; Madhupratap, M.

    2005-05-01

    The intensive study of the Arabian Sea during the 1990s included mesozooplankton investigations by the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Pakistan, India, Germany and the United States. Several major discoveries resulted. First, the high biomass of mesozooplankton observed during the Northeast Monsoon season is sustained by primary productivity stimulated by convective mixing and by an active microbial loop. The apparent ‘paradox’ of high standing stocks of mesozooplankton coinciding with low standing stocks of phytoplankton thus was resolved. Second, the Southwest Monsoon (upwelling) season supports a burst of mesozooplankton growth, much of which is exported to the interior of the Arabian Sea by strong currents and eddy activity and to depth at the end of the season when diapause causes at least one very abundant copepod to leave the epipelagic zone. Third, the oxygen minimum zone severely restricts the vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the eastern region of the Arabian Sea. The copepod that withstands conditions in the OMZ most readily, Pleuromamma indica, has increased in abundance over the past thirty years suggesting the OMZ may have grown in size and/or intensity in that time. Fourth, the Fall Intermonsoon and Northeast Monsoon seasons are characterized everywhere by increased abundance of the cyclopoid copepod genus, Oithona. Abundances of Oithona measured in the 1990s are much higher than those of the 1930s, suggesting food web alterations over the past half-century.

  19. Copepod Trajectory Characteristics in Thin Layers of Toxic Algal Exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; True, A. C.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2013-11-01

    Recently documented thin layers of toxic phytoplankton (``cryptic blooms'') are modeled in a custom flume system for copepod behavioral assays. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements quantify the spatiotemporal structure of the chemical layers ensuring a close match to in situ bloom conditions and allowing for quantification of threshold dissolved toxin levels that induce behavioral responses. Assays with the copepods Acartia tonsa (hop-sinker) and Temora longicornis (cruiser) in thin layers of toxic exudates from the common dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (cell equivalent ~ 1 - 10,000 cells/mL) examine the effects of dissolved toxic compounds and copepod species on swimming trajectory characteristics. Computation of parameters such as swimming speed and the fractal dimension of the two-dimensional trajectory (F2D) allows for statistical evaluation of copepod behavioral responses to dissolved toxic compounds associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). Changes in copepod swimming behavior caused by toxic compounds can significantly influence predator, prey, and mate encounter rates by altering the fracticality (``diffuseness'' or ``volume-fillingness'') of a copepod's trajectory. As trophic mediators linking primary producers and higher trophic levels, copepods can significantly influence HAB dynamics and modulate large scale ecological effects through their behavioral interactions with toxic blooms.

  20. Molecular and microscopic evidence of viruses in marine copepods

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Darren S.; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Rosario, Karyna; Barbosa, Jorge G.; Greco, Anthony M.; Breitbart, Mya; Hewson, Ian

    2013-01-01

    As dominant members of marine mesozooplankton communities, copepods play critical roles in oceanic food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Despite the ecological significance of copepods, little is known regarding the causes of copepod mortality, and up to 35% of total copepod mortality cannot be accounted for by predation alone. Viruses have been established as ecologically important infectious agents in the oceans; however, viral infection has not been investigated in mesozooplankton communities. Here we used molecular and microscopic techniques to document viral infection in natural populations of the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa (Dana) and Labidocera aestiva (Wheeler) in Tampa Bay, FL. Viral metagenomics revealed previously undocumented viruses in each species, named Acartia tonsa copepod circo-like virus (AtCopCV) and Labidocera aestiva copepod circo-like virus (LaCopCV). LaCopCV was found to be extremely prevalent and abundant in L. aestiva populations, with up to 100% prevalence in some samples and average viral loads of 1.13 × 105 copies per individual. LaCopCV transcription was also detected in the majority of L. aestiva individuals, indicating viral activity. AtCopCV was sporadically detected in A. tonsa populations year-round, suggesting temporal variability in viral infection dynamics. Finally, virus-like particles of unknown identity were observed in the connective tissues of A. tonsa and L. aestiva by transmission electron microscopy, demonstrating that viruses were actively proliferating in copepod connective tissue as opposed to infecting gut contents, parasites, or symbionts. Taken together, these results provide strong independent lines of evidence for active viral infection in dominant copepod species, indicating that viruses may significantly influence mesozooplankton ecology. PMID:23297243

  1. Physical controls on copepod aggregations in the Gulf of Maine

    E-print Network

    Woods, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the role that the circulation in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) plays in determining the distribution of dense aggregations of copepods. These aggregations are an important part of the marine ecosystem, ...

  2. 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd Copepods, the small planktonic crus-

    E-print Network

    Lenz, Petra H.

    © 1999 Macmillan Magazines Ltd Copepods, the small planktonic crus- taceans that are the most at the axolemma in an orderly, stepwise fashion, with the inner- most layers terminating first, allowing each

  3. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa and fixed across a species' range. Such interspecific and regional differences in life history traits need to be incorporated in models simulating Eastern Boundary Current pelagic ecosystem dynamics.

  4. Copepod population-specific response to a toxic diatom diet.

    PubMed

    Lauritano, Chiara; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Miralto, Antonio; Procaccini, Gabriele; Ianora, Adrianna

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms are key phytoplankton organisms and one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. However, many diatom species produce a series of secondary metabolites, collectively termed oxylipins, that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers, such as copepods, that feed on these unicellular algae. We hypothesized that different populations of copepods may deal differently with the same oxylipin-producing diatom diet. Here we provide comparative studies of expression level analyses of selected genes of interest for three Calanus helgolandicus populations (North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea) exposed to the same strain of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi using as control algae the flagellate Rhodomonas baltica. Expression levels of detoxification enzymes and stress proteins (e.g. glutathione S-transferase, glutathione synthase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, aldehyde dehydrogenases and heat shock proteins) and proteins involved in apoptosis regulation and cell cycle progression were analyzed in copepods after both 24 and 48 hours of feeding on the diatom or on a control diet. Strong differences occurred among copepod populations, with the Mediterranean population of C. helgolandicus being more susceptible to the toxic diet compared to the others. This study opens new perspectives for understanding copepod population-specific responses to diatom toxins and may help in underpinning the cellular mechanisms underlying copepod toxicity during diatom blooms. PMID:23056617

  5. Meiofauna on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum : population characteristics of harpacticoid copepods and associations with algal epiphytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O. Hall; S. S. Bell

    1993-01-01

    The composition and abundance of bladedwelling meiofauna was determined over a 15 mo period (1983–1984) from a Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König meadow near Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Harpacticoid copepods, copepod nauplii, and nematodes were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa on T. testudinum blades. Temporal patterns in species composition and population life-history stages were determined for harpacticoid copepods, the numerically

  6. Gene expression patterns and stress response in marine copepods.

    PubMed

    Lauritano, Chiara; Procaccini, Gabriele; Ianora, Adrianna

    2012-05-01

    Aquatic organisms are constantly exposed to both physical (e.g. temperature and salinity variations) and chemical (e.g. endocrine disruptor chemicals, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, diatom toxins, and other toxicants) stressors which they react to by activating a series of defense mechanisms. This paper reviews the literature on the defense systems, including detoxification enzymes and proteins (e.g. glutathione S-transferases, heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase and catalase), studied in copepods at the molecular level. The data indicate high inter- and intra-species variability in copepod response, depending on the type of stressor tested, the concentration and exposure time, and the enzyme isoform studied. Ongoing -omics approaches will allow the identification of new genes which will give a more comprehensive overview of how copepods respond to specific stressors in laboratory and/or field conditions and the effects of these responses on higher trophic levels. PMID:22030210

  7. Effect of zinc pyrithione on reproduction of calanoid copepod

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Hossain; T. Ishimaru; S. Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) has been proposed to use as an antifouling compound instead of organotin antifouling biocide in coastal and marine environment. But its impact on marine life especially on smaller zooplankton is so far unknown. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of ZnPT on survival, egg production and egg hatch of a calanoid copepod, Acartia omorii

  8. KARYOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE CALANOID COPEPOD 'EURYTEMORA AFFINIS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromosomes of the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis are described. The diploid chromosome number determined from cells at metaphase is twenty. There are ten pairs of metacentric chromosomes which can be divided into three size classes. No evidence of a heteromorphic chromosome...

  9. Chemoreceptors and feeding in calanoid copepods (Arthropoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, M M; Strickler, J R

    1975-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of the mouthparts of the calanoid copepod Diaptomus pallidus have revealed the presence of numerous chemoreceptors, and the apparent absence of mechanoreceptors. The setae contain no muscles, and the setules are noncellular extensions of their chitin wall. This allows a new insight into the selective feeding of zooplankters. Images PMID:1060099

  10. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Variation in calanoid copepod resting egg abundance

    E-print Network

    Arnott, Shelley

    these patterns. Keywords Acidification Á Copepods Á Freshwater lakes Á Resting eggs Introduction Zooplanktons+Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract The maintenance of species and genetic diversity within zooplankton egg banks may be crucial to the re-establishment of zooplankton communities following historical disturbance

  11. New insights into the complex architecture of siliceous copepod teeth.

    PubMed

    Michels, Jan; Vogt, Jürgen; Simon, Paul; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-06-01

    Copepods belong to the dominant marine zooplankton taxa and play an important role in particle and energy fluxes of the marine water column. Their mandibular gnathobases possess tooth-like structures, so-called teeth. In species feeding on large proportions of diatoms these teeth often contain silica, which is very probably the result of a coevolution with the siliceous diatom frustules. Detailed knowledge of the morphology and composition of the siliceous teeth is essential for understanding their functioning and their significance in the context of feeding interactions between copepods and diatoms. Based on analyses of the gnathobases of the Antarctic copepod Rhincalanus gigas, the present study clearly shows, for the first time, that the silica in the siliceous teeth features large proportions of crystalline silica that is consistent with the mineral ?-cristobalite and is doped with aluminium. The siliceous structures have internal chitinous fibre networks, which are assumed to serve as scaffolds during the silicification process. The compact siliceous teeth of R. gigas are accompanied by structures with large proportions of the elastic protein resilin, likely reducing the mechanical damage of the teeth when the copepods feed on diatoms with very stable frustules. The results indicate that the coevolution with diatom frustules has resulted in gnathobases exhibiting highly sophisticated composite structures. PMID:25622509

  12. Human forcing of the copepod–fish–jellyfish triangular trophic relationship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-ichi Uye

    2011-01-01

    Copepods, the most abundant planktonic metazoans, constitute an intermediate trophic position between phytoplankton and higher\\u000a trophic-level animals such as fish and jellyfish. Fish and jellyfish are adversaries because they often compete for prey copepods\\u000a and also can be prey of each other. The classical food chain represented by phytoplankton–copepod–fish is the main process\\u000a leading to efficient and sustainable production of

  13. How plankton copepods avoid fish predation: From individual responses to variations of the life cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Pasternak; V. N. Mikheev; J. Wanzenböck

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of original and published data on predator avoidance by marine and freshwater plankton copepods, a major diet of\\u000a many young fishes, suggests that individual defense mechanisms play a minor role in copepod anti-predator behavior. Capture\\u000a success by planktivorous fish depends largely on prey visibility and the ability of the prey to escape. Copepods have almost\\u000a no chance to avoid

  14. Host-Specific and pH-Dependent Microbiomes of Copepods in an Extensive Rearing System

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro-Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are to an increasing extent cultivated as feed for mariculture fish larvae with variable production success. In the temperate climate zone, this production faces seasonal limitation due to changing abiotic factors, in particular temperature and light. Furthermore, the production of copepods may be influenced by biotic factors of the culture systems, such as competing microorganisms, harmful algae, or other eukaryotes and prokaryotes that may be non-beneficial for the copepods. In this study, the composition of bacteria associated with copepods was investigated in an extensive outdoor copepod production system. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that bacteria were primarily found attached to the exoskeleton of copepods although a few bacteria were also found in the gut as well as internally in skeletal muscle tissue. Through 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes. PMID:26167852

  15. Optimal swimming strategies in mate-searching pelagic copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kiørboe

    2008-01-01

    Male copepods must swim to find females, but swimming increases the risk of meeting predators and is expensive in terms of\\u000a energy expenditure. Here I address the trade-offs between gains and risks and the question of how much and how fast to swim\\u000a using simple models that optimise the number of lifetime mate encounters. Radically different swimming strategies are predicted

  16. Global latitudinal variations in marine copepod diversity and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Isabelle; Beaugrand, Grégory; Ibanez, Frédéric; Gasparini, Stéphane; Chiba, Sanae; Legendre, Louis

    2009-09-01

    Latitudinal gradients in diversity are among the most striking features in ecology. For terrestrial species, climate (i.e. temperature and precipitation) is believed to exert a strong influence on the geographical distributions of diversity through its effects on energy availability. Here, we provide the first global description of geographical variation in the diversity of marine copepods, a key trophic link between phytoplankton and fish, in relation to environmental variables. We found a polar-tropical difference in copepod diversity in the Northern Hemisphere where diversity peaked at subtropical latitudes. In the Southern Hemisphere, diversity showed a tropical plateau into the temperate regions. This asymmetry around the Equator may be explained by climatic conditions, in particular the influence of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone, prevailing mainly in the northern tropical region. Ocean temperature was the most important explanatory factor among all environmental variables tested, accounting for 54 per cent of the variation in diversity. Given the strong positive correlation between diversity and temperature, local copepod diversity, especially in extra-tropical regions, is likely to increase with climate change as their large-scale distributions respond to climate warming. PMID:19515670

  17. Microbial diversity associated with copepods in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Katyanne M; Moisander, Pia H

    2015-07-01

    Patchiness of marine microbial communities has an important influence on microbial activities in the ocean, particularly in the oligotrophic open ocean where bioavailable nutrients are otherwise scarce. Such spatial heterogeneity is present in associations with dead and living particles, including zooplankton. The microbial community composition of mesozooplankton was investigated from the Sargasso Sea using 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing. Zooplankton microbiomes were studied on the copepods Undinula vulgaris, Pleuromamma spp., Sapphirina metalina, Pseudocalanus spp. and Tigriopus sp., and an amphipod, Phrosina semilunata. The overall richness was lower in the zooplankton than in the seawater, and zooplankton-specific bacterial communities were distinct from the communities in seawater. Gammaproteobacteria dominated in all zooplankton studied, with Vibrio spp. highly represented. Firmicutes were detected in all copepods, providing evidence for anaerobic conditions present on the copepods. Bacterial groups known to grow on concentrated organic substrates or to prevent biofouling were highly represented in association with copepods, suggesting they benefit from copepod-derived nutrients or carbon. The described copepod microbiome has similarities to communities previously described in coastal copepods, suggesting some aspects of the copepod microbiome are not habitat specific. The communities are distinct of that in seawater, demonstrating significant microbial patchiness in association with marine zooplankton in the oligotrophic open ocean. PMID:26077986

  18. Positive effects of UV radiation on a calanoid copepod in a transparent lake

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Craig E.

    Positive effects of UV radiation on a calanoid copepod in a transparent lake: do competition to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) could be indirectly affected by UVR through interactions with UV-sensitive species copepod, Leptodiaptomus minutus, to UV radiation. While UVR is generally recognized to be biologically

  19. Niche segregation and habitat specialisation of harpacticoid copepods in a tropical seagrass bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. De Troch; M. Vincx

    2003-01-01

    Several harpacticoid copepod species are adapted to an epiphytic lifestyle. Previous studies on tropical seagrass meiofauna mainly focussed on the epiphytic communities and neglected the benthic com- ponent. The present study aims to document the benthic harpacticoid copepod communities sampled from dif- ferent sediment depth horizons adjacent to five seagrass species in the intertidal and subtidal zone of a tropical

  20. Niche segregation and habitat specialisation of harpacticoid copepods in a tropical seagrass bed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. De Troch; F. Fiers; M. Vincx

    2003-01-01

    Several harpacticoid copepod species are adapted to an epiphytic lifestyle. Previous studies on tropical seagrass meiofauna mainly focussed on the epiphytic communities and neglected the benthic component. The present study aims to document the benthic harpacticoid copepod communities sampled from different sediment depth horizons adjacent to five seagrass species in the intertidal and subtidal zone of a tropical seagrass bed

  1. Sympatry of distinct mitochondrial DNA lineages in a copepod inhabiting estuarine creeks in the southeastern USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Schizas; B. C. Coull; G. Chandler; J. Quattro

    2002-01-01

    The population genetic structure of the meiobenthic harpacticoid copepod Microarthridion littorale (Poppe) was examined with a geographic survey of a 348 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Copepods were collected from ten locations on the coast from North Carolina to Georgia, USA, from January 1997 to November 1998. Sequence divergence among 198 individuals was as much as 4.3%,

  2. COPEPODS AND SCOMBRID FISHES: A STUDY IN HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIPS

    E-print Network

    COPEPODS AND SCOMBRID FISHES: A STUDY IN HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIPS ROGER F. CRESSEY,I BRUCE B. COLLE'ITE,' AND JOSEPH L. Russo' ABSTRACT Host specificity ofthe copepods parasitic on scombrid fishes is the basis for an analysis ofthe host-parasite relationship. A total of 46 different species of parasitic

  3. Nineteen trace elements in marine copepods collected from the coastal waters off northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tien-Hsi; Hsiao, Shih-Hui; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed nineteen trace elements in marine copepods collected from the coastal waters off Northeastern Taiwan. The bioconcentration factors (BCF) of the analyzed elements in copepods are discussed. Owing to the upwelling intrusion of Kuroshio Water, the study area presented an enriched copepod community and the copepod abundance ranged within 106-4890 ind. m-3. The trace elements content in the analyzed copepods varied substantially, ranging from 0.01 to 780 mg kg-1. and the average concentration followed the sequence: Sr>Fe>Zn>Cr>Li>Ni>Mn>Ba>Cu>Se>As>V>Pb>Rb>Cd>Co>Ga>Ag>Cs. The trace elements can be divided into five groups according to the concentration quantity in copepods: (1) Sr; (2) Fe, Zn, Cr, Li and Ni; (3) Mn, Cu, Ba, Se, As, V, Pb and Rb; (4) Cd, Co and Ga; (5) Ag and Cs. The concentration difference in each group is nearly one order of magnitude. The trace element concentrations in copepods seem to be in proportion to the dissolved concentrations in seawater. The trace element log BCF values ranged within 1.32-5.66. Transition metals generally have a higher BCF value than the associated minor elements, such as Ba, Sr, Li and Rb. The trace element BCF value in copepods is in inverse proportion to the dissolved concentrations in seawater.

  4. Biosynthesis of trimethylamine oxide in calanoid copepods. seasonal changes in trimethylamine monooxygenase activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Strom

    1979-01-01

    Live copepods, Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus) and C. hyperboreus (Krøyer), exposed to dissolved 14C-labeled trimethylamine (TMA) in seawater, oxidized TMA to trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), which accumulated in the organisms. The amount of TMAO synthesized was dependent on the time of exposure to TMA and the concentration of TMA in the seawater. It was inferred that copepods can produce TMAO by oxidation

  5. Probability Models for the Distribution of Copepods in Different Coastal Ecosystems Along the Straits of Malacca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matias-Peralta, Hazel Monica; Ghodsi, Alireza; Shitan, Mahendran; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.

    Copepods are the most abundant microcrustaceans in the marine waters and are the major food resource for many commercial fish species. In addition, changes in the distribution and population composition of copepods may also serve as an indicator of global climate changes. Therefore, it is important to model the copepod distribution in different ecosystems. Copepod samples were collected from three different ecosystems (seagrass area, cage aquaculture area and coastal waters off shrimp aquaculture farm) along the coastal waters of the Malacca Straits over a one year period. In this study the major statistical analysis consisted of fitting different probability models. This paper highlights the fitting of probability distributions and discusses the adequateness of the fitted models. The usefulness of these fitted models would enable one to make probability statements about the distribution of copepods in three different ecosystems.

  6. Structural and functional responses of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia in the Northern Adriatic: an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Troch, M.; Roelofs, M.; Riedel, B.; Grego, M.

    2013-02-01

    Combined in situ and laboratory studies were conducted to document the effects of anoxia on the structure and functioning of meiobenthic communities, with special focus on harpacticoid copepods. In a first step, anoxia was created artificially by means of an underwater chamber at 24 m depth in the Northern Adriatic, Gulf of Trieste (Mediterranean). Nematodes were found as most abundant taxon, followed by harpacticoid copepods. While nematode densities were not affected by treatment (anoxia/normoxia) or sediment depth, these factors had a significant impact on copepod abundances. Harpacticoid copepod family diversity, in contrast, was not affected by anoxic conditions, only by depth. Ectinosomatidae and Cletodidae were most abundant in both normoxic and anoxic samples. The functional response of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia was studied in a laboratory tracer experiment by adding 13C pre-labelled diatoms to sediment cores in order to test (1) if there is a difference in food uptake by copepods under normoxic and anoxic conditions and (2) whether initial (normoxia) feeding of harpacticoid copepods on diatoms results in a better survival of copepods in subsequent anoxic conditions. Independent of the addition of diatoms, there was a higher survival rate in normoxia than anoxia. The supply of additional food did not result in a higher survival rate of copepods in anoxia, which might be explained by the presence of a nutritionally better food source and/or a lack of starvation before adding the diatoms. However, there was a reduced grazing pressure by copepods on diatoms in anoxic conditions. This resulted in a modified fatty acid composition of the sediment. We concluded that anoxia not only impacts the survival of consumers (direct effect) but also of primary producers (indirect effect), with important implications for the recovery phase.

  7. Structural and functional responses of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia in the Northern Adriatic: an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Troch, M.; Roelofs, M.; Riedel, B.; Grego, M.

    2013-06-01

    Combined in situ and laboratory studies were conducted to document the effects of anoxia on the structure and functioning of meiobenthic communities, with special focus on harpacticoid copepods. In a first step, anoxia was created artificially by means of an underwater chamber at 24 m depth in the Northern Adriatic, Gulf of Trieste (Mediterranean). Nematodes were found as the most abundant taxon, followed by harpacticoid copepods. While nematode densities were not affected by treatment (anoxia/normoxia) or sediment depth, these factors had a significant impact on copepod abundances. Harpacticoid copepod family diversity, in contrast, was not affected by anoxic conditions, only by depth. Ectinosomatidae and Cletodidae were most abundant in both normoxic and anoxic samples. The functional response of harpacticoid copepods to anoxia was studied in a laboratory tracer experiment by adding 13C pre-labelled diatoms to sediment cores in order to test (1) if there is a difference in food uptake by copepods under normoxic and anoxic conditions and (2) whether initial (normoxia) feeding of harpacticoid copepods on diatoms results in a better survival of copepods in subsequent anoxic conditions. Independent of the addition of diatoms, there was a higher survival rate in normoxia than anoxia. The supply of additional food did not result in a higher survival rate of copepods in anoxia, which might be explained by the presence of a nutritionally better food source and/or a lack of starvation before adding the diatoms. However, there was a reduced grazing pressure by copepods on diatoms in anoxic conditions. This resulted in a modified fatty acid composition of the sediment. We concluded that anoxia not only impacts the survival of consumers (direct effect) but also of primary producers (indirect effect), with important implications for the recovery phase.

  8. Assimilation and regeneration of trace elements by marine copepods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Reinfelder, J.R.; Lee, B.-G.; Fisher, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of five trace elements (Am, Cd, Co, Se, and Zn) and carbon by neritic copepods (Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis) feeding at different food concentrations and on different food types (diatoms, green algae, flagellates, dinoflagellates, and Fe oxides) were measured with radiotracer techniques. Food concentration had little influence on AEs of C, Cd, Co, and Se within a range of 16-800 ?? C liter-1. AEs of Am and Zn were highest at low food concentrations (16-56 ??g C liter-1) but remained relatively constant when food levels exceeded 160 ??g C liter-1. Different algal diets had no major influence on AEs, which generally were in the order Cd > Se > Zn > Co > Am. Metals (Cd, Co, and Zn) were assimilated from Fe oxides with 50% less efficiency than from algal cells. Element regeneration into the dissolved phase was a significant route for the release of ingested elements by copepods and increased with increased food concentration. Element regeneration rates for Cd, Se, and Zn were comparable to the regeneration rates of major nutrients such as P (30-70% daily). Retention half-times of elements in decomposing fecal pellets ranged from 10 d (Am). The efficient assimilation and regeneration of Cd, Se, and Zn can significantly lengthen the residence time of these elements in ocean surface waters.

  9. Comparison of different DNA-extraction techniques to investigate the bacterial community of marine copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Petra; Gerdts, Gunnar; Boersma, Maarten; Wiltshire, Karen H.; Wichels, Antje

    2010-12-01

    Marine zooplanktic organisms, such as copepods, are usually associated with large numbers of bacteria. Some of these bacteria live attached to copepods’ exoskeleton, while others prevail in their intestine and faecal pellets. Until now, general conclusions concerning the identity of these bacteria are problematic since the majority of previous studies focused on cultivable bacteria only. Hence, to date little is known on whether copepod genera or species harbour distinct bacterial populations and about the nature of this association. To shed more light on these copepod/bacteria consortia, the focus of this study was the development and evaluation of a suitable approach to extract bacterial DNA from different North Sea copepod genera. Furthermore, the bacterial DNA was analysed by PCR-DGGE and subsequent sequencing of excised bands. The result of this work was an appropriate extraction method for batches of ten to one copepod specimens and offered first insights as to which bacteria are attached to the copepods Acartia sp . and Temora sp . from Helgoland Roads (German Bight) and a laboratory-grown Acartia tonsa culture. It revealed the prevalence of Alphaproteobacteria.

  10. Light Primes the Escape Response of the Calanoid Copepod, Calanus finmarchicus

    PubMed Central

    Fields, David M.; Shema, Steven D.; Browman, Howard I.; Browne, Thomas Q.; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit

    2012-01-01

    The timing and magnitude of an escape reaction is often the determining factor governing a copepod’s success at avoiding predation. Copepods initiate rapid and directed escapes in response to fluid signals created by predators; however little is known about how copepods modulate their behavior in response to additional sensory input. This study investigates the effect of light level on the escape behavior of Calanus finmarchicus. A siphon flow was used to generate a consistent fluid signal and the behavioral threshold and magnitude of the escape response was quantified in the dark and in the light. The results show that C. finmarchicus initiated their escape reaction further from the siphon and traveled with greater speed in the light than in the dark. However, no difference was found in the escape distance. These results suggest that copepods use information derived from multiple sensory inputs to modulate the sensitivity and strength of the escape in response to an increase risk of predation. Population and IBM models that predict optimal vertical distributions of copepods in response to visual predators need to consider changes in the copepod's behavioral thresholds when predicting predation risk within the water column. PMID:22761834

  11. Is body size or activity of copepods related to ingestion of parasite larvae?

    PubMed

    Van der Veen, I T

    2003-02-01

    This study shows that ingestion of Schistocephalus solidus coracidia was related to general activity of Macrocyclops albidus copepods at the time of exposure. The lower the activity of the host, the fewer parasites it ingested. In an earlier study it was shown that large M. albidus copepods were less likely to become infected with S. solidus than small copepods, which could potentially be caused by differential ingestion of parasites. However, the current study did not show any evidence for such an effect arising through differential ingestion. Body size was not related to ingestion of parasites, but was positively correlated to activity. So, even though size did not significantly relate to ingestion of parasites, if anything, through their higher activity large copepods rather than small copepods may have ingested more parasites. This study indicates that differences in resistance to this parasite do not come about through differential ingestion of parasites. Also, an earlier study failed to show differential elimination of the parasite from the haemocoel. This leaves avoidance of penetration through the gut wall as the most plausible candidate causing large copepods to be more resistant to this parasite than small copepods. PMID:12636355

  12. The role of taste in food selection by freshwater zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. DeMott

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with flavored and untreated polystyrene spheres revealed major differences in taste discrimination among diverse taxa of freshwater zooplankton. Copepods showed the strongest responses to flavor treatments. Both nauplii and copepodites of calanoid (Diaptomus) and cyclopoid (Cyclops) copepods selected flavored spheres over untreated ones. Moreover, a small cyclopoid, Tropocyclops, actively fed on an alga (Chlamydomonas) but did not ingest

  13. Invertebrate predation on planktonic rotifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig E. Williamson

    1983-01-01

    Representatives from many taxa including the Protozoa, Cnidaria, Rotifera, Cladocera, Cyclopoida, Calanoida, Harpacticoida, Chaoboridae, and Mysidacea are reported to feed on rotifers. There are few good quantitative data on predation on rotifers by any of these taxa with two exceptions, Rotifera and Cyclopoida. The present review focuses on the dynamics of Cyclopoid copepod predation. Intense and selective cyclopoid copepod predation

  14. [Response of copepod community characteristics to environmental factors in the Backshore Wetland of Expo Garden, Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Jing; Wu, Yan-Fang; Jing, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Yin-Jiang

    2012-11-01

    The Backshore Wetland of Expo Garden was the emphasis of the World Expo construction project in Shanghai in 2010, China programming district. We carried out studies on the community structure and spatial-temporal variation of copepod from September 2009 to August 2010. Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) was used for relevant statistical analysis between physicochemical parameters and copepod standing crop. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was applied to further explore the correlation between copepod species and environmental parameters using CANOCO 4.5. A total of 23 copepod species in 11 genera, 6 families were identified. 5 dominant species of copepod were recorded during the survey period. They were Eucyclops serrulatus, Thermocyclops taihokuensis, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops brevifurcatus and Microcyclops varicans. The annual mean density of copepod was (8.6 +/- 16.6) ind x L(-1) and the biomass was (0.083 6 +/- 0.143 1) mg x L(-1). The standing crop of copepod had its first peak in July, the second in October and the bottom in January. The highest trophic level was measured at Site 1, decreasing along the flowing direction of the water current, and the lowest level was found at Site 10. The Margelf index remained low in winter and spring, but was increased in summer and autumn. The community structure of copepod was analyzed in relation to water quality parameters by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Water temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, TN, TP and dissolved oxygen were strongly correlated with the copepod community structure. PMID:23323429

  15. Copepod feeding in a tuna fishery area of the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Champalbert, Gisèle; Pagano, Marc

    2002-02-01

    Biomass, feeding and metabolic rates of planktonic copepods were studied in an oligotrophic area of the tropical Atlantic Ocean during an instability wave period (boreal summer) and a stratified period (boreal winter). In summer, zooplankton biomass was higher than in winter, showing a positive effect of the instability wave. Moreover, feeding equilibrated metabolic expenditures of copepods in most cases during the instability. In contrast, in stratified conditions copepods did not equilibrate their metabolic budget. Our results suggest that the microbial loop was the dominant trophic pathway during both periods but with a quicker cycling during the instability. PMID:11980178

  16. Studies of community structure and seasonal dynamics of planktonic copepods in saline-alkaline ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wen; Dong, Shuanglin

    2005-06-01

    Species abundance and seasonal succession of copepods in saline-alkaline ponds were studied in Zhaodian Fish Farm, Gaoqing County, Shandong Province, from 5 April 1997 to 1 September 1998. The results indicated that in the conditions of salinity ranging from 1.36 to 20 g/L, total alkalinity changing from 2.4 to 7.2 mmol/L and pH 8 9, zooplankton in saline-alkaline ponds was composed of freshwater salt-tolerated species or halophile species, some of which are halobiont species and usually occurs in freshwater. In our study, copepods were predominant in many fish-culture ponds and all control ponds without fishes in spring, late autumn and early winter. Dominant species of copepods were Sinocalanus tenellus, Cyclops vicinus, Thermocyclops taihokuensis. The biomass of copepods in the control ponds without fishes was higher than that of the fish-culture ponds.

  17. The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

  18. Lipid sac area as a proxy for individual lipid content of arctic calanoid copepods

    PubMed Central

    Vogedes, Daniel; Varpe, Øystein; Søreide, Janne E.; Graeve, Martin; Berge, Jørgen; Falk-Petersen, Stig

    2010-01-01

    We present an accurate, fast, simple and non-destructive photographic method to estimate wax ester and lipid content in single individuals of the calanoid copepod genus Calanus and test this method against gas-chromatographic lipid measurements. PMID:20824043

  19. Copepod Aggregations: Influences of Physics and Collective Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flierl, Glenn R.; Woods, Nicholas W.

    2015-02-01

    Dense copepod aggregations form in Massachusetts Bay and provide an important resource for right whales. We re-examine the processes which might account for the high concentrations, investigating both horizontally convergent flow, which can increase the density of depth-keeping organisms, and social behavior. We argue that the two act in concert: social behavior creates small dense patches (on the scale of a few sensing radii); physical stirring brings them together so that they merge into aggregations with larger scales; it also moves them into areas of physical convergence which retain the increasingly large patch. But the turbulence can also break this apart, suggesting that the overall high density in the convergence zone will not be uniform but will instead be composed of multiple transient patches (which are still much larger than the sensing scale).

  20. To avoid or eliminate: cestode infections in copepods.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, I T; Kurtz, J

    2002-04-01

    The outcome of a parasite infection is the result of the interaction between the host and the parasite. In the system we studied, there are 3 critical stages for the outcome of infection of the (intermediate) host, the copepod Macrocyclops albidus, with the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. During the establishment phase of the parasite, the host may firstly avoid ingesting the parasite and, secondly, may prevent the parasite from entering the body cavity and, thirdly, during the growth phase of the parasite, the host's immune system may eliminate the parasite from the body cavity. We were able to study the growth phase separately from the establishment phase. The establishment phase was influenced by characteristics of the host as well as characteristics of the parasites. Small copepods and males performed poorly; they were more often infected and had a lower survival. Parasites from different sib-groups differed in infectivity. During the growth phase some disappearance of parasites was observed. However, this could not be related to any of the studied characteristics of the host, and the sib-groups of parasites did not seem to differ in their likelihood to disappear. Instead, we suggest that disappearance of parasites, once they have entered the body cavity, may be due to intrinsic mortality of the parasites, independent of the host or the sib-group that the parasites belong to. This indicates that the crucial interactions between host and parasite determining the outcome of infection takes place in the short time-period between ingestion and penetration of the gut-wall. PMID:12003070

  1. Effects of Harpacticus sp. (Harpacticoida, copepod) grazing on dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethylsulfide concentrations in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Juan; Tian, Ji-Yuan; Yang, Gui-Peng

    2015-05-01

    We conducted 9 d and 24 h ingestion experiments to investigate the effects of copepod grazing on the concentrations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) in seawater. Data from the 9 d trial showed that copepod Harpacticus sp. (Harpacticoida, copepod) grazing increased DMS (0-20%) and dissolved DMSP (DMSPd) (0-128%) apparently, accompanied by a significant reduction of particulate DMSP (DMSPp) in algal culture (0-30%). Ingestion rates (IRs) and pellet production rates (PPRs) of Harpacticus sp. varied with diet species (Platymonas subcordiformis (PS), Nitzschia closterium (NC), Skeletonema costatum (SC), Isochrysis galbana (IG), Prymnesium parvum (PP) or Heterosigma akashiwo (HA)), algal concentration, salinity and temperature. Harpacticus sp. fed on PP showed the lowest IRs (female/male, 0.72/0.53 × 104cells copepod- 1 h- 1) and PPRs (female/male, 0.75/0.5 pellets copepod- 1 h- 1), accompanied with the largest amounts of DMS and DMSPd,p (sum of DMSPd and DMSPp). IRs, PPRs, DMS and DMSPf (DMSP in fecal pellet) increased with the increase of food concentration and peaked at 25 × 104 cells mL- 1I. galbana. High salinity decreased IRs, PPRs, DMS and DMSPf and increased DMSPz (DMSP in copepod body) and DMSPd,p. IRs, PPRs, DMS and DMSPf increased with the increase of temperature from 15 to 25 °C, whereas DMSPz and DMSPd,p contents decreased. Pearson correlation analysis results showed that DMS concentrations presented positive relationships with IRs in algal concentration, salinity and temperature experiments (r = 0.746; P < 0.01). The contribution of DMSPz, DMSPf, DMS and DMSPd,p concentration to the total amounts (DMSPz + DMSPf + DMS + DMSPd,p) was 4-37%, 3-36%, 8-42% and 9-89%, respectively, indicating that DMSP was transferred to copepod tissue and fecal pellet via grazing. Our results are helpful for further understanding of the role of copepod grazing on DMS biogeochemical cycle.

  2. Mandibular gnathobases of marine planktonic copepods - feeding tools with complex micro- and nanoscale composite architectures.

    PubMed

    Michels, Jan; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are dominant members of the marine zooplankton. Their diets often comprise large proportions of diatom taxa whose silicified frustules are mechanically stable and offer protection against grazers. Despite of this protection, many copepod species are able to efficiently break even the most stable frustule types. This ability requires specific feeding tools with mechanically adapted architectures, compositions and properties. When ingesting food, the copepods use the gnathobases of their mandibles to grab and, if necessary, crush and mince the food items. The morphology of these gnathobases is related to the diets of the copepods. Gnathobases of copepod species that mainly feed on phytoplankton feature compact and stable tooth-like structures, so-called teeth. In several copepod species these gnathobase teeth have been found to contain silica. Recent studies revealed that the siliceous teeth are complex microscale composites with silica-containing cap-like structures located on chitinous exoskeleton sockets that are connected with rubber-like bearings formed by structures with high proportions of the soft and elastic protein resilin. In addition, the silica-containing cap-like structures exhibit a nanoscale composite architecture. They contain some amorphous silica and large proportions of the crystalline silica type ?-cristobalite and are pervaded by a fine chitinous fibre network that very likely serves as a scaffold during the silicification process. All these intricate composite structures are assumed to be the result of a coevolution between the copepod gnathobases and diatom frustules in an evolutionary arms race. The composites very likely increase both the performance of the siliceous teeth and their resistance to mechanical damage, and it is conceivable that their development has favoured the copepods' dominance of the marine zooplankton observed today. PMID:25821707

  3. Trophic upgrading of food quality by protozoans enhancing copepod growth: role of essential lipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. M. Klein Breteler; N. Schogt; M. Baas; S. Schouten; G. W. Kraay

    1999-01-01

    Protozoa are known for their intermediary trophic role in transferring organic matter from small size planktonic particles\\u000a to mesozooplankton. This study concentrates on the possible addition of biochemical value during this transfer, by new production\\u000a of compounds that are essential in copepod food. In laboratory experiments, copepods could not be raised on a diet of the\\u000a chlorophycean Dunaliella sp., though

  4. Comparison of different DNA-extraction techniques to investigate the bacterial community of marine copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Gerdts; Maarten Boersma; Karen H. Wiltshire; Antje Wichels

    2010-01-01

    Marine zooplanktic organisms, such as copepods, are usually associated with large numbers of bacteria. Some of these bacteria\\u000a live attached to copepods’ exoskeleton, while others prevail in their intestine and faecal pellets. Until now, general conclusions\\u000a concerning the identity of these bacteria are problematic since the majority of previous studies focused on cultivable bacteria\\u000a only. Hence, to date little is

  5. Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria Support Copepod Reproduction and Development in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H.; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999–2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth environment for the copepod nauplii. PMID:25409500

  6. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth environment for the copepod nauplii. PMID:25409500

  7. Diversity and Distributional Patterns of Neotropical Freshwater Copepods (Calanoida: Diaptomidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Morales, E.; Reid, J. W.; Elías-Gutiérrez, M.

    2005-02-01

    The distributional patterns and diversity of the diaptomid calanoid copepods were analysed to assess the faunistic affinity of North and South America with respect to Mexico and Central America. In the Neotropical region, the most speciose genera of Diaptomidae are Leptodiaptomus and Mastigodiaptomus. The former genus is a Nearctic form, and Mastigodiaptomus is Neotropical. Based on the current distribution of their diversity, it is probable that these genera radiated into Mexico and Central America from North America and the insular Caribbean, respectively. Arctodiaptomus dorsalis is a primarily Palaearctic taxon, it is widely distributed between North and Central America. This species probably radiated in the Americas as a Tethyan derivate. Prionodiaptomus is the only member of the highly diverse South American diaptomid fauna that has expanded beyond the subcontinent. Despite the high diversity present in South America, its influence in Mexico and Central America appears to be weak; this is probably a consequence of the geologically recent union of the two main subcontinental landmasses. Mexico shares 33% of its species with NA, and no species are shared between NA and SA. For the Diaptomidae, the Nearctic influence is strongest in Mexico.

  8. The impact of polystyrene microplastics on feeding, function and fecundity in the marine copepod Calanus helgolandicus.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Fileman, Elaine; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-01-20

    Microscopic plastic debris, termed “microplastics”, are of increasing environmental concern. Recent studies have demonstrated that a range of zooplankton, including copepods, can ingest microplastics. Copepods are a globally abundant class of zooplankton that form a key trophic link between primary producers and higher trophic marine organisms. Here we demonstrate that ingestion of microplastics can significantly alter the feeding capacity of the pelagic copepod Calanus helgolandicus. Exposed to 20 ?m polystyrene beads (75 microplastics mL(–1)) and cultured algae ([250 ?g C L(–1)) for 24 h, C. helgolandicus ingested 11% fewer algal cells (P = 0.33) and 40% less carbon biomass (P < 0.01). There was a net downward shift in the mean size of algal prey consumed (P < 0.001), with a 3.6 fold increase in ingestion rate for the smallest size class of algal prey (11.6–12.6 ?m), suggestive of postcapture or postingestion rejection. Prolonged exposure to polystyrene microplastics significantly decreased reproductive output, but there were no significant differences in egg production rates, respiration or survival. We constructed a conceptual energetic (carbon) budget showing that microplastic-exposed copepods suffer energetic depletion over time. We conclude that microplastics impede feeding in copepods, which over time could lead to sustained reductions in ingested carbon biomass. PMID:25563688

  9. Inhibition of copepod feeding by exudates and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) derived from a Phaeocystis globosa dominated phytoplankton community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dutz; W. C. M. Klein Breteler; G. Kramer

    2005-01-01

    We investigated if (1) dissolved compounds excreted by Phaeocystis globosa and (2) transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) formed from carbohydrates excreted into the water affect the feeding of nauplii and females of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis during a P. globosa bloom. Copepod grazing on the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii in the presence of these possible grazing deterrents was measured during three

  10. Extraordinary host switching in siphonostomatoid copepods and the demise of the Monstrilloida: Integrating molecular data, ontogeny and antennulary morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rony Huys; Julia Llewellyn-Hughes; Sophie Conroy-Dalton; Peter D. Olson; Jennifer N. Spinks; David A. Johnston

    2007-01-01

    Copepods exhibit an astounding variety of lifestyles, host associations and morphology, to the extent that their crustacean affinities may be obscured. Relationships among the ten copepod orders based on morphological characters remain equivocal. Here we test the ordinal status of the enigmatic Monstrilloida using SSU rDNA gene sequences, comparative morphological data (antennulary sensory interface) and ontogenetic data (caudal ramus setation

  11. Intrusions of the Kuroshio Current in the northern South China Sea affect copepod assemblages of the Luzon Strait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang-Shiou Hwang; Hans-Uwe Dahms; Li-Chun Tseng; Qing-Chao Chen

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the influence of the Kuroshio Current on copepod assemblages in the northern South China Sea. The assumption was tested whether predominant current regimes bring marine zooplankton and Copepoda from subtropical and tropical waters to the south of Taiwan. A total of 101 copepod species were identified from 26 families and 48 genera that include Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and

  12. Growth and survival of juvenile pipefish ( Stigmatopora argus) fed live copepods with high and low HUFA content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F Payne; R. J Rippingale; R. B Longmore

    1998-01-01

    Syngnathids are under increasing pressure through exploitation and habitat degradation. Captive rearing of young marine fish typically requires the supply of essential HUFAs. However, the HUFA requirements of young syngnathids is unknown. First feeding pipefish (Stigmatopora argus) were fed high and low HUFA copepod diets for 21 days. Copepods were fed different microalgal diets to give them either high (Isochrysis

  13. Experimental studies on the development of Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in copepod and fish paratenic hosts.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek

    2009-09-01

    The larval development of the nematode Contracaecum rudolphii (Rudolphi, 1819), a common parasite of the proventriculus of cormorants, was experimentally studied. Within the eggs cultivated in freshwater under laboratory temperatures of 20-22 degrees C, the developing larva undergoes two moults on days 4-5, attaining the third larval stage. Most of the ensheathed third-stage larvae, 291-457 microm long, hatch spontaneously from egg shells on days 5-6. Experiments have indicated that hatched ensheated third-stage larvae and those still inside egg capsules are already infective to copepods and fishes, which both can be considered paratenic (meta-paratenic) hosts. Five copepod species, Acanthocyclops vernalis, Cyclops strenuus, Ectocyclops phaleratus, Eucyclops serrulatus and Megacyclops viridis, the isopod Asellus aquaticus and small carps Cyprinus carpio were infected by feeding them these larvae. In addition, 9 fish species, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Anguilla anguilla, Barbatula barbatula, Cyprinus carpio, Gobio gobio, Perca fluviatilis, Phoxinus phoxinus, Poecilia reticulata and Tinca tinca, were successfully infected by feeding them copepods previously infected with C. rudolphii third-stage larvae. In fishes, larvae from copepods penetrate through the intestinal wall to the body cavity, where, in a few weeks, they become encapsulated; the larvae substantially grow in fish, attaining the body length up to 4.87 mm. In carp fry, the nematode third-stage larvae survived for about 15 months (up to 18 months in fish infected directly, i.e., without copepods). One small cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) was successfully infected by feeding it with copepods harbouring C. rudolphii third-stage larvae. PMID:19827362

  14. ?-Naphthoflavone induces oxidative stress in the intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, Bo-Mi; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-03-01

    ?-Naphtoflavone (?-NF) is a flavonoid and enhances oxidative stress in vertebrates with little information from aquatic invertebrates as yet. In this study, we investigated the effects of ?-NF on the antioxidant defense systems of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. To measure the ?-NF-triggered changes in oxidative stress markers, such as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) concentration, residual glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, T. japonicus were exposed to ?-NF (0.5 and 1 mg/L) for 72 h. Significant (P?

  15. Accumulation of Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Gonads of the Copepod Acartia tonsa Revealed by Tailored Fluorescent Probes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Stefanie; Nejstgaard, Jens C.; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the ?,?,?,?-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies. PMID:25383890

  16. IMPACT OF UV-B RADIATION ON THE FECUNDITY OF THE COPEPOD 'ACARTIA CLAUSII'

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has recently been demonstrated that acute midultraviolet irradiation (UV-B, 290 to 320 nm) of the marine copepod Acartia clausii results in reduced survival and fecundity. In the present study, immature late copepodites were separated by sex and exposed to three UV-B exposure ...

  17. Propulsion efficiency and cost of transport for copepods: a hydromechanical model of crustacean swimming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Morris; G. Gust; J. J. Torres

    1985-01-01

    In the absence of direct measurement, costs of locomotion to small swimming Crustacea (Pleuromamma xiphias (Calanoida) was analyzed by extrapolating model parameters from data available in the literature. The model predictions agree well with empirical observations reported for larger crustaceans, in that swimming for copepods is relatively costly. The ratio of active to standard metabolism for P. xiphias was >3.

  18. Copepods of the family Ergasilidae (Poecilostomatoida) parasitic on fishes from Khor al-Zubair Lagoon, Iraq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Auxiliadora Pinto da Motta Amado; Carlos Eduardo Falavigna da Rocha; Wojciech Piasecki; Salem A. M. Al-Daraji; Furhan T. Mhaisen

    2001-01-01

    Four species of ergasilid copepods were collected from gill filaments of three species of fishes from Khor al-Zubair Lagoon, Iraq. The mugilid Liza subviridis hosted the new species Ergasilus iraquensis and Ergasilus pararostralis. Ergasilus synanceienis sp. n. was found on the synanceiid Leptosynanceia melanostigma(Day). The fourth species, Dermoergasilus varicoleus Ho, Jayarajan & Radhakrishnan, 1992 was found parasitizing the mugilid Liza

  19. Projected marine climate change: effects on copepod oxidative status and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Vehmaa, Anu; Hogfors, Hedvig; Gorokhova, Elena; Brutemark, Andreas; Holmborn, Towe; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2013-11-01

    Zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish. Therefore, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria on the calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. Acidification together with higher temperature reduced copepod antioxidant capacity. Higher temperature also decreased egg viability, nauplii development, and oxidative status. Exposure to cyanobacteria and its toxin had a negative effect on egg production but, a positive effect on oxidative status and egg viability, giving no net effects on viable egg production. Additionally, nauplii development was enhanced by the presence of cyanobacteria, which partially alleviated the otherwise negative effects of increased temperature and decreased pH on the copepod recruitment. The interactive effects of temperature, acidification, and cyanobacteria on copepods highlight the importance of testing combined effects of climate-related factors when predicting biological responses. PMID:24340194

  20. Projected marine climate change: effects on copepod oxidative status and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Vehmaa, Anu; Hogfors, Hedvig; Gorokhova, Elena; Brutemark, Andreas; Holmborn, Towe; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish. Therefore, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria on the calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. Acidification together with higher temperature reduced copepod antioxidant capacity. Higher temperature also decreased egg viability, nauplii development, and oxidative status. Exposure to cyanobacteria and its toxin had a negative effect on egg production but, a positive effect on oxidative status and egg viability, giving no net effects on viable egg production. Additionally, nauplii development was enhanced by the presence of cyanobacteria, which partially alleviated the otherwise negative effects of increased temperature and decreased pH on the copepod recruitment. The interactive effects of temperature, acidification, and cyanobacteria on copepods highlight the importance of testing combined effects of climate-related factors when predicting biological responses. PMID:24340194

  1. Proline biosynthesis genes and their regulation under salinity stress in the euryhaline copepod Tigriopus californicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Willett; Ronald S. Burton

    2002-01-01

    Diverse organisms regulate concentrations of intracellular organic osmolytes in response to changes in environmental salinity or desiccation. In marine crustaceans, accumulation of high concentrations of proline is a dominant component of response to hyperosmotic stress. In the euryhaline copepod Tigriopuscalifornicus, synthesis of proline from its metabolic precursor glutamate is tightly regulated by changes in environmental salinity. Here, for the first

  2. Effects of Developmental Acclimation on Adult Salinity Tolerance in the Freshwater-Invading Copepod Eurytemora affinis

    E-print Network

    Lee, Carol Eunmi

    296 Effects of Developmental Acclimation on Adult Salinity Tolerance in the Freshwater effects of short-term and developmental acclimation on adult salinity tolerance in the copepod Eurytemora survival in response to acute versus gradual salinity change to low salinity (fresh water). Effects

  3. TWO SHORT-TERM TOXICITY TESTS FOR THE CALANOID COPEPOD 'EURYTEMORA HERDMANI' USING A COMPLEX EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test designs and methodologies for two short-term static renewal tests, a 96-hr lethality test and a 5-day reproductive test, are described and statistically evaluated. The tests were developed specifically for use in the assessment of the toxicity of mixed effluents to copepods....

  4. Primary Research Paper Species richness and distribution of copepods and cladocerans and their

    E-print Network

    Green, Andy J.

    of hydrological connections between ponds were better predictors for copepod richness than pH, chlorophyll a, Avda. Maria Luisa s/n, E-41013, Sevilla, Spain 2 Institute for Water Research, University of Granada, C invertebrate communities, including temperature and oxygen (Armengol et al., 1998), pH (Schartau et al., 2001

  5. The prevalence and implications of copepod behavioral responses to oceanographic gradients and biological patchiness

    E-print Network

    in one, but not both, of the treatments defined by gradients of velocity or density. Most species not definitively demonstrate a hierarchical use of different cues as previously observed for Temora longicornis could lead to copepod aggregations observed in situ. The present study demonstrates that behavioral

  6. Reading the copepod personal ads: increasing encounter probability with hydromechanical signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca A. van Duren; Eize J. Stamhuis; John J. Videler

    1998-01-01

    Females of the calanoid copepodTemora longicornis react to chemical exudates of male conspeci¢cs with little hops, quite distinct from their normal smooth uniform swimming motion. These hops possibly serve to create a hydrodynamical signal in the surrounding water, to increase encounter probability with potential mates. Laser sheet particle image velocimetry was used to investigate the £ow ¢elds associated with these

  7. Sources of variability in attack rates of Euchaeta elongata Esterly, a carnivorous marine copepod

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. YEN

    1982-01-01

    An accurate and precise measure of ingestion is important for understanding trophic interactions in the plankton. This paper describes effects on the ingestion rate of the carnivorous marine copepod Euchaeta elongata Esterly of several biotic and abiotic factors operating in the pelagic environment. Sources of variability in the attack rate included, in order of decreasing influence: (1) light, (2) prey

  8. The Hydrodynamics of Two Species of Copepod: Temperate and Subtropical Euchaeta

    E-print Network

    Copepod: Euchaeta elongata The spatial extent of the hydrodynamic cue is of a similar size between the temperate and subtropical species despite differences in body lengths Euchaeta elongata Euchaeta rimana Conspicuousness to Predators Euchaeta elongata Euchaeta rimana Conspicuousness to Prey t = 0.0 s t = 0.04 s t = 0

  9. Copepod community succession during warm season in Lagoon Notoro-ko, northeastern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshizumi; Ichikawa, Hideaki; Kitamura, Mitsuaki; Nishino, Yasuto; Taniguchi, Akira

    2015-06-01

    Lagoon Notoro-ko, located on the northeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, and connected to the Okhotsk Sea by a human-made channel, is strongly influenced by local hydrography, as water masses in the lagoon are seasonally influenced by the Soya Warm Current and the East Sakhalin Current. We here report on the succession of copepod communities during the warm season in relation to water mass exchange. Copepods were categorized into four seasonal communities (spring/early-summer, mid-summer, late-summer/fall, and early-winter) via a cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarities. Spring/early-summer and early-winter communities were characterized by the temperate-boreal calanoid Pseudocalanus newmani, comprising 34.9%-77.6% of the total abundance of copepods during times of low temperature/salinity, as influenced by the prevailing East Sakhalin Current. Late-summer/fall communities were characterized by the neritic warm-water calanoid Paracalanus parvus s.l., comprising 63.9%-96.3% of the total abundance, as influenced by the Soya Warm Current. Mid-summer communities comprised approximately equal abundances of P. parvus, Eurytemora herdmani, Scolecithricella minor, and Centropages abdominalis (12.8%-28.2%); this community is transitional between those of the spring/early-summer and late-summer/fall. Copepod community succession in Lagoon Notoro-ko can be largely explained by seasonal changes in water masses.

  10. Life in the extreme environment at a hydrothermal vent: haemoglobin in a deep-sea copepod.

    PubMed Central

    Sell, A F

    2000-01-01

    This is the first study, to my knowledge, quantifying the respiratory pigment haemoglobin discovered in a deep-sea copepod. Haemoglobin in copepods has previously been documented in only one other species from the deep water of an Italian lake. Specimens of the siphonostomatoid Scotoecetes introrsus Humes were collected during submersible dives at 2500 m depth near a hydrothermal vent at the East Pacific Rise (9 degrees N). The haemoglobin content in the copepods' haemolymph was 4.3 +/- 0.6 micrograms per individual female (n = 6) and 1.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms per individual male (n = 6). Weight-specific concentrations of haemoglobin were identical for females and males (0.25 +/- 0.04 and 0.26 +/- 0.02 microgram per microgram dry weight, respectively). These haemoglobin concentrations are higher than those found in other small crustaceans. Activity of the electron transport system indicated that the respiration rates in S. introrsus (13.7 +/- 7.7 microliters O2 per milligram dry weight per hour) were similar to those in the shallow-water copepod Acartia tonsa (9.1 +/- 1.3 microliters O2 per milligram dry weight per hour). It was concluded that the possession of highly concentrated haemoglobin allows S. introrsus to colonize a geologically young, thermally active site such as the vicinity of a hydrothermal vent, despite the prevailing oxygen depletion. PMID:11413650

  11. Evaluation of dietary microalgae for culture of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cortney L. Ohs; Kelly L. Chang; Scott W. Grabe; Matthew A. DiMaggio; Erik Stenn

    2010-01-01

    A series of five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of various dietary microalgae on survival, reproduction, sex ratio, fecundity, time to first maturation, brood interval, brood size, total nauplii production, and population development of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Three experiments utilized 10 reproductive pairs of adults cultured in 1L beakers. In the first experiment, the microalga Isochrysis

  12. Altered host behaviour: manipulation or energy depletion in tapeworm-infected copepods?

    PubMed

    Franz, K; Kurtz, J

    2002-08-01

    Parasites are able to influence intermediate hosts in a way that optimizes their growth and transmission to the next host. Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda) suffer from a reduced escaping ability and an increased level of general activity, when infected with Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda). This facilitates predation by the subsequent host, the three-spined stickleback. However, instead of adaptive host manipulation by the tapeworm, the altered copepod behaviour might be explained more simply as a constraint of the infection. Energy depletion could lead to decreased muscle performance and increased food searching activity. Furthermore, resource allocation among host tissues might change after infection. We therefore analysed the amount of storage lipids and muscle tissue before and after experimental infection. To determine the amount of muscles, we developed a new polarization-microscopic technique. Irrespective of infection, lipids and muscles were predictors of copepod survival. However, we found no effect of the parasite infection on muscles or lipids, and no indication of a change in resource allocation between these tissues. Our study suggests that behavioural changes in infected copepods are mediated by a mechanism different from energy depletion or a re-allocation of resources between muscles and lipids. We rather propose that the tapeworms directly manipulate copepod behaviour. PMID:12211611

  13. ERADICATION OF AEDES AEGYPTIFROM A VILLAGE IN VIETNAM, USING COPEPODS AND COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VU SINH NAM; NGUYEN THI YEN; BRIAN H. KAY; GERALD G. MARTEN; JANET W. REID

    In northern Vietnam, copepods of the genus Mesocyclops were used for biological control of Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue viruses, by inoculation into wells, large cement tanks, ceramic jars, and other domestic containers that served as Ae. aegypti breeding sites. The use of Mesocyclops was complemented by com- munity participation with respect to recycling to eliminate unused and

  14. PLANKTONIC DEEP-WATER COPEPODS OF THE FAMILY MORMONILLIDAE GIESBRECHT, 1893 FROM THE EAST PACIFIC RISE

    E-print Network

    Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.

    PLANKTONIC DEEP-WATER COPEPODS OF THE FAMILY MORMONILLIDAE GIESBRECHT, 1893 FROM THE EAST PACIFIC., common in plankton of the northeastern Atlantic, are studied anew. Females of N. polaris (G.O. Sars, 1900) comb. nov., from plankton near the North Pole (Arctic Ocean, depths 300-1000 m) are re

  15. Aspects of the study of the life cycles of Antarctic copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigrid B. Schnack-Schiel

    2001-01-01

    Different approaches to the study of life cycle strategies of Antarctic copepods are described in an attempt to shed new light on our present knowledge. To date, most studies were carried out on abundance, horizontal and vertical distribution and stage composition during different seasons and in various regions. Hence, the seasonal pictures had to be compiled from different years and

  16. Changes in the distribution of copepods in the Gironde estuary: A warming and marinisation consequence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaalali, Aurélie; Chevillot, Xavier; Beaugrand, Grégory; David, Valérie; Luczak, Christophe; Boët, Philippe; Sottolichio, Aldo; Sautour, Benoît

    2013-12-01

    The Gironde is the largest estuary of South-West Europe and is one of the best monitored estuarine systems in the world. This macrotidal estuary is characterized by a low biodiversity in both oligo- and mesohaline zones. Its zooplankton community is constituted by only five major species, three calanoid copepods (including one invasive species) and two mysids. Retrospective analyses have already documented a warming associated to a phenomenon of marinisation. Here, we investigate the influence of both marinisation and warming on the spatial distribution and the abundance of copepods (i.e. Eurytemora affinis, Acartia bifilosa and neritic species) in the Gironde estuary. We modelled the environmental envelope of the copepods as a function of salinity and temperature to demonstrate that the alteration of their longitudinal distribution in the estuary between 1975 and 2003 was the result of both changing temperature and salinity. Although the upstream movement of neritic species was mostly related to salinity, we show that the augmentation of both temperature and salinity was at the origin of the upstream progression of both A. bifilosa and E. affinis. These results suggest that the distribution of copepods can be affected by both anthropogenic forcing and climatic change, which modulate the physic-chemistry of the Gironde estuary.

  17. Importance of wax esters and other lipids in the marine food chain: Phytoplankton and copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Lee; J. C. Nevenzel; G.-A. Paffenhöfer

    1971-01-01

    Wax esters, which function as reserve fuels, account for 25 to 40% of the lipid of the pelagic copepod Calanus helgolandicus (Copepoda, Calanoida). In laboratory experiments with these crustaceans, diatoms (Lauderia borealis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, and Skeletonema costatum) and dinoflagellates (Gymnodinium splendens), which contained no wax esters, were used as food. Changes in the food concentration affected both the amount of

  18. Factors controlling the summer development of copepod populations in the southern bight of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daan, Rogier

    In two consecutive years an intensive sampling programmed was implemented at a fixed station in Dutch coastal waters to obtain a detailed record of the summer development of copepod populations in relation to phytoplankton and macroplankton abundance. The central question was whether densities of copepods are controlled by predation, in particular by invertebrate pelagic carnivores, or by food limitation. Methods applied to estimate daily predation by observed stocks of carnivores included analysis of gut contents and digestion rate, extrapolation of experimental feeding rates and of literature data on daily rations and maintenance needs. Chlorophyll- a and cell concentrations served as a rough measure for algal food supply. Since a decline in copepod densities manifested itself most clearly in decreasing naupliar numbers in both years, populations were assumed to be regulated mainly by recruitment or survival of these early life stages. Naupliar declines coincided with maximum densities of the hydromedusa Phialidium hemisphaericum, which dominated the macroplankton both in abundance and in biomass and reached a maximum density of 467 specimens·m -3 or 7 mg C·m -3. Copepod eggs appeared by far the most frequent prey item in their guts. However, these eggs are digested very slowly, if at all, and may often be ejected without any visible damage. The effect of egg predation on naupliar recruitment seems therefore relatively unimportant. Predation on swimming copepod stages was generally low. There was no evidence of selective feeding on nauplii. The maximum values of calculated predation pressure exerted by Phialidium populations matched daily copepod production only by way of exception. Impact of other invertebrate carnivores was negligible. As predation did not play a significant role, food availability seems the key factor underlying copepod population dynamics. The consequences of food limitation (reduced egg production, production of diapause eggs and enhanced cannibalism) are discussed. The observed coincidence of maximum predator abundance and minimum chlorophyll- a and diatom concentrations does not support the hypothesis that carnivores are able to indirectly benefit phytoplankton growth by reducing grazing pressure of herbivores.

  19. Oxidative damage effects in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus Mori experimentally exposed to nickel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minghua; Wang, Guizhong

    2010-02-01

    Tigriopus japonicus Mori has been recognized as a good model for toxicological testing of marine pollutants. Recently, a large number of genes have been identified from this copepod, and their mRNA expression has been studied independently against exposure to marine pollutants; however, biochemical-response information is relatively scarce. The response of T. japonicus to nickel (Ni) additions was examined under laboratory-controlled conditions in 12 days exposure. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AchE), reduced glutathione (GSH), the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) and metallothionein (MT) were analyzed for Ni treatments (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.75 and 3.0 mg/L) after 1, 4, 7 and 12 days. The thiobarbituric reactive species assay was used to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in copepods after exposure. The results showed that Ni remarkably affected the biochemical parameters (SOD, GPx, GST, GSH, and GSH/GSSG) after certain exposure durations. However, the copepod's LPO level was significantly decreased under metal treatments after exposure, hinting that the factors involved in LPO might not significantly depend on the operations and functions in the antioxidant system. Ni exhibited the neurotoxicity to copepods, because its use obviously elevated AchE activity. During exposure, Ni initially displayed an inhibition effect but induced MT synthesis in T. japonicus by day 12, probably being responsible for metal detoxification. Thus, Ni had intervened in the detoxification process and antioxidant system of this copepod, and it could be used as a suitable bioindicator of Ni exposure via measuring SOD, GPx, GST, and MT as biomarkers. PMID:19821026

  20. Hydrostatic Pressure and Temperature Effects on the Membranes of a Seasonally Migrating Marine Copepod

    PubMed Central

    Pond, David W.; Tarling, Geraint A.; Mayor, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine planktonic copepods of the order Calanoida are central to the ecology and productivity of high latitude ecosystems, representing the interface between primary producers and fish. These animals typically undertake a seasonal vertical migration into the deep sea, where they remain dormant for periods of between three and nine months. Descending copepods are subject to low temperatures and increased hydrostatic pressures. Nothing is known about how these organisms adapt their membranes to these environmental stressors. We collected copepods (Calanoides acutus) from the Southern Ocean at depth horizons ranging from surface waters down to 1000 m. Temperature and/or pressure both had significant, additive effects on the overall composition of the membrane phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in C. acutus. The most prominent constituent of the PLFAs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexanoic acid [DHA – 22:6(n-3)], was affected by a significant interaction between temperature and pressure. This moiety increased with pressure, with the rate of increase being greater at colder temperatures. We suggest that DHA is key to the physiological adaptations of vertically migrating zooplankton, most likely because the biophysical properties of this compound are suited to maintaining membrane order in the cold, high pressure conditions that persist in the deep sea. As copepods cannot synthesise DHA and do not feed during dormancy, sufficient DHA must be accumulated through ingestion before migration is initiated. Climate-driven changes in the timing and abundance of the flagellated microplankton that supply DHA to copepods have major implications for the capacity of these animals to undertake their seasonal life cycle successfully. PMID:25338196

  1. Culture of harpacticoid copepods: potential as live feed for rearing marine fish.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    Copepods are useful as food for marine fish cultivation, in terms of both nutrition and ease of culture. Harpacticoid copepods are favoured over calanoids, since harpacticoids, as a result of their benthic habitat, can be reared at much higher densities. However, their benthic nature also makes mass culture difficult, since large surface areas must be provided. Within Harpacticoida, Tisbe spp. seem most useful, having high overall fecundity, and positive phototaxis of the nauplii. Harpacticoids can synthesise de novo several nutritionally important essential fatty acids (EFA), making them desirable as food for rearing marine fish. However, a diet rich in EFAs (e.g. animal derived feed) improves the productivity of copepod cultures, suggesting that the synthesis of EFA is rate-limiting for their reproduction. The nature of the substratum is also important in maintaining a good population, since harpacticoid biomass is more dependent on surface area than volume of a culture. Heterogeneous substrates can support large cultures because of their high surface area, but efficient cleaning methods are necessary. Frequent harvesting of populations will maintain good water quality and an overall low density of sexually mature copepods, raising naupliar productivity overall. Over-harvesting will naturally deplete the population. Harpacticoids are generally tolerant of environmental fluctuations but they do have temperature and salinity optima, and these will be species- and strain-dependent. Harpacticoid copepods are better food for fish larvae than Artemia, because of their ability to synthesise EFAs. The nauplii of harpacticoids are energetically poor but appear to have an appetite-stimulatory effect. Uneaten nauplii grow within the fish rearing tanks and graze on the walls, building up their own nutritional value and maintaining tank hygiene. PMID:12846044

  2. Copepods associated with polychaete worms in European seas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Sikorski, Andrey; O'Reilly, Myles; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2013-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 18 species of copepods that live in symbiotic association with polychaete worms in European Seas. Three new genera and six new species of the family Clausiidae Giesbrecht, 1895 are described: Boreoclausia rectan. gen. et n. sp. is described from Galathowenia fragilis (Nilson & Holthe, 1985), Boreoclausia holmesi n. gen. et n. sp.is described from Myriochele danielsseni Hansen, 1879, Sheaderia bifida n. gen. et n. sp. from Euclymene oerstedii (Claparède, 1863), Vivgottoia garwoodi n. gen. et n. sp., was found inside the tail fragment of a terebellid host (probably Phisidia aurea Southward, 1956), Rhodinicola tenuis n. sp. from an unknown host, and R. similis n. sp., from Rhodine gracilor (Tauber, 1879). In addition, four other clausiid species, Clausia lubbockii Claparède, 1863, Mesnilia cluthae (T. and A.Scott, 1896), Rhodinicola gibbosus Bresciani, 1964 and R. rugosum (Giesbrecht, 1895), are redescribed in detail on the basis of newly collected material. The previously-unknown hosts of C. lubbockii were found to be species of the spionid polychaete genus Dipolydora Verrill, 1881. Clausia uniseta Bocquet & Stock, 1960 were recognized as a junior subjective synonym of C. lubbockii, and Mesnilia martinensis Canu, 1898 was recognized as a junior subjective synonym of M. cluthae. The sole species of the monotypic family Anomoclausiidae Gotto, 1964, Anomoclausia indrehusae Gotto, 1964, is redescribed based on new material. The host of A. indrehusae, reported here for the first time, is the spionid Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata (Okuda, 1937). Four new species of the family Nereicolidae Claus, 1875 are described, three belonging to the genus Anomopsyllus Sars, 1921: Anomopsyllus bifurcus n. sp. from Notomastus latericeus M. Sars, 1851, A. geminus n. sp. from Ampharete lindstroemi Malmgren, 1867, and A. hamiltonae n. sp., from Mugga wahrbergi Eliasson, 1955. The fourth new species is Vectoriella gabesensis n. sp., both sexes of which are described from the paraonid Aricidea catherinae Laubier, 1967 collected in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Tunisia. Another nereicolid, Sigecheres brittae Bresciani, 1964 is redescribed based on new material collected from the type host Sige fusigera Malmgren, 1865. It is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of Nereicola concinna T. Scott, 1902 and the valid name of this taxon becomes Sigecheres concinna (T. Scott, 1902) new combination. A new species of the family Spiophanicolidae Ho, 1984, Spiophanicola atlanticus n. sp., is described based on European material. Previously European material of Spiophanicola Ho, 1984 has been reported as S. spinulosus Ho, 1984, but based on consistent differences between the Californian S. spinulosus and material from Norway and the British Isles, there is sufficient justification to establish a new species for the European material. Finally one new genus and species is described which cannot be placed, with confidence, in any existing family. This new parasite, Notomasticola frondosus n. gen. et n. sp., is based on material from two hosts, a spionid (Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata) and a capitellid (Notomastus latericeus). It is highly derived and may represent a terminal branch within an existing family. The cluster of families using polychaetes as hosts is in need of revision based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. PMID:25340192

  3. Copepod omnivory in the North Water Polynya (Baffin Bay) during autumn: spatial patterns in lipid composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Catherine J.; Deibel, Don; Parrish, Christopher C.

    2004-11-01

    To deduce spatial patterns in copepod lipid composition and feeding strategy (i.e., degree of omnivory) in the North Water Polynya (Baffin Bay), three dominant species were sampled extensively over a broad geographical area (?75-78°N; 77-69°W). Calanus hyperboreus CV, C. glacialis CV and Metridia longa females were collected in shallow and deep strata at 16 stations during autumn 1999 (August-October). Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that all species fed omnivorously in the southeastern (SE) region of the polynya. Here, copepods generally had elevated levels of carnivorous (e.g., 18 : 1 (n - 9)), dinoflagellate (e.g., 18 : 4 (n - 3) ; 22 : 6 (n - 3)) and bacterial fatty acid markers (e.g., odd-numbered and/or branched; 18:1(n - 7)). Copepods in the SE contained low proportions of diatom (e.g., 16 : 4 (n - 1) ; 20 : 5 (n - 3)) and phytoplankton (e.g., polyunsaturated fatty acids) markers, relative to animals from northwest stations. Values of the omnivory index 'UC' (i.e., unsaturation coefficient) were also low in SE copepods, which implied reduced phytoplankton ingestion. Spatial patterns in seston fatty acid composition resembled the dietary signatures in that dinoflagellate and bacterial indices were highest in SE waters. Estimates of primary production, particulate organic carbon, carbon to chlorophyll ratios, and abundances of diatoms, dinoflagellates and bacteria, provided further evidence of the importance of the microbial loop at SE stations. Comparable spatial patterns in feeding strategy were observed in both sampling layers, indicating that copepods from the entire water column were feeding on a similar food source. Several interesting species-specific trends also emerged from the PCA. In general, C. hyperboreus fed the most herbivorously, followed by C. glacialis and M. longa. C. glacialis showed a stronger connection to the microbial food web than the other two species, and M. longa fed herbivorously throughout much of the polynya. These latter two findings contradict the conventional wisdom and highlight the need for future work. In particular, the microbial community should be emphasized and characterized in subsequent studies on the feeding ecology of C. glacialis. Although the three species investigated responded quite differently to available prey by adopting specialized feeding strategies, copepod omnivory in the polynya was generally inversely related to the availability of diatoms.

  4. First principles of copepod development help explain global marine diversity patterns.

    PubMed

    Record, Nicholas R; Pershing, Andrew J; Maps, Frédéric

    2012-10-01

    A major goal of modern ecology is to understand macroecological patterns based on their mechanistic underpinnings. The metabolic theory of ecology predicts a monotonic increase of biodiversity with temperature based on the principles of metabolism. For marine copepods, observations have shown that while biodiversity does increase with temperature, the theory's prediction overestimates the slope of this relationship by a factor of two. By relaxing the theory's assumption that size is invariant with respect to temperature, and by incorporating a mechanistic description of copepod development into the theory, we provide an adjusted prediction that agrees with the observed relationship. The addition of development into the theory adds the potential to refine the prediction for a wider range of taxa, to account for discrepancies between prediction and observations, and to describe a wider variety of temperature-richness relationships. PMID:22476710

  5. Bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds in copepods: environmental triggers and sources of intra-specific variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagarese, H. E.; García, P.; Diéguez, M. D.; Ferraro, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature are two globally important abiotic factors affecting freshwater ecosystems. Planktonic organisms have developed a battery of counteracting mechanisms to minimize the risk of being damaged by UVR, which respond to three basic principles: avoid, protect, repair. Copepods are among the most successful zooplankton groups. They are highly adaptable animals, capable of displaying flexible behaviors, physiologies, and life strategies. In particular, they are well equipped to cope with harmful UVR. Their arsenal includes vertical migration, accumulation of photoprotective compounds, and photorepair. The preference for a particular strategy is affected by a plethora of environmental (extrinsic) parameters, such as the existence of a depth refuge, the risk of visual predation, and temperature. Temperature modifies the environment (e.g. the lake thermal structure), and animal metabolism (e.g., swimming speed, bioaccumulation of photoprotective compounds). In addition, the relative weight of UVR-coping strategies is also influenced by the organism (intrinsic) characteristics (e.g., inter- and intra-specific variability). The UV absorbing compounds, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), are widely distributed among freshwater copepods. Animals are unable to synthesize MAAs, and therefore depend on external sources for accumulating these compounds. Although copepods may acquire MAAs from their food, for the few centropagic species investigated so far, the main source of MAAs are microbial (most likely prokaryotic) organisms living in close association with the copepods. Boeckella gracilipes is a common centropagic copepod in Patagonian lakes. We suspected that its occurrence in different types of lakes, hydrologically unconnected, but within close geographical proximity, could have resulted in different microbial-copepod associations (i.e., different MAAs sources) that could translate into intra-specific differences in the accumulation of MAAs when experimentally exposed to different combinations of radiation exposure and temperature. We exposed B. gracilipes individuals from two lakes (Verde: high elevation, fishless; Morenito: piedmont, with fish) to two radiation conditions (PAR+UVA vs. darkness) crossed with five temperatures (5, 8, 12, 16 and 20 C) for periods of 10 days. DNA fingerprinting (DGGE) revealed the existence of differences in microbial composition between the two copepod populations. The two populations differed in initial total MAAs concentration and composition. Exposure to PAR+UVR stimulated the accumulation of MAAs in individuals from lake Morenito and to a lesser extent in those from lake Verde. There were significant differences in the rates of MAAs accumulation between the two populations. More specifically, individuals from lake Morenito had a higher propensity to lose and gain MAAs that those from Lake Verde, which maintain a more stable MAA concentration regardless of the experimental conditions. Temperature affected the concentration of MAAs in individuals maintained in darkness. As expected, the individuals tended to lose MAAs at higher temperatures. Unexpectedly however, the lower temperatures stimulated the accumulation of MAAs, even when the copepods were in the dark. Thus, low temperature by itself may induce MAA accumulation.

  6. Vertebrate-like ??-crystallins in the ocular lenses of a copepod

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H. Cohen; Joram Piatigorsky; Linlin Ding; Nansi J. Colley; Rebecca Ward; Joseph Horwitz

    2005-01-01

    The diverse crystallins are water-soluble proteins that are responsible for the optical properties of cellular lenses of animal eyes. While all vertebrate lenses contain physiological stress-related ?- and ??-crystallins, some also contain taxon-specific, often enzyme-related crystallins. To date, the ?- and ??-crystallins have been found only in vertebrate lenses. Here we report lenses from an invertebrate, the pontellid copepod Anomalocera

  7. Unsteady motion: escape jumps in planktonic copepods, their kinematics and energetics

    PubMed Central

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders; Langlois, Vincent J.; Jakobsen, Hans H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the kinematics of escape jumps in three species of 0.3–3.0 mm-sized planktonic copepods. We find similar kinematics between species with periodically alternating power strokes and passive coasting and a resulting highly fluctuating escape velocity. By direct numerical simulations, we estimate the force and power output needed to accelerate and overcome drag. Both are very high compared with those of other organisms, as are the escape velocities in comparison to startle velocities of other aquatic animals. Thus, the maximum weight-specific force, which for muscle motors of other animals has been found to be near constant at 57 N (kg muscle)?1, is more than an order of magnitude higher for the escaping copepods. We argue that this is feasible because most copepods have different systems for steady propulsion (feeding appendages) and intensive escapes (swimming legs), with the muscular arrangement of the latter probably adapted for high force production during short-lasting bursts. The resulting escape velocities scale with body length to power 0.65, different from the size-scaling of both similar sized and larger animals moving at constant velocity, but similar to that found for startle velocities in other aquatic organisms. The relative duration of the pauses between power strokes was observed to increase with organism size. We demonstrate that this is an inherent property of swimming by alternating power strokes and pauses. We finally show that the Strouhal number is in the range of peak propulsion efficiency, again suggesting that copepods are optimally designed for rapid escape jumps. PMID:20462876

  8. Lipid and fatty acid content in cultivated live feed organisms compared to marine copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Ove Evjemo; Yngvar Olsen

    1997-01-01

    The total lipid content in Artemia franciscana (21–23% ofdry weight (DW)) when enriched with either Super Selco or DHA Selco wastwice as high as in the adult copepods Temora longicornis and Eurytemora sp.(9–11% of DW). In Brachionus plicatilis the total lipid contentwas 11 and 6.6% for cultures growing at high and low growth rate,0.12 d-1 and 0.38 d-1, respectively. In

  9. Disrupted seasonal clockwork in the population dynamics of a freshwater copepod by climate warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Winder; Daniel E. Schindler; Timothy E. Essington; Arni H. Litt

    2009-01-01

    Life history responses are expected to accompany climate warming, yet little is known how long-term effects of climate and environmental change affect the seasonal dynamics of planktonic organisms. We used an historical data set from Lake Washington (U.S.A.) to quantify population responses of a calanoid copepod (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi) to long-term changes in temperature and resource availability and explore potential mechanisms

  10. Aspects of the study of the life cycles of Antarctic copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigrid B. Schnack-Schiel

    Different approaches to the study of life cycle strategies of Antarctic copepods are described in an attempt to shed new light\\u000a on our present knowledge. To date, most studies were carried out on abundance, horizontal and vertical distribution and stage\\u000a composition during different seasons and in various regions. Hence, the seasonal pictures had to be compiled from different\\u000a years and

  11. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  12. Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyun-Woo; Shim, Won Joon; Kwon, Oh Youn; Kang, Jung-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of three sizes of polystyrene (PS) microbeads (0.05, 0.5, and 6-?m diameter) on the survival, development, and fecundity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus using acute and chronic toxicity tests. T. japonicus ingested and egested all three sizes of PS beads used and exhibited no selective feeding when phytoplankton were added. The copepods (nauplius and adult females) survived all sizes of PS beads and the various concentrations tested in the acute toxicity test for 96 h. In the two-generation chronic toxicity test, 0.05-?m PS beads at a concentration greater than 12.5 ?g/mL caused the mortality of nauplii and copepodites in the F0 generation and even triggered mortality at a concentration of 1.25 ?g/mL in the next generation. In the 0.5-?m PS bead treatment, despite there being no significant effect on the F0 generation, the highest concentration (25 ?g/mL) induced a significant decrease in survival compared with the control population in the F1 generation. The 6-?m PS beads did not affect the survival of T. japonicus over two generations. The 0.5- and 6-?m PS beads caused a significant decrease in fecundity at all concentrations. These results suggest that microplastics such as micro- or nanosized PS beads may have negative impacts on marine copepods. PMID:23988225

  13. Sublethal stress: Impact of solar UV radiation on protein synthesis in the copepod Acartia tonsa

    PubMed Central

    Tartarotti, Barbara; Torres, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic organisms respond to environmental challenges such as thermal stress with the rapid induction of highly conserved polypeptides known as stress proteins or heat shock proteins (Hsps). Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm) is an important environmental stressor in marine ecosystems. Here, we present results of experiments conducted with the marine copepod Acartia tonsa to follow the de novo protein synthesis and measure the level of constitutive and inducible isoforms of the Hsp70 gene family of stress proteins after UV exposure. Animals were collected from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA), and exposed to solar radiation (full spectrum), UV-A (320–400 nm) and PAR (400–700 nm), or PAR only, for periods of 0.5–4 h. Controls were kept in the dark. Protein synthesis was robust under all treatments when the copepods were exposed to low solar radiation intensities. Conversely, high solar radiation intensities (both UV-B and UV-A) caused an overall suppression in the protein synthesis of the copepods with no detectable induction of stress-inducible isoforms of Hsps. Immunochemical assays (western blotting) showed that UVR increased levels (3.5–4-fold increase compared to the dark control) of the constitutively expressed 70 kDa heat-shock (Hsc70) protein in A. tonsa, without indication of inducible isoform upregulation. PMID:21258623

  14. Reproduction dynamics in copepods following exposure to chemically and mechanically dispersed crude oil.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Salaberria, Iurgi; Olsen, Anders J; Read, Kari Ella; Øverjordet, Ida Beathe; Hammer, Karen M; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond

    2015-03-17

    Conflicting reports on the contribution of chemical dispersants on crude oil dispersion toxicity have been published. This can partly be ascribed to the influence of dispersants on the physical properties of the oil in different experimental conditions. In the present study the potential contribution of dispersants to the reproductive effects of dispersed crude oil in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus) was isolated by keeping the oil concentrations and oil droplet size distributions comparable between parallel chemically dispersed (CD, dispersant:oil ratio 1:25) and mechanically dispersed oil (MD, no dispersant) exposures. Female copepods were exposed for 96 h to CD or MD in oil concentration range of 0.2-5.5 mg·L(-1) (THC, C5-C36) after which they were subjected to a 25-day recovery period where production of eggs and nauplii were compared between treatments. The two highest concentrations, both in the upper range of dispersed oil concentrations reported during spills, caused a lower initial production of eggs/nauplii for both MD and CD exposures. However, copepods exposed to mechanically dispersed oil exhibited compensatory reproduction during the last 10 days of the recovery period, reaching control level of cumulative egg and nauplii production whereas females exposed to a mixture of oil and dispersant did not. PMID:25658869

  15. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Patrick L; Bowen, Charles A

    2002-08-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry. PMID:12197110

  16. Resistance against heterogeneous sequential infections: experimental studies with a tapeworm and its copepod host.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, J; Hammerschmidt, K

    2006-06-01

    Parasite heterogeneity is thought to be an important factor influencing the likelihood and the dynamics of infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that simultaneous exposure of hosts to a heterogeneous mixture of parasites might increase infection success. Here this view is extended towards the effect of parasite heterogeneity on subsequent infections. Using a system of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus and its copepod intermediate host, heterogeneity of the tapeworm surface carbohydrates is investigated, i.e. structures that are potentially recognized by the invertebrate host's immune system. With lectin labelling, a significant proportion of variation in surface carbohydrates is related to differences in worm sibships (i.e. families). Tapeworm sibships were used for experimental exposure of copepods to either homogeneous combinations of tapeworm larvae, i.e. worms derived from the same sibship or heterogeneous mixtures of larvae, and copepods were subsequently challenged with an unrelated larva to study re-infection. Contrary to expectation, neither an effect of parasite heterogeneity on the current infection, nor on re-infection were found. The effect of parasitic heterogeneity on host immunity is therefore complex, potentially involving increased cross-protection on the one hand, with higher costs of raising a more heterogeneous immune response on the other. PMID:16768863

  17. Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago.

    PubMed

    Melo, Pedro A M C; De Melo Júnior, Mauro; De Macêdo, Silvio J; Araujo, Moacyr; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2014-12-01

    The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA), with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m-3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band) and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10-3 mg C m-3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10-3 mg C m-3d-1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas. PMID:25590711

  18. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae — can we identify the underlying factors?

    PubMed Central

    van der Meeren, Terje; Rønnestad, Ivar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Galloway, Trina F.; Kjørsvik, Elin; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group). In the second experiment (Exp-2), two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers) throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5) after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks. PMID:26038712

  19. Copepods enhance nutritional status, growth and development in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae - can we identify the underlying factors?

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Rønnestad, Ivar; Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Galloway, Trina F; Kjørsvik, Elin; Hamre, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current commercial production protocols for Atlantic cod depend on enriched rotifers and Artemia during first-feeding, but development and growth remain inferior to fish fed natural zooplankton. Two experiments were conducted in order to identify the underlying factors for this phenomenon. In the first experiment (Exp-1), groups of cod larvae were fed either (a) natural zooplankton, mainly copepods, increasing the size of prey as the larvae grew or (b) enriched rotifers followed by Artemia (the intensive group). In the second experiment (Exp-2), two groups of larvae were fed as in Exp-1, while a third group was fed copepod nauplii (approximately the size of rotifers) throughout the larval stage. In both experiments, growth was not significantly different between the groups during the first three weeks after hatching, but from the last part of the rotifer feeding period and onwards, the growth of the larvae fed copepods was higher than that of the intensive group. In Exp-2, the growth was similar between the two copepod groups during the expeimental period, indicating that nutrient composition, not prey size caused the better growth on copepods. Analyses of the prey showed that total fatty acid composition and the ratio of phospholipids to total lipids was slightly different in the prey organisms, and that protein, taurine, astaxanthin and zinc were lower on a dry weight basis in rotifers than in copepods. Other measured nutrients as DHA, all analysed vitamins, manganese, copper and selenium were similar or higher in the rotifers. When compared to the present knowledge on nutrient requirements, protein and taurine appeared to be the most likely limiting nutrients for growth in cod larvae fed rotifers and Artemia. Larvae fed rotifers/Artemia had a higher whole body lipid content than larvae fed copepods at the end of the experiment (stage 5) after the fish had been fed the same formulated diet for approximately 2 weeks. PMID:26038712

  20. Trophic relationships of deep-sea calanoid copepods from the benthic boundary layer of the Santa Catalina Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, Marcia M.; Wishner, Karen F.

    1986-07-01

    Benthopelagic zooplankton were collected and preserved in situ in the benthic boundary layer of the Santa Catalina Basin, using a multiple sampling opening-closing net system attached to the DSRV Alvin. Gut content analysis performed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the majority of benthopelagic calanoid copepods examined were predominantly detritivores. They had ingested detritus and associated bacteria, including metal-precipitating bacteria; no attached enteric bacteria were observed in the copepods' guts. The gut particles indicated generalized feeding and qualitatively resembled material present in the environment at the time of collection, i.e. suspended particles, large fecal pellets, particles from the surface layer of the sediment, and phaeodia of phaeodarian radiolarians. TEM was necessary for identifying some of the amorphous material in copepod guts as either digested tissue or detrital material; some of the amorphous material was unidentifiable even with the resolution of TEM. TEM was also essential for detecting metal-precipitating bacteria and their capsules from the copepod guts and from particles in the water. Because they ingest metal-precipitating bacteria, detritivorous copepods may influence the distribution of metals in the ocean.

  1. The infectivity, growth, and virulence of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus in its first intermediate host, the copepod Macrocyclops albidus.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, C

    1997-09-01

    In an experiment to study the infectivity, growth and virulence of Schistocephalus solidus in their first intermediate host, copepods of the species Macrocyclops albidus were kept singly and exposed to up to 9 coracidia. Eleven or 14 days post-infection (p.i.) the presence and growth of the cestode larvae relative to survival, growth and reproduction of their host was determined. As expected, the probability of a copepod becoming infected increased with increasing numbers of parasites administered. However, the chances of a single coracidium establishing in a copepod also increased with increasing numbers of coracidia administered, which indicates that the parasites profit from a dilution effect of the host's defence. Copepod size or developmental stage had no significant effect on the infection, but 14 days p.i., constraining effects of copepod size on the growth of the parasites were apparent. Moreover, procercoids in multiple infections grew smaller and developed their cercomer at a smaller size than those in single infections. No significant effect of the parasite on host mortality was found within the observation period. However, growth between the 5th copepodid stage and adult stage was negatively affected by infection. An infection with S. solidus was also strongly linked with host reproduction: infected females were more likely to bear an egg sac at the end of the experiment than non-infected ones. These egg sacs, however, contained fewer eggs. PMID:9300470

  2. Copper effects in the copepod Tigriopus angulatus Lang, 1933: natural broad tolerance allows maintenance of food webs in copper-enriched coastal areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Medina; B. Morandi; J. A. Correa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. Some coastal areas of northern Chile have received copper mine,tailings for more,than 60 years. At these areas, the toxic effects of copper have eliminated most intertidal seaweed and macroinvertebrate populations. However, the harpacticoid splashpool copepod Tigriopus angulatus seems unaffected, inhabiting heavily impacted sites. Because this species of copepod makes the energy of photosynthesis available to higher trophic levels, it

  3. Copper effects in the copepod Tigriopus angulatus Lang, 1933: natural broad tolerance allows maintenance of food webs in copper-enriched coastal areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. MedinaA; B. MorandiC; J. A. CorreaD

    Some coastal areas of northern Chile have received copper mine tailings for more than 60 years. At these areas, the toxic effects of copper have eliminated most intertidal seaweed and macroinvertebrate populations. However, the harpacticoid splashpool copepod Tigriopus angulatus seems unaffected, inhabiting heavily impacted sites. Because this species of copepod makes the energy of photosynthesis available to higher trophic levels,

  4. Copepods as live food organisms in the larval rearing of halibut larvae ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) with special emphasis on the nutritional value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Ove Evjemo; Kjell Inge Reitan; Yngvar Olsen

    2003-01-01

    In the natural food web, zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for marine fish larvae and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, different copepod species were analysed for total lipid content, fatty acid and protein content and used in first feeding experiments with halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus

  5. Effects of prey concentration, prey size, predator life stage, predator starvation, and season on predation rates of the carnivorous copepod Euchaeta elongata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yen

    1983-01-01

    Adult females of the large carnivorous copepod Euchaeta elongata Esterly were collected from 1977 to 1980 in Port Susan, Washington, USA. Predation rates of the adult females increased with increasing prey abundance when fed the following 4 sizes of copepods: adult females of Calanus pacificus (average prosome length [PL] of 2 650 µm), adults of Aetideus divergens (PL of 1

  6. Behavioral responses of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne pollutants.

    PubMed

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Menu, Dominique; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Souissi, Sami

    2013-08-15

    Estuarine waters contain a variety of chemicals which affect to various extents the behavior of aquatic organisms. Little is known, however, on the behavioral response of copepods. The present study shows the results of laboratory experiments investigating the immediate effects of sub-lethal concentrations of three commonly found contaminants on the three-dimensional swimming behavior of the estuarine calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis. Nonylphenol at 2 ?g L?¹, cadmium at 45 n gL?¹ and a mixture of low to medium molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 40 ng L?¹ all affected the swimming behavior of E. affinis adults, increasing both swimming speed and activity. In most cases, effects were observable within 30 min of exposure and persisted or faded during a period of depuration in uncontaminated water of similar duration. In ovigerous females exposed to Cd and PAHs, effects appeared to be more pronounced during the depuration period, suggesting that carrying ovisacs may impair recovery. We quantified differences in the distribution of swimming speed values by considering the relative frequencies of periods of break, slow and fast swimming and we observed a trend toward faster movements in the presence of pollutants. The degree of trajectory complexity, estimated through their fractal dimension, was unaffected by pollutants. Since both narcotic and non-narcotic pollutants induced hyperactivity, our results suggest that changes in behavior after a short-term exposure may be independent of the general mode of action of the chemicals. The increase in speed and activity resembles an escape reaction permitting copepods to evade stressful conditions. Overall, these results indicate that environment-relevant concentrations of pollutants can induce rapid changes in copepod behavior. Since behavioral processes represent a fundamental element in the ecology of copepods, our results raise concern about the effects of background levels of pollution on a major component of the plankton community. The long-term response of copepods to waterborne pollutants, their synergistic effects and their interactions with other environmental factors need further investigation. PMID:23735933

  7. Trade-Offs between Predation Risk and Growth Benefits in the Copepod Eurytemora affinis with Contrasting Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Motwani, Nisha H.

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in body pigmentation is an ecologically and evolutionary important trait; however, the pigmentation related trade-offs in marine zooplankton are poorly understood. We tested the effects of intrapopulation phenotypic variation in the pigmentation of the copepod Eurytemora affinis on predation risk, foraging, growth, metabolic activity and antioxidant capacity. Using pigmented and unpigmented specimens, we compared (1) predation and selectivity by the invertebrate predator Cercopagis pengoi, (2) feeding activity of the copepods measured as grazing rate in experiments and gut fluorescence in situ, (3) metabolic activity assayed as RNA:DNA ratio in both experimental and field-collected copepods, (4) reproductive output estimated as egg ratio in the population, and (5) total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) COI gene variation was analysed. The pigmented individuals were at higher predation risk as evidenced by significantly higher predation rate by C. pengoi on pigmented individuals and positive selection by the predator fed pigmented and unpigmented copepods in a mixture. However, the antioxidant capacity, RNA:DNA and egg ratio values were significantly higher in the pigmented copepods, whereas neither feeding rate nor gut fluorescence differed between the pigmented and unpigmented copepods. The phenotypic variation in pigmentation was not associated with any specific mtDNA genotype. Together, these results support the metabolic stimulation hypothesis to explain variation in E. affinis pigmentation, which translates into beneficial increase in growth via enhanced metabolism and antioxidant protective capacity, together with disadvantageous increase in predation risk. We also suggest an alternative mechanism for the metabolic stimulation via elevated antioxidant levels as a primary means of increasing metabolism without the increase in heat absorbance. The observed trade-offs are relevant to evolutionary mechanisms underlying plasticity and adaptation and have the capacity to modify strength of complex trophic interactions. PMID:23940745

  8. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for lipovitellin quantification in copepods: a screening tool for endocrine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Volz, David C; Chandler, G Thomas

    2004-02-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG) has been widely used as a biomarker of estrogenic exposure in fish, leading to the development of standardized assays for VTG quantification. However, standardized quantitative assays for invertebrate, particularly crustacean, lipovitellin (also known as vitellin [VTN]) are lacking. In this study, a fluorescence-based VTN enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to quantify microquantities of VTN in the estuarine, sediment-dwelling copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis. This ELISA utilizes a VTN-specific polyclonal antibody developed against amphipod (Leptocheirus plumulosus) embryo VTN and exhibits specificity toward female copepod proteins. In routine assays, the working range of the ELISA was 31.25 to 1,000 ng/ml (75-25% specific binding/maximum antibody binding [B/B0]) with a 50% B/B0 intra- and interassay variation of 3.9% (n = 9) and 12.5% (n = 26), respectively. This ELISA is capable of detecting VTN as low as 2 ng/ml, and can accurately detect VTN in as few as four copepods. The ELISA significantly discriminated positive (gravid female) and negative (male) samples, and was suitable for screening endocrine toxicity in copepods. Stage-I juvenile copepods were individually reared to adults in aqueous microvolumes of the phenylpyrazole insecticide, fipronil, and whole-body homogenate extracts were assayed for VTN levels. Fipronil-exposed virgin adult females, but not males, exhibited significantly higher levels of VTN relative to control males and females. This crustacean VTN ELISA is likely useful for evaluating endocrine activity of environmental toxicants in copepods and other crustacean species. PMID:14982375

  9. From local adaptation to ecological speciation in copepod populations from neighboring lakes.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Moreno, Omar Alfredo; Ciros-Pérez, Jorge; Ortega-Mayagoitia, Elizabeth; Alcántara-Rodríguez, José Arturo; Piedra-Ibarra, Elías

    2015-01-01

    Continental copepods have been derived from several independent invasive events from the sea, but the subsequent evolutionary processes that account for the current diversity in lacustrine environments are virtually unknown. Salinity is highly variable among lakes and constitutes a source of divergent selection driving potential reproductive isolation. We studied four populations of the calanoid copepod Leptodiaptomus cf. sicilis inhabiting four neighboring lakes with a common history (since the Late Pleistocene) located in the Oriental Basin, Mexico; one lake is shallow and varies in salinity periodically (1.4-10 g L(-1)), while three are deep and permanent, with constant salinity (0.5, 1.1 and 6.5 g L(-1), respectively). We hypothesized that (1) these populations belong to a different species than L. sicilis sensu stricto and (2) are experiencing ecologically based divergence due to salinity differences. We assessed morphological and molecular (mtDNA) COI variation, as well as fitness differences and tests of reproductive isolation. Although relationships of the Mexican populations with L. sicilis s.s. could not be elucidated, we identified a clear pattern of divergent selection driven by salinity conditions. The four populations can still be considered a single biological species (sexual recognition and hybridization are still possible in laboratory conditions), but they have diverged into at least three different phenotypes: two locally adapted, specialized in the lakes of constant salinity (saline vs. freshwater), and an intermediate generalist phenotype inhabiting the temporary lake with fluctuating salinity. The specialized phenotypes are poorly suited as migrants, so prezygotic isolation due to immigrant inviability is highly probable. This implication was supported by molecular evidence that showed restricted gene flow, persistence of founder events, and a pattern of allopatric fragmentation. This study showed how ecologically based divergent selection may explain diversification patterns in lacustrine copepods. PMID:25915059

  10. Substrate selection by demersal calanoid copepods in shallow waters of Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Eric Kingsbury

    1986-01-01

    suction sampler. Copepods were most abundant on silty-sand areas and sand flats compared with oyster reefs. This substrate selection was more marked for males then for females and for juveniles compared to adults. Plankton tows at night over... the different substrates provided density estimates of ppdpplt'h'hp lllddyt'd't'. ~pdd' t coronatus was the dominant species in the benthic samples and was most abundant on the silty-sand substrate fringing the oyster reef. A manipulative field experiment...

  11. REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON THE ESTUARINE MEIOBENTHIC COPEPOD AMPHIASCUS TENUIREMIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana C. Bejarano; G. Thomas Chandler

    2003-01-01

    Abstract—Atrazine is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States. Atrazine concentrations,in coastal environments chronically range from 90 ng\\/L to 46 mg\\/L, with rare but measured concentrations near 60 mg\\/L at edge-of-field conditions. Chronic atrazine effects on estuarine benthos exposed,to environmentally,relevant concentrations,are unknown.,The purpose of this research was,to assess atrazine reproductive,and,developmental,effects over multiple-generation exposures,of the copepod,Amphiascus tenuiremis.

  12. Effects of dispersed oil on reproduction in the cold water copepod Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Anders Johny; Nordtug, Trond; Altin, Dag; Lervik, Morten; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Following a 120-h exposure period to 3 concentrations of oil dispersions (0.022?mg?L?1, 1.8?mg?L?1, and 16.5?mg?L?1, plus controls) generated from a North Sea crude oil and a subsequent 21-d recovery, mortality, and several reproduction endpoints (egg production rates, egg hatching success, and fraction of females participating in reproduction) in Calanus finmarchicus were studied. Concentration-dependent mortality was found during exposure, averaging to 6%, 3%, 15%, and 42% for the controls and 3 exposure levels, respectively. At the start of the recovery period, mean egg production rates of surviving females from the highest concentrations were very low, but reproduction subsequently improved. In a 4-d single female reproduction test starting 13 d postexposure, no significant differences in egg production rates or hatching success were found between reproducing control and exposed copepods. However, a significantly lower portion of the surviving females from the highest exposure participated in egg production. The results indicate that although short-term exposure to oil-polluted water after an oil spill can induce severe mortality and temporarily suspend reproduction, copepods may recover and produce viable offspring soon after exposure. The results might imply that for C. finmarchicus populations, the impact from short-term exposure to an oil spill might be predicted from acute mortality and that delayed effects make only a limited contribution to population decrease. PMID:23661343

  13. Seasonal and Cyclical Changes in Genetic Composition of the Marine Intertidal Rock Pool Copepod Tigriopus brevicornis.

    PubMed

    Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2015-06-01

    Tigriopus brevicornis is a marine rock pool copepod widely distributed along Atlantic coasts. Due to the absence of a known dispersal mechanism by free swimming stages, exchanges between populations over long distances are questionable. In order to analyse the evolution of an isolated supralittoral rock pool population, sampling of the copepod was performed monthly during 1 year and compared to samplings over 5 years in the same rock pool, as well as from other rock pools. Using ITS1 analysis, cyclical changes in genetic composition were detected. Our results give clear indications concerning the segregation of the rock pool population and a lack of gene flow among outside populations. A network analysis shows the presence of several shared dominant haplotypes and also singletons differing by one mutation point. Fst analyses indicate that the main changes occur in autumn and winter. The few analogies of ITS1 sequences with nearby populations may indicate that new migrants must re-colonise the pools from surrounding rock crevices in the intertidal habitat where they may have found a refuge after bad weather conditions. PMID:25985736

  14. Modeling filtration of dispersed crude oil droplets by the copepod Calanus finmarchicus.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Raymond; Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Brönner, Ute; Nordtug, Trond; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-04-01

    Oil droplets may form and disperse in the water column after an accidental spill of crude oil or petroleum products at sea. Micro-sized oil droplets may be available for filter feeding organisms, such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which has been shown to filter oil droplets. In the present paper, a modeling approach was used to estimate potential ingestion amounts by copepod filtration of oil droplets. The new model was implemented in the OSCAR (Oil Spill Contingency and Response) software suite, and tested for a series of oil spill scenarios and key parameters. Among these, the size of the filtered droplets was found to be the most important factor influencing the model results. Given the assumptions and simplifications of the model, filtration of dispersed crude oil by C. finmarchicus was predicted to affect the fate of 1-40% of the total released oil mass, depending on the release scenario and parameter values used, with the lower end of that range being more probable in an actual spill situation. PMID:25636164

  15. Active avoidance from a crude oil soluble fraction by an Andean paramo copepod.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Several oil spills due to ruptures in the pipeline oil systems have occurred at the Andean paramo. A sample of this crude oil was mixed with water from a nearby Andean lagoon and the toxicity of the soluble fraction was assessed through lethal and avoidance assays with a locally occurring copepod (Boeckella occidentalis intermedia). The integration of mortality and avoidance aimed at predicting the immediate decline of copepod populations facing an oil leakage. The 24-h median lethal PAH concentration was 42.7 (26.4-91.6) µg L(-1). In the 12-h avoidance assay, 30% avoidance was recorded at the highest PAH concentration (19.4 µg L(-1)). The mortality at this PAH concentration would be of 25% and, thus, the population immediate decline would be of 55%. The inclusion of non-forced exposure testing with the quantification of the avoidance response in environmental risk assessments is, therefore, supported due to underestimation of the lethal assays. PMID:24898412

  16. Fluorescent vital labeling to track cestodes in a copepod intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Joachim; van der Veen, Ineke T; Christen, Mira

    2002-01-01

    In experimental studies of host-parasite interactions, it is often important to track parasites in their hosts and to discriminate between individual parasites. We used the fluorescent tracer dyes 7-amino-4-chloromethylcoumarin (CMAC) and, 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) for vital labeling of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda) coracidia larvae. Labeling was fast and easy to perform and enabled microscopic detection of parasites appearing as procercoids in the hemocoel of the copepod intermediate host at 3 h after exposure. The label was still visible after 14 days. Extensive controls showed that CMAC (20 microM) labeling did not harm tapeworms or copepods. CMFDA (2 microM) reduced host survival, but the dye concentration can be decreased to avoid this in future studies. The new labeling method presented here has been very useful to track S. solidus parasites. It can be valuable for other parasites also and may be particularly suitable for visualization of individual live macroparasites in invertebrate hosts, for which we are not aware of any other appropriate method. PMID:11971652

  17. Parental effects on the larval performance of a tapeworm in its copepod first host.

    PubMed

    Benesh, D P

    2013-08-01

    Parents can influence the phenotype of their offspring through various mechanisms, besides the direct effect of heredity. Such parental effects are little explored in parasitic organisms, perhaps because in many parasites, per capita investment into offspring is low. I investigated whether parental identity, beyond direct genetic effects, could explain variation in the performance of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its first intermediate host, a copepod. I first determined that two breeding worms could be separated from one another after ~48 h of in vitro incubation and that the isolated worms continued producing outcrossed eggs, that is, rates self-fertilization did not increase after separation. Thus, from a breeding pair, two sets of genetically comparable eggs can be collected that have unambiguous parental identities. In an infection experiment, I found that the development of larval worms tended to vary between the two parental worms within breeding pairs, but infection success and growth rate in copepods did not. Accounting for this parental effect decreased the estimated heritability for development by nearly half. These results suggest that larval performance is not simply a function of a worm's genotype; who mothered or fathered an offspring can also affect offspring fitness, contradicting the perhaps naïve idea that parasites simply produce large quantities of uniformly low-quality offspring. PMID:23859276

  18. Cryptic diversity of the 'cosmopolitan' harpacticoid copepod Nannopus palustris: genetic and morphological evidence.

    PubMed

    Garlitska, Lesya; Neretina, Tatyana; Schepetov, Dimitry; Mugue, Nikolai; De Troch, Marleen; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Azovsky, Andrey

    2012-11-01

    Nannopus palustris Brady, 1880 is a free-living widely distributed harpacticoid copepod, which has been formerly assumed to be a single, cosmopolitan but highly variable species. We compared several geographically distant N. palustris populations in terms of their morphology and genetics. Populations from the White Sea (WS), the North Sea (NS), the Black Sea (BS) and two sympatric morphs from South Carolina, USA (SC notched and SC straight morphs), were considered. The NS, BS and to a lesser extent SC notched specimens were morphologically similar and partly coincided to the 'canonical' description of the species. By contrast, WS population showed remarkable anatomical and morphometric peculiarities that correspond to some earlier descriptions. Genetic analyses of mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (28S rDNA) genes demonstrated the significant distinctness among WS, both SC and (NS+BS) populations, the latter two being genetically indistinguishable. Concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees and morphological data supports that N. palustris is in fact composed of several pseudo-sibling species, which are genetically and morphologically divergent. Neither correlation between genetic divergence and geographical distance nor significant intrapopulation diversity was found for these species. Taxonomic status, distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the species within the Nannopus genus need to be reconsidered. A further subdivision of species complexes might have important implications for the analysis of biodiversity of benthic copepods and consequently for the interpretation of their (species-specific) ecological function. PMID:22989315

  19. CONCENTRATION-VARIABLE INTERACTIONS BE1WEEN CAIANOID COPEPODS AND PARTICLES OF DIFFERENT FOOD gUALITY

    E-print Network

    ; Strickler 1982; Paffenhlifer et aI. 1982). using the newly developed technique of high-speed micro efforts on Dtaptomus. a freshwater copepod that creates a scanning current. Diaptomus and other scannersIIechanlslDJI SelecUonjor High Quality Food -- The current paradigm of feeding mecha- nisms and Its connection

  20. EFFECTS OF SEDIMENT-BOUND RESIDUES OF THE PYRETHROID INSECTICIDE FENVALERATE ON SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION OF MEIOBENTHIC COPEPODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pure microcosm-cultured populations of benthic copepods were established from pristine or pesticide-impacted Spartina marsh creeks and used as efficient bioassay groups to assess lethal and sublethal effects of sediment-bound pesticide residues. espite a broad data base showing e...

  1. LARGE-SCALE SPATIAL PATTERNS IN THE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF BENTHIC HARPACTICOID COPEPODS IN THE BOHAI SEA, CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F.-H. Mu; P. J. Somerfield; R. M. Warwick

    ABSTRAC7: -To determine the effects of natural and anthropogenic variables on the benthic harpacticoid copepod assemblages of the Bohai Sea, China, samples were collected on two occasions from an extensive grid of 20 stations. Differences among stations between sampling periods, although significant, were a consequence of small changes in abundances of dominant species. This is interpreted as a seasonal effect.

  2. Seasonal changes in biomass, growth rates and production of subantarctic calanoid copepods in the Bay of Morbihan, Kerguelen Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Alonzo; P. Mayzaud; S. Razouls; P. Bocher; Y. Cherel

    2003-01-01

    The present study addresses the ecology of two dominant copepod species in the Bay of Morbihan, Kerguelen Archipelago. The biomass of the herbivore Drepanopus pectinatus (from 2 mg mх in winter up to 500 mg mх in summer) is tightly coupled to seasonal changes in chlorophyll a concentration in the region, whereas the biomass of the predatory euchaetiid Paraeuchaeta antarctica

  3. Early development and estimated life cycle of the mesopelagic copepod Pareuchaeta elongata in the southern Japan Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ikeda; K. Hirakawa

    1996-01-01

    Life cycle of the mesopelagic copepod Pareuchaeta elongata was investigated combining laboratory rearing data on the eggs, nauplii, and early copepodites with field growth data on the late copepodites. Examination and incubation at near the in situ temperature (0.5°C) of egg sacs collected from the field indicated that the clutch size was 13 to 24 eggs (mean: 20), hatching time

  4. Serial EM analysis of a copepod larval nervous system: Naupliar eye, optic circuitry, and prospects for full CNS reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thurston C. Lacalli

    2009-01-01

    The medial eye and optic center of the first nauplius of Dactylopusia (=Dactylopodia) tisboides, a harpacticoid copepod, were reconstructed from serial EM micrographs. Axons from the eye project to a set of matching cartridges defined by glial cells processes, and input is then processed in sequence through two synaptic fields. A single class of local relay neurons provides the main

  5. The copepod Tigriopus: a promising marine model organism for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics.

    PubMed

    Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kwok, Kevin W H; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Schlenk, Daniel; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2007-07-20

    There is an increasing body of evidence to support the significant role of invertebrates in assessing impacts of environmental contaminants on marine ecosystems. Therefore, in recent years massive efforts have been directed to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate toxicity testing models. Tigriopus, a harpacticoid copepod has a number of promising characteristics which make it a candidate worth consideration in such efforts. Tigriopus and other copepods are widely distributed and ecologically important organisms. Their position in marine food chains is very prominent, especially with regard to the transfer of energy. Copepods also play an important role in the transportation of aquatic pollutants across the food chains. In recent years there has been a phenomenal increase in the knowledge base of Tigriopus spp., particularly in the areas of their ecology, geophylogeny, genomics and their behavioural, biochemical and molecular responses following exposure to environmental stressors and chemicals. Sequences of a number of important marker genes have been studied in various Tigriopus spp., notably T. californicus and T. japonicus. These genes belong to normal biophysiological functions (e.g. electron transport system enzymes) as well as stress and toxic chemical exposure responses (heat shock protein 20, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase). Recently, 40,740 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from T. japonicus, have been sequenced and of them, 5,673 ESTs showed significant hits (E-value, >1.0E-05) to the red flour beetle Tribolium genome database. Metals and organic pollutants such as antifouling agents, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychrlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have shown reproducible biological responses when tested in Tigriopus spp. Promising results have been obtained when Tigriopus was used for assessment of risk associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Application of environmental gene expression techniques has allowed evaluation of transcriptional changes in T. japonicus with the ultimate aim of understanding the mechanisms of action of environmental stressors. Through a better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, ecotoxicologists may use this ecologically relevant species in risk assessment studies in marine systems. The combination of uses as a whole-animal bioassay and gene expression studies indicate that Tigriopus may serve as an excellent tool to evaluate the impacts of marine pollution throughout the coastal region. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the potential of using Tigriopus to fulfill the niche as an important invertebrate marine model organism for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. In addition, the knowledge gaps and areas for further studies have also been discussed. PMID:17560667

  6. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  7. Summer population structure of the copepods Paraeuchaeta spp. in the Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.; Dvoretsky, Alexander G.

    2015-02-01

    High Arctic seas are poorly studied due to difficulties to access and sample seas with extensive sea ice cover. The current study investigated the distribution of the large deepwater copepods Paraeuchaeta spp. (Paraeuchaeta glacialis) in the summer season in the Kara Sea. The total abundance of P. glacialis varied from 10 to 1210 × 10- 2 ind m- 3 sampled with a Juday net and from 2 to 490 × 10- 2 ind m- 3 sampled with a IKS-80 net. The highest abundances were recorded at the deepwater stations. Nauplii dominated the population of Paraeuchaeta spp. comprising 23% of the total abundance. Unimodal size spectra were found for most of the age stages that suggests the presence of one generation during the year. Clutch size and egg size tended to increase with P. glacialis female prosome length and individual biomass.

  8. Sinergasilus polycolpus, a new copepod species in the ichthyoparasitofauna of Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Cakic, P; Lenhardt, M; Kolarevic, J

    2004-03-10

    The parasitic copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus was identified on the gills of bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis from 2 localities (Kladovo and Slankamen) in the Serbian part of the River Danube. This parasite is species-specific for 2 Chinese carp, the bighead carp and the silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. It was accidentally introduced into Serbia and Montenegro together with fry of these herbivorous carp intended for aquaculture and control of phytoplankton blooms. There is no record in the available literature of this parasite for European freshwaters. Our identification of S. polycolpus signals the possible spread of the infectious disease sinergasilosis in natural freshwaters and in fishponds, similar to bothriocephalosis, caused by Bothriocephalus opsariichthydis, which was introduced with the fry of various herbivorous species from the Amour River basin (USSR) into almost all countries throughout the world. PMID:15109152

  9. Distinctive lipid composition of the copepod Limnocalanus macrurus with a high abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Minna; Strandberg, Ursula; Keinänen, Markku; Taipale, Sami; Kankaala, Paula

    2014-09-01

    We studied the copepod Limnocalanus macrurus for seasonal variation in the composition of fatty acids, wax esters and sterols in large boreal lakes, where it occurs as a glacial-relict. Vast wax ester reserves of Limnocalanus were accumulated in a period of only two months, and comprised mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fatty alcohols. In winter, the mobilization of wax esters was selective, and the proportion of long-chain polyunsaturated wax esters declined first. PUFA accounted for >50% of all fatty acids throughout the year reaching up to ca. 65% during late summer and fall. Long-chain PUFA 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 together comprised 17-40% of all fatty acids. The rarely reported C24 and C26 very-long-chain PUFA (VLC-PUFA) comprised 6.2 ± 3.4 % of all fatty acids in August and 2.1 ± 1.7% in September. The VLC-PUFA are presumably synthesized by Limnocalanus from shorter chain-length precursors because they were not found in the potential food sources. We hypothesize that these VLC-PUFA help Limnocalanus to maximize lipid reserves when food is abundant. Sterol content of Limnocalanus, consisting ca. 90% of cholesterol, did not show great seasonal variation. As a lipid-rich copepod with high abundance of PUFA, Limnocalanus is excellent quality food for fish. The VLC-PUFA were also detected in planktivorous fish, suggesting that these compounds can be used as a trophic marker indicating feeding on Limnocalanus. PMID:25092258

  10. Following the invisible trail: kinematic analysis of mate-tracking in the copepod Temora longicornis.

    PubMed Central

    Weissburg, M J; Doall, M H; Yen, J

    1998-01-01

    We have analysed the fine-scale kinematics of movement of male and female copepods, Temora longicornis, to resolve how these small animals find their mates. Location of the trail initially involves rapid random turning and high rates of directional change. Males subsequently increase their rate of movement as they follow the trail, and execute a regular pattern of counter turns in both x,z and y,z planes to stay near or within the central axis of the odour field. Pursuit behaviour of males is strongly associated with female swimming behaviour, suggesting that quantifiable variations in the structure of the odour signal released by females affects male tracking. The behavioural components of mate tracking in Temora are very similar to those of other animals that employ chemically mediated orientation in their search for mates and food, and we conclude that male Temora find their mates using chemoperception. The kinematic analysis indicates both sequential and simultaneous taxis mechanisms are used by Temora to follow the odour signal. This, in turn, indicates that rather than responding to a diffuse plume, males are following a signal more accurately characterized as a chemical trail, and copepods appear to use mechanisms that are similar to those employed by trail-following terrestrial insects such as ants. While Temora expresses similar behaviours to those of a variety of chemosensory organisms, the ability to track a three-dimensional odour trail appears unique, and possibly depends on the persistence of fluid-borne odour signals created in low Reynolds number hydrodynamic regimes. PMID:9652125

  11. Predation on Mosquito Larvae by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in the Presence of Alternate Prey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Kumar; T. Ramakrishna Rao

    2003-01-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, a dominant invertebrate predator in many shallow ponds and temporary water bodies in northern India, feeds on cladocerans, rotifers, ciliates and when present, on mosquito larvae also. We studied in the laboratory the prey consumption rates of the copepod on first and fourth instar larvae of two species of mosquito (Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus)

  12. Using multitable techniques for assessing the temporal variability of species–environment relationship in a copepod community from a temperate estuarine ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sónia Cotrim Marques; Miguel Ângelo Pardal; Susana Mendes; Ulisses Miranda Azeiteiro

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated copepod assemblages' distribution patterns and determined the main hydrological and physical factors structuring it at different temporal scales. Copepod and hydrographic surveys were conducted seasonally during a one-year period, at a fixed station in Mondego estuary. Hourly samples were collected, during a diel cycle from sub-surface and 1m above the bottom, at spring tides. Temporal variability of

  13. Fatty alcohols in capelin, herring and mackerel oils and muscle lipids: I. Fatty alcohol details linking dietary copepod fat with certain fish depot fats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Ratnayake; R. G. Ackman

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the shorter chain (C14-C18) minor fatty alcohols in copepods, fish body lipids, and commercial fish oils are all qualitatively present, and quantitatively\\u000a similar in proportions to acids found in the depot fats of capelin and mackerel, and in some herring. Although these fatty\\u000a acids can be formed de novo in fish, copepod alcohols offer an alternative

  14. A new species of copepod (Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae) parasitic on the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur) from Western Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Newbound, Dennyse R

    2004-05-01

    A new species of sea-louse (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida), Caligus oculicola n. sp., is described from the eye surface of the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier from off the northwestern coast of Australia. This copepod is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters that include: (i) a bifid, dentiform process of the maxillule; (ii) a sternal furca with a box longer than wide and diverging, truncate tines; (iii) terminal spines 1 to 3 on the last segment of leg 1 exopod, each with serrate margins and an accessory process (accessory process on the spines extending beyond the tip of the spine itself); and (iv) a two-segmented exopod of leg 4 with an armature formula of I-0; III. This is the first description of a caligid copepod collected from a shark host in Western Australian waters. The host-parasite relationships between Caligus oculicola and its elasmobranch host are discussed. PMID:15084834

  15. The role of ciliates, heterotrophic dinoflagellates and copepods in structuring spring plankton communities at Helgoland Roads, North Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin G. J. LoderCedric; Cédric Meunier; Karen H. Wiltshire; Maarten Boersma; Nicole Aberle

    2011-01-01

    Mesocosm experiments coupled with dilution grazing experiments were carried out during the phytoplankton spring bloom 2009.\\u000a The interactions between phytoplankton, microzooplankton and copepods were investigated using natural plankton communities\\u000a obtained from Helgoland Roads (54°11.3?N; 7°54.0?E), North Sea. In the absence of mesozooplankton grazers, the microzooplankton\\u000a rapidly responded to different prey availabilities; this was most pronounced for ciliates such as strombidiids

  16. The day and night vertical distributions of calanoid copepods in the western Gulf of Mexico, with reference to feeding relationships 

    E-print Network

    Minello, Thomas Joseph

    1974-01-01

    of my family, especially my parents, for their encouragement and support throughout this study. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Pacae INTRODUCTION METHODS AND MATERIALS RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 22 General 22 Zooplankton and Copepod Abundance Displacement...; the Adaptive Value of Vertical Migration . 65 REFERENCES APPENDIX ~ 75 82 VITA 125 viii LIST OF TABLES Number Pacae Collection data Species list The day and night percentage of calanoids formed by common families at specific depths Dominant...

  17. Food-web inferences of stable isotope spatial patterns in copepods and yellowfin tuna in the pelagic eastern Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Olson; Brian N. Popp; Brittany S. Graham; Gladis A. López-Ibarra; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Cleridy E. Lennert-Cody; Noemi Bocanegra-Castillo; Natalie J. Wallsgrove; Elizabeth Gier; Vanessa Alatorre-Ramírez; Lisa T. Ballance; Brian Fry

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the impacts of climate and fishing on oceanic ecosystems requires an improved understanding of the trophodynamics of pelagic food webs. Our approach was to examine broad-scale spatial relationships among the stable N isotope values of copepods and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and to quantify yellowfin tuna trophic status in the food web based on stable-isotope and stomach-contents analyses. Using

  18. Vertical distribution, population structure and life cycles of four oncaeid copepods in the Oyashio region, western subarctic Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichiro Nishibe; Tsutomu Ikeda

    2007-01-01

    Vertical distribution and population structure of four dominant oncaeid copepods (Triconia borealis, Triconia canadensis, Oncaea grossa and Oncaea parila) were investigated in the Oyashio region, western subarctic Pacific. Seasonal samples were collected with 0.06 mm mesh nets\\u000a from five discrete layers between the surface and 2,000 m depth at seven occasions (March, May, June, August and October 2002,\\u000a December 2003 and February

  19. Vertical distribution, population structure and life cycles of four oncaeid copepods in the Oyashio region, western subarctic PaciWc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichiro Nishibe; Tsutomu Ikeda

    2007-01-01

    Vertical distribution and population struc- ture of four dominant oncaeid copepods (Triconia borealis, Triconia canadensis, Oncaea grossa and Oncaea parila) were investigated in the Oyashio region, western subarctic PaciWc. Seasonal samples were collected with 0.06 mm mesh nets from Wve dis- crete layers between the surface and 2,000 m depth at seven occasions (March, May, June, August and Octo- ber

  20. Expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to trace metals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyun-Woo; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Yu, In Tag; Lee, Young-Mi; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2008-09-17

    The intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus has been recognized as a potential model species for marine pollution toxicity testing. Toxicity ranges of several biocides, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and trace metals are known in T. japonicus. A large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic DNA are also sequenced from T. japonicus. In this study, expression of ten glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes was studied in the copepods exposed to trace metals. Expression of these genes was also studied against exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) used as a positive control with prooxidant activity. Of all genes, expression of GST-Sigma (GSTS) was highly upregulated in H(2)O(2) as well as trace metal-exposed copepods. In the time-course study, expression of GSTS mRNA was more consistent compared to other GSTs such as GST-Omega, GST-Delta1, GST-Theta3 or microsomal GST1 (mGST1). GSTS is predominantly reported from the insects. Coupled with the previous study of the in vitro antioxidant role of T. japonicus GSTS, these findings imply an antioxidant role for GSTS and highlight its importance as a biomarker of exposure to trace metals in T. japonicus. However, further validation and field trials would be necessary to propose GSTS gene expression as biomarker of exposure to trace metals, as for some trace metals such as silver the response was not consistent in concentration and time-series exposure experiments. PMID:18676034

  1. Ecdysteroid concentrations through various life-stages of the meiobenthic harpacticoid copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis and the benthic estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Block, David S; Bejarano, Adriana C; Chandler, G Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Endocrine function in arthropods has principally been characterized in insects and malacostracan crustaceans. However, meiofauna represent the most abundant metazoan marine taxa, with harpacticoid copepods comprising the second most abundant taxon. In addition, their diminutive biomass has made characterization of endocrine components difficult, so little is known about endocrine control of reproduction, molting, and growth in meiofauna. In this study, a sensitive fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was utilized to quantify and compare the arthropod molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), in various life-cycle and developmental stages of a laboratory reared meiobenthic copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis, and in an amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. In copepods, gravid females carrying late stage pre-hatch embryos contained significantly more 20E (390+/-252 fmol/female) than gravids carrying early (Stage-I) embryos (172+/-83 fmol/female). In contrast, ecdysteroid levels in Stage-I L. plumulosus gravid females (277+/-83 fmol/female) was greater than pre-hatch gravid females (146+/-42). Stage-I embryos of both copepods (19+/-10) and amphipods (11+/-5 fmol/embryo) possessed lower ecdysteroid content than copepod (35+/-15) and amphipod (43+/-33 fmol/embryo) pre-hatch embryos. Ecdysteroid levels were also assessed in naupliar, juvenile, adult male and non-gravid female copepod life-stages. In addition, ecdysteroids measured in field collected copepod species indicated gravid females possessed ecdysteroid levels similar to gravid A. tenuiremis. However, upon normalization of egg sac 20E content by brood size, embryos from larger broods contained lower levels of ecdysteroids when compared to embryos from smaller clutch sizes-indicating an inverse embryo/ecdysteroid relationship may exist across species. PMID:12765655

  2. Short-term changes of the mesozooplankton community and copepod gut pigment in the Chukchi Sea in autumn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, K.; Yamaguchi, A.; Nishino, S.; Inoue, J.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-03-01

    In the Chukchi Sea, due to the recent drastic reduction of sea-ice during the summer, an increasing formation of atmospheric turbulence has been reported. However, the importance and effects of atmospheric turbulence on the marine ecosystem are not fully understood in this region. To evaluate the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the marine ecosystem, high-frequent sampling (two to four times per day) on the mesozooplankton community and the gut pigment of dominant copepods were made at a fixed station in the Chukchi Sea from 10 to 25 September 2013. During the study period, a strong wind event (SWE) was observed on 18 September. After the SWE, the standing stock of chlorophyll a (chl a) was increased, especially for micro-size (> 10 ?m) fractions. Zooplankton abundance ranged 23 610-56 809 ind. m-2 and exhibited no clear changes with SWE. In terms of abundance, calanoid copepods constituted the most dominated taxa (mean: 57%), followed by barnacle larvae (31%). Within the calanoid copepods, small-sized Pseudocalanus spp. (65%) and large-sized Calanus glacialis (30%) dominated. In the population structure of C. glacialis, copepodid stage 5 (C5) dominated, and the mean copepodid stage did not vary with SWE. The dominance of accumulated lipids in C5 and C6 females with immature gonads indicated that they were preparing for seasonal diapause. The gut pigment of C. glacialis C5 was higher at night and was correlated with ambient chl a, and a significant increase was observed after SWE (2.6 vs. 4.5 ng pigment ind.-1). Assuming C : Chl a ratio, the grazing impact by C. glacialis C5 was estimated to be 4.14 mg C m-2 day-1, which corresponded to 0.5-4.6% of the standing stock of micro-size phytoplankton. Compared with the metabolic food requirement, their feeding on phytoplankton accounted for 12.6% of their total food requirement. These facts suggest that C. glacialis could not maintain their population on solely phytoplankton food, and other food sources (i.e., microzooplankton) are important in autumn. As observed for the increase in gut pigment, temporal phytoplankton bloom, which is enhanced by the atmospheric turbulence (SWE) in autumn, may have a positive effect on copepod nutrition. However, because of the relatively long generation length of copepods, a smaller effect was detected for their abundance, population structure, lipid accumulation and gonad maturation within the short-term period (16 days).

  3. Cryptic speciation on the high seas; global phylogenetics of the copepod family Eucalanidae.

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Erica

    2003-01-01

    Few genetic data are currently available to assess patterns of population differentiation and speciation in planktonic taxa that inhabit the open ocean. A phylogenetic study of the oceanic copepod family Eucalanidae was undertaken to develop a model zooplankton taxon in which speciation events can be confidently identified. A global survey of 20 described species (526 individuals) sampled from 88 locations worldwide found high levels of cryptic diversity at the species level. Mitochondrial (16S rRNA, CO1) and nuclear (ITS2) DNA sequence data support 12 new genetic lineages as highly distinct from other populations with which they are currently considered conspecific. Out of these 12, at least four are new species. The circumglobal, boundary current species Rhincalanus nasutus was found to be a cryptic species complex, with genetic divergence between populations unrelated to geographic distance. 'Conspecific' populations of seven species exhibited varying levels of genetic differentiation between Atlantic and Pacific basins, suggesting that continental landmasses form barriers to dispersal for a subset of circumglobal species. A molecular phylogeny of the family based on both mitochondrial (16S rRNA) and nuclear (ITS2, 18S rRNA) gene loci supports monophyly of the family Eucalanidae, all four eucalanid genera and the 'pileatus' and 'subtenuis' species groups. PMID:14667347

  4. [New and recognized species of copepods (Chitonophilidae)--parasites of chitons of Northern Pacific].

    PubMed

    Avdeev, G V; Sirenko, B I

    2005-01-01

    Descriptions and figures of the following new and recognized species of copepods parasitizing chitons are given: Leptochitonicola sphaerica sp. n. from Leptochiton rugatus (Carpenter in Pilsbry, 1892) from the Sea of Japan, Leptochitonicola intermedia sp. n. from Leptochiton sp. from off Eastern Kamchatka, L. hanleyellai sp. n. from Hanleyella asiatica Sirenko, 1973 from near Commanders Islands, Leptochitonicola attenuata sp. n. from Leptochiton cf. rugatus from near the Bering Sea coast of Bering Island, Ischnochitonika kurochkini sp. n. on Lepidozona multigranosa Sirenko, 1975, L. kobjakovae kobjakovae (Jakovleva, 1952) and L. albrechti (Schrenck, 1863) all from the Sea of Japan and Okhotsk Sea, Ischnochitonica aleutica sp. n. on Leptochiton cf. belknapi from near the Aleutian Islands and from Kronotsky Bay, and Leptochitonoides vitiasi gen. et sp. n. from Leptochiton cf. belknapi from near Prince Wales Island. Ischnochitonica lasalliana Franz et Bullock, 1990 and I. japonica Nagasawa et al., 1991 are redescribed, new hosts and localities are given. New data on other chitonophilids are reported including recognized species. The amended diagnoses of the genera Ischnochitonika Franz et Bullock, 1990 and Leptochitonicola Avdeev et Sirenko, 1991 are provided. PMID:16396392

  5. Climate, copepods and seabirds in the boreal Northeast Atlantic - current state and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Morten; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Beaugrand, Grégory; Wanless, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    The boreal Northeast Atlantic is strongly affected by current climate change, and large shifts in abundance and distribution of many organisms have been observed, including the dominant copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which supports the grazing food web and thus many fish populations. At the same time, large-scale declines have been observed in many piscivorous seabirds, which depend on abundant small pelagic fish. Here, we combine predictions from a niche model of C. finmarchicus with long-term data on seabird breeding success to link trophic levels. The niche model shows that environmental suitability for C. finmarchicus has declined in southern areas with large breeding seabird populations (e.g. the North Sea), and predicts that this decline is likely to spread northwards during the 21st century to affect populations in Iceland and the Faroes. In a North Sea colony, breeding success of three common piscivorous seabird species [black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), common guillemot (Uria aalge) and Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica)] was strongly positively correlated with local environmental suitability for C. finmarchicus, whereas this was not the case at a more northerly colony in west Norway. Large seabird populations seem only to occur where C. finmarchicus is abundant, and northward distributional shifts of common boreal seabirds are therefore expected over the coming decades. Whether or not population size can be maintained depends on the dispersal ability and inclination of these colonial breeders, and on the carrying capacity of more northerly areas in a warmer climate. PMID:23504776

  6. Elevated oxidative damage is correlated with reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of a marine copepod.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Felipe S; Burton, Ronald S

    2013-09-22

    Aerobic energy production occurs via the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS), which is critically dependent on interactions between the 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded and approximately 70 nuclear-encoded protein subunits. Disruptive mutations in any component of OXPHOS can result in impaired ATP production and exacerbated oxidative stress; in mammalian systems, such mutations are associated with ageing as well as numerous diseases. Recent studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in fitness trade-offs in life-history evolution and functional ecology. Here, we show that outcrossing between populations with divergent mtDNA can exacerbate cellular oxidative stress in hybrid offspring. In the copepod Tigriopus californicus, we found that hybrids that showed evidence of fitness breakdown (low fecundity) also exhibited elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA, whereas those with no clear breakdown did not show significantly elevated damage. The extent of oxidative stress in hybrids appears to be dependent on the degree of genetic divergence between their respective parental populations, but this pattern requires further testing using multiple crosses at different levels of divergence. Given previous evidence in T. californicus that hybridization disrupts nuclear/mitochondrial interactions and reduces hybrid fitness, our results suggest that such negative intergenomic epistasis may also increase the production of damaging cellular oxidants; consequently, mtDNA evolution may play a significant role in generating postzygotic isolating barriers among diverging populations. PMID:23902912

  7. Fitness and morphological outcomes of many generations of hybridization in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, V L; Knutson, V L; Lee, M; Zieba, J; Edmands, S

    2013-02-01

    Hybridization between genetically divergent populations is an important evolutionary process, with an outcome that is difficult to predict. We used controlled crosses and freely mating hybrid swarms, followed for up to 30 generations, to examine the morphological and fitness consequences of interpopulation hybridization in the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Patterns of fitness in two generations of controlled crosses were partly predictive of long-term trajectories in hybrid swarms. For one pair of populations, controlled crosses revealed neutral or beneficial effects of hybridization after the F1 generation, and hybrid swarm fitness almost always equalled or exceeded that of the midparent. For a second pair, controlled crosses showed F2 hybrid breakdown, but increased fitness in backcrosses, and hybrid swarm fitness deviated both above and below that of the parentals. Nevertheless, individual swarm replicates exhibited different fitness trajectories over time that were not related in a simple manner to their hybrid genetic composition, and fixation of fitter hybrid phenotypes was not observed. Hybridization did not increase overall morphological variation, and underlying genetic changes may have been masked by phenotypic plasticity. Nevertheless, one type of hybrid swarm exhibited a repeatable pattern of transgressively large eggsacs, indicating a positive effect of hybridization on individual fecundity. Additionally, both parental and hybrid swarms exhibited common phenotypic trends over time, indicating common selective pressures in the laboratory environment. Our results suggest that, in a system where much work has focused on F2 hybrid breakdown, the long-term fitness consequences of interpopulation hybridization are surprisingly benign. PMID:23278939

  8. Trade-offs, geography, and limits to thermal adaptation in a tide pool copepod.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Morgan W; Grosberg, Richard K; Sanford, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Antagonistic correlations among traits may slow the rate of adaptation to a changing environment. The tide pool copepod Tigriopus californicus is locally adapted to temperature, but within populations, the response to selection for increased heat tolerance plateaus rapidly, suggesting either limited variation within populations or costs of increased tolerance. To measure possible costs of thermal tolerance, we selected for increased upper lethal limits for 10 generations in 22 lines of T. californicus from six populations. Then, for each line, we measured six fitness-related traits. Selected lines showed an overall increase in male and female body sizes, fecundity, and starvation resistance, suggesting a small benefit from (rather than costs of) increased tolerance. The effect of selection on correlated traits also varied significantly by population for five traits, indicating that the genetic basis for the selection response differed among populations. Our results suggest that adaptation was limited by the presence of variation within isolated populations rather than by costs of increased tolerance. PMID:23669546

  9. Acclimation and adaptation to common marine pollutants in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Patrick Y; Foley, Helen B; Handschumacher, Lisa; Suzuki, Amanda; Karamanukyan, Tigran; Edmands, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Establishing water quality criteria using bioassays is complicated by variation in chemical tolerance between populations. Two major contributors to this variation are acclimation and adaptation, which are both linked to exposure history, but differ in how long their effects are maintained. Our study examines how tolerance changes over multiple generations of exposure to two common marine pollutants, copper (Cu) and tributyltin oxide (TBTO), in a sexually reproducing marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus. Lines of T. californicus were chronically exposed to sub-lethal levels of Cu and TBTO for 12 generations followed by a recovery period of 3 generations in seawater control conditions. At each generation, the average number of offspring produced and survived to 28 d was determined and used as the metric of tolerance. Lines exposed to Cu and TBTO showed an overall increase in tolerance over time. Increased Cu tolerance arose by generation 3 in the chronically exposed lines and was lost after 3 generations in seawater control conditions. Increased TBTO tolerance was detected at generation 7 and was maintained even after 3 generations in seawater control conditions. It was concluded from this study that tolerance to Cu is consistent with acclimation, a quick gain and loss of tolerance. In contrast, TBTO tolerance is consistent with adaptation, in which onset of tolerance was delayed relative to an acclimation response and maintained in the absence of exposure. These findings illustrate that consideration of exposure history is necessary when using bioassays to measure chemical tolerance. PMID:25048941

  10. Genetic and Physiological Adaptation of the Copepod EURYTEMORA AFFINIS to Seasonal Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Brian P.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence of significant additive genetic (genic) variance in temperature tolerance of the copepod Eurytemora affinis was derived from several sources. Differences were observed between average tolerances of progeny of animals exposed and not exposed to heat shock in a power plant. Genic variance was estimated using offspring-parent regressions, full-sib, and half-sib covariances, with quite consistent results. Expressed genic variance between male progeny was always higher than that among female progeny.—The pairs of estimates obtained were as follows: female heritabilities first, 0.40 ± 0.09 and 0.84 ± 0.35 (half-sibs); 0.20 ± 0.09 and 0.79 ± 0.24 (full-sibs); 0.11 ± 0.10 and 0.89 ± 0.45 (full-sibs); 0.28 ± 0.18 and 0.78 ± 0.29 (full-sibs); 0.11 ± 0.44 and 0.72 ± 0.26 (offspring-parent regression). There was no evidence of either nonadditive genetic variance or common environmental (maternal and brood) effects, implying that the genetic variance was mostly additive and was not maintained because of heterozygous advantage.—The presence of so much genetic variance is surprising in view of the high physiological adaptation found earlier, especially in females. PMID:17248856

  11. Functional genomics resources for the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus: EST database and physiological microarray

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Petra H.; Unal, Ebru; Hassett, R. Patrick; Smith, Christine M.; Bucklin, Ann; Christie, Andrew E.; Towle, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The copepod, Calanus finmarchicus is a keystone species for the North Atlantic. Because of recent changes in the geographic distribution of this species, there are questions as to how this organism responds physiologically to environmental cues. Molecular techniques allow for examination and new understanding of these physiological changes. Here, we describe the development of a microarray for high-throughput studies of the physiological ecology of C. finmarchicus. An EST database was generated for this species using a normalized cDNA library derived from adult and sub-adult individuals. Sequence data were clustered into contigs and annotated using Blastx. Target transcripts were selected, and unique, 50 base-pair, oligomer probes were generated for 995 genes. Blast2GO processing provided detailed information on gene function. The selected targets included broad representation of biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. The microarray was tested in two sets of comparisons: adult females maintained at different food concentrations and field-caught sub-adults showing differences in lipid storage. Up-regulated and down-regulated transcripts were identified for both comparisons. Only a small subset of the genes up-regulated in low food individuals were also up-regulated in lipid-poor animals; no overlap was seen between the genes down-regulated in the two comparisons. PMID:22277925

  12. Large, motile epifauna interact strongly with harpacticoid copepods and polychaetes at a bathyal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thistle, David; Eckman, James E.; Paterson, Gordon L. J.

    2008-03-01

    Strengths of interactions among groups of animals in deep-sea-sediment communities are poorly known. Large, motile epifauna (LME) such as sea cucumbers, star fishes, and demersal fishes occur in the deep sea and are sources of predation, disturbance, and habitat alteration and thus have the potential to interact strongly with infauna. At a site off the southwestern coast of the United States (32°57.3'N, 117°32.2'W, 780 m depth), we excluded the LME from five 75- ×75-cm plots with cages. After 143 d, we sampled these plots and five plots of the same size paired with them as controls. Abundances of harpacticoid copepods and polychaetes were significantly lower in cages than in controls. In several cages, nematodes and kinorhynchs were also dramatically less abundant than in paired controls. Results suggest that LME ordinarily affect the infaunal assemblage in such a way that harpacticoids and polychaetes (and perhaps nematodes and kinorhynchs) can maintain higher abundances than they can in the absence of LME, indicating that strong interactions can influence the organization of deep-sea-sediment communities. In a multivariate analysis of environmental parameters, cage and control samples were intermixed, so if the effect is transmitted by alterations of the environment by the LME, the nature of the alterations must be relatively local and remains to be discovered.

  13. Predation by the Dwarf Seahorse on Copepods: Quantifying Motion and Flows Using 3D High Speed Digital Holographic Cinematography - When Seahorses Attack!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmell, Brad; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Ed

    2008-11-01

    Copepods are an important planktonic food source for most of the world's fish species. This high predation pressure has led copepods to evolve an extremely effective escape response, with reaction times to hydrodynamic disturbances of less than 4 ms and escape speeds of over 500 body lengths per second. Using 3D high speed digital holographic cinematography (up to 2000 frames per second) we elucidate the role of entrainment flow fields generated by a natural visual predator, the dwarf seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) during attacks on its prey, Acartia tonsa. Using phytoplankton as a tracer, we recorded and reconstructed 3D flow fields around the head of the seahorse and its prey during both successful and unsuccessful attacks to better understand how some attacks lead to capture with little or no detection from the copepod while others result in failed attacks. Attacks start with a slow approach to minimize the hydro-mechanical disturbance which is used by copepods to detect the approach of a potential predator. Successful attacks result in the seahorse using its pipette-like mouth to create suction faster than the copepod's response latency. As these characteristic scales of entrainment increase, a successful escape becomes more likely.

  14. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K. Y.; Sastri, A. R.; Gong, G. C.; Hsieh, C. H.

    2013-03-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs, and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE). In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based predictions need further investigation.

  15. Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K. Y.; Sastri, A.; Gong, G. C.; Hsieh, C. H.

    2012-11-01

    Zooplankton play an essential role in marine food webs and understanding how community-level growth rates of zooplankton vary in the field is critical for predicting how marine ecosystem function may vary in the face of environmental changes. Here, we used the artificial cohort method to examine the effects of temperature, body size, and chlorophyll concentration (a proxy for food) on weight-specific growth rates for copepod communities in the East China Sea. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that copepod community growth rates can be described by the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), linking spatio-temporal variation of copepod growth rate with temperature and their body size. Our results generally agree with predictions made by the MTE and demonstrate that weight-specific growth rates of copepod communities in our study area are positively related with temperature and negatively related to body size. However, the regression coefficients of body size do not approach the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we find that the deviation from the MTE predictions may be partly attributed to the effect of food availability (which is not explicitly accounted for by the MTE). In addition, significant difference in the coefficients of temperature and body size exists among taxonomic groups. Our results suggest that considering the effects of food limitation and taxonomy is necessary to better understand copepod growth rates under in situ conditions, and such effects on the MTE-based prediction needs further investigation.

  16. Polychaete-parasitizing copepods from the deep-sea Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (Pacific Ocean), with the description of a new Ophelicola species and comments on the currently known annelidicolous copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradi, Mercedes; Bandera, M. Eugenia; Marin, Ivan; Martin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The annelid associated copepods, collectively called annelidicolous, were placed in 21 families. Some genera, such as Ophelicola, are considered phylogenetically isolated and are placed into the order Cyclopoida as incertae sedis. In this paper, we describe Ophelicola kurambia, the second species recorded for the genus and the first for the Pacific Ocean. The single known specimen, a female, was found during the German-Russian deep-sea expedition KuramBio at the deep-sea Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. The new species differs from Ophelicola drachi (known from the Gulf of Biscay, Atlantic Ocean) in being attached to the host through the mandibles instead of maxillae and, specially, in the formula of the antennular armature. The study of the new species contributes to clarify the diagnosis of the genus, which clearly differs from Notomasticola (another incertae sedis genus), and resembles both the most modified clausiids (in the mandibular shape and antennular segmentation) and the clausidiids (in the shape of maxilla). However, it does not contribute to clarify the position of Ophelicola within the order Cyclopoida. The paper includes a list of the known annelidicolous copepods (excluding Monstrilloidae) and summarises the main trends shown in terms of diversity, distribution and relationships. Currently, 168 species of copepods from to 74 genera and 22 families and 7 incertae sedis (excluding Monstrilloida) are known to be involved in 235 parasitic relationships (mostly ectoparasitic) with polychaetes. Host polychaetes include 156 species belonging to 104 genera from 22 families (plus 14 unknown). About 50% of these relationships are known from European waters, mainly from shallow depths.

  17. Impacts of restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on the seasonal distribution of abiotic variables, phytoplankton, copepods, and ciliates in a man-made solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Kobbi-Rebai, Rayda; Annabi-Trabelsi, Neila; Khemakhem, Hajer; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2013-03-01

    The restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum landfill was investigated for its effects on the seasonal distribution of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods. Sampling was carried out monthly from September 2007 to August 2008 at four ponds of increasing salinity (A1, 41 psu; A5, 46 psu; A16, 67 psu; and C31, 77 psu) in the Sfax solar saltern (southeastern Tunisia). Physicochemical and biological analyses were carried out using standard methods. Results showed drastic reduction of phosphate input and greater diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods than before restoration. Pennate diatoms and new ciliates, considered bio-indicators of less-stressed marine ecosystems, proliferated in the A1 pond for the first time after restoration. Copepods appeared to feed on a wide range of prey. Economically, removal of the 1.7 million m(3) of phosphate improved the quality of the site's salt production, enabling the salt company to receive the quality ISO 9001 accreditation. PMID:22628105

  18. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles of Paralichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods ( S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than those fed with the other two organisms ( P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others ( P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia ( P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  19. UV-B radiation-induced oxidative stress and p38 signaling pathway involvement in the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Kim, Min-Jung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation presents an environmental hazard to aquatic organisms. To understand the molecular responses of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus to UV-B radiation, we measured the acute toxicity response to 96 h of UV-B radiation, and we also assessed the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, glutathione (GSH) content, and antioxidant enzyme (GST, GR, GPx, and SOD) activities after 24 h of exposure to UV-B with LD50 and half LD50 values. Also, expression patterns of p53 and hsp gene families with phosphorylation of p38 MAPK were investigated in UV-B-exposed copepods. We found that the ROS level, GSH content, and antioxidant enzyme activity levels were increased with the transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant-related genes, indicating that UV-B induces oxidative stress by generating ROS and stimulating antioxidant enzymatic activity as a defense mechanism. Additionally, we found that p53 expression was significantly increased after UV-B irradiation due to increases in the phosphorylation of the stress-responsive p38 MAPK, indicating that UV-B may be responsible for inducing DNA damage in T. japonicus. Of the hsp family genes, transcriptional levels of hsp20, hsp20.7, hsp70, and hsp90 were elevated in response to a low dose of UV-B radiation (9 kJ m(-2)), suggesting that these hsp genes may be involved in cellular protection against UV-B radiation. In this paper, we performed a pathway-oriented mechanistic analysis in response to UV-B radiation, and this analysis provides a better understanding of the effects of UV-B in the intertidal benthic copepod T. japonicus. PMID:25152408

  20. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

  1. Effects of sediment-associated phenanthrene and fluoranthene on offspring production, grazing and behavior of an estuarine copepod

    SciTech Connect

    Lotufo, G.R. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology

    1995-12-31

    Estuarine harpacticoids proved to be excellent toxicity-test organisms due to their ecological importance, small size, short generation time and high fecundity and sensitivity. One acute and three different sublethal sediment-tests were performed using laboratory-cultured Schizopera knabeni, an abundant mud-flat harpacticoid copepod common in US estuaries. All experiments were conducted in the dark and at constant temperature. The sediment TOC was 1.5%. The 96hLC{sub 50} was 524 mg/kg, for phenanthrene and > 2,000 mg/kg for fluoranthene. A strong narcotic effect was observed in the fluoranthene exposures, in which copepods survived exposures of up to 2,100 mg/kg. Effects on offspring production was assessed by exposing either individual mating pairs (male clasping an immature female) or a pool of 20 adult non-ovigerous females and 15 males for 14 days. A significant decrease in the total number of offspring (eggs + juveniles) produced was detected at concentrations as low as 30 mg/kg for both compounds. A stronger reduction was observed on the fraction of the offspring that attained later development stages (copepodite), suggesting that PAHs retard egg hatching and larval development. Effects on grazing activity were detected by feeding starved copepods with {sup 14}C radiolabeled diatoms. A significant decrease in grazing occurred at phenanthrene and fluoranthene concentrations much lower than the 96hLC{sub 50} after a contaminant exposure period of only 48 hours. Behavior experiments performed in an avoidance arena demonstrated that Schizopera displays the ability to detect the presence of PAH in sediment and avoids exposure by selecting and burrowing into uncontaminated over contaminated sediment. This is the first investigation of the effects of PAH single compounds on a meiofaunal organism.

  2. Critical body-residues for lethal and sublethal effects of sediment-associated PAH on benthic copepods

    SciTech Connect

    Lotufo, G.R. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Zoology and Physiology

    1995-12-31

    Adult females of the meiobenthic copepod Schizopera knabeni were exposed to sediment-associated fluoranthene for 3, 6, 12, 24, 96, and 240 h. Sediment concentrations ranged from 25 to 1,661 nmol (5--336 {micro}g)/gdw and the TOC was 1.5%. Body burden increased to an apparent steady state after only 6 h. Elimination half-lives were 4.6 and 3.2 h in uncontaminated water and sediment, respectively. Toxic effects were only detected after 240 h as increased mortality and decreased offspring production. Significant mortality was observed only at the highest concentration; the LC50 was 1,011 nmol (204 {micro}g)/dgw. In contrast, offspring production was decreased at much lower concentrations, yielding an IC25 value of 148 nmol (30 {micro}g)/dgw. Lethal critical body residue (CBR) was determined as a 10-d LD50 of 15.5 {micro}mol/g dry tissue. By measuring PAH concentrations in the body and eggs of females, CBRs for reproductive output were determined as IC25 values of 2 and 3.1 {micro}mol/gdw, respectively. PAH sublethal effects on feeding rate were also investigated Adult copepods were exposed to {sup 14}C sediment-associated fluoranthene for 24 h were fed {sup 3}H-labeled algae for 3 h. Ingestion rate was significantly decreased at tissue concentrations as low as 1 {micro}mol/gdw and yielded an IC25 value of 0.6 {micro}mol/gdw. Similar findings were obtained using another species of estuarine copepod, Coullana sp. Non-polar narcotic compounds such as PAH cause a nonspecific disturbance of the functioning of cell membrane which results in decreased overall activity. Measurement of CBR associated with decreased feeding is proposed as a direct method to quantify sublethal narcotizing effects of organic compounds.

  3. Maternal Effects May Act as an Adaptation Mechanism for Copepods Facing pH and Temperature Changes

    PubMed Central

    Vehmaa, Anu; Brutemark, Andreas; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Acidification of the seas, caused by increased dissolution of CO2 into surface water, and global warming challenge the adaptation mechanisms of marine organisms. In boreal coastal environments, temperature and pH vary greatly seasonally, but sometimes also rapidly within hours due to upwelling events. We studied if copepod zooplankton living in a fluctuating environment are tolerant to climate change effects predicted for 2100, i.e., a temperature increase of 3°C and a pH decrease of 0.4. Egg production of the copepod Acartia sp. was followed over five consecutive days at four temperature and pH conditions (17°C/ambient pH; 17°C/low pH; 20°C/ambient pH; 20°C/low pH). Egg production was higher in treatments with warmer temperature but the increase was smaller when copepods were simultaneously exposed to warmer temperature and lowered pH. To reveal if maternal effects are important in terms of adaptation to a changing environment, we conducted an egg transplantation experiment, where the produced eggs were moved to a different environment and egg hatching was monitored for three days. When pH changed between the egg production and hatching conditions, it resulted in lower hatching success, but the effect was diminished over the course of the experiment possibly due to improved maternal provisioning. Warmer egg production temperature induced a positive maternal effect and increased the egg hatching rate. Warmer hatching temperature resulted also in earlier hatching. However, the temperature effects appear to be dependent on the ambient sea temperature. Our preliminary results indicate that maternal effects are an important mechanism in the face of environmental change. PMID:23119052

  4. Maternal effects may act as an adaptation mechanism for copepods facing pH and temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Vehmaa, Anu; Brutemark, Andreas; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Acidification of the seas, caused by increased dissolution of CO(2) into surface water, and global warming challenge the adaptation mechanisms of marine organisms. In boreal coastal environments, temperature and pH vary greatly seasonally, but sometimes also rapidly within hours due to upwelling events. We studied if copepod zooplankton living in a fluctuating environment are tolerant to climate change effects predicted for 2100, i.e., a temperature increase of 3°C and a pH decrease of 0.4. Egg production of the copepod Acartia sp. was followed over five consecutive days at four temperature and pH conditions (17°C/ambient pH; 17°C/low pH; 20°C/ambient pH; 20°C/low pH). Egg production was higher in treatments with warmer temperature but the increase was smaller when copepods were simultaneously exposed to warmer temperature and lowered pH. To reveal if maternal effects are important in terms of adaptation to a changing environment, we conducted an egg transplantation experiment, where the produced eggs were moved to a different environment and egg hatching was monitored for three days. When pH changed between the egg production and hatching conditions, it resulted in lower hatching success, but the effect was diminished over the course of the experiment possibly due to improved maternal provisioning. Warmer egg production temperature induced a positive maternal effect and increased the egg hatching rate. Warmer hatching temperature resulted also in earlier hatching. However, the temperature effects appear to be dependent on the ambient sea temperature. Our preliminary results indicate that maternal effects are an important mechanism in the face of environmental change. PMID:23119052

  5. Domestication as a Novel Approach for Improving the Cultivation of Calanoid Copepods: A Case Study with Parvocalanus crassirostris

    PubMed Central

    Alajmi, Fahad; Zeng, Chaoshu; Jerry, Dean R.

    2015-01-01

    Calanoid copepods are an important food source for most fish larvae. Their role as a natural prey item means that it is important to develop culture technology for copepods to meet the requirements of larvae culture in aquaculture hatcheries. Copepods have been cultured successfully for some time; however, the implications of long-term cultivation or domestication on copepod life history traits have not yet been assessed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if the domesticated and wild populations of Parvocalanus crassirostris are phenotypically or physiologically different. Wild-caught P. crassirostris were compared to a long-held domesticated strain (>2 years) for size of developmental stage, fecundity and lifespan of adult females, culture density, ingestion rates, faecal pellet production and fatty acid profiles. The domesticated strain was significantly different from the wild strain in size (eggs, nauplii, copepodites and adults were larger in the domesticated strain), egg production (112.3 ± 1.8 eggs female-1 vs. 64.6 ± 3.3 eggs female-1) and adult female lifespan (8.8 ± 0.1 days vs., 7.5 ± 0.1 days). At 1, 3 and 5 adults mL-1, the domesticated strain performed significantly better than the wild strain in egg production (4189.8 ± 61.2, 11224.0 ± 71.7 and 21860.6 ± 103.6 eggs vs. 1319.5 ± 54.3, 2374.5 ± 80.9 and 4933.8 ± 269.5 eggs, respectively) and mean daily mortality rate (5.6% across all densities vs. 22.9 ± 1.6, 29.8 ± 1.2 and 31.3 ± 1.3%, respectively). The domesticated strain had significantly higher ingestion rates than the wild stain (888.4 ± 9.9 ng C l-1 and 775.3 ± 11.2 ng C l-1, respectively), while faecal pellet production was not significantly different between strains. Fatty acid profiles indicated higher levels (as % of total fatty acid) of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the domesticated strain (36.2±0.4%) than the wild strain (16.1±0.1%). Overall, this study found that the reproductive capacity and tolerance to the culture environment of the calanoid P. crassirostris have improved significantly due to domestication. PMID:26186526

  6. Population genetic responses of the planktonic copepod Metridia pacifica to a coastal eddy in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklin, Ann

    1991-08-01

    Despite the intermixing that planktonic populations might be expected to experience in the ocean's fluid regime, zooplankton species may be subdivided across their range into genetically distinct populations. This subdivision, or population genetic structure, may be generated by the interplay of biological processes (reproduction, dispersal, differential mortality) and physical forces governing planktonic distributions. Significant population genetic structure in the planktonic copepod Metridia pacifica occurred during a period of upwelling in the coastal transition zone off the west coast of the United States during April and May 1987. During this period a coastal eddy of saline, recently upwelled water was bordered by a southward flowing current stream; offshore waters were nutrient poor and slower flowing. Metridia pacifica was the most abundant copepod in zooplankton samples collected in this domain; the species was sufficiently abundant in 16 samples to allow genetic analysis. Individual copepods were assayed for allozymic variability by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The samples were genetically heterogeneous (by a contingency chi-square analysis of allozymic frequencies). The genetic differentiation of the samples was characteristic of geographically separated conspecific populations. Cladistic (tree building) analyses were used to visualize the genetic relatedness of the 16 samples, based on the similarity of allozymic frequencies. This analysis resulted in two heterogeneous groups (of five and six samples each) and five anomalous samples that neither constituted a third group nor belonged to the two groups. Overlay of these groupings on the dynamic height topographies showed a concordance between the population genetic and oceanographic structures. Five of the six offshore samples belonged to one group; the five samples of the other group were found either in the eddy (two of three central eddy samples) or in the current jet. The remaining five samples were scattered in nearshore regions or in the frontal region between the eddy and offshore. The division of the samples into eddy and offshore groups may result from redistribution by currents of planktonic populations of different geographic origin and distinct genetic character. Thus the eddy may have entrained copepod populations originating from different source regions than the populations in offshore waters. Further genetic analysis on appropriate time and space scales will be required to determine the mechanisms generating structure in oceanic zooplankton.

  7. The tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus alters the activity and response, but not the predation susceptibility of infected copepods.

    PubMed

    Urdal, K; Tierney, J F; Jakobsen, P J

    1995-04-01

    Cyclops abyssorum and Cyclops scutifer were experimentally infected with procercoids of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus, then examined for altered behavior and susceptibility to predation, respectively. Infected C. abyssorum differed from uninfected controls in their initial response to disturbance and their degree of activity but only when they harbored procercoids that were potentially infective to the next host. To examine the possible consequence of the altered behavior for susceptibility to predation, three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were offered equal numbers of infected and uninfected C. scutifer. Infected copepods were not preyed upon significantly more than controls. PMID:7707222

  8. Microbial colonization of copepod body surfaces and chitin degradation in the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, M.

    1995-03-01

    Next to cellulose, chitin (composed of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine sugar units) is the most frequently occurring biopolymer in nature. Among the most common sources of chitin in the marine environment are copepods and the casings of their fecal pellets. During the mineralization of chitin by microorganisms, which occurs chiefly by means of exoenzymes, nitrogen and carbon are returned to the nutrient cycle. In this study, the microbial colonization of the moults (exuviae), carcasses and fecal pellets of Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) was examined in the laboratory. Results obtained with DAPI staining indicated that a succession of microorganisms from rodshaped bacteria and cocci to starlike aggregates took place, followed by the yeastlike fungus Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud. No differences were noted between moults from various developmental stages, from nauplius to adult. The ventral sides and extremities of exuviae and carcasses were more rapidly colonized than other parts of the bodies. The casings of fecal pellets were frequently surrounded by bacteria with fimbriae or slime threads. In situ studies of chitin degradation (practical grade chitin from crustacean shells) with the mesh bag technique showed that about 90% of the original substance was lost after 3 months exposure in seawater at temperatures between 10 and 18°C. Chitinase activity was measured in the water at two stations near Helgoland, an island in the North Sea. A higher exoenzymatic activity was found in the rocky intertidal zone, compared to the Station Cable Buoy located between the main and Düne island. These values correspond to the higher bacteria numbers (cfu ml-1) found in the rocky intertidal: 10 to 100× greater than those found at the Cable Buoy Station.

  9. Characteristics of egg production of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, on Georges Bank: 1994 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, J. A.; Plourde, S.; Joly, P.; Niehoff, B.; Durbin, E.

    2006-11-01

    We present here a synthesis of observations of egg production rates (EP) of the planktonic copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, carried out during process cruises of the US GLOBEC Northwest Atlantic/Georges Bank program between January and June 1995, 1997 and 1999. Female C. finmarchicus produced eggs at relatively high rates in at least some regions of Georges Bank during all months between January and June. Median, monthly EP varied between 24 eggs female -1 d -1 in January to 50 eggs female -1 d -1 in April-June; the highest mean EP was 86 eggs female -1 d -1. Mean egg diameter was negatively related to ambient mean water-column temperature (0-100 m or bottom), decreasing from 149 to 142 ?m between January and June. Direct measurements of body C or N or prosome length-mass relationships were used to determine mass-specific egg production rates. The relationships between estimates of chlorophyll a standing stock (mg chl. a m -2) and both C- and N-specific rates (% d -1) are reasonably well ( r2=0.42) described by Ivlev curves. It is likely that chlorophyll standing stock serves as a proxy of both phytoplankton and microzooplankton food concentrations available to adult females. Chlorophyll standing stocks were below the critical concentration (at which EP is 95% of the calculated maximum) at approximately 55% of stations occupied over the study period, indicating frequent food limitation to varying extent. There were periods (e.g., over at least 6 d in April, 1997 on the southern flank) during which food limitation was severe. There was no detectable influence of mean water-column temperature on mass-specific EP. Hatching success varied between 50% and 95% without any seasonal trend. Our qualitative observations suggest the possibility that a significant proportion of hatching nauplii incubations were non-viable, meriting further study.

  10. Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of diaptomid copepods in high elevation lakes in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liss, W.J.; Larson, Gary L.; Deimling, E.; Ganio, L.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Lomnicky, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the impact of abiotic factors and trout density on distribution and abundance of diaptomid copepods in high-elevation lakes in North Cascades National Park Service Complex (NOCA), Washington, USA. The most common large diaptomid, D. kenai (mean length = 1.88 mm), was able to persist over a wide range of abiotic factors, but the small herbivorous diaptomid, D. tyrrelli (mean length = 1.18 mm), was restricted to shallow lakes (maximum depth 250 fish ha-1) than in fishless lakes, in deep lakes with reproducing trout, or in lakes where trout do not reproduce and are 0periodically stocked with fry at low densities (average 179 fry a-1). In lakes where chemical conditions were suitable for D. tyrrelli, the small diaptomid was often abundant when trout density was high and large diaptomids were either absent or in low abundance. Our research suggests that trout density, nutrient concentration, and lake depth influence the abundance of diaptomid copepods in high lakes in NOCA.

  11. Dietary carotenoids regulate astaxanthin content of copepods and modulate their susceptibility to UV light and copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Caramujo, Maria-José; de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Silva, Soraya J; Carman, Kevin R

    2012-05-01

    High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans where, among other functions, it scavenges free radicals thus protecting cell compounds against oxidation. Four diets with different carotenoid composition were used to culture the meiobenthic copepod Amphiascoides atopus to assess how its astaxanthin content modulates the response to prooxidant stressors. A. atopus had the highest astaxanthin content when the carotenoid was supplied as astaxanthin esters (i.e., Haematococcus meal). Exposure to short wavelength UV light elicited a 77% to 92% decrease of the astaxanthin content of the copepod depending on the culture diet. The LC(50) values of A. atopus exposed to copper were directly related to the initial astaxanthin content. The accumulation of carotenoids may ascribe competitive advantages to certain species in areas subjected to pollution events by attenuating the detrimental effects of metals on survival, and possibly development and fecundity. Conversely, the loss of certain dietary items rich in carotenoids may be responsible for the amplification of the effects of metal exposure in consumers. PMID:22822352

  12. Copepod feeding and reproduction in relation to phytoplankton development during the PeECE III mesocosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, Y.; Putzeys, S.; Simonelli, P.; Paulino, A.; Meyerhöfer, M.; Suffrian, K.; Antia, A.; Nejstgaard, J. C.

    2007-10-01

    Within the frame of the Pelagic Ecosystem CO2 Enrichment (PeECE III) experiment, reproduction and feeding of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was monitored in relation to phytoplankton development in two mesocosms, at present 1× (350 ?atm) and ca 3× present (1050 ?atm) CO2 concentrations, respectively. Both mesocosms showed rapid phytoplankton growth after the initial nutrient additions and reached maximum chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations around day 10. Flow-cytometry and specific pigment analysis (HPLC-CHEMTAX), showed that diatoms and prymnesiophyceae (Emiliania huxleyi (Ehux) and other nanoplankton) dominated the biomass. Feeding and egg production rates of C. finmarchicus developed similarly in both mesocosms, and were positively correlated with Chla, Ehux, diatom and prymnesiophyceae concentrations. Although the total number of copepod nauplii recruited during the experiment was similar in 1× and 3×, significantly less nauplii were recruited in 3× during the peak of the bloom compared to in 1×. We conclude that the algae responsible for the higher biomass in 3× during the peak of the bloom (diatoms and Ehux), may have been relatively inferior food for C. finmarchicus naupliar recruitment, possibly due to a high C:N ratio (>8). Nevertheless, the 3 fold increase in CO2 concentration did not show any clear overall effect on bulk phytoplankton or zooplankton development over the whole experiment, suggesting a more complex coupling between increased CO2 and the nutritional status of the system.

  13. Individual-based models of copepod populations in coastal upwelling regions: implications of physiologically and environmentally influenced diel vertical migration on demographic success and nearshore retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, Harold P.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Powell, Thomas M.

    We link a two-dimension coastal upwelling circulation hydrodynamic-ecosystem (NPZ) model with an individual-based model (IBM) for an intermediate sized (ca. 2.5 mm) copepod capable of diel vertical migration (DVM) at larger sizes. The NPZ model is that of Franks, Wroblewski and Flierl (1986), with the zooplankton state variable parameterized for macrozooplankton. IBM simulations are done with different scenarios for behavioral responses; the interaction of the organisms with the circulation is evaluated by examining growth/development, reproduction, survival and distribution. Since ocean productivity in coastal upwelling systems is greatest nearshore, zooplankton production is favored by nearshore retention. Model results, using an idealized, intermittently wind-forced, upwelling circulation, indicate that non-migrating copepods are flushed from the nearshore system in offshore zonal surface flow; highest population abundances occur offshore, in a region of relatively low food resources. Conversely, migrating copepods interact with the stratified zonal flow within the upwelling system and are retained nearshore when the amplitude of the DVM is sufficient to place the individuals in near-bottom onshore flow during the day. Environmental features, like deep-extending food resources, and physiological controls, like satiation or body size, that permit copepods to remain deeper, or spend more time away from the surface, favor nearshore retention. Diel vertical migration is one mechanism, which may permit animals to exploit favorable habitats located nearshore in upwelling systems.

  14. An analysis of a zooplankton sampling-gear change in the CalCOFI long-term monitoring program, with implications for copepod population abundance trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebstock, Ginger A.

    The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has been systematically sampling zooplankton off the west coast of North America since 1949. In 1978, the 1-m diameter ring net used by the program was replaced with a bongo net, which consists of two 0.71-m diameter nets on a single frame. This study compares paired zooplankton samples taken with a ring net and a 0.71-m or 0.6-m bongo net to determine the relative performances of the two net types for catching calanoid copepods. Thirty-one species and stages were enumerated, along with the category ‘total female calanoids’. Twenty-one categories of calanoid copepods were abundant enough to test for effects of changes in net type. No significant differences between the nets were found after correcting for multiple testing. Statistical power was then estimated for a range of potential net effects equivalent to ratios of copepod densities between the nets of 1.1-3.0. The probability of detecting differences greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 was high (?80%) for total female calanoids, Metridia pacifica, Pleuromamma abdominalis edentata, P. borealis, Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus. For these categories of copepods, any population changes greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 that might be found from the CalCOFI data set can be assumed to be the result of factors other than the change in net type.

  15. Production biology of copepods and cladocerans in three south- east Sri Lankan low-land reservoirs and its comparison to other tropical freshwater bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bandu Amarasinghe; Jacobus Vijverberg; Maarten Boersma

    1997-01-01

    Production, biomass and productivity of the microcrustacean zooplankton populations of three low-land reservoirs, Tissawewa (eutrophic), Ridiyagama (moderately eutrophic), and Muruthawela (mesotrophic) in South-east Sri Lanka were studied. The temporal variation of zooplankton production was studied in Tissawewa on basis of fortnightly sampling on five fixed sampling stations for 2 years. Zooplankton production was relatively high, mainly because of high copepod

  16. Winter distribution and overwintering strategies of the Antarctic copepod species Calanoides acutus, Rhincalanus gigas and Calanus propinquus (Crustacea,Calanoida) in the Weddell Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. V. Bathmann; R. R. Makarov; V. A. Spiridonov; G. Rohardt

    1993-01-01

    During the Winter Weddell Gyre Study in September–October 1989, the horizontal and vertical distribution, stage composition and feeding condition of the three antarctic copepod species Calanoides acutus, Rhincalanus gigas and Calanus propinquus were studied. The data indicate that C. acutus and R. gigas have the bases of their distributional ranges (sensu Makarov et al. 1982) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity study of the water accommodated fraction (WAF), chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of crude oil and dispersant in the rock pool copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyun-Woo; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Kang, Jung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    We determined the toxicity of the water accommodated hydrocarbon fraction (WAF), two chemically enhanced WAFs (CEWAFs; CEWAF-C, Crude oil+Corexit 9500 and CEWAF-H, Crude oil+Hiclean) of crude oil and two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and Hiclean) to the rock pool copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In the acute toxicity test, Corexit 9500 was the most toxic of all the chemicals studied. The nauplius stage of T. japonicus was more susceptible to the toxic chemicals studied than the adult female. The toxicity data using the nauplius stage was then considered as baseline to determine the spiking concentration of chemicals for chronic toxicity tests on the copepod. As the endpoints in the chronic toxicity test, survival, sex ratio, developmental time and fecundity of the copepod were used. All chemicals used in this study resulted in increased toxicity in the F1 generation. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect (LOAE) concentrations of WAF, CEWAF-H, CEWAF-C, Hiclean and Corexit 9500 were observed to be 50%, 10%, 0.1%, 1% and 1%, respectively. The results in present study imply that copepods in marine may be negatively influenced by spilled oil and dispersant. PMID:23466279

  18. CellTracker Green labelling vs. Rose Bengal staining: CTG wins by points in distinguishing living from dead anoxia-impacted copepods and nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grego, M.; Stachowitsch, M.; De Troch, M.; Riedel, B.

    2013-02-01

    Hypoxia and anoxia have become a key threat to shallow coastal seas. Much is known about their impact on macrofauna, less on meiofauna. In an attempt to shed more light on the latter group, in particular from a process-oriented view, we experimentally induced short-term anoxia (1 week) in the Northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean, and examined the two most abundant meiofauna taxa - harpacticoid copepods and nematodes. Both taxa also represent different ends of the tolerance spectrum, with copepods being the most sensitive and nematodes among the most tolerant. We compared two methods: CellTracker Green (CTG) - new labelling approach for meiofauna - with the traditional Rose Bengal (RB) staining method. CTG binds to active enzymes and therefore colours live organisms only. The two methods show considerable differences in the number of living and dead individuals of both meiofauna taxa. Generally, RB will stain dead but not yet decomposed copepods and nematodes equally as live ones. Specifically, RB significantly overestimated the number of living copepods in all sediment layers in anoxic samples, but not in any normoxic samples. In contrast, for nematodes, the methods did not show such a clear difference between anoxia and normoxia. Surprisingly, RB overestimated the number of living nematodes in the top sediment layer of normoxic samples, which implies an overestimation of the overall live nematofauna. For monitoring and biodiversity studies, the RB method might be sufficient, but for more fine-scaled (days, hours, tipping points) studies, especially on hypoxia and anoxia where it is necessary to resolve the course of events, CTG labelling is a better tool. Moreover, it clearly highlights the surviving species within the copepod or nematode community. As already accepted for foraminiferal research, we demonstrate that the CTG labelling is also valid for other meiofauna groups.

  19. CellTracker Green labelling vs. rose bengal staining: CTG wins by points in distinguishing living from dead anoxia-impacted copepods and nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grego, M.; Stachowitsch, M.; De Troch, M.; Riedel, B.

    2013-07-01

    Hypoxia and anoxia have become a key threat to shallow coastal seas. Much is known about their impact on macrofauna, less on meiofauna. In an attempt to shed more light on the latter group, in particular from a process-oriented view, we experimentally induced short-term anoxia (1 week) in the northern Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean) and examined the two most abundant meiofauna taxa - harpacticoid copepods and nematodes. Both taxa also represent different ends of the tolerance spectrum, with copepods being the most sensitive and nematodes among the most tolerant. We compared two methods: CellTracker Green (CTG) - new labelling approach for meiofauna - with the traditional rose bengal (RB) staining method. CTG binds to active enzymes and therefore colours live organisms only. The two methods show considerable differences in the number of living and dead individuals of both meiofauna taxa. Generally, RB will stain dead but not yet decomposed copepods and nematodes equally as it does live ones. Specifically, RB significantly overestimated the number of living copepods in all sediment layers in anoxic samples, but not in any normoxic samples. In contrast, for nematodes, the methods did not show such a clear difference between anoxia and normoxia. RB overestimated the number of living nematodes in the top sediment layer of normoxic samples, which implies an overestimation of the overall live nematofauna. For monitoring and biodiversity studies, the RB method might be sufficient, but for more precise quantification of community degradation, especially after an oxygen depletion event, CTG labelling is a better tool. Moreover, it clearly highlights the surviving species within the copepod or nematode community. As already accepted for foraminiferal research, we demonstrate that the CTG labelling is also valid for other meiofauna groups.

  20. Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For parasites with complex life cycles, size at transmission can impact performance in the next host, thereby coupling parasite phenotypes in the two consecutive hosts. However, a handful of studies with parasites, and numerous studies with free-living, complex-life-cycle animals, have found that larval size correlates poorly with fitness under particular conditions, implying that other traits, such as physiological or ontogenetic variation, may predict fitness more reliably. Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, we evaluated how parasite size, age, and ontogeny in the copepod first host interact to determine performance in the stickleback second host. Methods We raised infected copepods under two feeding treatments (to manipulate parasite growth), and then exposed fish to worms of two different ages (to manipulate parasite ontogeny). We assessed how growth and ontogeny in copepods affected three measures of fitness in fish: infection probability, growth rate, and energy storage. Results Our main, novel finding is that the increase in fitness (infection probability and growth in fish) with larval size and age observed in previous studies on S. solidus seems to be largely mediated by ontogenetic variation. Worms that developed rapidly (had a cercomer after 9?days in copepods) were able to infect fish at an earlier age, and they grew to larger sizes with larger energy reserves in fish. Infection probability in fish increased with larval size chiefly in young worms, when size and ontogeny are positively correlated, but not in older worms that had essentially completed their larval development in copepods. Conclusions Transmission to sticklebacks as a small, not-yet-fully developed larva has clear costs for S. solidus, but it remains unclear what prevents the evolution of faster growth and development in this species. PMID:22564512

  1. Toxicity effect of Delonix elata (Yellow Gulmohr) and predatory efficiency of Copepod, Mesocyclops aspericornis for the control of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Vasugi, Chellamuthu; Kamalakannan, Siva; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the toxicity, predatory efficiency of Delonix elata (D. elata) and Mesocyclops aspericornis (M. aspericornis) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Methods A mosquitocidal bioassay was conducted at different concentration of plant extract followed by WHO standard method. The probit analysis of each tested concentration and control were observed by using software SPSS 11 version package. The each tested concentration variable was assessed by DMRT method. The predatory efficiency of copepod was followed by Deo et al., 1988. The predator, M. aspericornis was observed for mortality, abnormalities, survival and swimming activity after 24 h treatment of plant and also predation on the mosquito larvae were observed. Results D. elata were tested for biological activity against the larvae, and pupae of Ae. aegypti. Significant mortality effects were observed in each life stage. The percentage of mortality was 100% in first and second instars whereas 96%, 92% in third and fourth instars. Fitted probit-mortality curves for larvae indicated the median and 90% lethal concentrations of D. elata for instars 1-4 to be 4.91 (8.13), 5.16 (8.44), 5.95 (7.76) and 6.87 (11.23), respectively. The results indicate that leaf extract exhibits significant biological activity against life stages. The present study revealed that D. elata is potentially important in the control of Ae. aegypti. Similar studies were conducted for predatory efficiency of Copepod, M. aspericornis against mosquito vector Ae. Aegypti. This study reported that the predatory copepod fed on 39% and 25% in I and III instar larvae of mosquito and in combined treatment of D. elata and copepod maximum control of mosquito larval states and at 83%, 80%, 75% and 53% in I, II, III and IV instars, respectively. Conclusions The combined action of plant extract and predatory copepod to effectively control mosquito population and reduce the dengue transmitting diseases.

  2. Life history and biogeography of Calanus copepods in the Arctic Ocean: An individual-based modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Rubao; Ashjian, Carin J.; Campbell, Robert G.; Chen, Changsheng; Gao, Guoping; Davis, Cabell S.; Cowles, Geoffrey W.; Beardsley, Robert C.

    2012-04-01

    Calanus spp. copepods play a key role in the Arctic pelagic ecosystem. Among four congeneric species of Calanus found in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas, two are expatriates in the Arctic (Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus marshallae) and two are endemic (Calanus glacialis and Calanus hyperboreus). The biogeography of these species likely is controlled by the interactions of their life history traits and physical environment. A mechanistic understanding of these interactions is critical to predicting their future responses to a warming environment. Using a 3-D individual-based model that incorporates temperature-dependent and, for some cases, food-dependent development rates, we show that (1) C. finmarchicus and C. marshallae are unable to penetrate, survive, and colonize the Arctic Ocean under present conditions of temperature, food availability, and length of the growth season, mainly due to insufficient time to reach their diapausing stage and slow transport of the copepods into the Arctic Ocean during the growing season or even during the following winter at the depths the copepods are believed to diapause. (2) For the two endemic species, the model suggests that their capability of diapausing at earlier copepodite stages and utilizing ice-algae as a food source (thus prolonging the growth season length) contribute to the population sustainability in the Arctic Ocean. (3) The inability of C. hyperboreus to attain their first diapause stage in the central Arctic, as demonstrated by the model, suggests that the central Arctic population may be advected from the surrounding shelf regions along with multi-year successive development and diapausing, and/or our current estimation of the growth parameters and the growth season length (based on empirical assessment or literature) needs to be further evaluated. Increasing the length of the growth season or increasing water temperature by 2 °C, and therefore increasing development rates, greatly increased the area of the central Arctic in which the Arctic endemics could reach diapause but had little effect on the regions of successful diapause for the expatriate species.

  3. Effects of elevated pCO2 on reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica.

    PubMed

    Kita, Jun; Kikkawa, Takashi; Asai, Takamasa; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2013-08-30

    We investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 in seawater both on the acute mortality and the reproductive properties of the benthic copepod Tigriopus japonicus and gastropod Babylonia japonica with the purpose of accumulating basic data for assessing potential environmental impacts of sub-sea geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 in Japan. Acute tests showed that nauplii of T. japonicus have a high tolerance to elevated pCO2 environments. Full life cycle tests on T. japonicus indicated NOEC=5800?atm and LOEC=37,000?atm. Adult B. japonica showed remarkable resistance to elevated pCO2 in the acute tests. Embryonic development of B. japonica showed a NOEC=1500?atm and LOEC=5400?atm. T. japonicus showed high resistance to elevated pCO2 throughout the life cycle and B. japonica are rather sensitive during the veliger stage when they started to form their shells. PMID:23820193

  4. Qualitative use of Dynamic Energy Budget theory in ecotoxicology. Case study on oil contamination and Arctic copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klok, Chris; Hjorth, Morten; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2012-10-01

    The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory provides a logic and consistent framework to evaluate ecotoxicological test results. Currently this framework is not regularly applied in ecotoxicology given perceived complexity and data needs. However, even in the case of low data availability the DEB theory is already useful. In this paper we apply the DEB theory to evaluate the results in three previously published papers on the effects of PAHs on Arctic copepods. Since these results do not allow for a quantitative application we used DEB qualitatively. The ecotoxicological results were thereby set in a wider ecological context and we found a logical explanation for an unexpected decline in hatching success described in one of these papers. Moreover, the DEB evaluation helped to derive relevant ecological questions that can guide future experimental work on this subject.

  5. Multiple gene analyses of caligid copepods indicate that the reduction of a thoracic appendage in Pseudocaligus represents convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Caligidae is a family of parasitic copepods containing over 30 recognised genera. They are commercially important parasites as they cause disease in numerous finfish aquaculture facilities globally. Morphological features are used to distinguish between the genera and Pseudocaligus has traditionally been differentiated from Caligus solely by the presence of a much reduced form of the fourth thoracic leg. Currently there are numerous DNA sequences available for Caligus spp. but only the type species, Pseudocaligus brevipedis, has molecular data available, so systematic studies using molecular phylogenetic analyses have been limited. Methods Three gene regions, SSU rDNA, 16S and CO1, for Pseudocaligus fugu from puffer fish from Japan and Pseudocaligus uniartus from rabbit fish from Indonesia are sequenced and molecular phylogenetic analyses performed in order to infer phylogenetic relationships between Pseudocaligus and other caligid copepods. Results The analysis revealed that there was no discrete grouping of Pseudocaligus spp. and that they had a polyphyletic distribution within Caligus taxa. Pseudocaligus fugu grouped with Caligus elongatus and contained a unique synapomorphy in the SSU rDNA region only seen in members of that clade. Pseudocaligus uniartus formed a well-supported group, in the SSU rDNA analyses, with a Caligus sp. that also infects rabbit fish, but was unresolved in the other analyses. Pseudocaligus brevipedis consistently and robustly grouped with Caligus curtus and C. centrodonti in all analyses. The majority of Lepeophtheirus spp. form a monophyletic sister group to the Caligus clade; however, L. natalensis is unresolved in all analyses and does not form part of the main Lepeophtheirus clade. Conclusions These findings do not support the morphological-based distinction between Pseudocaligus and Caligus, suggesting that the reduced fourth leg is a feature that has evolved on multiple occasions throughout caligid evolution. Congruent molecular phylogenetic data support groupings based on the presence of morphological features, such as lunules, geography and host fish type rather than appendage morphology. Therefore, we support the synonymy of Pseudocaligus with Caligus. PMID:24286135

  6. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST).

    PubMed

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E; Dam, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI) or wild-type isoforms (PWI), while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI). There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR), ingestion rate (I), and gross growth efficiency (GGE) for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed. PMID:26075900

  7. Distribution and feeding of Benthosema glaciale in the western Labrador Sea: Fish-zooplankton interaction and the consequence to calanoid copepod populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the distribution of major calanoid copepods in the western Labrador Sea in relation to that of the myctophid Benthosema glaciale, and investigated patterns of prey composition and feeding periodicity by the latter to assess the potential impact of mesopelagic fish on copepod populations that reside in the deep ocean. Hydroacoustic surveys indicated that B. glaciale and the deep-scattering layer are widely distributed throughout the region with limited evidence of patchiness, with an average abundance of 6 fish m-2 and biomass of 9.3 g m-2. There was clear evidence of diurnal variations in feeding activity that was achieved through vertical migration from several hundred meters depths to the surface layer. B. glaciale fed principally on calanoid copepods, with prey size dependent on the length of the fish but the relative variability in prey size was independent of predator length. Average rations were generally less than 1% of body weight per day, and the patterns of diurnal vertical migration by myctophids suggest that individuals fed once every two days rather than daily. The estimated mortality caused by B. glaciale on the calanoid populations, which considers most sources of uncertainty, ranged from 0.002 to 1.8% d-1, with the mid-point of these estimates being ˜0.15% d-1, which is well below the estimated mortality rates of 10-20% d-1 based on vertical life tables. From observations from this and other ecosystems, understanding and contrasting the drivers of population dynamics and productivity of calanoid copepods in different deep basins of the North Atlantic will likely require a more comprehensive characterization of the plankton and pelagic and oceanic fish faunas of the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones and their trophic relationships and interactions.

  8. Spatio-temporal variability in life cycle strategy of four pelagic Antarctic copepods: Rhincalanus gigas, Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus and Metridia gerlachei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanae Chibal; Takashi Ishimam; Graham W. Hosie; Mitsuo Fukuchi

    Spatio-temporal variability in life cycle strategy of four pelagic Antarctic copepods, Rhincalanus gigas, Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus and Metridia gerlachei was studied, including their copepodite stage composition, using the multi- year samples taken off east Antarctica (90-160'~) in March 1988-1996. Except for R. gigas, the rare occurrence of adults indicated that the spawning activities ceased by mid-March in this research

  9. Vertical distribution, life cycle, and developmental characteristics of the mesopelagic calanoid copepod Gaidius variabilis (Aetideidae) in the Oyashio region, western North Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yamaguchi; T. Ikeda

    2000-01-01

    Vertical distribution, life cycle, and developmental characteristics of the mesopelagic copepod Gaidius variabilis Brodsky in the Oyashio region were investigated by combining analyses of field copepodite populations with laboratory-rearing\\u000a data of egg hatching and naupliar development. Field samplings from five discrete depths between the surface and ?2000?m were\\u000a made approximately every month for 1 year. Most populations of G. variabilis

  10. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST)

    PubMed Central

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E.; Dam, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI) or wild-type isoforms (PWI), while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI). There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR), ingestion rate (I), and gross growth efficiency (GGE) for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed. PMID:26075900

  11. Evidence for the copepods Acanthocyclops robustus and Mesocyclops edax as competent intermediate hosts for Coelomomyces punctatus during an epizootic in a larval population of the mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Apperson, C S; Federici, B A; Stewart, W; Tarver, F R

    1992-11-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted during an epizootic of Coelomomyces punctatus (Chytridiomycetes: Blastocladiales) in a population of the mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus in a North Carolina farm pond to examine the interactions of several potential copepod hosts with the mosquito and fungus. The diel vertical migratory behavior of the copepod species Acanthocyclops robustus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Macrocyclops albidus, and Mesocyclops edax were monitored in relation to infection rates in sentinel mosquito larvae. Mosquito infection occurred primarily around dusk, the same period during which A. robustus and E. serrulatus were most abundant near the surface of the pond. However, exposure of A. robustus, E. serrulatus, M. albidus, M. edax, Microcyclops varicans, and Paracyclops poppei to fungal meiospores in the laboratory showed that only A. robustus and M. edax were competent intermediate hosts for C. punctatus. Laboratory studies of the diel periodicity of gametangial dehiscence in A. robustus and M. edax infected with C. punctatus revealed that gamete release and zygote formation also occurred around dusk. The combined results of the laboratory and field studies on copepod abundance, susceptibility to infection, and periodicity of gametangial dehiscence suggest that A. robustus was the principal intermediate host for C. punctatus during the epizootic, though it is probable that M. edax also contributed importantly to the overall rate of larval infection. PMID:1431194

  12. [Species composition and distribution characteristics of pelagic copepods in the Northern Sea of Fujian during withdraw of Zhe-Min coastal current].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Guo; Lin, Jing-Hong; Wang, Chun-Guang; Lin, Mao

    2012-06-01

    Based on oceanographic survey data in April 2009 in the north central Taiwan Strait, ecological characteristics such as species composition, individual density, dominant species and distribution were analyzed. The results were compared with the same area survey in spring 2007 for discuss the annual variety. The result shows that 48 pelagic copepods species have been recognized, and most of them belongs to Calanodia. The higher species number occurs in southern and eastern area. The average density of pelagic copepoda was 231.96 ind x m(-3). As to the horizontal distribution, the coast and northern areas are higher than those of eastern and southern areas of the density of pelagic copepods which are dependent on the dominant species Calanus sinicus and Euchaeta plana. The community structure of pelagic copepoda was same to the other survey result, which shows low biodiversity index with remarkable dominant species. Owing to the Zhe-Min coastal current effect, the higher density distribution is different in 2007 and 2009. As to the ecological character, all the copepoda in this paper belong to warm-water, warm-temperature and tropic oceanic groups. Warm-water and tropic oceanic groups are the dominant groups of the pelagic copepods composition. When it comes to density, warm-temperature group is the dominant. The relationship of species number, diversity index and abundance with the environment were also discussed in this paper. The result showed that the pelagic copepoda species number and diversity would increase with the temperature and salty increase. PMID:22946163

  13. Heavy metals induce oxidative stress and trigger oxidative stress-mediated heat shock protein (hsp) modulation in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock proteins (hsps) are induced by a wide range of environmental stressors including heavy metals in aquatic organisms. However, the effect of heavy metals on zooplankton at the molecular level remains still unclear. In this study, we measured the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and the antioxidant enzyme activities for 96 h after exposure to five heavy metals: arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes were highly elevated in metal-exposed copepods, indicating that heavy metals can induce oxidative stress by generating ROS, and stimulate the involvement of antioxidant enzymes as cellular defense mechanisms. Subsequently, transcriptional changes in hsp gene families were further investigated in the metal-exposed groups for 96 h. The ROS level and glutathione (GSH) content were significantly increased in Ag-, As-, and Cu-exposed copepods, while they were only slightly elevated in Cd- and Zn-exposed groups. Based on the numbers of significantly modulated hsp genes and their expression levels for 96 h, we measured the effect of heavy metals to stress genes of T. japonicus in the following order: Cu > Zn > Ag > As > Cd, implying that Cu acts as a stronger oxidative stress inducer than other heavy metals. Of them, the expression of hsp20 and hsp70 genes was substantially modulated by exposure to heavy metals, indicating that these genes would provide a sensitive molecular biomarker for aquatic monitoring of heavy metal pollution. PMID:25058597

  14. Developmental retardation, reduced fecundity, and modulated expression of the defensome in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Min-Chul; Seo, Jung Soo; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-08-01

    2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic effects on marine organisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of BDE-47 and PFOS on development and reproduction at the organismal level and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and gene expression patterns of the defensome at the cellular level in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. In copepods exposed to BDE-47 and PFOS, we observed developmental retardation and reduced fecundity, suggesting repercussions on in vivo endpoints through alterations to the normal molting and reproduction system of T. japonicus. BDE-47 and PFOS increased levels of ROS in T. japonicus in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that POPs can induce oxidative stress through the generation of ROS. Additionally, transcript profiles of genes related to detoxification (e.g., CYPs), antioxidant functions (e.g., GST- sigma, catalase, MnSOD), apoptosis (e.g., p53, Rb), and cellular proliferation (e.g., PCNA) were modulated over 72h in response to BDE-47 (120?g/L) and PFOS (1000?g/L). These findings indicate that BDE-47 and PFOS can induce oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage repair systems with transcriptional regulation of detoxification, antioxidant, and apoptosis-related genes, resulting in developmental retardation and reduced fecundity in the copepod T. japonicus. PMID:26037098

  15. Patterns in the distribution of Arctic freshwater zooplankton related to glaciation history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larysa Samchyshyna; Lars-Anders Hansson; Kirsten Christoffersen

    2008-01-01

    We analysed circumpolar samples from 68 lakes within the 10°C-July isotherm from Arctic Canada, Nunavut, Greenland, Svalbard,\\u000a Eastern Siberia, the Beringia region, and Alaska. In total, we found 3 species of Anostraca, 17 of Diplostraca, 1 species\\u000a of cyclopoid and 14 species of calanoid copepods. Our study identifies a wider distribution for some copepods—e.g. Eurytemora\\u000a pacifica, Leptodiaptomus sicilis, Arctodiaptomus novosibiricus,

  16. Antennule shape and body size of Bosmina : key factors determining its vulnerability to predacious Copepoda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Sakamoto; Takayuki Hanazato

    2008-01-01

    Cyclopoid copepods are common in lakes and ponds, and they have a significant predation impact on the communities of the small\\u000a zooplankton species. To reduce the predation risk, some cladoceran zooplankters develop protuberant (defensive) morphologies\\u000a in the presence of the copepods. In the case of the small cladoceran Bosmina, they elongate their appendages (antennule and mucrone) and change the antennule

  17. Food Habits of Lacustrine Salmonids in Washington State in Relation to Infections with Larvae of the Bass Tapeworm (Proteocephalus ambloplitis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross Antipa

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of stomach contents of rainbow trout, cutthroat trout, and coho salmon from four lakes revealed a diversity of feeding habits. Copepods were the most frequently observed food items in the stomachs of the three salmonids. Cyclopoid copepods were most abundant in rainbow trout (198\\/fish), and less abundant in coho salmon (150\\/fish) and cutthroat trout (142\\/fish), respectively. Between 89-93% of

  18. Eucalanoid copepod metabolic rates in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical north Pacific: Effects of oxygen and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cass, Christine J.; Daly, Kendra L.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern tropical north Pacific Ocean (ETNP) contains one of the world's most severe oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen concentrations are less than 2 ?mol kg-1. OMZs cause habitat compression, whereby species intolerant of low oxygen are restricted to near-surface oxygenated waters. Copepods belonging to the family Eucalanidae are dominant zooplankters in this region and inhabit a variety of vertical habitats within the OMZ. The purpose of this study was to compare the metabolic responses of three species of eucalanoid copepods, Eucalanus inermis, Rhincalanus rostrifrons, and Subeucalanus subtenuis, to changes in temperature and environmental oxygen concentrations. Oxygen consumption and urea, ammonium, and phosphate excretion rates were measured via end-point experiments at three temperatures (10, 17, and 23 °C) and two oxygen concentrations (100% and 15% air saturation). S. subtenuis, which occurred primarily in the upper 50 m of the water column at our study site, inhabiting well-oxygenated to upper oxycline conditions, had the highest metabolic rates per unit weight, while E. inermis, which was found throughout the water column to about 600 m depth in low oxygen waters, typically had the lowest metabolic rates. Rates for R. rostrifrons (found primarily between 200 and 300 m depth) were intermediate between the other two species and more variable. Metabolic ratios suggested that R. rostrifrons relied more heavily on lipids to fuel metabolism than the other two species. S. subtenuis was the only species that demonstrated a decrease in oxygen consumption rates (at intermediate 17 °C temperature treatment) when environmental oxygen concentrations were lowered. The percentage of total measured nitrogen excreted as urea (% urea-N), as well as overall urea excretion rates, responded in a complex manner to changes in temperature and oxygen concentration. R. rostrifrons and E. inermis excreted a significantly higher % of urea-N in low oxygen treatments at 10 °C. At 17 °C, the opposite trend was observed as E. inermis and S. subtenuis excreted a higher % of urea-N in the high oxygen treatment. This unique relationship has not been documented previously for crustacean zooplankton, and warrants additional research into regulation of metabolic pathways to better understand nitrogen cycling in marine systems. This study also compared metabolic data for E. inermis individuals captured near the surface versus those that were resident in the deeper OMZ. Deeper-dwelling individuals had significantly higher nitrogen excretion rates and O:N ratios, suggesting an increased reliance on lipids for energy while residing in the food-poor waters of the OMZ.

  19. Golfingicola abyssalis gen. et sp. nov., a new endoparasitic copepod (Crustacea) in a sipunculan from abyssal depths of the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Maiorova, Anastassya

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods, which inhabit the entire water column down to the seafloor, are key contributors to the food web, mainly providing a food source for many organisms in the form of zooplankton. Furthermore, they also play an important ecological role as associates or even parasites with various degrees of harm to their hosts. Copepods are found in almost all habitats and can be associated with virtually every metazoan group. A female and four males of a new endoparasitic copepod genus and species (Golfingicola abyssalis) are described from the trunk celom of the sipunculan Golfingia muricaudata (Southern, 1913), collected from the abyssal depths of the Northwest Pacific Ocean near the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. This sipunculan species is a typical deep sea representative of the northwestern Pacific region, occurring in the Bering Sea and the abyssal regions east of the Kuril Island chain. Despite numerous records of this species, a copepod association has not been reported prior to this paper. The new parasitic copepod species is tentatively placed in the Akessonia group given its endoparasitic behavior in Sipuncula, the elongated shape, the enlarged egg strings, and the presence of subchelate antenna, as well as lateral processes in males. Golfingicola abyssalis, however, shows some peculiarities that clearly differentiate it from the remaining endoparasites in Sipuncula. As the first abyssal endoparasite in Sipuncula, the species is characterized by the complete lack of any processes in females, the presence of a mandible in females, a weakly defined prosome-urosome boundary in females, the presence of a mouth in males, the free living behavior of males, a distinctly reduced number of trunk processes in males, as well as a more modified male antenna, displaying an endopodite and a highly modified setal element. A detailed review on the morphological characters of the four species currently grouped in the Akessonia group, and systematic and biogeographic information of their relevant host taxa is provided. On the basis of morphological and ecological similarities, the new species seems to be more closely related to the northern Atlantic Akessonia occulta Bresciani and Luetzen, 1962 than to Siphonobius gephyreicola Augener, 1903 and Coelotrophus nudus Ho et al., 1981.

  20. Copper complexation and toxicity to freshwater zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Borgmann; K. M. Ralph

    1984-01-01

    The effect of copper on the growth rate of cyclopoid copepods and survival of rotifers was determined in natural water with and without addition of the complexing agent Tris. Free copper concentrations were estimated, both by cupric ion electrode and from the bioassay data, making use of the known complexing ability of Tris and the increase in total copper tolerated

  1. The impact of metazooplankton on the structure of the microbial food web in a shallow, hypertrophic lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Jürgens; Erik Jeppesen

    2000-01-01

    Shallow, hypertrophic Lake Søbygård is characterized by strong fluctuations in the plankton community structure over short time scales, and cascading predation effects from higher to lower trophic levels. We examined the coupling between the classical and microbial food web for a 1 month period, during which the typical zooplankton summer succession from rotifers (mainly Brachionus spp.) to cyclopoid copepods and

  2. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia.

    PubMed

    Mojib, Nazia; Amad, Maan; Thimma, Manjula; Aldanondo, Naroa; Kumaran, Mande; Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid-protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from ?-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous ?-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin-protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton. PMID:24803335

  3. The jet off Point Arena, California: Its role in aspects of secondary production in the copepod Eucalanus californicus Johnson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sharon L.; Lane, Peter V. Z.

    1991-08-01

    The most abundant large herbivorous copepod in the jet off Point Arena, California, was Eucalanus californicus. In July 1988, females were actively laying eggs and also had a sac of stored lipid. If egg production is a function of present food supply, food concentrations within the jet become the primary factor governing egg laying. However, if stored lipid is the nutritive source for egg production, the critical food supply governing egg laying can be quite distant in space and time from the actual egg laying. In this jet, present food concentration was the factor governing egg production. The size of the lipid sac was also positively correlated with egg production, suggesting that lipid was not being used for oogenesis. Such a life history strategy, in which egg laying and lipid storage are proceeding concurrently in females, has not been described before. Reproductive females were found primarily nearshore and along the southern edge of the jet; highest rates of egg laying and largest lipid reserves were also in these areas. We speculate that temperature affinities of Eucalanus californicus result in maximized abundance, egg production, and lipid sequestration at temperatures below approximately 13°C. In the Point Arena region, this results in a nearshore portion of the population inhabiting surface layers and showing potential for very high rates of secondary production. The jet acts to transport E. californicus from the nearshore zone into its offshore habitat on a regular basis. Eddies in the region may be the mechanism by which E. californicus is returned to the nearshore zone.

  4. Multi-decadal range changes vs. thermal adaptation for north east Atlantic oceanic copepods in the face of climate change.

    PubMed

    Hinder, Stephanie L; Gravenor, Mike B; Edwards, Martin; Ostle, Clare; Bodger, Owen G; Lee, Patricia L M; Walne, Antony W; Hays, Graeme C

    2014-01-01

    Populations may potentially respond to climate change in various ways including moving to new areas or alternatively staying where they are and adapting as conditions shift. Traditional laboratory and mesocosm experiments last days to weeks and thus only give a limited picture of thermal adaptation, whereas ocean warming occurring over decades allows the potential for selection of new strains better adapted to warmer conditions. Evidence for adaptation in natural systems is equivocal. We used a 50-year time series comprising of 117 056 samples in the NE Atlantic, to quantify the abundance and distribution of two particularly important and abundant members of the ocean plankton (copepods of the genus Calanus) that play a key trophic role for fisheries. Abundance of C. finmarchicus, a cold-water species, and C. helgolandicus, a warm-water species, were negatively and positively related to sea surface temperature (SST) respectively. However, the abundance vs. SST relationships for neither species changed over time in a manner consistent with thermal adaptation. Accompanying the lack of evidence for thermal adaptation there has been an unabated range contraction for C. finmarchicus and range expansion for C. helgolandicus. Our evidence suggests that thermal adaptation has not mitigated the impacts of ocean warming for dramatic range changes of these key species and points to continued dramatic climate induced changes in the biology of the oceans. PMID:24323534

  5. Gamma radiation induces growth retardation, impaired egg production, and oxidative stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-05-01

    Accidental nuclear radioisotope release into the ocean from nuclear power plants is of concern due to ecological and health risks. In this study, we used the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana to examine the effects of radioisotopes on marine organisms upon gamma radiation, and to measure the effects on growth and fecundity, which affect population and community structure. Upon gamma radiation, mortality (LD50 - 96 h=172 Gy) in P. nana was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in ovigerous P. nana females. For developmental impairment of gamma-irradiated nauplii, we observed growth retardation; in over 30 Gy-irradiated groups, offspring did not grow to adults. Particularly, over 50 Gy-irradiated ovigerous P. nana females did not have normal bilateral egg sacs, and their offspring did not develop normally to adulthood. Additionally, at over 30 Gy, we found dose-dependent increases in oxidative levels with elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA repair activities. These findings indicate that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage with growth retardation and impaired reproduction. PMID:24632311

  6. Life history strategies in zooplankton communities: The significance of female gonad morphology and maturation types for the reproductive biology of marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    The present review addresses the reproductive strategies of marine calanoid copepods, as affected by their physiological preconditioning, and aims to enhance understanding of their adaptations to specific environmental conditions. Knowledge about oocyte development and internal gonad structure, especially in relation to feeding conditions, is essential for a complete understanding of the reproductive strategies of the copepods. Therefore, the foci of the review are to identify general patterns in oocyte and gonad development in calanoid copepod species from marine ecosystems worldwide and to elucidate the significance of gonad structures for reproductive strategies. Oogenesis is similar in all copepod species. During maturation, the morphology of the oocytes changes distinctly and, according to oocyte size and appearance of ooplasm and nucleus, five oocyte developmental stages are distinguished. In contrast, the gonad structure and its changes during the spawning cycle differ considerably among species, and these differences are related to specific reproductive traits. Four gonad morphology types can be distinguished: the Calanus-type, found in species from all over the world with distinctly different life history traits, is apparently most common in calanoid copepods. In this gonad type, most oocyte developmental stages are present simultaneously, and usually many oocytes mature synchronously, all of which are released in one clutch. The gonad structure allows frequent spawning and large clutches, hence, high egg production rates. This may be a preconditioning for exploiting seasonally high food supply. However, the Calanus-type was also found in species producing eggs at lower rates. In the diverticula of Pseudocalanus-type gonads, only two oocyte developmental stages are present and usually fewer oocytes mature synchronously. Accordingly, the egg production rate is generally lower as compared to the Calanus-type, and apparently only this gonad-type is structurally suitable for ovigerity. Species with Pseudocalanus-type gonads are present from polar seas to the tropics, some of them being key species. The Acartia-type was scarce, found in only one species, Acartia clausi. Here all oocyte developmental stages are present, including intermediate stages, but only a few oocytes mature synchronously and are released together. High spawning frequency compensates for the small clutches, and hence egg production rate may be as high as in Calanus-type gonads. In the Aetidius-type gonad, the total number of oocytes in the diverticula is low as is the number of oocytes maturing synchronously. Less is known about the reproductive biology of species with Aetidius-type gonads; however, their distribution and feeding patterns suggest that this type is common in species inhabiting environments of low food availability. The differences in gonad structures also lead to differences in the egg size:female size ratio, as the space available for each mature oocyte depends on the total number of oocytes. Independent from gonad-type, the eggs are relatively large in species in which the gonads contain only few oocytes, whereas small eggs are produced by species with gonads filled with many oocytes. Since all species carrying their eggs in external sacs until hatching (ovigerous species) have Pseudocalanus-type gonads, the scatter in their egg size:female size ratio is low. The broadcast spawning species are of all gonad-types, and consequently the scatter among them is high. A major factor affecting the timing and magnitude of spawning of calanoid copepods is the energy supply for gonad development. Therefore, part of the review elucidates the role of internal and external resources in fuelling egg production. In many species, freshly assimilated food is transferred into egg material within a short period of time, and clutch size and spawning frequency are the two parameters that allow adjustment of egg production to food availability and temperature. However, internal body reserves may also fuel oocyte development. The extent to which oogene

  7. Diversity and community structure of harpacticoid copepods associated with cold-water coral substrates in the Porcupine Seabight (North-East Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheerardyn, Hendrik; de Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Vanreusel, Ann

    2010-03-01

    The influence of microhabitat type on the diversity and community structure of the harpacticoid copepod fauna associated with a cold-water coral degradation zone was investigated in the Porcupine Seabight (North-East Atlantic). Three substrate types were distinguished: dead fragments of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, skeletons of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes bocagei and the underlying sediment. At the family level, it appears that coral fragments and underlying sediment do not harbour distinctly different assemblages, with Ectinosomatidae, Ameiridae, Pseudotachidiidae, Argestidae and Miraciidae as most abundant. Conclusions on assemblage structure and diversity of the sponge skeletons are limited as only two samples were available. Similarity analysis at species level showed a strong variation in the sediment samples, which did not harbour a distinctly different assemblage in opposition to the coral and sponge samples. Several factors (sediment infill on the hard substrates, mobility of the copepods, limited sample sizes) are proposed to explain this apparent lack of a distinct difference between the microhabitats. Coral fragments and sediment were both characterised by high species diversity and low species dominance, which might indicate that copepod diversity is not substantially influenced by hydrodynamical stress. The additive partitioning of species diversity showed that by adding locations species richness was greatly enhanced. The harpacticoid community in the cold-water coral degradation zone is highly diverse and includes 157 species, 62 genera and 19 families. Information from neighbouring soft-bottom regions is necessary to assess whether total species diversity is increased by the presence of these complex habitat-providing substrates.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Copepod Abundance along the 20°S Monitoring Transect in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System from 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Maya; Kreiner, Anja; van der Plas, Anja K.; Louw, Deon C.; Horaeb, Richard; Auel, Holger; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Long-term data sets are essential to understand climate-induced variability in marine ecosystems. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of longer-term temporal and spatial variations in zooplankton abundance and copepod community structure in the northern Benguela upwelling system from 2005 to 2011. Samples were collected from the upper 200 m along a transect at 20°S perpendicular to the coast of Namibia to 70 nm offshore. Based on seasonal and interannual trends in surface temperature and salinity, three distinct time periods were discernible with stronger upwelling in spring and extensive warm-water intrusions in late summer, thus, high temperature amplitudes, in the years 2005/06 and 2010/11, and less intensive upwelling followed by weaker warm-water intrusions from 2008/09 to 2009/10. Zooplankton abundance reflected these changes with higher numbers in 2005/06 and 2010/11. In contrast, zooplankton density was lower in 2008/09 and 2009/10, when temperature gradients from spring to late summer were less pronounced. Spatially, copepod abundance tended to be highest between 30 and 60 nautical miles off the coast, coinciding with the shelf break and continental slope. The dominant larger calanoid copepods were Calanoides carinatus, Metridia lucens and Nannocalanus minor. On all three scales studied, i.e. spatially from the coast to offshore waters as well as temporally, both seasonally and interannually, maximum zooplankton abundance was not coupled to the coldest temperature regime, and hence strongest upwelling intensity. Pronounced temperature amplitudes, and therefore strong gradients within a year, were apparently important and resulted in higher zooplankton abundance. PMID:24844305

  9. Lipid and fatty acid composition of diatoms revisited: rapid wound-activated change of food quality parameters influences herbivorous copepod reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Wichard, Thomas; Gerecht, Andrea; Boersma, Maarten; Poulet, Serge A; Wiltshire, Karen; Pohnert, Georg

    2007-07-01

    Lipid and fatty acid composition are considered to be key parameters that determine the nutritive quality of phytoplankton diets for zooplanktonic herbivores. The fitness, reproduction and physiology of the grazers are influenced by these factors. The trophic transfer of lipids and fatty acids from algal cells has been typically studied by using simple extraction and quantification approaches, which, as we argue here, do not reflect the actual situation in the plankton. We show that cell disruption, as it occurs during a predator's grazing on diatoms can drastically change the lipid and fatty acid content of the food. In some algae, a rapid depletion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is observed within the first minutes after cell disruption. This fatty acid depletion is directly linked to the production of PUFA-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA); these are molecules that are thought to be involved in the chemical defence of the algae. PUA-releasing diatoms are even capable of transforming lipids from other sources if these are available in the vicinity of the wounded cells. Fluorescent staining reveals that the enzymes involved in lipid transformation are active in the foregut of copepods, and therefore link the depletion processes directly to food uptake. Incubation experiments with the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis showed that PUFA depletion in PUA-producing diatoms is correlated to reduced hatching success, and can be compensated for by externally added single fatty acids. PMID:17541989

  10. Expression profile analysis of antioxidative stress and developmental pathway genes in the manganese-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus with 6K oligochip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Ki, Jang-Seu; Kim, Il-Chan; Choi, Ik-Young; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) provides one of aquatic pollutants in marine ecosystem. Here we used a 6K oligomicroarray to identify the effect of Mn on transcriptomes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. A total of 5594 spots were significantly modulated on a 6K oligomicroarray with hierarchical clustering after exposure to Mn over 24h. Of them, 186 and 489 genes were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Particularly, several genes involved in stress, detoxification, and developmental functions were significantly modulated in T. japonicus exposed for 24h. In detail, Mn exposure specifically up-regulated genes that were related to intracellular stress, antioxidant, and detoxification pathways such as cytochrome P450s (CYPs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and heat shock proteins (hsps), while a majority of downregulated genes was associated with developmental pathways such as cuticle protein, ecdysone receptor, and vitellogenin. These results demonstrated that Mn exposure modulated gene expression in relation to intracellular stress, leading to developmental retardation in the intertidal copepod, T. japonicus, and provide a better understanding of mechanistic molecular studies of Mn-induced cellular damage. PMID:23714145

  11. Cloning and characterization of glutathione S-transferase gene in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus and its expression after exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Mi; Park, Tae-Jin; Jung, Sang-Oun; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the impacts of marine pollution on aquatic organisms, we tested the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus as a model species. To analyze the copepods' responses to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), we exposed them to two different chemicals: 4,4'-octylphenol (4,4'-OP, 12.5-100 microg/L for 2 h) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB, 6.25-25 microg/L for two days). 4,4'-OP was toxic, although exposure time was limited to 2h. After extracting total RNA from the exposed T. japonicus, we performed reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine gene expression patterns following chemical exposure. To analyze the gene expression of T. japonicus, we used glutathione S-transferase with GAPDH as an internal control. Of the genes tested using EDC-exposed samples, 4,4'-OP induced upregulation of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene, while PCB caused downregulation of the GST gene. These results suggest that the two EDCs act in different manners in T. japonicus. PMID:16725191

  12. Reverse genetics in the tide pool: knock-down of target gene expression via RNA interference in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Felipe S; Schoville, Sean D; Burton, Ronald S

    2015-07-01

    Reverse genetic tools are essential for characterizing phenotypes of novel genes and testing functional hypotheses generated from next-generation sequencing studies. RNA interference (RNAi) has been a widely used technique for describing or quantifying physiological, developmental or behavioural roles of target genes by suppressing their expression. The marine intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus has become an emerging model for evolutionary and physiological studies, but this species is not amenable to most genetic manipulation approaches. As crustaceans are susceptible to RNAi-mediated gene knock-down, we developed a simple method for delivery of gene-specific double-stranded RNA that results in significant suppression of target gene transcription levels. The protocol was examined on five genes of interest, and for each, at least 50% knock-down in expression was achieved. While knock-down levels did not reach 100% in any trial, a well-controlled experiment with one heat-shock gene showed unambiguously that such partial gene suppression may cause dramatic changes in phenotype. Copepods with suppressed expression of heat-shock protein beta 1 (hspb1) exhibited dramatically decreased tolerance to high temperatures, validating the importance of this gene during thermal stress, as proposed by a previous study. The application of this RNAi protocol in T. californicus will be invaluable for examining the role of genes putatively involved in reproductive isolation, mitochondrial function and local adaptation. PMID:25487181

  13. Dissimilarity of Species and Forms of Planktonic Neocalanus Copepods Using Mitochondrial COI, 12S, Nuclear ITS, and 28S Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Background A total of six Neocalanus species inhabit the oceans of the world. Of these, three species plus form variants (N. cristatus, N. plumchrus, N. flemingeri large form, and N. flemingeri small form), which constitute a monophyletic group among Neocalanus copepods, occur in the Northwestern Pacific off Japan. In the present study, we have tried to discriminate the three species plus form variants of Neocalanus copepods based on sequences of four DNA marker regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Discrimination was performed based on the DNA sequence information from four genetic markers, including the mitochondrial COI, 12S, nuclear ITS, and 28S gene regions. Sequence dissimilarity was compared using both distance- and character-based approaches. As a result, all three species were confirmed to be distinct based on the four genetic marker regions. On the contrary, distinction of the form variants was only confirmed based on DNA sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene region. Conclusions/Significance Although discrimination was not successful for the form variants based on the mitochondrial 12S, nuclear ITS, and 28S genes, diagnostic nucleotide sequence characters were observed in their mitochondrial COI gene sequences. Therefore, these form variants are considered to be an important unit of evolution below the species level, and constitute a part of the Neocalanus biodiversity. PMID:20442767

  14. A new genus of speleophriid copepod (Copepoda: Misophrioida) from a cenote in the Yucatan, Mexico with a phylogenetic analysis at the species level.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoff A; Zylinski, Sarah; Jaume, Damià; Iliffe, Thomas M; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    A new genus and species of speleophriid copepod, Mexicophria cenoticola gen. et sp. nov., is described based on material collected from a cenote in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. It is characterised by relatively reduced fifth legs that are located adjacent to the ventral midline in both sexes, by the possession of a bulbous swelling on the first antennulary segment in both sexes, and by the reduced setation of the swimming legs. The presence of just one inner margin seta on the second endopodal segment of legs 2 to 4 is a unique feature for the family. A phylogenetic analysis places the new genus on a basal lineage of the family together with its sister taxon, Boxshallia Huys, 1988, from Lanzarote in the Canary Islands, and recovers the existing genera as monophyletic units. The zoogeography is discussed at local, regional, ocean basin  and global scales. PMID:24989747

  15. Crude oil exposure results in oxidative stress-mediated dysfunctional development and reproduction in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus and modulates expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Yong Sung; Leung, Kenneth Mei-Yee; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil on the development and reproduction of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus through life-cycle experiments. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of WAF on this benthic organism by studying expression patterns of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Development of T. japonicus was delayed and molting was interrupted in response to WAF exposure. Hatching rate was also significantly reduced in response to WAF exposure. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and catalase (CAT) were increased by WAF exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicated that WAF exposure resulted in oxidative stress, which in turn was associated with dysfunctional development and reproduction. To evaluate the involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, we cloned the entire repertoire of CYP genes in T. japonicus (n=52) and found that the CYP genes belonged to five different clans (i.e., Clans 2, 3, 4, mitochondrial, and 20). We then examined expression patterns of these 52 CYP genes in response to WAF exposure. Three TJ-CYP genes (CYP3024A2, CYP3024A3, and CYP3027C2) belonging to CYP clan 3 were significantly induced by WAF exposure in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. We identified aryl hydrocarbon responsive elements (AhRE), xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs), and metal response elements (MRE) in the promoter regions of these three CYP genes, suggesting that these genes are involved in detoxification of toxicants. Overall, our results indicate that WAF can trigger oxidative stress and thus induce dysfunctional development and reproduction in the copepod T. japonicus. Furthermore, we identified three TJ-CYP genes that represent potential biomarkers of oil pollution. PMID:24813263

  16. Three new records of copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Iraq, including the relegation of two species of Lernanthropinus to Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864).

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Moon, Seong Yong; Adday, Thamir Katea; Khamees, Najim Rijab; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-03-01

    Three parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) belonging to three different genera were recovered from marine fishes of Iraq, and are listed here as new records. The sea lice Caligus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 (Caligidae) was collected from the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). It had been frequently reported from teleost fishes around the world. The second record, comprising male and female, was another caligid, rarely caught from fishes - Hermilius longicornis Bassett-Smith, 1898, collected from the giant catfish, Netuma thalassina (Rüppell). This paper features the first description of the male of the latter species. The third record was the lernanthropid, Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864) (Lernanthropidae), redescribed based on the specimens collected from the greater lizard fish, Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Synodontidae). In order to clarify its taxonomic status, our specimen was compared with the holotype of L. gibbosus (Pillai, 1964) from the collections of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and the syntypes of L. sauridae Do in Ho and Do, 1985 and L. temminckii from the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. We found similarities in the morphology of the body, mouthparts, and legs 1-4 in three above-mentioned species. The prominent feature, the setation pattern of legs 1 and 2 was similar in all the female specimens examined. In the light of this, we formally relegate L. gibbosus and L. sauridae to synonymy with L. temminckii. Another important similarity is that Lernanthropinus gibbosus, L. sauridae, and L. temminckii have exclusively been parasitic on lizardfishes (Synodontidae). The attachment site of all three copepods reported form Iraq were the gill filaments. PMID:24570061

  17. A common-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary processes in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a common-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. Results With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. Conclusions To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a common-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance development and other evolutionary questions in parasitic copepods. PMID:24885085

  18. Population growth capacities and regulatory factors in monospecific cultures of the cladocerans Moina micrura and Diaphanosoma excisum and the copepod Thermocyclops decipiens from Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Pagano; Lucien Saint-Jean; Robert Arfi; Marc Bouvy; Helguilé Shep

    2000-01-01

    The cladocerans Moina micrura and Diaphanosoma excisum and the copepod Thermocyclops decipiens were studied in microcosms (0.8 m3) under semi-controlled experimental conditions at 25–29 °C for 32 days, by daily sampling after an initial monospecific inoculation. For each species, the time series began with an exponential population growth phase. M. micrura showed a higher daily population growth rate (mean = 1.19)

  19. Environmental stressors (salinity, heavy metals, H2O2) modulate expression of glutathione reductase (GR) gene from the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung Soo; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Young-Mi; Park, Heum Gi; Ahn, In-Young; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2006-12-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR) plays an essential role in cell defense against reactive oxygen metabolites by sustaining the reduced status of an important antioxidant, glutathione. To address the effect of oxidative stresses on the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we exposed specimens to hydrogen peroxide, heavy metals and different salinity levels, cloned and sequenced the oxidative stress-related GR gene. T. japonicus GR gene (Tigriopus GR) cDNA contained 1526 bp including an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 458 amino acids with a theoretical pI of 6.58 and a calculated molecular weight of 49.6 kDa. Tigriopus GR showed a high similarity to frog Xenopus laevis GR (identity 57%) and the filarial parasite, Onchocerca volvulus GR (identity 57%). Specific motifs such as flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding site (LVLGGGSGGIASARRAAEF), pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases class-I active site (GGTCVNVGCVP), and NADPH binding motif (GxGYIAx18Rx5R) were highly conserved in the deduced amino acid sequence of Tigriopus GR. Interestingly, its expression and enzyme characteristics were different from GR homologue of filarial parasite O. volvulus. To investigate the biochemical and enzymatic characteristics of Tigriopus GR protein, we constructed the expression vector, pCRT7/TOPO NT containing Tigriopus GR. Tigriopus pCRT7/TOPO NT/GR was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the soluble protein was purified by 6x His-tag chromatography. The recombinant Tigriopus GR enzyme was found to make homodimer complexes of approximately 108 kDa on 12% native gel electrophoresis and showed enzymatic activity with NADPH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) as substrates. To analyze the gene expression of Tigriopus GR against different environmental stresses (hydrogen peroxide, salinity, and heavy metals), we performed real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). Slight down-regulation in the expression of Tigriopus GR at the initial stage was observed upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide. The expression recovered in 2h, while there were significant changes upon heavy metal (Cu and Mn) exposures in a time-dependent manner. Also, Tigriopus GR expression was significantly increased with moderately high salt stress (24 and 40 ppt). In the case of low salt stress (0 and 12 ppt) the expression was found to be down-regulated. These findings provide a better understanding of cellular protection mechanisms in the intertidal copepod T. japonicus against the environmental stressors caused by non-optimal salt levels. PMID:17079028

  20. In vivo effects of UV radiation on multiple endpoints and expression profiles of DNA repair and heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in the cycloid copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Yeonjung; Kumar, K Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on energy acquisition and consumption, the copepod Paracyclopina nana was irradiated with several doses (0-3kJ/m(2)) of UV. After UV radiation, we measured the re-brooding success, growth pattern of newly hatched nauplii, ingestion rate, and assimilation of diet. In addition, we checked the modulated patterns of DNA repair and heat shock protein (hsp) chaperoning genes of P. nana. UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction (7-87%) of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females, indicating that UV-induced egg sac damage is closely correlated with a reduction in the hatching rate of UV-irradiated ovigerous female offspring. Using chlorophyll a and stable carbon isotope incubation experiments, we found a dose-dependent decrease (P<0.05) in food ingestion and the rate of assimilation to the body in response to UV radiation, implying that P. nana has an underlying ability to shift its balanced-energy status from growth and reproduction to DNA repair and adaptation. Also, expression of P. nana base excision repair (BER)-associated genes and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased in response to UV radiation in P. nana. These findings indicate that even 1kJ/m(2) of UV radiation induces a reduction in reproduction and growth patterns, alters the physiological balance and inhibits the ability to cope with UV-induced damage in P. nana. PMID:26001085

  1. Transmission Ecology and Larval Behaviour of Camallanus cotti (Nematoda, Camallanidae) Under Aquarium Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Levsen

    2001-01-01

    The parasitic fish nematode Camallanus cotti has been reported from a number of freshwater fish species around the world. Its wide geographical distribution seems mainly\\u000a to be the result of anthropogenic dissemination due to extensive ornamental fish trade. In most reports it is assumed that\\u000a C. cotti's life cycle involves cyclopoid copepods as intermediate host and various freshwater fishes as

  2. A study of food habits of two species of silverside, Menidia beryllina (Cope) and Membras martinica (Valenciennes), in upper Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Claude Allen

    1974-01-01

    - 49 mm used Acartia tones, nauplii, insects, algae, and invertebrate eggs, with the 50 mm and larger fish switching to a diet of mostly insects and insect larvae. Both species demonstrated late morning pl 1 f dig tiy, h, lyM. ~bllt dtplyd... between M. ~dill d M. Ml Terrestrial insects Polychaete worms Nauplii Acartia tonsa Invertebrate eggs Filamentous algae Fi. sh Insect larvae Harpacticoids Cyclopoid Copepods Amphipods Arachnids Diurnal Feeding Periodicity Seasonal Variations...

  3. Community structure of mesozooplankton in the western part of the Sea of Okhotsk in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hiroshi; Nishioka, Jun; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the community structure of mesozooplankton in the western part of the Sea of Okhotsk in late summer, 2006. We recognized four communities belonging to two assemblages. A coastal assemblage dominated by the arctic planktonic snail Limacina helicina consisted of a gulf community characterized by brackish copepods and a continental shelf community characterized by the hydrozoan medusa Aglantha digitale and the arctic copepod Calanus glacialis. The other assemblage, characterized by the oceanic copepod Neocalanus plumchrus, consisted of a continental slope community characterized by a diverse species composition and a basin community characterized by the oceanic copepod N. cristatus. The continental slope community contained species from the coastal waters and was distributed along the course of the East Sakhalin current. This community may have been assembled by the incorporation of coastal water into the oceanic waters by the strong current. Small coastal copepods such as Oithona similis and Pseudocalanus spp. were the main components in all communities in terms of numbers, but larger copepods such as Neocalanus spp. and Metridia okhotensis were important in terms of weight, especially in the continental slope and basin communities. The population structures of the dominant species suggest that overall biological production is maintained by continuous reproduction or growth (or both) of L. helicina and small coastal copepods after the onset of seasonal dormancy of the large oceanic copepods in late summer.

  4. Copepods in ice-covered seas—Distribution, adaptations to seasonally limited food, metabolism, growth patterns and life cycle strategies in polar seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, R. J.; Huntley, M.

    1991-07-01

    While a seasonal ice cover limits light penetration into both polar seas for up to ten months a year, its presence is not entirely negative. The mixed layer under sea ice will generally be shallower than in open water at the same latitude and season. Ice forms a substrate on which primary production can be concentrated, a condition which contrasts with the generally dilute nutritional conditions which prevail in the remaining ocean. The combination of a shallow, generally stable mixed layer with a close proximity to abundant food make the under-ice zone a suitable nursery for both pelagic and benthic species, an upside-down benthos for opportunistic substrate browsers, and a rich feeding environment for species often considered to be neritic in temperate environments. Where the ice cover is not continuous there may be a retreating ice edge that facilitates the seasonal production of phytoplankton primarily through increased stability from the melt water. Ice edge blooms similarly encourage secondary production by pelagic animals. Pseudocalanus acuspes, which may be the most abundant and productive copepod in north polar latitudes, initiates growth at the start of the "spring bloom" of epontic algae, reaching sexual maturity at breakup or slightly before. In the Southern Hemisphere, the small neritic copepod Paralabidocera antarctica and adult krill have been observed to utilize ice algae. Calanus hyperboreus breeds in the dark season at depth and its buoyant eggs, slowly developing on the ascent, reach the under-ice layer in April as nauplii ready to benefit from the primary production there. On the other hand, C. glacialis may initiate ontogenetic migrations and reproduction in response to increased erosion of ice algae due to solar warming and melting at the ice-water interface. While the same species in a phytoplankton bloom near the ice edge reproduces actively, those under still-consolidated ice nearby can have immature gonads. Diel migration and diel feeding rhythms under or near the ice have also been observed for several species. In the Northern Hemisphere larger zooplanktonic species may take two, three, or possibly more years to reach maturity, but the grand strategy, apparently used by all, is to assure that their young have reached active feeding stages by the time of maximum primary production in the water column so that maximum growth, often, but not always, with emphasis on lipid storage, can occur during the often brief, but usually intense, summer bloom. The rate of growth of arctic or antarctic zooplankton is not so important as assuring a high level of fecundity when maturity comes. Overwintering is probably not a great hardship and diapause may not be a useful strategy because the environmental temperature is constantly near the freezing point of sea water, and basal metabolism accordingly low. Nonetheless, feeding behaviour and metabolic rates have strong seasonal signals. In the absence of other stimuli, light must be involved in the transformation from winter to summer metabolism and visa versa but the mechanisms still remain obscure.

  5. Distribution of C-type allatostatin (C-AST)-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Caroline H.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    The C-type Allatostatins (C-ASTs) are a family of highly pleiotropic arthropod neuropeptides. In crustaceans, transcriptomic/mass spectral studies have identified C-ASTs in the nervous systems of many species; the cellular distributions of these peptides remain unknown. Here, the distribution of C-AST was mapped in the nervous system of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the major contributor to the North Atlantic’s zooplanktonic biomass; C-AST-immunopositive neurons were identified in the protocerebrum, in several peripheral ganglia associated with feeding appendages, and in the ganglia controlling the swimming legs, with immunopositive axons present throughout the ventral nerve cord. In addition, axons innervating the dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal muscles of the body wall of the metasome were labeled by the C-AST antibody. While the distribution of C-AST-like immunoreactivity was similar between sexes, several differences were noted, i.e. two pair of somata located at the deutocerebral/tritocerbral border in males and immunopositive fibers that surround the genital opening in females. To place the C-AST-like labeling into context with those of several previously mapped peptides, i.e. A-type allatostatin (A-AST) and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), we conducted double-labeling studies; the C-AST-like immunopositive neurons appear distinct from those expressing either A-AST or TRP (and through extrapolation, pigment dispersing hormone). Collectively, our data represent the first mapping of C-AST in crustacean neural tissue, show that sex-specific differences in the distribution of C-AST exist in the C. finmarchicus CNS, and suggest that the peptide may be involved in the modulation of both feeding and postural control/locomotion. PMID:20338176

  6. The 2.1A crystal structure of copGFP, a representative member of the copepod clade within the green fluorescent protein superfamily.

    PubMed

    Wilmann, Pascal G; Battad, Jion; Petersen, Jan; Wilce, Matthew C J; Dove, Sophie; Devenish, Rodney J; Prescott, Mark; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2006-06-16

    The green fluorescent protein (avGFP), its variants, and the closely related GFP-like proteins are characterized structurally by a cyclic tri-peptide chromophore located centrally within a conserved beta-can fold. Traditionally, these GFP family members have been isolated from the Cnidaria although recently, distantly related GFP-like proteins from the Bilateria, a sister group of the Cnidaria have been described, although no representative structure from this phylum has been reported to date. We have determined to 2.1A resolution the crystal structure of copGFP, a representative GFP-like protein from a copepod, a member of the Bilateria. The structure of copGFP revealed that, despite sharing only 19% sequence identity with GFP, the tri-peptide chromophore (Gly57-Tyr58-Gly59) of copGFP adopted a cis coplanar conformation within the conserved beta-can fold. However, the immediate environment surrounding the chromophore of copGFP was markedly atypical when compared to other members of the GFP-superfamily, with a large network of bulky residues observed to surround the chromophore. Arg87 and Glu222 (GFP numbering 96 and 222), the only two residues conserved between copGFP, GFP and GFP-like proteins are involved in autocatalytic genesis of the chromophore. Accordingly, the copGFP structure provides an alternative platform for the development of a new suite of fluorescent protein tools. Moreover, the structure suggests that the autocatalytic genesis of the chromophore is remarkably tolerant to a high degree of sequence and structural variation within the beta-can fold of the GFP superfamily. PMID:16697009

  7. Use of life tables and LC50 tests to evaluate chronic and acute toxicity effects of copper on the marine copepod Tisbe furcata (Baird)

    SciTech Connect

    Bechmann, R.K. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Marine Zoology and Marine Chemistry)

    1994-09-01

    Cohorts of the epiphytic marine copepod Tisbe furcata were chronically exposed to copper in life-table experiments to test whether ecologically relevant impacts can occur at sublethal concentrations. Data on fecundity, longevity, and rate of development were used to calculate r[sub m]--the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Acute toxicity tests were done to compare the concentrations of copper affecting individual lethality and population biology. The LC50 value for Tisbe furcata nauplii was 2.8 [mu]M copper. The results from the life-table experiments show that 0.9 [mu]M copper can cause significant negative effects on demographic parameters (total production of nauplii, life span, and reproductive period for fertile females) and reduce the percentage of fertile females leading to a 61% reduction of r[sub m]. However, r[sub m] was still positive at 0.9 [mu]M copper, and the net reproductive rate (R[sub 0]) indicated a fivefold increase in population size from one generation to the next. Although there were no significant effects of copper at 0.5 [mu]M, there was a negative trend in almost all the demographic parameters, indicating that the observed 10% reduction of r[sub m] at this concentration was an effect of copper. For the substances tested so far with both acute LC50 tests and life-table experiments, r[sub m] was not reduced at concentrations below LC50/10. When life-table experiments are used as part of environmental hazard assessments, concentrations below LC50/10 should be tested to detect substances that are potentially harmful to the environment at sublethal concentrations, rather than testing concentrations close to LC50.

  8. Cryptic or pseudocryptic: can morphological methods inform copepod taxonomy? An analysis of publications and a case study of the Eurytemora affinis species complex

    PubMed Central

    Lajus, Dmitry; Sukhikh, Natalia; Alekseev, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Interest in cryptic species has increased significantly with current progress in genetic methods. The large number of cryptic species suggests that the resolution of traditional morphological techniques may be insufficient for taxonomical research. However, some species now considered to be cryptic may, in fact, be designated pseudocryptic after close morphological examination. Thus the “cryptic or pseudocryptic” dilemma speaks to the resolution of morphological analysis and its utility for identifying species. We address this dilemma first by systematically reviewing data published from 1980 to 2013 on cryptic species of Copepoda and then by performing an in-depth morphological study of the former Eurytemora affinis complex of cryptic species. Analyzing the published data showed that, in 5 of 24 revisions eligible for systematic review, cryptic species assignment was based solely on the genetic variation of forms without detailed morphological analysis to confirm the assignment. Therefore, some newly described cryptic species might be designated pseudocryptic under more detailed morphological analysis as happened with Eurytemora affinis complex. Recent genetic analyses of the complex found high levels of heterogeneity without morphological differences; it is argued to be cryptic. However, next detailed morphological analyses allowed to describe a number of valid species. Our study, using deep statistical analyses usually not applied for new species describing, of this species complex confirmed considerable differences between former cryptic species. In particular, fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the random variation of left and right structures, was significantly different between forms and provided independent information about their status. Our work showed that multivariate statistical approaches, such as principal component analysis, can be powerful techniques for the morphological discrimination of cryptic taxons. Despite increasing cryptic species designations, morphological techniques have great potential in determining copepod taxonomy.

  9. Comparing seasonal dynamics of the Lake Huron zooplankton community between 1983-1984 and 2007 and revisiting the impact of Bythotrephes planktivory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, David B.; Keeler, Kevin M.; Puchala, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Bruce M.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Zooplankton community composition can be influenced by lake productivity as well as planktivory by fish or invertebrates. Previous analyses based on long-term Lake Huron zooplankton data from August reported a shift in community composition between the 1980s and 2000s: proportional biomass of calanoid copepods increased while that of cyclopoid copepods and herbivorous cladocerans decreased. Herein, we used seasonally collected data from Lake Huron in 1983–1984 and 2007 and reported similar shifts in proportional biomass. We also used a series of generalized additive models to explore differences in seasonal abundance by species and found that all three cyclopoid copepod species (Diacyclops thomasi, Mesocylops edax, Tropocyclops prasinus mexicanus) exhibited higher abundance in 1983–1984 than in 2007. Surprisingly, only one (Epischura lacustris) of seven calanoid species exhibited higher abundance in 2007. The results for cladocerans were also mixed with Bosmina spp. exhibiting higher abundance in 1983–1984, while Daphnia galeata mendotae reached a higher level of abundance in 2007. We used a subset of the 2007 data to estimate not only the vertical distribution of Bythotrephes longimanus and their prey, but also the consumption by Bythotrephes in the top 20 m of water. This epilimnetic layer was dominated by copepod copepodites and nauplii, and consumption either exceeded (Hammond Bay site) or equaled 65% (Detour site) of epilimnetic zooplankton production. The lack of spatial overlap between Bythotrephes and herbivorous cladocerans and cyclopoid copepod prey casts doubt on the hypothesis that Bythotrephes planktivory was the primary driver underlying the community composition changes in the 2000s.

  10. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13). Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions These results suggest that cortisol-induced stress does not affect the level of infection of Atlantic salmon with the parasite, however, it may retard repair of skin. The cortisol induced changes are in close concordance with the existing concept of wound healing cascade. PMID:22480234

  11. Zooplankton abundance in relation to state and type of intrusions onto the southeastern United States shelf during summer

    SciTech Connect

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Wester, B.T.; Nicholas, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vertical distribution of zooplankton on the continental shelf of northeastern Florida was determined in and around upwelling events and related to concentrations of particulate matter. Doliolida and the cladoceran Penilia avirostris were significantly more abundant in upwelled water < 22/sup 0/C and the cyclopoid genus Oncaea more abundant at warmer temperatures. The abundance of doliolida, Oithona and Oncaea in intrusions and the thermocline was significantly higher in older than in recently upwelled waters. The vertical sequences of the abundance of zooplankton and particulate matter (2-114 ..mu..m ESD) were identical. Zooplankton maxima co-occurred primarily with maxima in phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and only partly with primary productivity. 27 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  12. Life histories of large, grazing copepods in a subarctic ocean gyre: Neocalanus plumchrus, Neocalanus cristatus, and Eucalanus bungii in the Northeast Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Charles B.; Frost, Bruce W.; Batchelder, Harold P.; Clemons, Martha J.; Conway, Richard E.

    Life histories for the dominant, larger copepods of the subartic Pacific have been constructed by sampling from weatherships patrolling Ocean Station P (50°N, 145°W) during 1980 and 1981. Neocalanus plumchrus reproduced at depths below 250 m from July through February. Copepodite stages were present in surface layers from October through August with a large peak in numbers and biomass in spring. Fifth copepodites prepared for diapuse in 38 days during spring and descended to depths below 250 m. They commenced immediately to mature, and the females reproduced without renewed feeding. This schedule contrasts with that of the population in the Strait of Georgia, which remains in diapause from July to January and matures exclusively in January and February. There appears to be a difference between the coastal and oceanic habitats in preparing the diapausing individuals for maturation. Maturation of the diapausing stock of N. plumchrus maintained constant adult populations, averaging 714 males m -2 from June through October and 1,434 females m -2 from August through January. This constancy, together with the exponential pattern of decline in the diapause stock from September through February, suggests that density of adults may regulate maturation of fifth copepodites. Offspring of individuals delaying maturation and, thus, reproduction would benefit from the resulting moderation of intraspecific competition, probably that among copepodites. Reproduction of Neocalanus cristatus also occurred below 250 m, and, while spawning was continuous through the year, there was a substantial peak in November. That resulted in a peak of abundance for early copepodite stages in mid-winter, and a peak for the fifth copepodite stage in June. Stocking of the population of fifth copepodites in diapause below 250 m occurred from July through October. Some fifth copepodites were present in surface layers through the entire summer, and some younger copepodites persisted through the summer in progressively declining abundance just below the mixed layer. In autumn 1980 resurgence of early copepodite populations was rapid, occurring during the course of a prolonged October storm. The storm may have improved the habitat either by cooling the mixed layer or by resupplying nutrients to the euphotic zone. Eucalanus bungii reproduced in the mixed layer in early May and in early July. The first event was a spawning by females that had previously spawned in 1979 and then had returned to diapause. The second, heavier spawning (more females, more eggs per female) was by newly matured females from stocks that had overwintered as fifth copepodites. Nauplii peaked sharply in abundance on 19 July, one week after the peak in spawning. First and second copepodites peaked on 1 August, and all had advanced to the third copepodite stage by September. The diapause stock was established by September, principally between 250 and 500 m, and consisted of copepodite stages from third to sixth. Duration of the E. bungii life cycle appears to be typically two years. New nauplii develop as far as the third or fourth copepodite stage during their first summer, then enter diapause. The second summer they advance to the fifth copepodite stage and reenter diapause. Fifth copepodites mature in their third summer at two years of age. The males remain at depth and mate without subsequent feeding. Females migrate at night to the mixed layer where spawning occurs. About 20% of females that had already spawned in 1980 reentered diapause. They would reproduce again in their fourth summer at three years of age. All aspects of the life cycle suggest low mortality rates for copepodite stages, particularly at depth in the habitat occupied during diapuse. There can be no premium on rapid reproduction for E. bungii in the subartic Pacific, and there must even be benefit from spreading reproduction between years. This iteroparity may amount to a “bet-hedging” tactic, the young from a given mother having more than one chance to find sustaining conditions. It also produces gene flow betwee

  13. Distribution and diets of larval and juvenile fishes: Influence of salinity gradient and turbidity maximum in a temperate estuary in upper Ariake Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Shahidul; Hibino, Manabu; Tanaka, Masaru

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the fish assemblage and distribution, diversity, and diets in relation to copepod prey communities along the Chikugo estuarine gradient in the Ariake Bay, Japan. Larval and juvenile fish samples, ambient copepod samples were collected and major hydrographic parameters were recorded at seven selected sampling stations (salinity range: 0.4-28.8 psu) during four sampling cruises in spring 2001. A zone of estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) was identified in the upper part of the estuary which was characterized by low salinity. Two different fish and copepod communities based on the spatial distribution patterns were identified: the oligohaline community in the upper estuary, which was associated with the ETM; and the euryhaline community in the lower estuary, downstream of the ETM. The oligohaline fish community was composed of Acanthogobius flavimanus, Acanthogobius hasta, Coilia nasus, Neosalanx reganius, and Trachidermus fasciatus while the euryhaline community was composed of Engraulis japonicus and Sebastes inermis. Lateolabrax japonicus was distributed over wide spatial areas. Sinocalanus sinensis was the single dominant member of the oligohaline copepod community while the euryhaline community was dominated by Oithona davisae, Acartia omorii and Paracalanus parvus. Strong dietary relationships were identified between fishes and copepods in the same community. ETM appears to have significant influence on the distribution and abundance of the oligohaline copepod S. sinensis and this prey copepod appears to have strong influence on the fishes in the oligohaline regions. Most of the fishes were distributed in the low saline upper estuary where they foraged on the single dominant copepod S. sinensis which contributes the majority of the copepod standing biomass of the estuary and thus appear to support nursery for fishes. It was concluded that the ETM-based copepod S. sinensis plays a key role in survival and distribution of larval and juvenile fishes in Chikugo estuary.

  14. Microcrustacea in flowing water - experimental-analysis of washout times and a field-test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    1. Flow-chamber experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of microcrustacea to maintain position in moving water. These results were compared to distributions of zooplankton and water velocity in a stream pool to determine the relationship of animal density to water movement and swimming ability.^2. Cladocerans exhibited negative rheotaxis (directed behaviour against a current) but poor ability to maintain position at velocities >2.5 Cm s-1. Daphnia and scapholeberis were better at avoiding washout than moina and diaphanosoma. At velocities 2.5 Cm s-1, scapholeberis >3.2 Cm s-1 and eucyclops >7.75 Cm s-1. Washout time of daphnia and scapholeberis was positively related to body size and negatively to water velocity and possession of eggs. Washout was inversely related to water velocity for eucyclops.^4. Highest densities of microcrustacea in a stream pool were found in non-flowing or downstream zones of the pool. Benthic (hydracarina, harpacticoid copepods, ostracods) and fast-swimming (cyclopoids) forms were most common in flowing zones. Facultatively benthic cladocera were abundant in regions of no flow. Rotifers and immature copepods were most abundant at the downstream end of the pool.^5. Behavioural mechanisms for remaining in stream pools at times of high flow appear to include: (i) flow avoidance (simocephalus, chydorus, scapholeberis and cyclopoids), (ii) use of benthic habitat (ostracods, harpacticoids, hydracarina), (iii) strong swimming ability (cyclopoids).

  15. Efecto del dinoflagelado tóxico Gymnodinium catenatum sobre el consumo, la producción de huevos y la tasa de eclosión del copépodo Acartia clausi Effect of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum on the grazing, egg production, and hatching success of the copepod Acartia clausi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Palomares-García; José Bustillos-Guzmán; Christine J Band-Schmidt; David López-Cortés; Bernd Luckas

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham on the reproductive response of the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi Giesbrecht was examined. Mature females of A. clausi were selected and fed a mixture of natural phytoplankton and G. catenatum in nominal ratios of 100:0%, 75:25%, 50:50%, 25:75%, and 0:100%, respectively. The concentration and type of toxins of the G. catenatum

  16. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for glutathione S-transferase (GST-S) protein in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus and its application for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Park, Gyung Soo; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-11-01

    To utilize the GST-S protein as a useful biomarker for environmental contamination, we developed a polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Two polyclonal antibodies, TJ-GST-S1 and TJ-GST-S2, were raised against two TJ-GST-S synthetic peptides. Also a recombinant TJ-GST-S protein was purified as a standard for ELISA development. Each polyclonal antibody was tested by Western blot analysis and indirect ELISA. Of two polyclonal antibodies, TJ-GST-S2 ELISA was further employed due to its wide range of detection and the limit of specificity compared to those of TJ-GST-S1 ELISA system. After exposure to 4 metals (Ag, As, Cd, and Cu) to T. japonicus, the amount of TJ-GST-S protein was significantly elevated in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, TJ-GST-S protein was upregulated at relative high concentrations of B[?]P, PCB, and TBT. In this paper, we suggest that T. japonicas ELISA for TJ-GST-S2 is useful as a potential indicator system for marine contaminants. PMID:24112658

  17. Sequence, biochemical characteristics and expression of a novel Sigma-class of glutathione S-transferase from the intertidal copepod, Tigriopus japonicus with a possible role in antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Kyun-Woo; Park, Hyun; Park, Heum Gi; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Ahn, In-Young; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2007-10-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a major role in detoxification of xenobiotics and antioxidant defense. Here we report full-length cDNA sequence of a novel Sigma-class of GST (GST-S) from the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The full sequence was of 1,136 bp in length containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 651 bp that encoded 217 amino acid residues. The recombinant Tigriopus GST-S was highly expressed in transformed Escherichia coli. Kinetic properties and effects of pH, temperature and chemical inhibitors on Tigriopus GST-S were also studied. The expression of GST-S was studied using real-time RT-PCR in response to exposure to two oxidative stresses-inducing agents, viz., hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and heavy metals (copper, manganese). It was observed that H(2)O(2) (2mM) exposure down-regulated its expression at the initial stage but there was recovery and up-regulation shortly afterwards. In case of heavy metal exposure there was concentration-dependent increase in Tigriopus GST-S gene expression up to 24h. These results suggest that Tigriopus GST-S expression is modulated by prooxidant chemicals and it may play a role against oxidative stress. A majority of other GST isoforms is known to play an important role in antioxidant defense. This study provides a preliminary insight into the possible antioxidant role for Sigma-class of GST in T. japonicus. PMID:17659322

  18. The Lake Ontario zooplankton community before (1987-1991) and after (2001-2005) invasion-induced ecosystem change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, T.J.; Johannsson, O.E.; Holeck, K.; Sprules, W.G.; O'Gorman, R.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed changes in Lake Ontario zooplankton biomass, production, and community composition before (1987–1991) and after (2001–2005) invasion-induced ecosystem changes. The ecosystem changes were associated with establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels and invasive predatory cladocerans (Bythotrephes and Cercopagis). Whole-lake total epilimnetic plus metalimnetic zooplankton production declined by approximately half from 42.45 (g dry wt?m?2? year?1) during 1987–1991 to 21.91 (g dry wt?m?2? year?1) in 2003 and averaged 21.01 (g dry wt?m?2? year?1) during 2001–2005. Analysis of two independent data sets indicates that the mean biomass and biomass proportion of cyclopoid copepods declined while the same measures increased for the invasive predatory cladocerans. Changes in means and proportions of all other zooplankton groups were not consistent between the data sets. Cyclopoid copepod biomass and production declined by factors ranging from 3.6 to 5.7. Invasive predatory cladoceran biomass averaged from 5.0% to 8.0% of the total zooplankton biomass. The zooplankton community was otherwise resilient to the invasion-induced disruption as zooplankton species richness and diversity were unaffected. Zooplankton production was likely reduced by declines in primary productivity but may have declined further due to increased predation by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Shifts in zooplankton community structure were consistent with increased predation pressure on cyclopoid copepods by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Predicted declines in the proportion of small cladocerans were not evident. This study represents the first direct comparison of changes in Lake Ontario zooplankton production before and after the invasion-induced disruption and will be important to food web-scale investigations of invasion effects.

  19. Diffusible gas transmitter signaling in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus: identification of the biosynthetic enzymes of nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using a de novo assembled transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Fontanilla, Tiana M.; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurochemical signaling is a major component of physiological/behavioral control throughout the animal kingdom. Gas transmitters are perhaps the most ancient class of molecules used by nervous systems for chemical communication. Three gases are generally recognized as being produced by neurons: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As part of an ongoing effort to identify and characterize the neurochemical signaling systems of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the biomass dominant zooplankton in much of the North Atlantic Ocean, we have mined a de novo assembled transcriptome for sequences encoding the neuronal biosynthetic enzymes of these gases, i.e. nitric oxide synthase (NOS), heme oxygenase (HO) and cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), respectively. Using Drosophila proteins as queries, two NOS-, one HO-, and one CBS-encoding transcripts were identified. Reverse BLAST and structural analyses of the deduced proteins suggest that each is a true member of its respective enzyme family. RNA-Seq data collected from embryos, early nauplii, late nauplii, early copepodites, late copepodites and adults revealed the expression of each transcript to be stage specific: one NOS restricted primarily to the embryo and the other was absent in the embryo but expressed in all other stages, no CBS expression in the embryo, but present in all other stages, and HO expressed across all developmental stages. Given the importance of gas transmitters in the regulatory control of a number of physiological processes, these data open opportunities for investigating the roles these proteins play under different life-stage and environmental conditions in this ecologically important species. PMID:24747481

  20. Abundance, composition, and distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to hypolimnetic oxygen depletion in west-central Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heberger, Roy F.; Reynolds, James B.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of crustacean zooplankton were collected monthly in west-central Lake Erie in April and June to October 1968, and in July and August 1970, before and during periods of hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion. The water column at offshore stations was thermally stratified from June through September 1968, and the hypolimnion contained no DO in mid-August of 1968 or 1970. Composition, abundance, and vertical distribution of crustacean zooplankton changed coincidentally with oxygen depletion. From July to early August, zooplankton abundance dropped 79% in 1968 and 50% in 1970. The declines were attributed largely to a sharp decrease in abundance of planktonic Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi. Zooplankton composition shifted from mainly cyclopoid copepods in July to mainly cladocerans and copepod nauplii in middle to late August. We believe that mortality of adults and dormancy of copepodites in response to anoxia was the probable reason for the late summer decline in planktonic C. b. thomasi.

  1. Bacterial diversity associated with freshwater zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dziallas, Claudia; Tang, Kam W

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial community compositions (BCC) associated with the cladoceran Bosmina coregoni and the cyclopoid copepod Thermocyclops oithonoides in oligotrophic Lake Stechlin versus eutrophic Lake Dagow (northeastern Germany) were compared using molecular techniques. We also transplanted the zooplankton from their native lake to the other lake, and studied changes in their associated BCC as a result of the modified ambient environment. Bacterial community composition associated with B. coregoni was quite conservative between the oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes, and most of the bacteria belonged to Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. In contrast, BCC associated with T. oithonoides was highly variable and dependent on the environment, and Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most represented among the bacteria. Thermocyclops oithonoides from the oligotrophic lake was more able to retain its bacteria after being transplanted to the eutrophic lake than vice versa. This suggests that bacteria in oligotrophic water were more firmly attached to the copepod and better in resisting environmental fluctuations than those in eutrophic water. PMID:23765720

  2. Zooplankton community and hydrographical properties of the Neretva Channel (eastern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidjak, Olja; Bojani?, Natalia; Kušpili?, Grozdan; Nin?evi? Gladan, Živana; Ti?ina, Vjekoslav

    2007-12-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of micro and mesozooplankton was studied in 1998 and 1999 at four stations in the Neretva Channel area influenced by the Neretva river and the open waters of the south Adriatic Sea. The area is orthophosphate limited, but an excessive accumulation of land derived nitrogen is prevented by phytoplankton uptake and the general circulation pattern. Microzooplankton was dominated by ciliates, with average abundances comparable to other Adriatic channel areas (122 543 ind. l-1). Non-loricate ciliates (NLC) generally peaked in the warmer periods, but a winter increase was evident towards the inner part of the channel. Tintinnid abundances generally increased in autumn. A significant relationship with temperature was not recorded for either protozoan group. An inverse relationship between NLC and salinity might be indirectly caused by their preference for the food abundant surface layer. Mesozooplankton was dominated by copepods, with distinct summer maxima throughout the area and pronounced winter maxima of >10,000 ind. m-3 at the inner stations. The community was predominantly neritic but the open sea waters were important in structuring the mesozooplankton assemblage at all stations during the autumn winter period. Although temperature regulated the seasonal dynamics of most metazoans and the species succession in the copepod community, small omnivorous copepods ( Oncaea media complex, Oithona nana and Euterpina acutifrons) dominated regardless of the season. A trophic link between copepods and ciliates was evident in winter during low phytoplankton biomass.

  3. Early winter mesozooplankton of the coastal south-eastern Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.; Dvoretsky, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Barents Sea (Pechora Sea) is a little studied region of the Russian Arctic. We investigated mesozooplankton community of this area in early winter period for the first time. The study was based on collections performed with a Juday net (168 ?m) in November 2010. Three types of stations differing in mesozooplankton composition and abundance were revealed by non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses. Taxa richness and diversity of the mesozooplankton were high. The total abundance and biomass varied from 931 to 4360 individuals m-3 and from 4.0 to 64.2 mg dry mass m-3, respectively. Maximum density of mesozooplankton was located in the hydrographical frontal zone where cold and warm waters interacted. Copepods dominated in terms of the total abundance. Abundances of major taxa were strongly correlated with environmental variables, of which temperature, salinity and depth were the most important. Previous studies showed that many mesozooplankton are in a dormant state during the Arctic winter from October to April. However, our investigation found young copepodites to be present for many of the common copepod species, which suggests successful reproduction of some opportunistic taxa (Pseudocalanus, Acartia, Temora, Oithona) and that the small copepod community was in an active phase. The main factor influencing possible development of the copepods in the south-eastern Barents Sea was river run-off which supplied plankton with detritus and suspended organic matter.

  4. Predation on Mosquito Larvae by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in the Presence of Alternate Prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ram; Ramakrishna Rao, T.

    2003-11-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, a dominant invertebrate predator in many shallow ponds and temporary water bodies in northern India, feeds on cladocerans, rotifers, ciliates and when present, on mosquito larvae also. We studied in the laboratory the prey consumption rates of the copepod on first and fourth instar larvae of two species of mosquito (Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus) in relation to their density. We also studied its prey selectivity with mosquito larvae in the presence of an alternate prey (the cladocerans-either Moina macrocopa or Ceriodaphnia cornuta) in different proportions. With either mosquito species, the copepod actively selected Instar-I larvae, avoiding the Instar-IV larvae, and with either instar, selected Anopheles stephensi over Culex quinquefasciatus. When prey choice included the cladoceran as an alternate prey, the copepod selected the cladoceran only when the other prey was Instar-IV mosquito larvae. Our results point to the potential and promise of M. thermocyclopoides as a biological agent for controlling larval populations of vectorially important mosquito species.

  5. Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Davis, B.M.; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and hypolimnion, leaving limited refuge for zooplankton prey. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Composition of phytoplankton communities and their contribution to secondary productivity in Carolina Bays on the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.B.

    1991-08-01

    The overall goal of the this three year project is to determine the importance of phytoplankton (microscopic algae) as a component of the food chain base in SRS cardine bays. To summarize specific year three results: Total phytoplankton abundance in Flamingo bay was greatest during early spring 1989, declined during spring and summer, but increased again during early fall. Most of this phytoplankton density was composed of genus Chlamydomonas sp. Ellenton bay demonstrated a similar decline in phytoplankton numbers during midspring 1989, but increased in density during midsummer. As observed in Flamingo bay, much of this variation was due to changes in Chlamydomonas sp. numbers. In Flamingo bay the blue-green alga Anabaena sp. was low in concentration throughout the 1989 flooded season until August, however the diatom Pinnularia sp. displayed a pattern of abundance similar to Chlamydomonas sp. In Ellenton bay Pinnularia sp. peaked during early summer and Anabaena sp. reached highest densities in late spring. For zooplankton in Flamingo bay, the calanoid copepods were higher in early and late spring, similar to the cyclopoid copepods. Cladocera in Ellenton bay were highest in numbers during May 1989, while cladocera in Flamingo bay displayed patterns similar to Flamingo bay cyclopoid copepods. Laboratory experiments exposing Chlamydomonas sp. cultures to known mixtures of {sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} and {sup 12}C-CO{sub 2} seem to indicate that some isotope preference may exist during photosynthesis, however these results have not been analyzed statistically yet. Phytoplankton samples collected for Flamingo bay indicated that a seasonal change in isotope ratios may be occurring in algae tissues, however further analyses are being conducted to determine whether this may also be due to species shifts. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  7. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance of the inland copepod fauna of Costa Rica requires more detailed surveys. PMID:25561828

  8. Effects of inorganic turbidity and reservoir floods on the feeding and population dynamics of Cladoceran zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Clearance rates of {sup 32}P-labeled yeast cell tracer particles and gravimetric seston analysis were used to estimate in situ seston ingestion rates of Daphnia parvula and Bosmina along the seston gradient in Tuttle Creek Reservoir, near Manhattan, Kansas. An ingestion rate depression occurred for both species at the highest seston concentration. The smallest animals, Bosmina, had a lower incipient limiting concentration and exhibited a stronger ingestion rate depression. The fecundity and abundance of Daphnia parvula, grown in enclosures along the seston gradient prior to the ingestion rate measurements, were highest at the river inflow region. Reservoir Bosmina, however, were least abundant and had the lowest fecundity at the river inflow region. The abundance of Bosmina, calanoid copepods, and cyclopoid copepods were lower following large storm inflows in the late spring of 1983 and 1984, while the abundance of Diaphanosoma and Moina were similar. Both open reservoir and in situ enclosure populations of Daphnia pulex were reduced following the storm inflow, while only enclosure populations of Daphnia parvula were lower. Diaphanosoma and calanoid copepods dominated the zooplankton during sampling from spring through fall 1984, particularly in midsummer when temperatures were greater than 25{degree}C. Daphnids dominated numerically during the fall baseflow period.

  9. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambler, J.W.; Cloern, J.E.; Hutchinson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The two estuarine systems composing San Francisco Bay have distinct zooplankton communities and seasonal population dynamics. In the South Bay, a shallow lagoon-type estuary, the copepods Acartia spp. and Oithona davisae dominate. As in estuaries along the northeast coast of the U.S., there is a seasonal succession involving the replacement of a cold-season Acartia species (A. clausi s.l.) by a warm-season species (A. californiensis), presumably resulting from the differential production and hatching of dormant eggs. Oithona davisae is most abundant during the fall. Copepods of northern San Francisco Bay, a partially-mixed estuary of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers, organize into discrete populations according to salinity distribution: Sinocalanus doerrii (a recently introduced species) at the riverine boundary, Eurytemora affinis in the oligohaline mixing zone, Acartia spp. in polyhaline waters (18-30\\%), and neritic species (e.g., Paracalanus parvus) at the seaward boundary. Sinocalanus doerrii and E. affinis are present year-round. Acartia clausi s.l. is present almost year-round in the northern reach, and A. californiensis occurs only briefly there in summer-fall. The difference in succession of Acartia species between the two regions of San Francisco Bay may reflect differences in the seasonal temperature cycle (the South Bay warms earlier), and the perennial transport of A. clausi s.l. into the northern reach from the seaward boundary by nontidal advection. Large numbers (>106 m-3) of net microzooplankton (>64 ??m), in cluding the rotifer Synchaeta sp. and three species of tintinnid ciliates, occur in the South Bay and in the seaward northern reach where salinity exceeds about 5-10??? Maximum densities of these microzooplankton are associated with high concentrations of chlorophyll. Meroplankton (of gastropods, bivalves, barnacles, and polychaetes) constitute a large fraction of zooplankton biomass in the South Bay during winter-spring and in the northern reach during summer-fall. Seasonal cycles of zooplankton abundance appear to be constant among years (1978-1981) and are similar in the deep (>10 m) channels and lateral shoals (<3 m). The seasonal zooplankton community dynamics are discussed in relation to: (1) river discharge which alters salinity distribution and residence time of plankton; (2) temperature which induces production and hatching of dormant copepod eggs; (3) coastal hydrography which brings neritic copepods of different zoogeographic affinities into the bay; and (4) seasonal cycles of phytoplankton. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  10. First record of a cyclopoid host-Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus) for an acanthocephalous worm-Acanthosentis dattai Podder from Delhi (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, S K; Wattal, B L

    1976-01-01

    Among seven species of Cyclops encountered in four water ponds kept under observation in Delhi during 1973-74 period, six specimens of Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus, 1857) were found to harbour juvenile stages of Acanthosentis dattai Podder, 1938, parasite of the freshwater fish of the genus Barbus. This is the first record of members of Cyclopidae as intermediate hosts of Acanthocephala in India. The morphology of hitherto unknown juvenile stage of A. dattai is described in this note. PMID:1278821

  11. Ecological immunology of a tapeworms' interaction with its two consecutive hosts.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Kurtz, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions in parasites with complex life cycles have recently gained much interest. Here, we take an evolutionary ecologist's perspective and analyse the immunological interaction of such a parasite, the model tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, with its two intermediate hosts, a cyclopoid copepod and the three-spined stickleback. We will be focussing especially on the parallel links between the different phases during an infection in the different hosts; the immunological interactions between host(s) and parasite; and their impact on parasite establishment, growth, host manipulation and parasite virulence in the next host in the cycle. We propose to extend the 'extended phenotype' concept and not only include the ultimate but also the proximate, physiological causes. In particular, parasite-induced host manipulation is suggested to be caused by the interactions of the parasite with the hosts' immune systems. PMID:19289192

  12. Zooplankton community patterns in the Chukchi Sea during summer 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopcroft, Russell R.; Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton were sampled in the Chukchi Sea along three transects between Alaska and Russia, plus four high-speed transects across the axis of Herald Valley in August of 2004. A total of 50 holoplanktonic species, along with a prominent assemblage of meroplankton were encountered; most were of Pacific Ocean origin. Copepods represented the most diverse group with 23 species, and contributed the bulk (3100 ind. m -3, 30 mg dry weight m -3) of the total holozooplankton community abundance (3500 ind. m -3) and biomass (42 mg DW m -3) at most stations. Meroplanktonic larvae were, on average, almost as abundant (2260 ind. m -3) as the holozooplankton. Copepods were dominated numerically by four species of Pseudocalanus, Oithona similis, and the neritic copepods Acartia longiremis and Centropages abdominalis. The larger-bodied copepods, Calanus glacialis/ marshallae and three Neocalanus species, equalled or exceeded the biomass of Pseudocalanus, followed by contributions from Metridia pacifica and Eucalanus bungii. Considerable abundance (256 ind. m -3) and biomass (42 mg DW m -3) of the larvacean Oikopleura vanhoeffeni was observed throughout the sampling area. The chaetognath Parasagitta elegans (4.8 mg DW m -3) and a diverse assemblage of cnidarians (˜1.2 mg DW m -3) comprised the dominant predators. Six major assemblages of zooplankton were identified, and each was closely tied to physical properties of water masses: Euryhaline species in the warm fresh Alaska Coastal Current, a Bering Sea assemblage of both shelf and oceanic species in cool salty Bering Sea Water, a transitional group between these two, a neritic Bering Sea assemblage in cold salty Bering Winter Water, and a small cluster of Arctic Shelf species in cold, fresh Resident Chukchi Water. Ongoing climate change may alter the boundaries, extent of penetration, size spectra, and productivities of these communities, thus warranting regular monitoring of the zooplankton communities of this gateway into the Arctic.

  13. Characterization of the zooplankton community, size composition, and distribution in relation to hydrography in the Japan/East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashjian, Carin J.; Davis, Cabell S.; Gallager, Scott M.; Alatalo, Philip

    2005-06-01

    The Japan/East Sea (JES) may be thought of as a model or microcosm of larger oceanic systems where biogeographic boundaries juxtapose at highly dynamic boundaries. The northern and southern portions of the JES are hydrographically and biologically distinct, with the southern portion being more tropical/oligotrophic and the northern portion being more boreal/eutrophic. Regional zooplankton taxonomic and size compositions and abundance and the high-resolution vertical distribution of plankton, fluorescence, and coincident hydrography were described using the Video Plankton Recorder (VPR), equipped with high- and low-magnification cameras and environmental sensors and mounted on a vertically profiling towed vehicle, in the upper 80 m of the JES during the summer of 1999. A survey was conducted over both the northern and southern regions, including the Subpolar Front (SPF), that spanned 10-12° of latitude and longitude and covered an along track distance of 7000 km. Plankton also were collected at 15 selected stations using a ring net for silhouette analysis of taxa and size. Distributional patterns in abundance (#/liter) of plankton taxa from the VPR were quantified at sea in real time, identifying plankton automatically using a neural network classifier. The most abundant taxa identified were copepods, Oithona spp., Calanus spp., copepod nauplii, protozoa, and diatoms, with copepods the dominant taxon. The northern JES, southern JES, and North Korean Cold Current were distinct based on based on temperature-salinity properties. The hydrography was complex and characterized by multiple mesoscale features including currents and the meandering of the SPF. Different taxonomic and size compositions were observed in the three hydrographic regions. The vertical distributions of copepods and fluorescence were associated with hydrographic structure, especially at fronts. Plankton abundances varied with regional hydrographic region and environmental conditions, although strong associations were not always observed. The extremely dynamic nature of the JES may effectively mix the plankton and obscure strong gradients or differences between regions.

  14. CALANOID COPEPODS FROM THE CENTRAL NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN

    E-print Network

    -m. (mouth diameter) net. The front and middle sections of the net were made of 30XXX silk grit gauze (apertures averaging 0.65 mm. in width), and the rear section and bag of 56XXX silk grit gauze (apertures

  15. Circular Polarization of Transmitted Light by Sapphirinidae Copepods

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Joseph

    observed occurring naturally only near the water surface [3,4]. Among animals, the production of circularly. versicolor firefly larvae, in reflections from beetles of the Scarabaeidae family, in Panulirus argus microfibril layers in the exocuticle of beetles belonging to the Scarabaeidae family is usually left handed [5

  16. The effectiveness of Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda) for the control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Soumare, M K F; Cilek, J E

    2011-12-01

    The cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus was evaluated for its predatory potential to reduce container-inhabiting mosquitoes in 5 suburban Florida backyards. Aedes albopictus, Ae. triseriatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus were the predominant species collected from containers. At an initial inoculation rate of approximately 120 copepods per container, M. longisetus populations eliminated resident mosquito larvae for a minimum of 14 wk in 30-liter plastic buckets and up to 29 wk in 0.4-liter ceramic flowerpots and 0.3-liter glass jars depending on species. Copepod populations generally peaked 13 wk after introduction (August) in ceramic flowerpots and glass jars and about 1 month later in tires, plastic buckets, and plastic flowerpots. At the time of peak abundance, average predator numbers ranged between 900 (glass jar) to >3000 (30-liter bucket) individuals per container. Although all mosquito species were eliminated from all containers sometime during the 35-wk study, M. longisetus appeared to preferably prey on Aedes larvae compared with Culex. Operationally, the use of M. longisetus as a tool for control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes in urban/suburban settings proved to be relatively inexpensive, required little labor for colony maintenance, was easily transported, and easily applied. PMID:22329269

  17. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: community changes and vertical redistribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These coldwater species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor cisco and rainbow smelt over alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  18. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    PubMed Central

    Zagoskin, Maxim V.; Lazareva, Valentina I.; Grishanin, Andrey K.; Mukha, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000?bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals. PMID:25215300

  19. Effects of alewife predation on zooplankton populations in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1970-01-01

    The zooplankton populations in southeastern Lake Michigan underwent striking, size-related changes between 1954 and 1966. Forms that decline sharply were the largest cladocerans (Leptodora kindtii, Daphnia galeata, and D. retrocurva), the largest calanoid copepods (Limnocalanus macrurus, Epischura lacustris, and Diaptomus sicilis), and the largest cyclopoid copepod (Mesocyclops edax). Two of these, D. galeata and M. edax (both abundant in 1954), became extremely rare. Certain medium-sized or small species increased in numbers: Daphnia longiremis, Holopedium gibberum, Polyphemus pediculus, Bosmina longirostris, Bosmina coregoni, Ceriodaphnia sp., Cyclops bicuspidatus, Cyclops vernalis, and Diaptomus ashlandi. Evidence is strong that the changes were due to selective predation by alewives. The alewife was uncommon in southeastern Lake Michigan in 1954 but had increased to enormous proportions by 1966; there was a massive dieoff in spring 1967, and abundance remained relatively low in 1968. The composition of zooplankton populations in 1968 generally had shifted back toward that of 1954, although D. galeata and M. edax remained rare. The average size, and size at onset of maturity, of D. retrocurva decreased noticeably between 1954 and 1966 but increased between 1966 and 1968.

  20. Combined effects of turbulence and different predation regimes on zooplankton in highly colored water-implications for environmental change in lakes.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Hellén, Noora; Ojala, Anne; Horppila, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, predation is affected both by turbulence and visibility, but the combined effects are poorly known. Both factors are changing in lakes in the Northern Hemisphere; the average levels of turbulence are predicted to increase due to increasing wind activities, while water transparency is decreasing, e.g., due to variations in precipitation, and sediment resuspension. We explored experimentally how turbulence influenced the effects of planktivorous fish and invertebrate predators on zooplankton when it was combined with low visibility caused by high levels of water color. The study was conducted as a factorial design in 24 outdoor ponds, using the natural zooplankton community as a prey population. Perch and roach were used as vertebrate predators and Chaoborus flavicans larvae as invertebrate predators. In addition to calm conditions, the turbulent dissipation rate used in the experiments was 10-6 m2 s-3, and the water color was 140 mg Pt L-1. The results demonstrated that in a system dominated by invertebrates, predation pressure on cladocerans increased considerably under intermediate turbulence. Under calm conditions, chaoborids caused only a minor reduction in the crustacean biomass. The effect of fish predation on cladocerans was slightly reduced by turbulence, while predation on cyclopoids was strongly enhanced. Surprisingly, under turbulent conditions fish reduced cyclopoid biomass, whereas in calm water it increased in the presence of fish. We thus concluded that turbulence affects fish selectivity. The results suggested that in dystrophic invertebrate-dominated lakes, turbulence may severely affect the abundance of cladocerans. In fish-dominated dystrophic lakes, on the other hand, turbulence-induced changes in planktivory may considerably affect copepods instead of cladocerans. In lakes inhabited by both invertebrates and fish, the response of top-down regulation to turbulence resembles that in fish-dominated systems, due to intraguild predation. The changes in planktivorous predation induced by abiotic factors may possibly cascade to primary producers. PMID:25375952

  1. Combined Effects of Turbulence and Different Predation Regimes on Zooplankton in Highly Colored Water—Implications for Environmental Change in Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Härkönen, Laura; Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep; Hellén, Noora; Ojala, Anne; Horppila, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, predation is affected both by turbulence and visibility, but the combined effects are poorly known. Both factors are changing in lakes in the Northern Hemisphere; the average levels of turbulence are predicted to increase due to increasing wind activities, while water transparency is decreasing, e.g., due to variations in precipitation, and sediment resuspension. We explored experimentally how turbulence influenced the effects of planktivorous fish and invertebrate predators on zooplankton when it was combined with low visibility caused by high levels of water color. The study was conducted as a factorial design in 24 outdoor ponds, using the natural zooplankton community as a prey population. Perch and roach were used as vertebrate predators and Chaoborus flavicans larvae as invertebrate predators. In addition to calm conditions, the turbulent dissipation rate used in the experiments was 10?6 m2 s?3, and the water color was 140 mg Pt L?1. The results demonstrated that in a system dominated by invertebrates, predation pressure on cladocerans increased considerably under intermediate turbulence. Under calm conditions, chaoborids caused only a minor reduction in the crustacean biomass. The effect of fish predation on cladocerans was slightly reduced by turbulence, while predation on cyclopoids was strongly enhanced. Surprisingly, under turbulent conditions fish reduced cyclopoid biomass, whereas in calm water it increased in the presence of fish. We thus concluded that turbulence affects fish selectivity. The results suggested that in dystrophic invertebrate-dominated lakes, turbulence may severely affect the abundance of cladocerans. In fish-dominated dystrophic lakes, on the other hand, turbulence-induced changes in planktivory may considerably affect copepods instead of cladocerans. In lakes inhabited by both invertebrates and fish, the response of top-down regulation to turbulence resembles that in fish-dominated systems, due to intraguild predation. The changes in planktivorous predation induced by abiotic factors may possibly cascade to primary producers. PMID:25375952

  2. How does mesh-size selection reshape the description of zooplankton community structure in coastal lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansera, Marco; Granata, Antonia; Guglielmo, Letterio; Minutoli, Roberta; Zagami, Giacomo; Brugnano, Cinzia

    2014-12-01

    To provide evidence of the inadequacy of using conventional sampling methods to study mesozooplankton community structure in confined environments, samples from a Mediterranean meromictic coastal lake were taken using 80-?m and 200-?m mesh nets towed at three different depths (0-18 m). Mesh size significantly affected the description of the community structure of the collected zooplankton. The 80-?m-mesh catch revealed for the first time in such an environment the overwhelming abundance of the copepod species Oithona brevicornis, as two orders of magnitude greater than recorded for the 200-?m-mesh catch. The other dominant species were Paracartia latisetosa and Pseudodiaptomus marinus, which were more efficiently sampled with the 200-?m mesh. These showed a summer abundance peak for P. latisetosa near the surface layer, and for P. marinus in the deepest stratum, close to the anoxic layer. Copepod nauplii and bivalve larvae were more efficiently caught with the 80-?m-mesh, and accounted for most of the zooplankton in winter, and showed the highest loss percentage of abundance between the two mesh-size catches. The differences in the assemblages reflect different diversity patterns, with peaks in summer and winter for the communities collected with the 80-?m-mesh and 200-?m-mesh, respectively. These findings imply the need for the development of a commonly used sampling method with paired nets, to correctly take into account both the large and small fractions of the mesozooplankton in the study of closed and semi-enclosed coastal environments, and to obtain data that can be better compared across studies.

  3. Mesozooplankton community development at elevated CO2 concentrations: results from a mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, B.; Knüppel, N.; Daase, M.; Czerny, J.; Boxhammer, T.

    2012-08-01

    The increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere caused by burning fossil fuels leads to increasing pCO2 and decreasing pH in the world oceans. These changes may have severe consequences for marine biota, especially in cold-water ecosystems due to higher solubility of CO2. However, studies on the response of mesozooplankton communities to elevated pCO2 are yet lacking. In order to test whether abundance and taxonomic composition change with pCO2, we have sampled nine mesocosms, which were deployed in Kongsfjorden, an Arctic fjord at Svalbard, and were adjusted to eight CO2 concentrations, initially ranging from 185 ?atm to 1420 ?atm. Samples were taken weekly over a six-week period with an Apstein net (55 ?m mesh size) in all mesocosms and the surrounding fjord. In addition, sediment trap samples, taken every second day in the mesocosms, were analyzed to account for losses due to vertical migration and mortality. The taxonomic analysis revealed that meroplanktonic larvae (cirripeds, polychaetes, bivalves, gastropod, and decapods) dominated in the mesocosms while copepods (Calanus spp., Oithona similis, Acartia longiremis and Microsetella norvegica) were found in lower abundances. In the fjord copepods prevailed for most of our study. With time, abundance and taxonomic composition developed similarly in all mesocosms; the pCO2 had no significant effect on the overall community structure. However, single taxa responded to elevated CO2 concentrations. The ratio of cirripedia nauplii to cypris larvae, the next developmental stage, in the sediment traps averaged over the entire experiment increased with pCO2 and this suggests that increased pCO2 may have delayed their development. Also, the number of bivalves, averaged over the experimental period, decreased significantly with increasing pCO2. The nature of the CO2 effect, either direct or indirect, remains open and needs to be addressed in future.

  4. Mesozooplankton community seasonal succession and its drivers: Insights from a British Columbia, Canada, fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasi, Désirée; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Pakhomov, Evgeny A.; Mackas, Dave L.

    2013-04-01

    The mesozooplankton dynamics in Rivers Inlet, a fjord in Central British Columbia, Canada, were studied from March to June of 2008, 2009 and 2010 to assess the interannual, seasonal, and spatial variability in zooplankton abundance and community structure under different physical environments and spring bloom scenarios. Samples were collected fortnightly during 2008-2009 and monthly in 2010 and provide one of the few multi-year zooplankton time series in the region. Two distinct zooplankton communities characterized the observed succession pattern. The winter-spring group was described by the presence of small, year-round omnivorous zooplankton: bryozoan cyphonautes, Microcalanus spp., Microsetella spp., Oithona spp., and Oncaea spp., as well as by large, diapausing copepods such as Eucalanus bungii, Neocalanus plumchrus, and Calanus marshallae and the euphausiids Thysanoessa spinifera. By contrast, the spring-summer community showed an increased abundance of Acartia longiremis, cladocerans, Limacina helicina, Metridia pacifica, Euphausia pacifica, appendicularians, Clione limacina, chaetognaths, polychaetes, Pseudocalanus spp., ostracods, and amphipods. The timing of zooplankton succession was consistently associated with the timing of the spring bloom, and was delayed in 2009 when the spring bloom occurred in May rather than April. The zooplankton succession dynamics are discussed in terms of dominant feeding guild structure to highlight the potential mechanisms of succession. Spatial variability in zooplankton distribution was mainly influenced by river flow and exchanges with adjacent coastal waters.

  5. The coastal edge of the Northeast Water polynya in spring 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weslawski, J. M.; Wiktor, J.; Koszteyn, J.; Zajaczkowski, M.; Wieczorek, P.; Kotwicki, L.

    1997-01-01

    Multidisciplinary, marine ecological observations were conducted at the shallow water edge of the Northeast Water in June, 1993. Although variable in size and shape, a small polynya was constantly present at Eskimonaes, at the fast-ice edge of Ingolfsfjord. A shallow stratified layer developed at the water sufface at negative water and air temperatures—an effect of sea ice melting in cold water early in the season. Nutrients were recorded in considerable quantities, although by mid July NO 3 had become depleted. The chlorophyll and phytoplankton maxima at 8-12 m depth had peak values of 2 mg chl a m -3, typical for Arctic algal blooms. The phytoplankton included over 90 species and was dominated by the Fragillariopsis group. Zooplankton was poor in biomass and density, but over 23 taxa were found, with the copepods Oithona similis and Pseudocalanus acuspes being numerically dominant. Sedimentation was approximately 0.2 g dry weight m -2 d -1 and suspended matter concentrations ranged from 4 to 19 mg l -1. The benthos was represented by hard bottom forms only, with a surprisingly dense cover of macrophytes. Juvenile sea urchins ( Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis), brittle stars ( Ophiocten sericeum) and amphipods were dominant. Higher trophic levels were represented by benthic feeders, such as eiders and walruses. The area observed was more similar to high Arctic fjord ecosystems than to the offshore central Northeast Water polynya.

  6. The distribution and vertical flux of fecal pellets from large zooplankton in Monterey bay and coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagg, Michael J.; Jackson, George A.; Checkley, David M.

    2014-12-01

    We sampled zooplankton and fecal pellets in the upper 200 m of Monterey Bay and nearby coastal regions in California, USA. On several occasions, we observed high concentrations of large pellets that appeared to be produced during night-time by dielly migrating euphausiids. High concentrations of pellets were found in near-surface waters only when euphausiids co-occurred with high concentrations of large (>10 ?m) phytoplankton. Peak concentrations of pellets at mid-depth (100 or 150 m) during the day were consistent with the calculated sinking speeds of pellets produced near the surface at night. At these high flux locations (HI group), pellet concentrations declined below mid-depth. In contrast, at locations where the phytoplankton assemblage was dominated by small phytoplankton cells (<10 ?m), pellet production and flux were low (LO group) whether or not euphausiid populations were high. Protozooplankton concentrations did not affect this pattern. We concluded that the day and night differences in pellet concentration and flux in the HI profiles were mostly due to sinking of dielly-pulsed inputs in the surface layer, and that small zooplankton (Oithona, Oncaea), heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and bacterial activity probably caused some pellet degradation or consumption below 100 m. We estimated that consumption of sinking pellets by large copepods was insignificant. High fluxes of pellets were episodic because they required both high concentrations of large phytoplankton and large stocks of euphausiids. Under these conditions, flux events overwhelmed retention mechanisms, resulting in large exports of organic matter from the upper 200 m.

  7. Grazing by meso- and microzooplankton on phytoplankton in the upper reaches of the Schelde estuary (Belgium/The Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionard, M.; Azémar, F.; Boulêtreau, S.; Muylaert, K.; Tackx, M.; Vyverman, W.

    2005-09-01

    In contrast with the marine reaches of estuaries, few studies have dealt with zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton in the upper estuarine reaches, where freshwater zooplankton species tend to dominate the zooplankton community. In spring and early summer 2003, grazing by micro- and mesozooplankton on phytoplankton was investigated at three sites in the upper Schelde estuary. Grazing by mesozooplankton was evaluated by monitoring growth of phytoplankton in 200 ?m filtered water in the presence or absence of mesozooplankton. In different experiments, the grazing impact was tested of the calanoïd copepod Eurytemora affinis, the cyclopoid copepods Acanthocyclops robustus and Cyclops vicinus and the cladocera Chydorus sphaericus, Moina affinis and Daphnia magna/ pulex. No significant grazing impact of mesozooplankton in any experiment was found despite the fact that mesozooplankton densities used in the experiments (20 or 40 ind. l -1) were higher than densities in the field (0.1-6.9 ind. l -1). Grazing by microzooplankton was evaluated by comparing growth of phytoplankton in 30 and 200 ?m filtered water. Microzooplankton in the 30-200 ?m size range included mainly rotifers of the genera Brachionus, Trichocerca and Synchaeta, which were present from 191 to 1777 ind. l -1. Microzooplankton had a significant grazing impact in five out of six experiments. They had a community grazing rate of 0.41-1.83 day -1 and grazed up to 84% of initial phytoplankton standing stock per day. Rotifer clearance rates estimated from microzooplankton community grazing rates and rotifer abundances varied from 8.3 to 41.7 ?l ind. -1 h -1. CHEMTAX analysis of accessory pigment data revealed a similar phytoplankton community composition after incubation with and without microzooplankton, indicating non-selective feeding by rotifers on phytoplankton.

  8. Directional Darwinian Selection in proteins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular evolution is a very active field of research, with several complementary approaches, including dN/dS, HON90, MM01, and others. Each has documented strengths and weaknesses, and no one approach provides a clear picture of how natural selection works at the molecular level. The purpose of this work is to present a simple new method that uses quantitative amino acid properties to identify and characterize directional selection in proteins. Methods Inferred amino acid replacements are viewed through the prism of a single physicochemical property to determine the amount and direction of change caused by each replacement. This allows the calculation of the probability that the mean change in the single property associated with the amino acid replacements is equal to zero (H0: ? = 0; i.e., no net change) using a simple two-tailed t-test. Results Example data from calanoid and cyclopoid copepod cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence pairs are presented to demonstrate how directional selection may be linked to major shifts in adaptive zones, and that convergent evolution at the whole organism level may be the result of convergent protein adaptations. Conclusions Rather than replace previous methods, this new method further complements existing methods to provide a holistic glimpse of how natural selection shapes protein structure and function over evolutionary time. PMID:24267049

  9. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  10. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Maeda-Martínez, Alejandro M; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width proportion of 3.5-3.8, a innermost terminal seta slightly longer than the outermost terminal seta, intercoxal sclerites of legs 1-4 naked, a strong apical spine of the second endopodal segment of leg 1 and one row of 6-8 small spinules at the insertion of this spine. The finding of this species represents also the first record of the genus in Mexico and the third in North America, where only two other species, Metacyclops gracilis (Lilljeborg, 1853)and Metacyclops cushae Reid, 1991 have been hitherto reported. This is also the first continental record of a species of Metacyclops from an arid environment in the Americas. This species appears to be endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert, thus emphasizing the high endemicity of this area. PMID:23794845

  11. Zooplankton community resilience and aquatic environmental stability on aquaculture practices: a study using net cages.

    PubMed

    Dias, J D; Simões, N R; Bonecker, C C

    2012-02-01

    Fish farming in net cages causes changes in environmental conditions. We evaluated the resilience of zooplankton concerning this activity in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples were taken near the net cages installed at distances upstream and downstream, before and after net cage installation. The resilience was estimated by the decrease in the groups' abundance after installing the net cages. The zooplankton community was represented by 106 species. The most abundant species were Synchaeta pectinata, S. oblonga, Conochilus coenobasis, Polyarthra dolichoptera and C. unicornis (Rotifera), Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Moina minuta, Bosmina hagmanni and C. silvestrii (Cladocera) and Notodiaptomus amazonicus (Copepoda). The resilience of microcrustaceans was affected in the growing points as this activity left the production environment for longer, delaying the natural ability of community responses. Microcrustaceans groups, mainly calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, had a different return rate. The net cage installation acted as a stress factor on the zooplankton community. Management strategies that cause fewer risks to the organisms and maximize energy flow may help in maintaining system stability. PMID:22437379

  12. Change and recovery of coastal mesozooplankton community structure during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carassou, L.; Hernandez, F. J.; Graham, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mesozooplankton community structure to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using data from a long-term plankton survey off the coast of Alabama (USA). Environmental conditions observed in the study area during the oil spill (2010) were compared to historical observations (2005–2009), to support the contention that variations observed in zooplankton assemblage structure may be attributed to the oil spill, as opposed to natural climatic or environmental variations. Zooplankton assemblage structure observed during the oil spill period (May–August) in 2010 was then compared to historical observations from the same period (2005–2009). Significant variations were detected in assemblage structure in May and June 2010, but these changes were no longer significant by July 2010. The density of ostracods, cladocerans and echinoderm larvae were responsible for most of the differences observed, but patterns differed depending on taxa and months. Many taxa had higher densities during the oil spill year, including calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, ostracods, bivalve larvae and cladocerans, among others. Although this result is somewhat surprising, it is possible that increased microbial activity related to the infusion of oil carbon may have stimulated secondary production through microbial-zooplankton trophic linkages. Overall, results suggest that, although changes in zooplankton community composition were observed during the oil spill, variations were weak and recovery was rapid.

  13. Diet overlap in larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and bloaters (Coregonus hoyi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Bruce M.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1992-01-01

    The food preferences of larval lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and bloater (C.hoyi) were compared in a small mesotrophic lake in southeastern Michigan. Diets of the two were increasingly similar as the experiment progressed until, by the end of 6.5 weeks, they were identical; Schoener's Index of diet overlap averaged 0.35 in the first week and reached 0.96 by the end of the study. In the first few weeks, lake herring ate mostly small cladocerans (Bosmia longirostris) and bloaters ate mostly large cladocerans (Eurycercus lamellatus). Strauss's selection index confirmed that lake herring actively fed on small cladocerans throughout the study and that bloaters relied more on cyclopoid copepods during the early part of the study and shifted to eating small and large cladocerans by the end. Both species had similar growth rates throughout the study and amount of consumed food was identical. The diet similarities of lake herring and bloater larvae could make them competitors for food in the Great Lakes, relieved only by a dissimilarity in hatching times and locations.

  14. Zooplankton species composition, abundance and biomass on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during summer: The potential role of water-column stability and nutrients in structuring the zooplankton community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Kenneth O.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.

    2008-08-01

    The southeastern Bering Sea sustains one of the largest fisheries in the United States, as well as wildlife resources that support valuable tourist and subsistence economies. The fish and wildlife populations in turn are sustained by a food web linking primary producers to apex predators through the zooplankton community. Recent shifts in climate toward warmer conditions may threaten these resources by altering productivity and trophic relationships in the ecosystem on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. We examined the zooplankton community near the Pribilof Islands and on the middle shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea in summer of 1999 and 2004 to document differences and similarities in species composition, abundance and biomass by region and year. Between August 1999 and August 2004, the summer zooplankton community of the middle shelf shifted from large to small species. Significant declines were observed in the biomass of large scyphozoans ( Chrysaora melanaster), large copepods ( Calanus marshallae), arrow worms ( Sagitta elegans) and euphausiids ( Thysanoessa raschii, T. inermis) between 1999 and 2004. In contrast, significantly higher densities of the small copepods ( Pseudocalanus spp., Oithona similis) and small hydromedusae ( Euphysa flammea) were observed in 2004 relative to 1999. Stomach analyses of young-of-the-year (age 0) pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) from the middle shelf indicated a dietary shift from large to small copepods in 2004 relative to 1999. The shift in the zooplankton community was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in water-column stability in 2004 relative to 1999, primarily due to warmer water above the thermocline, with a mean temperature of 7.3 °C in 1999 and 12.6 °C in 2004. The elevated water-column stability and warmer conditions may have influenced the zooplankton composition by lowering summer primary production and selecting for species more tolerant of a warm, oligotrophic environment. A time series of temperature from the middle shelf indicates that the warmer conditions in 2004 are part of a trend rather than an expression of interannual variability. These results suggest that if climate on the Bering Sea shelf continues to warm, the zooplankton community may shift from large to small taxa which could strongly impact apex predators and the economies they support.

  15. The planktonic food web of the Bizerte lagoon (south-western Mediterranean) during summer: I. Spatial distribution under different anthropogenic pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakka Hlaili, Asma; Grami, Boutheina; Niquil, Nathalie; Gosselin, Michel; Hamel, Dominique; Troussellier, Marc; Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine

    2008-06-01

    The structure and the trophic interactions of the planktonic food web were investigated during summer 2004 in a coastal lagoon of south-western Mediterranean Sea. Biomasses of planktonic components as well as bacterial and phytoplankton production and grazing by microzooplankton were quantified at four stations (MA, MB, MJ and R) inside the lagoon. Station MA was impacted by urban discharge, station MB was influenced by industrial activity, station MJ was located in a shellfish farming sector, while station R represented the lagoon central area. Biomasses and production rates of bacteria (7-33 mg C m -3; 17.5-35 mg C m -3 d -1) and phytoplankton (80-299 mg C m -3; 34-210 mg C m -3 d -1) showed high values at station MJ, where substantial concentrations of nutrients (NO 3- and Si(OH) 4) were found. Microphytoplankton, which dominated the total algal biomass and production (>82%), were characterized by the proliferation of several chain-forming diatoms. Microzooplankton was mainly composed of dinoflagellates ( Torodinium, Protoperidinium and Dinophysis) and aloricate ( Lohmaniellea and Strombidium) and tintinnid ( Tintinnopsis, Tintinnus, Favella and Eutintinnus) ciliates. Higher biomass of these protozoa (359 mg C m -3) was observed at station MB, where large tintinnids were encountered. Mesozooplankton mainly represented by Calanoida ( Acartia, Temora, Calanus, Eucalanus, Paracalanus and Centropages) and Cyclopoida ( Oithona) copepods, exhibited higher and lower biomasses at stations MA/MJ and MB, respectively. Bacterivory represented only 35% of bacterial production at stations MB and R, but higher fractions (65-70%) were observed at stations MA and MJ. Small heterotrophic flagellates and aloricate ciliates seemed to be the main controllers of bacteria. Pico- and nanophytoplankton represented a significant alternative carbon pool for micrograzers, which grazing represented 67-90% of pico- and nano-algal production in all stations. Microzooplankton has, however, a relatively low impact on microphytoplankton, as ?45% of microalgal production was consumed in all stations. This implies that an important fraction of diatom production would be channelled by herbivorous meso-grazers to higher consumers at stations MA and MJ where copepods were numerous. Most of the microalgal production would, however, sink particularly at station MB where copepods were scare. These different trophic interactions suggest different food web structures between stations. A multivorous food web seemed to prevail in stations MJ and MA, whereas microbial web was dominant in the other stations.

  16. The nearshore zone during coastal upwelling: Daily variability and coupling between primary and secondary production off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, William T.; Arcos, Dagoberto F.; McManus, George B.; Dam, Hans; Bellantoni, Diane; Johnson, Thomas; Tiselius, Peter

    The nearshore region of central Chile is important for spawning of sardine ( Sardinops sagax) anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) and jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyii) and the importance of fisheries for these species has led to an interest in factors controlling the area's productivity. We studied daily variations in productivity at a nearshore station (25m depth) off Dichato, Chile (36°30?S) during January 1986 to understand how wind-driven variability in the hydrography is translated into pulses of primary and secondary production of the plankton. During the study period, we observed three complete cycles of upwelling favourable/unfavourable winds. Water column destratification, as indicated by the surface-to-bottom gradient of sigma-t, lagged the wind by about one day. During active upwelling, cold water (<11.5°C) of high nitrate and low oxygen concentration (20-25?M and 1-2ml 1 -1 respectively) was found near the surface. During subsequent relaxation of upwelling, the water column became stratified as temperature, oxygen and chlorophyll increased. The size and taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton varied from one event to the next. Over the course of the study, from 15-100% of the chlorophyll could pass a 20?m mesh screen. Chain-forming diatoms, microflagellates, and the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum dominated the first, second and third events, respectively. In rank order of abundance, Paracalanus parvus, Centropages brachiatus, Oithona spp., Acartia tonsa, Oncaea spp., Calanoides patagoniensis and Calanus chilensis dominated the copepod community. Changes in abundance of most species did not closely follow the upwelling cycle. Possibly, vertical movements or other behavioural responses caused zooplankton distributions to be uncorrelated with movements of the surface Ekman layer. Fecundity of several of the important copepod species was measured using the egg ratio and bottle incubation techniques. Compared to values reported in the literature, egg production was usually suboptimal, despite high nutritional quality of the phytoplankton, as indicated by protein/carbohydrate ratios. Food availability, due to either small phytoplankton size or spatial and temporal uncoupling of phyto- and zooplankton populations, was probably most important in limiting copepod production. Event-scale advection, both zonal and alongshore, can be important in uncoupling primary and secondary production and probably determines the degree to which upwelling-generated pulses of phytoplankton production are utilized by herbivorous plankton in the nearshore zone.

  17. Endemism of subterranean Diacyclops in Korea and Japan, with descriptions of seven new species of the languidoides-group and redescriptions of D. brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 and D. suoensis Ito, 1954 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Grygier, Mark J.; Lee, Wonchoel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Copepods have been poorly studied in subterranean habitats in Korea. Previous records have indicated mostly the presence of species already described from Japan, with very few endemic elements. This commonality has usually been explained by repeated dispersal across the land bridges that connected the two countries several times during the Pleistocene glacial cycles. However, the Korean Peninsula is known for pockets of Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks, with more than 1,000 caves already having been explored. The relative isolation of these carbonate pockets makes for an enormous speciation potential, and the development of a high level of short-range endemism of subterranean copepods should be expected. Representatives of the genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 are here investigated from a range of subterranean habitats in South Korea, with comparative material sampled from central Honshu in Japan. Morphological analyses of microcharacters, many of which are used in cyclopoid taxonomy for the first time herein, reveal high diversity in both countries. No subterranean species is found in common, although the existence of four sibling species pairs in Korea and Japan may be indicative of relatively recent speciation. We describe seven new stygobiotic species, including three from Korea (Diacyclops hanguk sp. n., Diacyclops leeae sp. n., and Diacyclops parasuoensis sp. n.) and four from Japan (Diacyclops hisuta sp. n., Diacyclops ishidai sp. n., Diacyclops parahanguk sp. n., and Diacyclops pseudosuoensis sp. n.). Diacyclops hanguk, Diacyclops parasuoensis, Diacyclops ishidai, and Diacyclops parahanguk are described from newly collected material, while the other three new species are proposed for specimens previously identified as other, widely distributed species. Diacyclops brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 is redescribed from the holotype female, and Diacyclops suoensis Ito, 1954 is redescribed from material newly collected near the ancient Lake Biwa in Japan. This research provides evidence for the importance of subterranean habitats as reservoirs of biodiversity, and also demonstrates the inadequacy of current morphological methods of identifying closely related species of copepods. The disproportionately high diversity discovered around Lake Biwa provides further evidence in support of the hypothesis about the role of ancient lakes as biodiversity pumps for subterranean habitats. A key to the East Asian species of the languidoides-group is provided. PMID:23653520

  18. Variation in Body Shape across Species and Populations in a Radiation of Diaptomid Copepods

    PubMed Central

    Hausch, Stephen; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Matthews, Blake

    2013-01-01

    Inter and intra-population variation in morphological traits, such as body size and shape, provides important insights into the ecological importance of individual natural populations. The radiation of Diaptomid species (~400 species) has apparently produced little morphological differentiation other than those in secondary sexual characteristics, suggesting sexual, rather than ecological, selection has driven speciation. This evolutionary history suggests that species, and conspecific populations, would be ecologically redundant but recent work found contrasting ecosystem effects among both species and populations. This study provides the first quantification of shape variation among species, populations, and/or sexes (beyond taxonomic illustrations and body size measurements) to gain insight into the ecological differentiation of Diaptomids. Here we quantify the shape of five Diaptomid species (family Diaptomidae) from four populations each, using morphometric landmarks on the prosome, urosome, and antennae. We partition morphological variation among species, populations, and sexes, and test for phenotype-by-environment correlations to reveal possible functional consequences of shape variation. We found that intraspecific variation was 18-35% as large as interspecific variation across all measured traits. Interspecific variation in body size and relative antennae length, the two traits showing significant sexual dimorphism, were correlated with lake size and geographic location suggesting some niche differentiation between species. Observed relationships between intraspecific morphological variation and the environment suggest that divergent selection in contrasting lakes might contribute to shape differences among local populations, but confirming this requires further analyses. Our results show that although Diaptomid species differ in their reproductive traits, they also differ in other morphological traits that might indicate ecological differences among species and populations. PMID:23826384

  19. Molecular Evidence of the Toxic Effects of Diatom Diets on Gene Expression Patterns in Copepods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Lauritano; Marco Borra; Ylenia Carotenuto; Elio Biffali; Antonio Miralto; Gabriele Procaccini; Adrianna Ianora

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundDiatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world's oceans and are considered essential in the transfer of energy through marine food chains. However, these unicellular plants at times produce secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes and other products deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids that are collectively termed oxylipins. These cytotoxic compounds are responsible for growth inhibition and teratogenic

  20. Asterocheres reginae , a new species of parasitic copepod (Siphonostomatoida: Asterocheridae) from a sponge in Belize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey A. Boxshall; Rony Huys

    1994-01-01

    Asterocheres reginae n. sp., of the family Asterocheridae, is described from the spongeAgelas clathrodes (Schmidt) collected at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. It inhabits the internal canal system of its sponge host. A detailed description of both sexes is presented, and emphasis has been placed on the recognition of homologies between the limb segments and armature elements in accordance with the

  1. Uptake and elimination, and effect of estrogen-like contaminants in estuarine copepods: an experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Cailleaud; Hélène Budzinski; Sophie Lardy; Sylvie Augagneur; Sabria Barka; Sami Souissi; Joëlle Forget-Leray

    2011-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  In recent years, anthropogenic chemicals which can disrupt the hormonal systems of both humans and wildlife have been raised\\u000a to a major cause of concern. The aim of the present work was to determine the bioconcentration factors of the two major alkylphenols\\u000a (AP) of the Seine Estuary [4-nonylphenol (4 NP) and nonylphenol acetic acid (NP1EC)] and of

  2. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES ON THE METABOLISM OF THE COPEPOD EUTERPINA ACUTIFRONS

    E-print Network

    ballast water and con- taminating seawater and adjacent regions with petroleum. In addition, there are a large number of industries that discharge wastes directly into the water. One sample analysis of Santos

  3. Unusual structure of ribosomal DNA in the copepod Tigriopus californicus: intergenic spacer sequences lack internal subrepeats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Burton; E. C. Metz; J. M. Flowers; C. S. Willett

    2005-01-01

    Eukaryotic nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is typically arranged as a series of tandem repeats coding for 18S, 5.8S, and 28S ribosomal RNAs. Transcription of rDNA repeats is initiated in the intergenic spacer (IGS) region upstream of the 18S gene. The IGS region itself typically consists of a set of subrepeats that function as transcriptional enhancers. Two important evolutionary forces have

  4. Studies on harpacticoid copepod populations of two transects across the south Texas outer continental shelf

    E-print Network

    Venn, Cynthia

    1980-01-01

    I Q I Ql Ql Gl 0 G. 0, Dj, CL'W '6 CCID(C(CE-it E E' E ti 0 0 CL tl. w (3 tU I 3 O Gl E Gl GI Cl tc D, D. 0 0 I 0 M Gl (Q 3 '0 3 0 c D. D , D 0 0 'Lt 0 0 D. 0, D 0 Q I- Ql 0 I? tn ONUQ I 1 0 Yt oXI C: C N Cl Cl CU 0... IJ 0 Q- Gl I) Gl c w + i D + Q Ql Xj I I D V C Ql 0 0 D Gl tt Gl tU QJ Gl G Gl )1, I* ODO D 8 0 0) 0 + 0 0 DJ p a 0 G) V Di Q I) G V Gl 0 0& I '9 a L D 0 '9 t. IJ D a e C ID 0 0 I C I G Q 9 0 I IG 0 0 ~ D n, a IG g I) O...

  5. Toxicity of Silver, Zinc, Copper, and Nickel to the Copepod Acartia

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    assimilation of metals from algae (17, 18). The zooplankton Ceriodaphnia dubia in freshwater and a mix is sparse, but studies indicate sensitivity of zooplankton to this exposure route (6-8, 16) and potential in zooplankton at metal concentrations below those which caused effects through waterborne exposure (6

  6. Characteristics of cladoceran and copepod communities in floodplain habitats of the Atchafalaya River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman L. Davidson; William E. Kelso; D. Allen Rutherford

    2000-01-01

    In the summer of 1994, floodplain habitats of the Atchafalaya River Basin were surveyed for cladocera and copepoda. Collection sites were grouped into three distinct habitat types (black-water, brown-water and green-water) based on a principal components analysis of five hydrographic variables (current velocity, Secchi disk depth, surface percent saturation of dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen differential and surface water temperature). An

  7. Dynamics of a subtropical plankton community, with emphasis on the copepod Mesocyclops edax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace A. Wyngaard; James L. Elmore; Bruce C. Cowell

    1982-01-01

    The zooplankton community of a subtropical, eutrophic lake was studied over an annual cycle. Mesocyclops edax, the numerically dominant crustacean, exhibited a stationary age distribution for most of the year (July–March). Per capita growth rates (r) of M. edax approximated zero throughout most of the study, indicating a close correspondence between birth and death rates. High death rates in the

  8. Mechanoreceptors in calanoid copepods: designed for high sensitivity T.M. Weatherbya

    E-print Network

    Lenz, Petra H.

    velocities as well as in frequency response. A study of these receptors was initiated to elucidate structure in the dendritic membrane. The rigidity probably contributes to the high frequency sensitivity, and termination, are small and they operate at spatial and temporal scales in the millimeter and millisecond ranges. Thus

  9. A preliminary study of the distribution of some copepods in upper Laguna Madre

    E-print Network

    Henderson, John C

    1958-01-01

    , therefore, serves only as a comparison of' densities over the area . The auti or used Knudsen's (lo46) silver n'trate t'trat! on method for determinatt on of chlorinity . Th1s method does not ive the ratf o of the salts present and should... of the five TO~' J, 0 5 I: 'l L J F M l' M J BF", 'F TRl TRIP NUMBER =l(~' RE HF IIVEHII"E NOVH: l1F ~CIIH', I IL TON-, RII FOI IIID ON &'. H ThlP battoii avei:. ges to be simif sr to that of thc surface J. igill e, Qiit cans J. -era!, ly:i. ;her...

  10. Following the invisible trail: kinematic analysis of mate-tracking in the copepod

    E-print Network

    Yen, Jeannette

    their rate of movement as they follow the trail, and execute a regular pattern of counter turns in both x. Perception of these signals mediates various interactions, including predatory strikes, prey escapes

  11. Calanoid copepods of the genus Heterorhabdus Giesbrecht 1898 from the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Boerwinkle, William Robert

    1979-01-01

    , with elongated narrow basis. Second to fourth swimming legs power- fully developed. In third leg, third exopodal segment broadly flat- tened. Fifth pair of legs symmetrical, considerably small than pre- ceding pairs. Second exopodal segment bearing a stout... appendages, and swimming legs one through four as in female. Left antennule geniculated. Fifth pair of legs asymmetrical, considerably smaller than preceding pairs. Left and right, endopod and exopod three-segmented. Basis of right leg bearing inner...

  12. Ecdysteroid concentrations through various life-stages of the meiobenthic harpacticoid copepod, Amphiascus tenuiremis and

    E-print Network

    Coull, Bruce C.

    , Amphiascus tenuiremis and the benthic estuarine amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus David S. Block,* Adriana C al., 1966; King and Siddall, 1969). One highly conserved endocrine mechanism in ar- thropods@mailbox.sc.edu (D.S. Block). 0016-6480/03/$ - see front matter Ó 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved

  13. Large, motile epifauna interact strongly with harpacticoid copepods and polychaetes at a bathyal site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Thistle; James E. Eckman; Gordon L. J. Paterson

    2008-01-01

    Strengths of interactions among groups of animals in deep-sea-sediment communities are poorly known. Large, motile epifauna (LME) such as sea cucumbers, star fishes, and demersal fishes occur in the deep sea and are sources of predation, disturbance, and habitat alteration and thus have the potential to interact strongly with infauna. At a site off the southwestern coast of the United

  14. Woodson et al. (2005, 2007) showed that copepods aggregate near oceanographic structure associated with biochemical

    E-print Network

    mysid picture), Webster Lab, Matt Lynch, and my wife, Ellen True, my multi-talented lab partner and population-scale aggregations. Behavioral Assays Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Mixed-sex, species and trajectories are recorded under infrared il- lumination. Videos are digitized (LabTrack, BioRAS) to obtain path

  15. Laboratory culture, growth rate, and feeding behavior of a planktonic marine copepod

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL M. MULLIN; ELAINE R. BROOKS

    1967-01-01

    ABSTRACX Rhincalnnus nasutus was cultured through scvcn consecutive generations in l%litcr carboys when provided with a mixture of diatoms and Artemia salina nauplii as food. The mean generation length was 8.7 weeks, similar to that of the local field population of this species during some seasons. Fecundity of laboratory-reared animals was lower than that of the field population. Instantaneous coefficients

  16. The reproductive cycle and life history of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis in the White Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Kosobokova

    1999-01-01

    Seasonal variations in the gonad development and sex ratio of copepodite stage V (CV) and adults were examined from February\\u000a to November in order to understand the reproductive cycle and the life history of Calanus glacialis in the White Sea. Gonad maturation, sexual differentiation and moulting to adults take place during the 2nd year of development.\\u000a Energy accumulation takes place

  17. Acoustical identification of the concentration layer of a copepod species, Calanus euxinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    Swimming trajectories of Calanus euxinus Hulsemann in the Black Sea were studied using an echosounder at 120 and 200 kHz. C. euxinus were acoustically discriminated with respect to vertical migration and swimming speed, according to dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and the timing of migrations. Species became torpid in water with DO values у. The time spent swimming under DO conditions

  18. Studies on harpacticoid copepod populations of two transects across the south Texas outer continental shelf 

    E-print Network

    Venn, Cynthia

    1980-01-01

    S, 'u")l;-G O", !', s qn;?s Cd, O;(?E-'i'~', : I'Onlll /jTipn' iIIO I. ";j::SE'. . IG r'n"SG;ll )nn, 'M TEXiLa OIlTEH CO)9'. 1lll l~'Tfd 'rqFlu fE lhes1s by CYI'ITI-I 1f VE'uN Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of Texas AEI1 Uni~!e, sity... Continental Shelf environmental survey. . . . . . . . . . . 12 Ternary ciiagram showing sediment percent composition at each station/season combinat1on, 20 I'ount1ng scheme of d1ssected spec1men. 22 Tre111s diagram showing the results of faunal aff1nity...

  19. Occurrence, viability and significance of resting eggs of the calanoid copepod Labidocera aestiva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Grice; V. R. Gibson

    1975-01-01

    Field and laboratory observations on the occurrence and viability of eggs of Labidocera aestiva Wheeler show that eggs of this temperate species which are laid in late fall remain viable on the bottom and hatch in late spring. These eggs thereby provide the means of repopulating temperate areas with this species after its winter disappearance from the plankton.

  20. A preliminary study of the distribution of some copepods in upper Laguna Madre 

    E-print Network

    Henderson, John C

    1958-01-01

    . , the autlror conducted a hydrograpl'c survey of Lower Laguna I;adre (Deniso;. i ar;d Henderson, 1/~~6) ar. d recorded a net Inflo? of sea water from t!. e Gulf' o I ex. 'co 'nto Lower Laguna I'adrs, During the summer. o lrl56 on the occasion of' several... 2, 465 316 4, 788 1, 8ol 626 267 2, 694 Bottom? 5, 484 1, 815 849 8, 148 3, 141 3r755 230 7, 126 3, 834 1, 683 373 5, 89o 3, 145 6, 134 734 10, 013 2, 246 70 4, 070 2, 165 6o3 284 3, 052 3, 991 1, 659 224 5, 874 9, 112...

  1. BOMOLOCHID COPEPODS PARASITIC ON THE EYES OF INDO-WEST PACIFIC CLUPEID FISHES

    E-print Network

    : Body dor- soventrally flattened. Rostrum rounded or bilobed. Abdomen 2- or indistinctly 3-segmented. Genital segment longer than broad. Abdomen 2-segmented. Caudal rami each with one very long and five

  2. COPEPOD REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES: LIFE-HISTORY THEORY, PHYLOGENETIC PATTERN AND INVASION OF INLAND WATERS. (R824771)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Life-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven ...

  3. Copepod life cycle adaptations and success in response to phytoplankton spring bloom phenology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HANNO S EEBENS; U LRICH

    2009-01-01

    In a seasonal environment, the timing of reproduction is usually scheduled to maximize the survival of offspring. Within deep water bodies, the phytoplankton spring bloom provides a short time window of high food quantity and quality for herbivores. The onset of algal bloom development, however, varies strongly from year to year due to interannual variability in meteorological conditions. Furthermore, the

  4. Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

    PubMed

    Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. PMID:25036619

  5. EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID ON UPTAKE AND TRANSFER OF COPPER FROM MICROBES TO CILIATES TO COPEPODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is part of an ongoing project designed to determine the effect of humic acid on the uptake and transfer of metals by marine organisms at the lower end of the food chain. Binding affinities for Cu, Cd, Zn, and Cr to Suwannee River humic acid were determined at variou...

  6. Pattern and persistence of a nearshore planktonic ecosystem off Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Arthur M.; Jahn, Andrew E.

    1987-01-01

    Three related data sets from a baseline environmental survey on the continental shelf at San Onofre, California, consisting of: (1) zooplankton pumped from discrete depths on transects between the 8- and 30-m contours, sampled from 1976 to 1980; (2) zooplankton from oblique net hauls on a transect from 8 to 100 m sampled at 2-week intervals for 1 y, 1978-1979; and (3) vertical profiles of temperature, nutrients and plant pigments corresponding closely in time and space to the oblique net hauls, are used to describe cross-shelf zooplankton abundance patterns, community composition, and seasonal and shorter-term variations in cross-shelf zonation and their relation to variations in physical and chemical measures. Of 15 taxa tested for multiyear average patterns, three—the copepods Acartia clausi and Oithona oculata, and barnacle larvae—had centers of abundance shoreward of the 30-m contour and near the bottom. No differences were detected in the cross-shelf pattern between San Onofre and a transect 12 km southeast. Throughout the year, nearshore and offshore assemblages were distinguishable, the change occurring at about the 30-m contour. The offshore one, represented by the copepods Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus, occupied water having less chlorophyll and less near-surface nutrient, i.e. of more oceanic character. In spring and summer, most nearshore taxa shifted slightly seaward, leaving a third assemblage, characterized by a very high abundance of Acartia spp. copepodids and maximum abundances of A. clausi and O. oculata near the beach. Three upwelling episodes resulted in marked increases in chlorophyll and nutrients, but not in cross-shelf gradients of these properties, as were noted at most other times. Maximum disturbance of cross-shelf zooplankton zonation was observed during a wintertime intrusion of offshore surface water, but the zonation was never obliterated. Nearshore zooplankton patterns appear to be protected from dislocation by the shallow shelf and sustained by phytoplankton distributed in a manner peculiar to the nearshore zone. Typically, shallow nearshore waters were richer in chlorophyll and nutrients than offshore waters of the same depth. The cross-shelf chlorophyll and nutrient profiles, in turn, appear to result from increased eddy diffusion and nutrient recycling in shallow waters, perhaps augmented by longshore transport from quasi-permanent, local upwelling nodes.

  7. Mesoscale distribution and community composition of zooplankton in the Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggett, Jenny A.

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown the Mozambique Channel to exhibit high mesoscale variability, but how mesoscale features influence the zooplankton community in this region is not known. The biovolume, biomass, vertical distribution and community composition of mesozooplankton (>200 µm) associated with mesoscale eddies in the Mozambique Channel was investigated during four cruises in September 2007, December 2008, November 2009 and April/May 2010. Stations were categorized according to their location in cyclonic (cold-core) or anticyclonic (warm-core) eddies, frontal, divergence or shelf regions. Mean mesozooplankton biovolume in the upper 200 m was 0.33 ml m-3, with zooplankton largely concentrated in the upper 100 m during all four cruises (weighted mean depth=66.6 m). Sampling depth was the most important predictor of biovolume, which was greatest for net samples with a mid-depth of 0-40 m, but declined deeper in the water column. Biovolume at the shelf (0.37 ml m-3), divergence and cyclonic eddy stations (0.31 ml m-3) was significantly greater than at frontal and anticyclonic eddy stations (0.20 ml m-3). Mean biovolume was significantly higher during 2008 and 2010 compared to 2007 and 2009, and was also significantly higher for samples collected at night (and twilight) than during the day. The mesozooplankton community in 2007 was strongly dominated by small copepods (~70-80% abundance) followed by appendicularians (10%), ostracods (8%) and chaetognaths (7%). The most abundant copepods were the Paracalanids, Oncaea spp., Oithona spp. and Corycaeus spp. Multivariate analysis showed that the communities in 2007 and 2008 were most strongly structured by depth, but classification (cyclonic/anticyclonic) was also important in 2007 when mesoscale features were more strongly developed. Zooplankton assemblages showed a high degree of homogeneity, with differences between mesoscale features largely due to differing abundances of similar taxa. These observations suggest that mesoscale eddy and shelf interactions play a fundamental role in shaping the Mozambique Channel pelagic ecosystem through the concentration, enhanced growth and redistribution of zooplankton communities. Although frontal areas between eddies were poor in zooplankton biomass, the extensive inter-eddy divergence areas were as rich in biomass as the small cyclonic eddy core regions. These patterns are important for understanding the favorability of observed foraging areas for higher trophic levels.

  8. American shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  9. Physical and biological characteristics of the pelagic system across Fram Strait to Kongsfjorden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hop, Haakon; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Svendsen, Harald; Kwasniewski, Slawek; Pavlov, Vladimir; Pavlova, Olga; Søreide, Janne E.

    2006-10-01

    The Fram Strait is very important with regard to heat and mass exchange in the Arctic Ocean, and the large quantities of heat carried north by the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) influence the climate in the Arctic region as a whole. A large volume of water and ice is transported through Fram Strait, with net water transport of 1.7-3.2 Sv southward in the East Greenland Current and a volume ice flux in the range of 0.06-0.11 Sv. The mean annual ice flux is about 866,000 km 2 yr -1. The Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden fjord system on the coast of Spitsbergen, or at the eastern extreme of Fram Strait, is mainly affected by the northbound transport of water in the WSC. Mixing processes on the shelf result in Transformed Atlantic Water in the fjords, and the advection of Atlantic water also carries boreal fauna into the fjords. The phytoplankton production is about 80 g C m -2 yr -1 in Fram Strait, and has been estimated both below and above this for Kongsfjorden. The zooplankton fauna is diverse, but dominated in terms of biomass by calanoid copepods, particularly Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus. Other important copepods include C. hyperboreus, Metridia longa and the smaller, more numerous Pseudocalanus ( P. minutus and P. acuspes), Microcalanus ( M. pusillus and M. pygmaeus) and Oithona similis. The most important species of other taxa appear to be the amphipods Themisto libellula and T. abyssorum, the euphausiids Thysanoessa inermis and T. longicaudata and the chaetognaths Sagitta elegans and Eukrohnia hamata. A comparison between the open ocean of Fram Strait and the restricted fjord system of Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden can be made within limitations. The same species tend to dominate, but the Fram Strait zooplankton fauna differs by the presence of meso- and bathypelagic copepods. The seasonal and inter-annual variation in zooplankton is described for Kongsfjorden based on the record during July 1996-2002. The ice macrofauna is much less diverse, consisting of a handful of amphipod species and the polar cod. The ice-associated biomass transport of ice-amphipods was calculated, based on the ice area transport, at about 3.55 × 10 6 ton wet weight per year or about 4.2 × 10 5 t C yr -1. This represents a large energy input to the Greenland Sea, but also a drain on the core population residing in the multi-year pack ice (MYI) in the Arctic Ocean. A continuous habitat loss of MYI due to climate warming will likely reduce dramatically the sympagic food source. The pelagic and sympagic food web structures were revealed by stable isotopes. The carbon sources of particulate organic matter (POM), being Ice-POM and Pelagic-POM, revealed different isotopic signals in the organisms of the food web, and also provided information about the sympagic-pelagic and pelagic-benthic couplings. The marine food web and energy pathways were further determined by fatty acid trophic markers, which to a large extent supported the stable isotope picture of the marine food web, although some discrepancies were noted, particularly with regard to predator-prey relationships of ctenophores and pteropods.

  10. Hydrobiologia 292/293: 17-22, 1994. F D. Ferrari & B. P. Bradley (eds), Ecology and Morphology of Copepods.

    E-print Network

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    distally: 1. An outer spine, 2. A seta densely set with slender spinules proximally which gradually become filaments (partly broken off). The antennule is 27-segmented (Fig. IE) with seg ments 10 and II partially

  11. Comprehensive Transcriptome Study to Develop Molecular Resources of the Copepod Calanus sinicus for Their Potential Ecological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing; Sun, Fanyue; Yang, Zhi; Li, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8?bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (Tm)-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics. PMID:24982883

  12. Seasonality of the copepods Acartia hudsonica and Acartia tonsa in Narragansett Bay, RI, USA during a period of climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara K. Sullivan; John H. Costello; D. Van Keuren

    2007-01-01

    Seasonality of species living at the boundaries of biogeographic zones may be more sensitive to climate change than in other regions. This is apparently the case for the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, in Narragansett Bay, RI, which is the historical northern boundary of its distribution in the Northwest Atlantic. Seasonal advancement of population pulses of this ctenophore correlates with an increase

  13. Evaluation of trace metal toxicokinetics in Greenland Sea copepod and amphipod collectives from semi-static experiments on board ship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Ritterhoff; G.-P. Zauke

    1997-01-01

    Semi-static toxicokinetic experiments were performed during a cruise of RV “Polarstern” to the Greenland Sea for Cd, Pb,\\u000a Cu and Zn in mesozooplankton collectives of Calanus hyperboreus, C. ?finmarchicus, Metridia longa and Themisto abyssorum, to provide first tentative information on accumulation strategies and the experimental basis for estimation of kinetic parameters\\u000a of two-compartment models. This is an inevitable precondition for

  14. An Example of How Barcodes Can Clarify Cryptic Species: The Case of the Calanoid Copepod Mastigodiaptomus albuquerquensis (Herrick)

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha Angélica; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background The freshwater calanoid Mastigodiaptomus is a genus with high richness in the Americas and is composed of nine species, seven recorded in Mexico and four that are apparently endemic to small areas. Mastigodiaptomus albuquerquensis is a common, widely distributed species ranging from the southern USA to Central America. This species can be easily identified by a notable butterfly-like sclerotization on the basis of the right fifth leg of males. Nevertheless, morphological differences observed among populations throughout this species distributional range have led to the description of several related species or subspecies, such as M. albuquerquensis patzcuarensis from Lake Pátzcuaro in the Central Plateau of Mexico. Methods Genetic results based on barcodes, morphology based on scanning electron and light microscopy images, and morphometric analyses were used to describe cryptic species within the M. albuquerquensis complex. Results The morphological analyses coincided partially with the genetic markers, suggesting the existence of at least two sibling species: M. albuquerquensis s. str. and M. patzcuarensis. A third species was genetically separated but was morphologically indistinguishable from the M. patzcuarensis group. Conclusions Hidden diversity has been a major problem in establishing real patterns of species distribution and genetic acquisition from megadiverse hotspots such as Mexico, where the Nearctic and the Neotropical regions of the Americas meet. Barcodes can help taxonomists to reveal and formally name these new species. Here, we describe two of three potential species highlighted by the use of barcodes: M. albuquerquensis s. str. in the northern semi-desert and M. patzcuarensis on the Central Plateau at more than 2000 m above sea level. PMID:24465470

  15. Variations in the distribution, abundance, and development of copepods in the southeastern Bering Sea in 1980 and 1981

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon L. Smith; Julio Vidal

    1986-01-01

    When a relatively warm year (1981) in the southeastern Bering Sea is compared with a cooler year (1980), the upper layer of both the middle shelf and outer shelf warmed at a faster rate in the warmer year, but the spring bloom of phytoplankton took place at approximately the same time both years. The middle front near the 100 m

  16. The day and night vertical distributions of calanoid copepods in the western Gulf of Mexico, with reference to feeding relationships

    E-print Network

    Minello, Thomas Joseph

    1974-01-01

    gracilis, P. abdominalis abdominalis, and P. xiphias. Plotted as in Fig. 7 (page 39) 14 The vertical distribution of the family Lucicutiidae, Lucicutia flavicornis, L. paraclausi, L. ovalis, and L. clausi. Plotted as in Fig. 7 (page 39) 57 15... grazers Hhincalanus cornutusg Hannocalanus minor, Lucicutia flavi cornis, Pleuromamma gracilis, P. abdominalis abdominalis, and E. hgalinus. Plotted as in Fig. 7 (page 39) . The percentage of LIST OF FIGURES (continuedj Number Pacae calanoids...

  17. Food-web inferences of stable isotope spatial patterns in copepods and yellowfin tuna in the pelagic eastern Pacific Ocean

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    tuna trophic status in the food web based on stable-isotope and stomach-contents analyses. Using had similar scales of variability. We con- clude that trophic status of yellowfin tuna increased-COP," was interpreted as a trophic-position offset. Yellowfin tuna trophic-position estimates based on their bulk d15 N

  18. Interannual variations in vital rates of copepods and euphausiids during the RISE study 2004 -5 C. Tracy Shaw1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Washington. Our role in this3 program involved the measurement of growth rates and brood sizes of euphausiids cruises as a function of differences in upwelling strength. Euphausia pacifica growth8 rates were on the other15 cruises, less than half the maximum rates known for these species. Overall, the interannual16

  19. Copepod Ommatokoita elongata (Grant) in the Eyes of the Greenland Shark-a Possible Cause of Mutual Dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Berland

    1961-01-01

    IN July 19591, and in July-August 1960, I had the opportunity to take part in Greenland shark fishery with Norwegian commercial sealing vessels in east Greenland waters. Data on this shark were collected, supplemented with information received from experienced Greenland shark fishermen.

  20. Temporal variation in abundance and fecundity of the invading copepod Eurytemora americana in Bahía Blanca Estuary during an unusual year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berasategui, Anabela A.; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S.; Biancalana, Florencia; Fernandez Severini, Melisa; Menendez, María C.

    2009-10-01

    Eurytemora americana has been only reported as invader in Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina within the South Hemisphere. There are a few experimental researches under laboratory conditions done with this species and its reproductive behaviour around the world is very scarce. Consequently, it is still not possible to completely understand its population dynamics. In the present study, E. americana reproductive temporal behaviour and relationships among abundance, female size, egg production and hatching success were examined in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, during 2007 pulse. In order to determine the potential relationships between these variables and the environmental variables, experimental incubations were conducted in the laboratory simulating natural conditions. Spearman's rank correlation was used to analyze the relationships among all variables. Temporal change of biotic and environmental variables was corroborated by a Mann-Whitney/Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests, with significant differences ( p ? 0.01) in all variables throughout the study. Abundance population results showed very high values in relation to those recorded in recent years in Bahía Blanca Estuary. This response could be due to the unusual combination of environmental factors (polar wave with temperatures ?6 °C and a drought period with high salinities, 32.7-36.6) recorded during the studied winter period. Significant positive correlations between abundance and salinity ( p < 0.01, n = 226), and hatching success ( p < 0.01, n = 25) as well as a significant negative correlation between abundance and chlorophyll a ( p < 0.01, n = 226) were found. Although E. americana shows a k-strategy within its annual pulse, it presented two markedly distinct behaviours depending on temporal environmental variability. From July to early september, when the estuary evidenced high salinity, low temperature and high food availability, E. Americana showed large females, large clutch size and high hatching success. When environmental conditions became unfavorable from September to October, small females, small clutch size and very low hatching success were observed. The latter is associated with diapause egg laying which ensures population recruitment. According to our findings the particular combination of low temperatures, high salinities and high available food (i.e. variables which each year modulate its pulse) during 2007 winter-spring, favored the great development of E. americana. This invading species in its opportunistic role has managed to exploit a vacant niche in the estuary, developing two different behaviours within the k-strategy depending on change in environmental conditions.

  1. Production, oxygen respiration rates, and sinking velocity of copepod fecal pellets: Direct measurements of ballasting by opal and calcite

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Adrian

    ,000 m in the ocean (Harris 1994; Knappertsbusch and Brummer 1995). Fecal pellet degradation rate pump of the ocean is driven by sedimentation of phytoplankton aggregated in marine snow and fecal from the upper mixed surface waters into the deep ocean and sediments (Turner 2002). Sinking velocities

  2. Feeding, metabolism and body composition of the Antarctic copepod Calanus propinquus Brady with special reference to its life cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Drits; A. F. Pasternak; K. N. Kosobokova

    1993-01-01

    In the Weddell Sea, several biochemical and physiological characteristics of copepodite stage III to adult females of Calanus propinquus from the surface layer (0–100 m) and the deep layer (500–1,000 m) were compared at a time of high phytoplankton abundance (February) and a month later, when chlorophyll concentration was much lower and older copepodite stages had migrated to their overwintering

  3. Climate-mediated changes in zooplankton community structure for the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, Lisa B.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Andrews, Alexander G.

    2014-11-01

    Zooplankton are critical to energy transfer between higher and lower trophic levels in the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem. Previous studies from the southeastern Bering Sea shelf documented substantial differences in zooplankton taxa in the Middle and Inner Shelf Domains between warm and cold years. Our investigation expands this analysis into the northern Bering Sea and the south Outer Domain, looking at zooplankton community structure during a period of climate-mediated, large-scale change. Elevated air temperatures in the early 2000s resulted in regional warming and low sea-ice extent in the southern shelf whereas the late 2000s were characterized by cold winters, extensive spring sea ice, and a well-developed pool of cold water over the entire Middle Domain. The abundance of large zooplankton taxa such as Calanus spp. (C. marshallae and C. glacialis), and Parasagitta elegans, increased from warm to cold periods, while the abundance of gelatinous zooplankton (Cnidaria) and small taxa decreased. Biomass followed the same trends as abundance, except that the biomass of small taxa in the southeastern Bering Sea remained constant due to changes in abundance of small copepod taxa (increases in Acartia spp. and Pseudocalanus spp. and decreases in Oithona spp.). Statistically significant changes in zooplankton community structure and individual species were greatest in the Middle Domain, but were evident in all shelf domains, and in both the northern and southern portions of the eastern shelf. Changes in community structure did not occur abruptly during the transition from warm to cold, but seemed to begin gradually and build as the influence of the sea ice and cold water temperatures persisted. The change occurred one year earlier in the northern than the southern Middle Shelf. These and previous observations demonstrate that lower trophic levels within the eastern Bering Sea respond to climate-mediated changes on a variety of time scales, including those shorter than the commonly accepted quasi-decadal time periods. This lack of resilience or inertia at the lowest trophic levels affects production at higher trophic levels and must be considered in management strategy evaluations of living marine resources.

  4. Temporal variability in abundance and biomass of ciliates and copepods in the eutrophicated part of Kaštela Bay (Middle Adriatic Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Bojani?; Mladen Šoli?; Nada Krstulovi?; Stefanija Šestanovi?; Ivona Marasovi?; Živana Nin?evi?

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal variations in abundance and carbon biomass of ciliated protozoa and micrometazoa were studied from May 1998 to November 1999 in the eutrophicated area of Kaštela Bay (Middle Adriatic Sea). Ciliates showed peaks in spring and autumn, primarily due to changes in the abundance and biomass of tintinnines, which participated in total ciliate abundance and biomass with 40.48 and 60.02%,

  5. ECDYSTEROID CONCENTRATIONS THROUGH VARIOUS LIFE-STAGES OF THE MEIOBENTHIC HARPACTICOID COPEPOD, AMPHIASCUS TENUIREMIS AND THE BENTHIC ESTUARINE AMPHIPOD, LEPTOCHEIRUS PLUMULOSUS. (R827397)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBANT ASSAY FOR LIPOVITELLIN QUANTIFICATION IN SEDIMENT-DWELLING COPEPODS: A SCREENING TOOL FOR ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY. (R827397)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Lethal Effect Induced by Ultraviolet-B in a Planktonic Copepod: Role of the Post-Irradiation Time on Mortality Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina P. Vega; Ramón Pizarro

    2000-01-01

    The vulnerability to UV-B radiation in Acanthocyclops robustus was analyzed in the laboratory. The LD50 for adult individuals, determined by mortality one day after UV-B exposure was 40 ? Wcm for 4 h exposure. A significant increase in the mortality of A. robustus adults was observed four days after exposure to UV-B irradiation. As a consequence, the estimated lethal dose

  8. Distribution and life history of the planktonic copepod, Eucalanus californicus, in the northwestern Pacific: Mechanisms for population maintenance within a high primary production area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimode, Shinji; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Yugo; Nonomura, Takumi; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the geographical and vertical distribution of the copepodid stages of Eucalanus californicus in the northwestern (NW) Pacific Ocean, and compared life history characteristics against the northeastern (NE) population of the species and the neighboring subarctic sister species, Eucalanus bungii. In the NW Pacific, multi-layered zooplankton samples were collected between 15°N and 49°N. High abundances (>1000 inds. m-2) of E. californicus were restricted to an area around 33°N, whereas E. bungii was highly abundant between 36°N and 49°N. The occurrence of E. californicus in the surface layer was associated with seasonal spring ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM), as suggested by previous studies in the NE Pacific. Gonadal analysis of adult females showed that surface reproduction occurs during the spring in the slope water area, which is a region on the continental slope north of the Kuroshio axis, and within the Kuroshio-Oyashio Transition Area (TA). The seasonal OVM strategy of E. californicus in the NW Pacific is characterized by (1) shorter periods of surface reproduction and growth and (2) deep C5 stage dormancy (500-2000 m). The former is an adaptive response to relatively high water temperatures and short bloom periods in the TA and slope water area. The latter strategy of deep dormancy is considered to be an adaptation to avoid drift caused by a local oceanic feature of deeper westward (>1000 m) recirculation currents, thus retaining the population within the high primary production zones of the TA and slope water area.

  9. Ergasilid copepods (Poecilostomatoida) parasitic on the mullet Liza abu in Iraq, with the description of a new species of Paraergasilus Markevich, 1937

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju-Shey Ho; N. R. Khamees; F. T. Mhaisen

    1996-01-01

    Five species of ergasilids parasitic on the mullet Liza abu (Heckel) in the Shatt Al-Arab River in the south of Iraq are reported. They are: Dermoergasilus varicoleus Ho, Jayarajan & Radhakrishnan, 1992; Ergasilus mosulensis Rahemo, 1982; E. rostralis Ho, Jayarajan & Radhakrishnan, 1992; Mugilicola kabatai Piasecki, Khamees & Mhaisen, 1991; and Paraergasilus inflatus n. sp. In addition to describing the

  10. Influence of diatoms on copepod reproduction. II. Uncorrelated effects of diatom-derived ?,?,?,?-unsaturated aldehydes and polyunsaturated fatty acids on Calanus helgolandicus in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichard, Thomas; Poulet, Serge A.; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Ledoux, Jean Baptiste; Lebreton, Benoit; Marchetti, Julie; Pohnert, Georg

    2008-04-01

    We set up a survey involving comprehensive chemical analyses of phytoplankton and the simultaneous monitoring of the reproductive response of Calanus helgolandicus. Hatching success and larvae development of C. helgolandicus were monitored weekly with female specimens sampled along with phytoplankton in the coastal waters off Roscoff (Western English Channel) from March/April to October in 2003 and 2004. Polyunsaturated aldehyde (PUA) production and nutritional parameters of phytoplankton [i.e. polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON)] were measured. The hatching success varied between 0% and 80% during the two spring-summer spawning seasons. Neither the nutritional parameters measured nor polyunsaturated aldehydes could be found responsible for the frequently observed hatching failure. However, egg production and hatching rates were strongly positively correlated, suggesting a functional link between these reproductive parameters. PUA production in phytoplankton was mainly determined by Thalassiosira rotula. The occurrence of this diatom species might be used as a marker of PUAs in the study area. Laboratory feeding experiments showed that single species diets of freshly isolated diatoms ( T. rotula, Guinardia striata, Guinardia delicatula and Rhizosolenia setigera) caused high or low egg viability and naupliar survival of C. helgolandicus independent of PUA production and PUFA content. The impact of PUA on the hatching success of Calanus among different ecosystems is discussed. The combined approach of feeding experiments and chemical analysis supports the idea that parameters other than PUAs and PUFAs have to be taken into account in order to explain the highly variable hatching rates observed in this environment.

  11. PHYTOPLANKTON-ZOOPLANKTON RELATIONSHIPS IN NARRAGANSETT BAY1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Martin

    Zooplankton samples collected every other week in upper and lower Narraganset Bay, Rhode Island, were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The seasonal occurrence and abundance of the various species identified and enumerated in the present study are pre- sented in tabular form. Analysis of the relative abundance of the principal grazers in the zooplankton population (Acartia tonsa, A. clausi, and Oithona

  12. Observer Name(s) & contact info Circle the zone you are in

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    laeve 20 Netted Slug Deroceras reticulatum 21 Copepods Diaptomus sp. 22 Jacknife Clam Ensis directus 23 Copepods Cyclops sp. 17 Larvae Cyprinotus inconruens 18 Water flea Daphnia pulex 19 Meadow Slug Deroceras

  13. Number of species observed: (FH) Fort Hancock Zone

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    laeve 20 Netted Slug Deroceras reticulatum 21 Copepods Diaptomus sp. 22 Jacknife Clam Ensis directus 23 Copepods Cyclops sp. 17 Larvae Cyprinotus inconruens 18 Water flea Daphnia pulex 19 Meadow Slug Deroceras

  14. Evaluation of the zooplankton community of Livingston Reservoir, Texas, as related to paddlefish food resources 

    E-print Network

    Moore, Casey Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    rotifers and copepod nauplii as efficiently as they do larger copepods and cladocerans. Overall zooplankton abundances were greater than those reported for other Texas reservoirs, but the community was dominated in terms of abundance and biomass by small...

  15. Etude de la respiration chez des copépodes pélagiques méditerranéens (bassin occidental et Mer Ionienne) et de ses variations en fonction de la bathymétrie des espèces et de leur origine géographique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gaudy; Station Marine

    1975-01-01

    A shipboard experimental study was conducted on the respiratory rate of pelagic copepods from two Mediterranean stations (Ionian Sea and Occidental Basin). In each sampling area, copepods were collected from different depths (0 to 2500 m) by horizontal net hauls. Selected copepod species included bathypelagic, lower mesopelagic, upper mesopelagic and epipelagic species. Respiration rates were determined at 4 different temperatures

  16. Louis Fortier Ann Villeneuve

    E-print Network

    7P4. Canada Cannibalism and predation on fish larvae by larvae of Atlantic mackerel, Scomber, the diet of mackerel larvae shifted from copepod nauplii to copep- ods and fish larvae. Mackerel selected strongly for copepod nauplii. Mackerel ~6 mm preyed indifferently on copepods li.e. in proportion

  17. Patterns of genome size in the copepoda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Wyngaard; E. M. Rasch

    2000-01-01

    Adult somatic nuclear DNA contents are reported for eleven cyclopoid species (Megacyclops latipes, Mesocyclops edax, M. longisetus, M. ruttneri, M. leuckarti, M. woutersi, Macrocyclops albidus, Cyclops strenuus, Acanthocyclops robustus, Diothona oculata, Thermocyclops crassus) and for the harpacticoid Tigriopus californicus and range from 0.50 to 4.1 pg DNA per nucleus. These diploid genome sizes are consistent with previously published values for

  18. Effects of Gizzard Shad and Threadfin Shad on Zooplankton and Young-of-Year White Crappie Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Clell Guest; Ray W. Drenner; Stephen T. Threlkeld; F. Douglas Martin; J. Durward Smith

    1990-01-01

    We examined the effects of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum and threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense on zooplankton abundance and on reproduction by white crappie Pomoxis annularis in a March–July 1986 Texas pond experiment of factorial design. We used four treatment combinations: no shad, gizzard shad, threadfin shad, and gizzard shad + threadfin shad. Densities of cyclopoid copepodids and Daphnia sp. were

  19. The effect of a large cape on distribution patterns of coastal and oceanic copepods off Oregon and northern California during the 1998–1999 El Niño–La Niña

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William T. Peterson; Julie E. Keister

    2002-01-01

    Hydrographic and ocean drifter measurements made along the Oregon coast indicate that the spatial structure of the coastal upwelling system differs in waters to the north and the south of Cape Blanco, Oregon. North of the Cape, a 10–30 km wide zone of coastal upwelling parallels the coast, but south of the Cape, increased wind stress leads to a seaward

  20. Population regulation and role of mesozooplankton in shaping marine pelagic food webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kiørboe

    1997-01-01

    Copepods constitute the majority of the mesozooplankton in the oceans.By eating and being eaten copepods have implications\\u000a for the flow of matterand energy in the pelagic environment. I first consider populationregulation mechanisms in copepods\\u000a by briefly reviewing estimates of growthand mortality rates and evidence of predation and resource limitation. Theeffects\\u000a of variations in fecundity and mortality rates for the demography

  1. Fatty alcohols in capelin, herring and mackerel oils and muscle lipids: II. A comparison of fatty acids from wax esters with those of triglycerides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Ratnayake; R. G. Ackman

    1979-01-01

    The fatty acids recovered from the triglycerides and wax esters of common northwest Atlantic copepods are compared with the\\u000a fatty acids of wax esters recovered intact from certain fish skin and body lipid, and from commercial fish oils. The fish\\u000a species, herring, capelin and mackerel, all feed on copepods, and many resemblances of the copepod lipid fatty acids to those

  2. Bioavailability of Particle-Associated Se to the Bivalve Potamocorbula

    E-print Network

    invertebratesareconsideredthemostimportantandrelevant prey organisms (4). Ultimately the degree to which benthic invertebrates bioaccumulate Se depends pathway for Se bioac- cumulation by invertebrates, including bivalves (4) and copepods (6), so

  3. Zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Brock

    \\u000a Zooplankton are usually defined as small free-swimming animals that can be caught in nets. Zooplankton range in size from\\u000a about 0.1 mm to 1-3 mm in length. The main components of the Zooplankton are protozoa, rotifers, and crustaceans. Although\\u000a rotifers may be more abundant numerically, the crustaceans generally constitute most of the biomass. They include the cladocerans,\\u000a cyclopoids, and calanoid

  4. Response of zooplankton to improving water quality in the Scheldt estuary (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialet, B.; Gouzou, J.; Azémar, F.; Maris, T.; Sossou, C.; Toumi, N.; Van Damme, S.; Meire, P.; Tackx, M.

    2011-05-01

    Data obtained from 14 years of monthly samplings (1996-2009) were used to investigate the response of the crustacean zooplankton community to improving water quality in the Scheldt estuary. A strong reduction of poor water quality indicators, such as NH 4+ and BOD 5, as well as an increase in oxygen and in chlorophyll a concentrations were observed during the study period. During the study period, important changes were observed in the zooplankton community composition and spatial distribution. From 2007 onwards, most of the calanoid population, previously mainly found in the brackish water reach of the estuary, moved to the freshwater, where they reached higher abundances than previously observed. Simultaneously, cyclopoids populations strongly decreased in freshwater while cladocerans did not change their abundance, except during years with high chlorophyll a concentrations. Redundancy analyses (RDA) showed that the variability within the calanoid population can be explained by the improvement in water quality. Variability within the cyclopoids and cladoceran community is mainly explained by chlorinity and chlorophyll a concentrations. Their presence in the most polluted upstream area until 2007 suggests they are more tolerant to poor water quality than calanoids. Several hypotheses to explain the disappearance of cyclopoids after the move of calanoids to the freshwater are presented and discussed.

  5. Intraspecific Autochthonous and Allochthonous Resource Use by Zooplankton in a Humic Lake during the Transitions between Winter, Summer and Fall

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Martin; Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Karlsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal patterns in assimilation of externally produced, allochthonous, organic matter into aquatic food webs are poorly understood, especially in brown-water lakes. We studied the allochthony (share biomass of terrestrial origin) in cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid micro-crustacean zooplankton from late winter to fall during two years in a small humic lake (Sweden). The use of allochthonous resources was important for sustaining a small population of calanoids in the water column during late winter. However, in summer the calanoids shifted to 100% herbivory, increasing their biomass several-fold by making efficient use of the pelagic primary production. In contrast, the cyclopoids and cladocerans remained at high levels of allochthony throughout the seasons, both groups showing the mean allochthony of 0.56 (range in mean 0.17-0.79 and 0.34-0.75, for the respective group, depending on model parameters). Our study shows that terrestrial organic matter can be an important resource for cyclopoids and cladocerans on an annual basis, forming a significant link between terrestrial organic matter and the higher trophic levels of the food web, but it can also be important for sustaining otherwise herbivorous calanoids during periods of low primary production in late winter. PMID:25764501

  6. Intraspecific Autochthonous and Allochthonous Resource Use by Zooplankton in a Humic Lake during the Transitions between Winter, Summer and Fall.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Martin; Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Karlsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal patterns in assimilation of externally produced, allochthonous, organic matter into aquatic food webs are poorly understood, especially in brown-water lakes. We studied the allochthony (share biomass of terrestrial origin) in cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid micro-crustacean zooplankton from late winter to fall during two years in a small humic lake (Sweden). The use of allochthonous resources was important for sustaining a small population of calanoids in the water column during late winter. However, in summer the calanoids shifted to 100% herbivory, increasing their biomass several-fold by making efficient use of the pelagic primary production. In contrast, the cyclopoids and cladocerans remained at high levels of allochthony throughout the seasons, both groups showing the mean allochthony of 0.56 (range in mean 0.17-0.79 and 0.34-0.75, for the respective group, depending on model parameters). Our study shows that terrestrial organic matter can be an important resource for cyclopoids and cladocerans on an annual basis, forming a significant link between terrestrial organic matter and the higher trophic levels of the food web, but it can also be important for sustaining otherwise herbivorous calanoids during periods of low primary production in late winter. PMID:25764501

  7. The diet of mesopelagic fish from the Pacific coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. M. Gordon; S. Nishida; T. Nemoto

    1985-01-01

    The diet of at least 28 species of mesopelagic fish from the Pacific coast of Hokkaido was examined. The dominant family was the Gonostomatidae (42%) which was represented by five species. The most abundant species wasCyclothone atraria which together with the other species of this genus preyed predominantly on copepods. Euphausiids and copepods were dominant in the diet ofGonostoma gracile.

  8. Ingestioll of detritus by the lagoon pelagic community at Eniwetok Atoll

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray P. Gerber; Nelson Marshall

    The gut contents of Undinulu vulgaris (a Calanoid copepod) collected from Eniwetok lagoon consisted of about 95% detritus with only 2% of the gut material fluorescing as chlorophyll. That of Oikopleum Zongicauduta (a larvaccan) consisted of about 89% detritus with only 6% fluorescing as chlorophyll. By contrast, the gut contents of the Calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa, from Narragansett Bay, Rhode

  9. First record of Pseudomyicola spinosus in Argopecten ventricosus in Baja California, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Cáceres-Martínez; Jorge Chávez-Villalba; Laura Garduño-Méndez

    2005-01-01

    This is the first record of the copepod Pseudomyicola spinosus in the scallop Argopecten ventricosus in northwestern Mexico, and describes: (1) the known annual prevalence and intensity of this copepod on scallops from culture sites (Gulf of California) and natural populations (Pacific coast), (2) the histopathological effects caused on the soft tissues of scallops, and (3) the relationship between prevalence

  10. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 1982, Vol. 63, pp. 105-117 Elsevier Biomedical Press

    E-print Network

    Yen, Jeannette

    OF VARIABILITY IN ATTACK RATES OF EUCHAETA ELONGATA Esterly, A CARNIVOROUS MARINE COPEPOD' J. YEN School describes effects on the ingestion rate of the carnivorous marine copepod Euchaeta elongata with E. elongata'sbehavior in the field. No significant changes were noted in the attack rate in response

  11. Biotransformation and assimilation of dietary lipids by Calanus feeding on a dinoflagellate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Harvey; G. Eglinton; S. C. M. OHara; E. D. S. Corner

    1987-01-01

    Stage V and adult females of the marine copepod Calanus helgolandicus were fed in the laboratory on the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea at three concentrations calculated to represent pelagic ocean to bloom conditions. The identification and quantification of sterols, fatty acids and alcohols present in the algal diet, copepods and their faecal pellets were then carried out using computerized gas chromatography-mass

  12. Original Paper Adaptive Behavior

    E-print Network

    Hartline, Daniel K.

    adaptations for predator avoidance in planktonic copepods Edward J Buskey1 , Petra H Lenz2 and Daniel K Introduction Copepods are among the more common and diverse planktonic metazoans in the sea (Humes, 1994 author: Edward J Buskey, Marine Science Institute, University of Texas at Austin, 750 Channel

  13. Interannual variability in a predatorprey interaction: climate,

    E-print Network

    Interannual variability in a predator­prey interaction: climate, chaetognaths and copepods, compared to 1997, when Pseudocalanus and Acartia were the primary prey. Predation by S. elegans removed ;prey are copepods (Feigenbaum and Maris, 1984). Sev- eral studies have shown that chaetognath predation

  14. The effects of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo on cultures of Schmackeria inopinus (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Yu; Guipeng Yang; Jiyuan Tian

    2010-01-01

    Harmful effects of red tide dinoflagellates on copepods have gained particular attention in recent years. In this study, monocultures and mixed cultures of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo and the non-harmful alga Isochrysis galbana were utilized as diets to investigate the ingestion, reproduction and recruitment of the copepod Schmackeria inopinus. When compared with a monoculture of I. galbana, a sole

  15. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-print Network

    16 3 1 7 6 12 11 15 13 10 8 9 14 4 5 2 N. Copepod Biomass Anomaly 15 12 7 8 5 14 13 16 9 11 4 10 6 1 2 3 S. Copepod Biomass Anomaly 16 3 5 4 2 11 13 15 12 10 1 8 14 9 7 6 Biological Transition 16 11 7

  16. Zooplankton population model coupled to a biogeochemical model of the North Western Mediterranean Sea ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Eisenhauer; F. Carlotti; M. Baklouti; F. Diaz

    2009-01-01

    A stage structured population (SSP) model based on Fennel's [Fennel, W., 2001. Modelling copepods with links to circulation models. Journal of Plankton Research, 23, 1217–1232] equations is applied to Centropages typicus (Kröyer), a dominant copepod species of the North Western Mediterranean Sea (NWMS) and a prey of small pelagic fish. The model considers five groups of stages and development rates

  17. Observations on the life cycle of Coelomomyces indicus (Blastocladiales: Coelomomycetaceae) in anopheline mosquitoes from the Philippines and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Whisler, H C; Gabriel, B P; Chanpaisaeng, J; Zebold, S L; Padua, L E

    1999-11-01

    The water mold Coelomomyces indicus Iyengar is a widespread pathogen of anopheline mosquitoes in Asia and Africa, and it infects the copepod Microcyclops varicans Sars as its crustacean alternate host. This was determined by direct observation of field-infected copepods, selective meiospore encystment on M. varicans, and experimental infections of the copepod with zoospores from both thick and thin-walled meiosporangia. The physiological conditions governing germination of the 2 sporangial types were determined. The gametothallus in the copepod displays a light yellow pigmentation at maturity, and gametogenesis in both field and experimentally infected copepods occurs just at night fall, or 24 h after dark induction. In vivo culture was attained with the mosquito host Anopheles culicifacies Giles. Attempts to infect Anopheles stephensi Liston and Anopheles gambiae Giles, reported hosts of C. indicus, were unsuccessful. PMID:10593068

  18. Is the Somali Current a biological river in the Northwestern Indian Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations of diversity, equitability, average rank, and average percentage of total numbers show that the addition of zooplanktonic taxa such as Calanus carinatus arising in the upwelling areas during the southwest monsoon does significantly increase diversity and equitability of the community. Rank and percentages of total numbers, however, show that the response is not entirely due to the presence of Calanoides carinatus during the southwest monsoon. Another important change in the zooplanktonic community was the decline in the abundance of Oithona spp. in upwelling areas during the southwest monsoon.

  19. Retention of elements absorbed by juvenile fish (Menidia menidia, Menidia Beryllina) from zooplankton prey

    SciTech Connect

    Reinfelder, J.R.; Fisher, N.S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Radiolabeled copepods (Acartia spp.) were fed to juvenile silversides (Menidia menidia and Menidia beryllina) to study element absorption in the fish. Copepods were reared from nauplii in the presence of different radiotracers ({sup 14}C,{sup 109}Cd,{sup 57}Co,{sup 32}P,{sup 35}S,{sup 75}Se, o;r {sup 65}Zn) and were analyzed for relative concentrations of these elements in their tissue fractions. Copepod exoskeletons contained nearly all of the trace metals (>97%), 60% of the Se, and less than half of the C,P, and S accumulated by the copepods. Within the nonexoskeleton tissues of the copepods, nonpolar (CHCl{sub 3} extractable) material contained 34 and 24% of the total C and P, but only 8 and 2% of the total S and Se. Absorption efficiencies of trace metals in juvenile silversides (2.7% for Cd, 2.1% for Co, 6.2% for Zn) were an order of magnitude lower than those for nonmetals (29% for Se, 50% for S and C, 60% for P). The absorption efficiencies in the juvenile silversides of all seven elements studied were directly related to the percent of each element in the nonexoskeleton fractions of the copepod prey, indicating that the fish absorbed the soft tissues of the copepods and egested the chitinous exoskeleton and its associated elements. 32 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Trophic transfer of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls from meiobenthos to bottom-feeding fish

    SciTech Connect

    DiPinto, L.M.; Coull, B.C. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the dynamics of the sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) using a benthic-based trophic transfer model (sediments to benthic copepods to juvenile fish). Field-collected benthic copepods were exposed to sublethal levels of PCB in sediments for 96 h. Accumulation of PCB was measured in the copepods, and these contaminated copepods were fed to the juvenile fish predator Leiostomus xanthurus in uncontaminated sediments. After gut clearance, whole fish were homogenized and examined for PCB accumulation. Similar experiments with L. xanthurus in which meals of uncontaminated copepods were fed in PCB-contaminated sediments were conducted to determine the relative roles of contaminated sediments and contaminated copepod prey ingestion to PCB transfer. Total PCB transfer as well as PCB congener group contributions were examined. A total of 30 congeners were grouped according to log K{sub ow} increments and according to chlorine homologue groups. Copepods exposed to PCB-contaminated sediments to 90 {micro}g/g accumulated PCBs to 326 {micro}g/g dry weight. Accumulation of PCB in fish feeding in contaminated sediments was five times higher than that in fish feeding on contaminated prey in uncontaminated sediments (p = 0.0498). In terms of congener patterns, log K{sub ow} grouping provided clearer discrimination between groups. Congener patterns were similar in PCB stock solution, sediments, and copepods and were different in the two fish treatments. K{sub ow} group relative accumulation patterns in fish were mixed. The chlorine homologue groups revealed that the fish preferentially accumulated the tetrachlorinated congeners relative to copepods and sediments.

  1. Life history of Coelomomyces psorophorae.

    PubMed Central

    Whisler, H C; Zebold, S L; Shemanchuk, J A

    1975-01-01

    The mosquito parasite, Coelomomyces psorophorae (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes) alternates obligately between the larvae of Culiseta inornata and the copepod Cyclops vernalis. Isogametes, derived from heterothallic, wall-less gametangia which develop in the copepod, fuse to produce a diploid zygote that subsequently infects the mosquito host. Zoospores from the resistant sporangia which are produced in the haemocoel of the mosquito infect the copepod. A tentative life-history is proposed and implications of these discoveries for the biology, taxonomy, and possible role of Coelomomyces in biological control are discussed. Images PMID:235761

  2. Life history of Coelomomyces psorophorae.

    PubMed

    Whisler, H C; Zebold, S L; Shemanchuk, J A

    1975-02-01

    The mosquito parasite, Coelomomyces psorophorae (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes) alternates obligately between the larvae of Culiseta inornata and the copepod Cyclops vernalis. Isogametes, derived from heterothallic, wall-less gametangia which develop in the copepod, fuse to produce a diploid zygote that subsequently infects the mosquito host. Zoospores from the resistant sporangia which are produced in the haemocoel of the mosquito infect the copepod. A tentative life-history is proposed and implications of these discoveries for the biology, taxonomy, and possible role of Coelomomyces in biological control are discussed. PMID:235761

  3. Chromatin diminution in Copepoda (Crustacea): pattern, biological role and evolutionary aspects

    PubMed Central

    Grishanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article provides an overview of research on chromatin diminution (CD) in copepods. The phenomenology, mechanisms and biological role of CD are discussed. A model of CD as an alternative means of regulating cell differentiation is presented. While the vast majority of eukaryotes inactivate genes that are no longer needed in development by heterochromatinization, copepods probably use CD for the same purpose. It is assumed that the copepods have exploited CD as a tool for adaptation to changing environmental conditions and as a mechanism for regulating the rate of evolutionary processes. PMID:24744830

  4. Zooplankton Community Metabolic Requirements and the Effect on Particle

    E-print Network

    Buesseler, Ken

    Zooplankton Community Metabolic Requirements and the Effect on Particle Flux and Remineralization into smaller, non-sinking particles 2. Microbial decomposition 3. Zooplankton consumption #12;Zooplankton in the twilight zo -microbial decomposition -zooplankton grazing Sinking particles Copepod feeding on aggregate

  5. The effect of heterocope predation on zooplankton communities in arctic ponds

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, W. John; Luecke, C.

    1983-03-01

    The influence of Heterocope septentrionalis, a predacious calanoid copepod, on five species of artic pond zooplankton is investigated. Prey species coexisting with Heterocope are relatively invulnerable to predation, but ...

  6. EVOLVING LIFE CYCLES OF COMPLEX MICROSPORIDIA IN MOSQUITOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphic microsporidia in mosquitoes are characterized by intricate life cycles involving multiple spore types responsible for horizontal (per os) and vertical (transovarial) transmission. They affect two generations of the mosquito and some involve an obligate copepod intermediate host. Polymo...

  7. THE INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGE ASSOCIATED WITH THE GIANT KELP, MACROCYSTIS PYRIFERA, AT SANTA CATALINA

    E-print Network

    THE INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGE ASSOCIATED WITH THE GIANT KELP, MACROCYSTIS PYRIFERA, AT SANTA CATALINA JAMES A. COYER' ABSTRACT The motile invertebrate assemblage associated with the giant kelp. Macrocysti given month. Amphipods. copepods. mysids. and shrimps comprised the majority of invertebrate abundance

  8. Experimental records of the effect of food patchiness and predation on egg production of Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, E.; Tiselius, P.; Verity, P.; Paffehofer, G.A. (Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)); Jonsson, P.R. (Tjaernoe Marine Biological Lab., Stroemstad (Sweden))

    1993-03-01

    The effects of predation and spatial patchiness in food distribution on egg production of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were investigated in the laboratory. A postexperiment egg production method was developed to override the decline in number of copepods due to predation. The copepods were able to remain in food patches about 41-47% of the time, and consequently egg production rates were higher than expected from the average food concentration. Predation by the calanoid copepod Labidocera aestiva tended to increase egg production rates of A. tonsa. The interaction of patchiness and predation resulted in relatively less time spent by A. tonsa in the food patches, probably as a consequence of conflict between hunger level and predation risk. 40 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. INTRODUCTION Among aquatic crustaceans, a wide variety of taxa

    E-print Network

    Morandini, Andre C.

    ). Various crustaceans also occur in association with pelagic cnidar- ians, such as copepods (Humes 1953 an associa- tion between Libinia spinosa (H. Milne-Edwards, 1834) (Brachyura, Majidae) and the scyphomedusa

  10. 78 FR 18249 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...Pacific Decadal Oscillation are presented, as well as ecosystem trends and indicators relevant to CPS such as sea surface temperature, ocean productivity and copepod abundance are summarized. Additionally, NMFS also considered ecological...

  11. 78 FR 36117 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Pacific Decadal Oscillation are presented, as well as ecosystem trends and indicators relevant to CPS such as sea surface temperature, ocean productivity and copepod abundance. Additionally, NMFS also considered ecological information in...

  12. Limnol. Oceanogr., 50(2), 2005, 427439 2005, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Craig E.

    and Oceanography, Inc. Dietary acquisition of photoprotective compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, carotenoids-acclimated, carotenoid-rich animals. Compared with carotenoids, MAAs offer this copepod a more effective photoprotection

  13. SECTION t.-GENERAL SURVEY OF THE ANIMAL PLANKTON (ZOOPLANKTON)

    E-print Network

    affinities, whether arctic, boreal, or tropic; and whether they were oceanic or creatures of the coastal zone), the ctenophore Pleurobrachia. pileus (p. 365), and (in deep water) the larger copepod Euchreta (p. 230

  14. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale are the copepods Calanus marshallae...euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii , in areas of the North Pacific Ocean in which North Pacific right whales are known or believed to feed,...

  15. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale are the copepods Calanus marshallae...euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii , in areas of the North Pacific Ocean in which North Pacific right whales are known or believed to feed,...

  16. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale are the copepods Calanus marshallae...euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii , in areas of the North Pacific Ocean in which North Pacific right whales are known or believed to feed,...

  17. 50 CFR 226.215 - Critical habitat for the North Pacific Right Whale (Eubalaena japonica).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... The primary constituent elements of the North Pacific right whale are the copepods Calanus marshallae...euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii , in areas of the North Pacific Ocean in which North Pacific right whales are known or believed to feed,...

  18. Mesozooplankton Grazing on Picocyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea as Inferred from Molecular Diet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Nisha H.; Gorokhova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Our current knowledge on the microbial component of zooplankton diet is limited, and it is generally assumed that bacteria-sized prey is not directly consumed by most mesozooplankton grazers in the marine food webs. We questioned this assumption and conducted field and laboratory studies to examine picocyanobacteria contribution to the diets of Baltic Sea zooplankton, including copepods. First, qPCR targeting ITS-1 rDNA sequence of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. was used to examine picocyanobacterial DNA occurrence in the guts of Baltic zooplankton (copepods, cladocerans and rotifers). All field-collected zooplankton were found to consume picocyanobacteria in substantial quantities. In terms of Synechococcus quantity, the individual gut content was highest in cladocerans, whereas biomass-specific gut content was highest in rotifers and copepod nauplii. Moreover, the gut content in copepods was positively related to the picocyanobacteria abundance and negatively to the total phytoplankton abundance in the water column at the time of sampling. This indicates that increased availability of picocyanobacteria resulted in the increased intake of this prey and that copepods may rely more on picoplankton when food in the preferred size range declines. Second, a feeding experiments with a laboratory reared copepod Acartia tonsa fed a mixture of the picocyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris and microalga Rhodomonas salina confirmed that copepods ingested Synechococcus, even when the alternative food was plentiful. Finally, palatability of the picocyanobacteria for A. tonsa was demonstrated using uptake of 13C by the copepods as a proxy for carbon uptake in feeding experiment with 13C-labeled S. bacillaris. These findings suggest that, if abundant, picoplankton may become an important component of mesozooplankton diet, which needs to be accounted for in food web models and productivity assessments. PMID:24260175

  19. Gene Expression of GST and CYP330A1 in Lipid-Rich and Lipid-Poor Female Calanus finmarchicus (Copepoda: Crustacea) Exposed to Dispersed Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Henrik Hansen; Trond Nordtug; Dag Altin; Andy Booth; Kristine Mordal Hessen; Anders J. Olsen

    2009-01-01

    The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a marine ecological key species in the Northern Atlantic food web. This species was exposed to an artificially weathered North Sea oil dispersion (oil droplets and water-soluble fractions [WSF]) and a filtered dispersion (containing only WSF) in serial dilution. Female copepods were divided into lipid-rich and lipid-poor for each exposure followed by gene expression analyses

  20. Modeling dynamic interactions and coherence between marine zooplankton and fishes linked to environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Fogarty, Michael J.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Glaser, Sarah M.; Ye, Hao; Deyle, Ethan; Sugihara, George

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of marine fishes are closely related to lower trophic levels and the environment. Quantitatively understanding ecosystem dynamics linking environmental variability and prey resources to exploited fishes is crucial for ecosystem-based management of marine living resources. However, standard statistical models typically grounded in the concept of linear system may fail to capture the complexity of ecological processes. We have attempted to model ecosystem dynamics using a flexible, nonparametric class of nonlinear forecasting models. We analyzed annual time series of four environmental indices, 22 marine copepod taxa, and four ecologically and commercially important fish species during 1977 to 2009 on Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied area of the northeast U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. We examined the underlying dynamic features of environmental indices and copepods, quantified the dynamic interactions and coherence with fishes, and explored the potential control mechanisms of ecosystem dynamics from a nonlinear perspective. We found: (1) the dynamics of marine copepods and environmental indices exhibiting clear nonlinearity; (2) little evidence of complex dynamics across taxonomic levels of copepods; (3) strong dynamic interactions and coherence between copepods and fishes; and (4) the bottom-up forcing of fishes and top-down control of copepods coexisting as target trophic levels vary. These findings highlight the nonlinear interactions among ecosystem components and the importance of marine zooplankton to fish populations which point to two forcing mechanisms likely interactively regulating the ecosystem dynamics on Georges Bank under a changing environment.

  1. Gene expression of GST and CYP330A1 in lipid-rich and lipid-poor female Calanus finmarchicus (Copepoda: Crustacea) exposed to dispersed oil.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Nordtug, Trond; Altin, Dag; Booth, Andy; Hessen, Kristine Mordal; Olsen, Anders J

    2009-01-01

    The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a marine ecological key species in the Northern Atlantic food web. This species was exposed to an artificially weathered North Sea oil dispersion (oil droplets and water-soluble fractions [WSF]) and a filtered dispersion (containing only WSF) in serial dilution. Female copepods were divided into lipid-rich and lipid-poor for each exposure followed by gene expression analyses of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 330A1 (CYP330A1). Lipid-rich copepods exhibited elevated transcription of GST and reduced transcription of CYP330A1 after exposure to both dispersed oil and WSF. In contrast, lipid-poor copepods exhibited increased transcription of CYP330A1 following exposure to WSF but not the dispersion. Data suggested that small lipid storage promotes increased bioavailability of accumulated oil compounds. Variations in response in CYP330A1 gene expression indicate that oil constituents may exert different modes of toxic action in copepods depending on their reproductive stages. The contribution of oil droplets to the observed effects seemed to be low as GST gene expression was similar after exposure to both dispersed oil and WSF. However, feeding rate in copepods exposed to dispersed oil was reduced, and this may have decreased the uptake of oil constituents via the diet. Although quantitatively higher mortality was observed in copepods exposed to the highest dispersion levels, this may result from smothering of animals by oil droplets. Furthermore, increasing dilution of both the dispersions and the WSF altered their distributions and chemical composition, which may influence the bioavailability of spilled crude oil to pelagic marine organisms. PMID:19184728

  2. Monitoring of genotoxicity in marine zooplankton induced by toxic metals in Ennore estuary, Southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Prasun; Thirunavukkarasu, Subramani; Godhantaraman, Nallamuthu; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2014-11-15

    The present study provides preliminary in-situ data on genetic integrity of marine zooplankton. Paracalanus parvus, Oithona rigida and Euterpina acutifrons were collected during four different seasons (summer, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) from 2011 to 2012 in Ennore and Kovalum estuaries. DNA damage levels in different zooplankton were analyzed by comet assay and were correlated with different environmental stressors. Spatial and temporal variations in DNA damage was observed in all the species. Zooplankton from Ennore estuary showed significantly lower genetic integrity. Particulate, sediment, and zooplankton fractions of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr and Co were associated with high DNA damage during the period of lowest pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen. Zn and Cd showed lower genotoxic impact than the other metals. Feeding modes strongly influenced the genetic integrity in the zooplankton species studied. These results support the use of comet assay as a tool in effectively monitoring genotoxicity in marine plankton communities. PMID:25287225

  3. UV-induced DNA damage in Cyclops abyssorum tatricus populations from clear and turbid alpine lakes.

    PubMed

    Tartarotti, Barbara; Saul, Nadine; Chakrabarti, Shumon; Trattner, Florian; Steinberg, Christian E W; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2014-03-01

    Zooplankton from clear alpine lakes thrive under high levels of solar UV radiation (UVR), but in glacially turbid ones they are more protected from this damaging radiation. Here, we present results from experiments done with Cyclops abyssorum tatricus to assess UV-induced DNA damage and repair processes using the comet assay. Copepods were collected from three alpine lakes of differing UV transparency ranging from clear to glacially turbid, and exposed to artificial UVR. In addition, photoprotection levels [mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and lipophilic antioxidant capacity] were estimated in the test populations. Similar UV-induced DNA damage levels were observed among the copepods from all lakes, but background DNA damage (time zero and dark controls) was lowest in the copepods from the glacially turbid lake, resulting in a higher relative DNA damage accumulation. Most DNA strand breaks were repaired after recovery in the dark. Low MAA concentrations were found in the copepods from the glacially turbid lake, while the highest levels were observed in the population from the most UV transparent lake. However, the highest lipophilic antioxidant capacities were measured in the copepods from the lake with intermediate UV transparency. Photoprotection and the ability to repair DNA damage, and consequently reducing UV-induced damage, are part of the response mechanisms in zooplankton to changes in water transparency caused by glacier retreat. PMID:24616551

  4. Distribution, abundance, and predation effects of epipelagic ctenophores and jellyfish in the western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Jennifer E.; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is undergoing changes at an unprecedented rate because of global climate change. Especially poorly-studied in arctic waters are the gelatinous zooplankton, which are difficult to study using traditional oceanographic methods. A distinct zooplanktivore community was characterized in the surface 100 m by use of a Remotely Operated Vehicle, net collections, and SCUBA diving. The large scyphomedusa, Chrysaora melanaster, was associated with the warm Pacific water at ˜35-75 m depth. A diverse ctenophore community lived mainly above the C. melanaster layer, including Dryodora glandula, a specialized predator of larvaceans, Beroe cucumis, a predator of other ctenophores, and the extremely fragile Bolinopsis infundibulum, which was the most abundant species. Gut content analyses showed that Mertensia ovum selectively consumed the largest copepods ( Calanus spp.) and amphipods ( Parathemisto libellula); B. infundibulum consumed smaller copepods and pteropods ( Limacina helicina). Large copepods were digested by M. ovum in ˜12 h at -1.5 to 0 °C, but by B. infundibulum in only ˜4 h. We estimated that M. ovum consumed an average of ˜2% d -1 of the Calanus spp. copepods and that B. infundibulum consumed ˜4% d -1 of copepods <3 mm prosome length. These are significant consumption rates given that Calanus spp. have life-cycles of 2 or more years and are eaten by vertebrates including bowhead whales and arctic cod.

  5. Host-parasite relationships and geographic distribution of Salmincola corpulentus (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) on bloater (Coregonus hoyi) stocks in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Charles A.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of the branchial cavities of 8347 adult bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) collected from seven locations in Lake Huron for parasitic copepods yielded only the lernaeopodid Salmincola corpulentus; its distribution was limited to bloaters collected in the southern two-thirds of the lake. The infections were highest off Au Sable Point and on Six Fathom Bank, where 12 and 22%, of the bloaters examined were infected, respectively. All copepods seen were sexually mature females. The dorsal anterior portion of the branchial rim was the preferred site of attachment. The prevalence of S. corpulentus increased with the length of the bloaters, reaching a maximum of 40% in fish longer than 330 mm; none were seen in bloaters shorter than 182 mm. The mean intensity of S. corpulentus was unusually low (1.0-1.9) for a lernaeopodid copepod and the maximum number of copepods found on a single bloater was five. Prevalences of copepods differed significantly (P<0.05) between bloaters collected at different geographic locations, suggesting that S. corpulentus may be of value in bloater stock determination.

  6. The seasonal succession of zooplankton in the Southern Ocean south of Australia, part II: The Sub-Antarctic to Polar Frontal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Brian P. V.; Hosie, Graham W.

    2006-07-01

    Between October 2001 and March 2002 six transects were completed at monthly intervals in the Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ) and Inter-Sub-Antarctic Front Zone (ISAFZ)/Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) in the Southern Ocean south of Australia. Zooplankton were collected with a Continuous Plankton Recorder and NORPAC net and multivariate analysis was used to analyse the seasonal succession of communities. Despite strong, seasonally consistent, biogeographic differences between the SAZ and ISAFZ/PFZ, community structure in all zones was dominated by a suite of common taxa. These included the ubiquitous Oithona similis, foraminiferans and appendicularians (Core taxa), occurring in >97% of samples and contributing an average of 75% to total sample abundance, and Calanus simillimus, Rhincalanus gigas, Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus brevipes, Clausocalanus laticeps, Oithona frigida, Limacina spp. and chaetognaths (Summer taxa), present in >57% of samples and occurring at seasonally high densities. Because of the dominance of the Core and Summer taxa, the seasonal succession was most clearly evident as a change in zooplankton densities. In October densities averaged <15 ind m -3, rising to 52 ind m -3 (max=92 ind m -3) in November, and subsequently increasing slowly through to January (ave=115 ind m -3; max=255 ind m -3). Densities peaked abruptly in February (ave=634 ind m -3; max=1593 ind m -3), and remained relatively high in March (ave=193 ind m -3; max=789 ind m -3). A latitudinal lag in seasonal development was observed with peak densities occurring first in the SAZ (February) and then in the ISAFZ/PFZ (March). The seasonal community succession was strongly influenced by species population cycles. The role of zooplankton in biogeochemical cycling in the SAZ and ISAFZ/PFZ was discussed in the light of past sediment trap data collected from the study area.

  7. Stealth predation and the predatory success of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    PubMed Central

    Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Hansson, Lars J.; Titelman, Josefin; Dabiri, John O.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to higher metazoans such as copepods and fish, ctenophores are a basal metazoan lineage possessing a relatively narrow set of sensory-motor capabilities. Yet lobate ctenophores can capture prey at rates comparable to sophisticated predatory copepods and fish, and they are capable of altering the composition of coastal planktonic communities. Here, we demonstrate that the predatory success of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi lies in its use of cilia to generate a feeding current that continuously entrains large volumes of fluid, yet is virtually undetectable to its prey. This form of stealth predation enables M. leidyi to feed as a generalist predator capturing prey, including microplankton (approximately 50 ?m), copepods (approximately 1 mm), and fish larvae (>3 mm). The efficacy and versatility of this stealth feeding mechanism has enabled M. leidyi to be notoriously destructive as a predator and successful as an invasive species. PMID:20855619

  8. Resource Partitioning Among Planktivorous Fish Larvae and Fry in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisbert, E.; Cardona, L.; Castelló, F.

    1996-12-01

    Resource partioning among the planktivorous stages of eight fish species occurring in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon was studied. Five species were migratory mullets that spawned in the sea ( Liza ramada, L. aurata, L. saliens, Chelon labrosusand Mugil cephalus), while the other three species were resident and spawned in the lagoon ( Atherina boyeri, Cyprinus carpioand Gambusia holbrooki). Mullet fry exhibited similar diets, based on the consumption of zooplanktonic Crustacea such as copepods and cladocerans, although adult chironomids were also important. Gambusia holbrookiand A. boyerifed on small prey such as copepod nauplii, copepodites and rotifers, while C. carpioconsumed larger prey preferentially (cladocerans and copepods). According to the trophic overlap and niche width results, seven species pairs could be competing in the estuary, although further experimental evidence is still required.

  9. Zooplankton biomass, feeding and metabolism in a geostrophic frontal area (Almeria-Oran Front, western Mediterranean). Significance to pelagic food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, D.; Gaudy, R.; Le Fèvre, J.

    1994-08-01

    Mesozooplankton abundance and physiological rates in copepods were measured at selected sites in the Alboran Sea, in May 1991, on Cruise Almofront 1 (JGofs-France). Higher total zooplankton standing stocks, higher copepod abundance, higher feeding activity by the latter and a higher proportion of phytoplankton-derived carbohydrates in their diet were found in the geostrophic jet of inflowing Atlantic water than in surrounding areas, which offered a range of oligotrophic conditions. Relationships with data obtained in other disciplinary fields on the same cruise show that biological enrichment was due to locally enhanced production rather than advection of exogenous living matter. In the most productive context, sustained production effected by phytoplankton cells in the > 10 ?m class size (diatoms) was being significantly transferred to higher trophic levels through herbivores with a relatively long generation time (copepods). The processes responsible for the fertilization, and their relationship to the jet and its frontal boundary, are discussed.

  10. Predation on Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Copepoda: Calanoida) by the grouper fish larvae Epinephelus coioides under different hydrodynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Dahms, H. U.; Cheng, S. H.; Souissi, S.; Schmitt, F. G.; Kumar, R.; Hwang, J. S.

    2009-04-01

    The copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei perceived larval grouper Epinephelus coioides predators and exhibited escape reactions mediated by physical and/or chemical signals but not by visual perception. Under illumination, prey capture rates were significantly higher under moderate turbulence (747 ±104, n=3) than in the controls (calm water) (597±76, n=3) (p<0.01 Mann Whitney U test). The maximum darting speed of copepod in response to fish larvae under calm water was significantly higher (one way ANOVA P<0.05, Fig. 5) than that under either turbulent or enhanced flow condition, indicating that copepopd's ability to escape from predators was higher under calm water than either under turbulent water conditions or enhanced flow. The maximum number of copepods eaten by the fish larvae increased more under slow and medium hydrodynamic conditions than that under either calm or under high speed hydrodynamic conditions. Key words: Predator-prey relation; Behavior; Hydrodynamic disturbance; Diurnal changes; Predator avoidance; Predation efficiency

  11. Reproduction of Pseudocalanus newmani (Copepoda: Calanoida) is deleteriously affected by diatom blooms A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsband-Lenk, Claudia; Pierson, James J.; Leising, Andrew W.

    2005-11-01

    Copepod secondary production has traditionally been linked to the spring diatom bloom in temperate and high latitudes, but laboratory studies have recently challenged this view and have shown either reduced fecundity or viability of offspring when copepods were fed high concentrations of - mostly unialgal - diatoms. However, field evidence that diatoms affect copepod reproduction is still scarce. We analyzed the reproductive response of a common, small calanoid copepod of the boreal Pacific, Pseudocalanus newmani, to spring diatom blooms in Dabob Bay, a semi-enclosed fjord of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Abundance patterns, egg production rates, egg hatching success, and naupliar viability of the egg-carrying copepod were examined between February and early May in the years 2002-2004. The population underwent strong variations in abundance during both years, with high abundance of all stages from February to mid-March, but dramatically decreasing individual numbers later in spring. A recovery to higher numbers occurred in July. While egg production rates were independent of chlorophyll concentrations, the reproductive success of P. newmani was negatively affected by certain phytoplankton bloom conditions. Hatching success and - more markedly - naupliar survival were reduced following peaks of Thalassiosira species that were producing anti-mitotic aldehydes, but were high during periods when phytoplankton blooms were more diverse or dominated by other prey taxa including diatoms. As a consequence, recruitment of the naupliar population was considerably affected by the Thalassiosira blooms. This study shows for the first time that the so-called diatom effect operates in nature when all prerequisites - (1) high concentration of aldehyde producers, (2) few prey alternatives, and (3) feeding of copepods on these algae - are given. However, the effect was transient in Dabob Bay and may be so in other pelagic ecosystems. It remains to discern the potential sources of mortality, such as toxicity, malnutrition, predation, and/or advection, that may have caused the strong decline of the Pseudocalanus population during April.

  12. Diet composition and feeding activity of larval spring-spawning herring: Importance of environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arula, T.; Kotta, J.; Lankov, A.; Simm, M.; Põlme, S.

    2012-02-01

    Availability of suitable prey in sufficient quantities during the shift to exogenous feeding is an important factor determining survival and growth of larval fish. The question of what factors regulate prey consumption in larval fish has remained a focus of fisheries oceanography. In this paper feeding ecology of the larval spring-spawning herring Clupea harengus membras was studied in relation to selected environmental abiotic and biotic parameters in the shallow sheltered Pärnu Bay during the 1970s and 2000s. The copepod Eurytemora affinis was the strongly dominating dietary item during all the years while other prey items were ingested only sporadically. Feeding activity of herring larvae was governed by different environmental variables and the relationships varied amongst the size classes of herring larvae. The studied abiotic (i.e., wind speed, water temperature, water transparency) or biotic variables (i.e., density of copepod nauplii, copepodite stages I-V and adults of E. affinis, mean developmental stage of copepods and density of fish larvae) had no significant effects on the feeding activity of small larvae. The feeding activity of medium larvae was only affected by water transparency and that of large larvae by a combination of water temperature, wind speed and the structure of local copepod community, respectively. On the other hand, the diet composition of all herring larvae was best described by the density of copepod nauplii. In addition, the density of fish larvae improved the model of small larvae and the density of adult copepods that of medium larvae, respectively. Time was significant for the feeding activity of medium larvae indicating some unexplained variability that was not taken into account by the studied abiotic and biotic variables.

  13. Ocean Acidification-Induced Food Quality Deterioration Constrains Trophic Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hauss, Helena; Schulz, Kai G.; Riebesell, Ulf; Sommer, Ulrich; Winder, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Our present understanding of ocean acidification (OA) impacts on marine organisms caused by rapidly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is almost entirely limited to single species responses. OA consequences for food web interactions are, however, still unknown. Indirect OA effects can be expected for consumers by changing the nutritional quality of their prey. We used a laboratory experiment to test potential OA effects on algal fatty acid (FA) composition and resulting copepod growth. We show that elevated CO2 significantly changed the FA concentration and composition of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, which constrained growth and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa. A significant decline in both total FAs (28.1 to 17.4 fg cell?1) and the ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (PUFA:SFA) of food algae cultured under elevated (750 µatm) compared to present day (380 µatm) pCO2 was directly translated to copepods. The proportion of total essential FAs declined almost tenfold in copepods and the contribution of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) tripled at high CO2. This rapid and reversible CO2-dependent shift in FA concentration and composition caused a decrease in both copepod somatic growth and egg production from 34 to 5 eggs female?1 day?1. Because the diatom-copepod link supports some of the most productive ecosystems in the world, our study demonstrates that OA can have far-reaching consequences for ocean food webs by changing the nutritional quality of essential macromolecules in primary producers that cascade up the food web. PMID:22509351

  14. Biogeochemistry of a Southern Ocean plankton ecosystem: Using natural variability in community composition to study the role of metazooplankton in carbon and nitrogen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priddle, Julian; Whitehouse, Michael J.; Ward, Peter; Shreeve, Rachael S.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Atkinson, Angus; Watkins, Jonathan L.; Brandon, Mark A.; Cripps, Geoffrey C.

    2003-04-01

    The pelagic ecosystem around the island of South Georgia is subject to significant interannual variability, and changes in zooplankton community composition can be used as natural ecosystem experiments to examine biogeochemical cycles. The biomass of the large euphausiid Antarctic krill may range from ca. 2 to 150 g fresh mass (FM) m-2. When krill biomass is low, copepod biomass may be correspondingly higher and overall zooplankton biomass remains more or less unchanged. Krill are omnivorous, feeding facultatively either as grazers on microplankton or as predators on smaller zooplankton. This leads to complex feedbacks within the plankton. A simple model of the phytoplankton-copepod-krill system is used to simulate two scenarios of zooplankton composition. For the "low krill-high copepod" scenario, the model predicts higher phytoplankton biomass and production, lower mixed layer (ML) ammonium, nitrate and silicate concentrations, and higher detrital carbon production than in the "high krill-low copepod" scenario. Nitrogen cycling provides the most explicit demonstration of the differences between the scenarios. For the "low krill-high copepod" scenario, ML ammonium concentration decreased by 25% over 20 days, but excretion by metazooplankton supplied 30% of phytoplankton nitrogen demand. In the "high krill-low copepod" scenario, ML ammonium only declined by 10% over 20 days, but metazooplankton excretion was much lower, at 10% of phytoplankton N demand. These predictions are compared with data from several surveys covering krill biomass in the range 10-55 g FM m-2. Phytoplankton chlorophyll biomass is negatively related to krill biomass, and ML nutrients are positively correlated with krill biomass in these data. Both observations and model results suggest that variation in biogeochemical carbon and nitrogen cycles in the South Georgia pelagic ecosystem is determined largely by changes in zooplankton community composition and its impact on phytoplankton dynamics.

  15. The trophic significance of Phaeocystis blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, T.; Tande, K.; Verity, P.; Hansen, F.; Gieskes, W.

    1994-04-01

    Both colonies and solitary cells of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis are ingested by a wide array of marine vertebrates. Grazers include protozoa, bivalves, amphipods, euphausiids and many copepod species. Common fish species such as mackerel ( Scomber scombrus) and flounder ( Pleuronectus flesus) have also been reported to feed upon Phaeocystis. While qualitative observations on the potential trophic significance of Phaeocystis exist for a long time, attempts to quantify feeding rates on Phaeocystis have begun only during the last decade. In feeding experiments, copepods have received most attention. Many copepod species appear to consume Phaeocystis colonies and solitary cells in the North Atlantic and in polar seas. Ingestion rates are highly variable depending on size and physiological state of Phaeocystis as well as on copepod species. Within the same species, large variations in individual feeding rates have been reported from different areas and investigators. When Phaeocystis co-occurs with larger amounts of diatoms, the latter seem to be preferred by some copepod species while others do not select against Phaeocystis. At present it is unclear whether this is primarily due to unsuitable size of Phaeocystis or because it is poor quality food. The relative nutritive value of Phaeocystis single cells and colonies should be investigated in more detail. Feeding of protozoa on Phaeocystis has been little studied. Ciliates and the giant dinoflagellate Noctiluca are known to consume Phaeocystis solitary cells. Protozoa might efficiently control Phaeocystis blooms during their initial phases when the share of solitary cells relative to total Phaeocystis biomass is higher than during later stages of the bloom. By switching their food preference towards heterotrophic food, copepods might benefit from enhanced protozoan biomass during Phaeocystis blooms. The potential succession of protozoan and metazoan grazers in the course of a Phaeocystis bloom awaits further research.

  16. Researchers Discover Aquatic Species: 1/29/1998 ENN News

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Barbara E. Taylor and colleague Adrienne DeBiase, two researchers at the University of Georgia's Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, have just discovered a new species of copepod--a tiny, aquatic crustacean. Their discovery is featured in the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, and was featured in an Environmental News Network story. No larger than a speck of dust, the newly described species was first collected in temporary, freshwater wetlands on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Georgia. Copepods are important members of plankton communities, forming the base of the food chain; thus, many whales, fish, and even other invertebrates rely on them for food.

  17. Size distribution of particles and zooplankton across the shelf-basin system in southeast Beaufort Sea: combined results from an Underwater Vision Profiler and vertical net tows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Stemmann, L.; Picheral, M.; Burdorf, L.; Robert, D.; Fortier, L.; Babin, M.

    2012-04-01

    The size distribution and mean spatial trends of large particles (>100 ?m, in equivalent spherical diameter, ESD) and mesozooplankton were investigated across the Mackenzie Shelf (southeast Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean) in July-August 2009. Our main objective was to combine results from an Underwater Vision Profiler 5 (UVP5) and traditional net tows (200 ?m mesh size) to characterize the structural diversity and functioning of the Arctic shelf-basin ecosystem and to assess the large-scale correspondence between the two methodological approaches. The core dataset comprised 154 UVP5 profiles and 29 net tows conducted in the shelf (<100 m isobath), slope (100-1000 m) and basin (>1000 m) regions of the study area. The mean abundance of total particles and zooplankton in the upper water column (<75 m depth) declined exponentially with increasing distance from shore. Vertical and latitudinal patterns in total particle concentration followed those of chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration, with maximum values between 30 and 70 m depth. Based on the size-spectra derived from the UVP5 dataset, living organisms (0.1-10 mm ESD) accounted for an increasingly large proportion of total particle abundance (from 0.1 % to >50 %) when progressing offshore and as the ESD of particles was increasing. Both the UVP5 and net tows determined that copepods dominated the zooplankton community (~78-94 % by numbers) and that appendicularians were generally the second most abundant group (~1-11 %). The vertical distribution patterns of copepods and appendicularians indicated a close association between primary production and the main grazers. Manual taxonomic counts and ZooScan image analyses shed further light on the size-structure and composition of the copepod community - which was dominated at ~95 % by a guild of 10 typical taxa. The size distributions of copepods, as evaluated with the 3 methods (manual counts, ZooScan and UVP5), showed consistent patterns co-varying in the same order of magnitude over the upper size range (>1 mm ESD). Copepods <1 mm were not well quantified by the UVP5, which estimated that only ~13-25 % of the assemblage was composed of copepods <1 mm ESD compared with ~77-89 % from the net tow estimates. However, the biovolume of copepods was overwhelmingly dominated (~93-97 %) by copepods >1 mm ESD. Our results illustrate that the combination of traditional sampling methods and automated imaging techniques is a powerful approach that enabled us to conclude on the prevalence of a relatively high productivity regime and dominant herbivorous food web over the shelf when compared with the low-productive recycling system detected offshore.

  18. Size distribution of particles and zooplankton across the shelf-basin system in Southeast Beaufort Sea: combined results from an Underwater Vision Profiler and vertical net tows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forest, A.; Stemmann, L.; Picheral, M.; Burdorf, L.; Robert, D.; Fortier, L.; Babin, M.

    2011-11-01

    The size distribution and mean spatial trends of large particles (>100 ?m, in equivalent spherical diameter, ESD) and mesozooplankton were investigated across the Mackenzie Shelf (Southeast Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean) in July-August 2009. Our main objective was to combine results from an Underwater Vision Profiler 5 (UVP5) and traditional net tows (200 ?m mesh size) to characterize the structural diversity and functioning of the Arctic shelf-basin ecosystem and to assess the large-scale correspondence between the two methodological approaches. The core dataset comprised 154 UVP5 profiles and 29 net tows conducted in the shelf (<100 m isobath), slope (100-1000 m) and basin (>1000 m) regions of the study area. The mean abundance of total particles and zooplankton in the upper water column (<75 m depth) declined exponentially with increasing distance from shore. Vertical and latitudinal patterns in total particle concentration followed those of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration, with maximum values between 30 and 70 m depth. Based on the size-spectra derived from the UVP5 dataset, living organisms (0.1-10 mm ESD) accounted for an increasingly large proportion of total particle abundance (from 0.1% to > 50 %) when progressing offshore and as the ESD of particles was increasing. Both the UVP5 and net tows determined that copepods dominated the zooplankton community (~78-94 % by numbers) and that appendicularians were generally the second most abundant group (~1-11 %). The vertical distribution patterns of copepods and appendicularians indicated a close association between primary production and the main grazers. Manual taxonomic counts and ZooScan image analyses shed further light on the size-structure and composition of the copepod community - which was dominated at ~95 % by a guild of 10 typical taxa. The size distributions of copepods, as evaluated with the 3 methods (manual counts, ZooScan and UVP5), showed consistent patterns co-varying in the same order of magnitude over the upper size range (>1 mm ESD). Copepods < 1 mm were not well quantified by the UVP5, which estimated that only ~13-25 % of the assemblage was composed of copepods < 1 mm ESD compared with ~77-89 % from the net tow estimates. However, the biovolume of copepods was overwhelmingly dominated (~93-97 %) by copepods >1 mm ESD. Our results illustrate that the combination of traditional sampling methods and automated imaging techniques is a powerful approach that enabled us to conclude on the prevalence of a relatively high productivity regime and dominant herbivorous food web over the shelf when compared with the low-productive recycling system detected offshore.

  19. ASPECTS OF SENSORY CUES AND PROPULSION IN MARINE ZOOPLANKTON HYDRODYNAMIC DISTURBANCES

    E-print Network

    ASPECTS OF SENSORY CUES AND PROPULSION IN MARINE ZOOPLANKTON HYDRODYNAMIC DISTURBANCES A Thesis Institute of Technology December 2009 #12;ASPECTS OF SENSORY CUES AND PROPULSION IN MARINE ZOOPLANKTON identification of numerous zooplankton species, the ability to sort copepods on a rocking boat, and her

  20. Thermal stress studies on selected zooplankton species and an isopod

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, D.L.; Cheper, N.J.

    1980-06-01

    Laboratory determination of temperature stress levels and assessment of their ecological consequences was carried out for selected zooplankton species to develop data for ecological impact associated with industrial use of natural water for cooling. An included literature search revealed substantial fish and benthos data, but little on stress temperature effects on zooplankton. Information was gathered on two cladocerans, four copepods and an isopod.

  1. Limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe, May-October 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1974-01-01

    The limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe was dominated by copepods. Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi was the dominant crustacean throughout the lake. Mesocyclops edax, Diaptomus ashlandi and Daphnia pulex were major components of the zooplankton in the deep, downstream portion of the lake while Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva were important constituents in the river-like, upstream section of the lake.

  2. Reciprocal interactions between roach, Rutilus rutilus, and zooplankton in a small lake: Prey dynamics and fish growth and recruitment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTIN CRYER; GRAEME PEIRSON; COLIN R. TOWNSEND

    1986-01-01

    Recruitment success of roach varied dramatically between 1979 and 1982 in Alderfen Broad, a small lake in eastern England. When fry were abundant (in 1979 and 198 1, but not in 1980 or 1982) the summer zooplankton became sparse and was dominated by copepods and rotifers. In years of good recruitment, as each of the preferred cladoceran prey species entered

  3. Quantification of the flow produced by zooplankton as they swim and feed yields insight into locomotion techniques,

    E-print Network

    1096 Quantification of the flow produced by zooplankton as they swim and feed yields insight strategies employed by zooplankton have been illuminated by considering the fluid mechanics involved. Fields mm, whereas the opposite is true for larger copepods. Further, quantification of zooplankton

  4. Avoidance of towed nets by zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ABRAHAM FLEMINGER; ROBERT I. CLUTTER

    1965-01-01

    Expcrimcnts wcrc condnctcd to dctcrminc the effect of behavior on the accuracy oE sampling populations composed of several spccics of marine copepods and mysids held in a large, cncloscd scawnter pool. Plankton nets having mouth arcas of 1,600, 800, and 400 cm\\

  5. Spatial and temporal effects of salinity, temperature and chlorophyll on the communities of zooplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.L.; Vidal, J.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses of 402 samples collected from late March through early June 1980 have shown that the two communities of zooplankton over the southeastern shelf of the Bering Sea are kept separate spatially by the lack of advection and frontal characteristics of the salinity distributions. The abundance of copepods over the middle shelf, between 50 and 100 m isobaths approximately, was highly correlated with seasonal warming of the surface layer, while abundances of copepods over the outer shelf and slope were not. The spring bloom of phytoplankton influenced abundances over the middle shelf more profoundly than the outer shelf; of the twelve taxa which composed most of the biomass of copepods over the middle shelf, eleven were significantly more abundant during the bloom than they were prior to the bloom. Over the outer shelf, only six of eighteen taxa were significantly more abundant during the bloom, and over the slope, three of eighteen. Differences in abundance of copepods between domains and among stations within each domain were greatest early in the study. During the study, stations of each domain became more similar in the abundance of their characteristic taxa. 43 references, 18 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Multiple angle acoustic classification of zooplankton Paul L. D. Robertsa

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    Multiple angle acoustic classification of zooplankton Paul L. D. Robertsa and Jules S. Jaffe Marine of multiple angle acoustic scatter to discriminate between two taxa of fluid-like zooplankton, copepods of fluid-like zooplankton using simple observation geometries. © 2007 Acoustical Society of America. DOI

  7. Empirical analysis of zooplankton filtering and feeding rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT HENRY PETERS; JOHN A. DOWNING

    1984-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis of published zooplankton filtering and feeding rates yielded separate regression equations for cladocerans, marine Calanoid copepods, and all zooplankton. Ingestion rate was found to increase significantly with animal size, food concentration, and temperature. Filtering rate also increased with animal size and temperature, but declined as food concentration increased. The analysis suggests a difference in particle size preference

  8. Effects of age and food availability on diel vertical migration of Calanus pacificus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Huntley; E. R. Brooks

    1982-01-01

    Age-specific differences in diel vertical migration behavior of Calanus pacificus were investigated in a 58 d (30 April–26 June, 1981) experiment in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Deep Tank, La Jolla, California, USA; the experiment spanned three successive generations of copepods. The onset of vertical migration behavior occurred in the first feeding stage, Nauplius III. The amplitude of vertical migration

  9. Selenium in San Francisco Bay zooplankton: Potential effects of hydrodynamics and food web interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purkerson, D.G.; Doblin, M.A.; Bollens, S.M.; Luoma, S.N.; Cutter, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The potential toxicity of elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in aquatic ecosystems has stimulated efforts to measure Se concentrations in benthos, nekton, and waterfowl in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay). In September 1998, we initiated a 14 mo field study to determine the concentration of Se in SF Bay zooplankton, which play a major role in the Bay food web, but which have not previously been studied with respect to Se. Monthly vertical plankton tows were collected at several stations throughout SF Bay, and zooplankton were separated into two operationally defined size classes for Se analyses: 73-2,000 ??m, and ???2,000 ??m. Selenium values ranged 1.02-6.07 ??g Se g-1 dry weight. No spatial differences in zooplankton Se concentrations were found. However, there were inter- and intra-annual differences. Zooplankton Se concentrations were enriched in the North Bay in Fall 1999 when compared to other seasons and locations within and outside SF Bay. The abundance and biovolume of the zooplankton community varied spatially between stations, but not seasonally within each station. Smaller herbivorous-omnivorous zooplankton had higher Se concentrations than larger omnivorous-carnivorous zooplankton. Selenium concentrations in zooplankton were negatively correlated with the proportion of total copepod biovolume comprising the large carnivorous copepod Tortanus dextrilobatus, but positively correlated with the proportion of copepod biovolume comprising smaller copepods of the family Oithonidae, suggesting an important role of trophic level and size in regulating zooplankton Se concentrations.

  10. Neither with nor without you: A complex algal control on bacterioplankton in a high mountain lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Manuel Medina-Sánchez; Manuel Villar-Argaiz; Presentación Carrillo

    2004-01-01

    The literature proposes that the microbial loop is a key link for ecosystem functioning, particularly in oligotrophic conditions. From original and published data for a period spanning 1986 to 1999, we examined the food web structure of a clear-water, oligotrophic, high mountain lake. The heterotrophic microbial food web was weakly developed in a grazing food chain dominated by copepods and

  11. Planktonic Crustacean Assemblages in a System of Three Reservoirs in the Mexican Central Plateau: Seasonal and Spatial Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco A. Ramírez-Olvera; Magdalena Díaz-Argüero; Eugenia López-López

    2004-01-01

    Planktonic crustacean assemblages were examined monthly for one year in a system of three reservoirs in the Mexican Central Plateau (Rio Grande de Morelia)—Lorna Caliente, Umécuaro and Cointzio. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, transparency, nitrites, nitrates, total phosphorus, iron, hardness, turbidity, and suspended solids were quantified. Fourteen species of planktonic crustaceans were observed, including four copepods and ten cladocerans; major

  12. Ecotoxicological effects of brine discharge on marine community by seawater desalination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Jin Yoon; Gyung Soo Park

    2011-01-01

    To determine ecotoxicological effects of brine discharge from the desalination plant and the potential tolerance impact associated with various marine communities, marine ecotoxicological assessment was carried out using four phytoplankton species (Skeletonema coastatum, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis suecica and Isochrysis galbana) and macroalgae (Ulva pertusa) as primary producer, and two zooplankton species (neonate for rotifer Brachinonus plicatilis, adult of harpacticoid copepod

  13. Plasma concentrations of emamectin benzoate after Slice™ treatments of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar): Differences between fish, cages, sites and seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Grethe T. Berg; Tor E. Horsberg

    2009-01-01

    Infestations with the marine copepods Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus are unavoidable in Norwegian net-pen based salmonid production and a major cause of economic loss and reduced animal welfare. Treatments are mainly performed with pyrethroids and the avermectin emamectin benzoate (Slice™). In this study, plasma concentrations of emamectin benzoate (EB) in salmon receiving standard, oral Slice™ treatments were studied in

  14. The role of the generally unrecognised microprey source as food for larval fish in the Irish Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela M. de Figueiredo; Richard D. M. Nash; David J. S. Montagnes

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have studied the food supply to larval fish in the Irish Sea; thus, we have assessed the full prey-field available to larval fish, ranging from protozoa to copepods. Specifically we assessed if fish larvae feed on protozoa, as suggested by others, and if densities of the protozoa and the appropriate size of metazoan prey were previously underestimated. By

  15. Discrimination by freshwater zooplankton between single algal cells differing in nutritional status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy M. Butler; Curtis A. Suttle; William E. Neill

    1989-01-01

    Grazing rates of a freshwater copepod (Diaptomus kenai) and a freshwater cladoceran (Daphnia rosea) on the green alga Selenastrum minutum were determined to be dependent on the nutritional status of individual cells. Cells that were less nitrogen limited were ingested at a greater rate than cells reared under more nitrogen limited conditions. Diaptomus displayed active discrimination, possibly via chemodetection, while

  16. Relationship of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) gill raker characteristics to retention probabilities of zooplankton prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Jason; Hoff, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    We measured morphometric and meristic parameters of gill rakers from the first gill arch of 36 adult lake herring (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior that ranged in length from 283-504 mm. These data, coupled with the mean of the smallest two body dimensions (length, width, or breadth) of various zooplankton prey, allowed us to calculate retention probabilities for zooplankton taxa that are common in Lake Superior. The mean of the smallest two body dimensions was positively correlated with body length for cladocerans and copepods. The large cladoceran, Daphnia g. mendotae, is estimated to be retained at a greater probability (74%) than smaller cladocerans (18-38%). The same is true for the large copepod, Limnocalanus macrurus (60%), when compared to smaller copepods (6-38%). Copepods have a lower probability of being retained than cladocerans of similar length. Lake herring gill rakers and total filtering area are also positively correlated with fish total length. These data provide further evidence that lake herring are primarily planktivores in Lake Superior, and our data show that lake herring can retain a broad range of prey sizes.

  17. SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY IN FRESHWATER ZOOPLANKTON: VARIATION WITH BODY SIZE, DEPTH, AND SCALE1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernadette Pinel-Alloul; John A. Downing; Martin Perusse; Gabriella Codin-Blumer

    1988-01-01

    The effects ofbody size, depth, and sampling scale on spatial heterogeneity were examined in the zooplankton community of a small lake. Analyses were performed by regression analysis of 27 sets (3 scales x 3 depths x 3 dates) ofreplicate (« = 4) samples of the natural zooplankton (cladocerans, copepods, rotifers) community ofLake Cromwell, Quebec, Canada. Spatial heterogeneity was measured as

  18. NEW SUPERFAMILY OF CALANOIDA (COPEPODA) FROM AN ANCHIALINE CAVE IN THE BAHAMAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Sua; T. M. Iliffe

    A new calanoid copepod, Fosshagenia ferrarii, new genus, new species, was found in plank- ton samples collected in an anchialine cave of Caicos Islands, Bahamas. A combination of features found in this species separates it as the type of a new superfarnily. The new taxon can be distinguished by a combination of several relevant taxonomic characteristics, such as the fusion

  19. Reproductive strategies and energetic adaptations of polar zooplankton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILHELM HAGEN

    1999-01-01

    Key factors governing polar ocean ecosystems are low temperatures and a pronounced seasonal variability of ice cover, light regime and primary production. Depending on their ecological niche and trophic position, zooplankton species at high latitudes have developed a variety of reproductive strategies and energetic adaptations to cope with these extreme environmental conditions. Life-cycle strategies of the herbivorous copepods and euphausiids,

  20. Synchronous ecological regime shifts in the central Baltic and the North Sea in the late 1980s

    E-print Network

    Mohrholz, Volker

    decreased in the CBS. Key copepod species that are essential in fish diets experienced pronounced changes systems increased and the growing season was extended. The composition of phyto- and zooplankton fish species: North Sea cod declined, cod in the CBS remained at low levels, and CBS sprat reached

  1. Early-to late-summer population growth and prey consumption by age-0 pollock (Theragra chalcogramma),

    E-print Network

    that the trend to adult cohort strength was already set by August. Diet composition analyses revealed that age-0 by August, with high concen- trations of copepods available for smaller fish to con- sume, and high INTRODUCTION Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) is a major commercial fish species, and a key component

  2. FOOD HABITS AND DIETARY OVERLAP OF SOME SHELF ROCKFISHES (GENUS SEBASTES) FROM

    E-print Network

    , had a more restricted diet comprised mostly ofeuphausiids. The numerical composition ofprey. Copepods. decapods. cephalo- pods. amphipods. fishes. and other pelagic prey were also consumed but were less important to the overall diet. Two species. S. {lavidus and S. diploproa. were relatively

  3. [The developmental cycle of Proteocephalus thymalli (Cestoda, Proteocephalidae)--a parasite of the Arctic grayling from Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Rusinek, O T

    1989-01-01

    The life cycle of Proteocephalus thymalli (Cestoda, Proteocephalidae), a parasite of Siberian glame (Thymallus arcticus), was repeated under experimental conditions. The first intermediate hosts, the copepods Epischura baicalensis, Cyclops kolensis and C. vicinus, were determined. The developmental time of P. thymalli in the first intermediate host was determined and the morphology of the larval and adult phases was described. PMID:2616201

  4. MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser

    E-print Network

    and if ocean temperatures rise in the future, we predict an increase in the frequency of trophic mismatch events in the northeast Pacific Ocean. KEY WORDS: Copepod availability · Ocean temperature · Match Published October 30 INTRODUCTION Reports of ocean climate change on upper trophic level predator (e

  5. Chemical cues induce consumer-specific defenses in a bloom-forming marine phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jeremy D.; Smalley, Gabriela W.; Barsby, Todd; Anderson, Jon T.; Hay, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Blooms of the phytoplankton Phaeocystis can comprise 85% of total production and generate major biogeochemical signals across broad oceanic regions. The success of Phaeocystis may result from its ability to change size by many orders of magnitude when it shifts from small cells of 4–6 ?m to large colonies of up to 30,000 ?m in diameter. Single cells are consumed by ciliates but not copepods, whereas colonies are consumed by copepods but not ciliates. We demonstrate that chemical cues associated with each of these grazers induce consumer-specific, but opposing, morphological transformations in the bloom-forming species Phaeocystis globosa. Chemical cues from grazing copepods suppress colony formation by a significant 60–90%, a response that should be adaptive because copepods feed four times more on colonies versus solitary cells. In contrast, chemical cues from grazing ciliates enhance colony formation by >25%, a response that should be adaptive because ciliates grow three times faster when fed solitary cells versus colonies. Because size-selective predation fundamentally alters community structure and ecosystem function, this chemically cued shift may redirect energy and nutrients from food webs supporting fisheries to those fueling detrital pathways, thus potentially altering ecosystem-level processes such as productivity, carbon storage, and nutrient release. PMID:17563379

  6. Voracious planktonic hydroids: unexpected predatory impact on a coastal marine ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence P. Madin; Stephen M. Bollens; Erich Horgan; Mari Butler; Jeffrey Runge; Barbara K. Sullivan; Grace Klein-Macphee; Edward Durbin; Ann G. Durbin; Donna Van Keuren; Stéphane Plourde; Ann Bucklin; M. Elizabeth Clarke

    1996-01-01

    Hydroids are typically attached, benthic cnidarians that feed on a variety of small prey. During sampling on Georges Bank in spring 1994, we found huge numbers of hydroids suspended in the plankton. They fed on young stages of copepods that are an important prey for fish, as well as on young fish themselves. Two independent methods were used to estimate

  7. Ecological overlap between macrourids in the western mediterranean sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Macpherson

    1979-01-01

    Stomachs from over 323 specimens of Hymenocephalus italicus, 168 Nezumia aequalis, 160 Coelorhynchus coelorhynchus and 1670 Trachyrhynchus trachyrhynchus were collected from September 1976 to September 1978 from the West Mediterranean continental slope at depths between 200 and 800 m. Copepods, amphipods and other pelagic crustanceans form the main fraction of the diet of H. italicus. The diets of N. aequalis

  8. Genomic resources notes accepted 1 October 2014-30 November 2014.

    PubMed

    Baratti, Mariella; Cattonaro, Federica; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Galassi, Diana Maria Paola; Iannilli, Valentina; Iannucci, Alessio; Jensen, Just; Larsen, Peter Foged; Nielsen, Rasmus O; Pertoldi, Cino; Postolache, Dragos; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Randi, Ettore; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the public availability of (i) RAD sequencing data and validated SNPs for the American mink Neovison vison and (ii) Transcriptome resources for two nonmodel freshwater crustacean species, the copepod Eucyclops serrulatus and the amphipod Echinogammarus veneris. PMID:25677171

  9. The relation between the feeding activity of wintering shovelers (Anas clypeata) and the horizontal distribution of zooplankton in Lake Teganuma, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Matsubara; Fumio Sugimori; Kiyoshi Iwabuchi; Kanji Aoyama

    1994-01-01

    We investigated seasonal changes in the number and feeding activity of Shovelers wintering in Lake Teganuma in connection with temporal and horizontal fluctuations of zooplankton, and analyzed esophageal contents of a captured Shoveler. Zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers followed by copepods during the study period. Horizontal distribution of both invertebrate taxa differed; rotifers most abundant in the western and

  10. Sediment nickel bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine crustaceans of contrasting bioturbative behaviors--an evaluation of the SEM-AVS paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chandler, G Thomas; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; He, Lijian; Washburn, Katherine M; Stewart, Emily R; Ferry, John L

    2014-11-01

    Robust sediment quality criteria require chemistry and toxicity data predictive of concentrations where population/community response should occur under known geochemical conditions. Understanding kinetic and geochemical effects on toxicant bioavailability is key, and these are influenced by infaunal sediment bioturbation. This study used fine-scale sediment and porewater measurement of contrasting infaunal effects on carbon-normalized SEM-AVS to evaluate safe or potentially toxic nickel concentrations in a high-binding Spartina saltmarsh sediment (4%TOC; 35-45 ?mol-S2-·g(-1)). Two crustaceans producing sharply contrasting bioturbation--the copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis and amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus--were cultured in oxic to anoxic sediments with SEM[Ni]-AVS, TOC, porewater [Ni], and porewater DOC measured weekly. From 180 to 750 ?g-Ni·g(-1) sediment, amphipod bioturbation reduced [AVS] and enhanced porewater [Ni]. Significant amphipod uptake, mortality, and growth-depression occurred at the higher sediment [Ni] even when [SEM-AVS]/foc suggested acceptable risk. Less bioturbative copepods produced higher AVS and porewater DOC but exhibited net population growth despite porewater [Ni] 1.3-1.7× their aqueous [Ni] LOEC. Copepod aqueous tests with/without dissolved organic matter showed significant aqueous DOC protection, which suggests porewater DOC attenuates sediment Ni toxicity. The SEM[Ni]-AVS relationship was predictive of acceptable risk for copepods at the important population-growth level. PMID:25313978

  11. Molecular cloning of trypsin cDNAs and trypsin gene expression in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Johnson; K. Ewart; J. Osborne; D. Delage; N. Ross; H. Murray

    2002-01-01

    The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is a marine ectoparasitic copepod that infects salmonid fishes. We are studying the interactions between this parasite and its salmonid hosts, as it is a common cause of disease in both wild and farmed stocks of salmon. In this paper, we report on the cloning and sequencing of seven trypsin-like enzymes from a cDNA library

  12. Zoologica Scripta, Vol. 27, No.1,pp, 1-15, 1998 Elsevier ScienceLtd

    E-print Network

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    in Belize RONY HUYS and THOMAS M. ILIFFE Accepted 7 August 1997 Huys, R. & Iliffe, T. M. 1998. Novocriniidae, a new family of harpacticoid copepods from anchihalinecavesin Belize.-Zool. Scr. 27: 1-15. A new family and Columbus Caye Blue Hole, on the Belize Barrier Reef. The Novocriniidaefam. n.is proposedto accommodate

  13. The freshwater microcrustacea of Easter Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri J. Dumont; Koen Martens

    1996-01-01

    The ‘Cladocera’, Copepod and Ostracod fauna of Easter Island amounts to only five species. Three of these are wide-ranging, and four are cyclic parthenogens or at least capable of parthenogenesis. Two, the Cladoceran Alona weinecki and the Ostracod Sarscypridopsis sp., are more interesting from a biogeographic point of view, because restricted (apart from Easter Island) to the subantarctic. It is

  14. Publications --Christian Winter J O U R NA L S ( P E E R -R E V I E W E D )

    E-print Network

    Winter, Christian

    distance on Bacteria, Archaea, and viruses in sub-polar and arctic waters. ISME J. 7:1507­1518. 24 and heterogeneity on metacommunity structure of planktonic bacteria and viruses. ISME J. 7:533­542. 23.Winter, C., J. Suttle, J. B. Shurin. 2011. Contrasting ecosystem effects of morphologically similar copepods. PLoS ONE 6

  15. Factors Influencing the Seasonal Phenology and Composition of Zooplankton Communities in Mountain Temporary Pools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Tavernini; Graziella Mura; Giampaolo Rossetti

    2005-01-01

    In 2001 nine temporary pools of the northern Apennines (Italy) were visited on 13 occasions during the ice-free season (May to October). The aims of this research were to define the relationships between hydroperiod and other environmental variables and the zooplankton. In total, 49 zooplankton taxa were identified: 36 rotifers, 5 cladocerans, 6 copepods and 2 anostracans. Our results indicate

  16. Feeding ecology of three species of midwater fishes associated with the continental slope of eastern Tasmania, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Young; S. J. M. Blaber

    1986-01-01

    The feeding ecology of Maurolicus muelleri, Lampanyctodes hectoris and Diaphus danae was examined from samples collected from continental slope waters of eastern Tasmania between April 1984 and April 1985. A total of 2 232 stomachs was analysed. M. muelleri, L. hectoris and D. danae fed primarily on euphausiids and secondarily on copepods, although larger D. danae (> 60 mm standard

  17. Malnutrition may affect common sole (Solea solea L.) growth, pigmentation and stress response: molecular, biochemical and histological implications.

    PubMed

    Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Ricci, Licia Aida; Tokle, Nils; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Pascoli, Francesco; Cossignani, Lina; Palermo, Francesco; Mosconi, Gilberto; Nozzi, Valentina; Raccanello, Francesco; Olivotto, Ike

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades there have been several evidences that traditionally used live preys like rotifers and Artemia salina have nutritional deficiencies that result in a general decrease of fish health, causing anomalies in the development, in growth and in pigmentation. In this study a partial of total replacement of traditional live preys with preserved copepods that represent the natural food of the larvae was evaluated during Solea solea culture. In this study a positive effect of co-feeding preserved copepods in sole larviculture was observed since larvae fed this diet growth and survived better, showed a better tolerance to captive conditions and had a better response to the final thermal/density stress-test with respect to larvae fed a traditional diet. Morphometric data were fully supported by molecular and biochemical ones. Moreover, liver histological investigations, revealed that the inclusion of preserved copepods in the larval diet was able to improve lipid assimilation. In conclusion, preserved copepods may be considered a suitable food for sole when used as a supplement to the traditional diet based on rotifers and Artemia nauplii. PMID:22227313

  18. Program Director/Principal Investigator (Last, First, Middle): Kohn, Michael Hans PHS 398/2590 (Rev. 11/07) Page 1 Biographical Sketch Format Page

    E-print Network

    Kohn, Michael

    of freshwater parasitic copepods in the Ergasilidae (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) based on 18S and 28S rDNA Palombi, 1949 as inferred from ITS- 2 rDNA sequences. Parasitology. 14, 1-9. 7. Chang M. X., Nie P., Liu G and transcription of IRF-1 and IRF-7 in the mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 116, 26

  19. Occurrence of Clavellisa ilishae (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) parasitizing herrings (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Juliana; Paschoal, Fabiano; Cezar, Anderson Dias; Luque, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    The lernaeopodids are highly specialized copepods which are widely distributed worldwide. In this paper the first record of Clavellisa ilishae Pillai, 1962 in the Neotropical region is documented parasitizing Sardinella brasiliensis from coastal zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. PMID:24473893

  20. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION OF MOSQUITO PARASTIC MICROSPORIDIA (MICROSPORIDIA: AMBLYOSPORIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amblyospora and related species were isolated from mosquitoes, black flies and copepods and the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene was sequenced. The comparative phylogenetic analysis for this study shows co-evolution agreement between the mosquito host genera and Amblyospora parasite species with a ...

  1. Population differences in the timing of diapause: adaptation in a spatially heterogeneous environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson G. Hairston; Emily J. Olds

    1984-01-01

    Populations of the planktonic copepod, Diaptomus sanguineus, live in permanent and temporary freshwater ponds in Rhode Island. All ponds in which they occur become uninhabitable at some time during the year, but the nature and timing of the harsh period varies both spatially and temporally. Females produce discrete clutches either of subitaneous eggs which hatch immediately or of diapausing eggs

  2. Studies on the fine structure of the cuticle of Porcellidium , crustacea Copepoda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Bouligand

    1975-01-01

    Two species of Porcellidium have been studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy: P. viride from Banyuls-sur-mer, Mediterranian Sea and P. fimbriatum from Roscoff, English Channel. Both species live on green Algae of the genus Ulva. We confirmed previous descriptions of the cuticular ultrastructure in the main groups of Copepods.

  3. Z .Journal of Marine Systems 25 2000 2331 www.elsevier.nlrlocaterjmarsys

    E-print Network

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    that in the Central Baltic Sea the interannual variability during spring of zooplankton species such as Acartia spp of zooplankton generally follows changes in salinity with neritic copepod species favoured by higher salinity while freshwater groups Zshow the opposite Segerstrale, 1969; Vuorinen and° Ranta, 1987, 1988; Vuorinen

  4. Ecology, 88(8), 2007, pp. 19321939 2007 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-print Network

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    and in temperate Sweden, we show for the first time that, among freshwater crustacean zooplankton, the defense THREATS IN ZOOPLANKTON: A COCKTAIL OF BEHAVIOR AND PROTECTIVE PIGMENTATION LARS-ANDERS HANSSON,1,3 SAMUEL escape mechanisms function as complementary traits. Freshwater copepods relied mainly on accumulating

  5. An International Journal of Ecology, Evolution and Environment

    E-print Network

    Williams, Ernest H.

    . INTRODUCTION Responses of freshwater communities to the effects of vertebrate and invertebrate predators can, and copepods (Elser et al., 1987; Luecke, 1988) and exerting varying effects on different zooplankton species) and predaceous on crustacean zooplankton (Anderson, 1967; Williams, 1980). Large diaptomids like these exert

  6. Introduction Cladocerans, especially large taxa like Daphnia, are

    E-print Network

    Hambright, K. David

    fixation: synergisms in the feeding ecology of two freshwater crustaceans K. D. Hambright1, *, N. G such synergistic effects, freshwater systems dominated by copepods would be expected to be more vulnerable 1984). The study of zooplankton grazing impacts on phy- toplankton has been a central focus

  7. Any correspondence concerning this service should be sent to the repository administrator: staff-oatao@inp-toulouse.fr

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    freshwater zooplankton species tend to dominate the zooplankton community. In spring and early summer 2003 studies have dealt with zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton in the upper estuarine reaches, where the zooplankton community is usually dominated by marine calanoid copepods (e.g. Castel and Veiga,1990; Soetaert

  8. Ocean Sci., 2, 8796, 2006 www.ocean-sci.net/2/87/2006/

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    role of copepods in the marine food web and its potential sensitivity to changes in the physical (Heath et al., 2004; Irigoien, 2004). At higher latitudes Calanus typically enters a state of dia- pause corresponds to the upper parts of Norwegian Sea deep water,

  9. Invasive Species: Implications for Habitat Restoration and Effects on Salmonids

    E-print Network

    of biodiversity and ecosystem resilience Food web alteration Hybridization #12;Paracalanus sp. Acartiura spp. E. Hydrobiologia 480: 87110 #12;Hypothesized Changes in Estuarine Food Webs Pelagic Food Web (preinvasion) BenthoPelagic Food Web (postinvasion) Native copepods migration juvenile salmon sculp

  10. Spatial characterization of nutrient dynamics in the Bay of Tunis (south-western Mediterranean) using multivariate analyses: consequences for phyto- and zooplankton distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Souissi; O. Daly Yahia-Kéfi; M. N. Daly Yahia

    2000-01-01

    The hydrological structure and nutrient dynamics of the Bay of Tunis (south-western Mediterranean), and the abundance of its principal plankton groups (diatoms, dinoflagellates, tintinids, rotifers, appendicularians, copepods, medusae, siphonophores, chaetognaths and cladocer- ans), were studied over 2 years. Despite the small size of the Bay (361 km2), the nutrient concentra- tions varied greatly between the sampling stations. We distinguished spatial

  11. A comparative study of diet in three sympatric populations of Patagonotothen species (Pisces: Nototheniidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir V. Laptikhovsky

    2004-01-01

    The diet of three Patagonotothen species was investigated from the bycatch of near-bottom trawls for squid on the southern Falkland Island shelf. Patagonotothen ramsayi had a moderately diverse diet that was mostly zooplankton, especially amphipods, but included benthos and discards from the fishery, especially squid. P. guntheri also had a moderately diverse zooplankton diet, especially copepods, and benthos and squid

  12. Zooplankton of Lake Titicaca on the Bolivian side

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masuzo Uéno

    1967-01-01

    The zooplankton, especially the Cladocera and the Copepoda, of Lake Titicaca on the Bolivian side is reported on the basis of a collection made in April 1961. The zooplankton at that time was sparse, consisting only of seven species. Boeckella titicacaeHarding is the dominant copepod and B. occidentalisMarsh is also abundant, as in the previous records obtained by the Percy

  13. UNH Center for Freshwater Biology Research 1 (4): 45-56 (1999) Microcystins in components of twelve New Hampshire lakes

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    1999-01-01

    for Fresh Water Biology, Spaulding Hall, Durham, NH 03824. Copies can also be downloaded at the UNH Center) and omnivorous copepod components of the zooplankton were separated and assayed independently for MCs by zooplankton directly correlated with lakewater and net phytoplankton MC concentrations. The highest levels

  14. Factors influencing physical structure and lower trophic levels of the eastern Bering Sea shelf in 2005: Sea ice, tides and winds

    E-print Network

    isobath. In May, shelf waters between $59°N and 62°N were cold and relatively fresh, and benthic to the south the water was warmer, saltier, and the zooplankton community was dominated by copepods Available online 17 March 2010 Keywords: Bering Sea Ocean temperature Zooplankton Nutrients Advection

  15. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 58: 569578. 2001 doi:10.1006/jmsc.2001.1048, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    changes in salinity, with neritic copepod species favouring higher salinity while fresh- water groups show, and the zooplankton in Californian coastal waters (Roemmich and McGowan, 1995), were caused by climatological factors at http://www.idealibrary.com on The influence of climate variability on zooplankton abundance

  16. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF LIFE HISTORY TRAITS IN POPULATIONS OF MESOCYCLOPS EDAX (CRUSTACEA: COPEPODA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GRACE A. WYNGAARD

    1986-01-01

    Differences in maturation time, body size and clutch size among populations of the freshwater copepod Mesocyc!ops edax inhabiting lakes of different seasonalities (Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, and Douglas Lake, Michigan) were maintained through two generations under common laboratory conditions. In most cases, Florida mdi viduals matured more rapidly and had larger body sizes and clutch sizes than Michigan individuals over a

  17. Predator-prey behavior and its effect on rotifer survival in associations of Mesocyclops edax, Asplanchna girodi, Polyarthra vulgaris, and Keratella cochlearis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Gilbert; Craig E. Williamson

    1978-01-01

    The predatory copepod Mesocyclops edax preys effectively on the rotifers Asplanchna girodi and Polyarthra vulgaris but not on the rotifer Keratella cochlearis. It readily captures individuals of this latter species but usually releases them unharmed, being unable to remove the soft parts within their loricae. The predatory A. girodi regularly eats K. cochlearis but cannot catch P. vulgaris. When P.

  18. Reciprocal transfer study of north temperate and subtropical populations of Mesocyclops edax (Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace A Wyngaard

    1998-01-01

    The examination of local and geographically based life history variation is one approach to examine how different selective forces may have molded life histories. Michigan and Florida populations of the warm-water copepod Mesocyclops edax exhibit genetically based differences in maturation time, body size, clutch size, and egg volume as determined by common rearing experiments in the laboratory. Florida females mature

  19. Diel and lateral patterns of zooplankton distribution in the St. Lawrence River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew F. Casper; James H. Thorp

    2007-01-01

    While the four-dimensional nature of river ecosystems has been recognized for nearly two decades, the role of lateral complexity has rarely been factored into studies of zooplankton ecology. We examined the importance of hydrologic retention areas (slackwaters) near islands and embayments of the St. Lawrence River for densities, fecundity, and diel migration of planktonic microcrustaceans. Densities of cladocera and copepods

  20. An Evaluation of the Effect of Treatments for Pond Water Reuse on Zooplankton Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel A. Frimpong; Steve E. Lochmann

    2006-01-01

    Reuse of pond water is becoming more common in the culture of baitfish and hybrid striped bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis). Water conservation is important because of declining aquifer levels and increasing demand for groundwater. One challenge to this practice is the presence of predaceous copepods in pond water held from previous production