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Sample records for cylinder diesel engine

  1. Cavitation modeling and diesel engine cylinder liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandekar, Gautam; Pardue, Sally

    2003-10-01

    A common occurrence of cavitation damage is the waterside pitting of a wet sleeve liner in a diesel engine. The automotive industry utilizes an ultrasonic test of 20 kHz according to ASTM standards to quantify the effectiveness of engine coolant additives to prevent damage. However, recent tests indicate a mismatch between the ultrasonic test results and actual engine test runs. The focus of this study is to generate numerical models of bubble dynamics using already published literature. In most of the published papers higher-range frequencies (ultrasonic >15 kHz) are used. It is useful to explore the results of lower excitation frequencies as the vibrating frequencies of a diesel engine liner are between 500-9000 Hz. A Rayleigh-Plesset equation, nonlinear in nature, is used to plot the relation between bubble radius and time. Plots of the numerical solution from MATLAB are compared with plots published in the literature. Results from when the frequency of excitation is changed to the liner wall frequency and the fluid properties are changed to approximate engine conditions will be presented. Future work will examine the energy released by the bubble collapse and its correlation with erosion measured as mass change in a standard test button.

  2. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  3. Diesel fuel sulfur and cylinder liner wear of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.K.J.; Busenthuer, B.B.; Hardenberg, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    Cylinder liner wear of a heavy-duty diesel engine was measured by means of radionuclide technology to identify the combined effects of diesel fuel sulfur and coolant temperature under engine operating conditions. Higher cylinder liner wear results from increasing load and decreasing engine speed. At low cooling temperatures, i.e, during engine cold start and warm-up, any reduction of the sulfur content leads to substantially reduced wear. At normal operational coolant temperatures, however, the effect of sulfur is extremely small. At higher than normal operating temperatures, diesel fuels with very low sulfur content, e.g. 0.05%, lead to increased wear, when compared with those of usual sulfur levels of 0.3 to 0.5%.

  4. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  5. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Kokjohn, Sage; Reitz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  6. Detection of cylinder unbalance from Bayesian inference combining cylinder pressure and vibration block measurement in a Diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Emmanuel; Antoni, Jerome; Grondin, Olivier

    2009-12-01

    In the automotive industry, the necessary reduction of pollutant emission for new Diesel engines requires the control of combustion events. This control is efficient provided combustion parameters such as combustion occurrence and combustion energy are relevant. Combustion parameters are traditionally measured from cylinder pressure sensors. However this kind of sensor is expensive and has a limited lifetime. Thus this paper proposes to use only one cylinder pressure on a multi-cylinder engine and to extract combustion parameters from the other cylinders with low cost knock sensors. Knock sensors measure the vibration circulating on the engine block, hence they do not all contain the information on the combustion processes, but they are also contaminated by other mechanical noises that disorder the signal. The question is how to combine the information coming from one cylinder pressure and knock sensors to obtain the most relevant combustion parameters in all engine cylinders. In this paper, the issue is addressed trough the Bayesian inference formalism. In that cylinder where a cylinder pressure sensor is mounted, combustion parameters will be measured directly. In the other cylinders, they will be measured indirectly from Bayesian inference. Experimental results obtained on a four cylinder Diesel engine demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm toward that purpose.

  7. Development of Advanced In-Cylinder Components and Tribological Systems for Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.; Wiczynski, P. D.; Myers, M. R.; Anderson, D. D.; McDonald, A. C.; Weber, H. G.; Richardson, D. E.; Stafford, R. J.; Naylor, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    In-cylinder components and tribological system concepts were designed, fabricated and tested at conditions anticipated for a 55% thermal efficiency heavy duty diesel engine for the year 2000 and beyond. A Cummins L10 single cylinder research engine was used to evaluate a spherical joint piston and connecting rod with 19.3 MPa (2800 psi) peak cylinder pressure capability, a thermal fatigue resistant insulated cylinder head, radial combustion seal cylinder liners, a highly compliant steel top compression ring, a variable geometry turbocharger, and a microwave heated particulate trap. Components successfully demonstrated in the final test included spherical joint connecting rod with a fiber reinforced piston, high conformability steel top rings with wear resistant coatings, ceramic exhaust ports with strategic oil cooling and radial combustion seal cylinder liner with cooling jacket transfer fins. A Cummins 6B diesel was used to develop the analytical methods, materials, manufacturing technology and engine components for lighter weight diesel engines without sacrificing performance or durability. A 6B diesel engine was built and tested to calibrate analytical models for the aluminum cylinder head and aluminum block.

  8. PIV measurements of coolant flow field in a diesel engine cylinder head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhenyang; Xue, Cheng; Huang, Yunlong

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents experimental measurements of coolant flow field in the water jacket of a diesel engine cylinder head. The test was conducted at three different flow rates using a 2-D PIV system. Appropriate tracing particles were selected and delivery device was designed and manufactured before the test. The flow parameters, such as velocity, vorticity and turbulence, were used to analyze the flow field. The effects of vortex which was located between the intake valve and the exhaust valve were discussed. The experimental results showed an asymmetric distribution of velocity in the water jacket. This led to an asymmetric thermal distribution, which would shorten the service life of the cylinder head. The structure optimization to the water jacket of cylinder head was proposed in this paper. The experimental system, especially the 2-D PIV system, is a great help to study the coolant flow structure and analyze cooling mechanism in the diesel engine cylinder head.

  9. An In-Cylinder Study of Soot and NO in a DI Diesel Engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litzinger, T.A.

    1995-10-18

    Clearly the reduction of NOx and particulate emissions remains a major challenge to Diesel engine manufacturers due to increasingly stringent emission standards in the US and other countries. The well documented NOx/particulate trade-off observed in Diesel engines makes the simultaneous reduction of both emissions particularly difficult for manufacturers to achieve. In an effort to provide an improved understanding of the fundamental processes which result in this trade-off, a program was carried out at Penn State to develop the appropriate engine facilities and laser diagnostics to permit in-cylinder studies of Diesel combustion and emissions production with the support of the Department of Energy Advanced Industrial Technology Division . This work has also been supported by the Cummins Engine Company, Lubrizol Corporation and the National Science Foundation. An optically accessible, direct injection, Diesel engine was constructed for these studies. The major objective of the, design of the engine was to maximize optical access under conditions representative of Diesel engine combustion in small bore, commercial engines. Intake air is preheated and boosted in pressure to make the in-cylinder conditions of heat release and pressure as realistic as possible. Another important objective of the design was flexibility in combustion chamber geometry to permit a variety of head and bowl geometries to be studied. In all the results reported in this report a square bowl was used to simplify the introduction of laser light sheets into the engine.

  10. Air mass flow estimation in turbocharged diesel engines from in-cylinder pressure measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Desantes, J.M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.

    2010-01-15

    Air mass flow determination is needed for the control of current internal combustion engines. Current methods are based on specific sensors (as hot wire anemometers) or indirect estimation through manifold pressure. With the availability of cylinder pressure sensors for engine control, methods based on them can be used for replacing or complementing standard methods. Present paper uses in cylinder pressure increase during the intake stroke for inferring the trapped air mass. The method is validated on two different turbocharged diesel engines and compared with the standard methods. (author)

  11. A severe single cylinder diesel engine test for European SHPD oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, M.; Pritchard, J.R.; Crawley, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a severe diesel engine test and its use as a tool for the evaluation of high performance lubricants. The test has been designed to screen oils prior to submission for expensive multi-cylinder evaluation and uses a tight top land piston. The paper continues earlier work reported during 1985 and describes the influence of liner finish and other hardware effects on test repeatability. The resulting ABINGDON 1-J engine test has been used in the development of diesel oils superior in performance to CCMC D2. Traditionally, European Super High Performance diesel oils have been of 15W40 viscosity grade, but engine manufacturers are showing increasing interest in lower viscosities. The ABINGDON 1-J test has been used to evaluate both 5W30 and 10W40 oils of Super High Performance diesel quality. Performance of both mineral and synthetic basestocks are considered.

  12. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Hanson, Reed M; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

  13. Metal nanoparticles in diesel exhaust derived by in-cylinder melting of detached engine fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liati, Anthi; Pandurangi, Sushant Sunil; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Schreiber, Daniel; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of environmental and health effects are linked to combustion-generated pollutants related to traffic. Nanoparticles, in particular, are a major concern for humans since they can be inhaled and have potentially toxic effects. The variability and sources of combustion-related nanoparticle pollutants remain inadequately investigated. Here we report the presence of ca. 5-100 nm large Fe3O4 nanoparticles, in form of agglomerates, in diesel exhaust. The mode of occurrence of these nanoparticles, in combination with their chemical composition matching that of steel indicate that they derive by melting of engine fragments in the combustion chamber and subsequent crystallization during cooling. To evaluate this hypothesis, we applied CFD simulations of material transport in the cylinder of a diesel engine, assuming detachment of steel fragments from various sites of the cylinder. The CFD results show that fragments ≤20 μm in size dislodged from the piston surface or from the fuel nozzle interior can be indeed transported to such hot areas of the combustion chamber where they can melt. The simulation results concur with the experimental observations and point out that metal nanoparticle formation by in-cylinder melting of engine fragments can occur in diesel engines. The present study proposes a hitherto neglected formation mechanism of metal nanoparticle emissions from internal combustion engines raising possible environmental and health concerns, especially in urban areas.

  14. Baseline performance and emissions data for a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezelick, R. A.; Mcfadden, J. J.; Ream, L. W.; Barrows, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive fuel consumption, mean effective cylinder pressure, and emission test results for a supercharged, single-cylinder, direct-injected, four-stroke-cycle, diesel test engine are documented. Inlet air-to-exhaust pressure ratios were varied from 1.25 to 3.35 in order to establish the potential effects of turbocharging techniques on engine performance. Inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted from 34 to 107 C and from 193 to 414 kPa to determine the effects on engine performance and emissions. Engine output ranged from 300 to 2100 kPa (brake mean effective pressure) in the speed range of 1000 to 3000 rpm. Gaseous and particulate emission rates were measured. Real-time values of engine friction and pumping loop losses were measured independently and compared with motored engine values.

  15. Lubricants effects on piston/rings/liner friction in an instrumented single cylinder diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, A.; Constans, B.; Perrin, H.; Roux, F.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive measurements of oil film temperature and mainly of friction losses have been performed on an instrumented single-cylinder diesel engine. To assess the behavior of Newtonian and non-Newtonian oils in the piston/rings/liner contact, several operating conditions (running-in, motoring and firing) have been investigated. An original data processing method is proposed to evaluate the share of boundary friction in piston assembly friction loss.

  16. PIV investigation of the intake flow in a parallel valves diesel engine cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredsson, P. Henrik; Rabault, Jean; Vernet, Julie A.; Lindgren, Björn

    2015-11-01

    The flow of air (gas) inside the cylinder of internal combustion engines prior to compression may have a large influence on the combustion process. The structure of the in-cylinder flow, which can be swirl or tumble dominated, is to a large extent controlled by the design of the intake ports. In this study the admission flow generated by a parallel valves diesel engine cylinder head was investigated in a steady flow test bench through planar and stereo PIV measurements in both the swirl and tumble planes. By combining several sets of measurements a full three-dimensional, three-component reconstruction of the mean flow field was made. The flow out of the valves has a radial jet character, making the air hit the cylinder wall before flowing down along the cylinder wall. This leads to the formation of a recirculation bubble in the tumble plane. In the swirl plane complex jet dominated structures are found just below the valves giving rise to a counter-rotating vortex pair, where the strongest vortex becomes predominant giving rise to a single coherent swirling structure away from the cylinder head. Variations of the location and strength of the swirling structure may give rise to cycle-to-cycle variations and its stability was analysed by tracking the vortex centre. Supported by SSF, Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research and Scania CV AB.

  17. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  18. Characterization of Thermal Spray Coatings for Cylinder Running Surfaces of Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Mareike; Fischer, Alfons

    2010-09-01

    Future demands of diesel engines are about low-friction and wear-resistant materials in order to increase the efficiency and achieve environmentally sound solutions. Thus, thermally sprayed Fe-base coatings are investigated for application as cylinder running surfaces in cast aluminum crankcases. They should allow the desired combination of structural, productional, and topographical properties required in Diesel engines. To understand the influence of the characteristic microstructures on the integrity of the composites the coatings have to be examined in laboratory tests in terms of different loading situations. Cavitation tests were carried out where the tribological stability of these coatings and their ability to resist high-frequency cyclic impact stresses are revealed. Composite samples (base material and coating) were investigated in terms of crack initiation in a scanning electron microscope with an in situ 3-point-bending test. The endurance under cyclic mechanical stresses was tested with a 4-point-bending stress controlled test.

  19. A methodology for combustion detection in diesel engines through in-cylinder pressure derivative signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luján, José M.; Bermúdez, Vicente; Guardiola, Carlos; Abbad, Ali

    2010-10-01

    In-cylinder pressure measurement has historically been used for off-line combustion diagnosis, but online application for real-time combustion control has become of great interest. This work considers low computing-cost methods for analysing the instant variation of the chamber pressure, directly obtained from the electric signal provided by a traditional piezoelectric sensor. Presented methods are based on the detection of sudden changes in the chamber pressure, which are amplified by the pressure derivative, and which are due to thermodynamic phenomena within the cylinder. Signal analysis tools both in time and in time-frequency domains are used for detecting the start of combustion, the end of combustion and the heat release peak. Results are compared with classical thermodynamic analysis and validated in several turbocharged diesel engines.

  20. Comparing in Cylinder Pressure Modelling of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled on Alternative Fuel Using Two Tabulated Chemistry Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ngayihi Abbe, Claude Valery; Nzengwa, Robert; Danwe, Raidandi

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents the comparative simulation of a diesel engine fuelled on diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel. Two models, based on tabulated chemistry, were implemented for the simulation purpose and results were compared with experimental data obtained from a single cylinder diesel engine. The first model is a single zone model based on the Krieger and Bormann combustion model while the second model is a two-zone model based on Olikara and Bormann combustion model. It was shown that both models can predict well the engine's in-cylinder pressure as well as its overall performances. The second model showed a better accuracy than the first, while the first model was easier to implement and faster to compute. It was found that the first method was better suited for real time engine control and monitoring while the second one was better suited for engine design and emission prediction. PMID:27379306

  1. Normalization and source separation of acoustic emission signals for condition monitoring and fault detection of multi-cylinder diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weiliang; Lin, Tian Ran; Tan, Andy C. C.

    2015-12-01

    A signal processing technique is presented in this paper to normalize and separate the source of non-linear acoustic emission (AE) signals of a multi-cylinder diesel engine for condition monitoring applications and fault detection. The normalization technique presented in the paper overcomes the long-existing non-linearity problem of AE sensors so that responses measured by different AE sensors can be quantitatively analysed and compared. A source separation algorithm is also developed in the paper to separate the mixture of the normalized AE signals produced by a multi-cylinder diesel engine by utilising the system parameters (i.e., wave attenuation constant and the arrival time delay) of AE wave propagation determined by a standard pencil lead break test on the engine cylinder head. It is shown that the source separation algorithm is able to separate the signal interference of adjacent cylinders from the monitored cylinder once the wave attenuation constant and the arrival time delay along the propagation path are known. The algorithm is particularly useful in the application of AE technique for condition monitoring of small-size diesel engines where signal interference from the neighbouring cylinders is strong.

  2. Measurement and analysis of angular velocity variations of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatović, Ž. M.; Štavljanin, M. S.; Tomić, M. V.; Knežević, D. M.; Biočanin, S. Lj.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the procedures for measuring and analyzing the angular velocity variation of twelve-cylinder diesel engine crankshaft on its free end and on the power-output end. In addition, the paper deals with important aspects of the measurement of crankshaft torsional oscillations. The method is based on digital encoders placed at two distances, and one of them is a sensor not inserted directly on the shaft, i.e. a non-contact method with a toothed disc is used. The principle based on toothed disc is also used to measure the actual camshaft angular velocity of in-line compact high-pressure pump the engine is equipped with, and this paper aims to demonstrate the possibility of measuring the actual angular velocity of any rotating shaft in the engine, on which it is physically possible to mount a toothed disc. The method was created completely independently during long-range development and research tests of V46 family engines. This method is specific for its particular adaptability for use on larger engines with extensive vibrations and torsional oscillations. The main purpose of this paper is a practical contribution to all the more interesting research of the use of engine crankshaft angular velocity as a diagnostic tool for identifying the engine irregular running.

  3. Effects of diesel fuel combustion-modifier additives on In-cylinder soot formation in a heavy-duty Dl diesel engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dietz, Jeff

    2005-07-01

    Based on a phenomenological model of diesel combustion and pollutant-formation processes, a number of fuel additives that could potentially reduce in-cylinder soot formation by altering combustion chemistry have been identified. These fuel additives, or ''combustion modifiers'', included ethanol and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, polyethylene glycol dinitrate (a cetane improver), succinimide (a dispersant), as well as nitromethane and another nitro-compound mixture. To better understand the chemical and physical mechanisms by which these combustion modifiers may affect soot formation in diesel engines, in-cylinder soot and diffusion flame lift-off were measured, using an optically-accessible, heavy-duty, direct-injection diesel engine. A line-of-sight laser extinction diagnostic was employed to measure the relative soot concentration within the diesel jets (''jetsoot'') as well as the rates of deposition of soot on the piston bowl-rim (''wall-soot''). An OH chemiluminescence imaging technique was utilized to measure the lift-off lengths of the diesel diffusion flames so that fresh oxygen entrainment rates could be compared among the fuels. Measurements were obtained at two operating conditions, using blends of a base commercial diesel fuel with various combinations of the fuel additives. The ethanol additive, at 10% by mass, reduced jet-soot by up to 15%, and reduced wall-soot by 30-40%. The other fuel additives also affected in-cylinder soot, but unlike the ethanol blends, changes in in-cylinder soot could be attributed solely to differences in the ignition delay. No statistically-significant differences in the diesel flame lift-off lengths were observed among any of the fuel additive formulations at the operating conditions examined in this study. Accordingly, the observed differences in in-cylinder soot among the fuel formulations cannot be attributed to differences in fresh oxygen entrainment upstream of the soot-formation zones after ignition.

  4. Determination of diesel engine cylinder gas torques from speed fluctuations with a high-fidelity crankshaft torsional model

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, W.J.

    1998-12-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to develop a method of predicting cylinder indicated torques in a reciprocating engine by measurement of crankshaft angular velocity fluctuations. Cylinder indicated pressures were measured for all three cylinders of a two-stroke Diesel engine with pressure transducers. Time-resolved angular position was measured at the crankshaft front and at the flywheel. A six degree-of-freedom torsional crankshaft model was developed. Two solution methods are described to solve the equations of motion: a time-marching ODE solver, and a Finite Element solution in the time domain. Using these methods with the measured cylinder torques, the angular positions are predicted and compared to measured angular positions for model calibration. An inverse solution method was developed to determine the cylinder indicated torques from the measured angular position at the crankshaft endpoints. The method is theoretically demonstrated to be useful for explicit solutions for two-stroke engines up to three cylinders, and four-stroke engines up to four cylinders. Experimental results show that the method is useful in predicting cylinder indicated torques from angular velocity measurements.

  5. Comparison of Simulated and Experimental Combustion of Biodiesel Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; McFarlane, Joanna; Bunting, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The effect of biodiesel content on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine performance has been investigated both experimentally and by computer simulation. Combustion experiments were performed in a single cylinder HCCI engine using blends of soy biodiesel in ultra low sulfur diesel, with concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 vol% and equivalence ratios ( ) from 0.38 to 0.48. Data from the engine tests included combustion analysis and exhaust composition analysis with standard gaseous emissions equipment. The engine utilized a custom port fuel injection strategy to provide highly premixed charges of fuel and air, making it possible to compare the results with single zone chemical kinetics simulations that were performed using CHEMKIN III, with a reaction set including 670 species and over 3000 reactions. The reaction mechanism incorporated equations for the combustion of a paraffinic fuel, n-heptane, and an oxygenated component, methyl butanoate, as well as reactions for the formation of NOx. The zero-dimensional model did a reasonably good job of predicting the HCCI combustion event, correctly predicting intake temperature effects on the phasing of both low temperature heat release (LTHR) and the main combustion event. It also did a good job of predicting the magnitude of LTHR. Differences between the simulation and experimental data included the dependence on biodiesel concentration and the duration of both LTHR and the main combustion event. The probable reasons for these differences are the changing derived cetane number (DCN) of the model fuel blend with biodiesel concentration, and the inability of the model to account for stratification of temperature and . The simulation also showed that concentrations of intermediate species produced during LTHR are dependent on the magnitude of LTHR, but otherwise the addition of biodiesel has no discernable effect.

  6. High-speed four-color infrared digital imaging for studying in-cylinder processes in a DI diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, K. T.

    1995-07-01

    The study was to investigate in-cylinder events of a direct injection-type diesel engine by using a new high-speed infrared (IR) digital imaging systems for obtaining information that was difficult to achieve by the conventional devices. For this, a new high-speed dual-spectra infrared digital imaging system was developed to simultaneously capture two geometrically identical (in respective spectral) sets of IR images having discrete digital information in a (64x64) matrix at rates as high as over 1,800 frames/sec each with exposure period as short as 20 micron sec. At the same time, a new advanced four-color W imaging system was constructed. The first two sets of spectral data were the radiation from water vapor emission bands to compute the distributions of temperature and specie in the gaseous mixture and the remaining two sets of data were to find the instantaneous temperature distribution over the cylinder surface. More than eight reviewed publications have been produced to report many new findings including: Distributions of Water Vapor and Temperature in a Flame; End Gas Images Prior to Onset of Knock; Effect of MTBE on Diesel Combustion; Impact of Oxygen Enrichment on In-cylinder Reactions; Spectral IR Images of Spray Plume; Residual Gas Distribution; Preflame Reactions in Diesel Combustion; Preflame Reactions in the End Gas of an SI Engine; Postflame Oxidation; and Liquid Fuel Layers during Combustion in an SI Engine. In addition, some computational analysis of diesel combustion was performed using KIVA-II program in order to compare results from the prediction and the measurements made using the new IR imaging diagnostic tool.

  7. Experimental evaluation of oxygen-enriched air and emulsified fuels in a single-cylinder diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J.

    1991-11-01

    The performance of a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was measured with intake oxygen levels of up to 35% and fuel water contents of up to 20%. Because a previous study indicated that the use of a less-expensive fuel would be more economical, two series of tests with No. 4 diesel fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel were conducted. To control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), water was introduced into the combustion process in the form of water-emulsified fuel, or the fuel injection timing was retarded. In the first series of tests, compressed oxygen was used; in the second series of tests, a hollow-tube membrane was used. Steady-state engine performance and emissions data were obtained. Test results indicated a large increase in engine power density, a slight improvement in thermal efficiency, and significant reductions in smoke and particulate-matter emissions. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased, they could be controlled by introducing water and retarding the injection timing. The results further indicated that thermal efficiency is slightly increased when moderately water-emulsified fuels are used, because a greater portion of the fuel energy is released earlier in the combustion process. Oxygen-enriched air reduced the ignition delay and caused the heat-release rate and cumulative heat-release rates to change measurably. Even at higher oxygen levels, NO{sub x} emissions decreased rapidly when the timing was retarded, and the amount of smoke and the level of particulate-matter emissions did not significantly increase. The single-cylinder engine tests confirmed the results of an earlier technical assessment and further indicated a need for a low-pressure-drop membrane specifically designed for oxygen enrichment. Extension data set indexed separately. 14 refs.

  8. Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine - SAE World Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Hanson, Reed M; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The effect of E85 on the Ad-hoc federal test procedure (FTP) modal points is explored along with the effect of load expansion through the light-duty diesel speed operating range. The Ad-hoc FTP modal points of 1500 rpm, 1.0bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP); 1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP; 2000rpm, 2.0bar BMEP; 2300rpm, 4.2bar BMEP; and 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP were explored. Previous results with 96 RON unleaded test gasoline (UTG-96) and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) showed that with stock hardware, the 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP modal point was not obtainable due to excessive cylinder pressure rise rate and unstable combustion both with and without the use of EGR. Brake thermal efficiency and emissions performance of RCCI operation with E85 and ULSD is explored and compared against conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and RCCI operation with UTG 96 and ULSD.

  9. Testing Ceramics for Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Adaptation of diesel engine allows prestressed ceramic materials evaluated under realistic pressure, temperature, and stress without introducing extraneous stress. Ceramic specimen part of prechamber of research engine. Specimen held in place by clamp, introduces required axial compressive stress. Specimen -- cylindrical shell -- surrounded by chamber vented or pressurized to introduce requisite radial stress in ceramic. Pressure chamber also serves as safety shield in case speimen disintegrates. Materials under consideration as cylinder liners for diesel engines.

  10. DRIVE CYCLE EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS ESTIMATES FOR REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION IN A MULTI-CYLINDER LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Briggs, Thomas E; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that by varying both the percent of premixed gasoline and EGR rate, stable combustion can be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Changing the percent premixed gasoline changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This paper examines the combustion and emissions performance of light-duty diesel engine using direct injected diesel fuel and port injected gasoline to carry out RCCI for steady-state engine conditions which are consistent with a light-duty drive cycle. A GM 1.9L four-cylinder engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure EGR system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline. Engine-out emissions, engine performance and combustion behavior for RCCI operation is compared against both CDC and a premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategy which relies on high levels of EGR dilution. The effect of percent of premixed gasoline, EGR rate, boost level, intake mixture temperature, combustion phasing and pressure rise rate is investigated for RCCI combustion for the light-duty modal points. Engine-out emissions of NOx and PM were found to be considerably lower for RCCI operation as compared to CDC and PCCI, while HC and CO emissions were higher. Brake thermal efficiency was similar or higher for many of the modal conditions for RCCI operation. The emissions results are used to estimate hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels with RCCI and are compared against CDC and PCCI modes.

  11. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-03-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  12. Development of advanced high temperature in-cylinder components and tribological systems for low heat rejection diesel engines, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, C. A.; Larson, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis and concept design work completed in Phase 1 have identified a low heat rejection engine configuration with the potential to meet the Heavy Duty Transport Technology program specific fuel consumption goal of 152 g/kW-hr. The proposed engine configuration incorporates low heat rejection, in-cylinder components designed for operation at 24 MPa peak cylinder pressure. Water cooling is eliminated by selective oil cooling of the components. A high temperature lubricant will be required due to increased in-cylinder operating temperatures. A two-stage turbocharger air system with intercooling and aftercooling was selected to meet engine boost and BMEP requirements. A turbocompound turbine stage is incorporated for exhaust energy recovery. The concept engine cost was estimated to be 43 percent higher compared to a Caterpillar 3176 engine. The higher initial engine cost is predicted to be offset by reduced operating costs due the lower fuel consumption.

  13. Quick release engine cylinder

    DOEpatents

    Sunnarborg, Duane A.

    2000-01-01

    A quick release engine cylinder allows optical access to an essentially unaltered combustion chamber, is suitable for use with actual combustion processes, and is amenable to rapid and repeated disassembly and cleaning. A cylinder member, adapted to constrain a piston to a defined path through the cylinder member, sealingly engages a cylinder head to provide a production-like combustion chamber. A support member mounts with the cylinder member. The support-to-cylinder mounting allows two relationships therebetween. In the first mounting relationship, the support engages the cylinder member and restrains the cylinder against the head. In the second mounting relationship, the cylinder member can pass through the support member, moving away from the head and providing access to the piston-top and head.

  14. Adaptation of a zero-dimensional cylinder pressure model for diesel engines using the crankshaft rotational speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weißenborn, E.; Bossmeyer, T.; Bertram, T.

    2011-08-01

    Tighter emission regulations are driving the development of advanced engine control strategies relying on feedback information from the combustion chamber. In this context, it is especially seeked for alternatives to expensive in-cylinder pressure sensors. The present study addresses these issues by pursuing a simulation-based approach. It focuses on the extension of an empirical, zero-dimensional cylinder pressure model using the engine speed signal in order to detect cylinder-wise variations in combustion. As a special feature, only information available from the standard sensor configuration are utilized. Within the study, different methods for the model-based reconstruction of the combustion pressure including nonlinear Kalman filtering are compared. As a result, the accuracy of the cylinder pressure model can be enhanced. At the same time, the inevitable limitations of the proposed methods are outlined.

  15. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  16. Diesel engine combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Diesel Engine Combustion Processes guides the engineer and research technician toward engine designs which will give the ``best payoff`` in terms of emissions and fuel economy. Contents include: Three-dimensional modeling of soot and NO in a direct-injection diesel engine; Prechamber for lean burn for low NOx; Modeling and identification of a diesel combustion process with the downhill gradient search method; The droplet group micro-explosions in W/O diesel fuel emulsion sprays; Combustion process of diesel spray in high temperature air; Combustion process of diesel engines at regions with different altitude; and more.

  17. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  18. Design and operation of a medium speed 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine: Phase 2 improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, G.L.; Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Gal, E.; Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Mengel, M.

    1994-04-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, General Electric has been pioneering the development of a coal fired diesel engine to power a locomotive. The feasibility of using a coal water slurry (CWS) mixture as a fuel in a medium speed diesel engine has been demonstrated with the first successful locomotive systems test in 1991 on the GE Transportation Systems test track in Erie, PA. Phase II of the development process incorporates the results of the programs research in durable engine parts, improved combustion efficiency, and emissions reduction. A GE 7FDL12 engine has been built using diamond insert injector nozzles, tungsten carbide coated piston rings and tungsten carbide coated liners to overcome power assembly wear. Electronic controlled fuel injection for both diesel pilot and main CWS injector were incorporated to control injection timing. An envelop filter and copper oxide sorbent system were used to cleanup engine emissions. The system is capable of removing over 99% of the particulates, 90% of the SO{sub 2} and 85% of NO{sub x}.

  19. Design and operation of a medium speed 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine. Phase 2: Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confer, G. L.; Hsu, B. D.; McDowell, R. E.; Gal, E.; Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Mengel, M.

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, General Electric has been pioneering the development of a coal fired diesel engine to power a locomotive. The feasibility of using a coal water slurry (CWS) mixture as a fuel in a medium speed diesel engine has been demonstrated with the first successful locomotive systems test in 1991 on the GE Transportation Systems test track in Erie, PA. Phase 2 of the development process incorporates the results of the programs research in durable engine parts, improved combustion efficiency, and emissions reduction. A GE 7FDL12 engine has been built using diamond insert injector nozzles, tungsten carbide coated piston rings, and tungsten carbide coated liners to overcome power assembly wear. Electronic controlled fuel injection for both diesel pilot and main CWS injector were incorporated to control injection timing. An envelop filter and copper oxide sorbent system were used to cleanup engine emissions. The system is capable of removing over 99% of the particulates, 90% of the SO2, and 85% of NO(x).

  20. Experimental evaluation of oxygen-enriched air and emulsified fuels in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Volume 1, Concept evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J.

    1991-11-01

    The performance of a single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was measured with intake oxygen levels of up to 35% and fuel water contents of up to 20%. Because a previous study indicated that the use of a less-expensive fuel would be more economical, two series of tests with No. 4 diesel fuel and No. 2 diesel fuel were conducted. To control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), water was introduced into the combustion process in the form of water-emulsified fuel, or the fuel injection timing was retarded. In the first series of tests, compressed oxygen was used; in the second series of tests, a hollow-tube membrane was used. Steady-state engine performance and emissions data were obtained. Test results indicated a large increase in engine power density, a slight improvement in thermal efficiency, and significant reductions in smoke and particulate-matter emissions. Although NO{sub x} emissions increased, they could be controlled by introducing water and retarding the injection timing. The results further indicated that thermal efficiency is slightly increased when moderately water-emulsified fuels are used, because a greater portion of the fuel energy is released earlier in the combustion process. Oxygen-enriched air reduced the ignition delay and caused the heat-release rate and cumulative heat-release rates to change measurably. Even at higher oxygen levels, NO{sub x} emissions decreased rapidly when the timing was retarded, and the amount of smoke and the level of particulate-matter emissions did not significantly increase. The single-cylinder engine tests confirmed the results of an earlier technical assessment and further indicated a need for a low-pressure-drop membrane specifically designed for oxygen enrichment. Extension data set indexed separately. 14 refs.

  1. Improving the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine having reentrant combustion chamber using diesel and Jatropha methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Premnath, S; Devaradjane, G

    2015-11-01

    The emissions from the Compression ignition (CI) engines introduce toxicity to the atmosphere. The undesirable carbon deposits from these engines are realized in the nearby static or dynamic systems such as vehicles, inhabitants, etc. The objective of this research work is to improve the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine in the modified re-entrant combustion chamber using a diesel and Jatropha methyl ester blend (J20) at three different injection pressures. From the literature, it is revealed that the shape of the combustion chamber and the fuel injection pressure have an impact on the performance and emission parameters of the CI engine. In this work, a re-entrant combustion chamber with three different fuel injection pressures (200, 220 and 240bars) has been used in the place of the conventional hemispherical combustion chamber for diesel and J20. From the experimental results, it is found that the re-entrant chamber improves the brake thermal efficiency of diesel and J20 in all the tested conditions. It is also found that the 20% blend of Jatropha methyl ester showed 4% improvement in the brake thermal efficiency in the re-entrant chamber at the maximum injection pressure. Environmental safety directly relates to the reduction in the undesirable effects on both living and non-living things. Currently environmental pollution is of major concern. Even with the stringent emission norms new methods are required to reduce the harmful effects from automobiles. The toxicity of carbon monoxide (CO) is well known. In the re-entrant combustion chamber, the amount of CO emission is reduced by 26% when compared with the conventional fuel operation of the engine. Moreover, the amount of smoke is reduced by 24% and hydrocarbons (HC) emission by 24%. Thus, the modified re-entrant combustion chamber reduces harmful pollutants such as unburned HC and CO as well as toxic smoke emissions. PMID:26256249

  2. EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were performed using (1) Diesel particles collected from the undiluted exhaust of a single-cylinder engine, operated at constant speed and load, using a binary pure hydrocarbon fuel with air or gas mixture oxidizers, and (2) Diesel particles collected from the diluted exh...

  3. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  4. Diesel engine exhaust oxidizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kammel, R.A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a diesel engine exhaust oxidizing device. It comprises: an enclosure having an inlet for receiving diesel engine exhaust, a main flow path through the enclosure to an outlet of the enclosure, a by-ass through the enclosure, and a microprocessor control means.

  5. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  6. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  7. Engine cylinder intake port

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, C.G.

    1986-08-19

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine, means defining a cylinder closed at one end and having an axis, means defining an inlet passage through the cylinder defining means and communicating with the cylinder through the closed end, and a poppet inlet valve including a stem and head having a valve axis and disposed in the passage for reciprocation on the valve axis to control communication of the inlet passage with the cylinder. The inlet passage is characterized by: a throat of generally circular cross-section opening into the cylinder and adapted to be closed by the inlet valve, an entrance portion spaced from the throat and offset from the valve axis, and means defining a fluid flow path extending from the entrance portion toward and around opposite sides of the valve axis and below the valve head when open to the throat. The fluid flow path defines means having a top wall including first and second ramp portions and a shelf portion spaced from and opposite the throat, the ramp portions sloping downwardly and merging with the shelf portion on generally opposite sides of the valve axis. The ramp portions lie at steep angles to the shelf portion and one of the ramp portions having a substantially steeper angle than the other to slow and direct downwardly fluid flow passing the one of the sides of the valve axis below the one steeper ramp relative to the higher speed and less downward direction of flow passing the other of the sides of the valve axis, whereby preferential entry of swirl developing flow into the shelf area from below the ramp of lower slope is encouraged.

  8. Diagnosing diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports that problems with diesel engines that have reciprocating parts have long defied a systematic approach to analysis. Engine phenomena such as combustion pressures, valve seating impacts, and piston vibrations reflect directly on how an engine is performing and would be useful to measure. However, these occur inside an engine block and for the most part are not possible to measure directly with sensors. Diesel engine manufacturers are finding new ways to troubleshoot machinery by using sophisticated signal-processing techniques that detect combustion anomalies and high-speed data-acquisition units that sample multiple measurement parameters.

  9. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  10. Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Propanol Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthaiyan, Pugazhvadivu; Gomathinayagam, Sankaranarayanan

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the work is to study the use of propanol diesel blends as alternative fuel in a single cylinder diesel engine. In this work, four different propanol diesel blends containing 10, 15, 20 and 25 % propanol in diesel by volume were used as fuels. Load tests were conducted on the diesel engine and the combustion parameters such as cylinder gas pressure, ignition delay, rate of heat release and rate of pressure rise were investigated. The engine performance and emission characteristics were also studied. The propanol diesel blends showed longer ignition delay, higher rates of heat release and pressure rise. The thermal efficiency of the engine decreased marginally with the use of fuel blends. The propanol diesel blends decreased the CO, NOX and smoke emissions of the engine considerably.

  11. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  12. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  13. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  14. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  15. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane andmore » at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.« less

  16. Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

    2011-10-05

    Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

  17. Fuel for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, M.

    1983-09-20

    A fuel is disclosed for a diesel engine which comprises a mixture of (A) an alcohol, (B) gas oil and (C) castor oil, wherein the contents of the respective components satisfy requirements represented by the following formulae: 0% by volume < A 80% by volume, 10% by volume B < 50% by volume, and 10% by volume C < 50% by volume.

  18. Diesel Engine Idling Test

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Zirker; James Francfort; Jordon Fielding

    2006-02-01

    In support of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology Program Office goal to minimize diesel engine idling and reduce the consumption of millions of gallons of diesel fuel consumed during heavy vehicle idling periods, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted tests to characterize diesel engine wear rates caused by extended periods of idling. INL idled two fleet buses equipped with Detroit Diesel Series 50 engines, each for 1,000 hours. Engine wear metals were characterized from weekly oil analysis samples and destructive filter analyses. Full-flow and the bypass filter cartridges were removed at four stages of the testing and sent to an oil analysis laboratory for destructive analysis to ascertain the metals captured in the filters and to establish wear rate trends. Weekly samples were sent to two independent oil analysis laboratories. Concurrent with the filter analysis, a comprehensive array of other laboratory tests ascertained the condition of the oil, wear particle types, and ferrous particles. Extensive ferrogram testing physically showed the concentration of iron particles and associated debris in the oil. The tests results did not show the dramatic results anticipated but did show wear trends. New West Technologies, LLC, a DOE support company, supplied technical support and data analysis throughout the idle test.

  19. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Heat-Flux Sensor For Hot Engine Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Walter S.; Barrows, Richard F.; Smith, Floyd A.; Koch, John

    1989-01-01

    Heat-flux sensor includes buried wire thermocouple and thin-film surface thermocouple, made of platinum and platinum with 13 percent rhodium. Sensor intended for use in ceramic-insulated, low-heat-rejection diesel engine at temperatures of about 1,000 K. Thermocouple junction resists environment in cylinder of advanced high-temperature diesel engine created by depositing overlapping films of Pt and 0.87 Pt/0.13 Rh on iron plug. Plug also contains internal thermocouple.

  1. Axial cylinder internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes improvement in a barrel type internal combustion engine including an engine block having axial-positioned cylinders with reciprocating pistons arranged in a circular pattern: a drive shaft concentrically positioned within the cylinder block having an offset portion extending outside the cylinder block; a wobble spider rotatably journaled to the offset portion; connecting rods for each cylinder connecting each piston to the wobble spider. The improvement comprising: a first sleeve bearing means supporting the drive shaft in the engine block in a cantilevered manner for radial loads; a second sleeve bearing means rotatably supporting the wobble spider on the offset portion of the drive shaft for radial loads; a first roller bearing means positioned between the offset portion of the drive shaft and the wobble spider carrying thrust loadings only; a second roller bearing means carrying thrust loads only reacting to the first roller bearing located on the opposite end of the driveshaft between the shaft and the engine block.

  2. Minimizing diesel engine emissions by catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, E.P.; Lee, F.H.; Haskew, J.W.; Campbell, J.A.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emissions of particulates, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) from diesel engines are of concern in mines, particularly underground mines. All these undesirable products except NO{sub x} are the result of incomplete combustion in the cylinders. Various approaches to achieving more complete combustion in diesel engines have included different fuel compositions, use of catalysts, fuel additives, engine modifications, and oxygen-enriched intake air. The present study shows that injecting minute quantities of primarily platinum group metal catalysts into the intake air of a Deutz/MWM D916-6 mine diesel engine substantially reduces emissions in the exhaust. The catalyst injection system, which was developed by National Fuelsaver Corporation, transfers catalyst compounds in solution to a stream of air bubbles by a process called Bubble Fractionation. The amounts are so minute that concentrations in the engine exhaust should be well below OSHA/NIOSH Time Weighted Average (TWA) exposure limits at steady state, a fact that was confirmed by analysis of collected particulates in the exhaust. When the catalyst injection was used along with a pleated paper filter to remove exhaust particulates, the filter operating life was shortened greatly. Therefore, this system is not recommended for use on diesel engines equipped with a water scrubber and a filter. It does offer a practical and relatively economical way of reducing exhaust emissions from other diesel engines, such as those in outby mine service.

  3. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr,. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also to provide protection. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the thermal barrier coatings will be to reduce thermal fatigue as the engine peak cylinder pressure will nearly be doubled. As the coatings result in higher available energy in the exhaust gas, efficiency gains are achieved through use of this energy by turbochargers, turbocompounding or thermoelectric generators.

  4. An in-cylinder study of the particulate/NO{sub x} trade-off in a DI Diesel Engine. Draft of final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litzinger, T.A.; Santavicca, D.A.; Santoro, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the work performed during the contract period was to establish the ability to study soot and NO within the combustion chamber of a DI Diesel engine and to couple these measurements with actual exhaust emissions. This work was motivated by the need to obtain a more complete understanding of the particulate/NO{sub X} trade-off, observed in Diesel engines, to aid engine designers in meeting emissions limits. In order to achieve the desired goal, an optically accessible DI Diesel engine was designed and constructed. Also, planar imaging methods for imaging soot and NO were developed in laboratory flames and were then applied to the engine. For the study of soot, planar Mie scattering was used and a polarization ratio method was investigated to distinguish soot from fuel droplets. The Mie scattering technique proved to be well suited for the engine, and extensive results were obtained. In order to observe NO, planar laser induced fluorescence was used and it was successfully applied in the engine. In addition to these techniques, high speed combustion photography and shadowgraph photography were applied to obtain general characteristics of the combustion process. As a final diagnostic, actual engine emissions were measured. This report begins with a brief discussion of the problem under investigation and a summary of other studies of the NO{sub x}/particulate trade-off. Following these sections is a summary of the accomplishments and results from the present study. Finally, detailed results are presented through the six technical papers which were written during the contract period; these papers are appended to the report.

  5. Analysis of new diesel engine and component design

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Contents of this book include: A root cause investigation of cylinder heat cracking in large diesel engine standby power generators; Predictive analysis of lube oil consumption for a diesel engine; Development of a new engine piston incorporating heat pipe cooling technology; Development of new torsional vibration rubber damper of compression type; Novel approach to reduce the time from concept-to-finished piston; and more.

  6. Advanced diesel engineering and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    This state-of-the-art text/reference addresses advanced aspects of the design and operation of diesel engines. It is the only book to provide a comprehensive account of the adiabatic (or ceramic) diesel engine, aircraft and locomotive diesels (including both four-stroke and two-stroke configurations), an up-to-date analysis of torsional vibration shafts. Treats diesel engine vehicle noise, couplings and test instrumentation, and includes an excellent survey of fuel injection systems. All chapters are fully illustrated, most with supporting data. Contains an extensive, current bibliography.

  7. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VIII. ENGINE COMPONENTS--PART I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF DIESEL ENGINE CYLINDER HEADS AND CYLINDER ASSEMBLIES. TOPICS ARE CYLINDER ASSEMBLY (LINERS), CYLINDER HEADS, VALVES AND VALVE MECHANISMS, AND PISTON AND PISTON RINGS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  9. Advanced automotive diesel engine system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual study of an advanced automotive diesel engine is discussed. The engine concept selected for vehicle installation was a supercharged 1.4 liter, 4 cylinder spark assisted diesel of 14:1 compression ratio. A compounding unit consisting of a Lysholm compressor and expander is connected to the engine crankshaft by a belt drive. The inlet air charge is heated by the expander exhaust gas via a heat exchanger. Four levels of technology achievement on the selected engine concept were evaluated, from state-of-the-art to the ideal case. This resulted in the fuel economy increasing from 53.2 mpg to 81.7 mpg, and the 0-60 mph time decreasing from 17.6 seconds to 10.9 seconds.

  10. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  11. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  12. Analysis of dry cylinder liner behavior during engine operation

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, Kazunori; Murata, Katsuhiro; Suzawa, Takashi; Niitsu, Yasuhiko

    1996-09-01

    Engine manufacturers are continuing to develop new engine designs that provide higher power output, lower fuel consumption and lower engine weight. In order to achieve significant engine weight reduction, the light weight cylinder block structure employs dry cylinder liners rather than wet cylinder liners. The cast iron dry liner structure is utilized because of the superior wear and scuff resistance of the cast iron. Thin wall dry cast iron liners are being employed in both gasoline and diesel engines. Dry cylinder liners with wall thickness of 1.5 mm are in production for Japanese automotive diesel engines. In the case of the dry thin wall cast iron liners, 2 design configurations are employed: loose-fit type having a specified clearance between the outer liner surface and the cylinder bore surface; press-in type having an interference fit between the outer surface of liner and the cylinder bore surface. The physical properties of cast iron must be considered during the design phase if successful production designs are to be provided. In addition the operating stress caused by piston slap, combustion pressure variation and resultant effect on operating stress in the liner must be considered during the design. This paper summarizes the results of a series of studies undertaken to determine the effect of piston slap, combustion pressure and initial stress on resultant behavior of thin wall cylinder liners under engine operating conditions. The resultant data may be utilized to improve the overall design of thin wall dry cylinder liners, especially for loose-fit liners.

  13. Ceramics Technology Project database: September 1991 summary report. [Materials for piston ring-cylinder liner for advanced heat/diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    The piston ring-cylinder liner area of the internal combustion engine must withstand very-high-temperature gradients, highly-corrosive environments, and constant friction. Improving the efficiency in the engine requires ring and cylinder liner materials that can survive this abusive environment and lubricants that resist decomposition at elevated temperatures. Wear and friction tests have been done on many material combinations in environments similar to actual use to find the right materials for the situation. This report covers tribology information produced from 1986 through July 1991 by Battelle columbus Laboratories, Caterpillar Inc., and Cummins Engine Company, Inc. for the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP). All data in this report were taken from the project's semiannual and bimonthly progress reports and cover base materials, coatings, and lubricants. The data, including test rig descriptions and material characterizations, are stored in the CTP database and are available to all project participants on request. Objective of this report is to make available the test results from these studies, but not to draw conclusions from these data.

  14. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  15. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  16. Surface acoustical intensity measurements on a diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.; Crocker, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of surface intensity measurements as an alternative to the conventional selective wrapping technique of noise source identification and ranking on diesel engines was investigated. A six cylinder, in line turbocharged, 350 horsepower diesel engine was used. Sound power was measured under anechoic conditions for eight separate parts of the engine at steady state operating conditions using the conventional technique. Sound power measurements were repeated on five separate parts of the engine using the surface intensity at the same steady state operating conditions. The results were compared by plotting sound power level against frequency and noise source rankings for the two methods.

  17. Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of delamination mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings has been developed for diesel engine applications through rig tests, structural analysis modeling, nondestructive evaluation, and engine evaluation of various thermal barrier coatings. This knowledge has resulted in improved thermal barrier coatings which survive abusive cyclic fatigue tests in high output diesel engines. Although much conflicting literature now exists regarding the impact of thermal barrier coatings on engine performance and fuel consumption, the changes in fuel consumption appear to be less than a few percent and can be negative for state-of-the-art diesel engines. The ability of the thermal barrier coating to improve fuel economy tends to be dependent on a number of factors including the fuel injection system, combustion chamber design, and the initial engine fuel economy. Limited investigations on state-of-the-art diesel engines have indicated that the surface connected porosity and coating surface roughness may influence engine fuel economy. Current research efforts on thermal barrier coatings are primarily directed at reducing in-cylinder heat rejection, thermal fatigue protection of underlying metal surfaces and a possible reduction in diesel engine emissions. Significant efforts are still required to improve the plasma spray processing capability and the economics for complex geometry diesel engine components.

  18. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  19. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  20. Nanocatalysts for Diesel Engine Emissions Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broad temperature operating windows to treat diesel engine emissions, thus enabling diesel engine equipment and vehicles to meet regulatory requirements.

  1. Coal slurry combustion optimization on single cylinder engine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, GE Transportation System has been conducting a proof of concept program to use coal water slurry (CWS) fuel to power a diesel engine locomotive since 1988. As reported earlier [1], a high pressure electronically controlled accumulator injector using a diamond compact insert nozzle was developed for this project. The improved reliability and durability of this new FIE allowed for an improved and more thorough study of combustion of CWS fuel in a diesel engine. It was decided to include a diesel pilot fuel injector in the combustion system mainly due to engine start and low load operation needs. BKM, Inc. of San Diego, CA was contracted to develop the electronic diesel fuel pilot/starting FIE for the research engine. As a result, the experimental combustion study was very much facilitated due to the ability of changing pilot/CWS injection timings and quantities without having to stop the engine. Other parameters studied included combustion chamber configuration (by changing CWS fuel injector nozzle hole number/shape/angle), as well as injection pressure. The initial phase of this combustion study is now complete. The results have been adopted into the design of a 12 cylinder engine FIE, to be tested in 1992. This paper summarizes the main findings of this study.

  2. 20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for the Tod tandem compound engine' showing crank end. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  3. 21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for Tod tandem compound engine' showing compressor. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  4. Extending operating range of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine via cylinder deactivation

    DOEpatents

    Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.; Duffy, Kevin P.; Liechty, Michael P.

    2008-05-27

    An HCCI engine has the ability to operate over a large load range by utilizing a lower cetane distillate diesel fuel to increase ignition delay. This permits more stable operation at high loads by avoidance of premature combustion before top dead center. During low load conditions, a portion of the engines cylinders are deactivated so that the remaining cylinders can operate at a pseudo higher load while the overall engine exhibits behavior typical of a relatively low load.

  5. Fluid motion within the cylinder of internal combustion engines - The 1986 Freeman Scholar Lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, John B.

    1987-03-01

    Aspects of gas motion into, within, and out of the engine cylinder which govern the combustion characteristics and capabilities of spark-ignition engines and compression-ignition or diesel engines are considered. Flow characteristics through inlet and exhaust valves in four-stroke cycle engines, and through ports in the cylinder liner in two-stroke cycle engines, are discussed. Features and turbulence characteristics of common in-cylinder flows including the large scale rotating flows precipitated by the conical intake jet and two-stroke scavenger flows are reviewed. The flow phenomenon near walls are then discussed, with application to heat transfer and hydrocarbon emissions phenomena.

  6. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  7. Conventional engine technology. Volume 2: Status of diesel engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The engines of diesel cars marketed in the United States were examined. Prominent design features, performance characteristics, fuel economy and emissions data were compared. Specific problems, in particular those of NO and smoke emissions, the effects of increasing dieselization on diesel fuel price and availability, current R&D work and advanced diesel concepts are discussed. Diesel cars currently have a fuel economy advantage over gasoline engine powered cars. Diesel drawbacks (noise and odor) were reduced to a less objectionable level. An equivalent gasoline engine driveability was obtained with turbocharging. Diesel manufacturers see a growth in the diesel market for the next ten years. Uncertainties regarding future emission regulation may inhibit future diesel production investments. With spark ignition engine technology advancing in the direction of high compression ratios, the fuel economy advantages of the diesel car is expected to diminish. To return its fuel economy lead, the diesel's potential for future improvement must be used.

  8. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  9. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  10. OVERVIEW OF EMERGING CLEAN DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John

    2001-08-05

    Diesel engines are the most realistic technology to achieve a major improvement in fuel economy in the next decade. In the US light truck market, i.e. Sport Utility Vehicles , pick-up trucks and mini-vans, diesel engines can more than double the fuel economy of similarly rated spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines currently in these vehicles. These new diesel engines are comparable to the SI engines in noise levels and 0 to 60 mph acceleration. They no longer have the traditional ''diesel smell.'' And the new diesel engines will provide roughly twice the service life. This is very significant for resale value which could more than offset the initial premium cost of the diesel engine over that of the SI gasoline engine. So why are we not seeing more diesel engine powered personal vehicles in the U.S.? The European auto fleet is comprised of a little over 30 percent diesel engine powered vehicles while current sales are about 50 percent diesel. In France, over 70 percent of the luxury class cars i.e. Mercedes ''S'' Class, BMW 700 series etc., are sold with the diesel engine option selected. Diesel powered BMW's are winning auto races in Germany. These are a typical of the general North American perspective of diesel powered autos. The big challenge to commercial introduction of diesel engine powered light trucks and autos is compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2, 2007 emissions standards. Specifically, 0.07gm/mile Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01 gm/mile particulates (PM). Although the EPA has set a series of bins of increasing stringency until the 2007 levels are met, vehicle manufacturers appear to want some assurance that Tier 2, 2007 can be met before they commit an engine to a vehicle.

  11. 19. Engine identified as a single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Engine identified as a single cylinder vacuum assist engine for the Filer and Stowell 15-inch continuous mill. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  12. Two-stroke multi-cylinder engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, S.; Hakamata, K.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a pair of cylinder bores disposed at an angle to each other, pistons reciprocating in the cylinder bores, a crankshaft supported for rotation about an axis relative to the cylinder bores, connecting rods for transferring reciprocation of the pistons into rotation of the crankshaft, the connection between the pistons and the connecting rods being such that a side thrust is exerted on the pistons for causing the pistons to tilt in the cylinder bores during the power strokes of the pistons, and exhaust ports opening into the cylinder bores at one side of a plane passing through the respective cylinder bore axis and parallel to the crankshaft rotational axis, the improvement comprising each of the exhaust ports opening through the same side of the respective plane with respect to the direction of rotation of the crankshaft.

  13. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-12

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  14. 9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. General view of engine between cylinders with high pressure cylinder on left and low pressure cylinder on right. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  15. Multi-cylinder hot gas engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-cylinder hot gas engine having an equal angle, V-shaped engine block in which two banks of parallel, equal length, equally sized cylinders are formed together with annular regenerator/cooler units surrounding each cylinder, and wherein the pistons are connected to a single crankshaft. The hot gas engine further includes an annular heater head disposed around a central circular combustor volume having a new balanced-flow hot-working-fluid manifold assembly that provides optimum balanced flow of the working fluid through the heater head working fluid passageways which are connected between each of the cylinders and their respective associated annular regenerator units. This balanced flow provides even heater head temperatures and, therefore, maximum average working fluid temperature for best operating efficiency with the use of a single crankshaft V-shaped engine block.

  16. Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Longman, D.E. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO[sub x] due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO[sub x] emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

  17. Taguchi methods applied to oxygen-enriched diesel engine experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Sekar, R.R.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J.; Longman, D.E.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a test series conducted on a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the impacts of controlled factors (i.e., oxygen content of the combustion air, water content of the fuel, fuel rate, and fuel-injection timing) on engine emissions using Taguchi methods. Three levels of each factor were used in the tests. Only the main effects of the factors were examined; no attempt was made to analyze the interactions among the factors. It was found that, as in the case of the single-cylinder engine tests, oxygen in the combustion air was very effective in reducing particulate and smoke emissions. Increases in NO{sub x} due to the oxygen enrichment observed in the single-cylinder tests also occurred in the present six-cylinder tests. Water in the emulsified fuel was found to be much less effective in decreasing NO{sub x} emissions for the six-cylinder engine than it was for the single-cylinder engine.

  18. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  19. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  20. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  1. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that...

  2. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  3. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  4. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  5. [Effects of fuel properties on the performance of a typical Euro IV diesel engine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-miao; Wang, Jian-xin; Shuai, Shi-jin

    2008-09-01

    With the purpose of establishing diesel fuel standard for China National 4th Emission Standard, as one part of Beijing "Auto-Oil" programme, engine performance test has been done on a typical Euro IV diesel engine using eight diesel fuels with different fuel properties. Test results show that, fuel properties has little effect on power, fuel consumption, and in-cylinder combustion process of tested Euro IV diesel engine; sulfate in PM and gaseous SO2 emissions increase linearly with diesel sulfur content increase; cetane number increase cause BSFC and PM reduce and NOx increase; T90 decrease cause NOx reduce while PM shows trend of reduce. Prediction equations of tested Euro IV diesel engine's ESC cycle NOx and PM emissions before SCR response to diesel fuel sulfur content, cetane number, T90 and aromatics have been obtained using linear regression method on the base of test results. PMID:19068662

  6. Eucalyptus Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Fuel: Preparation and Tests on DI Diesel Engine

    PubMed Central

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  7. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend. PMID:22675246

  8. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future. PMID:18499428

  9. Dynamic response of heavy duty diesel engine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderton, D.; Ghazy, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation to identify the sources of forces which cause the vibration of different parts of the engine structure in a turbocharged heavy duty diesel engine of 2 litres/cylinder capacity. The differences in vibration response at the main bearings and on the engine outer surfaces is shown. Results of overall dynamic stiffness measurements at the main bearings indicate that the oil film has a negligible effect on the behaviour of the major vibration response. A model is put forward for an absolute prediction of the engine outer surface vibration. The model can be seen as an alternative or complement to current F.E. techniques. A comparison between predicted and measured vibration on the crankcase is presented. Predicted vibration response spectra are used to show the relative contribution of liner and bearing forces to the overall crankcase and cylinder block vibration of the engine.

  10. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  11. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  12. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  13. Balancer structure for three-cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a balancer structure for a three-cylinder in-line engine having three cylinders, the latter comprising a first and third cylinder and a second cylinder disposed between the first and third cylinders, a crankshaft having crank arms disposed at angles of 120/sup 0/ with respect to each other and operatively connected to a piston assembly within each of the cylinders, respectively, consisting of: a single crankshaft adjacent and parallel to and rotated at the same speed as the crankshaft but in the opposite direction, means comprising first counterweights securely mounted on the crankshaft only at positions thereof corresponding to the first and third cylinders for balancing of a part of inertia forces of rotating masses and a part of inertia forces of reciprocating masses; means comprising at least one second counterweight securely mounted on the crankshaft substantially opposite to the crank arm corresponding to the second cylinder for balancing of the remainder of the inertia forces of rotating masses; at least two balancers respectively securely mounted on the countershaft at both ends respectively thereof for the balancing of the remainder of the inertia forces of reciprocating masses, and of the couple of inertia of the crankshaft about axes perpendicular to the crankshaft.

  14. Dual-fuelling of a prechamber diesel engine with natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Song, S.; Hill, P.G.

    1985-02-01

    The feasibility of dual-fuel operation with natural gas in a prechamber diesel engine was studied with special emphasis on fuel consumption and cylinder pressure development. The effects of air restriction, pilot diesel flow rate and injection timing were also investigated. Near full load the fuel energy consumption rate was close to that of straight diesel operation though at part load (in the absence of air restriction) the fuel energy consumption rate was relatively high. In the absence of injection timing adjustment the maximum power output of dual-fuel operation was severely limited by the maximum cylinder pressure. Retarding the injection timing is effective in reducing the maximum cylinder pressure to a safe level. The analysis of apparent energy release indicates the differences in combustion mechanism between auto-ignition of diesel fuel in straight diesel operation and propagation of flame fronts in dual-fuel operation.

  15. Dual-fueling of a prechamber diesel engine with natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Song, S.; Hill, P.G.

    1985-10-01

    The feasibility of dual-fuel operation with natural gas in a prechamber diesel engine was studied with special emphasis on fuel consumption and cylinder pressure development. The effects of air restriction, pilot diesel flow rate, and injection timing were also investigated. Near full load the fuel energy consumption rate was close to that of straight diesel operation though at part load (in the absence of air restriction) the fuel energy consumption rate was relatively high. In the absence of injection timing adjustment the maximum power output of dual-fuel operation was severely limited by the maximum cylinder pressure. Retarding the injection timing is effective in reducing the maximum cylinder pressure to a safe level. The analysis of apparent energy release indicates the differences in combustion mechanism between auto-ignition of diesel fuel in straight diesel operation and propagation of flame fronts in dual-fuel operation.

  16. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  17. CAD techniques applied to diesel engine design. Extension of the RK range. [Ruston diesels

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S.K.; Buckthorpe, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Rustion Diesels Ltd. produce three ranges of engines, the AP range covering engine powers from 500 to 1400 bhp (350 to 1000 kW electrical), the RK range covering 1410 to 4200 bhp (1 to 3 MW electrical), and the AT range covering 1650 to 4950 bhp (1-2 to 3-5 MW electrical). The AT engine range is available at speeds up to 600 rev/min, whereas the AP and RK ranges cover engine speeds from 600 to 1000 rev/min. The design philosophy and extension of the RK range of engines are investigated. This is a 251 mm (ten inch) bore by 305mm (twelve inch) stroke engine and is available in 6-cylinder in-line form and 8-, 12-, and 16-cylinder vee form. The RK engine features a cast-iron crankcase and bedplate design with a forged alloy-steel crankshaft. Combustion-chamber components consist of a cast-iron cylinder head and liner, steel exhaust and inlet valves, and a single-piece aluminium piston. The durability and reliability of RK engines have been fully proven in service with over 30 years' experience in numerous applications for power generation, reaction, and marine propulsion.

  18. Cermet Filters for Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter Chuen Sun

    2001-08-01

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.

  19. [Application of PCA to diesel engine oil spectrometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Tian, Hong-Xiang; Guo, Wen-Yong

    2010-03-01

    In order to study wear characteristics of a 6-cylinder diesel engine, six different working statuses were arranged by altering the clearance between cylinder and piston. Sixty-nine oil samples were taken from engine at different loads under 6 working statuses and analyzed by Spectroil M Instrument made in US. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyzing spectrometric data of sixty-nine oil samples and clustering those data according to elements and oil samples separately based on the weighted coefficient and principal component scores. All 21 elements were used in element clustering and only 6 wear-related elements, namely iron, chromium, aluminum, copper, plumbum and silicon, were used in sample clustering. It is shown that PCA effectively clustered oil spectrometric data into three different principal components according to elements. The projection of two different principal components exhibited five types of elements combinations, namely wear elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb), high concentration additives elements (Na, Zn, P, Ca and Mg), low concentration additives elements (Ba and B), base constituent of lubricating oils (C and H) and interferential elements (Ni, Ti, Mo, V, Ag and Sn). Furthermore, PCA clearly clustered oil samples according to different clearance between cylinder and piston in the diesel engine. The study suggests that analyzing oil spectrographic data by PCA could find the sources of different elements, monitor engine conditions and diagnose wear faults. PMID:20496708

  20. Fluid motion within the cylinder of internal combustion engines - The 1986 Freeman Scholar Lecture

    SciTech Connect

    Heywood, J.B.

    1987-03-01

    The flow field within the cylinder of internal combustion engines is the most important factor controlling the combustion process. Thus it has a major impact on engine operation. This paper reviews those aspects of gas motion into, within, and out of the engine cylinder that govern the combustion characteristics and breathing capabilities of spark-ignition engines and compression-ignition or diesel engines. Necessary background information and reciprocating engine operating cycles, the primary effect of piston motion and the spark-ignition and diesel engine combustion processes is first summarized. Then the characteristics of flow through inlet and exhaust valves in four-stroke cycle engines, and through ports in the cylinder liner in two-stroke cycle engines are reviewed. The essential features of common in-cylinder flows - the large scale rotating flows set up by the conical intake jet, the creation and development of swirl about the cylinder axis, the flows produced during compression due to combustion chamber shape called squish, flow during the combustion process, and two-stroke scavenging flows - are then described. The turbulence characteristics of these flows are then defined and discussed. Finally, flow phenomena which occur near the walls, which are important to heat transfer and hydrocarbon emissions phenomena, are reviewed.

  1. Balancer structure for three-cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a balancer structure for a three-cylinder in-line engine. The in-line engine is indicated in the patent as having a crankshaft having crank arms configured at angles of 120/sup 0/ with respect to each other and operatively connected to a piston assembly within each of the cylinders. This crankshaft and assembly, which serves as a balancer structure as one of its applications, is further characterized in the patent as consisting of a number of component parts. The first component described is a single countershaft adjacent and parallel to the crankshaft. It is specified in the patent that this countershaft must rotate at the same speed as the crankshaft but in an opposite direction in order to fulfill its role in the balancer structure. The patent also details an element of the balancer structure which consists of a means utilizing counterweights mounted on the crankshaft at the first and third cylinder positions. These weights are indicated as partially balancing the inertia forces of reciprocating masses and the entire inertia forces of rotating masses present in the described engine. The required position of these counterweights is indicated as being a location more than 90/sup 0/ from the crank arm for the corresponding cylinder and perpendicular to the second cylinder crank arm. The last component described consists of two balancers mounted on both ends of the countershaft which balance the remainder of the inertia forces of reciprocating masses and the inertia of the crankshaft about axes perpendicular to itself.

  2. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are...

  3. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped...

  4. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of...

  5. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a DI diesel with simulated turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Ronald J.; Borman, Gary L.; Bower, Glenn R.

    1994-10-01

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct injection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-2 computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-2 combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  6. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled ``Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,`` describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  7. Lightweight diesel engine designs for commuter type aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual designs and performance of advanced technology lightweight diesel engines, suitable for commuter type aircraft power plants are defined. Two engines are discussed, a 1491 kW (2000 SHP) eight-cylinder engine and a 895 kW (1200 SHP) six-cylinder engine. High performance and related advanced technologies are proposed such as insulated cylinders, very high injection pressures and high compressor and turbine efficiencies. The description of each engine includes concept drawings, a performance analysis, and weight data. Fuel flow data are given for full and partial power up to 7620m altitude. The performance data are also extrapolated over a power range from 671 kW(900SHP) to 1864 kW (2500 SHP). The specific fuel consumption of the 1491 kW (2000 SHP) engine is 182 g/hWh (.299 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 620 kg (1365 lb.) and specific weight .415 kg/kW (.683 lb/HP). The specific fuel consumption of the 895 kW (1200 SHP) engine is 187 g/hWh (.308 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 465 kg (1025 lb.) and specific weight .520 kg/kW (.854 lb/HP).

  8. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels. PMID:22519083

  9. Natural gas fueling of diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The focus of work performed by University of British Columbia researchers was on high-pressure (late cycle) injection of NG ignited by a pilot diesel-liquid injection(diesel/gas combustion). This was compared to the case of 100% liquid diesel (baseline diesel) fueling at the same load and speed. In typical direct-injected and conventionally fueled diesel engines, fuel is injected a few degrees before the end of the compression stroke into 750--900 K air in which it vaporizes, mixed with air, and auto ignites less than 2 ms after injection begins. The objectives of the researchers` work were to investigate the ignition delay and combustion duration of diesel/gas combustion by observing diesel and diesel/gas ignition sites and flame structure; determining ignition delay and combustion duration with pilot-diesel and natural gas injections; determining whether the pilot liquid flame is substantially influenced by the gas injection; and considering whether pilot-diesel/gas combustion is dominated by premixed or diffusion combustion.

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  11. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  12. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li-Ping Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen; Litak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-15

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  13. Balancer structure for three-cylinder engines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes a balancer structure for a three-cylinder in-line engine having aligned three cylinders, a crankshaft having crank arms disposed at angles of 120/sup 0/ with respect to each other and operatively connected to the cylinders, respectively. This structure consists of: 1.) a single countershaft adjacent and parallel to and rotated at the same speed as the crankshaft but in the opposite direction; 2.) a counterweight is securely mounted on the crankshaft only at positions corresponding to the first and third cylinders for balancing a part of inertia force of reciprocating mases and the entire inertia force of rotating masses; 3.) at least one second counterweight securely mounted on the crankshaft substantially opposite to the crank arm corresponding to the second cylinder for balancing another part of the inertia force of the reciprocating masses; 4.) at least two balancers securely mounted on the countershaft at both ends for the balancing of the remainder of the inertia force of the reciprocating masses and a couple of inertia of the crankshaft about an axis perpendicular to the crankshaft.

  14. White smoke emissions under cold starting of diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yassine, M.K.; Tagomori, M.K.; Henein, N.A.; Bryzik, W.

    1996-09-01

    More stringent regulations have been enforced over the past few years on diesel exhaust emissions. White smoke emission, a characteristic of diesel engines during cold starting, needs to be controlled in order to meet these regulations. This study investigates the sources and constituents of white smoke. The effects of fuel properties, design and operating parameters on the formation and emissions of white smoke are discussed. A new technique is developed to measure the real time gaseous hydrocarbons (HC) as well as the solid and liquid particulates. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine in a cold room. The gaseous HC emissions are measured using a high frequency response flame ionization detector. The liquid and solid particulates are collected on a paper filter placed upstream of the sampling line of the FID and their masses are determined. A comparative study is made between white smoke in its three forms for diesel fuel (DF2) and jet fuel (JP8). The fuel accumulated in the engine during cranking plays a major role in the emissions of white smoke under cold starting conditions.

  15. A small direct injection diesel engine with a swirl nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, T.; Sunami, K.; Mizuta, J.; Oshima, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A new combustion system for a small direct injection diesel engine has been developed, with a spheroidal cavity and swirl nozzle characterized by weak spray penetration and wide spray angle. This system is intended to realize air-borne mixture formation and good combustion processes over wide operating ranges. In-cylinder observations of the system reveal that droplets are easily bent in the direction of air movement, ignition occurs near the spray tip, and the flame is hard to envelop the spray. In a single cylinder engine of 460 cm/sup 3/ swept volume, the system realizes active diffusion burning and mild premixed burning despite of long ignition delay, and provides low fuel consumption and low smoke emission, especially at low speeds.

  16. The Cummins advanced turbocompound diesel engine evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehne, J. L.; Werner, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced turbocompound diesel engine program was initiated to improve the tank mileage of the turbocompound engine by 5% over the vehicle test engines. Engine improvements could be realized by increasing the available energy of the exhaust gas at the turbine inlet, incorporating gas turbine techniques into improving the turbomachinery efficiencies, and through refined engine system optimization. The individual and cumulative performance gains achieved with the advanced turbocompound engine improvements are presented.

  17. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-15

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  18. A Preliminary Study of Fuel Injection and Compression Ignition as Applied to an Aircraft Engine Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, Arthur W

    1927-01-01

    This report summarizes some results obtained with a single cylinder test engine at the Langley Field Laboratory during a preliminary investigation of the problem of applying fuel injection and compression ignition to aircraft engines. For this work a standard Liberty Engine cylinder was fitted with a high compression, 11.4 : 1 compression ratio, piston, and equipped with an airless injection system, including a primary fuel pump, an injection pump, and an automatic injection valve. The results obtained during this investigation have indicated the possibility of applying airless injection and compression ignition to a cylinder of this size, 8-inch bore by 7-inch stroke, when operating at engine speeds as high as 1,850 R. P. M. A minimum specific fuel consumption with diesel engine fuel oil of 0.30 pound per I. HP. Hour was obtained when developing about 16 B. HP. At 1,730 R. P. M.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of a Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke, Single Cylinder, Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    Turbocharging an engine increases specific power, improves fuel economy, reduces emissions, and lowers cost compared to a naturally aspirated engine of the same power output. These advantages make turbocharging commonplace for multi-cylinder engines. Single cylinder engineers are not commonly turbocharged due to the phase lag between the exhaust stroke, which powers the turbocharger, and the intake stroke, when air is pumped into the engine. Our proposed method of turbocharging single cylinder engines is to add an ``air capacitor'' to the intake manifold, an additional volume that acts as a buffer to store compressed air between the exhaust and intake strokes, and smooth out the pressure pulses from the turbocharger. This talk presents experimental results from a single cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fit with various sized air capacitors. Power output from the engine was measured using a dynamometer made from a generator, with the electrical power dissipated with resistive heating elements. We found that intake air density increases with capacitor size as theoretically predicted, ranging from 40 to 60 percent depending on heat transfer. Our experiment was able to produce 29 percent more power compared to using natural aspiration. These results validated that an air capacitor and turbocharger may be a simple, cost effective means of increasing the power density of single cylinder engines.

  20. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  1. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  2. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  3. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  5. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  6. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  7. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section...

  8. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  9. Fabrication and testing of a ceramic two-cycle diesel engine. Final report, 29 November 1983-31 January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    MacBeth, J.W.

    1986-03-31

    The project effort was focused around evaluating the friction horsepower performance of a single-cylinder two-stroke opposed-piston diesel engine, fabricated from conventional metal components and then with the substitution of ceramic components for the cylinder liner and pistons. The ceramic configurations were run ringless and without cylinder lubrication. Frictional torque measurements were 50% lower than in the standard baseline case.

  10. THE DIESEL ENGINE'S CHALLENGE IN THE NEW MILLENIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, John W.

    2000-08-20

    Diesel engines are the dominant propulsion engine of choice for most of the commercial surface transportation applications in the world. Consider agricultural uses: Diesel engine power is used to prepare the soil, transport the bulk seed or seedlings, pump irrigation water, and spray fertilizers, mechanically harvest some crops and distribute the produce to market. Diesel engines power virtually all of the off-highway construction equipment. Deep water commercial freighters or containerships are almost all diesel engine powered. The passenger ships are primarily either diesel or a combination of diesel and gas turbine, referred to as CODAG or CODOG.

  11. Topograph for Inspection of Engine Cylinder Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Stefan; Leonhardt, Klaus; Windecker, Robert; Tiziani, Hans J.

    1999-12-01

    The microstructural inspection of engine cylinder walls is an important task for quality management in the automotive industry. Until recently, mainly tactile methods were used for this purpose. We present an optical instrument based on microscopic fringe projection that permits fast, reliable, and nondestructive measurements of microstructure. The field of view is 0.8 mm 1.2 mm, with a spatial sampling of 1100 700 pixels. In contrast to conventional tactile sensors, the optical method provides fast in situ three-dimensional surface characterizations that provide more information about the surface than do line profiles. Measurements are presented, and advantages of this instrument for characterization of a surface are discussed.

  12. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  13. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  14. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  15. The effect of diesel injection timing on a turbocharged diesel engine fumigated with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, A.R.; Savage, L.D.; White, R.A.; Sorenson, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    A study has been done to determine the effect of changes in diesel injection timing on engine performance using a multicylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fumigated with ethanol. Tests at half load with engine speeds of 2000 and 2400 rpm indicated that a 4% increase in thermal efficiency could be obtained by advancing the diesel injection timing from 18 to 29/sup 0/BTDC. The effect of changes in diesel timing was much more pronounced at 2400 rpm. Advancing the diesel timing decreased CO and unburned HC levels significantly. The increase in NO levels due to advances in diesel timing was offset by the decrease in NO due to ethanol addition.

  16. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  17. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  18. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  19. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  20. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.336-79 Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer...

  1. Laser-induced incandescence measurements in a fired diesel engine at 3 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxx, I. G.; Heinold, O.; Geigle, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced incandescence (LII) was performed at 3 kHz in an optically accessible cylinder of a fired diesel engine using a commercially available diode-pumped solid-state laser and an intensified CMOS camera. The resulting images, acquired every 3° of crank angle, enabled the spatiotemporal tracking of soot structures during the expansion/exhaust stroke of the engine cycle. The image sequences demonstrate that soot tends to form in thin sheets that propagate and interact with the in-cylinder flow. These sheets tend to align parallel to the central axis of the cylinder and are frequently wrapped into conical spirals by aerodynamic swirl. Most of the soot is observed well away from the cylinder walls. Quantitative soot measurements were beyond the scope of this study but the results demonstrate the practical utility of using kHz-rate LII to acquire ensemble-averaged statistical data with high crank angle resolution over a complete engine cycle. Based on semi-quantitative measures of soot distribution, it was possible to identify soot dynamics related to incomplete charge exchange. This study shows that long-duration, multi-kHz acquisition rate LII measurements are viable in a fired diesel engine with currently available laser and camera technology, albeit only in the expansion and exhaust phase of the cycle at present. Furthermore, such measurements yield useful insight into soot dynamics and therefore constitute an important new tool for the development and optimization of diesel engine technology.

  2. Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin

    1938-01-01

    From a consideration of heat-transfer theory, semi-empirical expressions are set up for the transfer of heat from the combustion gases to the cylinder of an air-cooled engine and from the cylinder to the cooling air. Simple equations for the average head and barrel temperatures as functions of the important engine and cooling variables are obtained from these expressions. The expressions involve a few empirical constants, which may be readily determined from engine tests. Numerical values for these constants were obtained from single-cylinder engine tests for cylinders of the Pratt & Whitney 1535 and 1340-h engines. The equations provide a means of calculating the effect of the various engine and cooling variables on the cylinder temperatures and also of correlating the results of engine cooling tests. An example is given of the application of the equations to the correlation of cooling-test data obtained in flight.

  3. Cermet Filters To Reduce Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter

    2001-08-05

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.Diesel engines currently emit soot and NOx that pollute our air. It is expected that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will begin tightening the regulatory requirements to control these emissions. The INEEL's self-cleaning, high temperature cermet filter provides a technology to clean heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Under high engine exhaust temperatures, the cermet filter simultaneously removes carbon particles and NOx from the exhaust gas. The cermet filter is made from inexpensive starting materials, via net shape bulk forming and a single-step combustion synthesis process, and can be brazed to existing structures. It is self-cleaning, lightweight, mechanically strong, thermal shock resistant, and has a high melting temperature, high heat capacity, and controllable thermal expansion coefficient. The filter's porosity is controlled to provide high removal efficiency for carbon particulate. It can be made catalytic to oxidize CO, H2, and hydrocarbons, and reduce NOx. When activated by engine exhaust, the filter produces NH3 and light hydrocarbon

  4. Real Otto and Diesel Engine Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giedd, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the properties of otto/diesel engines during the time they operate with open chambers illustrates applicability of thermodynamics to real systems, demonstrates how delivered power is controlled, and explains the source of air pollution in terms of thermodynamic laws. (Author/JN)

  5. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  6. Combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alt, Otto

    1924-01-01

    Hitherto, definite specifications have always been made for fuel oils and they have been classified as more or less good or non-utilizable. The present aim, however, is to build Diesel engines capable of using even the poorest liquid fuels and especially the waste products of the oil industry, without special chemical or physical preparation.

  7. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  8. Experimental Investigations on Conventional and Semi-Adiabatic Diesel Engine Using Simarouba Biodiesel as Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, M. U.; Reddy, C. P.; Ravindranath, K.

    2013-04-01

    In view of fast depletion of fossil fuels and the rapid rate at which the fuel consumption is taking place all over the world, scientists are searching for alternate fuels for maintaining the growth industrially and economically. Hence search for alternate fuel(s) has become imminent. Out of the limited options for internal combustion engines, the bio diesel fuel appears to be the best. Many advanced countries are implementing several biodiesel initiatives and developmental programmes in order to become self sufficient and reduce the import bills. Biodiesel is biodegradable and renewable fuel with the potential to enhance the performance and reduce engine exhaust emissions. This is due to ready usage of existing diesel engines, fuel distribution pattern, reduced emission profiles, and eco-friendly properties of biodiesel. Simarouba biodiesel (SBD), the methyl ester of Simarouba oil is one such alternative fuel which can be used as substitute to conventional petro-diesel. The present work involves experimental investigation on the use of SBD blends as fuel in conventional diesel engine and semi-adiabatic diesel engine. The oil was triple filtered to eliminate particulate matter and then transesterified to obtain biodiesel. The project envisaged aims at conducting analysis of diesel with SBD blends (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) in conventional engine and semi-adiabatic engine. Also it was decided to vary the injection pressure (180, 190 and 200 bar) and observe its effect on performance and also suggest better value of injection pressure. The engine was made semi adiabatic by coating the piston crown with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Kirloskar AV I make (3.67 kW) vertical, single cylinder, water cooled diesel engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer with suitable measuring instrumentation/accessories used for the study. Experiments were initially carried out using pure diesel fuel to provide base line data. The test results were compared based on the performance

  9. The use of neural nets for matching compressors with diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.A. II; Filipi, Z.S.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A technique which uses trained neural nets to model the compressor in the context of a turbocharged diesel engine simulation is introduced. This technique replaces the usual interpolation of compressor maps with the evaluation of a smooth mathematical function, thus providing engine simulations with greater robustness and flexibility. Following presentation of the methodology, the proposed neural net technique is validated against data from a truck type, 6-cylinder, 14 liter diesel engine. Furthermore, with the introduction of an additional parameter, the proposed neural net can be trained to simulate an entire family of compressors. As a demonstration, five compressors of different sizes are represented with the neural net model, and used for matching calculations with intercooled and non-intercooled engine configurations at different speeds. This novel approach readily allows for evaluation of various options prior to prototype production, and is thus a powerful design tool for selection of the best compressor for a given diesel engine system.

  10. Simultaneous optimization of diesel engine parameters for low emissions using Taguchi methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.E.; Gardner, T.P.; Zakrajsek, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a study which was conducted to simultaneously optimize several diesel engine design and operating parameters for low exhaust emissions using the Taguchi method. A single cylinder, research, diesel engine equipped with a high pressure, cam-driven, electronic unit injector was used in this optimization experiment. The major effects of key engine design parameters on exhaust emissions were quantified and optimum parameter settings were determined. Measurement of exhaust emissions using the optimum parameter settings showed that particulates and NO{sub x} emissions were significantly lower than those obtained for the baseline engine. The Taguchi method was found to be a useful technique for the simultaneous optimization of several engine parameters and for predicting the effect of various design parameters on diesel exhaust emissions.

  11. Computer Code For Turbocompounded Adiabatic Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Heywood, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Computer simulation developed to study advantages of increased exhaust enthalpy in adiabatic turbocompounded diesel engine. Subsytems of conceptual engine include compressor, reciprocator, turbocharger turbine, compounded turbine, ducting, and heat exchangers. Focus of simulation of total system is to define transfers of mass and energy, including release and transfer of heat and transfer of work in each subsystem, and relationship among subsystems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  12. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective of Caterpillar's subcontract with ORNL is to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  13. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. Brad

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying thick thermal barrier coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective Caterpillar's program to date has been to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impeded the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  14. Complete modeling for systems of a marine diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahim, Hassan Moussa; Younes, Rafic; Nohra, Chadi; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a simulator model of a marine diesel engine based on physical, semi-physical, mathematical and thermodynamic equations, which allows fast predictive simulations. The whole engine system is divided into several functional blocks: cooling, lubrication, air, injection, combustion and emissions. The sub-models and dynamic characteristics of individual blocks are established according to engine working principles equations and experimental data collected from a marine diesel engine test bench for SIMB Company under the reference 6M26SRP1. The overall engine system dynamics is expressed as a set of simultaneous algebraic and differential equations using sub-blocks and S-Functions of Matlab/Simulink. The simulation of this model, implemented on Matlab/Simulink has been validated and can be used to obtain engine performance, pressure, temperature, efficiency, heat release, crank angle, fuel rate, emissions at different sub-blocks. The simulator will be used, in future work, to study the engine performance in faulty conditions, and can be used to assist marine engineers in fault diagnosis and estimation (FDI) as well as designers to predict the behavior of the cooling system, lubrication system, injection system, combustion, emissions, in order to optimize the dimensions of different components. This program is a platform for fault simulator, to investigate the impact on sub-blocks engine's output of changing values for faults parameters such as: faulty fuel injector, leaky cylinder, worn fuel pump, broken piston rings, a dirty turbocharger, dirty air filter, dirty air cooler, air leakage, water leakage, oil leakage and contamination, fouling of heat exchanger, pumps wear, failure of injectors (and many others).

  15. A 150 and 300 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine was reinvestigated as an aircraft powerplant through design study conducted to arrive at engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed, a 300 kW six-cylinder engine for twin engine general aviation aircraft and a 150 kW four-cylinder engine for single engine aircraft. Descriptions of each engine include concept drawings, a performance analysis, stress and weight data, and a cost study. This information was used to develop two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consists of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs, and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data show a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft.

  16. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark

    2013-08-13

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  17. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    ScienceCinema

    Musculus, Mark

    2014-02-26

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  18. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.

    2016-05-01

    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

  19. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  20. Topograph for inspection of engine cylinder walls.

    PubMed

    Franz, S; Leonhardt, K; Windecker, R; Tiziani, H J

    1999-12-20

    The microstructural inspection of engine cylinder walls is an important task for quality management in the automotive industry. Until recently, mainly tactile methods were used for this purpose. We present an optical instrument based on microscopic fringe projection that permits fast, reliable, and nondestructive measurements of microstructure. The field of view is 0.8 mm x 1.2 mm, with a spatial sampling of 1100 x 700 pixels. In contrast to conventional tactile sensors, the optical method provides fast in situ three-dimensional surface characterizations that provide more information about the surface than do line profiles. Measurements are presented, and advantages of this instrument for characterization of a surface are discussed. PMID:18324287

  1. Preliminary investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations in a nonair-breathing diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, M.; Reader, G.T.

    1995-03-01

    The effect of nonair mixtures on cycle-to-cycle variations of cylinder pressure characteristics was investigated experimentally with an indirect-injected (IDI) diesel engine. The engine intake temperature and pressure were maintained at normal air-breathing conditions when operated with nonair mixtures. Preliminary results indicate that increases in carbon dioxide concentration can cause significant cyclic variations. Moreover, the extent of such cyclic variations is notably influenced by the oxygen concentration and inert gas constitutents of the working fluids.

  2. 9. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGHPRESSURE CYLINDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGH-PRESSURE CYLINDER AND EXTENSION OF HOUSING. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  3. 7. Detail view of steam engine showing cylinder, crosshead guide, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of steam engine showing cylinder, crosshead guide, eccentric red and valve mechanism. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  4. 13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of disassembled steam engine showing cylinder, piston rod, parallel motion links and steam chest. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  5. Indicator system provides complete data of engine cylinder pressure variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Jones, R. W.; Morgan, N. E.

    1966-01-01

    Varying reference pressure used together with a balanced pressure pickup /a diaphragm switch/ to switch the electric output of the pressure transducer in a reference pressure line obtains precise engine cylinder pressure data from a high speed internal combustion engine.

  6. Performance of Air-cooled Engine Cylinders Using Blower Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1936-01-01

    An investigation was made to obtain information on the minimum quantity of air and power required to cool conventional air cooled cylinders at various operating conditions when using a blower. The results of these tests show that the minimum power required for satisfactory cooling with an overall blower efficiency of 100 percent varied from 2 to 6 percent of the engine power depending on the operating conditions. The shape of the jacket had a large effect on the cylinder temperatures. Increasing the air speed over the front of the cylinder by keeping the greater part of the circumference of the cylinder covered by the jacket reduced the temperatures over the entire cylinder.

  7. Control of diesel engine emissions by dilute oxidizer injection

    SciTech Connect

    Duva, A.W.; Ibrahim, O.; Zhang, Z.

    1996-12-31

    The current diesel engine power systems have progressed to the point where significant reduction in emissions or fuel consumption are at the limit of the state of the art with the present fuels. It is proposed that overall system weight, power or efficiency must be traded to achieve reduced exhaust emission levels. Emission control through the injection of dilute oxidizers are explored to minimize the formation of noxious gases, emission of unburned hydrocarbons and soot in internal combustion diesel cycle engines. Relevant literature detailing the attempts to control exhaust emissions by altering the intake charge are reviewed and utilized as the foundation for the current study. Steady flow type combustion simulations utilizing low concentration hydrogen peroxide with available air in varying ratios are presented for trend comparison to experimental data developed during this investigation. The empirical portion of the study focused on the adaptation of proposed dilute hydrogen peroxide injection to a standard four cylinder marine diesel engine. The main thrust evaluated the impact of oxidizer injection on an aging engine without significant modifications to the existing auxiliary equipment. A simple spray apparatus delivered the dilute hydrogen peroxide to the air intake stream to minimize the alterations to the existing system. Water injection was performed as an experimental control for comparison to reference literature and to normalize the results obtained from the injection of the 5% and 10% concentration hydrogen peroxide. The injection of both concentrations of hydrogen peroxide showed an improvement relative to water injection for unburned hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions. The improvements relative to water was greater with the higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide.

  8. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  9. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L.; Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J.

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  10. Catalytic converter for a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelison, R.C.; Retallick, W.B.

    1987-06-16

    A catalytic converter for a diesel engine is describes comprising at least one metal strip, the strip being formed into an undulating series of U-bends, the series comprising U-bends that are open on top and U-bends that are closed on top, the open and closed U-bends alternating in a checkerboard pattern, the strip being aligned generally transversely to the direction of flow of exhaust gas from the engine, the strip defining a tortuous flow path for exhaust gas from the engine, the strip being coated with a combination catalyst.

  11. Bank Angle of a V-Type 12-Cylinder Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Norio; Nakagawa, Akihito; Kitamura, Ryuji

    As the automobile engine advances towards higher performance and higher power, the increase in displacement and the number of cylinders in the engine has led to larger engines. As a result, the need for rigidity countermeasures and reductions in size and weight have brought about the switch from in-line type engines to V-type engines. Currently, most of the V-type automobile engines produced have six or eight cylinders, and some large passenger cars produced in Europe and America have V-type engines with 10 or 12 cylinders. The bank angles of engines in these passenger are almost fixed based on the cylinder number. Therefore, the form of the V-type engine is limited according to the number of cylinders. The present study examines the bank angle of a V-12 engine by performing a detailed analysis of the relationship between the cylinder arrangement and the exciting moment. The goal of the present study is to find a bank angle that has as of yet not been applied to the V-type engine so that the layouts of the absorption and exhaust systems, as well as the attached apparatuses, can be reconfigured.

  12. Fuel injectors for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, B.D.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a system for delivering a coal-water slurry fuel into an internal combustion engine. It comprises: means for delivering the fuel into the engine at predetermined time intervals during the engine's operating cycle; a coal-water slurry source operatively connected t the fuel delivery means; and means for adding replenishment water, operatively connected to the fuel delivery means and a source of replenishment water, to residual fuel in the system between operating cycles, the replenishment water comprising about 70% water and about 30% water soluble lubricant, such that the replenishment water dilutes the residual fuel, purges dried coal particle and reduces clogging.

  13. Detecting the crankshaft torsional vibration of diesel engines for combustion related diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, P.; Sinha, Jyoti K.; Gu, F.; Lidstone, L.; Ball, A. D.

    2009-04-01

    Early fault detection and diagnosis for medium-speed diesel engines is important to ensure reliable operation throughout the course of their service. This work presents an investigation of the diesel engine combustion related fault detection capability of crankshaft torsional vibration. The encoder signal, often used for shaft speed measurement, has been used to construct the instantaneous angular speed (IAS) waveform, which actually represents the signature of the torsional vibration. Earlier studies have shown that the IAS signal and its fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis are effective for monitoring engines with less than eight cylinders. The applicability to medium-speed engines, however, is strongly contested due to the high number of cylinders and large moment of inertia. Therefore the effectiveness of the FFT-based approach has further been enhanced by improving the signal processing to determine the IAS signal and subsequently tested on a 16-cylinder engine. In addition, a novel method of presentation, based on the polar coordinate system of the IAS signal, has also been introduced; to improve the discrimination features of the faults compared to the FFT-based approach of the IAS signal. The paper discusses two typical experimental studies on 16- and 20-cylinder engines, with and without faults, and the diagnosis results by the proposed polar presentation method. The results were also compared with the earlier FFT-based method of the IAS signal.

  14. Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-31

    Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

  15. Development of the Junkers-diesel Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasterstadt,

    1930-01-01

    The working process of the Junkers engine has resulted from a series of attempts to attain high performance and to control the necessarily rapid and complete combustion at extremely high speeds. The two main problems of Diesel engines in aircraft are addressed; namely, incomplete combustion and the greater weight of Diesel engine parts compared to gasoline engines.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  17. Effect of compression ratio on the performance, combustion and emission from a diesel engine using palm biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Ambarish; Mandal, Bijan Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The authors have simulated a single cylinder diesel engine using Diesel-RK software to investigate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the engine using palm biodiesel and petro-diesel. The simulation has been carried out for three compression ratios of 16, 17 and 18 at constant speed of 1500 rpm. The analysis of simulation results show that brake thermal efficiency decreases and brake specific fuel consumption increases with the use of palm biodiesel instead of diesel. The thermal efficiency increases and the brake specific fuel consumption decreases with the increase of compression ratio. The higher compression ratio results in higher in-cylinder pressure and higher heat release rate as well as lower ignition delay. The NOx and CO2 emissions increase at higher compression ratio due to the higher pressure and temperature. On the other hand, the specific PM emission and smoke opacity are less at higher compression ratio.

  18. Vehicle testing of Cummins turbocompound diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brands, M. C.; Werner, J. R.; Hoehne, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two turbocompound diesel engines were installed in Class VIII heavy-duty vehicles to determine the fuel consumption potential and performance characteristics. One turbocompound powered vehicle was evaluated at the Cummins Pilot Center where driveability, fuel consumption, torsional vibration, and noise were evaluated. Fuel consumption testing showed a 14.8% benefit for the turbocompound engine in comparison to a production NTC-400 used as a baseline. The turbocompound engine also achieved lower noise levels, improved driveability, improved gradeability, and marginally superior engine retardation. The second turbocompound engine was placed in commercial service and accumulated 50,000 miles on a cross-country route without malfunction. Tank mileage revealed a 15.92% improvement over a production NTCC-400 which was operating on the same route.

  19. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  20. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  1. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  2. Emission control apparatus for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. B.

    1980-02-26

    Apparatus for controlling the emission of exhaust gases from a diesel engine used in mining operations consists of a purifier chamber within a water jacketed adaptor and having an inlet for connection to the outlet from the exhaust manifold of the engine. The purifier chamber contains a catalytic purifier for the reduction of carbon monoxide passing from the inlet of the purifier chamber to its outlet, which is connected to a water scrubber for the reduction of the temperature of exhaust gases, the removal of some of the products of combustion, and for quenching exhaust flames.

  3. Durability, Performance, and Emission of Diesel Engines Using Carbon Fiber Piston and Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afify, E. M.; Roberts, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the research conducted by NC State University in investigating the durability, performance and emission of a carbon fiber piston and liner in our single cylinder research Diesel engine. Both the piston and liner were supplied to NC State University by NASA LaRC and manufactured by C-CAT under a separate contract to NASA LaRC. The carbon-carbon material used to manufacture the piston and liner has significantly lower thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and superior strength characteristics at elevated temperatures when compared to conventional piston materials such as aluminum. The results of the carbon-carbon fiber piston testing were compared to a baseline configuration, which used a conventional aluminum piston in a steel liner. The parameters measured were the brake specific fuel consumption, ignition delay, frictional horsepower, volumetric efficiency, and durability characteristics of the two pistons. Testing was performed using a naturally aspirated Labeco Direct Injection single cylinder diesel engine. Two test cases were performed over a range of loads and speeds. The fixed test condition between the aluminum and carbon-carbon piston configurations was the brake mean effective pressure. The measured data was the fuel consumption rate, volumetric efficiency, load, speed, cylinder pressure, needle lift, and exhaust gas temperature. The cylinder pressure, and fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, and needle lift were recorded using a National Instruments DAQ board and a PC. All test cases used Diesel no. 2 for fuel.

  4. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  5. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylinder chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.

  6. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  7. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.

  8. Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fueled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zuohua; Lu, Hongbing; Jiang, Deming; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Junqiang; Wang, Xibin

    2004-12-01

    A stabilized diesel/methanol blend was described and the basic combustion behaviors based on the cylinder pressure analysis was conducted in a compression-ignition engine. The study showed that increasing methanol mass fraction of the diesel/methanol blends would increase the heat release rate in the premixed burning phase and shorten the combustion duration of the diffusive burning phase. The ignition delay increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle for both the diesel fuel and the diesel/methanol blends. For a specific fuel delivery advance angle, the ignition delay increased with the increase of the methanol mass fraction (oxygen mass fraction) in the fuel blends and the behaviors were more obvious at low engine load and/or high engine speed. The rapid burn duration and the total combustion duration increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. The centre of the heat release curve was close to the top-dead-centre with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle. Maximum cylinder gas pressure increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and the maximum cylinder gas pressure of the diesel/methanol blends gave a higher value than that of the diesel fuel. The maximum mean gas temperature remained almost unchanged or had a slight increase with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle, and it only slightly increased for the diesel/methanol blends compared to that of the diesel fuel. The maximum rate of pressure rise and the maximum rate of heat release increased with the advancing of the fuel delivery advance angle of the diesel/methanol blends and the value was highest for the diesel/methanol blends. PMID:15288277

  9. An Enhanced Data Visualization Method for Diesel Engine Malfunction Classification Using Multi-Sensor Signals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiqing; Wang, Yu; Zi, Yanyang; Zhang, Mingquan

    2015-01-01

    The various multi-sensor signal features from a diesel engine constitute a complex high-dimensional dataset. The non-linear dimensionality reduction method, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE), provides an effective way to implement data visualization for complex high-dimensional data. However, irrelevant features can deteriorate the performance of data visualization, and thus, should be eliminated a priori. This paper proposes a feature subset score based t-SNE (FSS-t-SNE) data visualization method to deal with the high-dimensional data that are collected from multi-sensor signals. In this method, the optimal feature subset is constructed by a feature subset score criterion. Then the high-dimensional data are visualized in 2-dimension space. According to the UCI dataset test, FSS-t-SNE can effectively improve the classification accuracy. An experiment was performed with a large power marine diesel engine to validate the proposed method for diesel engine malfunction classification. Multi-sensor signals were collected by a cylinder vibration sensor and a cylinder pressure sensor. Compared with other conventional data visualization methods, the proposed method shows good visualization performance and high classification accuracy in multi-malfunction classification of a diesel engine. PMID:26506347

  10. Soot particle trajectories of a Di diesel engine at 18° ATDC crankshaft angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Mahmood, W. M. F. W.; Manaf, M. Z. A.; Zakaria, M. S.; Saadun, M. N. A.; Nordin, M. N. A.

    2013-12-01

    Among the major pollutants of diesel engine is soot. Soot is formed as an unwelcome product in combustion systems. Soot emission to the atmosphere leads to global air warming and health problems. Furthermore, deposition of soot particles on cylinder walls contaminates lubricant oil hence increases its viscosity. This reduces durability of lubricant oil, causing pumpability problems and increasing wear. Therefore, it is necessary to study soot formation and its movement in diesel engines. This study focuses on soot particle trajectories in diesel engines by considering the diameter of soot particles that were formed at 18° ATDC crankshaft angle. These soot particle movements are under the influence of drag force with different radial, axial and angular settings and simulated by using MATLAB routine. The mathematical algorithm which was used in the MATLAB routine is trilinear interpolation and 4th order of Runge Kutta. Simulation was carried out for a combustion system of 4 valves DI diesel engine from inlet valve closing (IVC) to exhaust valve opening (EVO). The results show that small diameter of soot particles were transferred near the cylinder wall while bigger soot particle mostly moved in inner radius of the combustion chamber.

  11. An enhanced data visualization method for diesel engine malfunction classification using multi-sensor signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiqing; Wang, Yu; Zi, Yanyang; Zhang, Mingquan

    2015-01-01

    The various multi-sensor signal features from a diesel engine constitute a complex high-dimensional dataset. The non-linear dimensionality reduction method, t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE), provides an effective way to implement data visualization for complex high-dimensional data. However, irrelevant features can deteriorate the performance of data visualization, and thus, should be eliminated a priori. This paper proposes a feature subset score based t-SNE (FSS-t-SNE) data visualization method to deal with the high-dimensional data that are collected from multi-sensor signals. In this method, the optimal feature subset is constructed by a feature subset score criterion. Then the high-dimensional data are visualized in 2-dimension space. According to the UCI dataset test, FSS-t-SNE can effectively improve the classification accuracy. An experiment was performed with a large power marine diesel engine to validate the proposed method for diesel engine malfunction classification. Multi-sensor signals were collected by a cylinder vibration sensor and a cylinder pressure sensor. Compared with other conventional data visualization methods, the proposed method shows good visualization performance and high classification accuracy in multi-malfunction classification of a diesel engine. PMID:26506347

  12. Ignition process in Diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentzel, W

    1936-01-01

    This report analyzes the heating and vaporization process of fuel droplets in a compression-ignition engine on the basis of the theory of similitude - according to which, the period for heating and complete vaporization of the average size fuel drop is only a fraction of the actually observed ignition lag. The result is that ignition takes place in the fuel vapor air mixture rather than on the surface of the drop. The theoretical result is in accord with the experimental observations by Rothrock and Waldron. The combustion shock occurring at lower terminal compression temperature, especially in the combustion of coal-tar oil, is attributable to a simultaneous igniting of a larger fuel-vapor volume formed prior to ignition.

  13. General view of Main Steam Engine for shop lineshaft, cylinder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Main Steam Engine for shop lineshaft, cylinder side - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Machine Shop, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  14. In-Cylinder Flow Through An Internal Combustion (IC) Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Samira; Gibson, Kendrick; Puzinauskas, Paulius; Qi, Yongli

    2008-11-01

    IC engine performance is strongly influenced by large-scale in-cylinder motion developed during the intake process. This work was part of a larger effort to characterize and augment in-cylinder flow structures to improve lean limit and exhaust gas recirculation tolerance. Ultimately the flow structures are to be characterized with unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. This study provided digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) flow visualization data under steady conditions to improve the calibration of the CFD work. An engine cylinder head was mounted on a transparent cylinder with a fixed piston. Air was drawn through using a steady flow bench, and DPIV images were obtained from the cylinder. Measurements were made at four suction pressures and four valve lift to diameter ratios for a total of sixteen cases. After initial measurements, intake port modifications were made to enhance tumble. The modifications created more definitive tumble flow.

  15. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  16. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  17. Thermal and mechanical analysis of major components for the advanced adiabatic diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The proposed design for the light duty diesel is an in-line four cylinder spark assisted diesel engine mounted transversely in the front of the vehicle. The engine has a one piece cylinder head, with one intake valve and one exhaust valve per cylinder. A flat topped piston is used with a cylindrical combustion chamber recessed into the cylinder head directly under the exhaust valve. A single ceramic insert is cast into the cylinder head to insulate both the combustion chamber and the exhaust port. A similar ceramic insert is cast into the head to insulate the intake port. A ceramic faceplate is pressed into the combustion face of the head to insulate the face of the head from hot combustion gas. The valve seats are machined directly into the ceramic faceplate for the intake valve and into the ceramic exhaust pot insert for the exhaust valve. Additional ceramic applications in the head are the use of ceramic valve guides and ceramic insulated valves. The ceramic valve guides are press fit into the head and are used for increased wear resistance. The ceramic insulated valves are conventional valves with the valve faces plasma spray coated with ceramic for insulation.

  18. Short-term performance of diesel oil and sunflower oil mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.; Marohl, M.; Kucera, H.L.

    1982-05-01

    A series of short tests were run on two different makes of diesel tractor. The fuel used in addition to the No. 2 diesel fuel were refined sunflower oil, crude sunflower oil and five blends of each of these fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine performance parameters measured include: engine power, volumetric fuel efficiency, thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature, Bosch smoke number and fuel flow. (Refs. 3).

  19. Combustion characteristics of a turbocharged DI compression ignition engine fueled with petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Canakci, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO(x) increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO(x) and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine. PMID:16822672

  20. Oxygen-enriched diesel engine performance: A comparison of analytical and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Assanis, D.N. ); Schaus, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Use of oxygen-enriched combustion air in diesel engines can lead to significant improvements in power density, as well as reductions in particulate emissions, but at the expense of higher NO{sub x} emissions. Oxygen enrichment would also lead to lower ignition delays and the opportunity to burn lower grade fuels. Analytical and experimental studies are being conducted in parallel to establish the optimal combination of oxygen level and diesel fuel properties. In this paper, cylinder pressure data acquired on a single-cylinder engine are used to generate heat release rates for operation under various oxygen contents. These derived heat release rates are in turn used to improve the combustion correlation -- and thus the prediction capability -- of the simulation code. It is shown that simulated and measured cylinder pressures and other performance parameters are in good agreement. The improved simulation can provide sufficiently accurate predictions of trends and magnitudes to be useful in parametric studies assessing the effects of oxygen enrichment and water injection on diesel engine performance. Measured ignition delays, NO{sub x} emissions, and particulate emissions are also compared with previously published data. The measured ignition delays are slightly lower than previously reported. Particulate emissions measured in this series of tests are significantly lower than previously reported. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Commercialization of coal diesel engines for non-utility and export power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Mayville, R.A.; Itse, D.; Kimberley, J.; Parkinson, J.

    1993-11-01

    The basic motivation behind this project is to develop coal-burning heat engine technology primarily for 10-100 MW modular stationary power applications in the late 1990`s and beyond, when oil and gas prices may return to the $5--7/MMBtu range. The fuel is a low-cost, coal-based liquid with the consistency of black paint, composed of 12-micron mean size premium 2% ash coal dust mixed 50/50 with water. The Clean Coal Diesel Plant of the future is targeted for the 10-100 MW non-utility generation (NUG) and small utility markets, including independent power producers (IPP) and cogeneration. A family of plant designs will be offered using the Cooper-Bessemer 3.8, 5.0, and 6.3 MW Model LS engines as building blocks. In addition, larger plants will be configured with an engine in the 10-25 MW class (Cooper will license the technology to other large bore stationary engine manufacturers). The reciprocating engine offers a remarkable degree of flexibility in selecting plant capacity. This flexibility exists because the engines are modular in every sense (fuel cell stacks have similar modularity). Scale-up is accomplished simply by adding cylinders (e.g., 20 vs 16) or by adding engines (4 vs 3). There is no scale-up of the basic cylinder size. Thus, there is essentially no technical development needed to scale-up the Cooper-Bessemer Clean Coal Diesel Technology all the way from 2 MW (one 6-cylinder engine) to 50 MW (eight 20-cylinder engines), other than engineering adaptation of the turbocharger to match the engine.

  2. 7. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING CYLINDER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING CYLINDER AND CROSS HEAD OF PISTON AT THE LOW PRESSURE SIDE OF ENGINE. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  3. 8. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING CYLINDER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING CYLINDER AND CROSS HEAD OF PISTON AT THE HIGH-PRESSURE SIDE OF ENGINE. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  4. 11. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGHPRESSURE CYLINDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGH-PRESSURE CYLINDER AND VALVE, AND LUBRICATING EQUIPMENT FOR ENGINE. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  5. Study of using oxygen-enriched combustion air for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Assanis, D.N.; Cataldi, G.R.

    1996-10-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study effects of O2-enriched intake air on performance and NO emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. Parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the O2-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, gross and net power output of an engine operating under different levels of O2 enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in 13% increase in net engine power when intake air with 28 vol% O2 is used and fuel injection timing retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in only 4% improvement in power. If part of the higher exhaust enthalpies from the O2 enrichment is recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met. O2 enrichment with its higher combustion temperatures reduces emissions of particulates and visible smoke but increases NO emissions (by up to 3 times at 26% O2 content). Therefore, exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required if the full potential of O2 enrichment for improving the performance of locomotive diesel engines is to be realized.

  6. Speed control of automotive diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outbib, Rachid; Graton, Guillaume; Dovifaaz, Xavier; Younes, Rafic

    2014-04-01

    This paper deals with Diesel engine control. More precisely, a model-based approach is considered to stabilise engine speed around a defined value. The model taken into account is nonlinear and contains explicitly the expression of fuel conversion efficiency. In general in the literature, this experimentally obtained quantity is modelled with either a polynomial or an exponential form (see for instance Younes, R. (1993). Elaboration d'un modèle de connaissance du moteur diesel avec turbocompresseur à géométrie variable en vue de l'optimisation de ses émissions. Ecole Centrale de Lyon; Omran, R., Younes, R., Champoussin, J., & Outbib, R. (2011). New indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) model for predicting crankshaft movement. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 3376-3382). This paper focuses on engine speed feedback stabilisation when fuel conversion efficiency is modelled with an exponential form, which is more suitable for automative applications. Simulation results are proposed to highlight the closed-loop control performances.

  7. Studies on the practical application of producer gas from agricultural residues as supplementary fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, I.E.

    1980-01-01

    Gasification of various agricultural residues in down-draft, fixed bed gas producers and the utilization of the gas in small diesel engines converted for dual-fuel operation were studied at the College of Engineering, University of the Philippines. Such agricultural residues as coconut shells, wood waste, rice hulls and corn cobs were readily gasified in gas producers of simple design. Cleaning of the gas before its use in diesel engines presented some problems. Use of charcoal in the gas producers to provide gas to a 5-brake horsepower single cylinder engine and a 65-brake horsepower six cylinder engine proved satisfactory. With charcoal as fuel, the percentage of the total energy from diesel oil replaced by producer gas and utilized in the single cylinder engine was higher (79%) compared to that in the six cylinder engine (73%). The thermal efficiency of the bigger gas producer, however was significantly better (85%) compared to the smaller gas producer (70%). The total gasification rate of the bigger reactor (20 kg/h) was 8 times that (2.5 kg/h) of the smaller reactor.

  8. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, B.; Bose, P. K.; Panua, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    Continuous effort to reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides from internal combustion engines, have promoted research for alternative fuels. Vegetable oils, because of their agricultural origin and due to less carbon content compared to mineral diesel are producing less CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. It also reduces import of petroleum products. In the present contribution, experiments were conducted using Jatropha oil blends with diesel to study the effect on performance and emissions characteristics of a existing diesel engine. In this study viscosity of Jatropha oil was reduced by blending with diesel. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, diesel engine was used. The results show that for lower blend concentrations various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke opacity, CO2, and NO x emissions are acceptable compared to that of mineral diesel. But, it was observed that for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were much inferior compared to diesel.

  9. Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-fueled adiabatic diesel engine: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder fueled diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-fueled engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder fuel. The major coal-fueled engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-fueled engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual fuel (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-fueled engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-fueled engine with a glow plug; and coal-fueled-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.

  10. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. PMID:22561182

  11. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Elsner, N. B.; Bass, J. C.; Ghamaty, S.; Krommenhoek, D.; Kushch, A.; Snowden, D.; Marchetti, S.

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  12. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel. PMID:27350999

  13. Performance, Emission, Energy, and Exergy Analysis of a C.I. Engine Using Mahua Biodiesel Blends with Diesel.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on a four-stroke single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with the blends of Mahua oil methyl ester (MOME) and diesel. The performance emission, energy, and exergy analysis has been carried out in B20 (mixture of 80% diesel by volume with 20% MOME). From energy analysis, it was observed that the fuel energy input as well as energy carried away by exhaust gases was 6.25% and 11.86% more in case of diesel than that of B20. The unaccounted losses were 10.21% more in case of diesel than B20. The energy efficiency was 28%, while the total losses were 72% for diesel. In case of B20, the efficiency was 65.74 % higher than that of diesel. The exergy analysis shows that the input availability of diesel fuel is 1.46% more than that of B20. For availability in brake power as well as exhaust gases of diesel were 5.66 and 32% more than that of B20. Destructed availability of B20 was 0.97% more than diesel. Thus, as per as performance, emission, energy, and exergy part were concerned; B20 is found to be very close with that of diesel. PMID:27350999

  14. Experimental investigation and performance comparison of thermal insulation on a diesel engine liner

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, G.R.

    1997-07-01

    The ever increasing need for conservation of fuel is an important factor in the design of diesel engines. The uncooled adiabatic engine emerges as a breakthrough in engine technology. Over the past few years, there have been many documented cases of successful experimentation to achieve this objective. As the number of various applications increase, it is necessary to pay close attention to improve the performance and efficiency of the engines. This paper will provide an insight into the experimental work carried out to investigate the effects of thermal insulation on a Diesel engine liner. As a first phase of experiment, performance of a ``Partially Insulated Engine ``was studied with the thermal insulation of the liner. Performance of a partially insulated engine was carried out in two different stages. First, flame sprayed ceramic coated liners of Alumina and Partially Stabilized Zirconia were tested. Second, air as the insulating medium was tested. An air gap liner with air was used as a thermal barrier around the conventional liner. The experiments were carried out in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, water cooled diesel engine. The experiments were conducted at different loads and different injection timings. Test results showed that, the partially insulated engine has advantages over the conventional engine in respect of thermal efficiency, fuel consumption rate and heat losses. The necessity of reoptimizing injection timing was also examined.

  15. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development. Final report, September 28, 1990--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.; Ryan, T.W. III; Schwalb, J.A.; Wahiduzzaman, S.; Wilson, R.P. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    The goal of this program was to study the feasibility of operating a Detroit Diesel Series 149 engine at high speeds using a Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) fuel. The CWS-fueled 149 engine is proposed for the mine-haul off-highway truck and work boat marine markets. Economic analysis studies indicate that, for these markets, the use of CWS fuel could have sufficient operating cost savings, depending upon the future diesel fuel price, emission control system capital and operating costs, and maintenance and overhaul costs. A major portion of the maintenance costs is expected to be due to lower life and higher cost of the CWS injectors. Injection and combustion systems were specially designed for CWS, and were installed in one cylinder of a Detroit Diesel 8V-149TI engine for testing. The objective was to achieve engine operation for sustained periods at speeds up to 1,900 rpm with reasonable fuel economy and coal burnout rate. A computer simulation predicted autoignition of coal fuel at 1,900 rpm would require an average droplet size of 18 microns and 19:1 compression ratio, so the injection system, and pistons were designed accordingly. The injection system was capable of supplying the required volume of CWS/injection with a duration of approximately 25 crank angle degrees and peak pressures on the order of 100 mpa. In addition to the high compression ratio, the combustion system also utilized hot residual gases in the cylinder, warm inlet air admission and ceramic insulated engine components to enhance combustion. Autoignition of CWS fuel was achieved at 1900 rpm, at loads ranging from 20--80 percent of the rated load of diesel-fuel powered cylinders. Limited emissions data indicates coal burnout rates in excess of 99 percent. NO{sub x} levels were significantly lower, while unburned hydrocarbon levels were higher for the CWS fueled cylinder than for corresponding diesel-fuel powered cylinders.

  16. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine. PMID:24350455

  17. IET. Diesel engine for emergency generator is headed for installation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Diesel engine for emergency generator is headed for installation in shielded control building (TAN-620). Date: September 21, 1954. INEEL negative no. 12145 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. A methodology for laser diagnostics in large-bore marine two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult, J.; Mayer, S.

    2013-04-01

    Large two-stroke diesel engines for marine propulsion offer several challenges to successful implementation of the laser diagnostic techniques applied extensively in smaller automotive engines. For this purpose a fully operational large-bore engine has been modified to allow flexible optical access, through 24 optical ports with clear diameters of 40 mm. By mounting the entire optical set-up directly to the engine, effects of the vigorous vibrations and thermal drifts on alignment can be minimized. Wide-angle observation and illumination, as well as relatively large aperture detection, is made possible through mounting of optical modules and relays inside optical ports. This allows positioning of the last optical element within 10 mm from the cylinder wall. Finally, the implementation on a multi-cylinder engine allows for flexible and independent operation of the optically accessible cylinder for testing purposes. The performance of the integrated optical engine and imaging system developed is demonstrated through laser Mie scattering imaging of fuel jet structures, from which information on liquid penetration and spray angles can be deduced. Double pulse laser-sheet imaging of native in-cylinder structures is also demonstrated, for the purpose of velocimetry.

  19. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    PubMed

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic). PMID:16193170

  20. Fuel Efficiency Mapping of a 2014 6-Cylinder GM EcoTec 4.3L Engine with Cylinder Deactivation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method and test results of the engine dyno portion of the benchmarking test results including engine fuel consumption maps showing the effects of cylinder deactivation engine technology.

  1. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. The test engine delivered 78kW indicated power from 1007cc displacement, operating at 3500 RPM on Schnuerle loop scavenged two-stroke cycle. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude, in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications; including injection system requirement, turbocharging, heat rejection, breathing, scavenging, and structural requirements. The multicylinder engine concept is configured to operate with an augmented turbocharger, but with no primary scavenge blower. The test program is oriented to provide a balanced turbocharger compressor to turbine power balance without an auxiliary scavenging system. Engine cylinder heat rejection to the ambient air has been significantly reduced and the minimum overall turbocharger efficiency required is within the range of commercially available turbochargers. Analytical studies and finite element modeling is made of insulated configurations of the engines - including both ceramic and metallic versions. A second generation test engine is designed based on current test results.

  2. Diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer: An unproven association

    SciTech Connect

    Muscat, J.E.; Wynder, E.L.

    1995-09-01

    The risk of lung cancer associated with diesel exhaust has been calculated from 14 case-control or cohort studies. We evaluated the findings from these studies to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to implicate diesel exhaust as a human lung carcinogen. Four studies found increased risks associated with long-term exposure, although two of the four studies were based on the same cohort of railroad workers. Six studies were inconclusive due to missing information on smoking habits, internal inconsistencies, or inadequate characterization of diesel exposure. Four studies found no statistically significant association. It can be concluded that short-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust (<20 years) does not have a causative role in human lung cancer. There is statistical but no causal evidence that long-term exposure to diesel exhaust (>20 years) increases the risk of lung cancer for locomotive engineers, brakemen, and diesel engine mechanics. There is inconsistent evidence on the effects of long-term exposure to diesel exhaust in the trucking industry. There is no evidence for a joint effect of diesel exhaust and cigarette smoking on lung cancer risk. Using common criteria for determining causal associations, the epidemiologic evidence is insufficient to establish diesel engine exhaust as a human lung carcinogen. 77 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Modeling pollution formation in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.

    1997-12-31

    Modeling combustion under conditions that prevail in Diesel engine presents a great challenge. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has invested Laboratory Directed Research and Development Funds to accelerate progress in this area. Research has been concerned with building a chemical mechanism to interface with a high fidelity fluid code to describe aspects of Diesel combustion. The complexity of these models requires implementation on massively parallel machines. The author will describe his efforts concerned with building such a complex mechanism. He begins with C and CO{sub 2} chemistry and adds sequentially higher hydrocarbon chemistry, aromatic production chemistry, soot chemistry, and chemistry describing NO{sub x} production. The metrics against which this chemistry is evaluated are flame velocities, induction times, ignition delay times, flammability limits, flame structure measurements, and light scattering. He assembles a set of elementary reactions, kinetic rate coefficients, and thermochemistry. He modifies existing Sandia codes to be able to investigate the behavior of the mechanism in well-stirred reactors, plug flow reactors, and one-dimensional flames. The modified combustion code with a chemical mechanism at the appropriate level of complexity is then interfaced with the high fidelity fluids code. The fluids code is distinguished by its ability to solve the requisite partial differential equations with adaptively refined grids necessary to describe the strong variation in spatial scales in combustion.

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  5. Effect of translucence of engineering ceramics on heat transfer in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wahiduzzaman, S.; Morel, T. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the experimental portion of a broader study undertaken to assess the effects of translucence of ceramic materials used as thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines. In an earlier analytical work a parametric study was performed, varying several radiative properties over ranges typical of engineering ceramics, thereby identifying the most important radiative properties and their impact on in-cylinder heat transfer. In the current study these properties were experimentally determined for several specific zirconia coatings considered for thermal barrier applications in diesel engines. The methodology of this study involved formulation of a model capable of describing radiative transfer through a semitransparent medium as a function of three independent model parameters, ie, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index. For the zirconia-based ceramics investigated in this study, it was concluded that for usual coating thicknesses (1.5--2.5 mm) these ceramics are optically thick and hence, are effective as radiative heat transfer barriers. These ceramics possess high scattering coefficients and low absorption coefficients causing them to be highly reflective (60-80%) in the spectral region where thermal radiation is important. The performance of the investigated ceramics and the mechanism of heat transfer were found to depend on surface condition, specifically on soot deposition. Thus, to insure the optimum thermal barrier operation for either clean or heavily sooted surfaces, a ceramic material with high scattering coefficient provides the best choice.

  6. Effect of translucence of engineering ceramics on heat transfer in diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wahiduzzaman, S.; Morel, T.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the experimental portion of a broader study undertaken to assess the effects of translucence of ceramic materials used as thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines. In an earlier analytical work a parametric study was performed, varying several radiative properties over ranges typical of engineering ceramics, thereby identifying the most important radiative properties and their impact on in-cylinder heat transfer. In the current study these properties were experimentally determined for several specific zirconia coatings considered for thermal barrier applications in diesel engines. The methodology of this study involved formulation of a model capable of describing radiative transfer through a semitransparent medium as a function of three independent model parameters, ie, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient and refractive index. For the zirconia-based ceramics investigated in this study, it was concluded that for usual coating thicknesses (1.5--2.5 mm) these ceramics are optically thick and hence, are effective as radiative heat transfer barriers. These ceramics possess high scattering coefficients and low absorption coefficients causing them to be highly reflective (60-80%) in the spectral region where thermal radiation is important. The performance of the investigated ceramics and the mechanism of heat transfer were found to depend on surface condition, specifically on soot deposition. Thus, to insure the optimum thermal barrier operation for either clean or heavily sooted surfaces, a ceramic material with high scattering coefficient provides the best choice.

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  8. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  9. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  10. High temperature tribology for piston ring and cylinder liner in advanced low heat rejection engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kamo, L.S.; Kleyman, A.S.; Bryzik, W.; Mekari, M.

    1996-12-31

    High temperature tribology research efforts being pursued at Adiabatics are directed in the area of post treatment densified plasma sprayed coatings. Previous work has yielded good results for laboratory bench tests using no liquid lubrication. The process infiltrates a thermal sprayed coating layer with Chrome Oxide and Phosphate Glass compounds which serve to enhance the mechanical bond of a thermal sprayed layer, while improving its internal integrity, and sealing off open porosity. It has been applied to over 150 different wear combinations. Of these tests, Iron Oxide based coatings versus Molybdenum alloy materials provide the best results. Testing in a modified Low Heat Rejection (LHR) single cylinder diesel engine proved this wear combination superior to the state of the art materials available today. These data show improvement over past research efforts directed at developing solid lubricants, but they do not achieve goals set for operation in future advanced military LHR diesel powerplants. Through involvement with the support of the US Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) the authors have predetermined a goal of attaining bench test friction coefficients of {mu}{sub f} < 0.10, and material wear rates {le}1.0 mg/hr, at a temperature of 540 C. The research efforts discussed in this paper, focus on optimizing material friction and wear combinations and their interaction with liquid lubricants to generate boundary lubrication effects noted in previous studies and their correlation to advanced diesel engine design.

  11. Supercritical fluid mixing in Diesel Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Luis; Ma, Peter; Kurman, Matthew; Tess, Michael; Ihme, Matthias; Kweon, Chol-Bum

    2014-11-01

    A numerical framework for simulating supercritical fluids mixing with large density ratios is presented in the context of diesel sprays. Accurate modeling of real fluid effects on the fuel air mixture formation process is critical in characterizing engine combustion. Recent work (Dahms, 2013) has suggested that liquid fuel enters the chamber in a transcritical state and rapidly evolves to supercritical regime where the interface transitions from a distinct liquid/gas interface into a continuous turbulent mixing layer. In this work, the Peng Robinson EoS is invoked as the real fluid model due to an acceptable compromise between accuracy and computational tractability. Measurements at supercritical conditions are reported from the Constant Pressure Flow (CPF) chamber facility at the Army Research Laboratory. Mie and Schlieren optical spray diagnostics are utilized to provide time resolved liquid and vapor penetration length measurement. The quantitative comparison presented is discussed. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU).

  12. Overview of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonushonis, T. M.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of delamination mechanisms in thermal barrier coatings has been developed for diesel applications through nondestructive evaluation, structural analysis modeling and engine evaluation of various thermal barrier coatings. This knowledge has resulted in improved thermal barrier coatings which survive abusive cyclic fatigue tests in high output diesel engines. Significant efforts are still required to improve the plasma spray processing capability and the economics for complex geometry diesel engine components. Data obtained from advanced diesel engines on the effect of thermal barrier coatings on engine fuel economy and emission has not been encouraging. Although the underlying metal component temperatures have been reduced through the use of thermal barrier coating, engine efficiency and emission trends have not been promising.

  13. Thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine and diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Brindley, William J.; Bailey, M. Murray

    1989-01-01

    The present state of development of thin thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines and thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines is assessed. Although current thermal barrier coatings are flying in certain gas turbine engines, additional advances will be needed for future engines. Thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines have advanced to the point where they are being seriously considered for the next generation of engine. Since coatings for truck engines is a young field of inquiry, continued research and development efforts will be required to help bring this technology to commercialization.

  14. Engine tests using high-sulfur diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, E.A.; Moon, R.B.

    1980-09-01

    This report covers the engine test evaluation of an organo-zinc additive for its effectiveness in combating the deleterious effects of using high-sulfur diesel fuel in a two-cycle U.S. Army diesel engine. The report also covers the 6V-53T testing of a preservative engine oil which in previous testing had shown promise in controlling the effects of using high-sulfur fuel.

  15. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  16. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  17. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  18. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  19. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Conformity under 40 CFR part 86, 40 CFR part 89, or 40 CFR part 1039 and the certification of the vehicle or... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  20. Model-based diagnosis of large diesel engines based on angular speed variations of the crankshaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbazeille, M.; Randall, R. B.; Guillet, F.; El Badaoui, M.; Hoisnard, C.

    2010-07-01

    This work aims at monitoring large diesel engines by analyzing the crankshaft angular speed variations. It focuses on a powerful 20-cylinder diesel engine with crankshaft natural frequencies within the operating speed range. First, the angular speed variations are modeled at the crankshaft free end. This includes modeling both the crankshaft dynamical behavior and the excitation torques. As the engine is very large, the first crankshaft torsional modes are in the low frequency range. A model with the assumption of a flexible crankshaft is required. The excitation torques depend on the in-cylinder pressure curve. The latter is modeled with a phenomenological model. Mechanical and combustion parameters of the model are optimized with the help of actual data. Then, an automated diagnosis based on an artificially intelligent system is proposed. Neural networks are used for pattern recognition of the angular speed waveforms in normal and faulty conditions. Reference patterns required in the training phase are computed with the model, calibrated using a small number of actual measurements. Promising results are obtained. An experimental fuel leakage fault is successfully diagnosed, including detection and localization of the faulty cylinder, as well as the approximation of the fault severity.

  1. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using intake air heating for a GDCI engine

    DOEpatents

    Roth, Gregory T.; Sellnau, Mark C.

    2016-08-09

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of heaters, at least one heater per cylinder, with each heater configured to heat air introduced into a cylinder. Independent control of the heaters is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the heater for that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in a cylinder of the engine and controlling a heater configured to heat air introduced into that cylinder, is also provided.

  2. Acoustic measurements for the combustion diagnosis of diesel engines fuelled with biodiesels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Dong; Wang, Tie; Gu, Fengshou; Tesfa, Belachew; Ball, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation was carried out on the combustion process of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The effects of biodiesel on the combustion process and engine dynamics were analysed for non-intrusive combustion diagnosis based on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine. The signals of vibration, acoustic and in-cylinder pressure were measured simultaneously to find their inter-connection for diagnostic feature extraction. It was found that the sound energy level increases with the increase of engine load and speed, and the sound characteristics are closely correlated with the variation of in-cylinder pressure and combustion process. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed to analyse the non-stationary nature of engine noise in a higher frequency range. Before the wavelet analysis, time synchronous average (TSA) was used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the acoustic signal by suppressing the components which are asynchronous. Based on the root mean square (RMS) values of CWT coefficients, the effects of biodiesel fractions and operating conditions (speed and load) on combustion process and engine dynamics were investigated. The result leads to the potential of airborne acoustic measurements and analysis for engine condition monitoring and fuel quality evaluation.

  3. Assessment of diesel engine condition using time resolved measurements and signal processing. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.E.

    1996-09-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to access methods of detecting, and localizing faults in a diesel engine. A three cylinder, two stroke Detroit 3-53 engine was heavily instrumented for time resolved measurements. In particular, a 3,600 count per revolution optical encoder was used along with accelerometers mounted on various engine structures, in-cylinder pressure measurements and a variety of steady state sensors, such as exhaust temperatures. A large number of baseline data were taken to establish the statistical characteristics on the signals from the engine. These runs were followed by a series of experiments where the cylinder head assembly bolt torque were varied parametrically. Standard spectral analysis and Joint Time Frequency Analysis (JTFA) were used to identify the fundamental vibration characteristics of the engine. The vibration frequencies were checked for consistency against first order models of the engine assembly and reasonable agreement was found. In addition, a new technique for accessing engine health using time of arrival of encoder signals was investigated.

  4. Performance of a diesel engine operating on raw coal-diesel fuel and solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, H.P.

    1980-03-01

    Performance tests using an 11 kW single cylinder diesel engine were made to determine the effects of three different micronized coal-fuel oil slurries being considered as alternative fuels. Slurries containing 20, 32, and 40%-wt micronized raw coal in No. 2 fuel oil were used. Results are presented indicating the changes in the concentrations of SO/sub X/ and NO/sub X/ in the exhaust, exhaust opacity, power and efficiency, and in wear rates relative to operation on fuel oil No. 2. The engine was operated for 10 h at full load and 1400 rpm on al fuels except the 40%-wt slurry. This test was discontinued because of extremely poor performance.

  5. Adaptive individual-cylinder thermal state control using piston cooling for a GDCI engine

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Gregory T; Husted, Harry L; Sellnau, Mark C

    2015-04-07

    A system for a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine includes a plurality of nozzles, at least one nozzle per cylinder, with each nozzle configured to spray oil onto the bottom side of a piston of the engine to cool that piston. Independent control of the oil spray from the nozzles is provided on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A combustion parameter is determined for combustion in each cylinder of the engine, and control of the oil spray onto the piston in that cylinder is based on the value of the combustion parameter for combustion in that cylinder. A method for influencing combustion in a multi-cylinder engine, including determining a combustion parameter for combustion taking place in in a cylinder of the engine and controlling an oil spray targeted onto the bottom of a piston disposed in that cylinder is also presented.

  6. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Mullins, David R; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Wu, Zili

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging

  7. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  8. Multi-lognormal soot particle size distribution for time-resolved laser induced incandescence in diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.; Menkiel, B.; Ganippa, L. C.

    2009-08-01

    In-cylinder and exhaust soot particle size measurements were carried out using time-resolved laser induced incandescence and electrical mobility spectrometer techniques in a single cylinder optical diesel engine and multi-cylinder high-speed diesel engine. The temporal decay of the laser induced incandescence signal from a polydisperse nanoparticle ensemble of soot during transient diesel combustion is shown to be described by both a single-lognormal distribution as well as multi-lognormal size distribution. However, a multi-lognormal particle size distribution is introduced in the existing model for a comprehensive characterisation and realistic reconstruction of the size distribution. Detailed theoretical analysis of multi-lognormal size distribution along with its application to the experimentally measured soot particle size is validated in this work. These results were also qualitatively compared and independently verified by the experimental results obtained by the electrical mobility spectrometer and published transmission electron microscopy data. These findings reveal that the in-cylinder and the exhaust soot particle size distributions in engines are better represented by a multi-lognormal size distribution.

  9. Development and applications of various optimization algorithms for diesel engine combustion and emissions optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogren, Ryan M.

    For this work, Hybrid PSO-GA and Artificial Bee Colony Optimization (ABC) algorithms are applied to the optimization of experimental diesel engine performance, to meet Environmental Protection Agency, off-road, diesel engine standards. This work is the first to apply ABC optimization to experimental engine testing. All trials were conducted at partial load on a four-cylinder, turbocharged, John Deere engine using neat-Biodiesel for PSO-GA and regular pump diesel for ABC. Key variables were altered throughout the experiments, including, fuel pressure, intake gas temperature, exhaust gas recirculation flow, fuel injection quantity for two injections, pilot injection timing and main injection timing. Both forms of optimization proved effective for optimizing engine operation. The PSO-GA hybrid was able to find a superior solution to that of ABC within fewer engine runs. Both solutions call for high exhaust gas recirculation to reduce oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions while also moving pilot and main fuel injections to near top dead center for improved tradeoffs between NOx and particulate matter.

  10. Investigation of methyl decanoate combustion in an optical direct-injection diesel engine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheng, A. S.; Dumitrescu, Cosmin E.; Mueller, Charles J.

    2014-11-24

    In this study, an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of methyl decanoate (MD) on combustion and emissions. A specific goal of the study was to determine if MD could enable soot-free leaner-lifted flame combustion (LLFC) – a mode of mixing-controlled combustion associated with fuel-air equivalence ratios below approximately two. An ultra-low sulfur diesel certification fuel (CF) was used as the baseline fuel, and experiments were conducted at two fuel-injection pressures with three levels of charge-gas dilution. In addition to conventional pressure-based and engine-out emissions measurements, exhaust laser-induced incandescence, in-cylinder natural luminosity (NL), and in-cylindermore » chemiluminescence (CL) diagnostics were used to provide detailed insight into combustion processes.« less

  11. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    PubMed

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load. PMID:24812943

  12. Cycle-resolved LDV measurements in a motored diesel engine and comparison with K-. epsilon. model predictions

    SciTech Connect

    ZurLoye, A.O.; Siebers, D.L.; McKinley, T.L.; Ng, H.K.; Primus, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Cycle-resolved LDV measurements of tangential mean velocities and turbulence intensities were made in a motored, single cylinder, Cummins NH diesel engine at 300 and 600 rpm. The measurements were made at eight locations in a plane 0.9 cm below the cylinder head. The combustion chamber and intake configuration of this low-swirl, low-squish engine were nearly identical to the stock configuration. For improved optical access, however, the compression ratio was lower in the test engine (10:1) than in the production engine (14.5:1). The measured turbulence intensities were compared to values computed with KIVA, an in-cylinder fluid dynamics flow code with a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model. The measurements show that the mean velocity field is three-dimensional before TDC, consisting of both a weak swirling motion and a weak tumbling motion.

  13. Coal slurry combustion optimization on single cylinder engine. Task 1.1.2.2.2, Combustion R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, GE Transportation System has been conducting a proof of concept program to use coal water slurry (CWS) fuel to power a diesel engine locomotive since 1988. As reported earlier [1], a high pressure electronically controlled accumulator injector using a diamond compact insert nozzle was developed for this project. The improved reliability and durability of this new FIE allowed for an improved and more thorough study of combustion of CWS fuel in a diesel engine. It was decided to include a diesel pilot fuel injector in the combustion system mainly due to engine start and low load operation needs. BKM, Inc. of San Diego, CA was contracted to develop the electronic diesel fuel pilot/starting FIE for the research engine. As a result, the experimental combustion study was very much facilitated due to the ability of changing pilot/CWS injection timings and quantities without having to stop the engine. Other parameters studied included combustion chamber configuration (by changing CWS fuel injector nozzle hole number/shape/angle), as well as injection pressure. The initial phase of this combustion study is now complete. The results have been adopted into the design of a 12 cylinder engine FIE, to be tested in 1992. This paper summarizes the main findings of this study.

  14. Analysis of automobile engine cylinder pressure and rotation speed from engine body vibration signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuhua; Cheng, Xiang; Tan, Haishu

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the engine vibration signal process method for the engine cylinder pressure and engine revolution speed measurement instrument, the engine cylinder pressure varying with the engine working cycle process has been regarded as the main exciting force for the engine block forced vibration. The forced vibration caused by the engine cylinder pressure presents as a low frequency waveform which varies with the cylinder pressure synchronously and steadily in time domain and presents as low frequency high energy discrete humorous spectrum lines in frequency domain. The engine cylinder pressure and the rotation speed can been extract form the measured engine block vibration signal by low-pass filtering analysis in time domain or by FFT analysis in frequency domain, the low-pass filtering analysis in time domain is not only suitable for the engine in uniform revolution condition but also suitable for the engine in uneven revolution condition. That provides a practical and convenient way to design motor revolution rate and cylinder pressure measurement instrument.

  15. An Investigation Into the Performance of a Miniature Diesel Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, P. W.

    1970-01-01

    Reports the procedures and results of a student investigation of the performance of a miniature diesel engine. The experiments include (1) torque measurement, (2) power measurement, and (3) variation of power output with applied load. Bibliography. (LC)

  16. 23. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FAIRBANKSMORSE DIESEL ENGINE, DIRECTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FAIRBANKS-MORSE DIESEL ENGINE, DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO FAIRBANKS-MORSE 30 KW DC GENERATOR, 125 VOLTS, 240 AMPS, 800 RPM. INSTALLED 1930. - Death Valley Ranch, Power House, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. SECONDARY GENERAL MOTORS DIESEL ENGINE WITH CONNECTION TO REDUCTION GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECONDARY GENERAL MOTORS DIESEL ENGINE WITH CONNECTION TO REDUCTION GEAR BELT DRIVE SYSTEM, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  18. 21. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE DIRECTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO GENERAL ELECTRIC 15 KW DC GENERATOR (ON LEFT), 110 VOLTS, 136 AMPS, 1200 RPM. INSTALLED 1942. - Death Valley Ranch, Power House, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict CI engine parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For ANFIS modelling, Gaussian curve membership function (gaussmf) and 200 training epochs (iteration) were found to be optimum choices for training process. The results demonstrate that ANFIS is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  20. Measurements of the Air-flow Velocity in the Cylinder of an Airplane Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, Hermann

    1939-01-01

    The object of the present investigation is to determine the velocity in the BMW-VI cylinder of an externally driven single-cylinder test engine at high engine speeds using the hot-wire method of Ulsamer.

  1. Noise reduction of diesel engine for heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Y.; Arai, S.

    1989-01-01

    Noise reduction of diesel engines installed in heavy duty vehicles is one of the highest priorities from the viewpoints of meeting the regulations for urban traffic noise abatement and noise reduction in the cabin for lightening fatigue with comfortable long driving. It is necessary that noise reduction measures then be applied to those causes. All noise reduction measures for the diesel engine researched for the purpose of practical use are described in this paper.

  2. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of a runaway. (a) For a diesel engine that is not continuously manned, you must equip the engine with an automatic shutdown device; (b) For a diesel engine...

  3. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of a runaway. (a) For a diesel engine that is not continuously manned, you must equip the engine with an automatic shutdown device; (b) For a diesel engine...

  4. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of a runaway. (a) For a diesel engine that is not continuously manned, you must equip the engine with an automatic shutdown device; (b) For a diesel engine...

  5. Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Reed M; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M; Reitz, Rolf; Kokjohn, Sage

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that that produces low NO{sub x} and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom machined pistons designed for RCCI operation. The pistons were designed with assistance from the KIVA 3V computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. By using a genetic algorithm optimization, in conjunction with KIVA, the piston bowl profile was optimized for dedicated RCCI operation to reduce unburned fuel emissions and piston bowl surface area. By reducing these parameters, the thermal efficiency of the engine was improved while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions. Results show that with the new piston bowl profile and an optimized injection schedule, RCCI brake thermal efficiency was increased from 37%, with the stock EURO IV configuration, to 40% at the 2,600 rev/min, 6.9 bar BMEP condition, and NOx and PM emissions targets were met without the need for exhaust after-treatment.

  6. Emissions of fuel metals content from a diesel vehicle engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Li, Chun-Teh; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan; Luo, Jih-Haur; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    This study was set out to assess the characteristics and significance of metal contents emitted from diesel engines. We found that the emitted concentrations of crust elements (including Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Si) were much higher than those of anthropogenic elements (including Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) from diesel vehicle engine exhausts under the transient-cycle condition. The emission concentrations of particulate matters from diesel vehicle engine were inversely proportional to the specified engine speeds. To the contrary, the increase of engine speeds resulted in increase of fractions of metal contents in particulate matters. We conducted simple linear regression analysis to relate the emission rates of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust to the consumption rates of metal contents in diesel fuel. This study yielded R2=0.999 which suggests that the emission of the metal contents in vehicle exhaust could be fully explained by the consumption of metal contents in diesel fuel. For illustration, we found that the annual emission rates of both crust and anthropogenic elements from all diesel engine vehicles (=269 000 and 58 700 kg yr -1, respectively) were significantly higher than those from the coal power plant, electrical arc furnace, and coke oven (=90 100 and 1660 kg yr -1, 2060 and 173 kg yr -1, and 60 500 and 3740 kg yr -1, respectively) in Taiwan area. The relatively high amount of metal contents emitted from diesel engines strongly suggests that the measurement on the control of metal contents in diesel fuel should be taken in the future.

  7. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  8. Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-09-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

  9. Diesel Engine performance improvement in a 1-D engine model using Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karra, Prashanth

    2015-12-01

    A particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique was implemented to improve the engine development and optimization process to simultaneously reduce emissions and improve the fuel efficiency. The optimization was performed on a 4-stroke 4-cylinder GT-Power based 1-D diesel engine model. To achieve the multi-objective optimization, a merit function was defined which included the parameters to be optimized: Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Nonmethyl hydro carbons (NMHC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). EPA Tier 3 emissions standards for non-road diesel engines between 37 and 75 kW of output were chosen as targets for the optimization. The combustion parameters analyzed in this study include: Start of main Injection, Start of Pilot Injection, Pilot fuel quantity, Swirl, and Tumble. The PSO was found to be very effective in quickly arriving at a solution that met the target criteria as defined in the merit function. The optimization took around 40-50 runs to find the most favourable engine operating condition under the constraints specified in the optimization. In a favourable case with a high merit function values, the NOx+NMHC and CO values were reduced to as low as 2.9 and 0.014 g/kWh, respectively. The operating conditions at this point were: 10 ATDC Main SOI, -25 ATDC Pilot SOI, 0.25 mg of pilot fuel, 0.45 Swirl and 0.85 tumble. These results indicate that late main injections preceded by a close, small pilot injection are most favourable conditions at the operating condition tested.

  10. Sound quality assessment of Diesel combustion noise using in-cylinder pressure components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Margot, X.; Monelletta, L.

    2009-01-01

    The combustion process in direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is an important source of noise, and it is thus the main reason why end-users could be reluctant to drive vehicles powered with this type of engine. This means that the great potential of Diesel engines for environment preservation—due to their lower consumption and the subsequent reduction of CO2 emissions—may be lost. Moreover, the advanced combustion concepts—e.g. the HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition)—developed to comply with forthcoming emissions legislation, while maintaining the efficiency of current engines, are expected to be noisier because they are characterized by a higher amount of premixed combustion. For this reason many efforts have been dedicated by car manufacturers in recent years to reduce the overall level and improve the sound quality of engine noise. Evaluation procedures are required, both for noise levels and sound quality, that may be integrated in the global engine development process in a timely and cost-effective manner. In previous published work, the authors proposed a novel method for the assessment of engine noise level. A similar procedure is applied in this paper to demonstrate the suitability of combustion indicators for the evaluation of engine noise quality. These indicators, which are representative of the peak velocity of fuel burning and the resonance in the combustion chamber, are well correlated with the combustion noise mark obtained from jury testing. Quite good accuracy in the prediction of the engine noise quality has been obtained with the definition of a two-component regression, which also permits the identification of the combustion process features related to the resulting noise quality, so that corrective actions may be proposed.

  11. Bench wear and single-cylinder engine evaluations of high-temperature lubricants for US Army ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Paul I.; Frame, Edwin A.; Yost, Douglas M.

    1994-09-01

    High-temperature lubricant (HTL) requirements for future U.S. Army ground vehicles were investigated. A single-cylinder diesel engine (SCE-903) was successfully modified to operate at increased cylinder liner temperatures and to serve as an evaluation tool for HTL's. Oil D, one of six lubricants evaluated, completed 200 test hours at an average cylinder wall temperature of 247 deg C and an oil sump temperature of 166 deg C with only minor oil degradation. However, improved piston cleanliness is desired. A wide range of bench scale wear techniques have been developed to highlight different lubricant performance characteristics, with particular emphasis on high-temperature operation and oxidation. Based on the bench tests, Oil D would be expected to have inadequate high-temperature, long-term wear protection. Oil D passed the Allison C-4 graphite clutch friction test.

  12. Adiabatic diesel engine component development: Reference engine for on-highway applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakim, Nabil S.

    1986-01-01

    The main objectives were to select an advanced low heat rejection diesel reference engine (ADRE) and to carry out systems analysis and design. The ADRE concept selection consisted of: (1) rated point performance optimization; (2) study of various exhaust energy recovery scenarios; (3) components, systems and engine configuration studies; and (4) life cycle cost estimates of the ADRE economic worth. The resulting ADRE design proposed a reciprocator with many advanced features for the 1995 technology demonstration time frame. These included ceramic air gap insulated hot section structural components, high temperature tribology treatments, nonmechanical (camless) valve actuation systems, and elimination of the cylinder head gasket. ADRE system analysis and design resulted in more definition of the engine systems. These systems include: (1) electro-hydraulic valve actuation, (2) electronic common rail injection system; (3) engine electronic control; (4) power transfer for accessory drives and exhaust energy recovery systems; and (5) truck installation. Tribology and performance assessments were also carried out. Finite element and probability of survival analyses were undertaken for the ceramic low heat rejection component.

  13. Documentation of the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangerpen, Jon

    1988-01-01

    This report documents the Benson Diesel Engine Simulation Program and explains how it can be used to predict the performance of diesel engines. The program was obtained from the Garrett Turbine Engine Company but has been extensively modified since. The program is a thermodynamic simulation of the diesel engine cycle which uses a single zone combustion model. It can be used to predict the effect of changes in engine design and operating parameters such as valve timing, speed and boost pressure. The most significan change made to this program is the addition of a more detailed heat transfer model to predict metal part temperatures. This report contains a description of the sub-models used in the Benson program, a description of the input parameters and sample program runs.

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VI, MAINTAINING MECHANICAL GOVERNORS--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL GOVERNORS USED ON DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) TYPES OF GOVERNORS AND ENGINE LOCATION, (2) GOVERNOR APPLICATIONS, (3) LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, (4) VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, AND (5) CONSTANT SPEED…

  15. A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbo compounded diesel engine system: A description of the thermodynamic and heat transfer models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. E.; Frank, R. M.; Heywood, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system was developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multicylinder reciprocator diesel model, where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. The master cylinder model describes the reciprocator intake, compression, combustion and exhaust processes in sufficient detail to define the mass and energy transfers in each subsystem of the total engine system. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. From this information, the simulation predicts the performance gains, and assesses the system design trade-offs which would result from the introduction of selected heat transfer reduction materials in key system components, over a range of operating conditions.

  16. Role of sulfur oxides in wear and deposit formation in Army diesel engines. Interim report, October 1985-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Naegeli, D.W.; Marbach, H.W.

    1988-12-01

    In some locations outside the continental United States, U.S. Military ground-mobility equipment uses fuel with an increased sulfur content. Fuel sulfur has been identified as a primary contributor to diesel-engine wear indicates that sulfuric acid mist formed within the combustion chamber is responsible for corrosive attack of the cylinder bore and piston-ring areas. Deposit formation has been more of a mystery in that the literature tends to support the theory that reaction of organically bound sulfur with the fuel and lubricant is the principal cause. Studies presented here suggest that sulfur dioxide (SO2) formed in the combustion of fuel-bound sulfur is the primary cause of higher cylinder bore/ring wear and deposit formation in diesel engines.

  17. DELTA-DIESEL ENGINE LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATION Contract DE-FC05-97OR22606 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Nabil Balnaves, Mike

    2003-05-27

    DELTA Diesel Engine Light Truck Application End of Contract Report DE-FC05-97-OR22606 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the final technical report of the Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program under contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606. During the course of this contract, Detroit Diesel Corporation analyzed, designed, tooled, developed and applied the ''Proof of Concept'' (Generation 0) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine and designed the successor ''Production Technology Demonstration'' (Generation 1) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine. The objectives of DELTA Program contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606 were to: Demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies, specifically intended for the North American LDT and SUV markets; Demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages. With a clean sheet design, DDC produced the DELTA engine concept promising the following attributes: 30-50% improved fuel economy; Low cost; Good durability and reliability; Acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH); State-of-the-art features; Even firing, 4 valves per cylinder; High pressure common rail fuel system; Electronically controlled; Turbocharged, intercooled, cooled EGR; Extremely low emissions via CLEAN Combustion{copyright} technology. To demonstrate the engine technology in the SUV market, DDC repowered a 1999 Dodge Durango with the DELTA Generation 0 engine. Fuel economy improvements were approximately 50% better than the gasoline engine replaced in the vehicle.

  18. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

    2002-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

  19. Limitations of rigid body descriptions for heavy-duty diesel engine vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.W.; Dowling, D.R.

    1999-04-01

    Internal combustion engine vibration modeling commonly relies on assuming the engine is a linearly reacting rigid body, thereby ignoring rotating, reciprocating, and nonsolid engine components. Limitations of this approach are identified from a series of experiments on a heavy-duty in-line six-cylinder Diesel engine typical of Class VIII trucks. Measurement of all three orthogonal vibration force components were made at each of three engine mounts during standard impact-excitation modal identification tests on the quiescent engine and during engine operation. The running-engine vibration forces, measured throughout the test engine load and speed operating envelope, were projected onto the quiescent-engine rigid body modes to determine the modal content and residual vibration as a function of frequency. Modal decomposition results for the running engine show that the quiescent-engine rigid body modes, with modal frequencies between 5.6 and 26.3 Hz, account for 80 percent or more of the measured engine vibration forces for all engine speeds and loads in a bandwidth from zero to 200 Hz. The likely origins of the residual vibration within this bandwidth are discussed.

  20. Diesel Surrogate Fuels for Engine Testing and Chemical-Kinetic Modeling: Compositions and Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bays, J. Timothy; Bruno, Thomas J.; DeFabio, Kathy; Dettman, Heather D.; Gieleciak, Rafal M.; Huber, Marcia L.; Kweon, Chol-Bum; McConnell, Steven S.; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work were to formulate, blend, and characterize a set of four ultralow-sulfur diesel surrogate fuels in quantities sufficient to enable their study in single-cylinder-engine and combustion-vessel experiments. The surrogate fuels feature increasing levels of compositional accuracy (i.e., increasing exactness in matching hydrocarbon structural characteristics) relative to the single target diesel fuel upon which the surrogate fuels are based. This approach was taken to assist in determining the minimum level of surrogate-fuel compositional accuracy that is required to adequately emulate the performance characteristics of the target fuel under different combustion modes. For each of the four surrogate fuels, an approximately 30 L batch was blended, and a number of the physical and chemical properties were measured. This work documents the surrogate-fuel creation process and the results of the property measurements. PMID:27330248

  1. JET BREAKUP AND SPRAY FORMATION IN A DIESEL ENGINE.

    SciTech Connect

    GLIMM,J.; LI,X.; KIM,M.N.; OH,W.; MARCHESE,A.; SAMULYAK,R.; TZANOS,C.

    2003-06-17

    The breakup of injected fuel into spray is of key interest to the design of a fuel efficient, nonpolluting diesel engine. We report preliminary progress on the numerical simulation of diesel fuel injection spray with the front tracking code FronTier. Our simulation design is set to match experiments at ANL, and our present agreement is semi-quantitative. Future efforts will include mesh refinement studies, which will better model the turbulent flow.

  2. An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Samo, Khalid; Faturachman, Danny

    2012-09-01

    Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

  3. Three-dimensional modeling of diesel engine intake flow, combustion and emissions-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitz, R. D.; Rutland, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional computer code, KIVA, is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion. Improved and/or new submodels which have already been implemented and previously reported are: wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo'vich NO(x), and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Progress on the implementation of improved spray drop drag and drop breakup models, the formulation and testing of a multistep kinetics ignition model, and preliminary soot modeling results are described. In addition, the use of a block structured version of KIVA to model the intake flow process is described. A grid generation scheme was developed for modeling realistic (complex) engine geometries, and computations were made of intake flow in the ports and combustion chamber of a two-intake-value engine. The research also involves the use of the code to assess the effects of subprocesses on diesel engine performance. The accuracy of the predictions is being tested by comparisons with engine experiments. To date, comparisons were made with measured engine cylinder pressure, temperature and heat flux data, and the model results are in good agreement with the experiments. Work is in progress that will allow validation of in-cylinder flow and soot formation predictions. An engine test facility is described that is being used to provide the needed validation data. Test results were obtained showing the effect of injection rate and split injections on engine performance and emissions.

  4. Three-dimensional modeling of diesel engine intake flow, combustion and emissions-II

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, R.D.; Rutland, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    A three-dimensional computer code, KIVA, is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion. Improved and/or new submodels which have already been implemented and previously reported are: Wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo`vich NO{sub x}, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Progress on the implementation of improved spray drop drag and drop breakup models, the formulation and testing of a multistep kinetics ignition model and preliminary soot modeling results are described in this report. In addition, the use of a block structured version of KIVA to model the intake flow process is described. A grid generation scheme has been developed for modeling realistic (complex) engine geometries, and computations have been made of intake flow in the ports and combustion chamber of a two-intake-valve engine. The research also involves the use of the code to assess the effects of subprocesses on diesel engine performance. The accuracy of the predictions is being tested by comparisons with engine experiments. To date, comparisons have been made with measured engine cylinder pressure, temperature and heat flux data, and the model results are in good agreement with the experiments. Work is in progress that will allow validation of in-cylinder flow and soot formation predictions. An engine test facility is described that is being used to provide the needed validation data. Test results have been obtained showing the effect of injection rate and split injections on engine performance and emissions.

  5. Ignition system for multi-cylinder 4 cycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Imoto, K.; Kayama, K.

    1987-10-27

    An ignition system for a four cycle ''V'' type combustion engine is described having at least two cylinders and comprising: first pulse generating means for generating first and second pulses. The first pulse is generated when a crankshaft of the engine revolves by a first setting angle from a base position and the first pulse includes a first half-pulse and a second half-pulse whose polarities are different from each other. The second pulse is generated when the crankshaft revolves by a second setting angle which is an angle greater than the first setting angle and is a function of the number of cylinders. Second pulse generating means for generating a third pulse each time the crankshaft of the engine revolves twice and at a position that the crankshaft revolves by a third setting angle. The third setting angle is greater than the first setting angle but smaller than the second setting angle. Ignition generating means for providing an ignition signal to at least one of the two cylinders in response to a first half-pulse and to provide an ignition signal to a second cylinder in response to a second pulse, voltage hold circuit means for developing a first charge state in response to a third pulse and for going to a second charge state in response to a second half-pulse, and means for prohibiting ignition generation for inhibiting a first half-pulse and second pulse from generating ignition signals depending on the charge/discharge state of the voltage hold circuit means during the period from a third pulse to a second half-pulse.

  6. Comparative Studies on Performance Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Neem Methyl Ester and Mahua Methyl Ester and Its Respective Blends with Diesel Fuel.

    PubMed

    Ragit, S S; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, K

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, neem and mahua methyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst and tested in 4-stroke single cylinder water cooled diesel engine. Tests were carried out at constant speed of 1500 rev/min at different brake mean effective pressures. A series of tests were conducted which worked at different brake mean effective pressures, OkPa, 1kPa, 2kPa, 3kPa, 4kPa, 5kPa, 6kPa and 6.5kPa. The performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the diesel engine were analyzed and compared with diesel fuel. Results showed that BTE of NME was comparable with diesel and it was noted that the BTE of N0100 is 63.11% higher than that of diesel at part load whereas it reduces 11.2% with diesel fuel at full load. In case of full load, NME showed decreasing trend with diesel fuel. BTE of diesel was 15.37% and 36.89% at part load and full load respectively. The observation indicated that BTE for MME 100 was slightly higher than diesel at part loads. The specific fuel consumption (SFC) was more for almost all blends at all loads, compared to diesel. At part load, the EGT of MME and its blends were showing similar trend to diesel fuel and at full load, the exhaust gas temperature of MME and blends were higher than diesel. Based on this study, NME could be a substitute for diesel fuel in diesel engine. PMID:26445759

  7. Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NOx (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NOx, our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions. PMID:24144266

  8. Gas chromatograph-based system for measuring the methane fraction of diesel-engine hydrocarbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.S.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Black, F.M.

    1987-03-01

    An instrument has been developed (termed the methane analytical system) enabling diesel methane emissions to be quatified separately from total unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The instrument employed gas-chromatographic principles whereby a molecular-sieve column operating isothermally separated methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons. Direct on-line sampling occurred via constant-volume sample loops. The effluent was monitored with a flame ionization detector. The instrument was fully calibrated (i.e., extremely linear response over a large concentration range) for use with diesel engines as part of an on-going alternative-fuels research program. Methane emissions from a light-duty, multi-cylinder, indirect-injected diesel engine fumigated with natural gas were measured on-line using the methane analytical system. Methane emissions were found to range from as low as 250 ppm to a high of nearly 2%. The nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions were determined by subtracting the methane level from the total unburned hydrocarbon level. In the event that the federal engine certification procedures are changed to be based on nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions, a methane analytical system such as the one described here would have great utility.

  9. Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2013-11-19

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions. PMID:24144266

  10. 3-DIMENSIONAL Numerical Modeling on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel in Diesel Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenming; An, Hui; Amin, Maghbouli; Li, Jing

    2014-11-01

    A 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling is conducted on a direct injection diesel engine fueled by biodiesel using multi-dimensional software KIVA4 coupled with CHEMKIN. To accurately predict the oxidation of saturated and unsaturated agents of the biodiesel fuel, a multicomponent advanced combustion model consisting of 69 species and 204 reactions combined with detailed oxidation pathways of methyl decenoate (C11H22O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H20O2) and n-heptane (C7H16) is employed in this work. In order to better represent the real fuel properties, the detailed chemical and thermo-physical properties of biodiesel such as vapor pressure, latent heat of vaporization, liquid viscosity and surface tension were calculated and compiled into the KIVA4 fuel library. The nitrogen monoxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) formation mechanisms were also embedded. After validating the numerical simulation model by comparing the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate curves with experimental results, further studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of combustion chamber design on flow field, subsequently on the combustion process and performance of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. Research has also been done to investigate the impact of fuel injector location on the performance and emissions formation of diesel engine.

  11. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature, for the Diesel engine being tested shall be used. ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust...

  12. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature, for the Diesel engine being tested shall be used. ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust...

  13. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature, for the Diesel engine being tested shall be used. ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust...

  14. 40 CFR 86.313-79 - Air flow measurement specifications; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engine manufacturer in his sales and service literature, for the Diesel engine being tested shall be used. ...; diesel engines. 86.313-79 Section 86.313-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust...

  15. A Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke Single Cylinder Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos

    2014-11-01

    Turbocharging is not conventionally used with single cylinder engines due to the timing mismatch between when the turbo is powered and when it can deliver air to the cylinder. The proposed solution involves a fixed, pressurized volume - which we call an air capacitor - on the intake side of the engine between the turbocharger and intake valves. The capacitor acts as a buffer and would be implemented as a new style of intake manifold with a larger volume than traditional systems. This talk will present the flow analysis used to determine the optimal size for the capacitor, which was found to be four to five times the engine capacity, as well as its anticipated contributions to engine performance. For a capacitor sized for a one-liter engine, the time to reach operating pressure was found to be approximately two seconds, which would be acceptable for slowly accelerating applications and steady state applications. The air density increase that could be achieved, compared to ambient air, was found to vary between fifty percent for adiabatic compression and no heat transfer from the capacitor, to eighty percent for perfect heat transfer. These increases in density are proportional to, to first order, the anticipated power increases that could be realized. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374.

  16. Experimental study on particulate and NOx emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel, RME-diesel blends and PME-diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Wugao; Liu, Wei; Huang, Zhen

    2010-02-01

    Ultra low sulfur diesel and two different kinds of biodiesel fuels blended with baseline diesel fuel in 5% and 20% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads at two steady speeds (1500 rpm and 2500 rpm). The study aims at investigating the engine performance, NO(x) emission, smoke opacity, PM composition, PM size distribution and comparing the impacts of low sulfur content of biodiesel with ULSD on the particulate emission. The results indicate that, compared to base diesel fuel, the increase of biodiesel in blends could cause certain increase in both brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends bring about more NO(x) emissions. With the proportion of biodiesel increase in blends, the smoke opacity decreases, while total particle number concentration increases. Meanwhile the ULSD gives lower NO(x) emissions, smoke opacity and total number concentration than those of baseline diesel fuel. In addition, the percentages of SOF and sulfate in particulates increase with biodiesel in blends, while the dry soot friction decreases obviously. Compared with baseline diesel fuel, the biodiesel blends increase the total nucleation number concentration, while ULSD reduces the total nucleation number concentration effectively, although they all have lower sulfur content. It means that, for ULSD, the lower sulfur content is the dominant factor for suppressing nucleation particles formation, while for biodiesel blends, lower volatile, lower aromatic content and higher oxygen content of biodiesel are key factors for improving the nucleation particles formation. The results demonstrate that the higher NO(x) emission and total nucleation number concentration are considered as the big obstacles of the application of biodiesel in diesel engine. PMID:19913283

  17. Effects of injection pressure and injection timing to exhaust gas opacity for a conventional indirect diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, Agus; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Pambayun, Nirmala Adhi Yoga; Yuswono, Lilik Chaerul; Sukoco

    2016-06-01

    In relation to pollution control and environmental friendliness, the quality of exhaust gas from diesel engine needs to be considered. The influences of injection pressure and timing to exhaust gas opacity were investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in a one-cylinder conventional diesel engine with a naturally aspirated system and indirect injection. The default specification of injection pressure was 120 kg/cm2. To investigate the injection pressure, the engine speed was retained on 1000 rpm with pressure variations from 80 to 215 kg/cm2. On the other hand, the various injection timing (8, 10, 12, 16 degrees before TDC point and exact 18 degrees before TDC point) were used to determine their effects to exhaust gas opacity. In this case, the engine speed was varied from 1000 to 2400 rpm. The injector tester was used to measure injection pressure whereas the exhaust gas opacity was determined by the smoke meter. Those data were also statistically analyzed by product moment correlation. As the results, the injection pressure of diesel engine had a non-significant positive correlation to the exhaust gas opacity with r = 0.113 and p > 5 %. Injection pressure should be adjusted to the specification listed on the diesel engine as if it was too high or too low will lead to the higher opacity. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between injection timing and the exhaust gas opacity in all engine speeds.

  18. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  19. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  20. Characterization of Single-Cylinder Small-Bore 4-Stroke CIDI Engine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Henein, N A

    2005-11-30

    Direct injection diesel engines power most of the heavy-duty vehicles. Due to their superior fuel economy, high power density and low carbon dioxide emissions, turbocharged, small bore, high speed, direct injection diesel engines are being considered to power light duty vehicles. Such vehicles have to meet stringent emission standards. However, it is difficult to meet these standards by modifying the in-cylinder thermodynamic and combustion processes to reduce engine-out emissions. After-treatment devices will be needed to achieve even lower emission targets required in the production engines to account for the anticipated deterioration after long periods of operation in the field. To reduce the size, mass and cost of the after-treatment devices, there is a need to reduce engine-out emissions and optimize both the engine and the aftertreatment devices as one integrated system. For example, the trade-off between engine-out NOx and PM, suggests that one of these species can be minimized in the engine, with a penalty in the other, which can be addressed efficiently in the after-treatment devices. Controlling engine-out emissions can be achieved by optimizing many engine design and operating parameters. The design parameters include, but are not limited to, the type of injection system: (CRS) Common Rail System, (HEUI ) Hydraulically Actuated and Electronically controlled Unit Injector, or (EUI) Electronic Unit Injector; engine compression ratio, combustion chamber design (bowl design), reentrance geometry, squish area and intake and exhaust ports design. With four-valve engines, the swirl ratio depends on the design of both the tangential and helical ports and their relative locations. For any specific engine design, the operating variables need also to be optimized. These include injection pressure, injection rate, injection duration and timing (pilot, main, and post injection), EGR ratio, and swirl ratio. The goal of the program is to gain a better understanding of

  1. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  2. Optimization study on a single-cylinder compressed air engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qihui; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan; Xu, Qiyue

    2015-11-01

    The current research of compressed air engine (CAE) mainly focused on simulations and system integrations. However, energy efficiency and output torque of the CAE is limited, which restricts its application and popularization. In this paper, the working principles of CAE are briefly introduced. To set a foundation for the study on the optimization of the CAE, the basic mathematical model of working processes is set up. A pressure-compensated valve which can reduce the inertia force of the valve is proposed. To verify the mathematical model, the prototype with the newly designed pressure-compensated intake valve is built and the experiment is carried out, simulation and experimental results of the CAE are conducted, and pressures inside the cylinder and output torque of the CAE are obtained. Orthogonal design and grey relation analysis are utilized to optimize structural parameters. The experimental and optimized results show that, first of all, pressure inside the cylinder has the same changing tendency in both simulation curve and experimental curve. Secondly, the highest average output torque is obtained at the highest intake pressure and the lowest rotate speed. Thirdly, the optimization of the single-cylinder CAE can improve the working efficiency from an original 21.95% to 50.1%, an overall increase of 28.15%, and the average output torque increases also increases from 22.047 5 N • m to 22.439 N • m. This research designs a single-cylinder CAE with pressure-compensated intake valve, and proposes a structural parameters design method which improves the single-cylinder CAE performance.

  3. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  4. High-alcohol microemulsion fuel performance in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.H.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Incidence of methanol use in diesel engines is increasing rapidly due to the potential to reduce both diesel particulate emissions and petroleum consumption. Because simple alcohols and conventional diesel fuel are normally immiscible, most tests to date have used neat to near-neat alcohol, or blends incorporating surfactants or other alcohols. Alcohol's poor ignition quality usually necssitates the use of often expensive cetane enhancers, full-time glow plugs, or spark assist. Reported herein are results of screening tests of clear microemulsion and micellar fuels which contain 10 to 65% C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohol. Ignition performance and NO emissions were measured for clear, stable fuel blends containing alcohols, diesel fuel and additives such as alkyl nitrates, acrylic acids, and several vegetable oil derivatives. Using a diesel engine calibrated with reference fuels, cetane numbers for fifty four blends were estimated. The apparent cetane numbers ranged from around 20 to above 50 with the majority between 30 and 45. Emissions of nitric oxide were measured for a few select fuels and were found to be 10 to 20% lower than No. 2 diesel fuel. 36 refs., 87 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Three-dimensional spray distributions in a direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizaki, Takuo; Nishida, Keiya; Hiroyasu, Hiroyuki; Song, K.K.

    1994-09-01

    Experiments and modeling of a spray impinged onto a cavity wall of a simulated piston were performed under simulated diesel engine conditons (pressure and density) at an ambient temperature. The diesel fuel was delivered from a Bosch-type injection pump to a single-hole nozzle, the hole being drilled in the same direction as the original five-hole nozzle. The fuel was injected into a high-pressure bomb in which an engine combustion chamber, composed of a piston, a cylinder head and a cylinder liner, was installed. Distributions of the spray impinging on the simulated combustion chamber were observed from various directions while changing some of the experimental parameters, such as combustion chamber shape, nozzle projection and top-clearance. High-speed photography was used in the constant volume bomb to examine the effect of these parameters on the spray distributions. The spray distributions obtained in the simulated combustion chamber are compared to the distributions calculated by a spray model based on a multi-package, spray model 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel/methanol compound combustion engine with and without diesel oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z H; Cheung, C S; Chan, T L; Yao, C D

    2010-01-15

    The use of methanol in combination with diesel fuel is an effective measure to reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from in-use diesel vehicles. In this study, a diesel/methanol compound combustion (DMCC) scheme was proposed and a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine modified to operate on the proposed combustion scheme. The effect of DMCC and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the regulated emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), NOx and PM was investigated based on the Japanese 13 Mode test cycle. Certain unregulated emissions, including methane, ethyne, ethene, 1,3-butadiene, BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene), unburned methanol and formaldehyde were also evaluated based on the same test cycle. In addition, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) in the particulate and the particulate number concentration and size distribution were investigated at certain selected modes of operation. The results show that the DMCC scheme can effectively reduce NOx, particulate mass and number concentrations, ethyne, ethene and 1,3-butadiene emissions but significantly increase the emissions of THC, CO, NO(2), BTX, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, and the proportion of SOF in the particles. After the DOC, the emission of THC, CO, NO(2), as well as the unregulated gaseous emissions, can be significantly reduced when the exhaust gas temperature is sufficiently high while the particulate mass concentration is further reduced due to oxidation of the SOF. PMID:19919875

  7. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of a runaway. (a) For a diesel engine that is not continuously manned, you must equip the engine with an automatic shutdown device; (b) For a diesel engine that is...

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  11. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIX, I--ENGINE TUNE-UP--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES AND THE DESIGN OF FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES USED ON DIESEL ENGINE EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) PRE-TUNE-UP CHECKS, (2) TIMING THE ENGINE, (3) INJECTOR PLUNGER AND VALVE ADJUSTMENTS, (4) FUEL PUMP ADJUSTMENTS ON THE ENGINE (PTR AND PTG),…

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

  14. Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, R. J.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-06-01

    Stringent emission policy has put automotive research & development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

  15. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Contamination of the lube-oil with hard abrasive particles leads to a three-body abrasive wear mechanism that highly accelerates piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-fueled diesel engines. One approach to reducing that wear is to modify the size and orientation of surface asperities on the cylinder to enhance the formation of a hydrodynamic film, and to provide avenues of escape for particles that would otherwise be trapped in the wear zone. Another approach is to introduce additives into the contaminated lube-oil that further enhance hydrodynamic film formation, form chemical films on the wearing surfaces, or form films on the contaminant particles. This work focuses on defining the effects of cylinder liner surface finish, various configurations of slots in the cylinder liner surface, and various additives in the contaminated lube-oil on the wear process. Wear tests were initiated in a bench apparatus using coal-ash contaminated lube-oil to test the various wear configurations. The results of these tests indicate that the formation of a hydrodynamic film between the ring and cylinder specimens is enhanced by increasing surface roughness, and by orienting the surface asperities normal to the direction of ring travel but modifications to the cylinder liner surface did not greatly reduce the wear rate. Additives to the lubricant seemed to have a much more significant effect on wear, with a dispersant additive highly accelerating the wear, while a detergent additive was able to reduce the wear almost to the rate achieved where there was no contaminant.

  16. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  17. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zihan; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Som, Sibendu

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0° BTDC to 10° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends."

  18. Optimising BMW four-cylinder two-valve engines Optimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOptimising BMW Four-Cylinder Two-Valve Engines (OpOpt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flierl, R.; Kramer, F.; Rech, H.; Stanski, U.; Wenzel, M.

    1993-11-01

    In model year 1994, BMW will present two essentially redesigned 4-cylinder, 2-valve engines. BMW has upgraded its 1.6 1 and 1.8 1 2-valve engines using technical features previously reserved for the 4-valve engines, such as knock control system, distributorless semiconductor ignition, variable induction system (DISA) and ribbed V-belt accessory drive, along with measures to reduce power losses, noise levels and exhaust emissions. BMW models equipped with these two engines offer customers improved response characteristics and fuel consumption, as well as reduced emissions and maintenance requirements.

  19. Experimental facility and methodology for systematic studies of cold startability in direct injection Diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, J. V.; García-Oliver, J. M.; Pastor, J. M.; Ramírez-Hernández, J. G.

    2009-09-01

    Cold start at low temperatures in current direct injection (DI) Diesel engines is a problem which has not yet been properly solved and it becomes particularly critical with the current trend to reduce the engine compression ratio. Although it is clear that there are some key factors whose control leads to a proper cold start process, their individual relevance and relationships are not clearly understood. Thus, efforts on optimization of the cold start process are mainly based on a trial-and-error procedure in climatic chambers at low ambient temperature, with serious limitations in terms of measurement reliability during such a transient process, low repeatability and experimental cost. This paper presents a novel approach for an experimental facility capable of simulating real engine cold start, at room temperature and under well-controlled low speed and low temperature conditions. It is based on an optical single cylinder engine adapted to reproduce in-cylinder conditions representative of those of a real engine during start at cold ambient temperatures (of the order of -20 °C). Such conditions must be realistic, controlled and repeatable in order to perform systematic studies in the borderline between ignition success and misfiring. An analysis methodology, combining optical techniques and heat release analysis of individual cycles, has been applied.

  20. Flame Movement and Pressure Development in an Engine Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Charles F , Jr; Best, Robert D

    1932-01-01

    This investigation describes a visual method for making stroboscopic observations, through a large number of small windows, of the spread of flame throughout the combustion chamber of a gasoline engine. Data, secured by this method on a small engine burning gaseous fuels, are given to show the effects of mixture ratio, spark advance, engine speed, charge density, degree of dilution, compression ratio, and fuel composition on flame movement in the cylinder. Partial indicator diagrams showing pressure development during the combustion period are included. Although present knowledge is not sufficient to permit qualitative evaluation of the separate effects on flame movement of chemical reaction velocity, thermal expansion of burned gases, resonance, turbulence, and piston movement, the qualitative influence of certain of these factors on some of the diagrams is indicated.

  1. Fault detection and diagnosis of diesel engine valve trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flett, Justin; Bone, Gary M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the development of a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) system for use with a diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) valve train. A novel feature is generated for each of the valve closing and combustion impacts. Deformed valve spring faults and abnormal valve clearance faults were seeded on a diesel engine instrumented with one accelerometer. Five classification methods were implemented experimentally and compared. The FDD system using the Naïve-Bayes classification method produced the best overall performance, with a lowest detection accuracy (DA) of 99.95% and a lowest classification accuracy (CA) of 99.95% for the spring faults occurring on individual valves. The lowest DA and CA values for multiple faults occurring simultaneously were 99.95% and 92.45%, respectively. The DA and CA results demonstrate the accuracy of our FDD system for diesel ICE valve train fault scenarios not previously addressed in the literature.

  2. Plastic oil rings for diesel engines: A preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, J.A.; Dixon, R.F.; Ma, J.

    1996-09-01

    The ability of a piston oil ring to conform to liner distortions during engine operation is directly related to its radial stiffness. The ability to conform is also very important for controlling lubricant oil consumption and emissions. This paper describes the procedure utilized to investigate the technical feasibility of using flexible high performance engineering plastics to replace metal as base material for oil rings. Bench tests and engines were used to select and evaluate different types of plastics for wear resistance and structural integrity.Engine test results indicated no structural failures but wear levels were found to be unacceptably high for use in durable heavy duty diesel engines.

  3. Soot particle size modelling in 3D simulations of diesel engine combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraioli, V.; Beatrice, C.; Lazzaro, M.

    2011-12-01

    The present work is focused on multi-dimensional simulations of combustion in diesel engines. The primary objective was to test, in a diesel engine framework, a soot particle size model to represent the carbon particle formation and calculate the corresponding size distribution function. Simulations are performed by means of a parallel version of the KIVA3V numerical code, modified to adopt detailed kinetics reaction mechanisms. A skeletal reaction scheme for n-heptane autoignition has been extended, to include PAH kinetics and carbonaceous particle formation and consumption rates: the full reaction set is made up of 82 gas species and 50 species accounting for the particles, thus the complete reaction scheme comprises 132 species and 2206 reaction steps. Four different engine operative conditions, varying engine speed and load, are taken into account and experimentally tested on a single cylinder diesel engine fuelling pure n-heptane. Computed particle size distribution functions are compared with corresponding measurements at the exhaust, performed by a differential mobility spectrometer. A satisfying agreement between computed and measured combustion profiles is obtained in all the conditions. A reasonable aerosol evolution can be obtained, yet in all the cases the model exhibits the tendency to overestimate the number of particles within the range 5-160 nm. Moreover calculations predict a nucleation mode not detected by the available instrument. According to the simulations, the total number and size of the nascent particles would not depend on the operative conditions, while the features of the larger aggregates distinctly vary with the engine functioning.

  4. Experimental modeling of Wiener filters estimated on an operating diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet, Julie; Leclère, Quentin; Parizet, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Sound source separation in diesel engines can be implemented using a Wiener filter, or spectrofilter, that can extract the combustion contribution in the overall noise. In this study this filter characterizes the transfer function between a cylinder pressure and a measurement point. An engine is characterized by several filters (one for each cylinder) which are estimated for many operating conditions (engine speed and load). The purpose of this work is to obtain an averaged spectrofilter allowing the synthesis of combustion noise in all operating conditions. This synthesis should be accurate enough to be used in perceptive studies. In order to refine the spectrofilter estimation in the medium frequency band, this paper consists in taking advantage of the multitude of information given by the estimations from different operating conditions. To do this, an experimental model is adopted so modal parameters are extracted from a great number of measured filters. Different procedures such as the ESPRIT method or the LSCE method (modal analysis) are used to decompose the impulse responses on a complex exponential basis. The spectrofilters estimated from different operating conditions are analyzed and compared in this reduced basis, in order to identify the underlying structural parameters. These parameters are compared to the results of an experimental characterization of the stopped engine. The accuracy of the synthesis (number of components of the filter) is an important issue because these filters will be used in perceptive applications, extracting combustion noises. This paper is an extended version of the work initially presented at the conference Surveillance 6 in November 2011 in Compiègne, France [1] (J. Drouet, Quentin Leclere, Etienne Parizet. Experimental modeling of Wiener filters estimated on an operating diesel engine, in: Proceedings of the Surveillance, vol. 6, Compi'egne, France, 2011.).

  5. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engine with an air take device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of a runaway. (a) For a diesel...) For a diesel engine that is continuously manned, you may equip the engine with either an automatic or remote manual air intake shutdown device; (c) You do not have to equip a diesel engine with an air...

  6. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IX, ENGINE COMPONENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, FUNCTION, AND MAINTENANCE OF DIESEL ENGINE CRANKSHAFTS, CAMSHAFTS, AND ASSOCIATED BEARINGS. TOPICS ARE SHAFTS AND BEARINGS, CAMSHAFTS, BEARINGS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE, AND DETECTING FAILURE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED…

  8. Viscosity of diesel engine fuel oil under pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, Mayo D

    1929-01-01

    In the development of Diesel engine fuel injection systems it is necessary to have an approximate knowledge of the absolute viscosity of the fuel oil under high hydrostatic pressures. This report presents the results of experimental tests conducted by Mr. Jackson Newton Shore, utilizing the A.S.M.E. high pressure equipment.

  9. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring engine compression ratio, clearance volume and related cylinder parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Haddox, M.L.

    1986-01-06

    A method is described of quantifying leakage from a cylinder of an internal combustion engine having a piston disposed to reciprocate within the cylinder and a crankshaft rotatably coupled to the piston, the method comprising the steps of: (a) monitoring rotation of the crankshaft, (b) monitoring pressure within the cylinder while the crankshaft is rotating and the piston is reciprocating within the cylinder, (c) identifying displacement volumes of the piston within the cylinder as a function of rotation of the crankshaft, and (d) quantifying leakage from the cylinder as a function of monitored pressure and identified displacement volumes.

  11. Thermal efficiency and environmental performances of a biogas-diesel stationary engine.

    PubMed

    Bilcan, A; Le Corre, O; Delebarre, A

    2003-09-01

    Municipal and agricultural waste, and sludge from wastewater treatment represent a large source of pollution. Gaseous fuels can be produced from waste decomposition and then used to run internal combustion engines for power and heat generation. The present paper focuses on thermal efficiency and environmental performances of dual-fuel engines fuelled with biogas. Experiments have been carried out on a Lister-Petter single cylinder diesel engine, modified for dual-fuel operation. Natural gas was first used as the primary fuel. An empirical correlation was determined to predict the engine load for a given mass flow rate for the pilot fuel (diesel) and for the primary fuel (natural gas). That correlation has then been tested for three synthesized biogas compositions. Computations were performed and the error was estimated to be less than 10%. Additionally, NOx and CO2 contents were measured from exhaust gases. Based on exhausts gas temperature, the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of an Arrhenius law were then proposed, resulting in a simpler mean to predict NOx. PMID:14599150

  12. An investigation of enhanced capability thermal barrier coating systems for diesel engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. L.; Layne, J. L.; Schechter, B.

    1984-01-01

    Material systems and processes for the development of effective and durable thermal barriers for heavy duty diesel engines were investigated. Seven coating systems were evaluated for thermal conductivity, erosion resistance, corrosion/oxidation resistance, and thermal shock resistance. An advanced coating system based on plasma sprayed particle yttria stabilized zirconia (PS/HYSZ) was judged superior in these tests. The measured thermal conductivity of the selected coating was 0.893 W/m C at 371 C. The PS/HYSZ coating system was applied to the piston crown, fire deck and valves of a single cylinder low heat rejection diesel engine. The coated engine components were tested for 24 hr at power levels from 0.83 MPa to 1.17 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The component coatings survived the engine tests with a minimum of distress. The measured fire deck temperatures decreased 86 C (155 F) on the intake side and 42 C (75 F) on the exhaust side with the coating applied.

  13. Technical and economic study of Stirling and Rankine cycle bottoming systems for heavy truck diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, I.

    1987-01-01

    Bottoming cycle concepts for heavy duty transport engine applications were studied. In particular, the following tasks were performed: (1) conceptual design and cost data development for Stirling systems; (2) life-cycle cost evaluation of three bottoming systems - organic Rankine, steam Rankine, and Stirling cycles; and (3) assessment of future directions in waste heat utilization research. Variables considered for the second task were initial capital investments, fuel savings, depreciation tax benefits, salvage values, and service/maintenance costs. The study shows that none of the three bottoming systems studied are even marginally attractive. Manufacturing costs have to be reduced by at least 65%. As a new approach, an integrated Rankine/Diesel system was proposed. It utilizes one of the diesel cylinders as an expander and capitalizes on the in-cylinder heat energy. The concept eliminates the need for the power transmission device and a sophisticated control system, and reduces the size of the exhaust evaporator. Results of an economic evaluation indicate that the system has the potential to become an attractive package for end users.

  14. Performance and emissions characteristics of aqueous alcohol fumes in a DI diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heisey, J. B.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A single cylinder DI Diesel engine was fumigated with ethanol and methanol in amounts up to 55% of the total fuel energy. The effects of aqueous alcohol fumigation on engine thermal efficiency, combustion intensity and gaseous exhaust emissions were determined. Assessment of changes in the biological activity of raw particulate and its soluble organic fraction were also made using the Salmonella typhimurium test. Alcohol fumigation improved thermal efficiency slightly at moderate and heavy loads, but increased ignition delay at all operating conditions. Carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission generally increased with alcohol fumigation and showed no dependence on alcohol type or quality. Oxide of nitrogen emission showed a strong dependence on alcohol quality; relative emission levels decreased with increasing water content of the fumigant. Particulate mass loading rates were lower for ethanol fueled conditions. However, the biological activity of both the raw particulate and its soluble organic fraction was enhanced by ethanol fumigation at most operating conditions.

  15. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  16. Evaluation of low-speed diesel exhaust valve burning rate statistics from ten years service experience with 80 cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Dragsted, J.; Lindhardt, P.

    1984-02-01

    Although judgement of exhaust valve seat burning rates are continuously made for maintenance effort planning with any valved engine installation no information of documentary character on the subject has to the author's knowledge ever entered the published literature. The basic reason is that uniformity of observation conditions are hard to combine with a number of observations sufficient to conclude on probability of exhaust valve seat burning - in low-speed 2-stroke engines due to low number of cylinders per ship - and in 4-stroke medium-speed engines due to uncertainty with regard to actual valve exposure profiles as multi-cylindered ships will normally have variable pitch propellers.

  17. Fatigue Performance of Fluidized Bed Heat Treated 319 Alloy Diesel Cylinder Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, Sujoy K.; Apelian, Diran; Meyer, Philippe; Massinon, Denis; Morichon, Julien

    2015-07-01

    Effects of various heat treatment tempers on fatigue performance of 319 alloy diesel cylinder heads were investigated. Castings were heat treated to T5, T6, and T7 tempers. Castings were solution heat treated and quenched using fluidized beds and aged using both conventional air convective furnace and fluidized bed for T6 and T7 tempers; while they were aged after casting for T5 temper using conventional furnace. Fatigue tests were performed at 373 K (100 °C) and stress ratio equal to -1. Results show that heat treatment has significant effect on the fatigue behavior of 319 alloy. The fatigue strength of T6 tempered 319 alloy is greater than T5 and T7 treatments. Weibull analysis shows that the Weibull modulus and characteristic fatigue life of castings treated (using conventional forced air circulation electrical resistance furnace) to T6 and T7 tempers are greater than T5 temper. This implies that castings treated to T6 and T7 tempers have greater reliability vis-à-vis T5 temper. Fractographic analyses reveal three distinct regions. These are: (I) crack initiation region from the surface, (II) crack propagation region, and (III) catastrophic or monotonic failure region. The relative size of the crack propagation region in T6 and T7 treated samples is greater than T5 treated samples. In general, the monotonic failure region shows typical dimple morphology, which implies significant plastic deformation prior to failure. Dimples on the fractured surface of T5 treated alloy are relatively more faceted than those treated to T6 and T7 tempers. This implies that the 319 alloy treated to T6 and T7 tempers underwent higher degree of plasticity prior to failure than that in the T5 condition.

  18. The influence of some synfuels on the performance and thermal loading of a pre-combustion chamber diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Radwan, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Blends of different proportions of straight run naphtha/gas oil and BTX/Gas oil were used in a four-stroke pre-combustion chamber diesel engine in order to illustrate the aspects of performance and thermal loading likely to arise when using syncrudes, multifuel or coal derived fuel. The engine was instrumented for performance monitoring as well as for heat flux and metal temperature measurement and the results were compared with those obtained with gas oil. Correlations were found for the heat flux level in the cylinder head, piston and cylinder liner with the various blends employed. It was concluded that engines running on syncrudes, multifuel or coal derived fuel shall require greater attention in design and/or development since the higher heat flux prevailing in certain conditions will encourage fatigue induced cracking or liner scuffing. Also the larger heat flux differential across the component will exacerbate the thermal stress problem.

  19. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office. PMID:25084413

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  1. Suresh K. AggarwalQuantified Analysis of a Production Diesel Injector Using X-Ray Radiography and Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Anita I.

    The work presented in this thesis pursues further the understanding of fuel spray, combustion, performance, and emissions in an internal combustion engine. Various experimental techniques including x-ray radiography, injection rate measurement, and in-cylinder endoscopy are employed in this work to characterize the effects of various upstream conditions such as injection rate profile and fuel physical properties. A single non-evaporating spray from a 6-hole full-production Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector (HEUI) nozzle is studied under engine-like ambient densities with x-ray radiography at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Two different injection pressures were investigated and parameters such as fuel mass distribution, spray penetration, cone angle, and spray velocity were obtained. The data acquired with x-ray radiography is used for the development and validation of improved Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models. Rate of injection is studied using the same HEUI in a single cylinder Caterpillar test engine. The injection rate profile is altered to have three levels of initial injection pressure rise. Combustion behavior, engine performance, and emissions information was acquired for three rate profile variations. It is found that NOx emission reduction is achieved when the SOI timing is constant at the penalty of lower power generated in the cycle. However, if CA50 is aligned amongst the three profiles, the NOx emissions and power are constant with a slight penalty in CO emissions. The influence of physical and chemical parameters of fuel is examined in a study of the heavy alcohol, phytol (C20H40O), in internal combustion engine application. Phytol is blended with diesel in 5%, 10%, and 20% by volume. Combustion behavior is similar between pure diesel and the phytol/diesel blends with small differences noted in peak cylinder pressure, ignition delay, and heat release rate in the premix burn

  2. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  3. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-01-01

    Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.

  4. Balancer control device for multiple-cylinder four-cycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, S.; Tanaka, H.; Umemura, K.

    1986-09-02

    In a multiple-cylinder four-cycle engine which can be operated in two-cylinder operation in which two cylinders are operated so that the power stroke of one cylinder occurs with a crank angle phase difference of 360/sup 0/ with respect to the power stroke of the other cylinder, a balancer control device is described comprising a balancer which is driven during the two-cylinder operation of the engine to generate a primary vibration generating moment which reduces the primary vibration generating moment imparted to the engine structure due to explosion during the two-cylinder operation. It also includes an engine load detecting means for detecting engine load, an engine rpm detecting means for detecting the engine speed and a balancer changing means which changes the primary vibration generating moment of the balancer according to the operating condition of the engine so that the primary vibration generating moment of the balancer approximates the primary vibration generating moment of the engine structure due to explosion thereby suppressing the primary vibration generating moment of the engine structure over the entire operating range during the two-cylinder operation.

  5. Correction of Temperatures of Air-Cooled Engine Cylinders for Variation in Engine and Cooling Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1939-01-01

    Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder temperatures for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine temperatures with atmospheric temperature is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated air speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling air, and constant mass flow of cooling air. Seven conventional air-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-air temperature and carburetor-air temperature on cylinder temperatures. The cooling air temperature was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-air temperature from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.

  6. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, E.; Demler, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-03-01

    A study of steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks. A parametric analysis of steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance was conducted. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state-of-the-art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. When applied to a NASA specified turbo-charged adiabatic diesel the bottoming system increased the diesel output by almost 18%. In a comparison of the costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with after-cooling with the same total output, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increased initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Also during this program steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability were considered and the cost and performance of advanced systems were evaluated.

  7. Diesel emission reduction using internal exhaust gas recirculation

    DOEpatents

    He, Xin; Durrett, Russell P.

    2012-01-24

    A method for controlling combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine includes monitoring a crankshaft rotational position of a cylinder of the engine, monitoring an engine load, determining an intake stroke within the cylinder based upon the crankshaft rotational position, and when the engine load is less than a threshold engine load, opening an exhaust valve for the cylinder during a portion of the intake stroke.

  8. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    SciTech Connect

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  9. Magnetic quantum diesel engine in Ni2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, C. D.; Lefkidis, G.; Hübner, W.

    2013-12-01

    Quantum Diesel cycles are numerically realized using the electronic states of a Ni2 dimer. The quantum nature and the complexity of the electronic structure of the Ni2 dimer result in new features in the evolution of the pressure as well as in the heat-work transformation. The multitude of internal degrees of freedom in the isobaric process in molecules can result in crossing of the two adiabatic processes in the P-V diagram. The interplay of heat and work, originating from thermal nonequilibrium effects, can lead to a thermal efficiency of up to 100%. The spin moment of the Ni2 can be decreased by the isobaric process. To link the molecular heat capacity to easily accessible experimental quantities, we also calculate the Kerr effect and the magnetic susceptibility at different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  10. Refined turbulence models for simulation of IC-engine cylinder flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Ibrahim

    2000-11-01

    Turbulence and turbulent mixing are two of the most important factors that influence the efficiency and emissions level in internal combustion (IC) engines, particularly for diesel engines. This study has been performed with the premise to accurately predict in-cylinder turbulence by employing the large eddy simulation (LES) technique. In order to assess the turbulence scales involved correctly, a review of measured and computed scales relevant to IC engines is conducted. An assessment of these is made in comparison with the self-imposed scales of the engine itself. This assessment focuses on the influence of combustion, compression ratio, initial conditions and numerical mesh on predicted turbulence scales. It was found that the turbulence scales predicted by employing the commonly used k-epsilon turbulence model were in good qualitative agreement with experimental observations and could be used as a guide to determine the degree of resolution needed in LES. To establish a base to improve existing Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models, a comparative study of the commonly used RANS models applied to IC engines was conducted, using an experimental benchmark case, which is an isothermal, incompressible flow within a piston-cylinder arrangement motored without combustion. This study has lead to a new hybrid turbulence model, namely, the Smagorinsky based eddy viscosity (SEV) model, which is self-adjusting between an eddy viscosity model and subgrid-scale model, depending on the grid size, continuously from RANS to LES. It was tested against the above-mentioned experimental benchmark. The predicted velocity profiles and streamlines are in good agreement with experiments. The new model is a viable alternative to the k-epsilon model in predicting the mean flowfield in IC engines. Furthermore, the relative importance of the turbulence generation mechanisms in IC engines has been studied using LES. First, the compression and expansion strokes of a piston

  11. A Study of a Diesel Engine Based Micro-CHP System

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, C.R.; Andrews, J.; Tutu, N.; Butcher, T.

    2010-08-31

    This project, funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Agency (NYSERDA), investigated the potential for an oil-fired combined heat and power system (micro-CHP system) for potential use in residences that use oil to heat their homes. Obviously, this requires the power source to be one that uses heating oil (diesel). The work consisted of an experimental study using a diesel engine and an analytical study that examined potential energy savings and benefits of micro-CHP systems for 'typical' locations in New York State. A search for a small diesel engine disclosed that no such engines were manufactured in the U.S. A single cylinder engine manufactured in Germany driving an electric generator was purchased for the experimental work. The engine was tested using on-road diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur), and biodiesel blends. One of the main objectives was to demonstrate the possibility of operation in the so-called HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode. The HCCI mode of operation of engines is being explored as a way to reduce the emission of smoke, and NOx significantly without exhaust treatment. This is being done primarily in the context of engines used in transportation applications. However, it is felt that in a micro-CHP application using a single cylinder engine, such an approach would confer those emission benefits and would be much easier to implement. This was demonstrated successfully by injecting the fuel into the engine air intake using a heated atomizer made by Econox Technologies LLC to promote significant vaporization before entering the cylinder. Efficiency and emission measurements were made under different electrical loads provided by two space heaters connected to the generator in normal and HCCI modes of operation. The goals of the analytical work were to characterize, from the published literature, the prime-movers for micro-CHP applications, quantify parametrically the expected energy savings of using micro-CHP systems

  12. Ignition study of a petrol/CNG single cylinder engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Benefits of laser ignition over the electrical ignition system for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines have fuelled automobile industry and led to an extensive research on basic characteristics to switch over to the emerging technologies. This study was undertaken to determine the electrical and physical characteristics of the electric spark ignition of single cylinder petrol/CNG engine to determine minimum ignition requirements and timeline of ignition events to use in subsequent laser ignition study. This communication briefly reviews the ongoing research activities and reports the results of this experimental study. The premixed petrol and CNG mixtures were tested for variation of current and voltage characteristics of the spark with speed of engine. The current magnitude of discharge circuit was found to vary linearly over a wide range of speed but the stroke to stroke fire time was found to vary nonlinearly. The DC voltage profiles were observed to fluctuate randomly during ignition process and staying constant in rest of the combustion cycle. Fire to fire peaks of current amplitudes fluctuated up to 10% of the peak values at constant speed but increased almost linearly with increase in speed. Technical barriers of laser ignition related to threshold minimum ignition energy, inter-pulse durations and firing sequence are discussed. Present findings provide a basic initiative and background information for designing suitable timeline algorithms for laser ignited leaner direct injected CNG engines.

  13. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  14. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  15. Utilization of sunflower seed oil as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bruwer, J.J.; van der Boshoff, B.; Hugo, F.J.C.; Fuls, J.; Hawkins, C.; van der Walt, A.N.; Engelbrecht, A.; du Plessis, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Research, using several makes of diesel engine, showed that sunflower seed oil, and particularly an ethyl ester mixture, has the potential to extend diesel fuel provided solutions are found for injector coking problems. (MHR)

  16. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  17. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  18. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  19. Carbonyl compounds emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel-diesel blends: Sampling optimization and emissions profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; da Rocha, Gisele Olimpio; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Biodiesel is emerging as a renewable fuel, hence becoming a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can form blends with diesel in any ratio, and thus could replace partially, or even totally, diesel fuel in diesel engines what would bring a number of environmental, economical and social advantages. Although a number of studies are available on regulated substances, there is a gap of studies on unregulated substances, such as carbonyl compounds, emitted during the combustion of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel and/or ethanol-biodiesel-diesel blends. CC is a class of hazardous pollutants known to be participating in photochemical smog formation. In this work a comparison was carried out between the two most widely used CC collection methods: C18 cartridges coated with an acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) and impinger bottles filled in 2,4-DNPH solution. Sampling optimization was performed using a 2 2 factorial design tool. Samples were collected from the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with biodiesel and operated by a steady-state dynamometer. In the central body of factorial design, the average of the sum of CC concentrations collected using impingers was 33.2 ppmV but it was only 6.5 ppmV for C18 cartridges. In addition, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4% for impingers and 37% for C18 cartridges. Clearly, the impinger system is able to collect CC more efficiently, with lower error than the C18 cartridge system. Furthermore, propionaldehyde was nearly not sampled by C18 system at all. For these reasons, the impinger system was chosen in our study. The optimized sampling conditions applied throughout this study were: two serially connected impingers each containing 10 mL of 2,4-DNPH solution at a flow rate of 0.2 L min -1 during 5 min. A profile study of the C1-C4 vapor-phase carbonyl compound emissions was obtained from exhaust of pure diesel (B0), pure biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel-diesel mixtures (B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B

  20. Diesel engine dual path exhaust cleaner and burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.L.

    1983-02-15

    A dual filter element exhaust cleaner and burner system for diesel engines provides for the trapping of particulates in the engine exhaust gases by their passage through filter elements, as selectively controlled by means of a four-way valve. Collected particulates in a non-active particulate filter element are incinerated by means of a heater, with this filter element, during incineration, being supplied with exhaust gases through a constant flow exhaust gas regulator whereby incineration of the particulates will occur at a controlled rate independent of engine speed.

  1. The effect of insulated combustion chamber surfaces on direct-injected diesel engine performance, emissions, and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Daniel W.; Vinyard, Shannon; Keribar, Rifat

    1988-01-01

    The combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine was insulated with ceramic coatings to determine the effect of low heat rejection (LHR) operation on engine performance, emissions, and combustion. In comparison to the baseline cooled engine, the LHR engine had lower thermal efficiency, with higher smoke, particulate, and full load carbon monoxide emissions. The unburned hydrocarbon emissions were reduced across the load range. The nitrous oxide emissions increased at some part-load conditions and were reduced slightly at full loads. The poor LHR engine performance was attributed to degraded combustion characterized by less premixed burning, lower heat release rates, and longer combustion duration compared to the baseline cooled engine.

  2. Peanut, soybean and cottonseed oil as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mazed, M.A.; Summers, J.D.; Batchelder, D.G.

    1985-09-01

    Two single cylinder diesel engines burning three vegetable oils, and their blends with diesel fuel, were evaluated and compared to engines burning a reference diesel fuel (Phillips No. 2). Tests were conducted determining power output, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and exhaust smoke. Using the three vegetable oils and their blends with No. 2 diesel fuel, maximum changes of 5%, 14%, 10%, and 40% were observed in power, fuel consumption by mass, thermal efficiency, and exhaust smoke, respectively. 41 references.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  4. Combustion and heat transfer in a high speed diesel engine operating with rape seed oil methyl ester fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, R.

    The properties of RME (rape seed oil methyl ester) as a fuel for a diesel engine have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were made with a turbocharged high-speed DI engine. During experiments the specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas emissions, heat release rate, flame temperature and the temperatures of the combustion chamber walls were measured. A test was also made using the measured flame temperature as an initial value for a two-zone combustion model. The theoretical investigations show that it is possible to achieve with RME approximately the same power as with ordinary diesel fuel from the same cylinder volume. The fuels give very similar theoretical (ideal) working cycles and also the efficiencies of the cycles are very near to each other.

  5. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20. PMID:20886845

  6. Performance and emissions characteristics of a naturally aspirated diesel engine with vegetable oil fuels - 2

    SciTech Connect

    Humke, A.L.; Barsic, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A naturally aspirated, direct injected diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a crude soybean oil, a 50 percent (by volume) mixture of crude soybean oil and no. 2 diesel fuel, and a degummed soybean oil. The data were compared with previous tests conducted on the same engine using diesel fuel, crude sunflower oil and a 50 percent mixture of crude sunflower oil and diesel fuel. 18 refs.

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treated B319 Alloy Diesel Cylinder Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, S. K.; Apelian, D.; Meyer, P.; Massinon, D.; Morichon, J.

    2015-07-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of B319 alloy diesel cylinder heads were investigated in this study. Cylinder heads were heat treated to T5, T6, and T7 tempers using fluidized bed technology. Three different fluidized beds were used, each to solutionize, quench, and age the castings. For comparative purposes, castings were also aged using conventional forced-air circulation electric-resistance furnace. Effects of processing parameters such as temperature, time, and heating rate on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties namely tensile properties and hardness of B319 alloy castings were studied. The number density and size range of precipitates were measured. Results show that the T5 temper has no effect on eutectic phases such as Si- and Fe-rich intermetallic, and Al2Cu. On contrary, both T6 and T7 tempers result in spherodization of the eutectic Si and partial dissolution of the Al2Cu phase. Prolonged solution heat treatment for 8 hours in fluidized bed results in limited dissolution of the secondary eutectic Al2Cu phase. Aging (T6, T7, and T5) results in precipitation of Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 and Al2Cu phases in B319 alloy. The number density of precipitates in T6 temper is greater than in T7 and T5 tempers. The number density of precipitates is also affected by the duration of solution heat treatment. In general, long solution heat treatment (8 hours) results in greater precipitate density than short solution treatment (2 hours). The distribution of precipitates is inhomogeneous and varied across the dendritic structure. In general, precipitation rate of Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase is greater near the periphery of the dendrite as compared to the center. This is because Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 nucleates on Si particle, grain boundaries, and triple junction between recrystallized Al grains and Si particles. Similarly, heterogeneous sites such as grain boundaries and Al/Si interface also act as nucleating sites for the precipitation of Al2Cu phase. In general, the

  8. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio. PMID:27066330

  9. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  10. Liquid-phase penetration under unsteady in-cylinder conditions: Soy- and Cuphea-derived biodiesel fuels vs. conventional diesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accelerated dilution of engine-lubrication oil is a significant potential issue when fueling with biodiesel. Biodiesel produced from some feedstocks is less volatile than conventional diesel, which makes wall-impingement of liquid fuel more likely, a problem that could be exacerbated by advanced in...

  11. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott; Dempsey, Adam B.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Reitz, Rolf; Walker, N. Ryan; Wright, Chris

    2014-12-25

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI weremore » investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.« less

  12. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott; Dempsey, Adam B.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Reitz, Rolf; Walker, N. Ryan; Wright, Chris

    2014-12-25

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI were investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.

  13. The influence of bowl offset on air motion in a direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, T.L.; Primus, R.J

    1988-01-01

    The influence of bowl offset on motored mean flow and turbulence in a direct injection diesel engine has been examined with the aid of a multi-dimensional flow code. Results are presented for three piston geometries. The bowl geometry of each piston was the same, while the offset between the bowl and the cylinder axis was varied from 0.0 to 9.6% of the bore. The swirl ratio at intake valve closing was also varied from 2.60 to 4.27. It was found that the angular momentum of the air at TDC was decreased by less than 8% when the bowl was offset. Nevertheless, the mean (squish and swirl) flows were strongly affected by the offset. In addition, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (predicted by the /delta/-e model) was modified. Moderate increases (10% or less) in mass averaged turbulence intensity at TDC with offset were observed.

  14. Diesel engine emissions and combustion predictions using advanced mixing models applicable to fuel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abani, Neerav; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2010-09-01

    An advanced mixing model was applied to study engine emissions and combustion with different injection strategies ranging from multiple injections, early injection and grouped-hole nozzle injection in light and heavy duty diesel engines. The model was implemented in the KIVA-CHEMKIN engine combustion code and simulations were conducted at different mesh resolutions. The model was compared with the standard KIVA spray model that uses the Lagrangian-Drop and Eulerian-Fluid (LDEF) approach, and a Gas Jet spray model that improves predictions of liquid sprays. A Vapor Particle Method (VPM) is introduced that accounts for sub-grid scale mixing of fuel vapor and more accurately and predicts the mixing of fuel-vapor over a range of mesh resolutions. The fuel vapor is transported as particles until a certain distance from nozzle is reached where the local jet half-width is adequately resolved by the local mesh scale. Within this distance the vapor particle is transported while releasing fuel vapor locally, as determined by a weighting factor. The VPM model more accurately predicts fuel-vapor penetrations for early cycle injections and flame lift-off lengths for late cycle injections. Engine combustion computations show that as compared to the standard KIVA and Gas Jet spray models, the VPM spray model improves predictions of in-cylinder pressure, heat released rate and engine emissions of NOx, CO and soot with coarse mesh resolutions. The VPM spray model is thus a good tool for efficiently investigating diesel engine combustion with practical mesh resolutions, thereby saving computer time.

  15. Engine-Operating Load Influences Diesel Exhaust Composition and Cardiopulmonary and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Campen, Matthew J.; Harrod, Kevin S.; Seagrave, JeanClare; Seilkop, Steven K.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The composition of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) varies by engine type and condition, fuel, engine operation, and exhaust after treatment such as particle traps. DEE has been shown to increase inflammation, susceptibility to infection, and cardiovascular responses in experimentally exposed rodents and humans. Engines used in these studies have been operated at idle, at different steady-state loads, or on variable-load cycles, but exposures are often reported only as the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM), and the effects of different engine loads and the resulting differences in DEE composition are unknown. Objectives: We assessed the impacts of load-related differences in DEE composition on models of inflammation, susceptibility to infection, and cardiovascular toxicity. Methods: We assessed inflammation and susceptibility to viral infection in C57BL/6 mice and cardiovascular toxicity in APOE–/– mice after being exposed to DEE generated from a single-cylinder diesel generator operated at partial or full load. Results: At the same PM mass concentration, partial load resulted in higher proportions of particle organic carbon content and a smaller particle size than did high load. Vapor-phase hydrocarbon content was greater at partial load. Compared with high-load DEE, partial-load DEE caused greater responses in heart rate and T-wave morphology, in terms of both magnitude and rapidity of onset of effects, consistent with previous findings that systemic effects may be driven largely by the gas phase of the exposure atmospheres. However, high-load DEE caused more lung inflammation and greater susceptibility to viral infection than did partial load. Conclusions: Differences in engine load, as well as other operating variables, are important determinants of the type and magnitude of responses to inhaled DEE. PM mass concentration alone is not a sufficient basis for comparing or combining results from studies using DEE generated under different

  16. Comparative analysis of the long-term performance of a diesel engine on vegetable oil based alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbo-charged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance tests. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. The experiment was conducted to develop prediction equations to determine the effects of alternate fuels on long-term engine performance. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze long-term effects the test fuels had on engine performance and to simultaneously compare the test fuels. Several variables were used to measure engine performance. These response variables were volumetric fuel flow, energy input, power output, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust temperature and exhaust smoke. The predictor variables were time of the EMA cycle and fuel type. Two multivariate tests were performed in this analysis. The first tested the significance of time on the response variable. The second tested the fuel effect. Both tests were significant. The results of the univariate regressions indicated that time had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. In all other cases, time was not a factor. However, significant difference in the intercepts of the prediction equations were found between tested fuels.

  17. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Kegl, Breda

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity are determined experimentally and compared to those of D2. The obtained results are used to analyze the most important injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics. The injection characteristics are determined numerically under the operating regimes, corresponding to the 13 mode ESC test. The fuel spray is obtained experimentally under peak torque condition. Engine characteristics are determined experimentally under 13 mode ESC test conditions. The results indicate that, by using biodiesel, harmful emissions (NO(x), CO, smoke and HC) can be reduced to some extent by adjusting the injection pump timing properly. PMID:17350250

  18. TRANSIENT, REAL-TIME, PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS IN DIESEL ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S; Shih, J; Hillman, G; sekar, R; Graze, R; Shimpi, S; Martin, W; Pier, D

    2003-08-24

    This paper reports our efforts to develop an instrument, TG-1, to measure particulate emissions from diesel engines in real-time. TG-1 while based on laser-induced incandescence allows measurements at 10 Hz on typical engine exhausts. Using such an instrument, measurements were performed in the exhaust of a 1.7L Mercedes Benz engine coupled to a low inertia dynamometer. Comparative measurements performed under engine steady state conditions showed the instrument to agree within {+-}12% of measurements performed with an SMPS. Moreover, the instrument had far better time response and time resolution than a TEOM{reg_sign} 1105. Also, TG-1 appears to surpass the shortcomings of the TEOM instrument, i.e., of yielding negative values under certain engine conditions and, being sensitive to external vibration.

  19. Development and Testing of a 6-Cylinder HCCI Engine for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Killingsworth, N; Aceves, S M; Dibble, R; Kristic, M; Bining, A

    2005-07-12

    This paper describes the technical approach for converting a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine into HCCI mode. The paper describes all stages of the process, starting with a preliminary analysis that determined that the engine can be operated by preheating the intake air with a heat exchanger that recovers energy from the exhaust gases. This heat exchanger plays a dual role, since it is also used for starting the engine. For start-up, the heat exchanger is preheated with a natural gas burner. The engine is therefore started in HCCI mode, avoiding the need to handle the potentially difficult transition from SI or diesel mode to HCCI. The fueling system was modified by replacing the natural gas carburetor with a liquid petroleum gas (LPG) carburetor. This modification sets an upper limit for the equivalence ratio at {phi} {approx} 0.4, which is ideal for HCCI operation and guarantees that the engine will not fail due to knock. Equivalence ratio can be reduced below 0.4 for low load operation with an electronic control valve. Intake boosting has been a challenge, as commercially available turbochargers are not a good match for the engine, due to the low HCCI exhaust temperature. Commercial introduction of HCCI engines for stationary power will therefore require the development of turbochargers designed specifically for this mode of operation. Considering that no appropriate off-the-shelf turbocharger for HCCI engines exists at this time, we are investigating mechanical supercharging options, which will deliver the required boost pressure (3 bar absolute intake) at the expense of some reduction in the output power and efficiency. An appropriate turbocharger can later be installed for improved performance when it becomes available or when a custom turbocharger is developed. The engine is now running in HCCI mode and producing power in an essentially naturally aspirated mode. Current work focuses on developing an automatic controller for obtaining

  20. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  1. Correlation of Cooling Data from an Air-Cooled Cylinder and Several Multicylinder Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1940-01-01

    The theory of engine-cylinder cooling developed in a previous report was further substantiated by data obtained on a cylinder from a Wright r-1820-g engine. Equations are presented for the average head and barrel temperatures of this cylinder as functions of the engine and the cooling conditions. These equations are utilized to calculate the variation in cylinder temperature with altitude for level flight and climb. A method is presented for correlating average head and barrel temperatures and temperatures at individual points on the head and the barrel obtained on the test stand and in flight. The method is applied to the correlation and the comparison of data obtained on a number of service engines. Data are presented showing the variation of cylinder temperature with time when the power and the cooling pressure drop are suddenly changed.

  2. Internal combustion engine having aluminum alloy cylinder block

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, N.

    1987-03-24

    An internal combustion engine is described comprising: a cylinder block formed of aluminium alloy and having main bearing bulkheads each of which is formed with a bearing surface; main bearing caps formed of aluminium alloy and securely connected, respectively, with the bearing bulkheads, the bearing caps being formed with bearing surfaces which are located, respectively, in opposition to the bearing surfaces of the bearing bulkhead; a crankshaft formed of iron alloy and rotatably supported by the bearing bulkheads and the bearing caps. The main journal of the crankshaft is located between the bearing surfaces of the bearing bulkheads and the bearing caps. The surface of the crankshaft main journal is in direct contact with the bearing surfaces of the bearing bulkheads and the bearing caps; and means defining an oil groove on the bearing surface of each bearing bulkhead for supplying engine lubricating oil between the crankshaft main journal and the bearing surfaces of the bearing bulkheads and the bearing caps. The oil groove extends along the periphery of the bearing bulkhead bearing surfaces, the bearing surfaces of the bearing caps being free of oil grooves so as to provide maximum contacting area with the main crankshaft journal to absorb greater explosive force.

  3. Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

  4. Cam pully and cylinder head arrangement for an overhead cam engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, E.B.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes improvement in an air-cooled internal combustion engine. It includes a crankcase, a crankshaft disposed within the crankcase and extending externally of the crankcase, a cylinder extending from the crankcase and having a piston mounted for reciprocation therein and connected to the crankshaft, a cylinder head connected to the cylinder and including an overhead camshaft disposed therein, the camshaft extending externally of the cylinder head, a drive pulley mounted to the crankshaft externally of the crankcases, a cam pulley mounted to the camshaft externally of the cylinder head, drive means positively engaging the drive pulley and the cam pulley for transmitting rotary motion therebetween, and blower means driven by the crankshaft for drawing air in and blowing the air over the cylinder head. The improvement comprises: the cam pulley including means for directing air axially toward the cylinder head upon rotation of the cam pulley.

  5. Experimental study of the swirl motion in direct injection diesel engines under steady state flow conditions (by LDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Snauwaert, P.; Sierens, R.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed three-dimensional study of the mean flow and the turbulence inside the liner of a direct injection diesel engine under steady state flow conditions has been carried out by laser doppler anemometer measurements. The influence of the valve lift, the port orientation (using a cylinder head with variable direction of the inlet channel) and the mass flow on flow characteristics (kinetic energy distributions, momentum flux, swirl parameters) has been analysed. These flow characteristics have been used to analyse the relation between the real flow pattern and swirl parameters as measured by the flow rectifier method and the paddle wheel anemometer.

  6. 76 FR 33660 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... 2010-23-09, Amendment 39-16498 (75 FR 68179, November 5, 2010), for Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect... FR 68179, November 5, 2010), and adding the following new AD: Austro Engine GmbH: Docket No....

  7. Capture and destruction of soot emissions from diesel engines used in power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Caceres, J.; Kim, Sung Ho

    1998-04-01

    A method is described for reducing emissions from diesel engines. Particulate emissions are captured in the effluent duct using high-efficiency ceramic filters. The filters are regenerated (cleaned) with compressed air. Periodically, compressed air flows in the opposite to the exhaust direction in the filter and removes the soot. The soot is channeled to a chamber, fitted with a secondary filter, where it is oxidized. A slipstream of the filtered engine exhaust is channeled back to the engine intake (flue gas recirculation, FGR) to lower the peak temperatures in the cylinder and, thus, the nitrogen oxide emissions. A design for the soot incinerator - secondary filter chamber is presented herein. This design employs an electric burner and dual wall-flow filters. The system was mounted in a diesel vehicle and was tested for 700 km. The average sooting rate of the engine was 0.1 g/km. The baseline value of the pressure drop across the primary monolith was 150 mbars, after both the primary and secondary monoliths were regenerated. During testing the pressure drop across the primary monolith would gradually increase to a value of 400 mbars as soot particles were captured, and then decrease to a value of 200 mbars after every primary regeneration. The pressure drop would further decrease to the baseline value of 150 mbars when primary regeneration was performed after incineration in the secondary chamber was complete. Aerodynamic regeneration was performed every {approx}17 km and incineration of the soot particles occurred every {approx}64 km. The CO emissions created by the oxidation of the soot particles the incinerator were monitored at the tailpipe. To prevent these CO emissions from being released to the atmosphere the effluent of the incinerator was channeled back to the air intake manifold of the engine to oxidize CO to CO{sub 2}.

  8. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  9. Hydrogen-fueled diesel engine without timed ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, H. S.; De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Reynolds, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of converting a diesel engine to hydrogen-fueled operation without providing a timed ignition system. Use was made of a glow plug and a multiple-strike spark plug. The glow plug was found to provide reliable ignition and smooth engine operation. It caused the hydrogen to ignite almost immediately upon the start of injection. Indicated mean effective pressures were on the order of 1.3 MPa for equivalence ratios between 0.1 and 0.4 at a compression ratio of 18. This is significantly higher than the corresponding result obtained with diesel oil (about 0.6 MPa for equivalence ratios between 0.3 and 0.9). Indicated thermal efficiencies were on the order of 0.4 for hydrogen and 0.20-0.25 for diesel oil. Operation with the multiple-strike spark system yielded similar values for IMEP and efficiency, but gave rise to large cycle-to-cycle variations in the delay between the beginning of injection and ignition. Large ignition delays were associated with large amplitude pressure waves in the combustion chamber. The measured NO(x) concentrations in the exhaust gas were of the order of 50-100 ppm. This is significantly higher than the corresponding results obtained with premixed hydrogen and air at low equivalence ratios. Compression ignition could not be achieved even at a compression ratio of 29.

  10. 77 FR 54384 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) prices. The derivation of the final penalties is described in a support... the public comment period related to fuel and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) prices. The derivation of the... standard for heavy heavy-duty diesel engines. 77 FR 4736 (January 31, 2012).\\2\\ Although we did...

  11. [Martin high pressure common rail diesel engine injection system]. Technical progress report, August--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    We have a contract with Diesel Recerche of Trieste, Italy, and the Fincantier Group in Italy. They are naval ship builders. Our contract is to work with Diesel Recerche to design the `Martin` fuel injection system for their first test engine for a naval ship. Tiby Martin has been working in the design and detailed layout of the application drawings for Diesel Recerche.

  12. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted. Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions. Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  13. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  14. A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Thomas E; Wagner, Robert M; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Curran, Scott; Nafziger, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 44.4%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.

  15. Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Nurhayati; Yong-kwan, Lee

    2014-02-01

    Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort.

  16. Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Nurhayati Yong-kwan, Lee

    2014-02-12

    Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort.

  17. View forward in starboard engine room, compartment C1. Lagged cylinders ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward in starboard engine room, compartment C-1. Lagged cylinders at lower right are part of a steam engine that poers the salt water circulating pumps. Note main throttle wheel at lower center of photograph. Handles at lower center are cylinder manifold drains. Handles to the right are engine starting valves. (062) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa. PMID:21234367

  19. A study of the air movement in two aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1940-01-01

    Studies were made of the air movements in the NACA glass-cylinder apparatus using cylinder heads similar to those on the Wright R-1820-G engine and the Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine as modified by the Eclipse Aviation Corporation to use fuel-injection equipment. The air movements were made visible by mixing small feathers with the air; high-speed motion pictures were than taken of the feathers as they swirled about the inside the glass cylinder. The test engine speeds were 350, 500, and 1,000 r.p.m. Motion pictures were also taken of gasoline sprays injected into the cylinder during the intake stroke. The air flow produced by each cylinder head is described and some results of the velocity measurements of feathers are presented. The apparent time intervals required for vaporization of the gasoline sprays are also given.

  20. Measurement and analysis of instantaneous torque and angular velocity variations of a low speed two stroke diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Espadafor, Francisco J.; A. Becerra Villanueva, José; Palomo Guerrero, Daniel; Torres García, Miguel; Carvajal Trujillo, Elisa; Fernández Vacas, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the potential of using direct measurement of engine torque for diagnostic purposes in large engines - in this case applied to power generation. The procedures for measuring and analyzing the instantaneous torque, the angular displacement on the generator output end and the angular displacement on its free end for a ten-cylinder, low speed two stroke diesel engine are presented. Angular speed oscillations are frequently used for combustion engine diagnostics although they cannot be used to measure engine power directly. In addition, and for engines with huge inertia generators such as those used in power plants, speed oscillations are very low and this reduces the signal to noise ratio and makes the evaluation of the instantaneous angular speed very noisy. In the work described here, torque and angular displacement measurements carried out at the same point and with the same engine conditions are compared and the superior performance of torque is demonstrated. Harmonic analysis of instantaneous torque allowed the identification of the dynamic characteristics of the power train of the diesel group and clearly suggests that this signal can be used as a diagnostic tool for excitation, combustion malfunctions, or for the mechanical characteristics of the system and crankshaft stiffness. The torque distortion introduced by the generator due to the discontinuity imposed by the pole pairs is also observed in the torque signal, suggesting that the torque signal can be used to identify generator malfunction.

  1. Light-Duty Drive Cycle Simulations of Diesel Engine-Out Exhaust Properties for an RCCI-Enabled Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Curran, Scott; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuels to achieve low-temperature reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) can reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). Moreover, the dual-fueling RCCI is able to achieve these benefits by tailoring combustion reactivity over a wider range of engine operation than is possible with a single fuel. However, the currently demonstrated range of stable RCCI combustion just covers a portion of the engine speed-load range required in several light-duty drive cycles. This means that engines must switch from RCCI to CDC when speed and load fall outside of the stable RCCI range. In this study we investigated the impact of RCCI as it has recently been demonstrated on practical engine-out exhaust temperature and emissions by simulating a multi-mode RCCI-enabled vehicle operating over two urban and two highway driving cycles. To implement our simulations, we employed experimental engine maps for a multi-mode RCCI/CDC engine combined with a standard mid-size, automatic transmission, passenger vehicle in the Autonomie vehicle simulation platform. Our results include both detailed transient and cycle-averaged engine exhaust temperature and emissions for each case, and we note the potential implications of the modified exhaust properties on catalytic emissions control and utilization of waste heat recovery on future RCCI-enabled vehicles.

  2. Modelling of diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel using engine simulation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Mohd Farid Muhamad; Said, Mazlan; Aziz, Azhar Abdul

    2012-06-01

    This paper is about modelling of a diesel engine that operates using biodiesel fuels. The model is used to simulate or predict the performance and combustion of the engine by simplified the geometry of engine component in the software. The model is produced using one-dimensional (1D) engine simulation software called GT-Power. The fuel properties library in the software is expanded to include palm oil based biodiesel fuels. Experimental works are performed to investigate the effect of biodiesel fuels on the heat release profiles and the engine performance curves. The model is validated with experimental data and good agreement is observed. The simulation results show that combustion characteristics and engine performances differ when biodiesel fuels are used instead of no. 2 diesel fuel.

  3. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Jong Han; Jang, Young-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP. PMID:25318659

  4. Large eddy simulation of fuel injection and mixing process in a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Xie, Mao-Zhao; Jia, Ming; Shi, Jun-Rui

    2011-08-01

    The large eddy simulation (LES) approach implemented in the KIVA-3V code and based on one-equation sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy model are employed for numerical computation of diesel sprays in a constant volume vessel and in a Caterpillar 3400 series diesel engine. Computational results are compared with those obtained by an RANS (RNG k- ɛ) model as well as with experimental data. The sensitivity of the LES results to mesh resolution is also discussed. The results show that LES generally provides flow and spray characteristics in better agreement with experimental data than RANS; and that small-scale random vortical structures of the in-cylinder turbulent spray field can be captured by LES. Furthermore, the penetrations of fuel droplets and vapors calculated by LES are larger than the RANS result, and the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and sub-grid turbulent viscosity provided by the LES model are evidently less than those calculated by the RANS model. Finally, it is found that the initial swirl significantly affects the spray penetration and the distribution of fuel vapor within the combustion chamber.

  5. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  6. Gradient effects on two-color soot optical pyrometry in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P.B.; Singh, Satbir; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2008-04-15

    Two-color soot optical pyrometry is a widely used technique for measuring soot temperature and volume fraction in many practical combustion devices, but line-of-sight soot temperature and volume fraction gradients can introduce significant uncertainties in the measurements. For diesel engines, these uncertainties usually can only be estimated based on assumptions about the soot property gradients along the line of sight, because full three-dimensional transient diesel soot distribution data are not available. Such information is available, however, from multidimensional computer model simulations, which are phenomenologically based, and have been validated against available in-cylinder soot measurements and diesel engine exhaust soot emissions. Using the model-predicted in-cylinder soot distributions, uncertainties in diesel two-color pyrometry data are assessed, both for a conventional high-sooting, high-temperature combustion (HTC) operating condition, and for a low-sooting, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition. The simulation results confirm that the two-color soot measurements are strongly biased toward the properties of the hot soot. For the HTC condition, line-of-sight gradients in soot temperature span 600 K, causing relatively large errors. The two-color temperature is 200 K higher than the soot-mass-averaged value, while the two-color volume fraction is 50% lower. For the LTC condition, the two-color measurement errors are half as large as for the HTC condition, because the model-predicted soot temperature gradients along the line of sight are half as large. By contrast, soot temperature and volume fraction gradients across the field of view introduce much smaller errors of less than 50 K in temperature and 20% in volume fraction. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional modeling of diesel engine intake flow, combustion and emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitz, R. D.; Rutland, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional computer code (KIVA) is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion: spray atomization, drop breakup/coalescence, multi-component fuel vaporization, spray/wall interaction, ignition and combustion, wall heat transfer, unburned HC and NOx formation, soot and radiation, and the intake flow process. Improved and/or new submodels which were completed are: wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo'vich NOx, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Results to date show that adding the effects of unsteadiness and compressibility improves the accuracy of heat transfer predictions; spray drop rebound can occur from walls at low impingement velocities (e.g., in cold-starting); larger spray drops are formed at the nozzle due to the influence of vaporization on the atomization process; a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model has the flexibility to match measured engine combustion data over a wide range of operating conditions; and finally, the characteristic time combustion model can also be extended to allow predictions of ignition. The accuracy of the predictions is being assessed by comparisons with available measurements. Additional supporting experiments are also described briefly. To date, comparisons with measured engine cylinder pressure and heat flux data were made for homogeneous charge, spark-ignited and compression-ignited engines. The model results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  8. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  9. Development of Gas-Lubricated Pistons for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, W.

    1984-01-01

    Static testing of a segmented, gas-lubricated, piston-ring was accomplished. The ring utilizes high-pressure gas generated during the diesel cycle to energize a hydrostatic gas film between the piston and cylinder liner. The configuration was deficient in overall performance, because all segments of a ring set failed to form a fluid-film simultaneously, when exposed to internal preload. The difficulty was traced to the moment balance required to prevent the segments from overturning and contacting the cylinder walls. Some individual sectors formed a film and performed well in every respect including load capability to 6,000 N. These results produce optimism as to the ultimate feasibility of hydrostatic, gas-lubricated piston rings. In addition to test results, the principles of operation, and theoretical developments are presented. Breathable liner concepts are suggested for future consideration. In these configurations, solid hydrostatic pistons are coupled with flexible liners that elastically deform to form a gas-film under hydrostatic pressurization. Breathable liners afford the mechanical simplicity required for mass produced engines, and initial examination indicates satisfactory operation.

  10. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  11. Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Inection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Szymkowicz, Patrick G.; Northrop, William F

    2012-01-01

    It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. It has been shown in previous studies that varying cetane number (CN) of diesel fuel has little effect on ignition delay at high engine load due to the domination of high cylinder temperature on ignition kinetics. The work here experimentally confirms that finding but also shows that emissions and combustion performance vary according to fuel reactivity. Data are examined from a direct-injection single cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR. It is shown in the work that at high engine load where combustion is controlled by mixing processes, CN and other fuel properties have little effect on engine performance, although lower CN fuels produce a small increase in noise, smoke and CO emissions. Biodiesel blends increase NOX emissions and decreases CO and smoke emissions at high load, but otherwise have little effect on performance. At moderate load, higher CN fuels are more tolerant to EGR due to their better chemical reactivity at retarded injection timing, but all fuels produce comparable thermal efficiency at advanced combustion phasing regardless of EGR. In contrast to the high load conditions, there was no increase in NOX emissions for biodiesel at the moderate load condition. It is concluded that

  12. Multicylinder internal combustion engine utilizing split block with unitized cylinder head and liner

    SciTech Connect

    Eitel, J.M.

    1988-08-16

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine of the type having at least one cylinder and a crankshaft, as assembly comprised of first and second mating half sections joined in a common plane which passes through and along the axis of the crankshaft, each of the half sections providing crankcase, crankshaft bearing support, and cylinder water jacket portions, a unitized cylinder head and sleeve construction having a combustion chamber with a top surface therein and cooperative securing and sealing means for securing the unitized cylinder head and sleeve construction to the assembly in a location immediately adjacent the top surface of the combustion chamber, the cooperative securing and sealing means encircling each cylinder head and including tie bolts extending through the cylinder water jacket portions.

  13. System and method of cylinder deactivation for optimal engine torque-speed map operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sujan, Vivek A; Frazier, Timothy R; Follen, Kenneth; Moon, Suk-Min

    2014-11-11

    This disclosure provides a system and method for determining cylinder deactivation in a vehicle engine to optimize fuel consumption while providing the desired or demanded power. In one aspect, data indicative of terrain variation is utilized in determining a vehicle target operating state. An optimal active cylinder distribution and corresponding fueling is determined from a recommendation from a supervisory agent monitoring the operating state of the vehicle of a subset of the total number of cylinders, and a determination as to which number of cylinders provides the optimal fuel consumption. Once the optimal cylinder number is determined, a transmission gear shift recommendation is provided in view of the determined active cylinder distribution and target operating state.

  14. Compression ignition engine fuel properties of a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.

    2000-05-01

    Vegetable oils may be used with dilution modification technique as an alternative diesel fuel. In this study, a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend (20:80 {nu}/{nu}%) was investigated in a Pancar Motor E-108-type diesel engine to observe engine characteristics and exhaust emission. The effect of the compression ratio on ignition delay characteristics and smoke emissions of blend fuel was determined in this CFR engine. The results of fuel blends were compared with the reference grade No. 2-D diesel fuel.

  15. Advanced engine management of individual cylinders for control of exhaust species

    DOEpatents

    Graves, Ronald L [Knoxville, TN; West, Brian H [Knoxville, TN; Huff, Shean P [Knoxville, TN; Parks, II, James E

    2008-12-30

    A method and system controls engine-out exhaust species of a combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders. The method typically includes various combinations of steps such as controlling combustion parameters in individual cylinders, grouping the individual cylinders into a lean set and a rich set of one or more cylinders, combusting the lean set in a lean combustion parameter condition having a lean air:fuel equivalence ratio, combusting the rich set in a rich combustion parameter condition having a rich air:fuel equivalence ratio, and adjusting the lean set and the rich set of one or more cylinders to generate net-lean combustion. The exhaust species may have elevated concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen.

  16. Effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction systems on reducing gaseous emissions from an engine using diesel and biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Borillo, Guilherme C; Tadano, Yara S; Godoi, Ana F L; Santana, Simone S M; Weronka, Fernando M; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Potgieter, Johannes H; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to quantify organic and inorganic gas emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. Using a bench dynamometer, the emissions from the following mixtures were evaluated using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer: low-sulfur diesel (LSD), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20). For all studied fuels, the use of the SCR system yielded statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower NOx emissions. In the case of the LSD and ULSD fuels, the SCR system also significantly reduced emissions of compounds with high photochemical ozone creation potential, such as formaldehyde. However, for all tested fuels, the SCR system produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher emissions of N2O. In the case of LSD, the NH3 emissions were elevated, and in the case of ULSD and B20 fuels, the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and total hydrocarbon of diesel (HCD) emissions were significantly higher. PMID:25634131

  17. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    PubMed

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions. PMID:25318418

  18. Experimental investigation of gasoline compression ignition combustion in a light-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeper, C. Paul

    Due to increased ignition delay and volatility, low temperature combustion (LTC) research utilizing gasoline fuel has experienced recent interest [1-3]. These characteristics improve air-fuel mixing prior to ignition allowing for reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot (or particulate matter, PM). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Engine Research Center (Ra et al. [4, 5]) have validated these attributes and established baseline operating parameters for a gasoline compression ignition (GCI) concept in a light-duty diesel engine over a large load range (3-16 bar net IMEP). In addition to validating these computational results, subsequent experiments at the Engine Research Center utilizing a single cylinder research engine based on a GM 1.9-liter diesel engine have progressed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition processes, and established the capability of critical controlling input parameters to better control GCI operation. The focus of this thesis can be divided into three segments: 1) establishment of operating requirements in the low-load operating limit, including operation sensitivities with respect to inlet temperature, and the capabilities of injection strategy to minimize NOx emissions while maintaining good cycle-to-cycle combustion stability; 2) development of novel three-injection strategies to extend the high load limit; and 3) having developed fundamental understanding of gasoline autoignition kinetics, and how changes in physical processes (e.g. engine speed effects, inlet pressure variation, and air-fuel mixture processes) affects operation, develop operating strategies to maintain robust engine operation. Collectively, experimental results have demonstrated the ability of GCI strategies to operate over a large load-speed range (3 bar to 17.8 bar net IMEP and 1300-2500 RPM, respectively) with low emissions (NOx and PM less than 1 g/kg-FI and 0.2 g/kg-FI, respectively), and low

  19. 9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Kukla, P; Wright, J; Harris, G; Ball, A; Gu, F

    2003-08-24

    The PowerTrap{trademark} is a non-exhaust temperature dependent system that cannot become blocked and features a controlled regeneration process independent of the vehicle's drive cycle. The system has a low direct-current power source requirement available in both 12-volt and 24-volt configurations. The system is fully programmable, fully automated and includes Euro IV requirements of operation verification. The system has gained European component-type approval and has been tested with both on- road and off-road diesel fuel up to 2000 parts per million. The device is fail-safe: in the event of a device malfunction, it cannot affect the engine's performance. Accumulated mileage testing is in excess of 640,000 miles to date. Vehicles include London-type taxicabs (Euro 1 and 2), emergency service fire engines (Euro 1, 2, and 3), inner city buses, and light-duty locomotives. Independent test results by Shell Global Solutions have consistently demonstrated 85-99 percent reduction of ultrafines across the 7-35 nanometer size range using a scanning mobility particle sizer with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and off-road high-sulfur fuel.

  20. Reduction of diesel engine exhaust noise in the petroleum mining industry. [by resonator type diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinov, T.

    1974-01-01

    An important noise source in a drilling plant is Diesel engine exhaust. In order to reduce this noise, a reactive silencer of the derivative resonator type was proposed, calculated from the acoustic and design point of view and applied. As a result of applying such a silencer on the exhaust conduit of a Diesel engine the noise level dropped down to 18 db.

  1. Simulation of atmospheric PAH emissions from diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; de Lucas, A; Carmona, M; Ballesteros, R

    2001-08-01

    Simulation of atmospheric PAH emissions in a typical European passenger car diesel engine at steady conditions or under a certification cycle is made using in-house software. It is based on neural fitting of experimental data from eight different fuels tested under five operating steady conditions (reproducing modes of the European transient urban/extraurban certification cycle). The software allows the determination of PAH emissions as a function of the fuel composition parameters (aromatic content, cetane index, gross heat power, nitrogen and sulphur content) and operation conditions (torque and engine speed). The mathematical model reproduces experimental data with a maximum error of 20%. This tool is very useful, since changes in parameters can be made without experimental cost and the trend in modifications in PAH emissions is immediately obvious. PMID:11513424

  2. Development of wear-resistant ceramic coatings for diesel engine components

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, M.G.S. )

    1992-06-01

    The tribological properties of a variety of advanced coating materials have been evaluated under conditions which simulate the piston ring -- cylinder liner environment near top ring reversal in a heavy duty diesel engine. Coated ring'' samples were tested against a conventional pearlitic grey cast iron liner material using a high temperature reciprocating wear test rig. Tests were run with a fresh CE/SF 15W40lubricant at 200 and 350{degrees}C, with a high-soot, engine-tested oil at 200{degrees}C and with no lubrication at 200{degrees}C. For lowest wear under boundary lubricated conditions, the most promising candidates to emerge from this study were high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) Cr{sub 3} C{sub 2} - 20% NiCr and WC - 12% Co cermets, low temperature arc vapor deposited (LTAVD) CrN and plasma sprayed chromium oxides. Also,plasma sprayed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} materials were found to give excellent wear resistance in unlubricated tests and at extremely high temperatures (450{degrees}C) with a syntheticoil. All of these materials would offer substantial wear reductions compared to the conventional electroplated hard chromium ring facing and thermally sprayed metallic coatings, especially at high temperatures and with high-soot oils subjected to degradation in diesel environments. The LTAVD CrN coating provided the lowest lubricated wear rates of all the materials evaluated, but may be too thin (4 {mu}m) for use as a top ring facing. Most of the coatings evaluated showed higher wear rates with high-soot, engine-tested oil than with fresh oil, with increases of more than a factor of ten in some cases. Generally, metallic materials were found to be much more sensitive to soot/oil degradation than ceramic and cermet coatings. Thus, decreased soot sensitivity'' is a significant driving force for utilizing ceramic or cermet coatings in diesel engine wear applications.

  3. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  4. The Influence of Light Weight Materials on Fuel Economy and Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Paul C.

    2000-08-20

    Technologies being developed that will allow for the substitution of aluminum for cast iron in engine heads and blocks, while maintaining performance and durability. Development of lightweight diesel engine technology: funded by NAVY, DOE and TACOM

  5. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Task 3, Traditional approaches to wear prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Contamination of the lube-oil with hard abrasive particles leads to a three-body abrasive wear mechanism that highly accelerates piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-fueled diesel engines. One approach to reducing that wear is to modify the size and orientation of surface asperities on the cylinder to enhance the formation of a hydrodynamic film, and to provide avenues of escape for particles that would otherwise be trapped in the wear zone. Another approach is to introduce additives into the contaminated lube-oil that further enhance hydrodynamic film formation, form chemical films on the wearing surfaces, or form films on the contaminant particles. This work focuses on defining the effects of cylinder liner surface finish, various configurations of slots in the cylinder liner surface, and various additives in the contaminated lube-oil on the wear process. Wear tests were initiated in a bench apparatus using coal-ash contaminated lube-oil to test the various wear configurations. The results of these tests indicate that the formation of a hydrodynamic film between the ring and cylinder specimens is enhanced by increasing surface roughness, and by orienting the surface asperities normal to the direction of ring travel but modifications to the cylinder liner surface did not greatly reduce the wear rate. Additives to the lubricant seemed to have a much more significant effect on wear, with a dispersant additive highly accelerating the wear, while a detergent additive was able to reduce the wear almost to the rate achieved where there was no contaminant.

  6. Emissions From Various Biodiesel Sources Compared to a Range of Diesel Fuels in DPF Equipped Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.; Tester, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of various sources of petroleum-based and bio-based diesel fuels on regulated emissions and fuel economy in diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped diesel engines. Two model year 2008 diesel engines were tested with nine fuels including a certification ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), local ULSD, high aromatic ULSD, low aromatic ULSD, and twenty percent blends of biodiesel derived from algae, camelina, soy, tallow, and yellow grease. Regulated emissions were measured over the heavy duty diesel transient test cycle. Measurements were also made of DPF-out particle size distribution and total particle count from a 13-mode steady state test using a fast mobility particle sizer. Test engines were a 2008 Cummins ISB and a 2008 International Maxx Force 10, both equipped with actively regenerated DPFs. Fuel consumption was roughly 2% greater over the transient test cycle for the B20 blends versus certification ULSD in both engines, consistent with the slightly lower energy content of biodiesel. Unlike studies conducted on older model engines, these engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and DPFs showed small or no measurable fuel effect on the tailpipe emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM). No differences in particle size distribution or total particle count were seen in a comparison of certification ULSD and B20 soy, with the exception of engine idling conditions where B20 produced a small reduction in the number of nucleation mode particles. In the Cummins engine, B20 prepared from algae, camelina, soy, and tallow resulted in an approximately 2.5% increase in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) compared to the base fuel. The International engine demonstrated a higher degree of variability for NO{sub x} emissions, and fuel effects could not be resolved (p > 0.05). The group of petroleum diesel test fuels produced a range of NO{sub x} emissions very similar to that

  7. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIV, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT REMOVAL--TRANSMISSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR TRANSMISSION REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) DEFINITION OF TERMS RELATED TO THE DIESEL AIR SYSTEM, (2) PRNCIPLES OF DIESEL AIR COMPRESSORS, (3) PRINCIPLES OF AIR STARTING MOTORS, (4)…

  9. Process and apparatus for compression release engine retarding producing two compression release events per cylinder per engine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sickler, K.H.

    1986-02-25

    A process is described for compression release retarding of a cycling multi-cylinder four cycle internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and an engine piston operatively connected to the crankshaft for each cylinder thereof and having intake and exhaust valves for each cylinder thereof. An engine retarding system of a gas compression release type is also described comprising a multi-cylinder four cycle internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a camshaft driven in synchronism with the crankshaft, engine piston means associated with the crankshaft, exhaust valve means and intake valve means associated with each cylinder of the engine. It also includes first and second pushtube means driven from the camshaft, hydraulic fluid supply means, hydraulically actuated first piston means associated with the exhaust valve means to open the exhaust valve means. Second piston means are actuated by the first pushtube means and hydraulically interconnected with the first piston means and the hydraulic fluid supply means to open the exhaust valve means during an upstroke of the engine piston associated with the exhaust valve means corresponding to its compression stroke during normal operation of the engine to produce a first compression release event.

  10. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.

  11. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over amore » variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.« less

  12. Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Mridul Gautam; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-05-03

    Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also economically competitive with California diesel fuel if .roduced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel, because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. The buses were equipped with unmodified Detroit Diesel 6V92 2-stroke diesel engines. Six 40-foot buses were tested. Three of the buses had recently rebuilt engines and were equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter. Vehicle emissions measurements were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The emissions were measured over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses performed well on both neat and blended MGSD fuel. Three buses without catalytic converters were tested. Compared to their emissions when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel, these buses emitted an average of 5% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 20% lower particulate matter (PM) when operating on neat MGSD fuel. Catalyst equipped buses emitted an average of 8% lower NOx and 31% lower PM when operating on MGSD than when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel.

  13. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles from an engine with differing exhaust after treatments.

    PubMed

    Shi, X-C; Keane, M J; Ong, T; Li, S-Q; Bugarski, A B

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatments on the mutagenicity of diesel particulate matter (DPM) collected directly in an underground mine environment. A number of after-treatment devices are currently used on diesel engines in mines, but it is critical to determine whether reductions in DPM concentrations result in a corresponding decrease in adverse health effects. An eddy-current dynamometer was used to operate naturally aspirated mechanically controlled engine at several steady-state conditions. The samples were collected when the engine was equipped with a standard muffler, a diesel oxidation catalytic converter, two types of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter systems, and three types of disposable diesel particulate filter elements. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on acetone extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay. The results indicated strong correlation between engine operating conditions and mutagenic activity of DPM. When the engine was fitted with muffler, the mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected from light-load, but not heavy-load operating conditions. When the engine was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst, the samples did not exhibit mutagenic activity for any of four engine operating conditions. Mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected when the engine was retrofitted with three types of disposable filters and sintered metal diesel particulate filter and operated at light load conditions. However, those filtration systems substantially reduced the concentration-normalized mutagenic activity from the levels observed for the muffler. PMID:20711933

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XVII, I--MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL--DRIVE LINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE DRIVE LINE USED IN DIESEL ENGINE POWER DISTRIBUTION. TOPICS ARE (1) PROLONGING ENGINE LIFE, (2) FUNCTIONS OF THE LUBRICATING SYSTEM, (3) TRACING THE LUBRICANT FLOW, (4) DETERMINING…

  15. Effects of 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate on Diesel-Spray Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, B.; Mueller, C.; Siebers, D.

    1998-08-01

    Diesel fuel ignition-enhancing additives, such as 2-ethylhexyl nitrate, are known to reduce emissions from diesel engines; however, the mechanisms by which the emissions reduction occur are not understood. This report covers the first phase of a research project supported by Ethyl Corporation that is aimed at developing a detailed understanding of how 2-ethylhexyl nitrate alters in-cylinder injection, ignition, and combustion processes to reduce diesel engine emissions.

  16. The Effect of Increased Cooling Surface on Performance of Aircraft-Engine Cylinders as Shown by Tests of the NACA Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Verne G; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1944-01-01

    A method of constructing fins of nearly optimum proportions has been developed by the NACA to the point where a cylinder has been manufactured and tested. Data were obtained on cylinder temperature for a wide range of inlet-manifold pressures, engine speeds, and cooling-pressure differences.

  17. High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun

    2014-11-01

    A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.

  18. Fumigation of Alcohol in a Light Duty Automotive Diesel Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broukhiyan, E. M. H.; Lestz, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    A light-duty automotive Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively in order to determine the effect of alcohol fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditons. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific nitrogen oxide concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears that ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulated emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

  19. Unregulated emissions from a diesel engine equipped with vanadium-based urea-SCR catalyst.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Ge, Yunshan; Shah, Asad Naeem; He, Chao; Liu, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    The present work is aimed at the study of number-size distribution of particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbonyl compounds (CC) or carbonyls emitted from a 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a vanadium-based urea selective catalytic reduction catalyst. The engine was run on an electric dynamometer in accordance with the European steady-state cycle. Pollutants were analyzed using an electric low pressure impactor, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, and a high performance liquid chromatography system for the number-size distribution of particles, VOCs, and CC emissions, respectively. Experimental results revealed that total number of particles were decreased, and their number-size distributions were moved from smaller sizes to larger sizes in the presence of the catalyst. The VOCs were greatly reduced downstream of the catalyst. There was a strong correlation between the conversion of styrene and ethyl benzene. The conversion rate of benzene increased with increase of catalyst temperature. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone were significantly reduced, resulting in a remarkable abatement in carbonyls with the use of the vanadium-based urea-SCR system. PMID:20617735

  20. Optimizing power cylinder lubrication on a large bore natural gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeman, Matthew R.

    More than 6000 integral compressors, located along America's natural gas pipelines, pump natural gas across the United States. These compressors are powered by 2-stroke, large bore natural gas burning engines. Lowering the operating costs, reducing the emissions, and ensuring that these engines remain compliant with future emission regulations are the drivers for this study. Substantial research has focused on optimizing efficiency and reducing the fuel derived emissions on this class of engine. However, significantly less research has focused on the effect and reduction of lubricating oil derived emissions. This study evaluates the impact of power cylinder lubricating oil on overall engine emissions with an emphasis on reducing oxidation catalyst poisoning. A traditional power cylinder lubricator was analyzed; power cylinder lubricating oil was found to significantly impact exhaust emissions. Lubricating oil was identified as the primary contributor of particulate matter production in a large bore natural gas engine. The particulate matter was determined to be primarily organic carbon, and most likely direct oil carryover of small oil droplets. The particulate matter production equated to 25% of the injected oil at a nominal power cylinder lubrication rate. In addition, power cylinder friction is considered the primary contributor to friction loss in the internal combustion engine. This study investigates the potential for optimizing power cylinder lubrication by controlling power cylinder injection to occur at the optimal time in the piston cycle. By injecting oil directly into the ring pack, it is believed that emissions, catalyst poisoning, friction, and wear can all be reduced. This report outlines the design and theory of two electronically controlled lubrication systems. Experimental results and evaluation of one of the systems is included.

  1. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  2. Initial Comparison of Single Cylinder Stirling Engine Computer Model Predictions with Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, R. C., Jr.; Thieme, L. G.; Miao, D.

    1979-01-01

    A Stirling engine digital computer model developed at NASA Lewis Research Center was configured to predict the performance of the GPU-3 single-cylinder rhombic drive engine. Revisions to the basic equations and assumptions are discussed. Model predictions with the early results of the Lewis Research Center GPU-3 tests are compared.

  3. Digital signal processing of cylinder pressure data for combustion diagnostics of HCCI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Maurya, Rakesh; Pal, Dev Datt; Kumar Agarwal, Avinash

    2013-03-01

    Diagnosis of combustion is necessary for the estimation of the combustion quality, and control of combustion timing in advanced combustion concepts like HCCI. Combustion diagnostics is often performed using digital processing of pressure signals measured using piezoelectric sensor installed in the combustion chamber of the engine. Four-step pressure signal processing consisting of (i) absolute pressure correction, (ii) phasing w.r.t. crank angle, (iii) cycle averaging and (iv) smoothening is used to get cylinder pressure data from the engine experiments, which is further analyzed to get information about combustion characteristics. This study focuses on various aspect of signal processing (cycle averaging and smoothing) of in-cylinder pressure signal from a HCCI engine acquired using a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Experimental investigations are conducted on a HCCI combustion engine operating at different engine speed/load/air-fuel ratio conditions. The cylinder pressure history of 3000 consecutive engine cycles is acquired for analysis using piezoelectric pressure sensor. This study determines the optimum number of engine cycles to be acquired for reasonably good pressure signals based on standard deviation of in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise and rate of heat release signals. Different signal smoothening methods (using various digital filters) are also analyzed and their results are compared. This study also presents effect of signal processing methods on pressure, pressure rise rate and rate of heat release curves at different engine operating conditions.

  4. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine (ADE) using turbine (jet) fuel. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of a diesel cycle engine utilizing turbine (jet) fuel. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate......

  5. Characterizing dilute combustion instabilities in a multi-cylinder spark-ignited engine using symbolic analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Daw, C. Stuart; Finney, Charles E. A.; Kaul, Brian C.; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-29

    Spark-ignited internal combustion engines have evolved considerably in recent years in response to increasingly stringent regulations for emissions and fuel-economy. One new advanced engine strategy utilizes high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce combustion temperatures, thereby increasing thermodynamic efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. While this strategy can be highly effective, it also poses major control and design challenges due to the large combustion oscillations that develop at sufficiently high EGR levels. Previous research has documented that combustion instabilities can propagate between successive engine cycles in individual cylinders via self-generated feedback of reactive species and thermal energy inmore » the retained residual exhaust gases. In this work, we use symbolic analysis to characterize multi-cylinder combustion oscillations in an experimental engine operating with external EGR. At low levels of EGR, intra-cylinder oscillations are clearly visible and appear to be associated with brief, intermittent coupling among cylinders. As EGR is increased further, a point is reached where all four cylinders lock almost completely in phase and alternate simultaneously between two distinct bi-stable combustion states. From a practical perspective, it is important to understand the causes of this phenomenon and develop diagnostics that might be applied to ameliorate its effects. We demonstrate here that two approaches for symbolizing the engine combustion measurements can provide useful probes for characterizing these instabilities.« less

  6. Characterizing dilute combustion instabilities in a multi-cylinder spark-ignited engine using symbolic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C. Stuart; Finney, Charles E. A.; Kaul, Brian C.; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M.

    2014-12-29

    Spark-ignited internal combustion engines have evolved considerably in recent years in response to increasingly stringent regulations for emissions and fuel-economy. One new advanced engine strategy utilizes high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce combustion temperatures, thereby increasing thermodynamic efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. While this strategy can be highly effective, it also poses major control and design challenges due to the large combustion oscillations that develop at sufficiently high EGR levels. Previous research has documented that combustion instabilities can propagate between successive engine cycles in individual cylinders via self-generated feedback of reactive species and thermal energy in the retained residual exhaust gases. In this work, we use symbolic analysis to characterize multi-cylinder combustion oscillations in an experimental engine operating with external EGR. At low levels of EGR, intra-cylinder oscillations are clearly visible and appear to be associated with brief, intermittent coupling among cylinders. As EGR is increased further, a point is reached where all four cylinders lock almost completely in phase and alternate simultaneously between two distinct bi-stable combustion states. From a practical perspective, it is important to understand the causes of this phenomenon and develop diagnostics that might be applied to ameliorate its effects. We demonstrate here that two approaches for symbolizing the engine combustion measurements can provide useful probes for characterizing these instabilities.

  7. Characterizing dilute combustion instabilities in a multi-cylinder spark-ignited engine using symbolic analysis.

    PubMed

    Daw, C S; Finney, C E A; Kaul, B C; Edwards, K D; Wagner, R M

    2015-02-13

    Spark-ignited internal combustion engines have evolved considerably in recent years in response to increasingly stringent regulations for emissions and fuel economy. One new advanced engine strategy ustilizes high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce combustion temperatures, thereby increasing thermodynamic efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. While this strategy can be highly effective, it also poses major control and design challenges due to the large combustion oscillations that develop at sufficiently high EGR levels. Previous research has documented that combustion instabilities can propagate between successive engine cycles in individual cylinders via self-generated feedback of reactive species and thermal energy in the retained residual exhaust gases. In this work, we use symbolic analysis to characterize multi-cylinder combustion oscillations in an experimental engine operating with external EGR. At low levels of EGR, intra-cylinder oscillations are clearly visible and appear to be associated with brief, intermittent coupling among cylinders. As EGR is increased further, a point is reached where all four cylinders lock almost completely in phase and alternate simultaneously between two distinct bi-stable combustion states. From a practical perspective, it is important to understand the causes of this phenomenon and develop diagnostics that might be applied to ameliorate its effects. We demonstrate here that two approaches for symbolizing the engine combustion measurements can provide useful probes for characterizing these instabilities. PMID:25548262

  8. Scope for active noise abatement in vehicle diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerauer, I.; Boesch, N.

    1984-04-01

    Noise reduction measures must be directed to the engine, the exhaust system, and the cooling system (fan) all of which contribute approximately 90% of the sound energy emitted from commercial diesel trucks. The noise generation processes were visualized and limiting conditions fixed by law were considered in establishing criteria for active solar noise abatement measures. A more effective silencer and better vibration damping on the surface of the silencer and exhaust pipes can reduce noise from the exhaust system. Acoustic emission generated by the fan and air flow can be reduced by decreasing flow velocity or by turning on the fan only when a full cooling output is required (10% of the time). Active measures are needed on the engine itself either at the point of the solid-borne sound transmission or at the point of the solid-borne vibrations. The predominant effect is on the engine casing; oil sump; air suction pipe or air charge line; the flywheel casing; and the clutch housing.

  9. Capture and destruction of soot emissions from diesel engines used in power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Caceres, J.; Kim, S.H.

    1998-07-01

    A method is described for reducing emissions from diesel engines. Particulate emissions are captured in the effluent duct using high-efficiency ceramic filters. The filters are regenerated (cleaned) with compressed air. Periodically, compressed air flows in the opposite to the exhaust direction in the filter and removes the soot. The soot is channeled to a chamber, fitted with a secondary filter, where it is oxidized. A slipstream of the filtered engine exhaust is channeled back to the engine intake (flue gas recirculation, FGR) to lower the peak temperatures in the cylinder and, thus, the nitrogen oxide emissions. A design for the soot incinerator--secondary filter chamber is presented herein. This design employs an electric burner and dual wall-flow filters. The system was mounted in a diesel vehicle and was tested for 700 km. The average sooting rate of the engine was 0.1 g/km. The baseline value of the pressure drop across the primary monolith was 150 mbars, after both the primary and secondary monoliths were regenerated. During testing the pressure drop across the primary monolith would gradually increase to a value of 400 mbars as soot particles were captured, and then decrease to a value of 200 mbars after every primary regeneration. The pressure drop would further decrease to the baseline value of 150 mbars when primary regeneration was performed after incineration in the secondary chamber was complete. Aerodynamic regeneration was performed every {approx} 17 km and incineration of the soot particles occurred every {approx} 64 km. The CO emissions created by the oxidation of the soot particles the incinerator were monitored at the tailpipe. During normal driving, CO levels were observed to be under 200 ppm before burning occurred, and increased to levels as high as 550 ppm during the combustion of the collected soot. To prevent these CO emissions from being released to the atmosphere, the effluent of the incinerator was channeled back to the air intake

  10. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured. PMID:25874218

  11. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Repair & Service (Program CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for diesel engine mechanics I and II. Presented first are a program…

  12. A Comparative Study of Almond Biodiesel-Diesel Blends for Diesel Engine in Terms of Performance and Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Alnefaie, Khaled A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NOx using blends of almond biodiesel was measured. PMID:25874218

  13. Control of aldehyde emissions in the diesel engines with alcoholic fuels.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V S Murali; Varaprasad, C M; Reddy, C Venkata Ramana

    2006-01-01

    The major pollutants emitted from compression ignition (CI) engine with diesel as fuel are smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When the diesel engine is run with alternate fuels, there is need to check alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and aldehydes also. Alcohols cannot be used directly in diesel engine and hence engine modification is essential as alcohols have low cetane number and high latent hear of vaporization. Hence, for use of alcohol in diesel engine, it needs hot combustion chamber, which is provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with an air gap insulated piston with superni crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert. In the present study, the pollution levels of aldehydes are reported with the use of methanol and ethanol as alternate fuels in LHR diesel engine with varying injection pressure, injection timings with different percentage of alcohol induction. The aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the exhaust were estimated by wet chemical technique with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Aldehyde emissions increased with an increase in alcohol induction. The LHR engine showed a decrease in aldehyde emissions when compared to conventional engine. However, the variation of injection pressure showed a marginal effect in reducing aldehydes, while advancing the injection timing reduced aldehyde emissions. PMID:17913204

  14. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    PubMed

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  15. A study on synthesis of energy fuel from waste plastic and assessment of its potential as an alternative fuel for diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Kaimal, Viswanath K; Vijayabalan, P

    2016-05-01

    The demand for plastic is ever increasing and has produced a huge amount of plastic waste. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste plastic. This paper assesses the potential of using Waste Plastic Oil (WPO), synthesized using pyrolysis of waste plastic, as an alternative for diesel fuel. In this research work, the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with WPO and its blends with diesel are studied. In addition to neat plastic oil, three blends (PO25, PO50 and PO75) were prepared on a volumetric basis and the engine was able to run on neat plastic oil. Brake thermal efficiency of blends was lower compared to diesel, but PO25 showed similar performance to that of diesel. The emissions were reduced considerably while using blends when compared to neat plastic oil. The smoke and NOX were reduced by 22% and 17.8% respectively for PO25 than that of plastic oil. PMID:26969288

  16. Experimental and vector analysis on gamma type Stirling engine with hot power cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Tsukahara, Shigeji; Ohtomo, Michihiro

    1995-12-31

    In 1993, the superiority of hot end connected power cylinder gamma type Stirling engine (HEC) compared to the conventional cold end connected power cylinder engine (CEC) was reported by Prof. J.Kentfield of the University of Calgary. It is a great thing that he introduced the HEC engine, and it reminded the authors that in 1980, they built and experimented with a three cylinder 3kW Stirling engine SRI-1, in which two cylinders are positively heated by gas, that is called HCH (Hot, Cold and Hot) engine as shown in a figure, and having similarity to the above HEC. The authors have developed a quite simple and understandable approximate harmonic vector analysis method for Stirling machines. By this, Kentfield`s HEC engine and their HCH engine are expressed by the same figure as shown in the paper. The similarity and superiority of HEC and HCH compared to CEC and CHC are easily shown by the vector analysis method with physical reason.

  17. Stationary diesel engines for use with generators to supply electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The procurement of stationary diesel engines for on-site generation of electric power deals with technical criteria and policy relating to federal agency, not electrical components of diesel-generator sets or for the design of electric-power generating plants or their air-pollution or noise control equipment.

  18. Overfueling a diesel engine with carbureted ethanol. Paper 81-1048

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Wood, D.R.

    1982-03-01

    A carburetor from which the choke and throttle plates had been removed was used to fumigate aqueous ethanol into a naturally aspirated diesel engine. The fumigated ethanol partially reduced diesel fuel consumption but also increased total fuel delivery. Overfuelling increased power output, exhaust temperature and exhaust emissions, but lowered thermal efficiency. (Refs. 8).

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  20. Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Iván Darío; Arrieta, Andrés Amell; Cadavid, Francisco Javier

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes results obtained from CI engine performance running on dual fuel mode at fixed engine speed and four loads, varying the mixing system and pilot fuel quality, associated with fuel composition and cetane number. The experiments were carried out on a power generation diesel engine at 1500 m above sea level, with simulated biogas (60% CH(4)-40% CO(2)) as primary fuel, and diesel and palm oil biodiesel as pilot fuels. Dual fuel engine performance using a naturally aspirated mixing system and diesel as pilot fuel was compared with engine performance attained with a supercharged mixing system and biodiesel as pilot fuel. For all loads evaluated, was possible to achieve full diesel substitution using biogas and biodiesel as power sources. Using the supercharged mixing system combined with biodiesel as pilot fuel, thermal efficiency and substitution of pilot fuel were increased, whereas methane and carbon monoxide emissions were reduced. PMID:19683439

  1. The effects of engine speed and injection characteristics on the flow field and fuel/air mixing in motored two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Carpenter, M. H.; Ramos, J. I.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical analysis is presented on the effects of the engine speed, injection angle, droplet distribution function, and spray cone angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in a turbocharged motored two-stroke diesel engine. The results indicate that the spray penetration and vaporization, velocity, and turbulence kinetic energy increase with the intake swirl angle. Good spray penetration, vaporization, and mixing can be achieved by injecting droplets of diameters between 50 and 100 microns along a 120-deg cone at about 315 deg before top-dead-center for an intake swirl angle of 30 deg. The spray penetration and vaporization were found to be insensitive to the turbulence levels within the cylinder. The results have also indicated that squish is necessary in order to increase the fuel vaporization rate and mixing.

  2. Simultaneously firing two cylinders of an even firing camless engine

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2014-03-11

    A valve control system includes an engine speed control module that determines an engine speed and a desired engine stop position. A piston position module determines a desired stopping position of a first piston based on the desired engine stop position. A valve control module receives the desired stopping position, commands a set of valves to close at the desired stopping position if the engine speed is less than a predetermined shutdown threshold, and commands the set of valves to reduce the engine speed if the engine speed is greater than the predetermined shutdown threshold.

  3. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels. PMID:18164614

  4. Comparative Performance of Engines Using a Carburetor, Manifold Injection, and Cylinder Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Clark, J Denny

    1939-01-01

    The comparative performance was determined of engines using three methods of mixing the fuel and the air: the use of a carburetor, manifold injection, and cylinder injection. The tests were made of a single-cylinder engine with a Wright 1820-G air-cooled cylinder. Each method of mixing the fuel and the air was investigated over a range of fuel-air ratios from 0.10 to the limit of stable operation and at engine speeds of 1,500 and 1,900 r.p.m. The comparative performance with a fuel-air ratio of 0.08 was investigated for speeds from 1,300 to 1,900 r.p.m. The results show that the power obtained with each method closely followed the volumetric efficiency; the power was therefore the highest with cylinder injection because this method had less manifold restriction. The values of minimum specific fuel consumption obtained with each method of mixing of fuel and air were the same. For the same engine and cooling conditions, the cylinder temperatures are the same regardless of the method used for mixing the fuel and the air.

  5. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih, Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-05-01

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel's speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel's speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  6. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes

    2015-05-15

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  7. 64. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET STARBOARD LOOKING TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET - STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING BOTTOM HALF OF FAIRBANKS MORSE 36D81/8 TEN CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE SERIAL #951230 AND GENERAL ELECTRIC 1,000KW GENERATOR KVA 1250, RPM 720, SERIAL #6920274. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. 65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET AFT LOOKING FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FORWARD EMERGENCY DIESEL GENERATOR SET - AFT LOOKING FORWARD SHOWING TOP HALF OF FAIRBANKS MORSE 36D81/8 TEN CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE SERIAL #951230 AND EXHAUST SYSTEM. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. Tracing fuel component carbon in the emissions from diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Mueller, Charles J.; Martin, Glen C.; Cheng, A. S.; Dibble, Robert W.; Frantz, Brian R.

    2004-08-01

    The addition of oxygenates to diesel fuel can reduce particulate emissions, but the underlying chemical pathways for the reductions are not well understood. While measurements of particulate matter (PM), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) are routine, determining the contribution of carbon atoms in the original fuel molecules to the formation of these undesired exhaust emissions has proven difficult. Renewable bio-derived fuels (ethanol or bio-diesel) containing a universal distribution of contemporary carbon are easily traced by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). These measurements provide general information about the emissions of bio-derived fuels. Another approach exploits synthetic organic chemistry to place 14C atoms in a specific bond position in a specific fuel molecule. The highly labeled fuel molecule is then diluted in 14C-free petroleum-derived stock to make a contemporary petroleum fuel suitable for tracing. The specific 14C atoms are then traced through the combustion event to determine whether they reside in PM, HC, CO, CO2, or other emission products. This knowledge of how specific molecular structures produce certain emissions can be used to refine chemical-kinetic combustion models and to optimize fuel composition to reduce undesired emissions. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique and the lack of appreciable 14C in fossil fuels, fuels for AMS experiments can be labeled with modern levels of 14C and still produce a strong signal. Since the fuel is not radioactive, emission tests can be conducted in any conventional engine lab, dynamometer facility, or on the open road.

  10. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 μg/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 μg/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 μg/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  11. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  12. Tracing Fuel Component Carbon in the Emissions from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Martin, G C; Cheng, A S E; Dibble, R W; Frantz, B R

    2002-10-14

    The addition of oxygenates to diesel fuel can reduce particulate emissions, but the underlying chemical pathways for the reductions are not well understood. While measurements of particulate matter (PM), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) are routine, determining the contribution of carbon atoms in the original fuel molecules to the formation of these undesired exhaust emissions has proven difficult. Renewable bio-derived fuels (ethanol or bio-diesel) containing a universal distribution of contemporary carbon are easily traced by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). These measurements provide general information about the emissions of bio-derived fuels. Another approach exploits synthetic organic chemistry to place {sup 14}C atoms in a specific bond position in a specific fuel molecule. The highly labeled fuel molecule is then diluted in {sup 14}C-free petroleum-derived stock to make a contemporary petroleum fuel suitable for tracing. The specific {sup 14}C atoms are then traced through the combustion event to determine whether they reside in PM, HC, CO, CO{sub 2}, or other emission products. This knowledge of how specific molecular structures produce certain emissions can be used to refine chemical-kinetic combustion models and to optimize fuel composition to reduce undesired emissions. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique and the lack of appreciable {sup 14}C in fossil fuels, fuels for AMS experiments can be labeled with modern levels of {sup 14}C and still produce a strong signal. Since the fuel is not radioactive, emission tests can be conducted in any conventional engine lab, dynamometer facility, or on the open road.

  13. Aerodynamic and thermal analysis of an engine cylinder head using numerical flow simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Taghavi, R.; Dupont, A.; Dupont, J.F. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on a computational fluid dynamics code used as a guide during the development stage of a passenger car spark ignition engine. The focus is on the flow proiperties of the inlet port as well as the heat transfer characteristics of the proposed cylinder head design. In the first part of this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of two slightly different inlet ports are considered and their effect on the development of in-cylinder flow is examined. The collected information is used to estimate geometric sensitivity and assess the effects of drifts between design and actual production specifications of inlet ports. In the second part, the same computational code is used to simulate in-cylinder combustion and determine the resulting temperature and heat flux distribution on the cylinder head walls. A comparison is thn carried out between numerical results and experimental measurements and good agreement is obtained.

  14. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  15. Abrasive wear by diesel engine coal-fuel and related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, L.K.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the work summarized in this report was to obtain a basic understanding of the factors which are responsible for wear of the piston ring and cylinder wall surfaces in diesel engines utilizing coal-fuel. The approach included analytical studies using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analyses to characterize coal-fuel and various combustion particles, and two different wear tests. The wear tests were a modified pin-on-disk test and a block-on-ring test capable of either unidirectional or reciprocating-rotational sliding. The wear tests in general were conducted with mixtures of the particles and lubricating oil. The particles studied included coal-fuel, particles resulting from the combustion of coal fuel, mineral matter extracted during the processing of coal, and several other common abrasive particle types among which quartz was the most extensively examined. The variables studied included those associated with the particles, such as particle type, size, and hardness; variables related to contact conditions and the surrounding environment; and variables related to the type and properties of the test specimen materials.

  16. Impacts of fuel formulation and engine operating parameters on the nanostructure and reactivity of diesel soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehliu, Kuen

    This study focuses on the impacts of fuel formulations on the reactivity and nanostructure of diesel soot. A 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine was used in generating soot samples. The impacts of engine operating modes and the start of combustion on soot reactivity were investigated first. Based on preliminary investigations, a test condition of 2400 rpm and 64 Nm, with single and split injection strategies, was chosen for studying the impacts of fuel formulation on the characteristics of diesel soot. Three test fuels were used: an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (BP15), a pure soybean methyl-ester (B100), and a synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT) produced in a gas-to-liquid process. The start of injection (SOI) and fuel rail pressures were adjusted such that the three test fuels have similar combustion phasing, thereby facilitating comparisons between soots from the different fuels. Soot reactivity was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to TGA, B100 soot exhibits the fastest oxidation on a mass basis followed by BP15 and FT derived soots in order of apparent rate constant. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates no relation between the surface oxygen content and the soot reactivity. Crystalline information for the soot samples was obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The basal plane diameter obtained from XRD was inversely related to the apparent rate constants for soot oxidation. For comparison, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) provided images of the graphene layers. Quantitative image analysis proceeded by a custom algorithm. B100 derived soot possessed the shortest mean fringe length and greatest mean fringe tortuosity. This suggests soot (nano)structural disorder correlates with a faster oxidation rate. Such results are in agreement with the X-ray analysis, as the observed fringe length is a measure of basal plane diameter. Moreover the relation

  17. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  18. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion. PMID:24738886

  19. 78 FR 50317 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Federal Register on May 16, 2013 (78 FR 28719). One comment was received from Cessna Aircraft Company... cantilever high wing, with the SMA SR305- 230E-C1 diesel cycle engine and associated systems installed....

  20. Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development Program, final report - tasks 4-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushal, T.S.; Weber, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program is a multi-year, multi-phase effort to develop and demonstrate the critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection (LHR) engine concept for the long-haul, heavy-duty truck market. The ADECD Program has been partitioned into two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, was completed in 1986, resulting in definition of the Advanced Diesel Reference Engine (ADRE)III. The second phase, Phase 11/111, examines the feasibility of the ADRE concepts for application to the on-highway diesel engine. Phase 11/111 is currently underway. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies. The work has been performed by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) under Contract DEN3-329 with the NASA Lewis Research Center, who provide project management and technical direction.