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Sample records for cynodon spp cv

  1. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  2. EcoTurf - a case study: genetic variation and agronomic potential of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) germplasm collected from Australian biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australian Cynodon germplasm has not been comprehensively exploited for bermudagrass improvement. In this paper we will describe ‘EcoTurf’ a four year (2007-2011) project to develop water and nutrient use efficient bermudagrasses from Australian biodiversity. We describe the sampling strategies of A...

  3. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple introductions of Cynodon species in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jewell, M; Frère, C H; Harris-Shultz, K; Anderson, W F; Godwin, I D; Lambrides, C J

    2012-11-01

    The distinction between native and introduced flora within isolated land masses presents unique challenges. The geological and colonisation history of Australia, the world's largest island, makes it a valuable system for studying species endemism, introduction, and phylogeny. Using this strategy we investigated Australian cosmopolitan grasses belonging to the genus Cynodon. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses have investigated the origin, diversity and phylogenetic history of Cynodon within Australia. To address this gap, 147 samples (92 from across Australia and 55 representing global distribution) were sequenced for a total of 3336bp of chloroplast DNA spanning six genes. Data showed the presence of at least six putatively introduced Cynodon species (C. transvaalensis, C. incompletus, C. hirsutus, C. radiatus, C. plectostachyus and C. dactylon) in Australia and suggested multiple recent introductions. C. plectostachyus, a species often confused with C. nlemfuensis, was not previously considered to be present in Australia. Most significantly, we identified two common haplotypes that formed a monophyletic clade diverging from previously identified Cynodon species. We hypothesise that these two haplotypes may represent a previously undescribed species of Cynodon. We provide further evidence that two Australian native species, Brachyachne tenella and B. convergens belong in the genus Cynodon and, therefore, argue for the taxonomic revision of the genus Cynodon. PMID:22797088

  4. Antiarthritic activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

    PubMed

    Bhangale, Jitendra; Acharya, Sanjeev

    2014-03-01

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) (Poaceae) is traditionally used herb to treat fevers, skin diseases and rheumatic affections. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be safe at all the dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) and there was no mortality up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg of extract when administered orally. C. dactylon showed significant antiarthritic activity against Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Treatment with C. dactylon significantly reduced the mean percentage change in injected and non injected paw, ankle diameter, clinical severity and significantly increased body weight. Results were confirmed using biochemical parameters; there was a significant improvement in the levels of Hb and RBC in C. dactylon treated rats. The increased levels of WBC, ESR, C- reactive protein (CRP) and TNFalpha were significantly suppressed in C. dactylon treated rats. C. dactylon showed protective effect in arthritic joints but it has been supported by an improvement in bone lesions rather than in cartilage lesions. It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at a dose of 400 mg/kg is effective in improving haematological level, CRP and reducing TNFalpha level. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides in ethanolic extract. All the above results support the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24669664

  5. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple introductions of Cynodon species in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distinction between native and introduced flora in Australia presents some unique challenges given its geological and colonization history. While it is believed that seven species of Cynodon are present in Australia, no genetic analyses, to date, have investigated the origin, diversity and phylo...

  6. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Using ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Farsani, Tayebeh Mohammadi; Etemadi, Nematollah; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Talebi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences between them are often subtle and subjected to environmental influences. In this study, twenty seven bermudagrass accessions and introductions, mostly from different parts of Iran, were assayed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. Fourteen ISSR primers amplified 389 fragments of which 313 (80.5%) were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.328, which shows that the majority of primers are informative. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method and Jaccard’s similarity coefficient (r = 0.828) grouped the accessions into six main clusters according to some degree to geographical origin, their chromosome number and some morphological characteristics. It can be concluded that there exists a wide genetic base of bermudograss in Iran and that ISSR markers are effective in determining genetic diversity and relationships among them. PMID:22312259

  7. Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp) dose-response relationships with clethodim, glufosinate and glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Webster, Theodore M; Hanna, Wayne W; Mullinix, Benjamin G

    2004-12-01

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of three commercial cultivars, eight experimental cultivars and common bermudagrass to clethodim, glufosinate and glyphosate. Each herbicide was applied at eight doses. Data were regressed on herbicide dose using a log-logistic curve (R2 = 0.56-0.95 for clethodim, R2 = 0.60-0.94 for glufosinate, and R2 = 0.70-0.96 for glyphosate). The herbicide rate that elicited a 50% plant response (I50) in the bermudagrass cultivars ranged from 0.04 to 0.19 kg ha(-1) clethodim, 0.19 to 1.33 kg ha(-1) glufosinate and 0.34 to 1.14 kg ha(-1) glyphosate. Relative to other cultivars, common bermudagrass was intermediate in its response to clethodim and among the most tolerant cultivars to glufosinate and glyphosate. TifSport was relatively tolerant to clethodim and glufosinate compared with other cultivars, but relatively sensitive to glyphosate. One cultivar, 94-437, was consistently among the most sensitive cultivars to each of the herbicides. While there were differential herbicide tolerances among the tested bermudagrass cultivars, there did not appear to be any naturally occurring herbicide resistance that could be commercially utilized. However, research indicated that breeding efforts should target herbicide resistance that is at least four times the registered use rate. Also, TifSport and Tifway have been identified as suitable representatives of triploid hybrid bermudagrass cultivars to be used to evaluate the success of turfgrass renovation programs. PMID:15578605

  8. Physiological integration enhanced the tolerance of Cynodon dactylon to flooding.

    PubMed

    Li, Z J; Fan, D Y; Chen, F Q; Yuan, Q Y; Chow, W S; Xie, Z Q

    2015-03-01

    Many flooding-tolerant species are clonal plants; however, the effects of physiological integration on plant responses to flooding have received limited attention. We hypothesise that flooding can trigger changes in metabolism of carbohydrates and ROS (reactive oxygen species) in clonal plants, and that physiological integration can ameliorate the adverse effects of stress, subsequently restoring the growth of flooded ramets. In the present study, we conducted a factorial experiment combining flooding to apical ramets and stolon severing (preventing physiological integration) between apical and basal ramets of Cynodon dactylon, which is a stoloniferous perennial grass with considerable flooding tolerance. Flooding-induced responses including decreased root biomass, accumulation of soluble sugar and starch, as well as increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in apical ramets. Physiological integration relieved growth inhibition, carbohydrate accumulation and induction of antioxidant enzyme activity in stressed ramets, as expected, without any observable cost in unstressed ramets. We speculate that relief of flooding stress in clonal plants may rely on oxidising power and electron acceptors transferred between ramets through physiological integration. PMID:25557716

  9. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  10. Diversity among Cynodon accessions and taxa based on DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Assefa, S; Taliaferro, C M; Anderson, M P; de los Reyes, B G; Edwards, R M

    1999-06-01

    The genus Cynodon (Gramineae), comprised of 9 species, is geographically widely distributed and genetically diverse. Information on the amounts of molecular genetic variation among and within Cynodon taxa is needed to enhance understanding of phylogenetic relations and facilitate germplasm management and breeding improvement efforts. Genetic relatedness among 62 Cynodon accessions, representing eight species, was assessed using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF). Ten 8-mer oligonucleotides were used to amplify specific Cynodon genomic sequences. The DNA amplification products of individual accessions were scored for presence (1) or absence (0) of bands. Similarity matrices were developed and the accessions were grouped by cluster (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analysis. Analyses were conducted within ploidy level (2x = 18 and 4x = 36) and over ploidy levels. Each primer revealed polymorphic loci among accessions within species. Of 539 loci (bands) scored, 496 (92%) were polymorphic. Cynodon arcuatus was clearly separated from other species by numerous monomorphic bands. The strongest species similarities were between C. aethiopicus and C. arcuatus, C. transvaalensis and C. plectostachyus, and C. incompletus and C. nlemfuensis. Intraspecific variation was least for C. aethiopicus, C. arcuatus, and C. transvaalensis, and greatest for C. dactylon. Accessions of like taxonomic classification were generally clustered, except the cosmopolitan C. dactylon var. dactylon and C. dactylon var. afganicus. Within taxa, accessions differing in chromosome number clustered in all instances indicating the 2x and 4x forms to be closely related. Little, if any, relationship was found between relatedness as indicated by the DAF profiles and previous estimates of hybridization potential between the different taxa. PMID:10382294

  11. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells. PMID:21110110

  12. [Responses of antioxidation system of Cynodon dactylon to recirculated landfill leachate irrigation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruyi; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Bin; Li, Guojian

    2005-05-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the membrane lipid peroxidation and the variations of antioxidation system in Cynodon dactylon under recirculated landfill leachate irrigation. The results showed that when irrigated with low dilution ratio (< 25%) leachate, the chlorophyll a/b ratio increased with increasing dilution ratio, membrane permeability and MDA and H2O2 contents were in adverse, and membrane lipid peroxidation was relatively weak. However, with the increasing leachate dilution ratio (> 25%), there existed an obvious negative fect on Cynodon dactylon, i.e., the chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased, while cell membrane permeability and MDA and H2O2 contents increased, which meant that the membrane lipid peroxidation was accelerated. The contents antioxidants AsA, GSH and Car also showed the similar trend, i.e., they increased with increasing leachate dilution ratio when irrigated with low dilution ratio leachate, but decreased under medium or high dilution ratio leachate irrigation. Among three test anti-oxidative enzymes, SOD and POD activities showed a similar change test antioxidants, and POD activity was more sensitive, while CAT activity was on the contrary. The contents test antioxidants and the activities of SOD and POD were negatively and significantly correlated to MDA content, indicating that they might play an important role in preventing Cynodon dactylon from cell membrane lipid peroxdation. PMID:16110675

  13. CV 100--Still Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

  14. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon and Oxalis corniculata on Hep2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, H; Mansoor, Q; Batool, R; Farooqi, A A; Mahmood, T; Ismail, M

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive chemicals isolated from plants have attracted considerable attention over the years and overwhelmingly increasing laboratory findings are emphasizing on tumor suppressing properties of these natural agents in genetically and chemically induced animal carcinogenesis models. We studied in vitro anticancer activity of organic extracts of Cynodon dactylon and Oxalis corniculata on Hep2 cell line and it was compared with normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) by using MTT assay. Real Time PCR was conducted for p53 and PTEN genes in treated cancer cell line. DNA fragmentation assay was also carried out to note DNA damaging effects of the extracts. The minimally effective concentration of ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon and methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata that was nontoxic to HCEC but toxic to Hep2 was recorded (IC50) at a concentration of 0.042mg/ml (49.48 % cell death) and 0.048mg/ml (47.93% cell death) respectively, which was comparable to the positive control. Our results indicated dose dependent increase in cell death. P53 and PTEN did not show significant increase in treated cell line. Moreover, DNA damaging effects were also not detected in treated cancer cell line. Anticancer activity of these plants on the cancer cell line showed the presence of anticancer components which should be characterized to be used as anticancer therapy. PMID:27188871

  15. [Influence of saltwater irrigation on the yield and quality of Cynodon dactylon under desert conditions].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ruilian; Dov, Paternak; Zhao, Halin

    2002-08-01

    Responses of six varieties (Suwannee, Coast cross, Tifton44, Tifton68, Tifton78 and Tifton85) of Cynodon dactylon to irrigation-water salinity were investigated in field by means of a double line source experimental design. The digestibility of the grass by goat was analyzed using the rumen gastric justice digestion method. The results showed that the six varieties grew well, and had a high yield of fresh grass when eletro-conductivity (Eci) < 10 ds.m-1. Particularly when Eci = 4.4 ds.m-1, the fresh grass yield of Coast cross, Suwannee, Tifton44, Tifton68, Tifton78 and Tifton85 was respectively increased by 142.1%, 61.1%, 136%, 121.1%, 202.3% and 109.7%, in comparison with fresh water (Eci = 1.2) irrigation. Dry matter yield was also elevated with the increasing salinity of irrigated water. There was no obvious effect of salinity on crude protein, fiber and ash contents in the six varieties. Goats were fond of eating the hay irrigated by saline water, perhaps because of its higher digestibility. At least, the yield and quality of Cynodon dactylon were not effected by saltwater irrigation. PMID:12418261

  16. Cronobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Brian P; Hunter, Catherine J

    2016-04-01

    The Cronobacter group of pathogens, associated with severe and potentially life-threatening diseases, until recently were classified as a single species, Enterobacter sakazakii. The group was reclassified in 2007 into the genus Cronobacter as a member of the Enterobacteriaceae. This chapter outlines the history behind the epidemiology, analyzes how our understanding of these bacteria has evolved, and highlights the clinical significance the Cronobacter spp. have for neonatal and elderly patient populations and treatment of the associated infections. PMID:27227295

  17. Evaluation of CNS activities of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar

    2008-01-01

    The dried extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. (Graminae) were evaluated for CNS activities in mice. The ethanol extract of aerial parts of C. dactylon (EECD) was found to cause significant depression in general behavioral profiles in mice. EECD significantly potentiated the sleeping time in mice induced by standard hypnotics viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependant manner. EECD showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. EECD inhibited the onset and the incidence of convulsion in a dose dependent manner against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion. The present study indicates that EECD has significant CNS depressant activities. PMID:18536171

  18. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn).

    PubMed

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies. PMID:27016940

  19. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp. PMID:25014916

  20. Isolation and in silico evaluation of antidiabetic molecules of Cynodon dactylon (L.).

    PubMed

    Annapurna, Hasthi V; Apoorva, Babu; Ravichandran, Natesan; Arun, Kallur Purushothaman; Brindha, Pemaiah; Swaminathan, Sethuraman; Vijayalakshmi, Mahadevan; Nagarajan, Arumugam

    2013-02-01

    Cynodon dactylon is a potential source of metabolites such as flavanoids, alkaloids, glycosides and β-sitosterol and has been traditionally employed to treat urinary tract and other microbial infections and dysentery. The present work attempts to evaluate the activity of C. dactylon extracts for glycemic control. Aqueous extracts of C. dactylon analyzed by HPLC-ESI MS have identified the presence of apigenin, luteolin, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-hexosyl apigenin and 6-C-hexosyl-8-C-pentosyl luteolin. Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity through an extensive in silico docking approach with PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor), GLUT-4 (glucose transporter-4) and SGLT2 (sodium glucose co-transporter-2) revealed that luteolin, apigenin, 6-C-pentosyl-8-C-hexosyl apigenin, 6-C-hexosyl-8-C-pentosyl luteolin interact with SGLT2. Interactions of these molecules with Gln 295 and Asp 294 residues of SGLT2 have been shown to compare well with that of the phase III drug, dapagliflozin. These residues have been proven to be responsible for sugar sensing and transport. This work establishes C. dactylon extract as a potential SGLT2 inhibitor for diabetic neuropathy thus enabling a possibility of this plant extract as a new alternative to existing diabetic approaches. PMID:23261878

  1. Identification and determination of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration in Cynodon dactylon (L.) by HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishnan, Saradha Devi; Kaliyaperumal, Ashokkumar; Subramaniyan, Annapoorani

    2015-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) is a potent medicinal plant in the traditional and current Indian medicinal systems. The objective of this research was to find out the levels of flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll b in C. dactylon leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a diode array detector. HPLC analysis revealed that total carotenoid and total flavonoid concentration were 62 mg/100 g and 249.1 μg/g, respectively. The mean chlorophyll b was 85.1 mg/100 g in C. dactylon. Among the flavonoids, quercetin (164.7 μg/g) was the major flavonoid followed by kaempferol (48.2 μg/g), rutin (18.4 μg/g), catechin (12.1 μg/g) and myricetin (5.7 μg/g). Of the carotenoids, β-carotene (35.2 mg/100 g) was predominant followed by lutein (17.0 mg/100 g), violaxanthin (5.8 mg/100 g) and zeaxanthin (4.2 mg/100 g). Chlorophyll b concentration was 85.1 mg/100 g in C. dactylon. The results of this investigation should be useful information for further pharmacological studies. PMID:25495959

  2. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  3. Comparative Analyses of Physiological Responses of Cynodon dactylon Accessions from Southwest China to Sulfur Dioxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Cai, Shizhen

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity. PMID:25097893

  4. Contrasting Changes Caused by Drought and Submergence Stresses in Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Tiantian; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Yanping; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which bermudagrass withstands the drought and submergence stresses through physiological, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. The results showed that significant physiological changes were observed after drought treatment, while only slight changes after submergence treatment, including compatible solute contents, ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. Proteomics results showed that 81 proteins regulated by drought or submergence treatment were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Among them, 76 proteins were modulated by drought stress with 46 increased abundance and 30 decreased abundance. Forty-five showed abundance changes after submergence treatment with 10 increased and 35 decreased. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed that pathways of amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial electron transport/ATP synthesis were only enriched by drought treatment, while other pathways including photosynthesis, biodegradation of xenobiotics, oxidative pentose phosphate, glycolysis and redox were commonly over-represented after both drought and submergence treatments. Metabolomic analysis indicated that most of the metabolites were up-regulated by drought stress, while 34 of 40 metabolites contents exhibited down-regulation or no significant changes when exposed to submergence stress, including sugars and sugar alcohols. These data indicated that drought stress extensively promoted photosynthesis and redox metabolisms while submergence stress caused declined metabolisms and dormancy in Cynodon dactylon. Taken together, the quiescence strategy with retarded growth might allow bermudagrass to be adaptive to long-term submerged environment, while activation of photosynthesis and redox, and accumulation of compatible solutes and molecular chaperones increased bermudagrass tolerance to drought stress. PMID:26617615

  5. Compensatory Lengthening in Karok and CV Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Young Hee

    A study of Karok, an American Indian language spoken in northern California, provides an argument for CV theory over moraic theory from compensatory lengthening. In a previous study, moraic theory is argued to be superior to CV phonology in accounting for compensatory lengthening; it is shown here that compensatory lengthening in Karok cannot be…

  6. In Vitro Virucidal and Virustatic Properties of the Crude Extract of Cynodon dactylon against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Khonghiran, Oapkun; Kunanoppadol, Suchaya; Potha, Teerapong; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro virustatic and virucidal tests of the crude extract of Cynodon dactylon against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a cause of major devastating pig disease, were described. Crude extract of C. dactylon was prepared for cytotoxicity on tissue-culture cells that were used to measure virustatic and virucidal activities against PRRSV. Crude extract of C. dactylon at 0.78 mg/mL showed no cytotoxicity on the cell line, and at that concentration significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV as early as 24 hours post infection (hpi). C. dactylon also inactivated PRRSV as determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) compared to the control experiments. In summary, the present study may be among the earliest studies to describe virustatic and virucidal activities of C. dactylon crude extract against PRRSV in vitro. Extracts of C. dactylon may be useful for PRRSV control and prevention on pig farms. PMID:24744959

  7. CV and CM chondrite impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, Nicole G.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; McSween, Harry Y.; Tenner, Travis J.; Kita, Noriko T.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile-rich and typically oxidized carbonaceous chondrites, such as CV and CM chondrites, potentially respond to impacts differently than do other chondritic materials. Understanding impact melting of carbonaceous chondrites has been hampered by the dearth of recognized impact melt samples. In this study we identify five carbonaceous chondrite impact melt clasts in three host meteorites: a CV3red chondrite, a CV3oxA chondrite, and a regolithic howardite. The impact melt clasts in these meteorites respectively formed from CV3red chondrite, CV3oxA chondrite, and CM chondrite protoliths. We identified these impact melt clasts and interpreted their precursors based on their texture, mineral chemistry, silicate bulk elemental composition, and in the case of the CM chondrite impact melt clast, in situ measurement of oxygen three-isotope signatures in olivine. These impact melts typically contain euhedral-subhedral olivine microphenocrysts, sometimes with relict cores, in glassy groundmasses. Based on petrography and Raman spectroscopy, four of the impact melt clasts exhibit evidence for volatile loss: these melt clasts either contain vesicles or are depleted in H2O relative to their precursors. Volatile loss (i.e., H2O) may have reduced the redox state of the CM chondrite impact melt clast. The clasts that formed from the more oxidized precursors (CV3oxA and CM chondrites) exhibit phase and bulk silicate elemental compositions consistent with higher intrinsic oxygen fugacities relative to the clast that formed from a more reduced precursor (CV3red chondrite). The mineral chemistries and assemblages of the CV and CM chondrite impact melt clasts identified here provide a template for recognizing carbonaceous chondrite impact melts on the surfaces of asteroids.

  8. Non-flowering Sorghum spp. hybrids: Perennial, sterile, high-biomass feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Sorghum spp. hybrids such as Columbusgrass (Sorghum almum Parodi; S. bicolor [L.] Moench x S. halepense [L.] Pers.) and the reciprocal hybridization (S. halepense x S. bicolor; e.g. Cv 'Krish') are high-biomass forage feedstocks. Utilization of such hybrids is limited, however, by both th...

  9. Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi).

    PubMed

    Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie

    2012-10-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain. PMID:22965088

  10. Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Datura metel Linn. and Cynodon dactylon Linn. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumen; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of Datura metel L. and Cynodon dactylon L. extracts. Materials and Methods: The extraction of plants parts (datura seed and fruit pulp) and areal parts of durva was carried out using soxhlet and cold extraction method using solvents namely methanol and distilled water. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined by established methods. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay method. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Results: We found that the highest amount of TPC and TFC in methanolic extracts of seed (268.6 μg of gallic acid equivalence/mg of dry plant material) and fruit pulp (8.84 μg of quercetin equivalence/mg dry plant material) of D. metel, respectively prepared by Soxhlet method. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon prepared using soxhlation has shown potent free radical scavenging activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 100 μg/ml. The IC50 of a methanolic cold extract of datura fruit was found to be 3 mg/ml against vero cell line. Conclusion: We observed that plant parts of C. dactylon and D. metel have a high antioxidant activity. Further research is needed to explore the therapeutic potential of these plant extracts. SUMMARY In the present study we observed a positive correlation was between the phenolic and flavanoid content of the Datura metel and cynodon doctylon (durva) extracts with the free radical scavenging activities. Both were found to have a high antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene, CC50: 50% cell cytotoxic concentration, CNS: Central nervous system, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2

  11. Feeding behavior of the poecilostomatoid copepods Oncaea spp. on chaetognaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, You-Bong; Oh, Bong-Cheol; Terazaki, Makoto

    1998-06-01

    Feeding behaviors of the poecilostomatoid copepods Oncaea venusta, O. mediterranea and O. conifera were examined in the coastal area of Cheju Island, south of the Korean Peninsula, from April 1993 to November 1995. Late copepodid stages (CV, adult female and male) showed a high frequency of association with larger zooplankton such as Sagitta spp. (Chaetognatha), Oikopleura spp. (Appendicularia), and Salpa spp. (Thaliacea) in a coastal upwelling zone and around the small Munsum Island. Attack behaviors on Sagitta observed under the microscope and in the field showed that Oncaea approached Sagitta using their swimming legs, and then crawled chiefly to the neck regions and caudal septum (around the tail) of Sagitta spp. using their second antennae. They pierced the body of Sagitta with their sharp maxillipeds, and moved their maxillae and mandibles repeatedly. Midgut contents of Oncaea spp. consisted mainly of unidentified fine particles, and the greater part of the gut was empty. Their mouthpart structure is remarkably different from other pelagic copepods. Such differences of the mouthpart structures and the feeding habits in the genus Oncaea around Cheju Island are discussed in terms of feeding behavior and ecology in this coastal upwelling area.

  12. Emerging pathogens: Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed

    Merino, S; Rubires, X; Knochel, S; Tomas, J M

    1995-12-01

    Aeromonas spp. are Gram-negative rods of the family Vibrionaceae. They are normal water inhabitants and are part of the regular flora of poiquilotherm and homeotherm animals. They can be isolated from many foodstuffs (green vegetables, raw milk, ice cream, meat and seafood). Mesophilic Aeromonas spp. have been classified following the AeroKey II system (Altwegg et al., 1990; Carnahan et al., 1991). The major human diseases caused by Aeromonas spp. can be classified in two major groups: septicemia (mainly by strains of A. veronii subsp. sobria and A. hydrophila), and gastroenteritis (any mesophilic Aeromonas spp. but principally A. hydrophila and A. veronii). Most epidemiological studies have shown Aeromonas spp. in stools to be more often associated with diarrhea than with the carrier state; an association with the consumption of untreated water was also conspicuous. Acute self-limited diarrhea is more frequent in young children, in older patients chronic enterocolitis may also be observed. Fever, vomiting, and fecal leukocytes or erythrocytes (colitis) may be present (Janda, 1991). The main putative virulence factors are: exotoxins, endotoxin (LPS), presence of S-layers, fimbriae or adhesins and the capacity to form capsules. PMID:8750664

  13. Disomic Inheritance and Segregation Distortion of SSR Markers in Two Populations of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuanwen; Wu, Yanqi; Anderson, Jeff A.; Moss, Justin Q.; Zhu, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Common bermudagrass [C. dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon] is economically and environmentally the most important member among Cynodon species because of its extensive use for turf, forage and soil erosion control in the world. However, information regarding the inheritance within the taxon is limited. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine qualitative inheritance mode in common bermudagrass. Two tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36), first-generation selfed (S1) populations, 228 progenies of ‘Zebra’ and 273 from A12359, were analyzed for segregation with 21 and 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, respectively. It is concluded that the inheritance mode of tetraploid bermudagrass was complete or near complete disomic. It is evident that the two bermudagrass parents had an allotetraploid genome with two distinct subgenomes since 33 SSR primer pairs amplified 34 loci, each having two alleles. Severe transmission ratio distortions occurred in the Zebra population while less so in the A12359 population. The findings of disomic inheritance and segregation ratio distortion in common bermudagrass is significant in subsequent linkage map construction, quantitative trait locus mapping and marker-assisted selection in the species. PMID:26295707

  14. Real-time mapping of salt glands on the leaf surface of Cynodon dactylon L. using scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Meera; Pemaiah, Brindha; Natesan, Ravichandran; Padmavathy, Saralla R; Pachiappan, Jayaraman

    2015-02-01

    Salt glands are specialized organelles present in the leaf tissues of halophytes, which impart salt-tolerance capability to the plant species. These glands are usually identified only by their morphology using conventional staining procedures coupled with optical microscopy. In this work, we have employed scanning electrochemical microscopy to identify the salt glands not only by their morphology but also by their salt excretion behavior. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.) species was chosen for the study as they are known to be salt-tolerant and contain salt glands on leaf surfaces. Scanning electrochemical microscopy performed in sodium chloride medium in the presence and absence of potassium ferrocyanide as redox mediator, reveals the identity of salt glands. More insight into the ion expulsion behavior of these glands was obtained by mapping lateral and vertical variations in ion concentrations using surface impedance measurements which indicated five times higher resistance over the salt glands compared to the surrounding tissues and bulk solution. The protocol could be used to understand the developmental processes in plants grown in different soil/water conditions in order to improve salt tolerance of food crops by genetic engineering and hence improve their agricultural productivity. PMID:25460612

  15. Disomic Inheritance and Segregation Distortion of SSR Markers in Two Populations of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanwen; Wu, Yanqi; Anderson, Jeff A; Moss, Justin Q; Zhu, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Common bermudagrass [C. dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon] is economically and environmentally the most important member among Cynodon species because of its extensive use for turf, forage and soil erosion control in the world. However, information regarding the inheritance within the taxon is limited. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine qualitative inheritance mode in common bermudagrass. Two tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36), first-generation selfed (S1) populations, 228 progenies of 'Zebra' and 273 from A12359, were analyzed for segregation with 21 and 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, respectively. It is concluded that the inheritance mode of tetraploid bermudagrass was complete or near complete disomic. It is evident that the two bermudagrass parents had an allotetraploid genome with two distinct subgenomes since 33 SSR primer pairs amplified 34 loci, each having two alleles. Severe transmission ratio distortions occurred in the Zebra population while less so in the A12359 population. The findings of disomic inheritance and segregation ratio distortion in common bermudagrass is significant in subsequent linkage map construction, quantitative trait locus mapping and marker-assisted selection in the species. PMID:26295707

  16. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  17. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  18. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans. PMID:21762584

  19. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of an ethylene receptor gene from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) by hormone and environmental stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene receptor (ethylene response sensor, ERS) is the primary component involving in the ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway. In the present study, a GZ-ERS gene encoding ERS was cloned from a sugarcane cv. YL17 (Saccharum spp.) using RT-PCR and ligation-mediated PCR wi...

  20. Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

    For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the

  1. Factors Influencing Dislodgeable 2, 4-D Plant Residues from Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) Athletic Fields.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Matthew D; Gannon, Travis W; Brosnan, James T; Ahmed, Khalied A; Breeden, Gregory K

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has confirmed 2,4-D residues may dislodge from turfgrass; however, experiments have not been conducted on hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis), the most common athletic field turfgrass in subtropical climates. More specifically, previous research has not investigated the effect of post-application irrigation on dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from hybrid bermudagrass and across turfgrass species, research has been nondescript regarding sample time within a d (TWD) or conducted in the afternoon when the turfgrass canopy is dry, possibly underestimating potential for dislodgement. The effect of irrigation and TWD on 2,4-D dislodgeability was investigated. Dislodgeable 2,4-D amine was reduced > 300% following irrigation. From 2 to 7 d after treatment (DAT), ≤ 0.5% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged from irrigated turfgrass, while ≤ 2.3% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged when not irrigated. 2,4-D dislodgeability decreased as TWD increased. Dislodgeable 2,4-D residues declined to < 0.1% of the applied at 1 DAT- 13:00, and increased to 1 to 3% of the applied 2 DAT- 5:00, suggesting 2,4-D re-suspended on treated turfgrass vegetation overnight. In conclusion, irrigating treated turfgrass reduced dislodgeable 2,4-D. 2,4-D dislodgeability increased as TWD decreased, which was attributed to non-precipitation climatic conditions favoring turfgrass canopy wetness. This research will improve turfgrass management practices and research designed to minimize human 2,4-D exposure. PMID:26863005

  2. Aspergillus fumigatus CY018, an endophytic fungus in Cynodon dactylon as a versatile producer of new and bioactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Liu, J Y; Song, Y C; Zhang, Z; Wang, L; Guo, Z J; Zou, W X; Tan, R X

    2004-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus CY018 was recognized as an endophytic fungus for the first time in the leaf of Cynodon dactylon. By bioassay-guided fractionation, the EtOAc extract of a solid-matrix steady culture of this fungus afforded two new metabolites, named asperfumoid (1) and asperfumin (2), together with six known bioactive compounds including monomethylsulochrin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, physcion, helvolic acid and 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6,22-diene-3beta-ol as well as other four known compounds ergosta-4,22-diene-3beta-ol, ergosterol, cyclo(Ala-Leu) and cyclo(Ala-Ile). Through detailed spectroscopic analyses including HRESI-MS, homo- and hetero-nuclear correlation NMR experiments (HMQC, COSY, NOESY and HMBC), the structures of asperfumoid and asperfumin were established to be spiro-(3-hydroxyl-2,6-dimethoxyl-2,5-diene-4-cyclohexone-(1,3')-5'-methoxyl-7'-methyl-(1'H, 2'H, 4'H)-quinoline-2',4'-dione) and 5-hydroxyl-2-(6-hydroxyl-2-methoxyl-4-methylbenzoyl)-3,6-dimethoxyl-benzoic methyl ester, respectively. All of the 12 isolates were subjected to in vitro bioactive assays against three human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Tricophyton rubrum and Aspergillus niger. As a result, asperfumoid, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, physcion and helvolic acid were shown to inhibit C. albicans with MICs of 75.0, 31.5, 62.5, 125.0 and 31.5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:15522437

  3. Factors Influencing Dislodgeable 2, 4-D Plant Residues from Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) Athletic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalied A.; Breeden, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has confirmed 2,4-D residues may dislodge from turfgrass; however, experiments have not been conducted on hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis), the most common athletic field turfgrass in subtropical climates. More specifically, previous research has not investigated the effect of post-application irrigation on dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from hybrid bermudagrass and across turfgrass species, research has been nondescript regarding sample time within a d (TWD) or conducted in the afternoon when the turfgrass canopy is dry, possibly underestimating potential for dislodgement. The effect of irrigation and TWD on 2,4-D dislodgeability was investigated. Dislodgeable 2,4-D amine was reduced > 300% following irrigation. From 2 to 7 d after treatment (DAT), ≤ 0.5% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged from irrigated turfgrass, while ≤ 2.3% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged when not irrigated. 2,4-D dislodgeability decreased as TWD increased. Dislodgeable 2,4-D residues declined to < 0.1% of the applied at 1 DAT– 13:00, and increased to 1 to 3% of the applied 2 DAT– 5:00, suggesting 2,4-D re-suspended on treated turfgrass vegetation overnight. In conclusion, irrigating treated turfgrass reduced dislodgeable 2,4-D. 2,4-D dislodgeability increased as TWD decreased, which was attributed to non-precipitation climatic conditions favoring turfgrass canopy wetness. This research will improve turfgrass management practices and research designed to minimize human 2,4-D exposure. PMID:26863005

  4. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    PubMed

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays. PMID:20397044

  5. Iterative contextual CV model for liver segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongwei; He, Jiangping; Yang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel iterative active contour algorithm, i.e. Iterative Contextual CV Model (ICCV), and apply it to automatic liver segmentation from 3D CT images. ICCV is a learning-based method and can be divided into two stages. At the first stage, i.e. the training stage, given a set of abdominal CT training images and the corresponding manual liver labels, our task is to construct a series of self-correcting classifiers by learning a mapping between automatic segmentations (in each round) and manual reference segmentations via context features. At the second stage, i.e. the segmentation stage, first the basic CV model is used to segment the image and subsequently Contextual CV Model (CCV), which combines the image information and the current shape model, is iteratively performed to improve the segmentation result. The current shape model is obtained by inputting the previous automatic segmentation result into the corresponding self-correcting classifier. The proposed method is evaluated on the datasets of MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge. The experimental results show that we obtain more and more accurate segmentation results by the iterative steps and satisfying results are obtained after about six iterations. Also, our method is comparable to the state-of-the-art work on liver segmentation.

  6. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  7. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  8. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts. PMID:21557057

  9. MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

  10. First isolation of Mycobacterium spp. in Mullus spp. in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sevim, P; Ozer, S; Rad, F

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. poses health risks both to fish and humans. In this study, the presence of ichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. was investigated in red mullet (Mullus barbatus barbatus) and surmullet (Mullus surmuletus), widely caught species in the Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea. A total of 208 fish samples, provided from fishermen of Mersin province (Turkey) were studied. Using conventional methods, Mycobacterium spp. was isolated and identified at the genus level by PCR and at the species level by PCR-RFLP. Thirteen Mycobacterium spp. were detected in 13 (6.25%) fish samples. Four mycobacteria were identified as M. genavense, three as M. fortuitum, three as M. scrofulaceum, one as M. marinum, one as M. vaccae and one as M. aurum. No signs of mycobacteriosis were observed in fish samples. Findings of this study can contribute to future studies of onichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. in seafood. PMID:27175166

  11. Clovers (Trifolium spp.).

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Ashtiani, Samira; Sahab, Sareena; Panter, Stephen; Mason, John; Spangenberg, German

    2015-01-01

    Clovers (Trifolium spp.) constitute one of the major forage legumes widely grown for its rich protein content and its major role in maintaining environmental sustainability by improving the soil fertility. Gene technology can assist plant improvement efforts in clovers (Trifolium spp.), aiming to improve forage quality, yield, and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. An efficient and reproducible protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a range of Trifolium species, using cotyledonary explants and different selectable marker genes, is described. The protocol is robust and allows for genotype and Agrobacterium strain-independent transformation of clovers. Stable meiotic transmission of transgenes has been demonstrated for selected transgenic clovers carrying single T-DNA inserts recovered from Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This methodology can also be successfully used for "isogenic transformation" in clovers: the generation of otherwise identical plants with and without the transgene from the two cotyledons of a single seed. Stable transgenes may be used in further functional genomics, develop new traits and profile gene expression using reporters, and facilitate purification of tissue or single cells. PMID:25300844

  12. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    PubMed

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:14648300

  13. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  14. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

  15. Selenium accumulation and selenium-salt co-tolerance in five grass species. [Festuca arundinaceae; Agropyron deserorum; Buchloe dactyloides; Agrostis stolonifera; Cynodon dactylon

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Huang, Z.; Burau, R.G.

    1987-04-01

    Five grass species including Tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae Schred), Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron deserorum Fisch), Buffalo grass (Buchlor dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.), Seaside bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Syn.) were examined for selenium and salt tolerance and selenium accumulation under solution culture conditions. Distinct differences in both selenium and salt tolerance were detected among the five species, but no direct association between selenium and salt resistance was found. Tall fescue displayed considerable tolerance under 1 ppm selenium and 100 mM salt treatment. Combined selenium and salt treatment revealed that selenium uptake was increased by the incorporation of salt in the culture solution. However, salt uptake was not significantly affected by the presence of selenium in the culture solution. At moderate toxic levels of selenium, the species with greater tolerance accumulated less selenium than did the less tolerant species.

  16. Kinetics of caesium and potassium absorption by roots of three grass pastures and competitive effects of potassium on caesium uptake in Cynodon sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Valverde, L. Rubio; Garcia-Sanchez, M. J.; Fernandez, J. A.; Velasco, R. H.

    2008-08-01

    Caesium uptake by plant roots has been normally associated with the uptake of potassium as the potassium transport systems present in plants have also the capacity to transport caesium. Three grass species (Eragrostis curvula, Cynodon sp and Distichlis spicata) growing in seminatural grassland of central Argentina were selected to study their capability to incorporate Cs+ (and K+) using electrophysiological techniques. Although the 137Cs soil inventory ranged between 328-730 Bq m-2 in this region, no 137Cs activity was detected in these plants. However, all the species, submitted previously to K+ starvation, showed the uptake of both Cs+ and K+ when micromolar concentrations of these cations were present in the medium. The uptake showed saturation kinetics for both cations that could be fitted to the Michelis-Menten model. KM values were smaller for K+ than for Cs+, indicating a higher affinity for the first cation. The presence of increasing K+ concentrations in the assay medium inhibited Cs+ uptake in Cynodon sp., as expected if both cations are transported by the same transport systems. This effect is due to the competition of both ions for the union sites of the high affinity potassium transporters. In field situation, where soil concentration of Cs+ is smaller than K+ concentration, is then expectable that caesium activity in plants is not detectable. Nevertheless, the studied plants would have the capacity to incorporate caesium if its availability in soil solution increases. In addition, studies of Cs/K interaction can help us to understand the variability in transfer factors.

  17. Kinetics of caesium and potassium absorption by roots of three grass pastures and competitive effects of potassium on caesium uptake in Cynodon sp

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, J. Juri; Velasco, R. H.; Valverde, L. Rubio; Garcia-Sanchez, M. J.; Fernandez, J. A.

    2008-08-07

    Caesium uptake by plant roots has been normally associated with the uptake of potassium as the potassium transport systems present in plants have also the capacity to transport caesium. Three grass species (Eragrostis curvula, Cynodon sp and Distichlis spicata) growing in seminatural grassland of central Argentina were selected to study their capability to incorporate Cs{sup +} (and K{sup +}) using electrophysiological techniques. Although the {sup 137}Cs soil inventory ranged between 328-730 Bq m{sup -2} in this region, no {sup 137}Cs activity was detected in these plants. However, all the species, submitted previously to K{sup +} starvation, showed the uptake of both Cs{sup +} and K{sup +} when micromolar concentrations of these cations were present in the medium. The uptake showed saturation kinetics for both cations that could be fitted to the Michelis-Menten model. K{sub M} values were smaller for K{sup +} than for Cs{sup +}, indicating a higher affinity for the first cation. The presence of increasing K{sup +} concentrations in the assay medium inhibited Cs{sup +} uptake in Cynodon sp., as expected if both cations are transported by the same transport systems. This effect is due to the competition of both ions for the union sites of the high affinity potassium transporters. In field situation, where soil concentration of Cs{sup +} is smaller than K{sup +} concentration, is then expectable that caesium activity in plants is not detectable. Nevertheless, the studied plants would have the capacity to incorporate caesium if its availability in soil solution increases. In addition, studies of Cs/K interaction can help us to understand the variability in transfer factors.

  18. Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Máthé, C; Szénási, G; Sebestény, A; Blázovics, A; Szentmihályi, K; Hamar, P; Albert, M

    2014-08-01

    CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect. PMID:23653282

  19. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    PubMed

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy. PMID:18309047

  20. Comparative genomics of Fructobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. reveals niche-specific evolution of Fructobacillus spp.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Endo, Akihito; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Maeno, Shintaro; Kumar, Himanshu; Shiwa, Yuh; Okada, Sanae; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Dicks, Leon; Nakagawa, Junichi; et al

    2015-12-29

    In this study, Fructobacillus spp. in fructose-rich niches belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. They were originally classified as Leuconostoc spp., but were later grouped into a novel genus, Fructobacillus , based on their phylogenetic position, morphology and specific biochemical characteristics. The unique characters, so called fructophilic characteristics, had not been reported in the group of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting unique evolution at the genome level. Here we studied four draft genome sequences of Fructobacillus spp. and compared their metabolic properties against those of Leuconostoc spp. As a result, Fructobacillus species possess significantly less protein coding sequences in their small genomes.more » The number of genes was significantly smaller in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Several other metabolic pathways, including TCA cycle, ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and phosphotransferase systems, were characterized as discriminative pathways between the two genera. The adhE gene for bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase, and genes for subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were absent in Fructobacillus spp. The two genera also show different levels of GC contents, which are mainly due to the different GC contents at the third codon position. In conclusion, the present genome characteristics in Fructobacillus spp. suggest reductive evolution that took place to adapt to specific niches.« less

  1. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidioides spp. is the ethiological agent of coccidioidomycosis, an infection that can be fatal. Its diagnosis is complicated, due to that it shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with other pulmonary mycoses. Coccidioides spp. is a dimorphic fungus and, in its saprobic phase, grows as a mycelium, forming a large amount of arthroconidia. In susceptible persons, arthroconidia induce dimorphic changes into spherules/endospores, a typical parasitic form of Coccidioides spp. In addition, the diversity of mycelial parasitic forms has been observed in clinical specimens; they are scarcely known and produce errors in diagnosis. Methods We presented a retrospective study of images from specimens of smears with 15% potassium hydroxide, cytology, and tissue biopsies of a histopathologic collection from patients with coccidioidomycosis seen at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Results The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. observed in the clinical specimens was as follows: i) spherules/endospores in different maturation stages; ii) pleomorphic cells (septate hyphae, hyphae composed of ovoid and spherical cells, and arthroconidia), and iii) fungal ball formation (mycelia with septate hyphae and arthroconidia). Conclusions The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. includes the following: spherules/endospores, arthroconidia, and different forms of mycelia. This knowledge is important for the accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. In earlier studies, we proposed the integration of this diversity of forms in the Coccidioides spp. parasitic cycle. The microhabitat surrounding the fungus into the host would favor the parasitic polymorphism of this fungus, and this environment may assist in the evolution toward parasitism of Coccidioides spp. PMID:24750998

  2. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  3. Rare Earth Element Complementarity in CO and CV Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Ebel, D. S.

    2014-09-01

    LREE/HREE ratios in each component of CO and CV chondrites combine to produce complementary, flat bulk REE pattern, while individually yielding insight into mineral controls and precursor characteristics.

  4. Cotton Seedling Preemergence Damping-Off Incited by Rhizopus oryzae and Pythium spp. and Its Biological Control with Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Howell, C R

    2002-02-01

    ABSTRACT Planting the cotton cv. Sure-Grow 747 in cotton seedling disease plots during the 2001 growing season resulted in high levels of preemergence damping-off among the seedlings. Four cotton pathogens, Pythium aphanidermatum, P. ultimum, an unidentified Pythium sp., and Rhizopus oryzae, were isolated from diseased seed embryos and seedlings. Disease incited by the Pythium spp. could be controlled by seed treatment with Metalaxyl, but disease incited by R. oryzae could not. Seed treatment with Metalaxyl in naturally infested field soil was only partially effective; therefore, symptoms in 47% of the diseased seedlings could be attributed to R. oryzae. Susceptibility to disease appeared to be related to release in the spermosphere, by the germinating seeds, of compounds that stimulate pathogen propagule germination, because exudates from seed of the suscept Sure-Grow 747 and extracts from wheat bran induced pathogen germination and growth, whereas exudates from resistant cv. Stoneville 213 did not. However, even Stoneville 213 became susceptible when infested soil was amended with wheat bran. Seed treatment with preparations of Trichoderma virens parent, mutant, and hybrid strains gave effective biological control of preemergence damping-off. Disease control was attributable to metabolism by the biocontrol agent of pathogen germination stimulants released by the seed, because amendment of pathogen-infested soil with the propagule germination stimulants in wheat bran negated the protective effect of the seed treatment. PMID:18943091

  5. Bartonella spp. in bats, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-12-01

    We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in specific host bat species. All isolates from R. aegyptiacus, C. afra, and T. persicus bats clustered in separate monophyletic groups. In contrast, E. helvum and Miniopterus spp. bats harbored strains that clustered in several groups. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these agents are responsible for human illnesses in the region. PMID:21122216

  6. Insights from High Precision Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Reduced CV Meteorite Separates: CV Matrix Homogeneity and Preservation of Nebular Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.

    2011-03-01

    The oxygen-isotopic composition of matrix from reduced CVs Efremovka and Vigarano has been measured and is indistinguishable from Allende. This indicates a similar nebular history and a preservation of different nebular conditions within reduced CV meteorites.

  7. Effects of Vaccination with 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenza Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) on the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome of Kenyan Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Feazel, Leah M.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Robertson, Charles E.; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines reduce the prevalence of vaccine serotypes carried in the nasopharynx. Because this could alter carriage of other potential pathogens, we assessed the nasopharyngeal microbiome of children who had been vaccinated with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Methods Profiles of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of 60 children aged 12-59 months, who had been randomized to receive 2 doses of PHiD-CV (n=30) or Hepatitis A vaccine (n=30) 60 days apart, were constructed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of swab specimens collected before vaccination and 180 days after dose 1. Results Prior to vaccination, Moraxella catarrhalis (median of 12.3% of sequences/subject), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (5.6%) were the most abundant nasopharyngeal bacterial species. Vaccination with PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the species composition, abundance, or prevalence of known pathogens. Distinct microbiomes were identified based on the abundances of Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Haemophilus species. These microbiomes shifted in composition over the study period and were independent of age, sex, school attendance, antibiotic exposure, and vaccination. Conclusions Vaccination of children with two doses of PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome. This suggests limited replacement carriage with pathogens other than non-vaccine strains of S. pneumoniae. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01028326 PMID:26083474

  8. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Zwerts, J. A.; Prins, H. H. T.; Bomhoff, D.; Verhagen, I.; Swart, J. M.; de Boer, W. F.

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns. PMID:26510157

  9. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  10. Competition between a Lawn-Forming Cynodon dactylon and a Tufted Grass Species Hyparrhenia hirta on a South-African Dystrophic Savanna.

    PubMed

    Zwerts, J A; Prins, H H T; Bomhoff, D; Verhagen, I; Swart, J M; de Boer, W F

    2015-01-01

    South African savanna grasslands are often characterised by indigestible tufted grass species whereas lawn grasses are far more desirable in terms of herbivore sustenance. We aimed to investigate the role of nutrients and/or the disturbance (grazing, trampling) by herbivores on the formation of grazing lawns. We conducted a series of common garden experiments to test the effect of nutrients on interspecific competition between a typical lawn-forming grass species (Cynodon dactylon) and a species that is frequently found outside grazing lawns (Hyparrhenia hirta), and tested for the effect of herbivore disturbance in the form of trampling and clipping. We also performed a vegetation and herbivore survey to apply experimentally derived insights to field observations. Our results showed that interspecific competition was not affected by soil nutrient concentrations. C. dactylon did show much more resilience to disturbance than H. hirta, presumably due to the regenerative capacity of its rhizomes. Results from the field survey were in line with these findings, describing a correlation between herbivore pressure and C. dactylon abundance. We conclude that herbivore disturbance, and not soil nutrients, provide C. dactylon with a competitive advantage over H. hirta, due to vegetative regeneration from its rhizomes. This provides evidence for the importance of concentrated, high herbivore densities for the creation and maintenance of grazing lawns. PMID:26510157

  11. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  12. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  13. Aqueous alteration in the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results from TEM and SEM examinations of the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite are presented, showing that the chondrules and the matrix of Kaba have undergone pervasive low-temperature aqueous alteration, resulting in the formation of Fe-bearing saponite from glass and enstatite in chondrules, and from anhydrous silicates in matrix. The alteration products in Kaba were found to resemble those in other aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites such as the Mokoia CV3 and in Orgueil CI chondrites and Y-82162 chondrites. However, Kaba lacks the abundant high-Al phyllosilicates, reported for CAIs from Mokoia, and the serpentine and ferrihydrite, found in Orgueil.

  14. Absence of antibodies to Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii in Tahiti, French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abtract Background In the Pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. To our knowledge, human infections due to Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. have never been reported in French Polynesia; and infections due to C. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. To evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among French Polynesian blood donors. Methods The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against R. felis, R. typhi, R. conorii, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 472 French Polynesian blood donors collected from 2011 to 2013. In addition, 178 ticks and 36 cat fleas collected in French Polynesia were also collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction to detect Rickettsia spp., B. henselae and Ehrlichia spp. Results None of the blood donors had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp. and Bartonella spp. All tested ticks and cat fleas were PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp., B. henselae, and Ehrlichia spp. Conclusion We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in French Polynesia but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. C. burnetii has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand. It may also be absent from French Polynesia. PMID:24885466

  15. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus. PMID:25659824

  16. The biology of Giardia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Adam, R D

    1991-01-01

    Gardia spp. are flagellated protozoans that parasitize the small intestines of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. The infectious cysts begin excysting in the acidic environment of the stomach and become trophozoites (the vegetative form). The trophozoites attach to the intestinal mucosa through the suction generated by a ventral disk and cause diarrhea and malabsorption by mechanisms that are not well understood. Giardia spp. have a number of unique features, including a predominantly anaerobic metabolism, complete dependence on salvage of exogenous nucleotides, a limited ability to synthesize and degrade carbohydrates and lipids, and two nuclei that are equal by all criteria that have been tested. The small size and unique sequence of G. lamblia rRNA molecules have led to the proposal that Giardia is the most primitive eukaryotic organism. Three Giardia spp. have been identified by light lamblia, G. muris, and G. agilis, but electron microscopy has allowed further species to be described within the G. lamblia group, some of which have been substantiated by differences in the rDNA. Animal models and human infections have led to the conclusion that intestinal infection is controlled primarily through the humoral immune system (T-cell dependent in the mouse model). A major immunogenic cysteine-rich surface antigen is able to vary in vitro and in vivo in the course of an infection and may provide a means of evading the host immune response or perhaps a means of adapting to different intestinal environments. Images PMID:1779932

  17. Whirling Dervish Dynamos: Magnetic Activity in CV Secondaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Steven

    2003-07-01

    The mass-losing secondary stars of cataclysmic variables {CVs} are the most rapidly rotating cool dwarfs observable. Other rapid rotators show a maximal, "saturated" level of magnetic activity {e.g., X-ray emission}, but there are hints from contact binaries and young clusters that activity may be suppressed at the highest rotation rates. CV secondaries are thus important probes of magnetic dynamos at rotational extremes. Implications for CV evolution {e.g., the ``period gap", accretion variability} may also be profound. Unfortunately, study of CV secondaries is hampered by pesky accretion-related phenomena and reflection effects. As a result, little systematic work has been done. To explore activity in these stars, we therefore propose to study far-UV spectra of AM Her-type systems {which have no accretion disks} in deep photometric minima in which accretion is shut off. Magnetic-related emission from the secondary will be separated {in velocity} from residual accretion emission by observations near quadratures. Lower chromospheric irradiation due to the white dwarf primary will be removed by modeling, yielding the true level of magnetic activity on the secondary. We will compare the results to other dMe stars and draw implications for magnetic dynamos and activity at rotational extremes, and for CV evolution and behavior.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Chromobacterium violaceum Strain CV017

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofei; Hinshaw, Kara C.; Macdonald, Stuart J.

    2016-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence for Chromobacterium violaceum strain CV017, used as a model and tool to understand acyl-homoserine lactone-dependent quorum sensing. The assembly consists of 4,774,638-bp contained in 211 scaffolds. PMID:26941151

  19. Computational simulation of CV combination preferences in babbling

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hosung; Goldstein, Louis M.; Giulivi, Sara; Levitt, Andrea G.; Whalen, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a tendency for spoken consonant-vowel (CV) syllables, in babbling in particular, to show preferred combinations: labial consonants with central vowels, alveolars with front, and velars with back. This pattern was first described by MacNeilage and Davis, who found the evidence compatible with their “frame-then-content” (F/C) model. F/C postulates that CV syllables in babbling are produced with no control of the tongue (and therefore effectively random tongue positions) but systematic oscillation of the jaw. Articulatory Phonology (AP; Browman & Goldstein) predicts that CV preferences will depend on the degree of synergy of tongue movements for the C and V. We present computational modeling of both accounts using articulatory synthesis. Simulations found better correlations between patterns in babbling and the AP account than with the F/C model. These results indicate that the underlying assumptions of the F/C model are not supported and that the AP account provides a better and account with broader coverage by showing that articulatory synergies influence all CV syllables, not just the most common ones. PMID:24496111

  20. Osteosarcoma in Baboons (Papio spp)

    PubMed Central

    Mezzles, Marguerite J; Dick, Edward J; Owston, Michael A; Bauer, Cassondra

    2015-01-01

    Bone neoplasms in baboons (Papio spp) are rare, with only one confirmed case of osteosarcoma previously described in the literature. Over a 12-y period, 6 baboons at a national primate research center presented with naturally occurring osteosarcoma; 3 lesions affected the appendicular skeleton, and the remaining 3 were in the head (skull and mandible). The 6 cases presented were identified in members of a large outdoor-housed breeding colony. The subjects were not genetically related or exposed to the same research conditions. Diagnoses were made based on the presentation and radiographic findings, with histologic confirmation. PMID:25926401

  1. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties. PMID:21947308

  2. Evidence from Chondrule Shapes and Modes for Shock Deformation in Reduced CV3 Chondrites Leoville and Efreomovka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, T. J.; Aoki, R.

    2015-07-01

    The reduced CV3 chondrites Efremovka and Leoville are characterized by (1) more elongate chondrules, and (2) lower matrix abundances compared to the oxidized CV3 Allende. Both observations can be explained by shock deformation of reduced CV3s.

  3. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  4. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16do as a CV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Shishkovsky, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum of ASASSN-16do (ATel #8888) on UT April 17.07 with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The source has a blue continuum and broad double-peaked Balmer and He 5875 emission at z~0, with an H-alpha FWHM of about 2400 km/s. This value is high for a CV and suggests the source is observed close to edge-on.

  5. Prevalence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. in beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayer, R.; Santin, M.; Trout, J.M.; DeStefano, S.; Koenen, K.; Kaur, T.

    2006-01-01

    Feces from 62 beavers (Castor canadensis) in Massachusetts were examined by fluorescence microscopy (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Microsporidia species, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. between January 2002 and December 2004. PCR-positive specimens were further examined by gene sequencing. Protist parasites were detected in 6.4% of the beavers. All were subadults and kits. Microsporidia species were not detected. Giardia spp. was detected by IFA from four beavers; Cryptosporidium spp. was also detected by IFA from two of these beavers. However, gene sequence data for the ssrRNA gene from these two Cryptosporidium spp.-positive beavers were inconclusive in identifying the species. Nucleotide sequences of the TPI, ssrRNA, and ??-giardin genes for Giardia spp. (deposited in GenBank) indicated that the four beavers were excreting Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B, the zoonotic genotype representing a potential source of waterborne Giardia spp. cysts. Copyright 2006 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  6. Magnetic CVs in the UCT CCD CV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woudt, P. A.; Warner, B.

    2004-12-01

    An overview is given of all the magnetic CVs found in the UCT CCD CV Survey (Woudt & Warner 2001, 2002, 2003a). We have identified eight new candidate Intermediate Polars (IP), of which six are classical novae (RR Cha, DD Cir, AP Cru, V697 Sco, V373 Sct, and RX J1039.7-0507). The two other candidate IPs are Aqr1 (2236+0052) and RX J0944.5+0357. In addition, there are two probable Polars, namely V351 Pup (= Nova Puppis 1991) and FIRST J102347.6+003841.

  7. Absence of serological evidence of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Coxiella burnetii infections in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Lau, Colleen; Musso, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Weinstein, Philip

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases in American Samoa (Pacific). A review of literature did not identify any published information on human Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or Coxiella burnetii infections in this country. To determine the presence of these diseases, we conducted a serosurvey of American Samoans. The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia conorii, C. burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 197 American Samoan adults. None of the samples had antibodies at a significant level against Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or C. burnetii (seroprevalence 0%; one-tailed 95% CI 0-1.86%). We cannot conclude that these pathogens are absent in American Samoa but, if present, their prevalence is probably very low. Q fever has been reported worldwide except in New Zealand and French Polynesia; these new data suggest that the prevalence of Q fever is likely to be very low in the Pacific Islands. PMID:26965788

  8. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae CV Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alexandra Bianca; Shappee, Benjamin John; Archer Shappee, Bartlett; ASAS-SN

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. By far the most common events observed by ASAS-SN are the Galactic transients. Since April 2013 ASAS-SN has identified over 180 new cataclysmic variable stars and announced over 260 new outbursts of known CVs. To make our data available to the CV community in 'real time', we have launched an automated 'CV Patrol' to monitor known CVs for outbursts as a useful tool for both professional and amateurs astronomers. It is a long term goal of ASAS-SN to make all our data public in real-time, and this patrol will serve as a framework for future ASAS-SN data releases.

  9. Anthocyanin Profile in Berries of Wild and Cultivated Vaccinium spp. along Altitudinal Gradients in the Alps.

    PubMed

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-10-01

    Vaccinium spp. berries provide some of the best natural sources of anthocyanins. In the wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), a clear increasing trend in anthocyanin biosynthesis has been reported toward northern latitudes of Europe, but studies related to altitude have given contradictory results. The present study focused on the anthocyanin composition in wild bilberries and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Brigitta Blue) growing along altitudinal gradients in the Alps of northern Italy. Our results indicate an increasing accumulation of anthocyanins in bilberries along an altitudinal gradient of about 650 m. The accumulation was due to a significant increase in delphinidin and malvidin glycosides, whereas the accumulation of cyanidin and peonidin glycosides was not affected by altitude. Seasonal differences, especially temperature, had a major influence on the accumulation of anthocyanins in blueberries. PMID:26373665

  10. CV-6209, a highly potent antagonist of platelet activating factor in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Terashita, Z; Imura, Y; Takatani, M; Tsushima, S; Nishikawa, K

    1987-07-01

    2-[N-acetyl-N-(2-methoxy-3-octadecylcarbamoyloxypropoxycarbonyl) aminomethyl]-1-ethylpyridinium chloride (CV-6209) inhibited aggregation of rabbit and human platelets induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) with the IC50 values of 7.5 X 10(-8) and 1.7 X 10(-7) M, respectively, and had little effects on the aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen. The inhibitory effect of CV-6209 on the PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation was 104, 9, 8 and 3 times more potent than the PAF antagonists CV-3988, ONO-6240, Ginkgolide B and etizolam, respectively. CV-6209 inhibited [3H]serotonin release from rabbit platelets stimulated with PAF (3 X 10(-8) M) with a similar potency as the inhibition on the platelet aggregation. CV-6209 inhibited PAF (0.3 microgram/kg i.v.)-induced hypotension in rats (ED50, 0.009 mg/kg i.v.) with no effect on the hypotension induced by arachidonic acid, histamine, bradykinin and isoproterenol. CV-6209 (1 mg/kg) inhibited slightly the acetylcholine-induced hypotension. In rats, post-treatment with CV-6209 reversed the PAF (1 microgram/kg i.v.)-induced hypotension rapidly (ED50, 0.0046 mg/kg i.v.); CV-6209 was 74, 20, 185 and over 2100 times more potent than CV-3988, ONO-6240, Ginkgolide B and etizolam, respectively. Thus, the relative potency of the anti-PAF action of PAF analog (CV-6209, CV-3988 and ONO-6240) differed little between the inhibition of PAF-induced platelet aggregation and the reversal of PAF-induced hypotension, but that of nonPAF analogs (Ginkgolide B and etizolam) differed greatly with these assay systems, when standardized with CV-6209.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3612533

  11. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to

  12. So you want to be a specialist registrar?--What to put in your CV.

    PubMed

    Ellis, P E; Ellis, S G S; O'Brien, K D; Joshi, R I

    2002-02-01

    Dentists applying to a specialist training programme often receive conflicting advice over what to put in their curriculum vitae (CV). We conducted a survey of the Training Programme Directors of the dental specialties to determine what aspects of CV content and presentation styles are considered important. This has allowed us to construct guidelines for what to put in a CV. Recently, structured application forms have become increasingly popular and may be a more objective way to carry out the shortlisting process. The guidelines presented could also be used as a framework for medical personnel departments if structured application forms eventually replace the CV. PMID:11865819

  13. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus CY Yang Roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, JieQing; Yang, YuanFeng; Xia, JianJun; Li, XuYang; Li, ZhongRong; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, MingHua

    2015-09-01

    An investigation of phytochemicals from the roots of Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus resulted in the isolation of twenty diterpenoids, including lathyranlactone, an unusual diterpenoid lactone possessing a 5/13/3 tricyclic skeleton, jatrocurcasenones A-E and jatrophodiones B-E, as well as 10 known analogues. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human tumor cell lines using the MTS viability assay. Four of the known analogues showed cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 23.0 μM. Moreover, the assessment of their cytotoxic structure-activity relationships showed the epoxy ring between C-5 and C-6 and the hydroxyl group at C-2 were the key functionalities for cytotoxicity. PMID:26209936

  14. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  15. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., noroviruses, and indicator organisms in surface water in southwestern Finland, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Hörman, Ari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Torvela, Niina; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2004-01-01

    A total of 139 surface water samples from seven lakes and 15 rivers in southwestern Finland were analyzed during five consecutive seasons from autumn 2000 to autumn 2001 for the presence of various enteropathogens (Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and noroviruses) and fecal indicators (thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F-RNA bacteriophages) and for physicochemical parameters (turbidity and temperature); this was the first such systematic study. Altogether, 41.0% (57 of 139) of the samples were positive for at least one of the pathogens; 17.3% were positive for Campylobacter spp. (45.8% of the positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni, 25.0% contained Campylobacter lari, 4.2% contained Campylobacter coli, and 25.0% contained Campylobacter isolates that were not identified), 13.7% were positive for Giardia spp., 10.1% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and 9.4% were positive for noroviruses (23.0% of the positive samples contained genogroup I and 77.0% contained genogroup II). The samples were positive for enteropathogens significantly (P < 0.05) less frequently during the winter season than during the other sampling seasons. No significant differences in the prevalence of enteropathogens were found when rivers and lakes were compared. The presence of thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, and C. perfringens had significant bivariate nonparametric Spearman's rank order correlation coefficients (P < 0.001) with samples that were positive for one or more of the pathogens analyzed. The absence of these indicators in a logistic regression model was found to have significant predictive value (odds ratios, 1.15 x 10(8), 7.57, and 2.74, respectively; P < 0.05) for a sample that was negative for the pathogens analyzed. There were no significant correlations between counts or count levels for thermotolerant coliforms or E. coli or the presence of F-RNA phages and pathogens in the samples analyzed. PMID

  16. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  17. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments. PMID:25938695

  18. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  19. Incidence of motile Aeromonas spp. in foods.

    PubMed

    Pin, C; Marín, M L; García, M L; Tormo, J; Selgas, M D; Casas, C

    1994-09-01

    A total of 80 food samples were purchased from local retail consumer shops and examined for the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. Of the food categories tested, poultry had the highest incidence, with 100% positive. This was followed by lamb samples, with 60% positive. Raw milk and cheese samples had very low incidence (20%). No motile Aeromonas spp. were found in pre-prepared salads. Shellfish, fish, pork and beef samples had incidences of 40%. Most of the strains isolated were Aeromonas hydrophila, and for most of the food categories, no Aeromonas caviae isolates were obtained. PMID:7873101

  20. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. PMID:26699944

  1. Cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (coCV), a new circovirus from pigeons.

    PubMed

    Mankertz, A; Hattermann, K; Ehlers, B; Soike, D

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (CoCV) isolated from pigeons is described. CoCV was amplified using a consensus primer PCR approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. The genome of CoCV is circular and 2037 nt in size. It displays 55% homology to the genome of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is more distantly related (< 40% homology) to porcine circovirus type 1 and 2. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase and the putative capsid protein of CoCV. A region similar to the origin of replication of other circoviruses was found: it encompasses a stem-loop structure with the nonamer 5'-TAGTATTAC, conserved in circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest classification of CoCV as member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:11205099

  2. Symbiotic relationship of thiothrix spp. with An echinoderm

    PubMed

    Brigmon; De Ridder C

    1998-09-01

    Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates. PMID:9726902

  3. Symbiotic Relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an Echinoderm†

    PubMed Central

    Brigmon, Robin L.; De Ridder, Chantal

    1998-01-01

    Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates. PMID:9726902

  4. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  5. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    PubMed

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-01-01

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean. PMID:27173211

  6. Evaluating SPP/APR Improvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to assist State Education Agency (SEA) and Lead Agency (LA) staff and technical assistance providers in designing a meaningful evaluation for the State Performance Plan (SPP)/Annual Performance Report (APR) improvement activities. It provides: (1) information about the relevance of evaluation in the context of improvement…

  7. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  8. The case of Artemia spp. in nanoecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Libralato, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays. PMID:25195085

  9. Russian Thistle (Salsola spp.) Biology and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the major broadleaf weed species infesting the arid and semi-arid regions of the world is Russian thistle (Salsola spp.). It is found in more than 40 countries in the world, infests an estimated 41 million ha in the western United States, and 1.8 million ha of land in the winter wheat-summer ...

  10. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  11. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  12. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of CV-580 lightning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Poh H.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical models developed for the study of lightning strike data acquired by in-flight aircraft are applied to the data measured on the CV-580. The basic technique used is the three dimensional time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations. Both linear and nonlinear models are used in the analysis. In the linear model, the lightning channel and the aircraft are assumed to form a linear time invariant system. A transfer function technique can then be used to study the response of the aircraft to a given lightning strike current. Conversely, the lightning current can be inferred from the measured response. In the nonlinear model, the conductivity of air in the vicinity of the aircraft is calculated and incorporated into the solution of the Maxwell's equations. The nonlinear model thus simulates corona formation and air breakdown. Results obtained from the models are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. This study provides another validation of the models and increases confidence that the models may be used to predict aircraft response to any general lightning strike.

  13. MIZEX-WEST NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Gloersen, P.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Bering Sea marginal ice zone winter experiment (MIZEX-WEST), the CV-990 airborne laboratory was flown to assess the potential of using an extended range of wavelengths for improving passive microwave sea ice observations from spacecraft and second to provide an overview of the MIZ for large-scale processes studies. The aircraft was equipped with both imaging and fixed-beam, dual-polarized passive microwave radiometers ranging from 1.5 millimeter to 3 centimeter wavelengths. Visual, photographic, and thermal (10.7 micron) infrared surface observations were also made from the aircraft to complement the microwave measurements. The flight operations and in-flight observations are discussed and each flight is summarized including flight objective and instrument status. Preliminary mosaic images obtained with the ESMR imager, Nimbus-7 orbits over the Bering Sea, ice observations obtained by an ice observer on board, and composite maps of the general ice conditions for the month of February are also presented.

  14. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  15. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  16. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  17. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  18. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-06-14

    CV{_}2116 from Chromobacterium violaceum is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV{_}2116 protein sequence as a query identified only two hits, both with amino acid sequence identities of less than 40%. After the CV{_}2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid and transformed into E. coli, the desired CV{_}2116 protein was expressed and purified. A high quality solution structure of CV{_}2116 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The tertiary structure of CV{_}2116 adopts a novel alpha + beta fold containing two anti-parallel beta sheets and one alpha helix in the C-terminal end. CV{_}2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence families and no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. To date, no function of CV{_}2116 can be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches.

  19. Influence of Lachancea thermotolerans on cv. Emir wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Balikci, Eren Kemal; Tanguler, Hasan; Jolly, Neil P; Erten, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    The present paper describes the behaviour of Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in pure, co-cultured and sequential fermentations in cv. Emir grape must. Faster fermentation rates were observed in wine made with a pure culture of S. cerevisiae and wine produced with simultaneously inoculated cultures of L. thermotolerans and S. cerevisiae. Both L. thermotolerans and S. cerevisiae gave high population numbers. The use of L. thermotolerans in mixed and sequential cultures led to an increase in final total acidity content in the wines, varying in the range 5.40-6.28 g/l (as tartaric acid), compared to pure culture S. cerevisiae, which gave the lowest level of total acidity (5 g/l). The increase was in the order of 1.18-2.06 g/l total acidity. Increase in final acidity by the use of L. thermotolerans might be useful to improve wines with low acidity due to global climate change. Volatile acidity levels (as acetic acid) were in the range 0.53-0.73 g/l, while the concentration of ethyl alcohol varied in the range 10.76-11.62% v/v. Sequential fermentations of wines and pure culture fermentation of L. thermotolerans resulted in reduction in the concentrations of acetaldehyde and higher alcohols, with exception of N-propanol and esters. According to the sensory analysis, wine obtained with sequential inoculation of L. thermotolerans followed by inoculation of S. cerevisiae after 24 h, and simultaneous inoculation of these yeasts, was the most preferred. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27113383

  20. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  1. Self-assembling of impurity clusters in AlN:(Ga, BV, CV), (BV, CV = P, As; P, Sb; As, Sb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyukhin, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The self-assembling conditions of arrays of tetrahedral impurity clusters of two types in zinc blende AlN:(Ga, BV, CV), (BV, CV = P, As; P, Sb; As, Sb) are represented. Doping with one cation and two anion isoelectronic impurities transforms AlN into AlN-rich GaxAl1-xBVyCVzN1-y-z alloy of GaBV, GaCV, GaN, AlBV, AlCV and AlN. The cause of self-assembling is the preference of GaBV, GaCV and AlN bonding over that of GaN, AlBV, AlCV. The conditions are considered from 0 °C to 1000 °C in the dilute and ultra dilute limits for the cation and anion impurities, correspondingly. The temperature ranges between the cluster occurrence and self-assembling completion when the same anion impurities are in clusters are very small. 1P4Ga and 1As4Ga cluster occurrence temperatures are equal, correspondingly, to 797 °C and 736 °C at Ga content 2% and P and As contents 0.01%. 1P4Ga and 1Sb4Ga cluster occurrence temperatures are equal, correspondingly, to 976 °C and 736 °C at the same impurity contents. The cluster densities in AlN:(Ga, As, Sb) are close to those in AlN:(Ga, P, Sb). The results demonstrate that studied semiconductors are promising materials to produce arrays of identical ∼1 nm low band gap objects of two types embedded in the wide band gap matrix.

  2. Bartonella spp. in Small Mammals, Benin.

    PubMed

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Houemenou, Gualbert; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Valladares, Basilio; Feliu, Carlos; Foronda, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella organisms in small mammals in Cotonou, Benin. We captured 163 rodents and 12 insectivores and successfully detected Bartonella DNA from 13 of the 175 small mammal individuals. Bartonella spp., identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum, and Bartonella rochalimae, was detected. A potential new Bartonella species, proposed as Candidatus Bartonella mastomydis, was found in three Mastomys individuals and genetically characterized by targeting two housekeeping genes (rpoB and gltA) and the intergenic species region. However, 20.8% of gray rats were found to be infected with Bartonella spp., and none of the black rats analyzed was positive. This work may be important from a public health point of view due to the zoonotic nature of the Bartonella species detected and warrants further investigation on the unknown zoonotic potential of this newly proposed Bartonella species. PMID:26910412

  3. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-06-05

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with I{kappa}B-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  4. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p < 0.01) higher cell counts were obtained in Dijkshoorn's enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. PMID:26742623

  5. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-07-12

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  6. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  7. Insights into the Mechanisms Underlying Ultraviolet-C Induced Resveratrol Metabolism in Grapevine (V. amurensis Rupr.) cv. "Tonghua-3".

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangjing; Singer, Stacy D; Qiao, Hengbo; Liu, Yajun; Jiao, Chen; Wang, Hao; Li, Zhi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Yuejin; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Stilbene compounds belong to a family of secondary metabolites that are derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Production of the stilbene phytoalexin, resveratrol, in grape (Vitis spp.) berries is known to be induced by ultraviolet-C radiation (UV-C), which has numerous regulatory effects on plant physiology. While previous studies have described changes in gene expression caused by UV-C light in several plant species, such information has yet to be reported for grapevine. We investigated both the resveratrol content and gene expression responses of berries from V. amurensis cv. Tonghua-3 following UV-C treatment, to accelerate research into resveratrol metabolism. Comparative RNA-Seq profiling of UV-C treated and untreated grape berries resulted in the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) term classification and biochemical pathway analyses suggested that UV-C treatment caused changes in various cellular processes, as well as in both hormone and secondary metabolism. The data further indicate that UV-C induced increases in resveratrol may be related to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites and signaling, as well as several transcription factors. We also observed that following UV-C treatment, 22 stilbene synthase (STS) genes exhibited increases in their expression levels and a VaSTS promoter drove the expression of the GUS reporter gene when expressed in tobacco. We therefore propose that UV-C induction of VaSTS expression is an important factor in promoting resveratrol accumulation. This transcriptome data set provides new insight into the response of grape berries to UV-C treatment, and suggests candidate genes, or promoter activity of related genes, that could be used in future functional and molecular biological studies of resveratrol metabolism. PMID:27148326

  8. A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking, Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae) with a summary of African Eurytoma spp. biology and species checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eurytoma erythrinae Gates and Delvare, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from field-collected galls induced on Erythrina spp. by Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), in Tanzania, Ghana, and South Africa. It is compared to a closely related African species. W...

  9. A serological survey of Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. in Iberian fattening pigs reared in free-range systems.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M; Gómez-Laguna, J; Tarradas, C; Luque, I; García-Valverde, R; Reguillo, L; Astorga, R J

    2014-10-01

    Zoonotic agents such as Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp., all considered high-risk zoonotic pathogens by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), may cause no symptoms of infection in free-range pigs yet still have a significant public health impact. A serological survey was therefore performed to determine the history of occurrence of these pathogens in such pigs in southern Spain. A total of 709 serum samples were collected at abattoir from pigs from 79 farms and analysed for specific antibodies against the above pathogens using commercially available ELISA kits. Encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were also sought following the artificial digestion method of diaphragm pillar muscle. The results showed Salmonella spp. to be widely distributed among the sampled herds [73.42%, 95% confidence interval (CI95 ) 65.6-81.78] and Toxoplasma gondii to be present in over half (58.23%, CI95 47.33-69.07). The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was very low (3.8%, CI95 0.18-7.42), and antibodies against Trichinella spp. were not detected. No encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were microscopically detected. PMID:23294558

  10. Visualization of HDF/HDF-EOS Format Earth Observing System Data Using the ISIS "cv" Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torson, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    The "cv" (Cube Visualization) program has been used for a number of years as part of the ISIS image processing system (Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers) [1],[2]. In addition to reading the native ISIS image cube format, "cv" has recently been enhanced to directly read the HDF and HDF-EOS file formats used for distributing data from various Earth Observing System (EOS) Missions (e.g. the Terra and Landsat-7 satellites). Files based on HDF Version 4.x are supported; files based on the new HDF 5.x are not yet supported. "cv" is now packaged so that it can be used without installing the rest of the ISIS software system. The capabilities of the program include: Displays (as images) any Swath/Grid data fields in HDF-EOS files; Displays (as images) any Scientific Data Set (SDS) data fields in HDF files; Combines multiple HDF/HDF-EOS fields to form one display object; Subarea selection and/or subsampling (allows handling large files); Simultaneous display of multiple images/files; Plots intensity profiles along any of the three axes in a 3D data set; Writes displayed data fields to binary files (allows doing further processing using ISIS programs or using other software packages); Reports cursor location and pixel value (includes reporting Latitude/Longitude with optional conversion between geocentric and geographic coordinates); Includes many additional flexible display options. The "cv" program is implemented in the IDL language and makes use of the IDL CALL_EXTERNAL capability to call I/O and utility routines written in C and Fortran. Pre-compiled versions of "cv" are available for Sun Solaris, Compaq Alpha and PC Linux platforms. To obtain "cv", go to the USGS anonymous ftp site (ftpflag.wr.usgs.gov). Do a "cd dist/isis" and get (in binary mode) the README_CV.TXT file (installation instructions) and the tar file for the desired platform (cv_sun.tar, cv_alpha.tar, cv_pc.tar). More information on ISIS is available at the ISIS website (http

  11. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Wei, Ben-Jun; He, Xuan-Hui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp. PMID:26788113

  12. Circulating HFMD-Associated Coxsackievirus A16 Is Genetically and Phenotypically Distinct from the Prototype CV-A16

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingliang; Ren, Sangsang; Wei, Zhenhong; Bao, Wanguo; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Wenyan; Zhou, Yulai; Sun, Fei; Markham, Richard; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Human enteroviruses (HEV) have been linked to hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Pacific and Southeast Asia for decades. Many cases of HFMD have been attributed to coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, CA16), based on only partial viral genome determination. Viral phenotypes are also poorly defined. Herein, we have genetically and phenotypically characterized multiple circulating CV-A16 viruses from HFMD patients and determined multiple full-length sequences of these circulating viruses. We discovered that the circulating CV-A16 viruses from HFMD patients are genetically distinct from the proto-type CV-A16 G10. We have also isolated circulating CV-A16 viruses from hospitalized HFMD patients and compared their virological differences. Interestingly, circulating CV-A16 viruses are more pathogenic in a neonatal mouse model than is CV-A16 G10. Thus, we have found circulating recombinant forms of CV-A16 (CRF CV-A16) that are related to, but different from, the prototype CV-A16 G10 that have distinct biological phenotypes. PMID:24736564

  13. Medicinal leech therapy and Aeromonas spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Verriere, B; Sabatier, B; Carbonnelle, E; Mainardi, J L; Prognon, P; Whitaker, I; Lantieri, L; Hivelin, M

    2016-06-01

    While the use of medicinal leech therapy (MLT) in reconstructive and orthopaedic surgery is widely described, post-operative complications related to leeches remain a major concern. Aeromonas spp. strains are involved in the majority of reported cases. As surgical success rate is directly impacted, an adapted antibiotic prophylaxis should be instituted in order to minimize these complications. We assessed pharmaceutical process, microbiological control and related infections in order to provide data and choose the appropriate antibiotherapy for patients requiring MLT. We report a clinical and microbiological study over a 24-month period. Clinical data were collected from patients' database, and microbiological analysis both on leeches' tank water and crushed leeches were performed to characterize isolated strains and their susceptibility to antibiotics. A total of 595 leeches were used to treat 28 patients (12 in plastic surgery and 16 in orthopaedic surgery), and three documented cases of post-operative infections were reported. Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 62 % of analyzed batches (75 % of Aeromonas veronii). Eighteen Aeromonas spp. isolates yielded from 23 water samples and three crushed leeches. Isolates were similar in tank and crushed leeches. Strains were susceptible to fluoroquinolones, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, aminosides, and third-generation cephalosporins but resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and second-generation cephalosporins. According to collected data, routine tank water microbiological analyses are mandatory in order to identify leeches' batches containing resistant strains and to discard them. In this context, the surgeon is able to select an appropriated antibiotic prophylaxis in order to avoid MLT associated serious post-operative complications. PMID:27039338

  14. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  15. Endemic Viruses of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448

  16. Lysinibacillus spp. Endophthalmitis: a First Reported Case.

    PubMed

    Perin, Andrew F; Goyal, Sunali; Rosenbaum, Eric R; Uwaydat, Sami H

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic endophthalmitis (PTE) is an uncommon sequela of open globe injuries. In cases involving an intraocular foreign body (IOFB), the risk of PTE increases by up to four-fold. Typically, presentation occurs in the acute timeframe. Only three reported cases of delayed-onset PTE currently exist in the literature (two cases caused by Proprionibacterium acnes and one by Phaeoacremonium parasiticum, a fungal pathogen). We describe a case of delayed-onset post-traumatic endophthalmitis (PTE) caused by Lysinibacillus spp., an organism not previously reported in the ophthalmic literature. PMID:26586718

  17. Characterization of geographically distinct bacterial communities associated with coral mucus produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.

    PubMed

    McKew, B A; Dumbrell, A J; Daud, S D; Hepburn, L; Thorpe, E; Mogensen, L; Whitby, C

    2012-08-01

    Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H', 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H', 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which varied in relative abundance between coral genera and region. Distinct coral host-specific communities were also found; for example, Clostridiales were dominant on Acropora spp. (at Hoga and the Mexican Caribbean) compared to Porites spp. and seawater. Within the Gammproteobacteria, Halomonas spp. dominated sequence libraries from Porites spp. (49%) and Acropora spp. (5.6%) from the Mexican Caribbean, compared to the corresponding Indonesian coral libraries (<2%). Interestingly, with the exception of Porites spp. from the Mexican Caribbean, there was also a ubiquity of Psychrobacter spp., which dominated Acropora and Porites libraries from Indonesia and Acropora libraries from the Caribbean. In conclusion, there was a dominance of Halomonas spp. (associated with Acropora and Porites [Mexican Caribbean]), Firmicutes (associated with Acropora [Mexican Caribbean] and with Acropora and Porites [Hoga]), and Cyanobacteria (associated with Acropora and Porites [Hoga] and Porites [Sampela]). This is also the first report describing geographically distinct Psychrobacter spp. associated with coral mucus. In addition, the predominance of Clostridiales associated with Acropora spp. provided additional evidence for coral host-specific microorganisms. PMID:22636010

  18. Non-contact C-V measurements of ultra thin dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, P.; Savtchouk, A.; Wilson, M.; D'Amico, J.; Kochey, J. N.; Marinskiy, D.; Lagowski, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we present a non-contact C-V technique for ultra-thin dielectrics on silicon. The technique uses incremental corona charging of dielectric and a measurement of the surface potential with a vibrating capacitive electrode. A differential quasistatic C-V curve is generated using time-resolved measurements. The technique incorporates transconductance corrections that enable corresponding ultra-low electrical oxide thickness (EOT) determination down to the sub-nanometer range. It also provides a means for monitoring the flat band voltage, V{FB}, the interface trap spectrum, D{IT}, and the total dielectric charge, Q{TOT}. This technique is seen as a replacement for not only MOS C-V measurements but also for mercury-probe C-V. In addition, EOT measurement by the corona C-V has a major advantage over optical thickness methods because it is not affected by water adsorption and molecular airborne contamination, MAC. These effects have been a problem for optical metrology of ultra-thin dielectrics.

  19. Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kapperud, G; Rosef, O

    1983-02-01

    Cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. The carrier rates detected were as follows: C. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; Yersinia spp., 1.2%; and Salmonella spp., 0.8%. All birds were apparently healthy when captured. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. Among birds inhabiting the city of Oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (Corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), followed by gulls (Larus spp.) (50.0%) and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domesticus) (4.2%). The gulls and crows scavenge on refuse dumps. High carrier rates were also detected among the following birds from nonurban, coastal areas: puffin (Fratercula arctica) (51.3%), common tern (Sterna hirundo) (5.6%), common gull (Larus canus) (18.9%), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) (13.2%), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) (4.2%). The list of species harboring C. fetus subsp. jejuni also includes the Ural owl (Strix uralensis), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). The following five Yersinia strains were isolated: Y. kristensenii (two strains), Y. intermedia (two strains), and "Yersinia X2" (one strain). Four strains belonging to the genus Salmonella were isolated from three different species of gulls. These isolates were identified as S. typhimurium, S. indiana, and S. djugu. The results indicate that campylobacters are a normal component of the intestinal flora in several bird species, whereas Salmonella and Yersinia carriers are more sporadic. PMID:6338824

  20. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp. PMID:27013806

  1. Aeromonas spp.: An Emerging Nosocomial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Priyam; Mathur, Purva; Misra, Mahesh C

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonads are hallophillic, nonacid fast, nonspore forming, Gram-negative rods which are widely distributed in the soil, foodstuffs, and aquatic environment. Since times immemorial, they are important zoonotic pathogens of poikilotherms but are now emerging as important human pathogens. These emerging enteric pathogens flourish in the water distribution system by forming biofilms. They possess large number of virulence factors including inherent resistance to various antibiotics and ability to form biofilms using quorum sensing. These properties make them easy pathogens for human infections. Aeromonads are important enteric pathogens, but, with the growing level of immunosuppression in the population, they have been associated with various extraintestinal infections, such as skin and soft-tissue infections, traumatic wound infections, and lower respiratory tract/urinary tract infections. The average annual incidence of bacteremia in Southern Taiwan due to Aeromonas spp. was 76 cases/million inhabitants between 2008 and 2010. However, the incidence reported from Western countries is much lower. The case fatality rate among patients with Aeromonas bacteremia ranges from 27.5 to 46%. Aeromonads are universally resistant to the narrow-spectrum penicillin group of antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin. They are however susceptible to piperacillin, azlocillin, second and third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Most of the Aeromonas species are susceptible to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, quinolones, and monobactams. This manuscript is a comprehensive systematic review of the literature available on Aeromonas spp. PMID:27013806

  2. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses. PMID:18944382

  3. The Ningqiang meteorite - Classification and petrology of an anomalous CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Wang, D.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Wasson, J. T.

    1988-03-01

    Ningqiang is an anomalous CV chondrite (oxidized subgroup) containing a high abundance of aggregational inclusions (13.7 vol pct) and low abundances of refractory inclusions (1.0 + 1.0 or - 0.5 vol pct) and bulk refractory lithophiles (about 0.82 x CV). Ningqiang may have agglomerated after most refractory inclusions at the nebular midplane had already been incorporated into other objects. Coarse-grained rims surround only about 5 percent of Ningqiang chondrules, compared to about 50 percent in normal CV chondrites. Aggregational inclusions appear to have formed by incipient melting of fine-grained aggregates at relatively low temperatures in the solar nebula, possibly by the mechanism responsible for chondrule formation.

  4. Immobilization of enzymatic extracts of Portulaca oleracea cv. roots for oxidizing aqueous bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Kazuki; Kaneda, Hirokazu; Harada, Kazuo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2015-05-01

    Water pollution from the release of industrial wastewater is a serious problem for almost every industry. Enzymes from portulaca, Portulaca oleracea cv., have been investigated for their ability to degrade bisphenol A (BPA), one of the well-known estrogenic pollutants. Enzymatic crude extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots were immobilized on aminopropyl-modified glass beads. They maintained BPA metabolic activity over a broad range of pH values and temperatures. The immobilized enzyme was reusable with more than 50 % of its initial activity retained after 12 batch reactions and no loss of activity after storage for 1 month at -30 °C. Thus, the immobilization of extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots is a useful method for removing BPA from industrial wastewater. PMID:25700813

  5. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  6. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  7. The dichotic lead effect of CV syllables in sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Cattey, T J

    1981-01-01

    This study investigated central processing of dichotic CV syllables on 10 patients with sensorineural hearing losses. Porter's Dichotic Lag Index (DLI) was established for each S at asynchronies of alignment of 30, 60, 90, and 150 msec by presenting the lagging syllable first to the R and then to the L ear. Ss were required to record a response to both CV syllables. Patients exhibited a dichotic lead advantage while 10 normal-hearing control Ss exhibited a dichotic lag advantage. A R ear advantage was not abolished when the lagging syllable was presented to the L ear and was not enhanced when the lagging syllable was presented to the R ear. The lead advantage of the patients may be attributed to the distortion of acoustic encoding for speech, causing a reduction in the special processing requirements of CV syllables. The reduction in special processing may then be responsible for the shift in temporal advantage. PMID:7349869

  8. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  9. Identification and Distribution of Pratylenchus spp. on Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pratylenchus spp. are commonly encountered in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fields in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and coastal British Columbia of Canada. However, in controlled experiments blueberry does not appear to be a host for P. penetrans. We sampled commercial blueberry fields i...

  10. Study of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Pardhi, Priya; Jain, Alok Pal; Rai, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida. Mushroom basidiocarps were extracted in water:ethanol (1:1, v/v), and the resulting extract was subjected to antimicrobial studies against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. Cytotoxic potential on viable human leukocytes was studied. In vitro results showed excellent antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the mushroom extract. Thus, functional properties of P. ostreatus cv. Florida could be used in the search for novel therapeutics. PMID:27481298

  11. The effect of co-administration of death camas (Zigadenus spp.) and low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many rangeland settings, there is more than one potential poisonous plant. Two poisonous plants that are often found growing simultaneously in the same location are death camas (Zigadenus spp.) and low larkspur (Delphinium spp.). The objective of this study was to determine if co-administration...

  12. Comparative genomics of Fructobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. reveals niche-specific evolution of Fructobacillus spp.

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Akihito; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Maeno, Shintaro; Kumar, Himanshu; Shiwa, Yuh; Okada, Sanae; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Dicks, Leon; Nakagawa, Junichi; Arita, Masanori

    2015-12-29

    In this study, Fructobacillus spp. in fructose-rich niches belong to the family Leuconostocaceae. They were originally classified as Leuconostoc spp., but were later grouped into a novel genus, Fructobacillus , based on their phylogenetic position, morphology and specific biochemical characteristics. The unique characters, so called fructophilic characteristics, had not been reported in the group of lactic acid bacteria, suggesting unique evolution at the genome level. Here we studied four draft genome sequences of Fructobacillus spp. and compared their metabolic properties against those of Leuconostoc spp. As a result, Fructobacillus species possess significantly less protein coding sequences in their small genomes. The number of genes was significantly smaller in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Several other metabolic pathways, including TCA cycle, ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and phosphotransferase systems, were characterized as discriminative pathways between the two genera. The adhE gene for bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase, and genes for subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were absent in Fructobacillus spp. The two genera also show different levels of GC contents, which are mainly due to the different GC contents at the third codon position. In conclusion, the present genome characteristics in Fructobacillus spp. suggest reductive evolution that took place to adapt to specific niches.

  13. Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. In the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Mota, Lúcio Tadeu; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cysts of Giardia spp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in waters of the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil. Samples of river and spring water and of treated water were filtered and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio). Of 21 samples, 7 from each locality, 3 (3/7, 42.8%) from a river were positive for Giardia (mean concentration 2.57 cysts/L), and 1 (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). From springs, 1 sample (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). One sample (1/7, 14.3%) from treated water was positive for both, with 4 oocysts/L and 2 cysts/L. Giardia was the more frequent protozoan present. PMID:18945186

  14. Persistent Giardia spp. and Trichuris spp. infection in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) at a zoo in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tahas, Stamatios Alan; Diakou, Anastasia

    2013-06-01

    The mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a species classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In the wild, it inhabits only Argentina, but it is also kept in zoos around the world. In order to investigate the endoparasites of the maras kept in the Attica Zoological Park, Greece, four fecal examinations were performed in a period of 4 yr (2008-2011) by standard parasitologic methods. Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. and eggs of the nematode Trichuris spp. were found in all four examinations. The possible routes of infection of the maras and the importance of these parasites to other animals and to humans are discussed. PMID:23805557

  15. Rhabdochlamydia spp. in an Oregon raptor.

    PubMed

    Jouffroy, Sophie J; Schlueter, Andrew H; Bildfell, Robert J; Rockey, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    PCR-based approach was used to examine the rate of Chlamydia positivity in raptors from wild bird rehabilitation centers in Oregon. Three of 82 birds were identified as positive for Chlamydia with this PCR. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA from 2 of these birds confirmed the presence of DNA from phylum Chlamydiae. One bird was positive for Chlamydia psittaci in both choanal and cloacal swabs. The second bird, a louse-infested red-tailed hawk, had evidence of choanal colonization by "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia" spp. Our study describes evidence of this Chlamydia-like organism in the United States. This survey also suggests that the carriage rate of C. psittaci is low in raptors in Oregon wild bird rehabilitation centers, and that care must be taken in the design of PCR primers for phylum Chlamydiae such that colonization by insect endosymbionts is not mistaken for an infection by known chlamydial pathogens. PMID:27154318

  16. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from food].

    PubMed

    Korotkevich, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% - from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of isolates and 38% isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17-40% - among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10-50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains - Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the .46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics. PMID:27455596

  17. Presolar Grain Inventories of the Ungrouped C3 Adelaide and the CV3 RBT 04133

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, J.; Busemann, H.; Franchi, I. A.; Grady, M. M.

    2010-03-01

    Here we report the presolar grain inventories (silicates, oxides, SiC, and other C-anomalous phases) determined for Adelaide (an ungrouped C3 chondrite) and RBT 04133 (a mildly thermally altered CV3) by NanoSIMS raster ion imaging.

  18. Outburst of CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungana, G.; Ferrante, F. V.; Staten, R.; Kehoe, R.

    2015-02-01

    Further to ATel#1272, we report observations of an outburst of the U Geminorum-type CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0 in unfiltered CCD images taken by the 0.45 m ROTSE-IIIb telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas.

  19. Some Improvements in the Design of a CA/CV Moessbauer Velocity Drive

    SciTech Connect

    Seberini, Milan

    2008-10-28

    A constant velocity Moessbauer drive was built with velocity range {+-}15 mm/s and velocity resolution 0.005 mm/s. Based on good experience with its performance, a new universal CA/CV drive was designed. The new drive is supposed to have velocity range of {+-}80 mm/s with a velocity resolution below 0.002 mm/s.

  20. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  1. Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

  2. Identification of HoCV-1 virus in Texas Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new strain of leafhopper virus was discovered in leafhoppers which are vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes. The original leafhopper infecting virus, HoCV-1, was isolated from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, from samples collected in California and Florida. Using the orig...

  3. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  4. 75 FR 54887 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ..., for the extension of a patent which claims that medical device. ADDRESSES: Submit electronic comments... 17, 2010, FDA advised the Patent and Trademark Office that this medical device had undergone a... Patent Extension; REPEL-CV AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  5. Pre-Accretionary Distribution of Ca and Al Between Matrix and Chondrules in CV Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, D. C.; Palme, H.

    2007-03-01

    Ca/Al-ratios in Y-86751 (CV) chondrules are super- and in matrix sub-chondritic. The opposite is true for Allende and Efremovka. Incorporation of spinel in Allende and Efremovka chondrule precursors in a nebular setting can explain this observation.

  6. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins from purple potato (Cv. Purple Majesty) and their impact on antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradation parameters of purified anthocyanins from purple-fleshed potato (Purple Majesty cv.) heated at high temperatures (100 - 150 °C) was determined. Purified anthocyanins, prepared by removing salts, sugars and colorless non-anthocyanin phenolics from the crude extract, were quantified using H...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  8. Optimized growth and plant regeneration for callus of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White to determine the optimal culture conditions. The fresh weight was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s m...

  9. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  10. Prevalence and natural host range of Homalodisca coagulata virus-1 (HoCV-1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of a potential biological agent, the newly discovered leafhopper-infecting virus, HoCV-1 was examined across the USA. Few biological agents exist for use against leafhopper pests. We examined and compared leafhopper salivary gland and midgut tissues using transmission electron micro...

  11. Safe, Effective and Easily Reproducible Fusion Technique for CV Junction Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sannegowda, Raghavendra Bakki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) refers to a bony enclosure where the occipital bone surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas and the axis vertebrae. Because of the complexity of structures, CVJ instability is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Posterior CV fusion procedures have evolved a lot over the last couple of decades. There has been a lookout for one such surgical procedure which is inherently safe, simple, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound. In our study, we present the initial experience the cases of CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw & rod construct operated by the author. Aims and Objectives: The current study is a descriptive analysis of the cases of CVJ instability treated by us with instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective, analytical study in which cases of CV junction instability operated by the author between January 2010 to March 2014 were analysed using various clinical, radiological and outcome parameters. Conclusion: CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique proved to be safe, effective, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound technique which can be adopted by all surgeons who may be at any stage of their learning curve. PMID:25954660

  12. Isolation and Characterization of CvIV4: A Pain Inducing α- Scorpion Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Ashlee H.; Xiao, Yucheng; Scales, Joseph; Linse, Klaus D.; Rowe, Matthew P.; Cummins, Theodore R.; Zakon, Harold H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Among scorpion species, the Buthidae produce the most deadly and painful venoms. However, little is known regarding the venom components that cause pain and their mechanism of action. Using a paw-licking assay (Mus musculus), this study compared the pain-inducing capabilities of venoms from two species of New World scorpion (Centruroides vittatus, C. exilicauda) belonging to the neurotoxin-producing family Buthidae with one species of non-neurotoxin producing scorpion (Vaejovis spinigerus) in the family Vaejovidae. A pain-inducing α-toxin (CvIV4) was isolated from the venom of C. vittatus and tested on five Na+ channel isoforms. Principal Findings C. vittatus and C. exilicauda venoms produced significantly more paw licking in Mus than V. spinigerus venom. CvIV4 produced paw licking in Mus equivalent to the effects of whole venom. CvIV4 slowed the fast inactivation of Nav1.7, a Na+ channel expressed in peripheral pain-pathway neurons (nociceptors), but did not affect the Nav1.8-based sodium currents of these neurons. CvIV4 also slowed the fast inactivation of Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.4. The effects of CvIV4 are similar to Old World α-toxins that target Nav1.7 (AahII, BmK MI, LqhIII, OD1), however the primary structure of CvIV4 is not similar to these toxins. Mutant Nav1.7 channels (D1586A and E1589Q, DIV S3–S4 linker) reduced but did not abolish the effects of CvIV4. Conclusions This study: 1) agrees with anecdotal evidence suggesting that buthid venom is significantly more painful than non-neurotoxic venom; 2) demonstrates that New World buthids inflict painful stings via toxins that modulate Na+ channels expressed in nociceptors; 3) reveals that Old and New World buthids employ similar mechanisms to produce pain. Old and New World α-toxins that target Nav1.7 have diverged in sequence, but the activity of these toxins is similar. Pain-inducing toxins may have evolved in a common ancestor. Alternatively, these toxins may be the product of convergent

  13. Leptospira spp. in rodents and shrews in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Schmidt, Sabrina; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin; Woll, Dietlinde; Scholz, Holger C; Thomas, Astrid; Nöckler, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    Leptospirosis is an acute, febrile disease occurring in humans and animals worldwide. Leptospira spp. are usually transmitted through direct or indirect contact with the urine of infected reservoir animals. Among wildlife species, rodents act as the most important reservoir for both human and animal infection. To gain a better understanding of the occurrence and distribution of pathogenic leptospires in rodent and shrew populations in Germany, kidney specimens of 2973 animals from 11 of the 16 federal states were examined by PCR. Rodent species captured included five murine species (family Muridae), six vole species (family Cricetidae) and six shrew species (family Soricidae). The most abundantly trapped animals were representatives of the rodent species Apodemus flavicollis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Microtus agrestis. Leptospiral DNA was amplified in 10% of all animals originating from eight of the 11 federal states. The highest carrier rate was found in Microtus spp. (13%), followed by Apodemus spp. (11%) and Clethrionomys spp. (6%). The most common Leptospira genomospecies determined by duplex PCR was L. kirschneri, followed by L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii; all identified by single locus sequence typing (SLST). Representatives of the shrew species were also carriers of Leptospira spp. In 20% of Crocidura spp. and 6% of the Sorex spp. leptospiral DNA was detected. Here, only the pathogenic genomospecies L. kirschneri was identified. PMID:25062275

  14. [Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the Elblag area].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, W

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of Toxocara spp. eggs in Elbl4g was studied. Out of 72 soil samples collected in public places of the city 13.9% were positive and the mean egg density was 3.75/100g soil. The city backyards were much more contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs (18.0%) than the playgrounds (4.5%). In sandpits examined the eggs were not found. Almost 80% of Toxocara spp. eggs recovered were infective. T. cati eggs were more frequent than T. canis eggs. Additionally in examined samples two eggs of Ancylostoma caninum and one egg of Ascaris lumbricoides were recognized. PMID:16888965

  15. Interaction of Salmonella spp. with the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ahmer, Brian M. M.; Gunn, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Upon entry into the human host, Salmonella spp. must overcome the resistance to colonization mediated by the gut microbiota and the innate immune system. They successfully accomplish this by inducing inflammation and mechanisms of innate immune defense. Many models have been developed to study Salmonella spp. interaction with the microbiota that have helped to identify factors necessary to overcome colonization resistance and to mediate disease. Here we review the current state of studies into this important pathogen/microbiota/host interaction in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21772831

  16. Increased Prevalence of Trichinella spp., Northeastern Germany, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Nöckler, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety. PMID:20507743

  17. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jonatas Campos; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Ferreira Neto, José Maurício; Santos, Maíra Moreira Dos; Garcia, João Luis; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Kuroda, Emília Kiyomi; Freire, Roberta Lemos

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR) and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies. PMID:26291147

  18. An alternative bacteriological medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Taylor, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two solid bacteriologic media were compared for cultivating Aeromonas spp. from piscine sources: the Rimler-Shotts (RS) medium and a starch-glutamate-ampicillin-penicillin-based medium (SGAP-10C) used for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water samples. The selective and differential capacities of the media were assessed March through October 1992 by recovery rate and phenotype of 99 isolates representing 15 genera of bacteria. Recovery frequency of Aeromonas spp. (n = 62) was similar at 97% on RS and 95% on SGAP-10C. The SGAP-10C medium proved to be more specific than RS toward Aeromonas species (P ≤ 0.005). Use of SGAP-10C at 24 C for 48 hr offers a better choice for the laboratory recovery of Aeromonas spp. from clinical fish specimens.

  19. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae) of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Argentina are reviewed and keyed. Newly described are Anagrus (Anagrus) empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Mymaridae, parasitoid of M. scutellaris Berg on water hyacinth, Eichhornia cras...

  20. SURVIVAL AND DETECTION OF 'BACTEROIDES' SPP., PROSPECTIVE INDICATOR BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preliminary experiments were performed to assess the use of intestinal Bacteroides spp. as indicators of fecal contamination of water. Viable counts of Bacteroides fragilis, an anaerobic bacterium, declined more rapidly than those of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. H...

  1. Biofouling of groundwater distribution systems by Thiothrix spp.

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Martin, H.W.; Aldrich, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Thiothrix spp., sulfide oxidizing filamentous bacteria, were found to be the main bacterial component of aquatic biofilms causing biofouling in selected municipal water storage tanks, private wells, and drip irrigation systems in Florida. The water originated from the upper Floridan aquifer and associated aquifers in Central and North Florida. Samples were examined where visible biofilms had a white, slimy, filamentous appearance indicative of Thiothrix spp. The detection of Thiothrix spp. was confirmed by enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These observations confirm that these bacteria and associated extracellular material play an important role in formation of biofilms, which in turn may induce physical changes leading to significant biofouling. These studies suggest that Thiothrix spp.-associated biofouling occurs at an interface where reduced sulfide-containing water contacts aerated water and a surface or substrate is available for attachment.

  2. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  3. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; De Ridder, C.

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  4. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  5. Formation timescales of CV chondrites from component specific Hf-W systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maike; Hezel, Dominik C.; Schulz, Toni; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Münker, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important meteorite group that closely resembles the bulk composition of the solar system. We report the first elemental and isotope dataset for Hf-W in carbonaceous chondrites that includes chondrules, matrix, magnetic fractions as well as bulk compositions. Our study focuses on the three CV3 chondrites, Allende, Vigarano and Bali. Compared to bulk chondrites, matrix splits have low Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions, whereas chondrule splits are characterized by high, but more variable, Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions. Thus, Hf/W ratios behave complementary between chondrules and matrix in the analysed CV chondrites, supporting the view that both components formed from the same parental reservoir. Strong nucleosynthetic effects were observed in most of the analysed CV3 components, especially in matrices and chondrule splits that were found to have large ε183W anomalies of several ε-units. All separates define a rough correlation between initial 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, in agreement with theoretical model trends based on calculations for stellar nucleosynthesis. Our results, therefore, indicate a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the different CV3 chondrite components, arguing for selective thermal processing of early solar system matter during chondrule formation. After correcting for nucleosynthetic anomalies, chondrules and matrix splits of reduced (Vigarano) as well as oxidised (Allende) CV3 chondrites define a linear correlation in ε182W vs. 180Hf/184W space, which is interpreted as an isochron, covering an age interval within the first ∼2.6 Ma after solar system formation. As peak metamorphic temperatures for CV3 chondrites were well below the 182Hf-182W closure temperature, the resulting isochron within its error most likely defines a common formation interval for all components. The calculated age interval is for the first time based on a combined chondrule-matrix isochron, a

  6. Modal mineralogy of CV3 chondrites by X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2010-09-01

    Using position sensitive detector X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD) we determine a complete modal mineralogy for all phases present in abundances greater than 1 wt% in Vigarano, Efremovka, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Kaba and Allende. Reduced CV3 samples are comprised of (vol%): olivine (83-85%); enstatite (6.5-8.1%); anorthite (1.1-1.2%); magnetite (1.4-1.8%); sulphide (2.4-5.1%); Fe, Ni metal (2-2.2%). The oxidized samples are comprised of: olivine (76.3-83.9%); enstatite (4.8-7.8%); anorthite (1.1-1.7%); magnetite (0.3-6.1%); sulphide (2.9-8.1%); Fe, Ni metal (0.2-1.1%); Fe-oxide (0-2.7%) and phyllosilicate (1.9-4.2%). When our modal data is used to calculate a bulk chemistry that is compared to literature data a near 1:1 correlation is observed. PSD-XRD data indicates that olivine compositions may span almost the entire Fe-Mg solid solution series in all CV samples and that these contain a component (4-13%) of fine-grained olivine that is more Fe-rich (>Fa 60) than is typically reported. Modal mineralogy shows that there are mineralogic differences between CV3 samples classified as oxidized and reduced but that these sub-classes are most clearly distinguished by the relative abundance of metal and Ni content of sulphide, rather than abundance of magnetite. The most significant difference in modal mineralogy observed is the relative absence of phyllosilicate in reduced CV that essentially escaped aqueous alteration. Fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite are typically considered secondary alteration products. The abundances of these minerals overlap in oxidized and reduced samples and correlate positively supporting common conditions of formation in a relatively oxidizing environment. The abundances of fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite show no relationship to petrographic type and if these abundances were used as a proxy for alteration, Allende would be the least altered CV - contrary to all previous data. The implication is that thermal metamorphism on the parent body

  7. Protoanemonin content variation between Clematis spp.: leaf, stem and root.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fangming; Narkowicz, Christian; Jacobson, Glenn A

    2013-02-01

    The content of protoanemonin, a known biologically active constituent of Clematis spp., was determined by GC-MS in the leaf, stem and root extracts of one Chinese species and four Australian Clematis taxa. The results showed that protoanemonin concentrations varied between different plants and that leaves contained higher concentrations than stems and roots. To our knowledge this is the first study to determine protoanemonin content variation in leaf, stem and root of Clematis spp. PMID:23513731

  8. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares. PMID:25168717

  9. Cefotaxime resistance and outcome of Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Ortega, M; Marco, F; Soriano, A; Almela, M; Martínez, J A; López, J; Pitart, C; Mensa, J

    2011-12-01

    We attempt to describe the epidemiology and outcome associated with cefotaxime-resistant (CTX-R) Klebsiella spp bacteraemia. Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection episodes prospectively collected through a blood culture surveillance programme from January 1991 to December 2008 in a single institution were analysed. A total of 910 monomicrobial episodes of Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were identified during the study period. The most important sources were from urinary tract infection, unknown sources, billiary focus and catheter related infection. There were 112 (12%) CTX-R isolates. Out of 112 isolates, 98 were CTX-R by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase production. Shock on presentation and mortality were significantly more frequent in CTX-R than in CTX susceptible isolates. Inappropriate empirical therapy was received in 50 (45%) cases in the CTX-R Klebsiella spp group (13 cases of death, 26%). Predictive factors associated with CTX-R Klebsiella spp isolate were: previous β-lactam therapy (OR = 4.16), nosocomial acquired bacteraemia (OR = 1.93), solid organ trasplantation (OR = 2.09) and shock (OR = 1.90). Independent risk factors associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were: age (OR = 1.03), liver cirrhosis (OR = 2.63), ultimately or rapidly fatal prognosis of underlying disease (OR = 2.44), shock (OR = 8.60), pneumonia (OR = 4.96) or intraabdominal (OR = 3.85) source of bacteraemia and CTX-R isolate (OR = 4.63). Klebsiella spp is an important cause of bloodstream infection. CTX-R isolates have been increasing since 2000. CTX-R is an independent factor associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia. PMID:21509474

  10. Identification of Yersinia spp. with the API 20E system.

    PubMed

    Archer, J R; Schell, R F; Pennell, D R; Wick, P D

    1987-12-01

    The ability of the API 20E system to identify 105 clinical isolates of Yersinia spp. was compared with those of conventional biochemical tests at 28 and 37 degrees C. Elimination of the Voges-Proskauer test (recorded as a negative result) increased the percentage of correct identifications for Yersinia spp. from 66 to 93% when the API 20E strips were incubated at 28 degrees C. PMID:3323231

  11. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis. PMID:22377689

  12. [Echocardiopgraphy in European tortoises (Testudo spp.)].

    PubMed

    Prütz, Maike; Fehr, Michael; Mathes, Karina; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    An echocardiographic examination was carried out in 71 European tortoises (Testudo spp.) via the cervical-brachial acoustic windows. Simultaneously an electrocardiographic examination was performed. The inflow- and outflow tract of the heart were presented in frontal and sagittal longitudinal sections in B-mode. Within B-mode the size (diameter and area) of the atria and the ventricle (Cavum dorsale), the ventricular wall thickness and the diameter of the origin of the right aorta and of the right Arteria pulmonalis were measured. Also, the fractional shortening (FS%) and a fractional area shortening (FAS%) were calculated for the Cavum dorsale. Standard values for these cardiac parameters were determined for four different tortoise groups (depending on their carapace lengths). The direction of blood flow within the heart could be assessed via colour flow Doppler. By using pulsed-wave Doppler examinations of the inflow- and outflow tract the velocities, pressure gradients, velocity-time-integrals and acceleration- and deceleration times could be determined from the recorded inflow and outflow patterns and standard values were established for these parameters as well. PMID:27169156

  13. Clinical aspects of infection with Trichinella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Capó, V; Despommier, D D

    1996-01-01

    Isolated cases and outbreaks of infection with Trichinella spp. occur frequently throughout the world, sometimes resulting in fatalities. The clinical presentations of signs and symptoms are remarkably constant for most of the species of Trichinella, but in infections with Trichinella nativa and Trichinella britovi, classical symptoms of trichinellosis may be absent. It is important to be able to correlate the clinical presentation of trichinellosis with the life cycle of these helminths in order to make an accurate diagnosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease enables the physician to identify other potential cases, since most epidemics can be traced back to a common source of raw or undercooked meat. A comprehensive summary relating the most important clinical variables is presented graphically for easy reference to the text. Symptoms and signs are considered in relation to severity of infection. Laboratory findings and diagnostic techniques, including new modalities (e.g., DNA and antigen detection), are discussed. A discussion of treatment and preventive measures concludes our review. PMID:8665476

  14. Aeromonas spp.: ubiquitous or specialized bugs?

    PubMed

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises ubiquitous bacteria that are known to play several roles in the environment. These bacteria were first described as fish pathogens, but their presence was documented in other reservoirs, such as animals and humans. Today, these bacteria are described as emerging pathogens, but their effective role in human pathogenicity is still controversial. In addition, their taxonomy is heavily debated, as species distinction is often difficult to achieve. To study the interspecies relationships and to investigate their connection with the environment, a multilocus sequence typing scheme previously developed for Aeromonas spp. was applied to 258 strains, and the genetic data were analysed by population software. Sampling was a fundamental step, including several of the main sources of Aeromonas: fish, food products and human cases of disease. The objective was to characterize the isolates and to find potential associations among them according to the following: species, sharing of virulence factors, source and adaptation to a specific habitat. The strains were characterized and demonstrated exceptionally high nucleotide variability in the Aeromonas genus. Among the sampled sources, different species distributions were found, highlighting the occurrence of adaptation processes towards specific habitats. PMID:23919504

  15. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Irene V; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees C. Arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either Campylobacter or Leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. Because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of Arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla), gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), rhea (Rhea americana), and aborted equine fetuses. Seven of these nine phenotypically identified isolates of Arcobacter were confirmed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The remaining two isolates were subsequently identified as Arcobacter skirrowii (Case 5) and Campylobacter jejuni (Case 6) by sequence analysis of a 527-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis. PMID:22950328

  16. Current Knowledge of Trichosporon spp. and Trichosporonosis

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Arnaldo L.; Padovan, Ana Carolina B.; Chaves, Guilherme M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Trichosporon spp. are basidiomycetous yeast-like fungi found widely in nature. Clinical isolates are generally related to superficial infections. However, this fungus has been recognized as an opportunistic agent of invasive infections, mostly in cancer patients and those exposed to invasive medical procedures. It is possible that the ability of Trichosporon strains to form biofilms on implanted devices, the presence of glucuronoxylomannan in their cell walls, and the ability to produce proteases and lipases are all factors likely related to the virulence of this genus and therefore may account for the progress of invasive trichosporonosis. Disseminated trichosporonosis has been increasingly reported worldwide and represents a challenge for both diagnosis and species identification. Phenotypic identification methods are useful for Trichosporon sp. screening, but only molecular methods, such as IGS region sequencing, allow the complete identification of Trichosporon isolates at the species level. Methods for the diagnosis of invasive trichosporonosis include PCR-based methods, Luminex xMAP technology, and, more recently, proteomics. Treating patients with trichosporonosis remains a challenge because of limited data on the in vitro and in vivo activities of antifungal drugs against clinically relevant species of the genus. Despite the mentioned limitations, the use of antifungal regimens containing triazoles appears to be the best therapeutic approach. PMID:21976604

  17. Sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection in Finland.

    PubMed

    Airas, Niina; Saari, Seppo; Mikkonen, Taina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Pellikka, Jani; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Lim, Chae W; Sukura, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Although human infections caused by Trichinella sp. have not been reported in Finland for several decades and Trichinella sp. infection in pork has become virtually extinct in the last decade, sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection is still highly prevalent in Finland. Muscle digestion of 2,483 carnivorous wild animals from 9 host species during 1999-2005 showed 617 positive animals (24.8%). Molecular identification from 328 larval isolates revealed 4 different endemic Trichinella species, i.e., T. nativa, T. spiralis, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Seven percent of the infected animals carried mixed infections. Trichinella nativa was the most common species (74%), but T. spiralis was identified in 12%, T. britovi in 6%, and T. pseudospiralis in 1% of the animals. Host species showed different sample prevalence and Trichinella species distribution. Geographical distribution also varied, with the southern part of the country having significantly higher percentages than the northern part. Infection density was dependent on both the infecting Trichinella species and the host species. Trichinella spiralis was discovered in areas with no known domestic infection cases, indicating that it can also occur in the sylvatic cycle. Raccoon dogs and red foxes are the most important reservoir animals for T. spiralis , as well as for the sylvatic Trichinella species in Finland. PMID:19731970

  18. Pathogenicity and control of Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne spp. on some cruciferous plant cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica on cabbage cvs. Balady, Brunswick and Ganzouri, cauliflower cv. Balady, turnip cv. Balady, and radish cv. Balady was determined in several greenhouse ...

  19. Development and application of a monoclonal antibody against Thiothrix spp.

    PubMed Central

    Brigmon, R L; Bitton, G; Zam, S G; O'Brien, B

    1995-01-01

    Historically, methods used to identify Thiothrix spp. in environmental samples have been inadequate because isolation and identification procedures are time-consuming and often fail to separate Thiothrix spp. from other filamentous microorganisms. We described a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure which was used to identify Thiothrix spp. in wastewater, artesian springs, groundwater, and underwater subterranean samples. The ELISA utilized monoclonal antibody T3511 to a species-specific carbohydrate epitope of Thiothrix spp. No cross-reactions were observed among non-Thiothrix strains consisting of 12 species and nine genera. In field trials, the ELISA identified 100% of 20 biochemically and cytologically confirmed Thiothrix spp.-containing samples with no false positives. Indirect immunofluorescent microscopy utilizing T3511 was effective for wastewater samples but not for those from natural spring water because of background fluorescence in the latter. In addition, electron micrographs of Thiothrix spp. labeled with T3511-biotin-anti-mouse antibody-gold showed that epitope T3511 was intracellular both in laboratory strains and environmental isolates. The minimum level of detection of the ELISA was 0.10 microgram/ml. PMID:7887596

  20. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  1. The control volume radial basis function method CV-RBF with Richardson extrapolation in geochemical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, W. F.; Portapila, M.; Hill, A. F.; Power, H.; Orsini, P.; Bustamante, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present how to implement a control volume approach improved by Hermite radial basis functions (CV-RBF) for geochemical problems. A multi-step strategy based on Richardson extrapolation is proposed as an alternative to the conventional dual step sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) for coupling the transport equations with the chemical model. Additionally, this paper illustrates how to use PHREEQC to add geochemical reaction capabilities to CV-RBF transport methods. Several problems with different degrees of complexity were solved including cases of cation exchange, dissolution, dissociation, equilibrium and kinetics at different rates for mineral species. The results show that the solution and strategies presented here are effective and in good agreement with other methods presented in the literature for the same cases.

  2. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded. PMID:25952871

  3. A model for the C-V characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun Jie; Sun, Jing; Zheng, Xue Jun

    2009-02-01

    A model is developed to describe the characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure based on the dipole switching theory (DST) and the silicon physics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure. The ferroelectric dipole distribution function is used to simulate the history-dependent electric field effect of the ferroelectric layer. Using the model, the thickness effects of the ferroelectric and insulator layers on the capacitance-voltage ( C-V) characteristic and the memory window were investigated for Pt/SBT/ZrO 2/Si and Pt/BLT/MgO/Si structures. All the simulation results show good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the model is suitable for simulating the C-V characteristic and the memory window of MFIS structure. In addition, the mathematical description is simple and can be easily integrated into the electronic design automation (EDA) software for circuit simulation.

  4. Graphical method for determining the coefficient of consolidation cv from a flow-pump permeability test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.; Nelson, Karl R.; Gill, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical method has been developed for determining the coefficient of consolidation from the transient phases of a flow-pump permeability test. The flow pump can be used to infuse fluid into or withdraw fluid from a laboratory sediment specimen at a constant volumetric rate in order to obtain data that can be used to calculate permeability using Darcy's law. Representative type-curve solutions to the associated forced-flow and pressure-decay models are derived. These curves provide the basis for graphically evaluating the permeability k, the coefficient of consolidation cv, and the coefficient of volume change mv. The curve-matching technique is easy and rapid. Values of k, cv and mv for a laterally confined kaolinite specimen were determined by this graphical method and appear to be in reasonably good agreement with numerically derived estimates (within 20%). Discrepancies between the two sets of results seem to be largely a function of data quality.

  5. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  6. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  7. TST from geofinder traverse data on HP41CV programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, G.J. )

    1989-02-01

    Using program subroutines designed for the HP41CV programmable calculator and the geometric data recorded from Geofinder traversing or other pace-and-compass-type methods, the true stratigraphic thickness (TST) of dipping or gently folded strata is calculated at a rate of about 30 seconds per station. TST information is therefore readily available for reviewing stratigraphic and structure data and for post survey graphical plots.

  8. Comparison of direct mercury analyzer and FIA-CV-AAS in determination of methylmercury in fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Nakatsubo, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been determined in fish reference materials by direct mercury analyzer (DMA 80) and FIA-CV-AAS. In order to evaluate accuracy, certified reference materials (Fish protein, NRCC - Dorm 4 and fish material, Ipen - Dourada 1) were analyzed after extraction and separation of mercury species. Good agreement of the results have been obtained (relative error of the determination between the methods varied from 1.5% to 39%). The repeatability of the results varied from 4% to 26%.

  9. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  10. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maria R. Coluccia et al.

    2002-07-16

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Isolation of an immunosuppressive lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Cacahuate using stroma.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Albores, F; Hernández, J; Córdoba, F; Zenteno, E

    1993-11-01

    An immunosuppressive lectin was isolated from seed of Phaseolus vulgaris cv Cacahuate using physically entrapped stroma. The lectin was found to be a 94 kDa tetrameric protein. When 50 micrograms, of this lectin were administered intraperitoneally 2 days before the immunization with sheep red blood cells, humoral response against the immunogen was completely inhibited. Other properties of the protein are discussed. PMID:8248029

  12. CV population densities: Using CFHT as the worlds largest time-series photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, D. A.; Haswell, C. A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Ringwald, F.

    2002-01-01

    Known samples of cataclysmic variables (CVs) are sparse and/or rife with selection effects and do not provide adequate tests of theories of their evolution. We have used the CFHT12k mosaic camera as the worlds largest time-series photometer, observing a 0.3 sq.deg. Galactic field with 3 minute time-resolution. The resulting unbiased, magnitude-limited sample of CVs, and their progenitors will be used to test the predictions of CV population models.

  13. Desulfotomaculum spp.and Methanobacterium spp. Dominate a 4-5 km Deep Fault

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P.; Gihring, Thomas M.; Brockman, Fred J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Balkwill, David L.; Dollhopf, M E.; Lollar, B S.; Pratt, Lisa; Boice, E.; Southam, G; Wanger, Greg; Baker, Brett; Pfiffner, S; Lin, L; Onstott, T C.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfidic, 54-60 C, 3 to 30 million year old meteoric water stably Alkaline, sulfidic, 54 to 60 C, 4 to 53 million-year-old meteoric water emanating from a borehole intersecting quartzite-hosted fractures >3.3 km beneath the surface supported a microbial community dominated by a bacterial species affiliated with Desulfotomaculum spp. and an archaeal species related to Methanobacterium spp. The geochemical homogeneity over the 650-m length of the borehole, the lack of dividing cells, and the absence of these microorganisms in mine service water support an indigenous origin for the microbial community. The coexistence of these two microorganisms is consistent with a limiting flux of inorganic carbon and SO4 2 in the presence of high pH, high concentrations of H2 and CH4, and minimal free energy for autotrophic methanogenesis. Sulfide isotopic compositions were highly enriched, consistent with microbial SO4 2 reduction under hydrologic isolation. An analogous microbial couple and similar abiogenic gas chemistry have been reported recently for hydrothermal carbonate vents of the Lost City near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D. S. Kelly et al., Science 307:1428-1434, 2005), suggesting that these features may be common to deep subsurface habitats (continental and marine) bearing this geochemical signature. The geochemical setting and microbial communities described here are notably different from microbial ecosystems reported for shallower continental subsurface environments.

  14. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Juliana; André, Marcos Rogério; Soares, João Fábio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Tonial de Oliveira, Mateus; Costa, Marcio Machado; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Bortolini, Carlos Eduardo; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Vieira, Maria Isabel Botelho

    2016-06-14

    Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA), Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA) and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb). Five (8.6%) of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1%) for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8%) were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed. PMID:27304518

  15. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Juliana; André, Marcos Rogério; Soares, João Fábio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Tonial de Oliveira, Mateus; Costa, Marcio Machado; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Bortolini, Carlos Eduardo; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Vieira, Maria Isabel Botelho

    2016-06-14

    Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA), Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA) and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb). Five (8.6%) of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1%) for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8%) were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed. PMID:27334817

  16. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  17. Modelling the Galactic CV distribution for the ChaMPlane Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogel, A. B.; Lugger, P. M.; Cohn, H. N.

    2004-12-01

    We model the cataclysmic variable (CV) distribution in the Galaxy to better understand CV detection rates for the ChaMPlane survey of accreting X-ray sources in the Galactic plane. The CV distribution is modeled as a warped, flared exponential disk with a Gaussian vertical structure. Extinction is based on the recently published Galactic dust and gas model by Drimmel, et al. A luminosity function for CVs is also incorporated, based on a smoothed version of published data by Patterson. We use Monte-Carlo techniques to distribute of order 1-2 × 106 CVs throughout the Galaxy. We then determine the expected number per NOAO 4m telescope Mosaic field as a function of limiting magnitude and Galactic coordinates, within the plane but outside of the bulge (20o

  18. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  19. Utrophins compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx3cv in adhered platelets.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Mondragón, Ricardo; Candelario, Aurora; García-Sierra, Francisco; Mornet, Dominique; Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila

    2008-01-01

    Platelet adhesion is a critical step due to its hemostatic role in stopping bleeding after vascular damage. Short dystrophins are the most abundant dmd gene products in nonmuscle tissues, and in association with cytoskeleton proteins contribute to their intrinsic function; while utrophins are dystrophin-homologous related family proteins with structural and functional similarities. We previously demonstrated the presence of Dp71 isoforms, utrophins, and various dystrophin-associated proteins and their participation in cytoskeleton re-organization, filopodia and lamellipodia extension, and in centralizing cytoplasmic granules during the adhesion process of human platelets. To evaluate the morphologic changes and actin-based structures of mdx(3cv) platelets during the adhesion process, we compared the topographic distribution of Dp71d/Dp71Delta110(m) and dystrophin-associated protein in adhered platelets from dystrophic mdx(3cv) mouse. By confocal microscopy, we showed that absence of Dp71 isoforms in platelets from this animal model disrupted dystrophin-associated protein expression and distribution without modifying the platelet morphology displayed during the glass-adhesion process. By immunoprecipitation assays, we proved that up-regulated utrophins were associated with dystrophin-associated proteins to conform the dystrophin-associated protein complex corresponding to utrophins, which might compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx(3cv) platelets. PMID:18180614

  20. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  1. Transcriptomic Signatures of Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Phloem

    PubMed Central

    Mamidala, Praveen; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-01-01

    Background Ash (Fraxinus spp.) is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA). The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra), green (F. pennsylvannica) and white (F. americana) are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica) is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3) revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. Conclusions and Significance The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future

  2. Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning in livestock.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Manners, G D; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L; Schoch, T K

    1999-02-01

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic plants that contain numerous diterpenoid alkaloids which occur as one of two structural types: (1) lycotonine, and (2) 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL-type). Among the lycoctonine type alkaloids are three N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL-type) alkaloids which appear to be most toxic: methyllycaconitine (MLA), 14-deacetylnudicauline (DAN), and nudicauline. An ester function at C-18 is an important structural requirement for toxicity. Intoxication results from neuromuscular paralysis, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the muscle and brain are blocked by toxic alkaloids. Clinical signs include labored breathing, rapid and irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and collapse. Toxic alkaloid concentration generally declines in tall larkspurs with maturation, but alkaloid concentration varies over years and from plant to plant, and is of little use for predicting consumption by cattle. Knowledge of toxic alkaloid concentration is valuable for management purposes when cattle begin to eat larkspur. Cattle generally begin consuming tall larkspur after flowering racemes are elongated, and consumption increases as larkspur matures. Weather is also a major factor in cattle consumption, as cattle tend to eat more larkspur during or just after summer storms. Management options that may be useful for livestock producers include conditioning cattle to avoid larkspur (food aversion learning), grazing tall larkspur ranges before flowering (early grazing) and after seed shatter (late grazing), grazing sheep before cattle, herbicidal control of larkspur plants, and drug therapy for intoxicated animals. Some potentially fruitful research avenues include examining alkaloid chemistry in low and plains larkspurs, developing immunologic methods for analyzing larkspur alkaloids, developing drug therapy, and devising grazing regimes specifically for low and plains larkspur. PMID:10091130

  3. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from

  4. Modal Mineralogy of CV3 Chondrites by PSD-XRD: Mineralogic Insights into a Complex Evolutionary History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2009-03-01

    CV3 chondrites Vigarano, Efremovka, Allende, Mokoia, Grosnaja and Kaba are amongst the most studied rocks in existence. By XRD we define the first quantitative modal mineralogy of these samples and explore implications of our data to petrogenesis.

  5. Thermal performance of a top heat mode closed-loop oscillating heat pipe with a check valve (THMCLOHP/CV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Parametthanuwat, T.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a top heat mode closed-looped oscillating heat pipe with check valves (THMCLOHP/CV). Ethanol is used as a working fluid with filling ratios of 30, 50, and 80% of the total volume of the tube. The THMCLOHP/CV is made of a copper tube with an inside diameter of 2.03 mm. The angle of inclination is 90° from the horizontal axis with 40 turns, two check valves, and an evaporator length of 50, 100, and 150 mm. The operating temperatures are 44 and 55°C. It is found that the thermal resistance decreases significantly as the working temperature is increased. Thus, the evaporator length affects the thermal resistance of the THMCLOHP/CV. The presence of the THMCLOHP/CV is clearly demonstrated to contribute to thermal performance improvement.

  6. Impedance biosensor for the rapid detection of Listeria spp. based on aptamer functionalized Pt-interdigitated microelectrodes array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, R.; Rong, Y.; Vanegas, D. C.; Claussen, J.; McLamore, E. S.; Gomes, C.

    2016-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most common causes of food illness deaths worldwide, with multiple outbreaks in the United States alone. Current methods to detect foodborne pathogens are laborious and can take several hours to days to produce results. Thus, faster techniques are needed to detect bacteria within the same reliability level as traditional techniques. This study reports on a rapid, accurate, and sensitive aptamer biosensor device for Listeria spp. detection based on platinum interdigitated array microelectrodes (Pt-IDEs). Pt-IDEs with different geometric electrode gaps were fabricated by lithographic techniques and characterized by cyclic voltammetric (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potential amperometry (DCPA) measurements of reversible redox species. Based on these results, 50 μm Pt-IDE was chosen to further functionalize with a Listeria monocytogenes DNA aptamer selective to the cell surface protein internalin A, via metal-thiol self-assembly at the 5' end of the 47-mer's. EIS analysis was used to detect Listeria spp. without the need for label amplification and pre-concentration steps. The optimized aptamer concentration of 800 nM was selected to capture the bacteria through internalin A binding and the aptamer hairpin structure near the 3' end. The aptasensor was capable of detecting a wide range of bacteria concentration from 10 to 106 CFU/mL at lower detection limit of 5.39 +/- 0.21 CFU/mL with sensitivity of 268.1 +/- 25.40 (Ohms/log [CFU/mL]) in 17 min. The aptamer based biosensor offers a portable, rapid and sensitive alternative for food safety applications with one of the lowest detection limits reported to date.

  7. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  8. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture.

    PubMed

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; Cimaglia, Fabio; De Lorenzis, Enrico; Chiesa, Maurizio; Mezzolla, Valeria; Reca, Ida Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions. PMID:27110786

  9. Leptospira spp. infection in sheep herds in southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the aim of studying Leptospira spp. infection in sheep herds, blood samples and respective kidney and liver fragments were collected from 100 animals from twenty different properties during slaughter at a meat company in the Sorocaba region, São Paulo state, southeast Brazil. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was performed with 29 strains of Leptospira spp. To identify the agent in the liver and kidney, 100 samples of each tissue were submitted to culture in Fletcher medium and analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leptospira spp. Results MAT detected 23 samples serologically positive for one or more Leptospira spp. serovars and significantly more for Autumnalis. Eight (4%) samples were positive in culture (four kidneys and four livers), corresponding to five animals with positive serology (one animal simultaneously positive for both kidney and liver) and two negatives. PCR detected Leptospira spp. in 14 samples (seven kidneys and seven livers) corresponding to 12 positive animals (two animals simultaneously positive for kidney and liver), of which ten were serologically positive and two negative. Conclusions PCR was faster, more practical and more sensitive than culture for detecting leptospires. The results reinforce the importance of sheep in the epidemiological context of leptospirosis. PMID:24822059

  10. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter spp.: Increasingly Problematic Nosocomial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyungwon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have increasingly been resisting to antimicrobial therapy. Recently, resistance problem has been relatively much worsened in Gram-negative bacilli. Acinetobacter spp. are typical nosocomial pathogens causing infections and high mortality, almost exclusively in compromised hospital patients. Acinetobacter spp. are intrinsically less susceptible to antibiotics than Enterobacteriaceae, and have propensity to acquire resistance. A surveillance study in Korea in 2009 showed that resistance rates of Acinetobacter spp. were very high: to fluoroquinolone 67%, to amikacin 48%, to ceftazidime 66% and to imipenem 51%. Carbapenem resistance was mostly due to OXA type carbapenemase production in A. baumannii isolates, whereas it was due to metallo-β-lactamase production in non-baumannii Acinetobacter isolates. Colistin-resistant isolates were rare but started to be isolated in Korea. Currently, the infection caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii is among the most difficult ones to treat. Analysis at tertiary care hospital in 2010 showed that among the 1,085 isolates of Acinetobacter spp., 14.9% and 41.8% were resistant to seven, and to all eight antimicrobial agents tested, respectively. It is known to be difficult to prevent Acinetobacter spp. infection in hospitalized patients, because the organisms are ubiquitous in hospital environment. Efforts to control resistant bacteria in Korea by hospitals, relevant scientific societies and government agencies have only partially been successful. We need concerted multidisciplinary efforts to preserve the efficacy of currently available antimicrobial agents, by following the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:22028150

  11. Protein Chips for Detection of Salmonella spp. from Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; Cimaglia, Fabio; De Lorenzis, Enrico; Chiesa, Maurizio; Mezzolla, Valeria; Reca, Ida Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Food pathogens are the cause of foodborne epidemics, therefore there is a need to detect the pathogens in food productions rapidly. A pre-enrichment culture followed by selective agar plating are standard detection methods. Molecular methods such as qPCR have provided a first rapid protocol for detection of pathogens within 24 h of enrichment culture. Biosensors also may provide a rapid tool to individuate a source of Salmonella contamination at early times of pre-enrichment culture. Forty mL of Salmonella spp. enrichment culture were processed by immunoseparation using the Pathatrix, as in AFNOR validated qPCR protocols. The Salmonella biosensor combined with immunoseparation showed a limit of detection of 100 bacteria/40 mL, with a 400 fold increase to previous results. qPCR analysis requires processing of bead-bound bacteria with lysis buffer and DNA clean up, with a limit of detection of 2 cfu/50 μL. Finally, a protein chip was developed and tested in screening and identification of 5 common pathogen species, Salmonella spp., E. coli, S. aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. The protein chip, with high specificity in species identification, is proposed to be integrated into a Lab-on-Chip system, for rapid and reproducible screening of Salmonella spp. and other pathogen species contaminating food productions. PMID:27110786

  12. Insights into the Mechanisms Underlying Ultraviolet-C Induced Resveratrol Metabolism in Grapevine (V. amurensis Rupr.) cv. “Tonghua-3”

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiangjing; Singer, Stacy D.; Qiao, Hengbo; Liu, Yajun; Jiao, Chen; Wang, Hao; Li, Zhi; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Yuejin; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Stilbene compounds belong to a family of secondary metabolites that are derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Production of the stilbene phytoalexin, resveratrol, in grape (Vitis spp.) berries is known to be induced by ultraviolet-C radiation (UV-C), which has numerous regulatory effects on plant physiology. While previous studies have described changes in gene expression caused by UV-C light in several plant species, such information has yet to be reported for grapevine. We investigated both the resveratrol content and gene expression responses of berries from V. amurensis cv. Tonghua-3 following UV-C treatment, to accelerate research into resveratrol metabolism. Comparative RNA-Seq profiling of UV-C treated and untreated grape berries resulted in the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) term classification and biochemical pathway analyses suggested that UV-C treatment caused changes in various cellular processes, as well as in both hormone and secondary metabolism. The data further indicate that UV-C induced increases in resveratrol may be related to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites and signaling, as well as several transcription factors. We also observed that following UV-C treatment, 22 stilbene synthase (STS) genes exhibited increases in their expression levels and a VaSTS promoter drove the expression of the GUS reporter gene when expressed in tobacco. We therefore propose that UV-C induction of VaSTS expression is an important factor in promoting resveratrol accumulation. This transcriptome data set provides new insight into the response of grape berries to UV-C treatment, and suggests candidate genes, or promoter activity of related genes, that could be used in future functional and molecular biological studies of resveratrol metabolism. PMID:27148326

  13. Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France

    PubMed Central

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Moutailler, Sara; Féménia, Françoise; Raymond, Philippe; Croce, Olivier; La Scola, Bernard; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp. (B. doshiae, B. schoenbuchensis, and B. tribocorum). Genomic analysis of the isolated strains revealed differences from previously sequenced Bartonella strains. Our investigation identifed 3 novel Bartonella spp. strains with human pathogenic potential and showed that Bartonella spp. may be the cause of undifferentiated chronic illness in humans who have been bitten by ticks. PMID:26885624

  14. Salmonellosis in laboratory-housed iguanid lizards (Sceloporus spp.).

    PubMed

    Kalvig, B A; Maggio-Price, L; Tsuji, J; Giddens, W E

    1991-10-01

    Fifteen wild-caught iguanid lizards (14 Sceloporus variabilis and one S. malachiticus) were used in a 3 mo study on thermal acclimation. Over a 2 mo period, five of the lizards showed decreased activity, anorexia and enlarged joints, and were either found moribund or were euthanatized due to their poor condition. Specimens taken from lesions in four of the five lizards were cultured and were infected with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. was cultured from cloacal swabs in six of the 10 surviving lizards. Standard metabolic rates of those that were infected did not differ significantly from those that were not infected. We postulate that the lizards were inapparent carriers of Salmonella spp. at the time of capture and, as a result of stress, five developed active overwhelming systemic infections. PMID:1758020

  15. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  16. Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France.

    PubMed

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Moutailler, Sara; Féménia, Françoise; Raymond, Philippe; Croce, Olivier; La Scola, Bernard; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp. (B. doshiae, B. schoenbuchensis, and B. tribocorum). Genomic analysis of the isolated strains revealed differences from previously sequenced Bartonella strains. Our investigation identifed 3 novel Bartonella spp. strains with human pathogenic potential and showed that Bartonella spp. may be the cause of undifferentiated chronic illness in humans who have been bitten by ticks. PMID:26885624

  17. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CABRINE-SANTOS, Marlene; CINTRA, Eduardo do Nascimento; do CARMO, Rafaela Andrade; NASCENTES, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; PEDROSA, André Luiz; CORREIA, Dalmo; de OLIVEIRA-SILVA, Márcia Benedita

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG) through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8%) and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%). The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001). The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides(0.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%). The Ritchie’s method was more sensitive (92.8%) when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%), with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92). In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed. PMID:26200960

  18. Comparative media investigation and MLST characterization of Campylobacter spp. recovered from broiler fecal, carcass rinse, and exudate samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are considered a leading bacterial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in human populations. Several investigations focused on delineating Campylobacter spp. epidemiology have been conducted; however a complete understanding of the critical sources for Campylobacter spp. transmissio...

  19. Expression and characterization of Drosophila signal peptide peptidase-like (sppL), a gene that encodes an intramembrane protease.

    PubMed

    Casso, David J; Liu, Songmei; Biehs, Brian; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2012-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases of the Signal Peptide Peptidase (SPP) family play important roles in developmental, metabolic and signaling pathways. Although vertebrates have one SPP and four SPP-like (SPPL) genes, we found that insect genomes encode one Spp and one SppL. Characterization of the Drosophila sppL gene revealed that the predicted SppL protein is a highly conserved structural homolog of the vertebrate SPPL3 proteases, with a predicted nine-transmembrane topology, an active site containing aspartyl residues within a transmembrane region, and a carboxy-terminal PAL domain. SppL protein localized to both the Golgi and ER. Whereas spp is an essential gene that is required during early larval stages and whereas spp loss-of-function reduced the unfolded protein response (UPR), sppL loss of function had no apparent phenotype. This was unexpected given that genetic knockdown phenotypes in other organisms suggested significant roles for Spp-related proteases. PMID:22439002

  20. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  1. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  2. The first mass and angular momentum loss measurements for a CV-like binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The period distribution of close binaries, cataclysmic variables, novae and single-degenerate SN1a progenitor candidates is largely controlled by magnetically-driven mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the M dwarf secondary. The mass loss rates for these spun-up stars remain essentially unknown and impossible to observe directly, with likely values in the range 1e-12 to 1e-15 Msun/yr. AML presciptions for CVs differ by orders of magnitude. One way to measure the mass loss rate is to observe the dM wind accrete onto its WD companion in a pre-CV very close to Roche Lobe overflow but lacking the obscuring complications and emission from an accretion disk. The measurement can be combined with realistic MHD models to understand the accretion fraction, the mass that escapes, and the AML. The best-studied nearby pre-CV is QS Vir (48pc, P=3.6hr). However, its wind accretion rates measured from 1999 HST UV spectra of the WD metal absorption lines and 2006 XMM-Newton CCD spectroscopy differ by a factor of a thousand, pointing to either a dominant CME stochastic component, or a "magnetic switch" found in MHD simulations and driven by cyclic activity on the M dwarf. HST COS spectra combined with XMM-Newton monitoring on timescales from weeks to years will tease out CME vs cyclic accretion variations. UV and X-ray measurements will provide the first consistency check of both accretion rate measurement methods. MHD models tailored to the system will enable the first quasi-direct measurements of the mass loss and AML from a CV-like binary. Our project requires 6 HST/COS orbits in Cycles 22-24, and 60ksec on XMM in Cycle 22

  3. Regeneration by somatic embryogenesis of triploid plants from endosperm of walnut, Juglans regia L. cv Manregian.

    PubMed

    Tulecke, W; McGranahan, G; Ahmadi, H

    1988-08-01

    Plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis from endosperm tissue of open-pollinated seeds of Juglans regia L. cv Manregian. These plants were obtained by growing endosperm tissue on media similar to those used for plant regeneration from walnut cotyledons (Tulecke and McGranahan 1985). The plants appear morphologically uniform and have a triploid chromosome number of 3n=48. Nine plants have been grown to a young sapling stage in soil. This embryogenic line from endosperm has been maintained in culture for two years by the process of repetitive somatic embryogenesis. PMID:24241869

  4. Dark inclusions in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano - Evidence for nebular oxidation of CV3 constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. A.; Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1990-03-01

    The origin and the history of dark inclusions (DIs) are investigated using petrologic, chemical, and oxygen isotopic data on ten DI samples from Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano. These data indicate that the DIs of the Leoville and Vigarano are closely similar to those of Allende. The inclusions appear to be fragments of CV3 parent bodies which were processed to different degrees prior to their incorporation as clasts into the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano chondrites. The processing homogenized the olivine compositions, presumably through heating, and also involved oxygen exchange with O-16-poorer surroundings.

  5. Three in one go: consequential angular momentum loss can solve major problems of CV evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. R.; Zorotovic, M.; Wijnen, T. P. G.

    2016-01-01

    The average white dwarf (WD) masses in cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been measured to significantly exceed those of single WDs, which is the opposite of what is theoretically expected. We present the results of binary population synthesis models taking into account consequential angular momentum loss (CAML) that is assumed to increase with decreasing WD mass. This approach cannot only solve the WD mass problem but also brings in agreement theoretical predictions and observations of the orbital period distribution and the space density of CVs. We speculate that frictional angular momentum loss following nova eruptions might cause such CAML and could be the missing ingredient of CV evolution.

  6. Organelle genome stability in anther-derived doubled haploids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'Moisson').

    PubMed

    Rode, A; Hartmann, C; Dron, M; Picard, E; Ouetier, F

    1985-12-01

    Chloroplast and mitochondrial compartments of a parental line of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'Moisson') and its anther-derived doubled haploid lines have been analyzed and compared on the basis of their DNA restriction patterns. The results obtained show that no noticeable difference can be detected between doubled haploid lines and parental line at the level of ctDNA and mtDNA organization. It may be concluded that in vitro culture by itself does not systematically generate a cytoplasmic variation in germ cells. PMID:24247401

  7. Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana; Timans, Paul; Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve; Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke; Bolze, Detlef

    2008-11-03

    The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

  8. Dark inclusions in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano - Evidence for nebular oxidation of CV3 constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.

    1990-01-01

    The origin and the history of dark inclusions (DIs) are investigated using petrologic, chemical, and oxygen isotopic data on ten DI samples from Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano. These data indicate that the DIs of the Leoville and Vigarano are closely similar to those of Allende. The inclusions appear to be fragments of CV3 parent bodies which were processed to different degrees prior to their incorporation as clasts into the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano chondrites. The processing homogenized the olivine compositions, presumably through heating, and also involved oxygen exchange with O-16-poorer surroundings.

  9. Compositional and petrographic similarities of CV and CK chondrites: A single group with variations in textures and volatile concentrations attributable to impact heating, crushing and oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Isa, Junko; Rubin, Alan E.

    2013-05-01

    Greenwood et al. (2010) gathered data on O-isotopic and elemental compositions and reevaluated literature data for CV and CK chondrites. They concluded that these two chondrite groups originated on the same parent asteroid, with CK chondrites being metamorphosed CV chondrites (which are otherwise missing types 4 through 6). To test this interpretation we have gathered new instrumental neutron-activation-analysis (INAA) data for CV and CK chondrites and reexamined their petrographic features. The new INAA data like the older data show scatter attributable to weathering effects, but we conclude that the refractory lithophile abundances are the same in CV and CK, in agreement with the Greenwood et al. interpretation. Several volatile elements are significantly lower in CK than in CV chondrites. Among the elements we determine, the greatest difference between CV and CK is found for Br, for which the CV/CK ratio is ∼4; As and Sb are about 20% lower in CK than CV and smaller differences are observed for Zn, Ga and Se. It seems likely that volatiles were lost during impact-heating events that also provided the heat responsible for metamorphic recrystallization. Within statistical uncertainty, chondrules in CV and CK chondrites are the same size and have similar textural distributions. A significant petrographic difference between CK and CV chondrites cited by Kallemeyn et al. (1991) was the much higher percentage of igneous rims around CV chondrules. However, we now recognize that many chondrules in CK3.8 NWA 1559 have igneous rims and in CK4 chondrites, igneous rims are recognizable by their associated sulfide-rich rings; there are no quantifiable CV-CK differences in igneous-rim abundances. We used Ca and Al maps to show that CK chondrites have CAI abundances similar to those of CV chondrites. It thus appears that there are no resolvable pre-metamorphic petrographic differences between CV and CK chondrites. We recommend that the “CK” designation be abandoned and

  10. Canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., and Ehrlichia spp. in the United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The geographic distribution of canine infection with vector-borne disease agents in the United States appears to be expanding. Methods To provide an updated assessment of geographic trends in canine infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp., we evaluated results from an average of 3,588,477 dogs tested annually by veterinarians throughout the United States from 2010 – 2012. Results As in an earlier summary report, the percent positive test results varied by agent and region, with antigen of D. immitis and antibody to Ehrlichia spp. most commonly identified in the Southeast (2.9% and 3.2%, respectively) and antibody to both B. burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. most commonly identified in the Northeast (13.3% and 7.1%, respectively) and upper Midwest (4.4% and 3.9%, respectively). Percent positive test results for D. immitis antigen were lower in every region considered, including in the Southeast, than previously reported. Percent positive test results for antibodies to B. burgdorferi and Ehrlichia spp. were higher nationally than previously reported, and, for antibodies to Anaplasma spp., were higher in the Northeast but lower in the Midwest and West, than in the initial report. Annual reports of human cases of Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis were associated with percent positive canine test results by state for each respective tick-borne disease agent (R2 = 0.701, 0.457, and 0.314, respectively). Within endemic areas, percent positive test results for all three tick-borne agents demonstrated evidence of geographic expansion. Conclusions Continued national monitoring of canine test results for vector-borne zoonotic agents is an important tool for accurately mapping the geographic distribution of these agents, and greatly aids our understanding of the veterinary and public health threats they pose. PMID:24886589