Science.gov

Sample records for cyp gene superfamily

  1. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily in Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, William S; Marko, Peter B; Nelson, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in animals fall into two categories: those that synthesize or metabolize endogenous molecules and those that interact with exogenous chemicals from the diet or the environment. The latter form a critical component of detoxification systems. Results Data mining and manual curation of the Daphnia pulex genome identified 75 functional CYP genes, and three CYP pseudogenes. These CYPs belong to 4 clans, 13 families, and 19 subfamilies. The CYP 2, 3, 4, and mitochondrial clans are the same four clans found in other sequenced protostome genomes. Comparison of the CYPs from D. pulex to the CYPs from insects, vertebrates and sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) show that the CYP2 clan, and to a lesser degree, the CYP4 clan has expanded in Daphnia pulex, whereas the CYP3 clan has expanded in insects. However, the expansion of the Daphnia CYP2 clan is not as great as the expansion observed in deuterostomes and the nematode C. elegans. Mapping of CYP tandem repeat regions demonstrated the unusual expansion of the CYP370 family of the CYP2 clan. The CYP370s are similar to the CYP15s and CYP303s that occur as solo genes in insects, but the CYP370s constitute ~20% of all the CYP genes in Daphnia pulex. Lastly, our phylogenetic comparisons provide new insights into the potential origins of otherwise mysterious CYPs such as CYP46 and CYP19 (aromatase). Conclusion Overall, the cladoceran, D. pulex has a wide range of CYPs with the same clans as insects and nematodes, but with distinct changes in the size and composition of each clan. PMID:19383150

  2. Conotoxin Gene Superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    Conotoxins are the peptidic components of the venoms of marine cone snails (genus Conus). They are remarkably diverse in terms of structure and function. Unique potency and selectivity profiles for a range of neuronal targets have made several conotoxins valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics, and has resulted in a concerted and increasing drive to identify and characterise new conotoxins. Conotoxins are translated from mRNA as peptide precursors, and cDNA sequencing is now the primary method for identification of new conotoxin sequences. As a result, gene superfamily, a classification based on precursor signal peptide identity, has become the most convenient method of conotoxin classification. Here we review each of the described conotoxin gene superfamilies, with a focus on the structural and functional diversity present in each. This review is intended to serve as a practical guide to conotoxin superfamilies and to facilitate interpretation of the increasing number of conotoxin precursor sequences being identified by targeted-cDNA sequencing and more recently high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. PMID:25522317

  3. Identification of Cytochrome P450 ( CYP) genes in Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huihui; Bao, Zhenmin; Du, Huixia; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Sun, Luyang; Mou, Xiaoyu; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 ( CYP) superfamily is one of the membership largest and function most diverse protein superfamily recogniozed among living beings. Members of this superfamily were further assigned to different families and subfamilies based on their amino acid similarities. According to their phylogenetic relationships, the CYP genes which likely diverged from common ancestor gene and may share common functions were grouped into one clan. Widely distributing scallops are a group of the most conspicuous bivalve; however the studies on their CYP is acarce. In this study, we searched the genome and expressed sequence tags of Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) for CYP genes. In total, 88 non-redundant CYP were identified, which were homed in 13 CYPs gene families. Phylogenetic analysis divided these genes into 4 CYP clans. As in deuterostomes, Clan 2 was the largest, which contained 33 genes belonging to CYP1, CYP2, CYP17 and CYP356 families. Clan 3 contgained 19 genes belonging to CYP3, CYP5 and CYP30 families. Clan 4 contained 23 genes, all belonging to CYP4 family. The mitochondrial CYP clan contained 9 genes belonging to CYP10 and CYP24 families. In comparison, protostomes ( C. farreri, D. pluex, D. melanogaster) contained more CYP genes than deuterostomes ( S. purpuratus and vertebrates) in Clan 2 but less genes in Clan 3 and Clan 4. Our findings will aid to deciphering CYP function and evolution in scallops and bivalves.

  4. Integrated analysis of cytochrome P450 gene superfamily in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The functional and evolutionary diversification of insect cytochrome P450s (CYPs) shaped the success of insects. CYPs constitute one of the largest and oldest gene superfamilies that are found in virtually all aerobic organisms. Because of the availability of whole genome sequence and well functioning RNA interference (RNAi), the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum serves as an ideal insect model for conducting functional genomics studies. Although several T. castaneum CYPs had been functionally investigated in our previous studies, the roles of the majority of CYPs remain largely unknown. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of all T. castaneum CYPs with genes in other insect species, investigated the CYP6BQ gene cluster organization, function and evolution, as well as examined the mitochondrial CYPs gene expression patterns and intron-exon organization. Results A total 143 CYPs were identified and classified into 26 families and 59 subfamilies. The phylogenetic trees of CYPs among insects across taxa provided evolutionary insight for the genetic distance and function. The percentage of singleton (33.3%) in T. castaneum CYPs is much less than those in Drosophila melanogaster (52.5%) and Bombyx mori (51.2%). Most members in the largest CYP6BQ gene cluster may make contribution to deltamethrin resistance in QTC279 strain. T. castaneum genome encodes nine mitochondrial CYPs, among them CYP12H1 is only expressed in the final instar larval stage. The intron-exon organizations of these mitochondrial CYPs are highly diverse. Conclusion Our studies provide a platform to understand the evolution and functions of T. castaneum CYP gene superfamily which will help reveal the strategies employed by insects to cope with their environment. PMID:23497158

  5. Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M

    2000-01-01

    Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks. PMID:10749660

  6. The P450 gene superfamily: recommended nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Nebert, D W; Adesnik, M; Coon, M J; Estabrook, R W; Gonzalez, F J; Guengerich, F P; Gunsalus, I C; Johnson, E F; Kemper, B; Levin, W

    1987-02-01

    A nomenclature for the P450 gene superfamily is proposed based on evolution. Recommendations include Roman numerals for distinct gene families, capital letters for subfamilies, and Arabic numerals for individual genes. An updating of this list, which presently includes 65 entries, will be required every 1-2 years. Assignment of orthologous genes is presently uncertain in some cases--between widely diverged species and especially in the P450II family due to the large number of genes. As more is known, it might become necessary to change some gene assignments that are based on our present knowledge. PMID:3829886

  7. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management. PMID:25658124

  8. The Glutathione-S-Transferase, Cytochrome P450 and Carboxyl/Cholinesterase Gene Superfamilies in Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Marjorie A.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-resistant populations of the predatory mite Metaseiulus (= Typhlodromus or Galendromus) occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae) have been used in the biological control of pest mites such as phytophagous Tetranychus urticae. However, the pesticide resistance mechanisms in M. occidentalis remain largely unknown. In other arthropods, members of the glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 (CYP) and carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) gene superfamilies are involved in the diverse biological pathways such as the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g. pesticides) in addition to hormonal and chemosensory processes. In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of 123 genes in the GST, CYP and CCE superfamilies in the recently sequenced M. occidentalis genome. The gene count represents a reduction of 35% compared to T. urticae. The distribution of genes in the GST and CCE superfamilies in M. occidentalis differs significantly from those of insects and resembles that of T. urticae. Specifically, we report the presence of the Mu class GSTs, and the J’ and J” clade CCEs that, within the Arthropoda, appear unique to Acari. Interestingly, the majority of CCEs in the J’ and J” clades contain a catalytic triad, suggesting that they are catalytically active. They likely represent two Acari-specific CCE clades that may participate in detoxification of xenobiotics. The current study of genes in these superfamilies provides preliminary insights into the potential molecular components that may be involved in pesticide metabolism as well as hormonal/chemosensory processes in the agriculturally important M. occidentalis. PMID:27467523

  9. The Glutathione-S-Transferase, Cytochrome P450 and Carboxyl/Cholinesterase Gene Superfamilies in Predatory Mite Metaseiulus occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ke; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide-resistant populations of the predatory mite Metaseiulus (= Typhlodromus or Galendromus) occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae) have been used in the biological control of pest mites such as phytophagous Tetranychus urticae. However, the pesticide resistance mechanisms in M. occidentalis remain largely unknown. In other arthropods, members of the glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 (CYP) and carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) gene superfamilies are involved in the diverse biological pathways such as the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g. pesticides) in addition to hormonal and chemosensory processes. In the current study, we report the identification and initial characterization of 123 genes in the GST, CYP and CCE superfamilies in the recently sequenced M. occidentalis genome. The gene count represents a reduction of 35% compared to T. urticae. The distribution of genes in the GST and CCE superfamilies in M. occidentalis differs significantly from those of insects and resembles that of T. urticae. Specifically, we report the presence of the Mu class GSTs, and the J' and J" clade CCEs that, within the Arthropoda, appear unique to Acari. Interestingly, the majority of CCEs in the J' and J" clades contain a catalytic triad, suggesting that they are catalytically active. They likely represent two Acari-specific CCE clades that may participate in detoxification of xenobiotics. The current study of genes in these superfamilies provides preliminary insights into the potential molecular components that may be involved in pesticide metabolism as well as hormonal/chemosensory processes in the agriculturally important M. occidentalis. PMID:27467523

  10. Chimeric CYP21P/CYP21 and TNXA/TNXB genes in the RCCX module.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsien-Hsiung

    2005-01-01

    Two types of chimeric RCCX modules found in chromosome 6p21.3 are the chimeras CYP21P/CYP21 and TNXA/TNXB. The CYP21P-specific sequence of chimera CYP21P/CYP21 has the 5'-end in common, but differs in the 3'-end of CYP21-specific genes. The sequence organization of the gene array is C4A-CYP21P/CYP21-TNXB, whereas chimera TNXA/TNXB is caused by a CYP21 deletion, and a partial TNXB replaced by the TNXA gene shows the C4A-CYP21P-TNXA/TNXB sequence. Therefore, chimeras CYP21P/CYP21 and TNXA/TNXB are two distinct hybrid genes produced in the RCCX module in HLA class III. In addition, the haplotype of CYP21 with chimera CYP21P/CYP21 causes 21-hydroxylase deficiency in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), while chimera TNXA/TNXB is associated with Ehlers-Danols syndrome as well as CAH. PMID:15639189

  11. The chimeric CYP21P/CYP21 gene and 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsien-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    The chimeric CYP21P/CYP21 gene is a consequence of a 26- or 32-kb deletion in the C4-CYP21 repeat module of CYP21P, tenascin A ( XA), serine/threonine nuclear protein kinase ( RP2), and the C4B and CYP21 genes in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. To date, there have been three distinct chimeras found in CAH patients in ethnic Chinese. Initiation for production of these molecules is proposed to be chi-like sequences and a minisatellite consensus existing in several noncoding regions in CYP21 genes. These molecules have the 5' end of the CYP21P-specific sequence in common but differ in the 3' end of CYP21-specific genes. In addition, there appears to be a 3.2-kb fragment generated by Taq I digestion, which leads to allele dropout in PCR amplification for detecting the aberrant splicing site of the IVS2 -12A/C>G mutation at nucleotide (nt) 655 in the CYP21 gene. Therefore, the chimeric CYP21P/CYP21 cannot be detected by conventional methods. It has been demonstrated that a PCR product amplified with allele-specific primers covering tenascin B ( TNXB) to the 5' end of the CYP21 gene combined with Southern analysis by Ase I and Nde I digestion may be used for identifying the chimera in the CYP21 gene. PMID:14730433

  12. The P450 superfamily: update on new sequences, gene mapping, and recommended nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Nebert, D W; Nelson, D R; Coon, M J; Estabrook, R W; Feyereisen, R; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; Gonzalez, F J; Guengerich, F P; Gunsalus, I C; Johnson, E F

    1991-01-01

    We provide here a list of 154 P450 genes and seven putative pseudogenes that have been characterized as of October 20, 1990. These genes have been described in a total of 23 eukaryotes (including nine mammalian and one plant species) and six prokaryotes. Of 27 gene families so far described, 10 exist in all mammals. These 10 families comprise 18 subfamilies, of which 16 and 14 have been mapped in the human and mouse genomes, respectively; to date, each subfamily appears to represent a cluster of tightly linked genes. We propose here a modest revision of the initially proposed (Nebert et al., DNA 6, 1-11, 1987) and updated (Nebert et al., DNA 8, 1-13, 1989) nomenclature system based on evolution of the superfamily. For the gene we recommend that the italicized root symbol CYP for human (Cyp for mouse), representing cytochrome P450, be followed by an Arabic number denoting the family, a letter designating the subfamily (when two or more exist), and an Arabic numeral representing the individual gene within the subfamily. A hyphen should precede the final number in mouse genes. We suggest that the human nomenclature system be used for other species. This system is consistent with our earlier proposed nomenclature for P450 of all eukaryotes and prokaryotes, except that we are discouraging the future use of cumbersome Roman numerals. PMID:1991046

  13. Regulation of the Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in a Gram-Positive Alkane-Degrading Bacterium, Dietzia sp. Strain DQ12-45-1b

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jie-Liang; JiangYang, Jing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    CYP153, one of the most common medium-chain n-alkane hydroxylases belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is widely expressed in n-alkane-degrading bacteria. CYP153 is also thought to cooperate with AlkB in degrading various n-alkanes. However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of the protein remain largely unknown. In this paper, we studied CYP153 gene transcription regulation by the potential AraC family regulator (CypR) located upstream of the CYP153 gene cluster in a broad-spectrum n-alkane-degrading Gram-positive bacterium, Dietzia sp. strain DQ12-45-1b. We first identified the transcriptional start site and the promoter of the CYP153 gene cluster. Sequence alignment of upstream regions of CYP153 gene clusters revealed high conservation in the −10 and −35 regions in Actinobacteria. Further analysis of the β-galactosidase activity in the CYP153 gene promoter-lacZ fusion cell indicated that the CYP153 gene promoter was induced by n-alkanes comprised of 8 to 14 carbon atoms, but not by derived decanol and decanic acid. Moreover, we constructed a cypR mutant strain and found that the CYP153 gene promoter activities and CYP153 gene transcriptional levels in the mutant strain were depressed compared with those in the wild-type strain in the presence of n-alkanes, suggesting that CypR served as an activator for the CYP153 gene promoter. By comparing CYP153 gene arrangements in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, we found that the AraC family regulator is ubiquitously located upstream of the CYP153 gene, suggesting its universal regulatory role in CYP153 gene transcription. We further hypothesize that the observed mode of CYP153 gene regulation is shared by many Actinobacteria. PMID:26567302

  14. Diversity of the CYP21P-like gene in CYP21 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsien-Hsiung

    2005-01-01

    More than 90% of cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are caused by mutations of the CYP21 gene. The occurrence of defective CYP21 genes, including 15 mutations, has been attributed to intergenic recombination of DNA sequences from CYP21P, and shows no influence on the RP1-C4A-CYP21P-XA-RP2-C4BCYP21- TNXB gene locus on chromosome 6p21.3. However, multiple gene deletions in this region produce at least three categories of gene arrangements: (a) C4A-CYP21P/CYP21-TNXB, in which there is a CYP21P/CYP21 fusion gene; (b) C4A-XCYP21-TNXB, where XCYP21 indicates that the CYP21 gene contains mutations of IVS2 (-12A/C>G and 707-714delGAGACTAC); and (c) C4A-CYP21P-TNXA/TNXB, in which the TNX A and B genes are fused. Among them, seven different structures of the CYP21 haplotype were found at these three loci. Formation of the C4A-CYP21P/CYP21-TNXB locus produced four distinct CYP21P/CYP21 chimeras. The C4A-XCYP21-TNXB locus contained the IVS2 mutation -12A/C>G and 707-714delGAGACTAC from the XCYP21 gene; and two kinds of TNXA/TNXB hybrids were found in the C4A-CYP21P-TNXA/TNXB locus. The seven different CYP21 alleles produced 3.2 kb Taq I fragments caused by deletion of the RP2-XA-C4B locus. Therefore, production of a 3.2-kb CYP21 allele shows diversity, but is not a unique feature of the CYP21P gene. Most of these gene arrangements probably exist in the C4A-XCYP21-TNXB and C4A-CYP21P/CYP21-TNXB gene loci. The existence of the C4A-CYP21P-TNXA/TNXB locus might not be common in CAH patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. PMID:15684714

  15. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Lara; Webb, Emily; Sellick, Gabrielle; Rudd, Matthew; Penegar, Stephen; Withey, Laura; Qureshi, Mobshra; Houlston, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively). Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility. PMID:17615053

  16. CYP superfamily perturbation by diflubenzuron or acephate in different tissues of CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Sapone, A; Pozzetti, L; Canistro, D; Broccoli, M; Bronzetti, G; Potenza, G; Affatato, A; Biagi, G L; Cantelli-Forti, G; Paolini, M

    2005-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate whether the insecticide acephate (125 or 250 mg/kg b.w.) or diflubenzuron (752 or 1075 mg/kg b.w.), two of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, impairs CYP-linked murine metabolism in liver, kidney and lung microsomes after repeated (daily, for three consecutive days) i.p. administration. The regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylation of testosterone was used as multibiomarker of different CYP isoforms. Both gender and tissue specific effects were observed. Lung was the most responsive tissue to induction by lower diflubenzuron dose, as exemplified by the marked increase of testosterone 7alpha-hydroxylation (CYP2A) (up to 13-fold) in males. Higher dose produced a generalized inactivation. At the lower dose acephate induced 6beta- (CYP3A1/2, liver) as well as 2beta- (CYP2B1/2, kidney) hydroxylase activities ( approximately 5 and approximately 4-fold increase, respectively) in males. In females, a marked suppression of the various hydroxylations was observed. At 250 mg/kg of acephate, animals did not survive. Induction of the most affected isoforms was sustained by immunoblotting analysis. Corresponding human CYP modulations might disrupt normal physiological functions related to these enzymes. Furthermore, the co-mutagenic and promoting potential of these pesticides, phenomena linked to CYP upregulation (e.g. increased bioactivation of ubiquitous pollutants and generation of oxygen free radicals) are of concern for a more complete definition of their overall toxicological potential. PMID:15582210

  17. Phylogenetic Diversification of the Globin Gene Superfamily in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Jay F.; Opazo, Juan C.; Hoffmann, Federico G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phylogenetic reconstructions provide a means of inferring the branching relationships among members of multigene families that have diversified via successive rounds of gene duplication and divergence. Such reconstructions can illuminate the pathways by which particular expression patterns and protein functions evolved. For example, phylogenetic analyses can reveal cases in which similar expression patterns or functional properties evolved independently in different lineages, either through convergence, parallelism, or evolutionary reversals. The purpose of this paper is to provide a robust phylogenetic framework for interpreting experimental data and for generating hypotheses about the functional evolution of globin proteins in chordate animals. To do this we present a consensus phylogeny of the chordate globin gene superfamily. We document the relative roles of gene duplication and whole-genome duplication in fueling the functional diversification of vertebrate globins, and we unravel patterns of shared ancestry among globin genes from representatives of the three chordate subphyla (Craniata, Urochordata, and Cephalochordata). Our results demonstrate the value of integrating phylogenetic analyses with genomic analyses of conserved synteny to infer the duplicative origins and evolutionary histories of globin genes. We also discuss a number of case studies that illustrate the importance of phylogenetic information when making inferences about the evolution of globin gene expression and protein function. Finally, we discuss why the globin gene superfamily presents special challenges for phylogenetic analysis, and we describe methodological approaches that can be used to meet those challenges. PMID:21557448

  18. A complex gene superfamily encodes actin in petunia.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, W V; Meagher, R B

    1987-01-01

    We have shown by several independent criteria that actin is encoded by a very large and complex superfamily of genes in Petunia. Several cDNA and genomic probes encoding actins from diverse organisms (Dictyostelium, Drosophila, chicken and soybean) hybridize to hundreds of restriction fragments in the petunia genome. Actin-hybridizing sequences were isolated from a petunia genomic library at a rate of at least 200 per genome equivalent. Twenty randomly selected actin-hybridizing clones were characterized in more detail. DNA sequence data from four representative and highly divergent clones, PAc2, PAc3, PAc4 and PAc7, demonstrate that these actin-like sequences are related to functional actin genes. Intron positions typical of other known plant actin genes are conserved in these clones. Four of six clones analyzed (PAc1, PAc2, PAc3, PAc4) hybridize to leaf mRNA of the same size (1.7 kb) as that reported for other plant actin mRNAs and to a slightly smaller mRNA species (1.5 kb). Five distinct subfamilies of actin-related genes were characterized which varied in size from a few members to several dozen members. It is clear from our data that other actin gene subfamilies must also exist within the genome. Possible mechanisms of actin gene amplification and genome turnover are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3428258

  19. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Cellulose Synthase Gene Superfamily in Grasses.

    PubMed

    Schwerdt, Julian G; MacKenzie, Katrin; Wright, Frank; Oehme, Daniel; Wagner, John M; Harvey, Andrew J; Shirley, Neil J; Burton, Rachel A; Schreiber, Miriam; Halpin, Claire; Zimmer, Jochen; Marshall, David F; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2015-07-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of cellulose synthase (CesA) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families from the cellulose synthase gene superfamily were used to reconstruct their evolutionary origins and selection histories. Counterintuitively, genes encoding primary cell wall CesAs have undergone extensive expansion and diversification following an ancestral duplication from a secondary cell wall-associated CesA. Selection pressure across entire CesA and Csl clades appears to be low, but this conceals considerable variation within individual clades. Genes in the CslF clade are of particular interest because some mediate the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, a polysaccharide characteristic of the evolutionarily successful grasses that is not widely distributed elsewhere in the plant kingdom. The phylogeny suggests that duplication of either CslF6 and/or CslF7 produced the ancestor of a highly conserved cluster of CslF genes that remain located in syntenic regions of all the grass genomes examined. A CslF6-specific insert encoding approximately 55 amino acid residues has subsequently been incorporated into the gene, or possibly lost from other CslFs, and the CslF7 clade has undergone a significant long-term shift in selection pressure. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics of the CslF6 protein were used to define the three-dimensional dispositions of individual amino acids that are subject to strong ongoing selection, together with the position of the conserved 55-amino acid insert that is known to influence the amounts and fine structures of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans synthesized. These wall polysaccharides are attracting renewed interest because of their central roles as sources of dietary fiber in human health and for the generation of renewable liquid biofuels. PMID:25999407

  20. Fluconazole alters CYP26 gene expression in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Marotta, Francesca; Carletti, Erminia

    2009-04-01

    Disruption of embryonal retinoic acid homeostasis has been postulated to represent an etiological factor involved in the onset of fluconazole-induced teratogenesis. In the present study the impact of a teratogenic pulse of fluconazole on the gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 26 isoforms, which plays a central role in maintaining proper retinoic acid levels by mediating its degradation, was investigated. ICR pregnant mice were orally administered with 0 (vehicle) or 700mg/kg of fluconazole on gestation day 8. Embryos were collected 12, 24 and 48h after treatment. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (quantitative real-time RT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the mRNA expression of CYP26a1, CYP26b1 and CYP26c1 in embryos. As result, fluconazole exposure was associated to an up-regulation of CYP26a1, CYP26b1, whereas no significant change was identified for the CYP26c1 isoform. This study demonstrates the capacity of fluconazole to alter CYP26 gene expression in mouse embryos. PMID:19429397

  1. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. PMID:25909656

  2. Analysis of the CYP21A1P pseudogene: indication of mutational diversity and CYP21A2-like and duplicated CYP21A2 genes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Li-Ping; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chuang, Shu-Hua; Lee, Hsien-Hsiung

    2011-06-15

    The CYP21A1P gene downstream of the XA gene, carrying 15 deteriorated mutations, is a nonfunctional pseudogene that shares 98% nucleotide sequence homology with CYP21A2 located on chromosome 6p21.3. However, these mutations in the CYP21A1P gene are not totally involved in each individual. From our analysis of 100 healthy ethnic Chinese (i.e., Taiwanese) (n=200 chromosomes) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products combined with an amplification-created restriction site (ACRS) method and DNA sequencing, we found that approximately 10% of CYP21A1P alleles (n=195 chromosomes) presented the CYP21A2 sequence; frequencies of P30, V281, Q318, and R356 in that locus were approximately 24%, 21%, 11%, and 34%, respectively, and approximately 90% of the CYP21A1P alleles had 15 mutated loci. In addition, approximately 2.5% (n=5 chromosomes) showed four haplotypes of the 3.7-kb TaqI-produced fragment of the CYP21A2-like gene and one duplicated CYP21A2 gene. We conclude that the pseudogene of the CYP21A1P mutation presents diverse variants. Moreover, the existence of the CYP21A2-like gene is more abundant than that of the duplicated CYP21A2 gene downstream of the XA gene and could not be distinguished from the CYP21A2-TNXB gene; thus, it may be misdiagnosed by previously established methods for congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by a 21-hydroxylase deficiency. PMID:21324303

  3. Isolation and Expression Analysis of CYP9A11 and Cytochrome P450 Reductase Gene in the Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunqing; Feng, Xiaoyun; Tang, Tao; Qiu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), as an enzyme superfamily, is widely distributed in organisms and plays a vital function in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds by interacting with its obligatory redox partner, CYP reductase (CPR). A novel CYP gene (CYP9A11) and CPR gene from the agricultural pest insect Spodoptera exigua were cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequences of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR are 1,931 and 3,919 bp in length, respectively, and contain open reading frames of 1,593 and 2,070 nucleotides, respectively. Analysis of the putative protein sequences indicated that SeCYP9A11 contains a heme-binding domain and the unique characteristic sequence (SRFALCE) of the CYP9 family, in addition to a signal peptide and transmembrane segment at the N-terminal. Alignment analysis revealed that SeCYP9A11 shares the highest sequence similarity with CYP9A13 from Mamestra brassicae, which is 66.54%. The putative protein sequence of SeCPR has all of the classical CPR features, such as an N-terminal membrane anchor; three conserved domain flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) domain; and characteristic binding motifs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SeCPR shares the highest identity with HaCPR, which is 95.21%. The SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes were detected in the midgut, fat body, and cuticle tissues, and throughout all of the developmental stages of S. exigua. The mRNA levels of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR decreased remarkably after exposure to plant secondary metabolites quercetin and tannin. The results regarding SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes in the current study provide foundation for the further study of S. exigua P450 system. PMID:26320261

  4. Isolation and Expression Analysis of CYP9A11 and Cytochrome P450 Reductase Gene in the Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunqing; Feng, Xiaoyun; Tang, Tao; Qiu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), as an enzyme superfamily, is widely distributed in organisms and plays a vital function in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds by interacting with its obligatory redox partner, CYP reductase (CPR). A novel CYP gene (CYP9A11) and CPR gene from the agricultural pest insect Spodoptera exigua were cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequences of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR are 1,931 and 3,919 bp in length, respectively, and contain open reading frames of 1,593 and 2,070 nucleotides, respectively. Analysis of the putative protein sequences indicated that SeCYP9A11 contains a heme-binding domain and the unique characteristic sequence (SRFALCE) of the CYP9 family, in addition to a signal peptide and transmembrane segment at the N-terminal. Alignment analysis revealed that SeCYP9A11 shares the highest sequence similarity with CYP9A13 from Mamestra brassicae, which is 66.54%. The putative protein sequence of SeCPR has all of the classical CPR features, such as an N-terminal membrane anchor; three conserved domain flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) domain; and characteristic binding motifs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SeCPR shares the highest identity with HaCPR, which is 95.21%. The SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes were detected in the midgut, fat body, and cuticle tissues, and throughout all of the developmental stages of S. exigua. The mRNA levels of SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR decreased remarkably after exposure to plant secondary metabolites quercetin and tannin. The results regarding SeCYP9A11 and SeCPR genes in the current study provide foundation for the further study of S. exigua P450 system. PMID:26320261

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel CYP26 gene (cyp26d1) during zebrafish early development.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xingxing; Xu, Fang; Wang, Xiaolin; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Qingshun

    2005-08-01

    Proper restriction of retinoid signaling by Cyp26s is essential for development of vertebrate embryos while inappropriate retinoid signaling can cause teratogenesis. Here, we report cloning and expression analysis of a novel cyp26 gene (cyp26d1) isolated from zebrafish. The predicted protein encoded by cyp26d1 consists of 554 amino acids. It exhibits 54% amino acid identity with human Cyp26C1, 50% with zebrafish Cyp26B1 and 38% with zebrafish Cyp26A1. Whole-mount in situ hybridization shows that cyp26d1 is first expressed in sphere stage, then disappears at 50% epiboly and resumes its expression at 75% epiboly. During segmentation period, cyp26d1 message is found at presumptive hindbrain. Double in situ hybridization with krox20 and cyp26d1 reveals that cyp26d1 is expressed in presumptive rhombomere 2-4 (r2-r4) at 2-somite stage. At 3-somite stage, cyp26d1 gene is expressed in r6 and pharyngeal arch (pa) one in addition to its expression at r2 and r4. At 6-somite stage, cyp26d1 message is present in continuous bands at r2-r6 and in pa1. This expression pattern is maintained from 10-somite stage through 21-somite stage except that the expression level is greatly reduced at r2 and r4. At 21-somite stage, cyp26d1 is also found in a group of cells in telencephalon and diencephalons. At 25-31h post-fertilization (hpf), the zebrafish cyp26d1 expression domain is extended to eyes, otic vesicles and midbrain in addition to its expression in hindbrain, telencephalon, diencephalons, and pharyngeal arches. At 35-48hpf, the expression of cyp26d1 is mainly restricted to otic vesicles, pharyngeal arches and pectoral fins and the expression level is greatly reduced. PMID:15979416

  6. Role of Pregnane X Receptor and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Transcriptional Regulation of pxr, CYP2, and CYP3 Genes in Developing Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Akira; Goldstone, Jared V.; Lemaire, Benjamin; Takata, Matthew; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Ligand-activated receptors regulate numerous genes, and mediate effects of a broad set of endogenous and exogenous chemicals in vertebrates. Understanding the roles of these transcription factors in zebrafish (Danio rerio) is important to the use of this non-mammalian model in toxicological, pharmacological, and carcinogenesis research. Response to a potential agonist for the pregnane X receptor (Pxr) [pregnenolone (PN)] was examined in developing zebrafish, to assess involvement of Pxr in regulation of selected genes, including genes in cytochrome P450 subfamilies CYP2 and CYP3. We also examined interaction of Pxr and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) signaling pathways. Pregnenolone caused a dose-dependent increase in mRNA levels of pxr, ahr2, CYP1A, CYP2AA1, CYP2AA12, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1, most of which peaked at 3 µM PN. The well-known Ahr agonist 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) also upregulated expression of pxr, ahr2, CYP1A, CYP2AA12, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1 in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of pxr translation by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO) suppressed PN-induced expression of pxr, ahr2, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1 genes. Levels of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA12 mRNA were increased in the control-MO group exposed to PN; this was prevented by knocking down Pxr. Similarly, Ahr2-MO treatment blocked PCB126-induced mRNA expression of pxr, CYP1A, CYP2AA12, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1. The present study shows self-regulation of pxr by PN in developing zebrafish. Selected zebrafish CYP1, CYP2 (including several CYP2AAs) and CYP3 genes appear to be under the regulation of both Pxr and Ahr2. PMID:25424564

  7. Role of pregnane X receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in transcriptional regulation of pxr, CYP2, and CYP3 genes in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akira; Goldstone, Jared V; Lemaire, Benjamin; Takata, Matthew; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J

    2015-02-01

    Ligand-activated receptors regulate numerous genes, and mediate effects of a broad set of endogenous and exogenous chemicals in vertebrates. Understanding the roles of these transcription factors in zebrafish (Danio rerio) is important to the use of this non-mammalian model in toxicological, pharmacological, and carcinogenesis research. Response to a potential agonist for the pregnane X receptor (Pxr) [pregnenolone (PN)] was examined in developing zebrafish, to assess involvement of Pxr in regulation of selected genes, including genes in cytochrome P450 subfamilies CYP2 and CYP3. We also examined interaction of Pxr and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) signaling pathways. Pregnenolone caused a dose-dependent increase in mRNA levels of pxr, ahr2, CYP1A, CYP2AA1, CYP2AA12, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1, most of which peaked at 3 µM PN. The well-known Ahr agonist 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) also upregulated expression of pxr, ahr2, CYP1A, CYP2AA12, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1 in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of pxr translation by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO) suppressed PN-induced expression of pxr, ahr2, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1 genes. Levels of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA12 mRNA were increased in the control-MO group exposed to PN; this was prevented by knocking down Pxr. Similarly, Ahr2-MO treatment blocked PCB126-induced mRNA expression of pxr, CYP1A, CYP2AA12, CYP3A65, and CYP3C1. The present study shows self-regulation of pxr by PN in developing zebrafish. Selected zebrafish CYP1, CYP2 (including several CYP2AAs) and CYP3 genes appear to be under the regulation of both Pxr and Ahr2. PMID:25424564

  8. Variants of the CYP21A2 and CYP21A1P genes in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsien-Hsiung

    2013-03-15

    More than 90% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases are caused by mutation of the CYP21A2 gene which converted from the CYP21A1P pseudogene. Sizes of the 3.7-kb TaqI-produced fragment that exists downstream of the TNXB gene, representing the CYP21A2, and the 3.2-kb TaqI-produced fragment that exists downstream of the XA gene, representing the CYP21A1P pseudogene, are used as size markers in the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. However, the size of and location for distinguishing these two genes might not be completely precise or reliable. Recent studies indicated that the 3.2-kb TaqI fragment may include multiple variants of chimeric CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 genes, a haplotype with dual mutations of IVS2-12A/C>G and 707-714del, and a functional CYP21A2 gene caused by small-scale conversions of the 5' end of the CYP21A1P sequence. In addition, a 3.7-kb TaqI fragment with more than 4 haplotypes of CYP21A2-like downstream of the TNXA gene and a 6.2-kb TaqI fragment of the CYP21A2 that results from a nucleotide mutation in the 3' end sequence were also identified. Accordingly, these structural variants reveal that traditional recognition of these two genes based on the TaqI fragment size analysis may lead to misinterpretation and increasingly interfere with the molecular diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. PMID:23313747

  9. All kinesin superfamily protein, KIF, genes in mouse and human.

    PubMed

    Miki, H; Setou, M; Kaneshiro, K; Hirokawa, N

    2001-06-19

    Intracellular transport is essential for morphogenesis and functioning of the cell. The kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) have been shown to transport membranous organelles and protein complexes in a microtubule- and ATP-dependent manner. More than 30 KIFs have been reported in mice. However, the nomenclature of KIFs has not been clearly established, resulting in various designations and redundant names for a single KIF. Here, we report the identification and classification of all KIFs in mouse and human genome transcripts. Previously unidentified murine KIFs were found by a PCR-based search. The identification of all KIFs was confirmed by a database search of the total human genome. As a result, there are a total of 45 KIFs. The nomenclature of all KIFs is presented. To understand the function of KIFs in intracellular transport in a single tissue, we focused on the brain. The expression of 38 KIFs was detected in brain tissue by Northern blotting or PCR using cDNA. The brain, mainly composed of highly differentiated and polarized cells such as neurons and glia, requires a highly complex intracellular transport system as indicated by the increased number of KIFs for their sophisticated functions. It is becoming increasingly clear that the cell uses a number of KIFs and tightly controls the direction, destination, and velocity of transportation of various important functional molecules, including mRNA. This report will set the foundation of KIF and intracellular transport research. PMID:11416179

  10. Cloning of a new member of the insulin gene superfamily (INSL4) expressed in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, D.; Laurent, A.; Janneau, J.L.

    1995-09-20

    A new member of the insulin gene superfamily was identified by screening a subtracted cDNA library of first-trimester human placenta and, hence, was tentatively named early placenta insulin-like peptide (EPIL). In this paper, we report the cloning and sequencing of the EPIL cDNA and the EPIL gene (INSL4). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the early placenta insulin-like peptide revealed significant overall and structural homologies with members of the insulin-like hormone superfamily. Moreover, the organization of the early placenta insulin-like gene, which is composed of two exons and one intron, is similiar to that of insulin and relaxin. By in situ hybridization, the INSL4 gene was assigned to band p24 of the short arm of chromosome 9. RT-PCR analysis of EPIL tissue distribution revealed that its transcripts are expressed in the placenta and uterus. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  11. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  12. CYP2S1: a short review.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Rivera, Steven P; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:16054184

  13. Update of the human and mouse SERPIN gene superfamily.

    PubMed

    Heit, Claire; Jackson, Brian C; McAndrews, Monica; Wright, Mathew W; Thompson, David C; Silverman, Gary A; Nebert, Daniel W; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    The serpin family comprises a structurally similar, yet functionally diverse, set of proteins. Named originally for their function as serine proteinase inhibitors, many of its members are not inhibitors but rather chaperones, involved in storage, transport, and other roles. Serpins are found in genomes of all kingdoms, with 36 human protein-coding genes and five pseudogenes. The mouse has 60 Serpin functional genes, many of which are orthologous to human SERPIN genes and some of which have expanded into multiple paralogous genes. Serpins are found in tissues throughout the body; whereas most are extracellular, there is a class of intracellular serpins. Serpins appear to have roles in inflammation, immune function, tumorigenesis, blood clotting, dementia, and cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these proteins will likely reveal potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for disease. PMID:24172014

  14. Update of the human and mouse SERPIN gene superfamily

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The serpin family comprises a structurally similar, yet functionally diverse, set of proteins. Named originally for their function as serine proteinase inhibitors, many of its members are not inhibitors but rather chaperones, involved in storage, transport, and other roles. Serpins are found in genomes of all kingdoms, with 36 human protein-coding genes and five pseudogenes. The mouse has 60 Serpin functional genes, many of which are orthologous to human SERPIN genes and some of which have expanded into multiple paralogous genes. Serpins are found in tissues throughout the body; whereas most are extracellular, there is a class of intracellular serpins. Serpins appear to have roles in inflammation, immune function, tumorigenesis, blood clotting, dementia, and cancer metastasis. Further characterization of these proteins will likely reveal potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for disease. PMID:24172014

  15. Analysis of the Small GTPase Gene Superfamily of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Vernoud, Vanessa; Horton, Amy C.; Yang, Zhenbiao; Nielsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Small GTP-binding proteins regulate diverse processes in eukaryotic cells such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and intracellular membrane trafficking. These proteins function as molecular switches that cycle between “active” and “inactive” states, and this cycle is linked to the binding and hydrolysis of GTP. The Arabidopsis genome contains 93 genes that encode small GTP-binding protein homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes shows that plants contain Rab, Rho, Arf, and Ran GTPases, but no Ras GTPases. We have assembled complete lists of these small GTPases families, as well as accessory proteins that control their activity, and review what is known of the functions of individual members of these families in Arabidopsis. We also discuss the possible roles of these GTPases in relation to their similarity to orthologs with known functions and localizations in yeast and/or animal systems. PMID:12644670

  16. Transcriptional profiles of glutathione-S-Transferase isoforms, Cyp, and AOE genes in atrazine-exposed zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Glisic, Branka; Hrubik, Jelena; Fa, Svetlana; Dopudj, Nela; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2016-02-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) superfamily consists of multiple members involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Expressional pattern of the GST isoforms in adult fish has been used as a biomarker of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, GST transcriptional responses vary across organs, thus requiring a cross-tissue examination of multiple mRNAs for GST profiling in an animal after chemical exposure. Zebrafish embryos express all GST isoforms as adult fish and could therefore represent an alternative model for identification of biomarkers of exposure. To evaluate such a possibility, we studied a set of cytosolic and microsomal GST isoform-specific expression profiles in the zebrafish embryos after exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide. Expression of the GST isoforms was compared with that of CYP genes involved in the phase I of xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant enzyme (AOE) genes. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we showed dynamic changes in the expressional pattern of twenty GST isoforms, cyp1a, cyp3a65, ahr2, and four AOEs in early development of zebrafish. Acute (48 and 72 h) exposure of 24 h-old embryos to atrazine, from environmentally relevant (0.005 mg/L) to high (40 mg/L) concentrations, caused a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in the GST isoforms, ahr2 and AOE genes response. However, expression of cyp1a and cyp3a65 mRNA was markedly and consistently induced by high doses of atrazine (5 and 40 mg/L). In summary, an analysis of the response of multiple systems in the zebrafish embryos provided a comprehensive understanding of atrazine toxicity and its potential impact on biological processes. PMID:25158112

  17. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria. PMID:27444410

  18. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria PMID:27444410

  19. Whole-Genome Identification, Phylogeny, and Evolution of the Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP2) Subfamilies in Birds.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 avian whole genomes representing all major extant bird clades. Overall, 12 CYP2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the CYP2F, CYP2G, and several CYP2AF genes in avian genomes. Some of the CYP2 genes previously described as being lineage-specific, such as CYP2K and CYP2W, are ubiquitous to all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K, and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS0, SRS2_SRS3, and SRS3.1) and heme binding areas that influence CYP2 structure and function of functional importance as under significant positive selection. Some of the positively selected sites in avian CYP2D are located within the same SRS1 region that was previously linked with the metabolism of plant toxins. Additionally, we find that selective constraint variations in some avian CYP2 subfamilies are consistently associated with different feeding habits (CYP2H and CYP2J), habitats (CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, and CYP2K), and migratory behaviors (CYP2D, CYP2H, and CYP2J). Overall, our findings indicate that there has been active enzyme site selection on CYP2 subfamilies and differential selection associated with different life history traits among birds. PMID:26979796

  20. Whole-Genome Identification, Phylogeny, and Evolution of the Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP2) Subfamilies in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 avian whole genomes representing all major extant bird clades. Overall, 12 CYP2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the CYP2F, CYP2G, and several CYP2AF genes in avian genomes. Some of the CYP2 genes previously described as being lineage-specific, such as CYP2K and CYP2W, are ubiquitous to all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K, and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS0, SRS2_SRS3, and SRS3.1) and heme binding areas that influence CYP2 structure and function of functional importance as under significant positive selection. Some of the positively selected sites in avian CYP2D are located within the same SRS1 region that was previously linked with the metabolism of plant toxins. Additionally, we find that selective constraint variations in some avian CYP2 subfamilies are consistently associated with different feeding habits (CYP2H and CYP2J), habitats (CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, and CYP2K), and migratory behaviors (CYP2D, CYP2H, and CYP2J). Overall, our findings indicate that there has been active enzyme site selection on CYP2 subfamilies and differential selection associated with different life history traits among birds. PMID:26979796

  1. Identification and characterization of two CYP9A genes associated with pyrethroid detoxification in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenya; Yu, Rongrong; Wu, Haihua; Zhang, Xueyao; Liu, Yaoming; Zhu, Kun Yan; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) constitute one of the largest gene super families and distribute widely in all living organisms. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of two LmCYP9A genes (LmCYP9AQ1 and LmCYP9A3) were cloned from Locusta migratoria. We analyzed the expression patterns of two LmCYP9A genes in various tissues and different developmental stages using real-time quantitative PCR. Then we evaluated the detoxification functions of the two LmCYP9A genes by testing mortalities with four kinds of pyrethroid treatment after RNA interference (RNAi), respectively. Combining with docking structure of two LmCYP9A genes, their detoxification properties were extensively analyzed. The full-length cDNAs of LmCYP9AQ1 and LmCYP9A3 putatively encoded 525 and 524 amino acid residues, respectively. Both LmCYP9A genes were expressed throughout the developmental stages. The expression of LmCYP9AQ1 in the brain was higher than that in other examined tissues, whereas the LmCYP9A3 was mainly expressed in the fat body. The mortalities of nymphs exposed to deltamethrin and permethrin increased from 27.7% to 77.7% and 27.7% to 58.3%, respectively, after dsLmCYP9A3 injection. While the mortalities of nymphs exposed to fluvalinate increased from 29.8% to 53.0% after LmCYP9AQ1 was silenced using RNA interference. Our results suggested that the two LmCYP9A genes may be involved in different pyrethroid insecticide detoxification in L. migratoria. PMID:27521915

  2. Evolution of the CYP2D gene cluster in humans and four non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Satta, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a primary enzyme involved in the metabolism of about 25% of commonly used therapeutic drugs. CYP2D6 belongs to the CYP2D subfamily, a gene cluster located on chromosome 22, which comprises the CYP2D6 gene and pseudogenes CYP2D7P and CYP2D8P. Although the chemical and physiological properties of CYP2D6 have been extensively studied, there has been no study to date on molecular evolution of the CYP2D subfamily in the human genome. Such knowledge could greatly contribute to the understanding of drug metabolism in humans because it makes us to know when and how the current metabolic system has been constructed. The knowledge moreover can be useful to find differences in exogenous substrates in a particular metabolism between human and other animals such as experimental animals. Here, we conducted a preliminary study to investigate the evolution and gene organization of the CYP2D subfamily, focused on humans and four non-human primates (chimpanzees, orangutans, rhesus monkeys, and common marmosets). Our results indicate that CYP2D7P has been duplicated from CYP2D6 before the divergence between humans and great apes, whereas CYP2D6 and CYP2D8P have been already present in the stem lineages of New World monkeys and Catarrhini. Furthermore, the origin of the CYP2D subfamily in the human genome can be traced back to before the divergence between amniotes and amphibians. Our analyses also show that reported chimeric sequences of the CYP2D6 and CYP2D7 genes in the chimpanzee genome appear to be exchanged in its genome database. PMID:21670550

  3. Diversity of Conotoxin Gene Superfamilies in the Venomous Snail, Conus victoriae

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; McIntosh, Lachlan D.; Purcell, Anthony W.; Norton, Raymond S.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms represent a vast library of bioactive peptides and proteins with proven potential, not only as research tools but also as drug leads and therapeutics. This is illustrated clearly by marine cone snails (genus Conus), whose venoms consist of mixtures of hundreds of peptides (conotoxins) with a diverse array of molecular targets, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and neurotransmitter transporters. Several conotoxins have found applications as research tools, with some being used or developed as therapeutics. The primary objective of this study was the large-scale discovery of conotoxin sequences from the venom gland of an Australian cone snail species, Conus victoriae. Using cDNA library normalization, high-throughput 454 sequencing, de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation with BLASTX and profile hidden Markov models, we discovered over 100 unique conotoxin sequences from 20 gene superfamilies, the highest diversity of conotoxins so far reported in a single study. Many of the sequences identified are new members of known conotoxin superfamilies, some help to redefine these superfamilies and others represent altogether new classes of conotoxins. In addition, we have demonstrated an efficient combination of methods to mine an animal venom gland and generate a library of sequences encoding bioactive peptides. PMID:24505301

  4. Constitutive and xenobiotics-induced expression of a novel CYP3A gene from zebrafish larva.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hua-Pin; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung; Buhler, Donald R; Wang, Wen-Der; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2005-06-15

    In mammals, CYP3A isozymes collectively comprise the largest portion of the liver and small intestinal CYP protein. They are involved in the metabolism of an extensive range of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics and make a significant contribution to the termination of the action of steroid hormones. A full-length cDNA of CYP3A gene, named CYP3A65, was cloned from zebrafish by RT-PCR. The CYP3A65 mRNA was initially transcribed only in the liver and intestine upon hatching of the zebrafish embryos. Like the human CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription in the foregut region was enhanced by treatment of the zebrafish larvae with the steroid dexamethasone and the macrocyclic antibiotic rifampicin. Differing from mammalian CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription was also elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early larval stages. Repression of AHR2 translation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abrogated both of constitutive and TCDD-stimulated CYP3A65 transcription in larval intestine. These findings suggested that the AHR2 signaling pathway plays an essential role in CYP3A65 transcription. PMID:15922010

  5. Constitutive and xenobiotics-induced expression of a novel CYP3A gene from zebrafish larva

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, H.-P.; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung; Buhler, Donald R.; Wang, W.-D.; Hu, C.-H. . E-mail: chhu@mail.ntou.edu.tw

    2005-06-15

    In mammals, CYP3A isozymes collectively comprise the largest portion of the liver and small intestinal CYP protein. They are involved in the metabolism of an extensive range of endogenous substrates and xenobiotics and make a significant contribution to the termination of the action of steroid hormones. A full-length cDNA of CYP3A gene, named CYP3A65, was cloned from zebrafish by RT-PCR. The CYP3A65 mRNA was initially transcribed only in the liver and intestine upon hatching of the zebrafish embryos. Like the human CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription in the foregut region was enhanced by treatment of the zebrafish larvae with the steroid dexamethasone and the macrocyclic antibiotic rifampicin. Differing from mammalian CYP3A genes, CYP3A65 transcription was also elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early larval stages. Repression of AHR2 translation by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides abrogated both of constitutive and TCDD-stimulated CYP3A65 transcription in larval intestine. These findings suggested that the AHR2 signaling pathway plays an essential role in CYP3A65 transcription.

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Wood, Andrew J; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopečný, David; Nebert, Daniel W; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD(+)- or NADP(+)-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as 'aldehyde scavengers' by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried out genome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species-including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies. PMID:23007552

  7. Expression Divergence of Duplicate Genes in the Protein Kinase Superfamily in Pacific Oyster.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dahai; Ko, Dennis C; Tian, Xinmin; Yang, Guang; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication has been proposed to serve as the engine of evolutionary innovation. It is well recognized that eukaryotic genomes contain a large number of duplicated genes that evolve new functions or expression patterns. However, in mollusks, the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the divergence and the functional maintenance of duplicate genes remain little understood. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of duplicate genes in the protein kinase superfamily using whole genome and transcriptome data for the Pacific oyster. A total of 64 duplicated gene pairs were identified based on a phylogenetic approach and the reciprocal best BLAST method. By analyzing gene expression from RNA-seq data from 69 different developmental and stimuli-induced conditions (nine tissues, 38 developmental stages, eight dry treatments, seven heat treatments, and seven salty treatments), we found that expression patterns were significantly correlated for a number of duplicate gene pairs, suggesting the conservation of regulatory mechanisms following divergence. Our analysis also identified a subset of duplicate gene pairs with very high expression divergence, indicating that these gene pairs may have been subjected to transcriptional subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization after the initial duplication events. Further analysis revealed a significant correlation between expression and sequence divergence (as revealed by synonymous or nonsynonymous substitution rates) under certain conditions. Taken together, these results provide evidence for duplicate gene sequence and expression divergence in the Pacific oyster, accompanying its adaptation to harsh environments. Our results provide new insights into the evolution of duplicate genes and their expression levels in the Pacific oyster. PMID:26417197

  8. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio); expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Akira; Bainy, Afonso C.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map into CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificity. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1, but not CYP2AA2 in liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. PMID:23726801

  9. COUP-TF gene: a structure unique for the steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, H H; Wang, L H; Tsai, S; O'Malley, B W; Tsai, M J

    1990-01-01

    Two different genomic genes for the COUP-transcription factor, COUP-TF I and COUP-TF II, have been isolated from a human cosmid genomic library using a [32P]-labeled cDNA probe. Data obtained from Southern blot analysis of these cosmid clones indicated that two closely related genes exist in the human genome and have a similar genomic organization. The genes are similar in the hormone and DNA binding domains but diverge from one another in the N-terminal region. Using DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques we have determined that the structure of COUP-TF I consists only of three exons and two introns. Surprisingly, both zinc fingers (i.e., F1 and F2) are located in the first exon. Therefore, COUP-TF I is unique among the members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily which have been described to date. Images PMID:2263450

  10. Differential expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells exposed to TCDD and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Kaisarevic, Sonja; Dakic, Vanja; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Lübcke-von Varel, Urte; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana; Teodorovic, Ivana; Brack, Werner; Kovacevic, Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Rat hepatoma cells H4IIE were treated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene), low-concentration mixtures of PAHs and TCDD, and environmental mixtures contaminated by PAHs and their derivatives. Expression of the gene battery comprising cytochrome P450 Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, and glutathione-s-transferase Gsta2 and Gstp was investigated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. The results revealed that TCDD induce Cyp1a1>Cyp1a2>Cyp1b1, while PAHs and PAH-containing environmental mixtures induce Cyp1a2>Cyp1a1>Cyp1b1 gene expression pattern. While low-concentration mixtures elicited a more pronounced response in comparison to single treatments, the typical gene expression patterns were not observed. In all samples, Gsta2 was predominantly expressed relative to Gstp. These findings indicate that differential Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 expression in the H4IIE cells might be used for detection of PAHs in highly contaminated environmental mixtures, but not in low-concentration mixtures of these compounds. PMID:25555259

  11. Prevertebrate Local Gene Duplication Facilitated Expansion of the Neuropeptide GPCR Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seongsik; Furlong, Michael; Sim, Mikang; Cho, Minah; Park, Sumi; Cho, Eun Bee; Reyes-Alcaraz, Arfaxad; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Kim, Jaebum; Seong, Jae Young

    2015-11-01

    In humans, numerous genes encode neuropeptides that comprise a superfamily of more than 70 genes in approximately 30 families and act mainly through rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R WGD) during early vertebrate evolution greatly contributed to proliferation within gene families; however, the mechanisms underlying the initial emergence and diversification of these gene families before 2R WGD are largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed 25 vertebrate rhodopsin-like neuropeptide GPCR families and their cognate peptides using phylogeny, synteny, and localization of these genes on reconstructed vertebrate ancestral chromosomes (VACs). Based on phylogeny, these GPCR families can be divided into five distinct clades, and members of each clade tend to be located on the same VACs. Similarly, their neuropeptide gene families also tend to reside on distinct VACs. Comparison of these GPCR genes with those of invertebrates including Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Branchiostoma floridae, and Ciona intestinalis indicates that these GPCR families emerged through tandem local duplication during metazoan evolution prior to 2R WGD. Our study describes a presumptive evolutionary mechanism and development pathway of the vertebrate rhodopsin-like GPCR and cognate neuropeptide families from the urbilaterian ancestor to modern vertebrates. PMID:26337547

  12. Genome-wide comparison of AP2/ERF superfamily genes between Gossypium arboreum and G. raimondii.

    PubMed

    Lei, Z P; He, D H; Xing, H Y; Tang, B S; Lu, B X

    2016-01-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor superfamily is known to regulate diverse processes of plant development and stress responses. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF gene in Gossypium arboreum and G. raimondii. Using RPSBLAST and HMMsearch, a total of 271 and 269 AP2/ERF genes were identified in the G. arboreum and G. raimondii genomes, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis classified diploid Gossypium spp AP2/ERF genes into 4 families and 16 subfamilies. Orthologous genes predominated the terminal branch of the phylogenetic tree. Physical mapping showed at least 30% of AP2/ERF genes clustered together. A high level of intra- and inter-species collinearity involving AP2/ERF genes was observed, indicating common (before species divergence) or parallel (after species divergence) segmental duplications, along with tandem duplications, resulting in the species-specific expansion of AP2/ERF genes in diploid Gossypium species. Motif analyses of the AP2/ERF proteins revealed that motif arrangements were highly diverse among subfamilies, but shared by orthologous gene pairs. An examination of nucleotide divergence of AP2/ERF coding regions identified small and non-significant sequence differences among orthologs. Expression profiling of AP2/ERF orthologous gene pairs showed similar abundance levels of orthologous copies between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Thus, cotton species possess abundant and diverse AP2/ERF genes, resulting from tandem and segmental duplications. Protein and nucleotide sequence and mRNA expression analyses revealed symmetrical evolution, indicating that most AP2/ ERF genes may not have undergone significant biochemical and morphological divergence between sister species. Our study provides detailed insights into the evolutionary characteristics and functional importance of AP2/ERF genes, and could aid in the genetic improvement of agriculturally significant crops in this genus. PMID:27525884

  13. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira; Bainy, Afonso C.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  14. Identification of genomic polymorphisms in upstream elements of the bovine CYP3A28 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme family consists of a group of heme-containing monooxygenases that participate in metabolism and phase I detoxification. Previously, our group reported that the coding sequence for the CYP3A28 gene in cattle was polymorphic and related to cattle performance on toxic t...

  15. Phi Class of Glutathione S-transferase Gene Superfamily Widely Exists in Nonplant Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Xu, You-Ping; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes involved in detoxification of noxious compounds and protection against oxidative damage. GST class Phi (GSTF), one of the important classes of plant GSTs, has long been considered as plant specific but was recently found in basidiomycete fungi. However, the range of nonplant taxonomic groups containing GSTFs remains unknown. In this study, the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of nonplant GSTFs were investigated. We identified GSTFs in ascomycete fungi, myxobacteria, and protists Naegleria gruberi and Aureococcus anophagefferens. GSTF occurrence in these bacteria and protists correlated with their genome sizes and habitats. While this link was missing across ascomycetes, the distribution and abundance of GSTFs among ascomycete genomes could be associated with their lifestyles to some extent. Sequence comparison, gene structure, and phylogenetic analyses indicated divergence among nonplant GSTFs, suggesting polyphyletic origins during evolution. Furthermore, in silico prediction of functional partners suggested functional diversification among nonplant GSTFs. PMID:26884677

  16. Functional Characterization of CYP94-Genes and Identification of a Novel Jasmonate Catabolite in Flowers

    PubMed Central

    König, Stefanie; Brodhun, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades much research focused on the biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). While many details about its biosynthetic pathway as well about its physiological function are established nowadays, knowledge about its catabolic fate is still scarce. Only recently, the hormonal inactivation mechanisms became a stronger research focus. Two major pathways have been proposed to inactivate JA-Ile: i) The cleavage of the jasmonyl-residue from the isoleucine moiety, a reaction that is catalyzed by specific amido-hydrolases, or ii), the sequential oxidation of the ω-end of the pentenyl side-chain. This reaction is catalyzed by specific members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily CYP94: CYP94B1, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1. In the present study, we further investigated the oxidative fate of JA-Ile by expanding the analysis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, lacking only one (cyp94b1, cyp94b2, cyp94b3, cyp94c1), two (cyp94b1xcyp94b2, cyp94b1xcyp94b3, cyp94b2xcyp94b3), three (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3) or even four (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3xcyp94c1) CYP94 functionalities. The results obtained in the present study show that CYP94B1, CYP94B2, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are responsible for catalyzing the sequential ω-oxidation of JA-Ile in a semi-redundant manner. While CYP94B-enzymes preferentially hydroxylate JA-Ile to 12-hydroxy-JA-Ile, CYP94C1 catalyzes primarily the subsequent oxidation, yielding 12-carboxy-JA-Ile. In addition, data obtained from investigating the triple and quadruple mutants let us hypothesize that a direct oxidation of unconjugated JA to 12-hydroxy-JA is possible in planta. Using a non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting analysis, we identified unconjugated 12-carboxy-JA as novel jasmonate derivative in floral tissues. Using the same approach, we could show that deletion of CYP94-genes might not only affect JA-homeostasis but also other signaling pathways. Deletion of CYP94B1, for example, led to accumulation of metabolites that may be

  17. Functional Characterization of CYP94-Genes and Identification of a Novel Jasmonate Catabolite in Flowers.

    PubMed

    Bruckhoff, Viktoria; Haroth, Sven; Feussner, Kirstin; König, Stefanie; Brodhun, Florian; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades much research focused on the biosynthesis of the plant hormone jasmonyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). While many details about its biosynthetic pathway as well about its physiological function are established nowadays, knowledge about its catabolic fate is still scarce. Only recently, the hormonal inactivation mechanisms became a stronger research focus. Two major pathways have been proposed to inactivate JA-Ile: i) The cleavage of the jasmonyl-residue from the isoleucine moiety, a reaction that is catalyzed by specific amido-hydrolases, or ii), the sequential oxidation of the ω-end of the pentenyl side-chain. This reaction is catalyzed by specific members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily CYP94: CYP94B1, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1. In the present study, we further investigated the oxidative fate of JA-Ile by expanding the analysis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, lacking only one (cyp94b1, cyp94b2, cyp94b3, cyp94c1), two (cyp94b1xcyp94b2, cyp94b1xcyp94b3, cyp94b2xcyp94b3), three (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3) or even four (cyp94b1xcyp94b2xcyp94b3xcyp94c1) CYP94 functionalities. The results obtained in the present study show that CYP94B1, CYP94B2, CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are responsible for catalyzing the sequential ω-oxidation of JA-Ile in a semi-redundant manner. While CYP94B-enzymes preferentially hydroxylate JA-Ile to 12-hydroxy-JA-Ile, CYP94C1 catalyzes primarily the subsequent oxidation, yielding 12-carboxy-JA-Ile. In addition, data obtained from investigating the triple and quadruple mutants let us hypothesize that a direct oxidation of unconjugated JA to 12-hydroxy-JA is possible in planta. Using a non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting analysis, we identified unconjugated 12-carboxy-JA as novel jasmonate derivative in floral tissues. Using the same approach, we could show that deletion of CYP94-genes might not only affect JA-homeostasis but also other signaling pathways. Deletion of CYP94B1, for example, led to accumulation of metabolites that may be

  18. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  19. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Kim, HyeRan; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Currently, understanding of their function(s) during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST) and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible) under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants. PMID:27472324

  20. Loss of CYP3A7 gene induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is caused by less binding of VDR to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A7 gene.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hirokazu; Yasunami, Yoko; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2004-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A7 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A7, respectively) are predominant forms in the human adult and fetal liver, respectively. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is known to be a potent inducer of CYP3A4 in human colon carcinoma Caco-2 via vitamin D receptor (VDR). However, whether CYP3A7 is inducible by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we examined the effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on CYP3A7 gene expression in Caco-2 cells, which express CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 mRNAs. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) hardly induced the expression of CYP3A7 mRNA in contrast to the marked induction of CYP3A4 mRNA. Reporter assay using 5'-franking region CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 genes also revealed that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) activates CYP3A4 promoter, but not CYP3A7 promoter, which has two mutations in the proximal ER6 site compared with CYP3A4 promoter. In addition, we found that the binding of VDR to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A7 gene was markedly less than that to the proximal ER6 in CYP3A4 gene using gel shift assay. Taken together, the decrease of VDR binding to the proximal ER6 caused by the mutation results in the loss of CYP3A7 gene activation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). PMID:15358113

  1. Association of MDR1, CYP2D6, and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms with prophylactic migraine treatment response.

    PubMed

    Atasayar, Gulfer; Eryilmaz, Isil Ezgi; Karli, Necdet; Egeli, Unal; Zarifoglu, Mehmet; Cecener, Gulsah; Taskapilioglu, Ozlem; Tunca, Berrin; Yildirim, Oznur; Ak, Secil; Tezcan, Gulcin; Can, Fatma Ezgi

    2016-07-15

    Prophylactic therapy response varies in migraine patients. The present study investigated the relationship between the resistance to the drugs commonly used in prophylactic therapy and the possible polymorphic variants of proteins involved in the metabolism of these drugs. Migraine patients with the MDR1 3435TT genotype exhibited a better treatment response to topiramate than migraine patients with the CC and CT genotypes (p=0.020). The MDR1 C3435T polymorphism was also found to be a higher risk factor for topiramate treatment failure in a comparison of the number of days with migraine (β2=1.152, p=0.015). However, there was no significant relationship between the treatment response to topiramate and either the CYP2D6 or CYP2C19 polymorphism, and there were no significant correlations between the treatment responses to amitriptyline, propranolol, and valproic acid and the MDR1, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms. This is the first study to investigate the effect of the polymorphic variants on prophylactic therapy response in migraine patients. PMID:27288795

  2. CypA, a Gene Downstream of HIF-1α, Promotes the Development of PDAC

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chuntao; Wang, Xiuchao; Zhao, Tiansuo; Liu, Jingcheng; Gao, Song; Zhao, Xiao; Ren, He; Hao, Jihui

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a highly important transcription factor involved in cell metabolism. HIF-1α promotes glycolysis and inhibits of mitochondrial respiration in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In response to tumor hypoxia, cyclophilin A (CypA) is over-expressed in various cancer types, and is associated with cell apoptosis, tumor invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance in PDAC. In this study, we showed that both HIF-1α and CypA expression were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tumor stage. The expression of CypA was correlated with HIF-1α. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression of CypA markedly decreased or increased following the suppression or over-expression of HIF-1α in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that HIF-1α could directly bind to the hypoxia response element (HRE) in the CypA promoter regions and regulated CypA expression. Consistent with other studies, HIF-1α and CypA promoted PDAC cell proliferation and invasion, and suppressed apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, we proved the combination effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and cyclosporin A both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggested that,CypA, a gene downstream of HIF-1α, could promote the development of PDAC. Thus, CypA might serve as a potential therapeutic target for PDAC. PMID:24662981

  3. Antiaging Gene Klotho Regulates Adrenal CYP11B2 Expression and Aldosterone Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Chen, Kai; Wang, Yongjun; Schuman, Mariano; Lei, Han; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    Deficiency of the antiaging gene Klotho (KL) induces renal damage and hypertension through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we assessed whether KL regulates expression of CYP11B2, a key rate-limiting enzyme in aldosterone synthesis, in adrenal glands. We found that haplodeficiency of KL(+/-) in mice increased the plasma level of aldosterone by 16 weeks of age, which coincided with spontaneous and persistent elevation of BP. Blockade of aldosterone actions by eplerenone reversed KL deficiency-induced hypertension and attenuated the kidney damage. Protein expression of CYP11B2 was upregulated in adrenal cortex of KL(+/-) mice. KL and CYP11B2 proteins colocalized in adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. Silencing of KL upregulated and overexpression of KL downregulated CYP11B2 expression in human adrenocortical cells. Notably, silencing of KL decreased expression of SF-1, a negative transcription factor of CYP11B2, but increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a positive transcription factor of CYP11B2, which may contribute to upregulation of CYP11B2 expression. Therefore, these results show that KL regulates adrenal CYP11B2 expression. KL deficiency-induced spontaneous hypertension and kidney damage may be partially attributed to the upregulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone synthesis. PMID:26471128

  4. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 Gene Polymorphisms in Schizophrenic Patients with Neuroleptic Drug-Induced Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, S A; Filipenko, M L; Vyalova, N M; Voronina, E N; Pozhidaev, I V; Osmanova, D Z; Ivanov, M V; Fedorenko, O Yu; Semke, A V; Bokhan, N A

    2016-03-01

    Polymorphic variants of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 genes of the cytochrome P450 system were studied in patients with schizophrenia with drug-induced motor disorders and hyperprolactinemia against the background of long-term neuroleptic therapy. We revealed an association of polymorphic variant C-163A CYP1A2*1F of CYP1A2 gene with tardive dyskinesia and association of polymorphic variant 1846G>A CY2D6*4 and genotype A/A of CYP2D6 gene (responsible for debrisoquin-4-hydroxylase synthesis) with limbotruncal tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia receiving neuroleptics for a long time. PMID:27021090

  5. Identification and characterization of a pathogenicity-related gene VdCYP1 from Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Jie-Yin; Kong, Zhi-Qiang; Gui, Yue-Jing; Li, Nan-Yang; Bao, Yu-Ming; Dai, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt disease in a wide variety of crop plants, thereby causing extensive economic loss. In present study, one V. dahliae T-DNA mutant M01C06 showed the pathogenicity loss on cotton, and the expression of a flanking gene encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450, VdCYP1) was strongly repressed. P450s of fungi could affect the fungal pathogenicity by involving in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, there was no report about the pathogenic function of P450s in V. dahliae. VdCYP1 gene deletion and complementation experiments confirmed that VdCYP1 was the pathogenicity-related gene in V. dahliae. A comparison of culture supernatants of the VdCYP1 deletion mutants and wild-type strains indicates that at least 14 kinds of secondary metabolites syntheses were affected due to VdCYP1 gene deletion. One of these compounds, sulfacetamide, had the ability to induce the necrosis and wilting symptoms in cotton. Above results indicate that VdCYP1 could participate in pathogenesis by involving the secondary metabolism in V. dahliae, such as the compound sulfacetamide. In conclusion, VdCYP1 acts as an important pathogenicity-related factor to involve in secondary metabolism that likely contributes to the pathogenic process in V. dahliae. PMID:27329129

  6. Identification and characterization of a pathogenicity-related gene VdCYP1 from Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Jie-Yin; Kong, Zhi-Qiang; Gui, Yue-Jing; Li, Nan-Yang; Bao, Yu-Ming; Dai, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt disease in a wide variety of crop plants, thereby causing extensive economic loss. In present study, one V. dahliae T-DNA mutant M01C06 showed the pathogenicity loss on cotton, and the expression of a flanking gene encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450, VdCYP1) was strongly repressed. P450s of fungi could affect the fungal pathogenicity by involving in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, there was no report about the pathogenic function of P450s in V. dahliae. VdCYP1 gene deletion and complementation experiments confirmed that VdCYP1 was the pathogenicity-related gene in V. dahliae. A comparison of culture supernatants of the VdCYP1 deletion mutants and wild-type strains indicates that at least 14 kinds of secondary metabolites syntheses were affected due to VdCYP1 gene deletion. One of these compounds, sulfacetamide, had the ability to induce the necrosis and wilting symptoms in cotton. Above results indicate that VdCYP1 could participate in pathogenesis by involving the secondary metabolism in V. dahliae, such as the compound sulfacetamide. In conclusion, VdCYP1 acts as an important pathogenicity-related factor to involve in secondary metabolism that likely contributes to the pathogenic process in V. dahliae. PMID:27329129

  7. Microarray Analysis of Differentially-Expressed Genes Encoding CYP450 and Phase II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Psoriasis and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sumantran, Venil N.; Mishra, Pratik; Bera, Rakesh; Sudhakar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes are implicated in personalized medicine for two main reasons. First, inter-individual variability in CYP3A4 expression is a confounding factor during cancer treatment. Second, inhibition or induction of CYP3A4 can trigger adverse drug–drug interactions. However, inflammation can downregulate CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing enzymes and lead to altered metabolism of drugs and essential vitamins and lipids. Little is known about effects of inflammation on expression of CYP450 genes controlling drug metabolism in the skin. Therefore, we analyzed seven published microarray datasets, and identified differentially-expressed genes in two inflammatory skin diseases (melanoma and psoriasis). We observed opposite patterns of expression of genes regulating metabolism of specific vitamins and lipids in psoriasis and melanoma samples. Thus, genes controlling the turnover of vitamin D (CYP27B1, CYP24A1), vitamin A (ALDH1A3, AKR1B10), and cholesterol (CYP7B1), were up-regulated in psoriasis, whereas melanomas showed downregulation of genes regulating turnover of vitamin A (AKR1C3), and cholesterol (CYP39A1). Genes controlling abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal barrier function (CYP4F22, SULT2B1) were up-regulated in psoriasis. The up-regulated CYP24A1, CYP4F22, SULT2B1, and CYP7B1 genes are potential drug targets in psoriatic skin. Both disease samples showed diminished drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP1B1 and CYP3A5 genes. However, melanomas showed greater loss of drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP3A4 gene. PMID:26901218

  8. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Cellulose Synthase Gene Superfamily in Grasses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schwerdt, Julian G.; Wright, Frank; Oehme, Daniel; Wagner, John M.; Shirley, Neil J.; Burton, Rachel A.; Schreiber, Miriam; Zimmer, Jochen; Marshall, David F.; Waugh, Robbie; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of cellulose synthase (CesA) and cellulose synthase-like (Csl) families from the cellulose synthase gene superfamily were used to reconstruct their evolutionary origins and selection histories. Counterintuitively, genes encoding primary cell wall CesAs have undergone extensive expansion and diversification following an ancestral duplication from a secondary cell wall-associated CesA. Selection pressure across entire CesA and Csl clades appears to be low, but this conceals considerable variation within individual clades. Genes in the CslF clade are of particular interest because some mediate the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, a polysaccharide characteristic of the evolutionarily successful grasses that is not widely distributed elsewhere in the plant kingdom. The phylogeny suggests that duplication of either CslF6 and/or CslF7 produced the ancestor of a highly conserved cluster of CslF genes that remain located in syntenic regions of all the grass genomes examined. A CslF6-specific insert encoding approximately 55 amino acid residues has subsequently been incorporated into the gene, or possibly lost from other CslFs, and the CslF7 clade has undergone a significant long-term shift in selection pressure. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics of the CslF6 protein were used to define the three-dimensional dispositions of individual amino acids that are subject to strong ongoing selection, together with the position of the conserved 55-amino acid insert that is known to influence the amounts and fine structures of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans synthesized. These wall polysaccharides are attracting renewed interest because of their central roles as sources of dietary fiber in human health and for the generation of renewable liquid biofuels. PMID:25999407

  9. Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 gene polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Legrand-Andréoletti, M; Stücker, I; Marez, D; Galais, P; Cosme, J; Sabbagh, N; Spire, C; Cenée, S; Lafitte, J J; Beaune, P; Broly, F

    1998-02-01

    Many studies have been performed in an attempt to establish a link between the polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 gene and the incidence of lung cancer. Nevertheless, whether or not this genetic polymorphism has a role in the development of the disease remains unclear. Recently, new advances in our knowledge of the CYP2D6 gene and its locus (CYP2D) have been achieved. In particular, CYP2D6 was found to be highly polymorphic and multiple novel mutations and allelic variants of the gene have been identified. In addition, a number of CYP2D rearrangements, including those with amplification of the gene, have been demonstrated. Taking this new information into account, we have reconsidered the potential influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism in lung cancer susceptibility by performing a comparative analysis of the overall mutational spectrum of CYP2D6 and of the rearrangements of CYP2D in 249 patients with lung cancer and in 265 control individuals matched on age, sex, hospital and residence area. For this purpose, a strategy based on SSCP analysis of the entire coding sequence of CYP2D6 and on RFLP analysis of the gene locus was carried out in DNA samples from each individual. Forty mutations occurring in various combinations on 42 alleles of the gene and 82 different genotypes were identified. No significant difference in the distribution of the mutations, alleles or genotypes was observed between the two groups, except a particular genotype (CYP2D6*1A/*2), which was more common in the sub-group of moderate smokers (< 30 pack-years) suffering from small cell carcinoma (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% CI 1.1-11.9). When the phenotype was predicted according to genotype, only a trend toward a higher frequency of ultrarapid metabolizers in patients was obtained. In spite of a complete analysis of the CYP2D6 gene and its locus, this case-control study provides elements against an influence of the CYP2D6 polymorphism on lung cancer susceptibility. PMID:9511176

  10. Characterization of the CYP21 gene 5' flanking region in patients affected by 21-OH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bobba, A; Marra, E; Lattanzio, P; Iolascon, A; Giannattasio, S

    2000-05-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that mutations in the 5' non-coding region of CYP21 gene could contribute to the various spectrum of disease presentation due to 21-OH deficiency, the 400bp nucleotide sequence upstream of the ATG codon of CYP21 gene has been characterized in 28 CAH patients who have previously been genotyped by screening for the ten most frequent CYP21 mutations. Six specific sequence variations (-4C-->T, -73C-->T, -295T-->C, -294A-->C, -283A-->G, -281T-->G) have been identified in this region of CYP21 gene in 3 out of 28 21-OH deficient patients for whom the coding region mutations have been previously identified. Three of these mutations, -295T-->C, -294A-->C, -283A-->G, are apparently generated by a gene-conversion event, thus giving first evidence that this mechanism also applies to the 5' untranslated region of CYP21 gene in 21-OH deficiency. Four other sequence changes, identified at nucleotide position -279, -331, -350 and -353, could be referred to as normal since they are present also in healthy subjects. It may not be excluded that some of the newly-identified single nucleotide changes in the regulatory region could have a modulatory effect on the CYP21 gene transcriptional activity thus affecting the clinical outcome. PMID:10790214

  11. cyp51A gene silencing using RNA interference in azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Bita; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Guillot, Jacques; Alizadeh, Ahad; Badali, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of reports have described the emergence of acquired resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus to azole compounds. The primary mechanism of resistance in clinical isolates is the mutation of the azole drug target enzyme, which is encoded by the cyp51A gene. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of silencing the cyp51A gene in azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates. A 21-nucleotide small-interfering RNA (siRNA) was designed based on the cDNA sequence of the A. fumigatus cyp51A gene. After silencing the cyp51A gene in germinated conidia (15, 20, 25 and 50 nM), azole-resistant A. fumigatus was cultured on broth media and gene expression was analysed by measuring the cyp51A mRNA level using RT-PCR assay. Hyphae were successfully transfected by siRNA and expression of the cyp51A gene was significantly reduced by siRNA at the concentration of 50 nM (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, at this siRNA concentration, the minimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole for the treated cells was decreased, compared with that for untreated control cells, from 16 to 4 μg/ml. PMID:26448519

  12. Overexpression of a CYP94 family gene CYP94C2b increases internode length and plant height in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Ken-Ich; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth is controlled by intrinsic developmental programmes and environmental cues. Jasmonate (JA) has important roles in both processes, by regulating cell division and differentiation, as well as in defense responses and senescence. We report an increase in rice plant height caused by overexpression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP94C2b, which promoted deactivation of JA-Ile. The height increase occurred through enhanced elongation of internodes in the absence of concomitant cell elongation, unlike previous findings with coi1 knock-down plants. Thus, modulating JA metabolism can increase the number of elongated cells in an internode. Based on these and previous findings, we discuss the difference in the effects of CYP94C2b overexpression vs. coi1 knock-down. PMID:26251886

  13. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes: potential implications for the metabolism of HIV drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug metabolism via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system has emerged as an important determinant in the occurrence of several drug interactions (adverse drug reactions, reduced pharmacological effect, drug toxicities). In particular, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 (interacting with more than 60% of licensed drugs) exhibit the most individual variations of gene expression, mostly caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the regulatory region of the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes which might affect the level of enzyme production. In this study, we sought to improve the performance of sensitive screening for CYP3A polymorphism detection in twenty HIV-1 infected patients undergoing lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy. Methods The study was performed by an effective, easy and inexpensive home-made Polymerase Chain Reaction Direct Sequencing approach for analyzing CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes which can detect both reported and unreported genetic variants potentially associated with altered or decreased functions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 proteins. Proportions and tests of association were used. Results Among the genetic variants considered, CYP3A4*1B (expression of altered function) was only found in 3 patients (15%) and CYP3A5*3 (expression of splicing defect) in 3 other patients (15%). CYP3A5*3 did not appear to be associated with decreased efficacy of LPV/r in any patient, since none of the patients carrying this variant showed virological rebound during LPV/r treatment or low levels of TDM. In contrast, low-level virological rebound was observed in one patient and a low TDM level was found in another; both were carrying CYP3A4*1B. Conclusions Our method exhibited an overall efficiency of 100% (DNA amplification and sequencing in our group of patients). This may contribute to producing innovative results for better understanding the inter-genotypic variability in gene coding for CYP3A, and investigating SNPs as biological markers of individual response to drugs

  14. CYP709B3, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Within the Arabidopsis genome, there are 272 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) genes. However, the biological functions of the majority of these P450s remain unknown. The CYP709B family of P450s includes three gene members, CYP709B1, CYP709B2 and CYP709B3, which have high amino acid sequence similarity and lack reports elucidating biological functions. Results We identified T-DNA insertion-based null mutants of the CYP709B subfamily of genes. No obvious morphological phenotypes were exhibited under normal growth conditions. When the responses to ABA and salt stress were studied in these mutants, only the cyp709b3 mutant showed sensitivity to ABA and salt during germination. Under moderate salt treatment (150 mM NaCl), cyp709b3 showed a higher percentage of damaged seedlings, indicating a lower tolerance to salt stress. CYP709B3 was highly expressed in all analyzed tissues and especially high in seedlings and leaves. In contrast, CYP709B1 and CYP709B2 were highly expressed in siliques, but were at very low levels in other tissues. Under salt stress condition, CYP709B3 gene expression was induced after 24 hr and remained at high expression level. Expression of the wild type CYP709B3 gene in the cyp709b3 mutant fully complemented the salt intolerant phenotype. Furthermore, metabolite profiling analysis revealed some differences between wild type and cyp709b3 mutant plants, supporting the salt intolerance phenotype of the cyp709b3 mutant. Conclusions These results suggest that CYP709B3 plays a role in ABA and salt stress response and provides evidence to support the functions of cytochrome P450 enzymes in plant stress response. PMID:24164720

  15. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  16. A Family-Based Association Study of CYP11A1 and CYP11B1 Gene Polymorphisms With Autism in Chinese Trios.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hong-Zhu; You, Cong; Xing, Yu; Chen, Kai-Yun; Zou, Xiao-Bing

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with the higher prevalence in males. Our previous studies have indicated lower progesterone levels in the children with autism spectrum disorder, suggesting involvement of the cytochrome P-450scc gene (CYP11A1) and cytochrome P-45011beta gene (CYP11B1) as candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the family-based genetic association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs2279357 in the CYP11A1 gene and rs4534 and rs4541 in the CYP11B1 gene and autism spectrum disorder in Chinese children, which were selected according to the location in the coding region and 5' and 3' regions and minor allele frequencies of greater than 0.05 in the Chinese populations. The transmission disequilibrium test and case-control association analyses were performed in 100 Chinese Han autism spectrum disorder family trios. The genotype and allele frequency of the 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms had no statistical difference between the children with autism spectrum disorder and their parents (P> .05). Transmission disequilibrium test analysis showed transmission disequilibrium of CYP11A1 gene rs2279357 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (χ(2)= 5.038,P< .001). Our findings provide further support for the hypothesis that a susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorder exists within or near the CYP11A1 gene in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26690694

  17. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Xue, Danfeng; Li, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Yinxue; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA ("Orthologous MAtrix") Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery. PMID:27367670

  18. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Xue, Danfeng; Li, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Yinxue; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA (“Orthologous MAtrix”) Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery. PMID:27367670

  19. A new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeric gene identified in an Italian woman suffering from classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia form

    PubMed Central

    Concolino, Paola; Mello, Enrica; Minucci, Angelo; Giardina, Emiliano; Zuppi, Cecilia; Toscano, Vincenzo; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2009-01-01

    Background More than 90% of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) cases are associated with mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2) in the HLA class III area on the short arm of chromosome 6p21.3. In this region, a 30 kb deletion produces a non functional chimeric gene with its 5' and 3' ends corresponding to CYP21A1P pseudogene and CYP21A2, respectively. To date, five different CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeric genes have been found and characterized in recent studies. In this paper, we describe a new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimera (CH-6) found in an Italian CAH patient. Methods Southern blot analysis and CYP21A2 sequencing were performed on the patient. In addition, in order to isolate the new CH-6 chimeric gene, two different strategies were used. Results The CYP21A2 sequencing analysis showed that the patient was homozygote for the g.655C/A>G mutation and heterozygote for the p.P30L missense mutation. In addition, the promoter sequence revealed the presence, in heterozygosis, of 13 SNPs generally produced by microconversion events between gene and pseudogene. Southern blot analysis showed that the woman was heterozygote for the classic 30-kb deletion producing a new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeric gene (CH-6). The hybrid junction site was located between the end of intron 2 pseudogene, after the g.656C/A>G mutation, and the beginning of exon 3, before the 8 bp deletion. Consequently, CH-6 carries three mutations: the weak pseudogene promoter region, the p.P30L and the g.655C/A>G splice mutation. Conclusion We describe a new CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimera (CH-6), associated with the HLA-B15, DR13 haplotype, in a young Italian CAH patient. PMID:19624807

  20. Lack of association between schizophrenia and the CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pirmohamed, M.; Wild, M.J.; Kitteringham, N.R.

    1996-04-09

    Approximately 5-10% of the Caucasian population lack the P450 isoform, CYP2D6. This polymorphism may be of importance in determining individual susceptibility to Parkinson`s disease. In this journal, Daniels et al. recently reported a negative association between the CYP2D6 gene locus and schizophrenia, a disease characterized by dopamine overactivity. It is important to exclude such an association because CYP2D6 is expressed in the brain and it is involved in dopamine catabolism. Between 1992 and 1993, we also performed a study similar to that, and reached the same conclusion. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Parsing a multifunctional biosynthetic gene cluster from rice: Biochemical characterization of CYP71Z6 & 7.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yisheng; Hillwig, Matthew L; Wang, Qiang; Peters, Reuben J

    2011-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) contains a biosynthetic gene cluster associated with production of at least two groups of diterpenoid phytoalexins, the antifungal phytocassanes and antibacterial oryzalides. While cytochromes P450 (CYP) from this cluster are known to be involved in phytocassane production, such mono-oxygenase activity relevant to oryzalide biosynthesis was unknown. Here we report biochemical characterization demonstrating that CYP71Z6 from this cluster acts as an ent-isokaurene C2-hydroxylase that is presumably involved in the biosynthesis of oryzalides. Our results further suggest that the closely related and co-clustered CYP71Z7 likely acts as a C2-hydroxylase involved in a latter step of phytocassane biosynthesis. Thus, CYP71Z6 & 7 appear to have evolved distinct roles in rice diterpenoid metabolism, offering insight into plant biosynthetic gene cluster evolution. PMID:21985968

  2. Parsing a multifunctional biosynthetic gene cluster from rice: Biochemical characterization of CYP71Z6 & 7

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yisheng; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Wang, Qiang; Peters, Reuben J.

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) contains a biosynthetic gene cluster associated with production of at least two groups of diterpenoid phytoalexins, the antifungal phytocassanes and antibacterial oryzalides. While cytochromes P450 (CYP) from this cluster are known to be involved in phytocassane production, such mono-oxygenase activity relevant to oryzalide biosynthesis was unknown. Here we report biochemical characterization demonstrating that CYP71Z6 from this cluster acts as an ent-isokaurene C2-hydroxylase that is presumably involved in the biosynthesis of oryzalides. Our results further suggest that the closely related and co-clustered CYP71Z7 likely acts as a C2-hydroxylase involved in a latter step of phytocassane biosynthesis. Thus, CYP71Z6 & 7 appear to have evolved distinct roles in rice diterpenoid metabolism, offering insight into plant biosynthetic gene cluster evolution. PMID:21985968

  3. BAHD superfamily of acyl-CoA dependent acyltransferases in Populus and Arabidopsis: bioinformatics and gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, X.; Liu, C.

    2009-04-03

    Plant acyl-CoA dependent acyltransferases constitute a large specific protein superfamily, named BAHD. Using the conserved sequence motifs of BAHD members, we searched the genome sequences of Populus and Arabidopsis, and identified, respectively, 94- and 61-putative genes. Subsequently, we analyzed the phylogeny, gene structure, and chromosomal distribution of BAHD members of both species; then, we profiled expression patterns of BAHD genes by 'in silico' northern- and microarray-analyses based on public databases, and by RT-PCR. While our genomic- and bioinformatic- analyses provided full sets of BAHD superfamily genes, and cleaned up a few existing annotation errors, importantly it led to our recognizing several unique Arabidopsis BAHD genes that inversely overlapped with their neighboring genes on the genome, and disclosing a potential natural anti-sense regulation for gene expressions. Systemic gene-expression profiling of BAHD members revealed distinct tissue-specific/preferential expression patterns, indicating their diverse biological functions. Our study affords a strong knowledge base for understanding BAHD members evolutionary relationships and gene functions implicated in plant growth, development and metabolism.

  4. Haloperidol plasma concentration in Japanese psychiatric subjects with gene duplication of CYP2D6

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Tohru; Shibata, Nobuto; Matsubara, Yoichiro; Arai, Heii

    2003-01-01

    Aims The cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene duplication/multiduplication producing an increase in enzyme activity, and the common Japanese mutation, CYP2D6*10A producing a decrease of enzyme activity were screened in a large number of Japanese psychiatric subjects (n = 111) in order to investigate whether these mutated alleles affected the plasma concentration of haloperidol. Methods Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed to identify the CYP2D6*10A and CYP2D6*2 genotypes in subjects who had been taking haloperidol. For the screening of duplicated active CYP2D6 gene, allele-specific long PCR was performed. Plasma concentration of haloperidol was measured by the enzyme immunoassay, and expressed as ‘plasma concentration dose ratio’ to normalize individual differences. Results The plasma concentration–dose ratio showed large interindividual differences of approximately 18-fold. PCR-RFLP methods revealed that 29 (26.1%), 10 (9.0%), 39 (35.1%), 0 (0%), seven (6.3%) and 26 (23.4%) cases possessed the CYP2D6 genotypes *1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*10A, *2/*2, *2/*10A and *10 A/*10A, respectively. Six cases (5.4%) had duplicated CYP2D6 genes. There were no significant differences of plasma concentration–dose ratio between the groups classified by CYP2D6*10A and *2 genotypes (Kruskal–Wallis test; P = 0.37), even in those cases whose daily doses were lower than 20 mg (n = 90, P = 0.91). Subjects having duplicated genes (n = 6) did not show significant differences of plasma concentration–dose ratio by comparison with subjects who had no duplicated genes (Mann–Whitney U-test; P = 0.80). Conclusions Gene duplication, and the common Japanese mutation CYP2D6*10A on CYP2D6 gene are not likely to be the main modulatory factors of plasma concentration of haloperidol in Japanese psychiatric subjects. PMID:12919180

  5. The CYP51F1 Gene of Leptographium qinlingensis: Sequence Characteristic, Phylogeny and Transcript Levels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lulu; Li, Zhumei; Yu, Jiamin; Ma, Mingyuan; Zhang, Ranran; Chen, Hui; Pham, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Leptographium qinlingensis is a fungal associate of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi) and a pathogen of the Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi) that must overcome the terpenoid oleoresin defenses of host trees. L. qinlingensis responds to monoterpene flow with abundant mechanisms that include export and the use of these compounds as a carbon source. As one of the fungal cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs), which play important roles in general metabolism, CYP51 (lanosterol 14-α demethylase) can catalyze the biosynthesis of ergosterol and is a target for antifungal drug. We have identified an L. qinlingensis CYP51F1 gene, and the phylogenetic analysis shows the highest homology with the 14-α-demethylase sequence from Grosmannia clavigera (a fungal associate of Dendroctonus ponderosae). The transcription level of CYP51F1 following treatment with terpenes and pine phloem extracts was upregulated, while using monoterpenes as the only carbon source led to the downregulation of CYP5F1 expression. The homology modeling structure of CYP51F1 is similar to the structure of the lanosterol 14-α demethylase protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YJM789, which has an N-terminal membrane helix 1 (MH1) and transmembrane helix 1 (TMH1). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of terpenoid and azole fungicides (itraconazole (ITC)) and the docking of terpenoid molecules, lanosterol and ITC in the protein structure suggested that CYP51F1 may be inhibited by terpenoid molecules by competitive binding with azole fungicides. PMID:26016505

  6. CYP19 gene variant confers susceptibility to endometriosis-associated infertility in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ledan; Lu, Xiaosheng; Wang, Danhan; Qu, Wanglei; Li, Wenju; Xu, Xiaowen; Huang, Qiusui; Han, Xueying; Lv, Jieqiang

    2014-01-01

    An aromatase encoded by the CYP19 gene catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of estrogens, which is related to endometriosis development. To assess the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risks of endometriosis, chocolate cysts and endometriosis-related infertility, a case–control study was conducted in Chinese Han women by recruiting 225 healthy control females, 146 patients with endometriosis, 94 endometriosis women with chocolate cyst and 65 women with infertility resulting from endometriosis, as diagnosed by both pathological and laparoscopic findings. Individual genotypes at rs2236722:T>C, rs700518:A>G, rs10046:T>C and [TTTA]n polymorphisms were identified. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between the control group and case groups by chi-square analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined by logistic regression analysis to predict the association of CYP19 gene polymorphisms with the risk of endometriosis, the related chocolate cysts and infertility. The genotype distributions of the tested CYP19 gene polymorphisms were not significantly different between the healthy control group and the endometriosis/endometriosis with the chocolate cyst group. However, the CYP19 rs700518AA genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility (55.4% in the infertility group vs 25.3% in the control group, P<0.001; OR (95% CI): 3.66 (2.06–6.50)) under the recessive form of the A allele. Therefore, we concluded that in Chinese Han females CYP19 gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to endometriosis or chocolate cysts, whereas CYP19 rs700518AA genotype confers genetic susceptibility to endometriosis-related infertility. PMID:24968701

  7. Diversification of a single ancestral gene into a successful toxin superfamily in highly venomous Australian funnel-web spiders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spiders have evolved pharmacologically complex venoms that serve to rapidly subdue prey and deter predators. The major toxic factors in most spider venoms are small, disulfide-rich peptides. While there is abundant evidence that snake venoms evolved by recruitment of genes encoding normal body proteins followed by extensive gene duplication accompanied by explosive structural and functional diversification, the evolutionary trajectory of spider-venom peptides is less clear. Results Here we present evidence of a spider-toxin superfamily encoding a high degree of sequence and functional diversity that has evolved via accelerated duplication and diversification of a single ancestral gene. The peptides within this toxin superfamily are translated as prepropeptides that are posttranslationally processed to yield the mature toxin. The N-terminal signal sequence, as well as the protease recognition site at the junction of the propeptide and mature toxin are conserved, whereas the remainder of the propeptide and mature toxin sequences are variable. All toxin transcripts within this superfamily exhibit a striking cysteine codon bias. We show that different pharmacological classes of toxins within this peptide superfamily evolved under different evolutionary selection pressures. Conclusions Overall, this study reinforces the hypothesis that spiders use a combinatorial peptide library strategy to evolve a complex cocktail of peptide toxins that target neuronal receptors and ion channels in prey and predators. We show that the ω-hexatoxins that target insect voltage-gated calcium channels evolved under the influence of positive Darwinian selection in an episodic fashion, whereas the κ-hexatoxins that target insect calcium-activated potassium channels appear to be under negative selection. A majority of the diversifying sites in the ω-hexatoxins are concentrated on the molecular surface of the toxins, thereby facilitating neofunctionalisation leading to new toxin

  8. Promoter activity and regulation of the corneal CYP4B1 gene by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mastyugin, Vladimir; Mezentsev, Alexandre; Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Ashkar, Silvia; Dunn, Michael W; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal

    2004-04-15

    Hypoxic injury to the ocular surface provokes an inflammatory response that is mediated, in part, by corneal epithelial-derived 12-hydroxyeicosanoids. Recent studies indicate that a cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase, identified as CYP4B1, is involved in the production of these eicosanoids which exhibit potent inflammatory and angiogenic properties. We have isolated and cloned a corneal epithelial CYP4B1 full-length cDNA and demonstrated that the CYP4B1 mRNA is induced by hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. To further understand the molecular regulation that underlies the synthesis of these potent inflammatory eicosanoids in response to hypoxic injury, we isolated and cloned the CYP4B1 promoter region. GenomeWalker libraries constructed from rabbit corneal epithelial genomic DNA were used as templates for primary and nested PCR amplifications with gene- and adaptor-specific primers. A 3.41-kb DNA fragment of the 5'-flanking region of the CYP4B1 promoter was isolated, cloned, sequenced, and analyzed by computer software for the presence of known cis-acting elements. Analysis of the promoter sequence revealed the presence of consensus DNA binding sequences for factors known to activate gene transcription in response to hypoxia including HIF-1, NFkappaB, and AP-1. Transient transfection of luciferase reporter (pGL3-Basic) vectors containing different lengths of the CYP4B1 promoter fragment demonstrated hypoxia-induced transcription in rabbit corneal epithelial (RCE) cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed a marked induction of nuclear binding activity for the labeled HIF-1 probe from the CYP4B1 promoter in nuclear extracts of cells exposed to hypoxia. This binding activity was due to sequence-specific binding to the HIF-1 oligonucleotide probe as shown by competition with excess unlabeled probe for the HIF-1 but not with unlabeled NFkappaB probe. The nuclear binding activity of AP-1 and NFkappaB probes from the CYP4B1 promoter was also enhanced in

  9. Future Trends in the Pharmacogenomics of Brain Disorders and Dementia: Influence of APOE and CYP2D6 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Cacabelos, Ramón; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; Martínez-Bouza, Rocío; McKay, Adam; Carril, Juan C.; Lombardi, Valter; Corzo, Lola; Carrera, Iván; Tellado, Iván; Nebril, Laura; Alcaraz, Margarita; Rodríguez, Susana; Casas, Ángela; Couceiro, Verónica; Álvarez, Antón

    2010-01-01

    About 80% of functional genes in the human genome are expressed in the brain and over 1,200 different genes have been associated with the pathogenesis of CNS disorders and dementia. Pharmacogenetic studies of psychotropic drug response have focused on determining the relationship between variations in specific candidate genes and the positive and adverse effects of drug treatment. Approximately, 18% of neuroleptics are substrates of CYP1A2 enzymes, 40% of CYP2D6, and 23% of CYP3A4; 24% of antidepressants are substrates of CYP1A2 enzymes, 5% of CYP2B6, 38% of CYP2C19, 85% of CYP2D6, and 38% of CYP3A4; 7% of benzodiazepines are substrates of CYP2C19 enzymes, 20% of CYP2D6, and 95% of CYP3A4. 10-20% of Western populations are defective in genes of the CYP superfamily; and the pharmacogenomic response of psychotropic drugs also depends on genetic variants associated with dementia. Prospective studies with anti-dementia drugs or with multifactorial strategies have revealed that the therapeutic response to conventional drugs in Alzheimer’s disease is genotype-specific. The disease-modifying effects (cognitive performance, biomarker modification) of therapeutic intervention are APOE-dependent, with APOE-4 carriers acting as the worst responders (APOE-3/3 > APOE-3/4 > APOE-4/4). APOE-CYP2D6 interactions also influence the therapeutic outcome in patients with dementia.

  10. The Association between Gene-Environment Interactions and Diseases Involving the Human GST Superfamily with SNP Variants

    PubMed Central

    Hollman, Antoinesha L.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Huang, Hung-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental hazards has been associated with diseases in humans. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human populations exposed to different environmental hazards, is vital for detecting the genetic risks of some important human diseases. Several studies in this field have been conducted on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), a phase II detoxification superfamily, to investigate its role in the occurrence of diseases. Human GSTs consist of cytosolic and microsomal superfamilies that are further divided into subfamilies. Based on scientific search engines and a review of the literature, we have found a large amount of published articles on human GST super- and subfamilies that have greatly assisted in our efforts to examine their role in health and disease. Because of its polymorphic variations in relation to environmental hazards such as air pollutants, cigarette smoke, pesticides, heavy metals, carcinogens, pharmaceutical drugs, and xenobiotics, GST is considered as a significant biomarker. This review examines the studies on gene-environment interactions related to various diseases with respect to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the GST superfamily. Overall, it can be concluded that interactions between GST genes and environmental factors play an important role in human diseases. PMID:27043589

  11. The Association between Gene-Environment Interactions and Diseases Involving the Human GST Superfamily with SNP Variants.

    PubMed

    Hollman, Antoinesha L; Tchounwou, Paul B; Huang, Hung-Chung

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to environmental hazards has been associated with diseases in humans. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human populations exposed to different environmental hazards, is vital for detecting the genetic risks of some important human diseases. Several studies in this field have been conducted on glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), a phase II detoxification superfamily, to investigate its role in the occurrence of diseases. Human GSTs consist of cytosolic and microsomal superfamilies that are further divided into subfamilies. Based on scientific search engines and a review of the literature, we have found a large amount of published articles on human GST super- and subfamilies that have greatly assisted in our efforts to examine their role in health and disease. Because of its polymorphic variations in relation to environmental hazards such as air pollutants, cigarette smoke, pesticides, heavy metals, carcinogens, pharmaceutical drugs, and xenobiotics, GST is considered as a significant biomarker. This review examines the studies on gene-environment interactions related to various diseases with respect to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the GST superfamily. Overall, it can be concluded that interactions between GST genes and environmental factors play an important role in human diseases. PMID:27043589

  12. Human CYP1A1 gene: cosegregation of the enzyme inducibility phenotype and an RFLP.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, D D; McKinney, C E; Ikeya, K; Smith, H H; Bale, A E; McBride, O W; Nebert, D W

    1991-01-01

    The human CYP1A1 (cytochrome P1450) gene encodes an enzyme involved in the activation of procarcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene, to the ultimate reactive intermediate. Approximately 10% of the human population exhibit high CYP1A1 inducibility, and Kouri et al. reported that the high-inducibility phenotype might be at greater risk than low-inducibility individuals for cigarette smoke-induced bronchogenic carcinoma. In one 3-generation family of 15 individuals, we show here that the high-CYP1A1-inducibility phenotype segregates concordantly with an infrequent polymorphic site located 450 bases downstream from the CYP1A1 gene. Our findings are consistent with the study of Kawajiri et al., who demonstrated an association between this polymorphism and an increased incidence of squamous-cell lung cancer. Our data suggest that the CYP1A1 structural gene, or a region near this gene, might be correlated with the inducibility phenotype. Images Figure 3 PMID:1707592

  13. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B.; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E.; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26418738

  14. New CYP1 genes in the frog Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis: Induction patterns and effects of AHR agonists during development

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Berg, Cecilia; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The Xenopus tropicalis genome shows a single gene in each of the four cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) subfamilies that occur in vertebrates, designated as CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1D1. We cloned the cDNAs of these genes and examined their expression in untreated tadpoles and in tadpoles exposed to waterborne aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), β-naphthoflavone (βNF), or indigo. We also examined the effects of PCB126 on expression of genes involved in stress response, cell proliferation, thyroid homeostasis, and prostaglandin synthesis. PCB126 induced CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 but had little effect on CYP1D1 (77-, 1.7-, 4.6- and 1.4-fold induction versus the control, respectively). βNF induced CYP1A and CYP1C1 (26- and 2.5-fold), while, under conditions used, indigo tended to induce only CYP1A (1.9-fold). The extent of CYP1 induction by PCB126 and βNF was positively correlated to the number of putative dioxin response elements 0–20 kb upstream of the start codons. No morphological effect was observed in tadpoles exposed to 1 nM-10 µM PCB126 at two days post-fertilization (dpf) and screened 20 days later. However, in 14-dpf tadpoles a slight up-regulation of the genes for PCNA, transthyretin, HSC70, Cu-Zn SOD, and Cox-2 was observed two days after exposure to 1 µM PCB126. This study of the full suite of CYP1 genes in an amphibian species reveals gene- and AHR agonist-specific differences in response, as well as a much lower sensitivity to CYP1 induction and short-term toxicity by PCB126 compared with in fish larvae. The single genes in each CYP1 subfamily may make X. tropicalis a useful model for mechanistic studies of CYP1 functions. PMID:20965207

  15. New CYP1 genes in the frog Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis: Induction patterns and effects of AHR agonists during development

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, Maria E.; Berg, Cecilia; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2011-01-15

    The Xenopus tropicalis genome shows a single gene in each of the four cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) subfamilies that occur in vertebrates, designated as CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1D1. We cloned the cDNAs of these genes and examined their expression in untreated tadpoles and in tadpoles exposed to waterborne aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}NF), or indigo. We also examined the effects of PCB126 on expression of genes involved in stress response, cell proliferation, thyroid homeostasis, and prostaglandin synthesis. PCB126 induced CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 but had little effect on CYP1D1 (77-, 1.7-, 4.6- and 1.4-fold induction versus the control, respectively). {beta}NF induced CYP1A and CYP1C1 (26- and 2.5-fold), while, under conditions used, indigo tended to induce only CYP1A (1.9-fold). The extent of CYP1 induction by PCB126 and {beta}NF was positively correlated to the number of putative dioxin response elements 0-20 kb upstream of the start codons. No morphological effect was observed in tadpoles exposed to 1 nM-10 {mu}M PCB126 at two days post-fertilization (dpf) and screened 20 days later. However, in 14-dpf tadpoles a slight up-regulation of the genes for PCNA, transthyretin, HSC70, Cu-Zn SOD, and Cox-2 was observed two days after exposure to 1 {mu}M PCB126. This study of the full suite of CYP1 genes in an amphibian species reveals gene- and AHR agonist-specific differences in response, as well as a much lower sensitivity to CYP1 induction and short-term toxicity by PCB126 compared with in fish larvae. The single genes in each CYP1 subfamily may make X. tropicalis a useful model for mechanistic studies of CYP1 functions.

  16. Partial cloning of CYP2C23a genes and hepatic protein expression in eight representative avian species.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K P; Kawai, Y K; Nakayama, S M M; Ikenaka, Y; Mizukawa, H; Takaesu, N; Ito, M; Ikushiro, S-I; Sakaki, T; Ishizuka, M

    2015-04-01

    Large interspecies differences in avian xenobiotic metabolism have been revealed by microsome-based studies, but specific enzyme isoforms in different bird species have not yet been compared. We have previously shown that CYP2C23 genes are the most induced CYP isoforms in chicken liver. In this study, we collected partial CYP2C23a gene sequences from eight avian species (ostrich, blue-eared pheasant, snowy owl, great-horned owl, Chilean flamingo, peregrin falcon, Humboldt penguin, and black-crowned night heron) selected to cover the whole avian lineage: Paleognathae, Galloanserae, and Neoaves. Genetic analysis showed that CYP2C23 genes of Galloanserae species (chicken and blue-eared pheasant) had unique characteristics. We found some duplicated genes (CYP2C23a and CYP2C23b) and two missing amino acid residues in Galloanserae compared to the other two lineages. The genes have lower homology than in other avian lineages, which suggests Galloanserae-specific rapid evolutionary changes. These genetic features suggested that the Galloanserae are not the most representative avian species, considering that the Neoaves comprise more than 95% of birds. Moreover, we succeeded in synthesizing an antipeptide polyclonal antibody against the region of CYP2C23 protein conserved in avians. However, comparative quantitation of CYP2C23 proteins in livers from six species showed that expression levels of these proteins differed no more than fourfold. Further study is needed to clarify the function of avian CYP2C23 proteins. PMID:25229839

  17. Mutation Analysis of the CYP21A2 Gene in the Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Bahareh; Mahdieh, Nejat; Ashtiani, Mohammad Tahgi Haghi; Larijani, Bagher; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; New, Maria; Parsa, Alan; Schouten, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Defects in the CYP21A2 gene cause steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which is the most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Forty four affected families were investigated to identify the mutation spectrum of the CYP21A2 gene. Methods: Families were subjected to clinical, biochemical, and molecular analyses. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification was used for eight common mutations followed by dosage analysis to exclude CYP21A2 deletions. Results: The most frequent mutations detected were gene deletions and chimera (31.8%). Other mutation frequencies were as follows: Q318X, 15.9%; I2G, 14.8%; I172N, 5.8%; gene duplication, 5.7%; R356W, 8%; and E6 cluster mutations, 2.3%. Direct sequencing of the CYP21A2 gene revealed R316X, P453S, c.484insT, and a change at the start codon. Different modules carried by patients were classified into five different haplotypes. The genotype phenotype correlation (positive predictive value) for group null, A, B, and C were 92.3%, 85.7%, 100%, and 0, respectively. Conclusions: Methods used will be helpful for carrier detection and antenatal diagnosis, especially with inclusion of the multiplex ligation probe dependent amplification technique, which is easier for routine tests in comparison with other methods. Mutation frequencies indicate that Iranians are possible descendants of Asians and Europeans. PMID:22017335

  18. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoxia; Lin, Shuai; Gan, Shuping; Xing, Han; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.). Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethephon (ETH). Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA), and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes. PMID:27588421

  19. Cyp6a8 of Drosophila melanogaster: gene structure, and sequence and functional analysis of the upstream DNA.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Sushmita; Price, Charles; Ganguly, Ranjan

    2002-08-01

    In Drosophila, the insecticide resistant 91-R strain is an overproducer and susceptible 91-C and ry(506) strains are the underproducers of CYP6A8 mRNA encoded by a cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6a8. Low expression of Cyp6a8 in the underproducer strains is due to a downregulatory effect of a putative repressor locus, which is thought to be mutant in the overproducer strain. In the present investigation, organization of Cyp6a8 and promoter activity of its upstream DNA were analyzed. Cyp6a8 has two introns of which intron II is similar to the introns of other insect CYP genes with respect to its length and position. Intron I is only 36 bp long and lacks consensus splice sites. It is also in-frame with the CYP6A8 open reading frame. Therefore, inefficient splicing of intron I may produce two isoforms of CYP6A8. Analysis of Cyp6a8 upstream DNA of the overproducer 91-R strain showed that DNA sequences between -199 and -761 bp are required for the highest constitutive and barbital-induced expression of Cyp6a8. This region has six barbie boxes and binding sites for various transcription factors. Promoter activity of the -11/-761 DNA of the overproducer 91-R strain was found to be 4-fold lower in the genome of underproducer ry(506) strain, which is wild type for the putative repressor gene, than in the genome of F1 hybrids of 91-R and ry(506) strains. These results suggest that -11/-761 Cyp6a8 DNA of the 91-R strain can respond to the active repressor present in the hybrid genome and further support our previous findings that overexpression of Cyp6a8 is a result of mutation of a repressor gene rather than mutation of the cis-regulatory sequences. PMID:12110293

  20. Identification and expression analysis of the Glycine max CYP707A gene family in response to drought and salt stresses

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Huang, Yingyi; Xian, Weihao; Wang, Jinxiang; Liao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Abscisic acid (ABA) plays crucial roles in plants' responses to abiotic stresses. ABA 8′-hydroxylation controlled by CYP707A genes has been well studied in Arabidopsis and rice, but not in legumes. The aims of the present study were to identify and functionally analyse the soybean CYP707A gene family, and to explore their expression patterns under dehydration and salt stresses. Methods A complementation experiment was employed to verify the function of soybean CYP707A1a in ABA catabolism. Genomic and cDNA sequences of other soybean CYP707A genes were isolated from the Phytozome database based on soybean CYP707A1a. The structure and phylogenetic relationship of this gene family was further analysed. The expression patterns of soybean CYP707A genes under dehydration and salt stress were analysed via quantitative real-time PCR. Key Results Over-expression of GmCYP707A1a in the atcyp707a2 T-DNA insertion mutant decreased its sensitivity to ABA, indicating that GmCYP707A1a indeed functions as an ABA 8′-hydroxylase in higher plants. The soybean genome contains ten CYP707A genes. Gene structure and phylogenetic analysis showed high conservation of ten GmCYP707A genes to the other CYP707A genes from monocots and dicots. Seed imbibition induced expression of A1a, A1b, A2a, A2b, A2c, A3a and A5 in embryo, and expression of A1a, A1b, A2a and A2b in cotyledon. Dehydration induced expression of A1a, A1b, A2b, A2c, A3a, A3b, A4a, A4b and A5 both in roots and in leaves, whereas rehydration stimulated transcription of A2a, A2b, A3b, A4a and A5 in roots, and only A3b and A5 in leaves. Expression of all soybean CYP707A genes was induced either by short- or by long-term salt stress. Conclusions The first biological evidence is provided that GmCYP7071a encodes an ABA 8′-hydroxylase through transgenic studies. Ten soybean GmCYP707A genes were identified, most of them expressed in multiple soybean tissues, and were induced by imbibition, dehydration and

  1. CYP2E1 gene rs6413420 polymorphism was first found in the Bouyei ethnic group of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Li; Wang, Hongju; Zheng, Bo; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Xifei; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Background: China is a multinational country. The relationship between gene polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and national ethnicity has not previously investigated among Chinese people. The aim of this study was to investigate distributions of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms in five ethnic groups of China. Methods: 829 blood samples were collected from five ethnic groups (Han, Shui, Miao, Zhuang, Bouyei). Taqman-MGB probe was used in Real-time PCR to test the gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (rs1048943 and rs4646903) and CYP2E1 (rs2031920 and rs6413420). We further validate the SNP genotyping results through DNA sequencing. Results: The genotype distribution of all four SNPs was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except the genotype distribution of rs4646903 in Han and Bouyei ethnic groups (p=0.013 and 0.0005, respectively). CYP2E1 gene rs6413420 polymorphism was first found in the Bouyei ethnic group in China. The results of DNA sequencing were entirely in line with the SNP genotyping assay. Conclusions: The CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms were different in different ethnic groups in China. CYP2E1 gene rs6413420 polymorphism was first found in the Bouyei ethnic group of China. PMID:25419409

  2. Frequency distribution of polymorphisms of CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1 and SLCO1B1 genes in the Yakut population

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyev, Filipp Filippovich; Danilova, Diana Aleksandrovna; Kaimonov, Vladimir Sergeevich; Chertovskih, Yana Valerievna; Maksimova, Nadezda Romanovna

    2016-01-01

    Allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are variable among different populations; therefore the study of SNPs in ethnic groups is important for establishing the clinical significance of the screening of these polymorphisms. The main goal of the research is to study the polymorphisms of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, VKORC1, and SLCO1B1 in Yakuts. Genomic DNA from 229 Yakut subjects were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (SLCO1B1 +521T > C, VKORC1 -1639G>A, CYP2C19 +681G>A, +636G>A, CYP2C9 +430С>T, +1075A>C). Genotype frequencies of polymorphisms in the population of the Yakuts were more characteristic of the Asian population. The results have been included in the software application “Lekgen” that we developed for the interpretation of pharmacogenetic testing. The data of our study obtained on frequency carriers of polymorphisms of genes SLCO1B1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1 among the Yakuts may be useful in developing recommendations for a personalized therapy.

  3. Knockout of mouse Cyp3a gene enhances synthesis of cholesterol and bile acid in the liver[S

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Mari; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Watanabe, Mio; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Takehara, Shoko; Inaba, Asumi; Nitta, Shin-ichiro; Senda, Naoto; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Chiba, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Here, we studied the effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A deficiency on the mRNA expression of genes encoding regulators of hepatic cholesterol levels using Cyp3a-knockout (Cyp3a−/−) mice. The mRNA expression levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis in the livers of Cyp3a−/− mice were higher than those of wild-type (WT) mice. Nuclear levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), which enhances cholesterol biosynthesis, were also higher in the livers of Cyp3a−/− mice. Binding of SREBP-2 to the Hmgcs1 gene promoter was more abundant in the livers of Cyp3a−/− mice. These results suggest that deficiency of CYP3A enzymes enhances transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis via activation of SREBP-2. On the other hand, hepatic cholesterol levels in Cyp3a−/− mice were 20% lower than those in WT mice. The mRNA expression levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in bile acid synthesis, plasma levels of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and hepatic levels of total bile acid were significantly higher in Cyp3a−/− mice than in WT mice. These findings suggest that reduction of hepatic total cholesterol in Cyp3a−/− mice would be the consequence of enhanced bile acid synthesis. Therefore, CYP3A enzymes appear to play roles in the synthesis of cholesterol and bile acid in vivo. PMID:23709690

  4. Analysis of the CYP21A2 gene with intergenic recombination and multiple gene deletions in the RCCX module.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shwu-Fen; Lee, Hsien-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    The most frequent bimodular RCCX module of the RP1-C4A-CYP21A1P-TNXA-RP2-C4B-CYP21A2-TNXB gene sequence is located on chromosome 6p21.3. To determine RCCX alterations, we used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product containing the tenascin B (TNXB) and CYP21A2 genes with TaqI digestion and Southern blot analysis with AseI and NdeI endonuclease digestion of genomic DNA from congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients with common mutations resulting from an intergenic conversion of CYP21A1P, such as an I2 splice, I172N, V281L, F306-L307insT, Q318X, and R356W, and dual mutations of I236N/V237E in the CYP21A2 gene. The results showed that a 3.7-kb fragment of the CYP21A2 gene was detected in each case, and 21.6- and 11.3-kb DNA fragments were found in the RCCX region by a Southern blot analysis with these corresponding mutations. However, the IVS2-12A/C- > G (I2 splice) haplotype in combination with the 707-714delGAGACTAC (without the P30L mutation) mutation produced a 3.2-kb TaqI fragment in the PCR product analysis and a specific 9.3-kb fragment by the Southern blot method. Therefore, we concluded that the rearrangement in the RCCX region resulting from processing of either an intergenic recombination or multiple gene deletions can be identified by the PCR analysis and Southern blot method based on a fragment-distinguishing configuration without a family study. PMID:21117955

  5. The Pharmacogenetic Control of Antiplatelet Response: Candidate Genes and CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yao; Lewis, Joshua P.; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Scott, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aspirin, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor are antiplatelet agents for the prevention of ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and other indications. Variability in response is observed to different degrees with these agents, which can translate to increased risks for adverse cardiovascular events. As such, potential pharmacogenetic determinants of antiplatelet pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical outcomes have been actively studied. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the available antiplatelet pharmacogenetics literature. Evidence supporting the significance of candidate genes and their potential influence on antiplatelet response and clinical outcomes are summarized and evaluated. Additional focus is directed at CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response, including the availability of clinical testing and genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy. Expert opinion The reported aspirin response candidate genes have not been adequately replicated and few candidate genes have thus far been implicated in prasugrel or ticagrelor response. However, abundant data supports the clinical validity of CYP2C19 and clopidogrel response variability among ACS/PCI patients. Although limited prospective trial data are available to support the utility of routine CYP2C19 testing, the increased risks for reduced clopidogrel efficacy among ACS/PCI patients that carry CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles should be considered when genotype results are available. PMID:26173871

  6. Characterization of CYP76M5–8 Indicates Metabolic Plasticity within a Plant Biosynthetic Gene Cluster*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Okada, Kazunori; Yamazaki, Kohei; Wu, Yisheng; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Yamane, Hisakazu; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have revealed genomic clustering of enzymatic genes for particular biosynthetic pathways in plant specialized/secondary metabolism. Rice (Oryza sativa) carries two such clusters for production of antimicrobial diterpenoid phytoalexins, with the cluster on chromosome 2 containing four closely related/homologous members of the cytochrome P450 CYP76M subfamily (CYP76M5–8). Notably, the underlying evolutionary expansion of these CYP appears to have occurred after assembly of the ancestral biosynthetic gene cluster, suggesting separate roles. It has been demonstrated that CYP76M7 catalyzes C11α-hydroxylation of ent-cassadiene, and presumably mediates an early step in biosynthesis of the derived phytocassane class of phytoalexins. Here we report biochemical characterization of CYP76M5, -6, and -8. Our results indicate that CYP76M8 is a multifunctional/promiscuous hydroxylase, with CYP76M5 and -7 seeming to provide only redundant activity, while CYP76M6 seems to provide both redundant and novel activity, relative to CYP76M8. RNAi-mediated double knockdown of CYP76M7 and -8 suppresses elicitor inducible phytocassane production, indicating a role for these monooxygenases in phytocassane biosynthesis. In addition, our data suggests that CYP76M5, -6, and -8 may play redundant roles in production of the oryzalexin class of phytoalexins as well. Intriguingly, the preceding diterpene synthase for oryzalexin biosynthesis, unlike that for the phytocassanes, is not found in the chromosome 2 diterpenoid biosynthetic gene cluster. Accordingly, our results not only uncover a complex evolutionary history, but also further suggest some intriguing differences between plant biosynthetic gene clusters and the seemingly similar microbial operons. The implications for the underlying metabolic evolution of plants are then discussed. PMID:22215681

  7. Characterization of CYP76M5-8 indicates metabolic plasticity within a plant biosynthetic gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L; Okada, Kazunori; Yamazaki, Kohei; Wu, Yisheng; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Yamane, Hisakazu; Peters, Reuben J

    2012-02-24

    Recent reports have revealed genomic clustering of enzymatic genes for particular biosynthetic pathways in plant specialized/secondary metabolism. Rice (Oryza sativa) carries two such clusters for production of antimicrobial diterpenoid phytoalexins, with the cluster on chromosome 2 containing four closely related/homologous members of the cytochrome P450 CYP76M subfamily (CYP76M5-8). Notably, the underlying evolutionary expansion of these CYP appears to have occurred after assembly of the ancestral biosynthetic gene cluster, suggesting separate roles. It has been demonstrated that CYP76M7 catalyzes C11α-hydroxylation of ent-cassadiene, and presumably mediates an early step in biosynthesis of the derived phytocassane class of phytoalexins. Here we report biochemical characterization of CYP76M5, -6, and -8. Our results indicate that CYP76M8 is a multifunctional/promiscuous hydroxylase, with CYP76M5 and -7 seeming to provide only redundant activity, while CYP76M6 seems to provide both redundant and novel activity, relative to CYP76M8. RNAi-mediated double knockdown of CYP76M7 and -8 suppresses elicitor inducible phytocassane production, indicating a role for these monooxygenases in phytocassane biosynthesis. In addition, our data suggests that CYP76M5, -6, and -8 may play redundant roles in production of the oryzalexin class of phytoalexins as well. Intriguingly, the preceding diterpene synthase for oryzalexin biosynthesis, unlike that for the phytocassanes, is not found in the chromosome 2 diterpenoid biosynthetic gene cluster. Accordingly, our results not only uncover a complex evolutionary history, but also further suggest some intriguing differences between plant biosynthetic gene clusters and the seemingly similar microbial operons. The implications for the underlying metabolic evolution of plants are then discussed. PMID:22215681

  8. Avian Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1-3 Family Genes: Isoforms, Evolutionary Relationships, and mRNA Expression in Chicken Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Kawata, Minami; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) of chicken and other avian species have been studied primarily with microsomes or characterized by cloning and protein expression. However, the overall existing isoforms in avian CYP1-3 families or dominant isoforms in avian xenobiotic metabolism have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify and classify all of the existing isoforms of CYP1-3 in avian species using available genome assemblies for chicken, zebra finch, and turkey. Furthermore, we performed qRT-PCR assay to identify dominant CYP genes in chicken liver. Our results suggested that avian xenobiotic-metabolizing CYP genes have undergone unique evolution such as CYP2C and CYP3A genes, which have undergone avian-specific gene duplications. qRT-PCR experiments showed that CYP2C45 was the most highly expressed isoform in chicken liver, while CYP2C23b was the most highly induced gene by phenobarbital. Considering together with the result of further enzymatic characterization, CYP2C45 may have a dominant role in chicken xenobiotic metabolism due to the constitutive high expression levels, while CYP2C23a and CYP2C23b can be greatly induced by chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR) activators. These findings will provide not only novel insights into avian xenobiotic metabolism, but also a basis for the further characterization of each CYP gene. PMID:24098714

  9. The Y137H mutation of VvCYP51 gene confers the reduced sensitivity to tebuconazole in Villosiclava virens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Lin, Yang; Yin, Wei-Xiao; Peng, You-Liang; Schnabel, Guido; Huang, Jun-Bin; Luo, Chao-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Management of rice false smut disease caused by Villosiclava virens is dependent on demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides. Investigation of molecular mechanisms of resistance is therefore of upmost importance. In this study the gene encoding the target protein for DMI fungicides (VvCYP51) was cloned and investigated. The VvCYP51 gene in the resistant mutant revealed both a change from tyrosine to histidine at position 137 (Y137H) and elevated gene expression compared to the parental isolate. In order to determine which of these mechanisms was responsible for the reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicide tebuconazole, transformants expressing the mutated or the wild type VvCYP51 gene were generated. Transformants carrying the mutated gene were more resistant to tebuconazole compared to control transformants lacking the mutation, but the expression of the VvCYP51 gene was not significantly correlated with EC50 values. The wild type VvCYP51 protein exhibited stronger affinity for tebuconazole compared to the VvCYP51/Y137H in both molecular docking analysis and experimental binding assays. The UV-generated mutant as well as transformants expressing the VvCYP51/Y137H did not exhibit significant fitness penalties based on mycelial growth and spore germination, suggesting that isolates resistant to DMI fungicides based on the Y137H mutation may develop and be competitive in the field. PMID:26631591

  10. The sidekick gene, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is required for pattern formation in the Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D N; Liu, Y; Litsky, M L; Reinke, R

    1997-09-01

    In the Drosophila eye imaginal disc the photoreceptor cells (R cells) differentiate according to a precise spatial and temporal order. The sidekick (sdk) gene is necessary to prevent extra R cells from differentiating during eye disc development. The extra cell appears between R3 and R4 early in R cell clusters and is most likely the result of the mystery cell inappropriately differentiating as an R cell. Mosaic analysis shows that sdk is required neither in the R cells nor in the extra cell, suggesting that sdk is necessary in the surrounding undifferentiated cells. The sdk gene codes for a protein that is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, having six immunoglobulin domains, thirteen fibronectin repeats and a transmembrane domain. The protein structure is consistent with its participation in cell-cell interaction during eye development. PMID:9310325

  11. The MrCYP52 cytochrome P450 monoxygenase gene of Metarhizium robertsii is important for utilizing insect epicuticular hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liangcai; Fang, Weiguo; Liao, Xinggang; Wang, Fengqing; Wei, Dongzhi; St Leger, Raymond J

    2011-01-01

    Fungal pathogens of plants and insects infect their hosts by direct penetration of the cuticle. Plant and insect cuticles are covered by a hydrocarbon-rich waxy outer layer that represents the first barrier against infection. However, the fungal genes that underlie insect waxy layer degradation have received little attention. Here we characterize the single cytochrome P450 monoxygenase family 52 (MrCYP52) gene of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii, and demonstrate that it encodes an enzyme required for efficient utilization of host hydrocarbons. Expressing a green florescent protein gene under control of the MrCYP52 promoter confirmed that MrCYP52 is up regulated on insect cuticle as well as by artificial media containing decane (C10), extracted cuticle hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent long chain alkanes. Disrupting MrCYP52 resulted in reduced growth on epicuticular hydrocarbons and delayed developmental processes on insect cuticle, including germination and production of appressoria (infection structures). Extraction of alkanes from cuticle prevented induction of MrCYP52 and reduced growth. Insect bioassays against caterpillars (Galleria mellonella) confirmed that disruption of MrCYP52 significantly reduces virulence. However, MrCYP52 was dispensable for normal germination and appressorial formation in vitro when the fungus was supplied with nitrogenous nutrients. We conclude therefore that MrCYP52 mediates degradation of epicuticular hydrocarbons and these are an important nutrient source, but not a source of chemical signals that trigger infection processes. PMID:22194968

  12. Expression and Characterization of CYP52 Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Sophorolipid and Alkane Metabolism from Starmerella bombicola

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fong-Chin; Peter, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Three cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP52 gene family members were isolated from the sophorolipid-producing yeast Starmerella bombicola (former Candida bombicola), namely, CYP52E3, CYP52M1, and CYP52N1, and their open reading frames were cloned into the pYES2 vector for expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The functions of the recombinant proteins were analyzed with a variety of alkane and fatty acid substrates using microsome proteins or a whole-cell system. CYP52M1 was found to oxidize C16 to C20 fatty acids preferentially. It converted oleic acid (C18:1) more efficiently than stearic acid (C18:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2) and much more effectively than α-linolenic acid (C18:3). No products were detected when C10 to C12 fatty acids were used as the substrates. Moreover, CYP52M1 hydroxylated fatty acids at their ω- and ω-1 positions. CYP52N1 oxidized C14 to C20 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and preferentially oxidized palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. It only catalyzed ω-hydroxylation of fatty acids. Minor ω-hydroxylation activity against myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and oleic acid was shown for CYP52E3. Furthermore, the three P450s were coassayed with glucosyltransferase UGTA1. UGTA1 glycosylated all hydroxyl fatty acids generated by CYP52E3, CYP52M1, and CYP52N1. The transformation efficiency of fatty acids into glucolipids by CYP52M1/UGTA1 was much higher than those by CYP52N1/UGTA1 and CYP52E3/UGTA1. Taken together, CYP52M1 is demonstrated to be involved in the biosynthesis of sophorolipid, whereas CYP52E3 and CYP52N1 might be involved in alkane metabolism in S. bombicola but downstream of the initial oxidation steps. PMID:24242247

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes in Veneroida clams: Analysis of superfamily-specific genomic and evolutionary features.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Heebal; Nam, Bo-Hye; An, Cheul Min; Park, Jung Youn; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Kim, Eun Bae

    2015-12-01

    Veneroida is the largest order of bivalves, and these clams are commercially important in Asian countries. Although numerous studies have focused on the genomic characters of individual species or genera in Veneroida, superfamily-specific genomic characters have not been determined. In this study, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 12 mitochondrial protein coding genes (PCGs) from 25 clams in six Veneroida superfamilies to determine genomic and evolutionary features of each superfamily. Length and distribution of nucleotides encoding the PCGs were too variable to define superfamily-specific genomic characters. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PCGs are suitable for classification of species in three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Mactroidea, and Veneroidea. However, one species classified in Tellinoidea, Sinonovacula constricta, was evolutionarily closer to Solenoidea clams than Tellinoidea clams. dN/dS analysis showed that positively selected sites in NADH dehydrogenase subunit, nd4 and subunit of ATP synthase, atp6 were present in Mactroidea. Differences in selected sites in the nd4 and atp6 could be caused by superfamily-level differences in sodium transport or ATP synthesis functions, respectively. These differences in selected sites in NADH may have conferred these animals, which have low motility and do not generally move, with increased flexibility to maintain homeostasis in the face of osmotic pressure. Our study provides insight into evolutionary traits as well as facilitates identification of veneroids. PMID:26343338

  14. Molecular Evolution of the CYP2D Subfamily in Primates: Purifying Selection on Substrate Recognition Sites without the Frequent or Long-Tract Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene is a member of the CYP2D gene subfamily, along with the CYP2D7P and CYP2D8P pseudogenes. Although the CYP2D6 enzyme has been studied extensively because of its clinical importance, the evolution of the CYP2D subfamily has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to reveal the evolutionary process of the human drug metabolic system. Here, we investigate molecular evolution of the CYP2D subfamily in primates by comparing 14 CYP2D sequences from humans to New World monkey genomes. Window analysis and statistical tests revealed that entire genomic sequences of paralogous genes were extensively homogenized by gene conversion during molecular evolution of CYP2D genes in primates. A neighbor-joining tree based on genomic sequences at the nonsubstrate recognition sites showed that CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes were clustered together due to gene conversion. In contrast, a phylogenetic tree using amino acid sequences at substrate recognition sites did not cluster the CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes, suggesting that the functional constraint on substrate specificity is one of the causes for purifying selection at the substrate recognition sites. Our results suggest that the CYP2D gene subfamily in primates has evolved to maintain the regioselectivity for a substrate hydroxylation activity between individual enzymes, even though extensive gene conversion has occurred across CYP2D coding sequences. PMID:25808902

  15. Characterization and expression of cyp19a gene in the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiaomu; Xiao, Hanbing; Tian, HaiFeng; Meng, Yan

    2016-02-01

    We cloned the full length cyp19a of Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, determined its distribution in tissues and developing gonads, and analyzed the CpG methylation pattern of the cyp19a promoter. The results revealed isoforms of 1706 bp (G arom) and 1698 bp (B arom) in length, differing in the 5' flanking region, both encoding 502 amino acids. The G arom gene was observed mainly in the ovary and kidney, with little in other investigated tissues, while B arom expression was high in the brain, ovary, testis, and pituitary, with low or undetected expression in other examined tissues. Total aromatase expression was high in the ovary; moderate in the kidney, brain, testis, and pituitary; and low in the remaining tissues. G arom expression was significantly higher in the ovary than in the testis and gradually decreased with maturation of the salamander. A single injection of methyltestosterone or letrozole resulted in ovarian G arom expression decreasing over a 12-96 h period. A 1366 bp sequence of the cyp19a promoter was cloned and shown to be conserved in selected species. CpG methylation level was negatively correlated with cyp19a expression in the examined tissues and developing ovaries. Five and three CpG methylation sites positively correlated with DNA methylation levels in tissues and developing ovary, suggesting that they play an important role in regulating cyp19a expression. The aromatase gene showed two isoforms with distinct expression patterns, and the promoter methylation level at specific CpG sites was associated with variation in expression profiles of tissues and developing ovaries. PMID:26593771

  16. Gene response of CYP360A, CYP314, and GST and whole-organism changes in Daphnia magna exposed to ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Peng, Ying; Nie, Xiangping; Pan, Benben; Ku, Peijia; Bao, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    The fate and ecological impact of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in aquatic environments has gained increasingly concern recently. However, limited information is provided about the toxicity mechanism of NSAIDs to aquatic invertebrates. In the present study, we investigated the expression of CYP360A, CYP314, and GST genes involved in the detoxification process and the responses of their associated enzymes activity, as well as whole-organism changes in Daphnia magna exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of ibuprofen (IBU). Results showed that the total amount of eggs produced per female, total number of brood per female, and body length were significantly decreased under IBU exposure, suggesting the effects of chronic IBU exposure on growth and reproduction of D. magna cannot be ignored. In gene expression level, the CYP360A gene, homologue to CYP3A in mammalian, showed inhibition at low concentration of IBU (0.5μg·L(-1)) and induction at high concentration of IBU (50μg·L(-1)). GST gene also exhibited a similar performance to CYP3A. CYP314 displayed inhibition for short time exposure (6h) and induced with prolonged exposure time (48h) at low concentration of IBU (0.5μg·L(-1)). Erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) related to cytochrome oxidase P450 (CYPs) were inhibited for short time exposure (6h) to IBU and then activated with prolonged exposure time (48h) at low concentration of IBU (0.5μg·L(-1)), while EROD showed a dose-dependent pattern under IBU exposure. As for antioxidative system, induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) was observed in short-term exposure to IBU. Meanwhile, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content increased with the increasing IBU concentration and the delayed exposure time, displaying obvious dose- and time-dependent pattern. In summary, IBU significantly altered some physiological and biochemical parameters and

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Superfamily Genes and their Responses to Abiotic Stress in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yongjun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Song, Lili; Guo, Changhong

    2016-01-01

    The AP2/ERF superfamily is a large, plant-specific transcription factor family that is involved in many important processes, including plant growth, development, and stress responses. Using Medicago truncatula genome information, we identified and characterized 123 putative AP2/ERF genes, which were named as MtERF1–123. These genes were classified into four families based on phylogenetic analysis, which is consistent with the results of other plant species. MtERF genes are distributed throughout all chromosomes but are clustered on various chromosomes due to genomic tandem and segmental duplication. Using transcriptome, high-throughput sequencing data, and qRT-PCR analysis, we assessed the expression patterns of the MtERF genes in tissues during development and under abiotic stresses. In total, 87 MtERF genes were expressed in plant tissues, most of which were expressed in specific tissues during development or under specific abiotic stress treatments. These results support the notion that MtERF genes are involved in developmental regulation and environmental responses in M. truncatula. Furthermore, a cluster of DREB subfamily members on chromosome 6 was induced by both cold and freezing stress, representing a positive gene regulatory response under low temperature stress, which suggests that these genes might contribute to freezing tolerance to M. truncatula. In summary, our genome-wide characterization, evolutionary analysis, and expression pattern analysis of MtERF genes in M. truncatula provides valuable information for characterizing the molecular functions of these genes and utilizing them to improve stress tolerance in plants. PMID:26834762

  18. Cytochrome P450 1D1: A novel CYP1A-related gene that is not transcriptionally activated by PCB126 or TCDD

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, J. V.; Jönsson, M. E.; Behrendt, L.; Woodin, B. R.; Jenny, M. J.; Nelson, D. R.; Stegeman, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes in the cytochrome P450 1 family oxidize many common environmental toxicants. We identified a new CYP1, termed CYP1D1, in zebrafish. Phylogenetically, CYP1D1 is paralogous to CYP1A and the two share 45% amino acid identity and similar gene structure. In adult zebrafish, CYP1D1 is most highly expressed in liver and is relatively highly expressed in brain. CYP1D1 transcript levels were higher at 9 hours post-fertilization than at later developmental times. Treatment of zebrafish with potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) did not induce CYP1D1 transcript expression. Morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of AHR2, which mediates induction of other CYP1s, did not affect CYP1D1 expression. Zebrafish CYP1D1 heterologously expressed in yeast exhibited ethoxyresorufin- and methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activities. Antibodies against a CYP1D1 peptide specifically detected a single electrophoretically-resolved protein band in zebrafish liver microsomes, distinct from CYP1A. CYP1D1 in zebrafish is a CYP1A-like gene that could have metabolic functions targeting endogenous compounds. PMID:19103147

  19. Diindolylmethane, a naturally occurring compound, induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activating human PXR

    PubMed Central

    Pondugula, Satyanarayana R.; Flannery, Patrick C.; Abbott, Kodye L.; Coleman, Elaine S.; Mani, Sridhar; Samuel, Temesgen; Xie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-regulated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) plays an important role in mediating adverse drug interactions. Given the common use of natural products as part of adjunct human health behavior, there is a growing concern about natural products for their potential to induce undesired drug interactions through the activation of hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1. Here, we studied whether 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural health supplement, could induce hPXR-mediated regulation of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestinal cells. DIM, at its physiologically relevant concentrations, not only induced hPXR transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter activity but also induced gene expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1. DIM decreased intracellular accumulation of MDR1 substrate rhodamine 123, suggesting that DIM induces the functional expression of MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knockdown of hPXR resulted in attenuation of DIM induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression, suggesting that DIM induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 in an hPXR-dependent manner. Together, these results support our conclusion that DIM induces hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression. The inductive effects of DIM on CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression caution the use of DIM in conjunction with other medications metabolized and transported via CYP3A4 and MDR1, respectively. PMID:25542144

  20. Ancient Duplications and Expression Divergence in the Globin Gene Superfamily of Vertebrates: Insights from the Elephant Shark Genome and Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Juan C.; Toloza-Villalobos, Jessica; Burmester, Thorsten; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Storz, Jay F.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of vertebrate genomes continue to uncover a surprising diversity of genes in the globin gene superfamily, some of which have very restricted phyletic distributions despite their antiquity. Genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) should be especially informative about the duplicative origins and ancestral functions of vertebrate globins, as divergence between Chondrichthyes and bony vertebrates represents the most basal split within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the vertebrate globin gene family that includes the complete globin gene repertoire of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Using genomic sequence data from representatives of all major vertebrate classes, integrated analyses of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships revealed that the last common ancestor of vertebrates possessed a repertoire of at least seven globin genes: single copies of androglobin and neuroglobin, four paralogous copies of globin X, and the single-copy progenitor of the entire set of vertebrate-specific globins. Combined with expression data, the genomic inventory of elephant shark globins yielded four especially surprising findings: 1) there is no trace of the neuroglobin gene (a highly conserved gene that is present in all other jawed vertebrates that have been examined to date), 2) myoglobin is highly expressed in heart, but not in skeletal muscle (reflecting a possible ancestral condition in vertebrates with single-circuit circulatory systems), 3) elephant shark possesses two highly divergent globin X paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in gonads, and 4) elephant shark possesses two structurally distinct α-globin paralogs, one of which is preferentially expressed in the brain. Expression profiles of elephant shark globin genes reveal distinct specializations of function relative to orthologs in bony vertebrates and suggest hypotheses about

  1. Induction of the CYP2B genes by triphenyldioxane treatment in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, E; Soshilov, A; Surovtseva, Y; Schwartz, E L; Duzhak, T G; Gulyaeva, L F; Lyakhovich, V V

    2002-08-01

    Triphenyldioxane (TPD) is a potent phenobarbital-type (PB) inducer of the CYP2B cytochrome isoforms, the inducing effect of which is one order of magnitude higher than PB. The fact that TPD is unable to induce CYP2B genes having the proximal promoter disrupted (mouse Cyp2b10) suggests an existence of the proximal promoter-dependent mechanism of the CYP2B induction. So a TPD-dependent activation of the nuclear proteins to the binding with Barbie-box sequence (the most conservative part of the proximal promoter) was studied. In the nuclear extracts from the intact rat liver there were detected five proteins that could be activated to the Barbie-box binding by the TPD treatment in vitro (II, III, NI, NII and NIII). The first three were effected also by another PB-like inducers tested (PB and TCPOBOP), when NII and NIII complexes were formed under the influence of TPD only. It is possible that a direct activation of the NII and NIII proteins by TPD exists as (3)H-labeled TPD was detected in the composition of NII and NIII complexes. However, both of them disappeared from the nuclear extracts after the long exposure time with TPD (6 h or more). A short induction by the direct intra-liver delivery of TPD (15-30 min) led to the stabile activation of one TPD-specific protein. Apart from the activation of the Barbie-box-binding protein, the short TPD treatment caused the activation of three nuclear proteins being able to interact with the NR1 sequence of the distal promoter PBREM element. These findings suggest that TPD is really the first member of the PB-like inducers family for which a special mechanism of CYP2B induction may exist. PMID:12110287

  2. CACTA-superfamily transposable element is inserted in MYB transcription factor gene of soybean line producing variegated seeds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fan; Di, Shaokang; Takahashi, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    The R gene of soybean, presumably encoding a MYB transcription factor, controls seed coat color. The gene consists of multiple alleles, R (black), r-m (black spots and (or) concentric streaks on brown seed), and r (brown seed). This study was conducted to determine the structure of the MYB transcription factor gene in a near-isogenic line (NIL) having r-m allele. PCR amplification of a fragment of the candidate gene Glyma.09G235100 generated a fragment of about 1 kb in the soybean cultivar Clark, whereas a fragment of about 14 kb in addition to fragments of 1 and 1.4 kb were produced in L72-2040, a Clark 63 NIL with the r-m allele. Clark 63 is a NIL of Clark with the rxp and Rps1 alleles. A DNA fragment of 13 060 bp was inserted in the intron of Glyma.09G235100 in L72-2040. The fragment had the CACTA motif at both ends, imperfect terminal inverted repeats (TIR), inverse repetition of short sequence motifs close to the 5' and 3' ends, and a duplication of three nucleotides at the site of integration, indicating that it belongs to a CACTA-superfamily transposable element. We designated the element as Tgm11. Overall nucleotide sequence, motifs of TIR, and subterminal repeats were similar to those of Tgm1 and Tgs1, suggesting that these elements comprise a family. PMID:26360633

  3. CYP2E1 impairs GLUT4 gene expression and function: NRF2 as a possible mediator.

    PubMed

    Armoni, M; Harel, C; Ramdas, M; Karnieli, E

    2014-06-01

    Impaired GLUT4 function/expression in insulin target tissues is well-documented in diabetes and obesity. Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) induces oxidative stress, leading to impaired insulin action. CYP2E1 knockout mice are protected against high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity; however the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. We examined whether CYP2E1 impairs GLUT4 gene expression and function in adipose and muscle cells. CYP2E1 overexpression in skeletal muscle-derived L6 cells inhibited insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake, with the latter inhibition being blocked by vitamin E. CYP2E1 overexpression in L6 and primary rat adipose (PRA) cells suppressed GLUT4 gene expression at promoter and mRNA levels, whereas CYP2E1 silencing had opposite effects. In PRA, CYP2E1-induced suppression of GLUT4 expression was blocked by chlormethiazole (CYP2E1-specific inhibitor) and the antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetyl-l-cysteine. CYP2E1 effect was mediated by the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), as evident from its complete reversal by a coexpressed dominant-negative, but not wild-type NRF2. GLUT4 transcription was suppressed by NRF2 overexpression, and enhanced by NRF2 silencing. Promoter and ChIP analysis showed a direct and specific binding of NRF2 to a 58-326 GLUT4 promoter region that was required to maintain CYP2E1 suppression; this binding was enhanced by CYP2E1 overexpression. We suggest a mechanism for CYP2E1 action that involves: a) suppression of GLUT4 gene expression that is mediated by NRF2; b) impairment of insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation and function. CYP2E1 and NRF2 are introduced as negative regulators of GLUT4 expression and function in insulin-sensitive cells. PMID:24500986

  4. Fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques (FISH) to detect changes in CYP19a gene expression of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, June-Woo; Tompsett, Amber; Zhang, Xiaowei; Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Au, Doris; Kong, Richard; Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Giesy, John P. Hecker, Markus

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive in situ hybridization methodology using fluorescence-labeled riboprobes (FISH) that allows for the evaluation of gene expression profiles simultaneously in multiple target tissues of whole fish sections of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). To date FISH methods have been limited in their application due to autofluorescence of tissues, fixatives or other components of the hybridization procedure. An optimized FISH method, based on confocal fluorescence microscopy was developed to reduce the autofluorescence signal. Because of its tissue- and gender-specific expression and relevance in studies of endocrine disruption, gonadal aromatase (CYP19a) was used as a model gene. The in situ hybridization (ISH) system was validated in a test exposure with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. The optimized FISH method revealed tissue-specific expression of the CYP19a gene. Furthermore, the assay could differentiate the abundance of CYP19a mRNA among cell types. Expression of CYP19a was primarily associated with early stage oocytes, and expression gradually decreased with increasing maturation. No expression of CYP19a mRNA was observed in other tissues such as brain, liver, or testes. Fadrozole (100 {mu}g/L) caused up-regulation of CYP19a expression, a trend that was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis on excised tissues. In a combination approach with gonad histology, it could be shown that the increase in CYP19a expression as measured by RT-PCR on a whole tissue basis was due to a combination of both increases in numbers of CYP19a-containing cells and an increase in the amount of CYP19a mRNA present in the cells.

  5. The clot gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a conserved member of the thioredoxin-like protein superfamily.

    PubMed

    Giordano, E; Peluso, I; Rendina, R; Digilio, A; Furia, M

    2003-02-01

    The conversion of pyruvoyl-H(4)-pterin to pyrimidodiazepine (PDA), which is an essential step in the biosynthesis of the red components of Drosophila eye pigments known as drosopterins, requires the products of the genes sepia and clot. While the product of sepia has been shown to correspond to the enzyme PDA-synthase, the role of clot remains unknown, although the clot(1) allele was one of the first eye-color mutants to be isolated in Drosophila melanogaster,and much genetic and biochemical data has become available since. Here we report the cloning of the clot gene, describe its molecular organization and characterize the sequence alterations associated with the alleles cl(1) and cl(2). The coding properties of the gene show that it encodes a protein related to the Glutaredoxin class of the Thioredoxin-like enzyme superfamily, conserved members of which are found in human, mouse and plants. We suggest that the Clot protein is an essential component of a glutathione redox system required for the final step in the biosynthetic pathway for drosopterins. PMID:12589444

  6. Both positive and negative selection pressures contribute to the polymorphism pattern of the duplicated human CYP21A2 gene.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Julianna Anna; Szilágyi, Ágnes; Doleschall, Zoltán; Patócs, Attila; Farkas, Henriette; Prohászka, Zoltán; Rácz, Kárioly; Füst, George; Doleschall, Márton

    2013-01-01

    The human steroid 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2) participates in cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis, and resides together with its paralogous (duplicated) pseudogene in a multiallelic copy number variation (CNV), called RCCX CNV. Concerted evolution caused by non-allelic gene conversion has been described in great ape CYP21 genes, and the same conversion activity is responsible for a serious genetic disorder of CYP21A2, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In the current study, 33 CYP21A2 haplotype variants encoding 6 protein variants were determined from a European population. CYP21A2 was shown to be one of the most diverse human genes (HHe=0.949), but the diversity of intron 2 was greater still. Contrary to previous findings, the evolution of intron 2 did not follow concerted evolution, although the remaining part of the gene did. Fixed sites (different fixed alleles of sites in human CYP21 paralogues) significantly accumulated in intron 2, indicating that the excess of fixed sites was connected to the lack of effective non-allelic conversion and concerted evolution. Furthermore, positive selection was presumably focused on intron 2, and possibly associated with the previous genetic features. However, the positive selection detected by several neutrality tests was discerned along the whole gene. In addition, the clear signature of negative selection was observed in the coding sequence. The maintenance of the CYP21 enzyme function is critical, and could lead to negative selection, whereas the presumed gene regulation altering steroid hormone levels via intron 2 might help fast adaptation, which broadly characterizes the genes of human CNVs responding to the environment. PMID:24312389

  7. Characterisation of CAH alleles with non-radioactive DNA single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the CYP21 gene.

    PubMed

    Bobba, A; Iolascon, A; Giannattasio, S; Albrizio, M; Sinisi, A; Prisco, F; Schettini, F; Marra, E

    1997-03-01

    The major cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a common recessive genetic disease, is the deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase (21OH), a microsomal enzyme encoded by the CYP21 gene. Although several CAH causing mutations have been identified in the CYP21 gene of patients with 21OH deficiency, genotyping of the 21OH locus is quite complex because of the high frequency of gene conversion and the presence of multiple mutations on single CAH alleles. In order to perform the complete characterisation of the CYP21 gene coding region more simply, we developed a highly sensitive, non-radioactive method allowing DNA single strand conformation polymorphism (DNA-SSCP) analysis. This method was applied to the characterisation of all the exons and intron-exon junctions of the CYP21 gene in five patients affected by the simple virilising form and one affected by the salt wasting form. In all samples showing SSCP signals, direct sequence analysis showed the presence of more than one single sequence variant. In particular, four mutations which are already known to cause the disease, 16 polymorphisms, and one newly identified C to T transition at position 849 were detected. A random sequence analysis, performed on 31 out of 81 exons showing a normal SSCP pattern, shows the method to be highly sensitive: no sequence variant was detected, thus confirming the validity of this non-radioactive DNA-SSCP analysis in characterising the CYP21 gene in patients with steroid 21OH deficiency. Notwithstanding the complete characterisation of all exons and exon/intron junctions of the CYP21 gene, no complete genotype/phenotype correlation was found in the panel of patients analysed, thus suggesting that characterisation of CAH alleles must be extended to outside the coding region of the CYP21 gene, most probably into the promoter region. PMID:9132494

  8. Characterisation of CAH alleles with non-radioactive DNA single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the CYP21 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Bobba, A; Iolascon, A; Giannattasio, S; Albrizio, M; Sinisi, A; Prisco, F; Schettini, F; Marra, E

    1997-01-01

    The major cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a common recessive genetic disease, is the deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase (21OH), a microsomal enzyme encoded by the CYP21 gene. Although several CAH causing mutations have been identified in the CYP21 gene of patients with 21OH deficiency, genotyping of the 21OH locus is quite complex because of the high frequency of gene conversion and the presence of multiple mutations on single CAH alleles. In order to perform the complete characterisation of the CYP21 gene coding region more simply, we developed a highly sensitive, non-radioactive method allowing DNA single strand conformation polymorphism (DNA-SSCP) analysis. This method was applied to the characterisation of all the exons and intron-exon junctions of the CYP21 gene in five patients affected by the simple virilising form and one affected by the salt wasting form. In all samples showing SSCP signals, direct sequence analysis showed the presence of more than one single sequence variant. In particular, four mutations which are already known to cause the disease, 16 polymorphisms, and one newly identified C to T transition at position 849 were detected. A random sequence analysis, performed on 31 out of 81 exons showing a normal SSCP pattern, shows the method to be highly sensitive: no sequence variant was detected, thus confirming the validity of this non-radioactive DNA-SSCP analysis in characterising the CYP21 gene in patients with steroid 21OH deficiency. Notwithstanding the complete characterisation of all exons and exon/intron junctions of the CYP21 gene, no complete genotype/phenotype correlation was found in the panel of patients analysed, thus suggesting that characterisation of CAH alleles must be extended to outside the coding region of the CYP21 gene, most probably into the promoter region. Images PMID:9132494

  9. Association of the vitamin D metabolism gene CYP24A1 with coronary artery calcification

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Haiqing; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Ferguson, Jane F.; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Liu, Jie; Post, Wendy; O'Connell, Jeffery R.; Hixson, James E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Sun, Yan V.; Jhun, Mina A.; Wang, Xuexia; Mehta, Nehal N.; Li, Mingyao; Koller, Daniel L.; Hakonarson, Hakan; Keating, Brendan J.; Rader, Daniel J.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Vitamin D endocrine system is essential for calcium homeostasis, and low levels of vitamin D metabolites have been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that DNA sequence variation in genes regulating vitamin D metabolism and signaling pathways might influence variation in coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods and Results We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and VDR and tested their association with CAC quantity, as measured by electron beam computed tomography. Initial association studies were carried out in a discovery sample comprised of 697 Amish subjects and SNPs nominally associated with CAC quantity (4 SNPs in CYP24A1, P = 0.008-0.00003) were then tested for association with CAC quantity in two independent cohorts of subjects of European Caucasian ancestry (Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) Study (n = 916) and The Penn Coronary Artery Calcification (PennCAC) sample (n = 2,061)). One of the four SNPs, rs2762939, was associated with CAC quantity in both GENOA (P = 0.007) and PennCAC (P = 0.01). In all three populations the rs2762939 C allele was associated with lower CAC quantity. Meta-analysis for the association of this SNP with CAC quantity across all three studies yielded a P value of 2.9 × 10-6. Conclusion A common SNP in the CYP24A1 gene was associated with CAC quantity in three independent populations. This result suggests a role for vitamin D metabolism in the development of CAC quantity. PMID:20847308

  10. Phenytoin toxicity in two-month-old Thai infant with CYP2C9 gene polymorphism--A case report.

    PubMed

    Veeravigrom, Montida; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Netbaramee, Wiracha; Phaisarn, Pichaya; Uyathanarat, Thanita

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin is one of the most well established and most effective antiepileptic medications for the treatment of focal seizures. In our clinical practice, it has proven difficult to maintain therapeutic phenytoin levels in infants less than three months of age. Incidence of phenytoin toxicity in infants is very rare. The cytochrome P450 super family plays an important role in phenytoin metabolism, especially CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. In this case report, we profiled a two-month-old Thai infant who developed phenytoin toxicity resulting from CYP2C9 gene polymorphism. PMID:25998968

  11. Genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analysis of the aspartic protease gene superfamily in grape

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes found in almost all organisms. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as senescence, stress responses, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the present study, no grape AP gene(s) had been reported, and their research on woody species was very limited. Results In this study, a total of 50 AP genes (VvAP) were identified in the grape genome, among which 30 contained the complete ASP domain. Synteny analysis within grape indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape AP family. Additional analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several grape AP genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grape and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic relationships of the 30 VvAPs with the complete ASP domain and their Arabidopsis orthologs, as well as their gene and protein features were analyzed and their cellular localization was predicted. Moreover, expression profiles of VvAP genes in six different tissues were determined, and their transcript abundance under various stresses and hormone treatments were measured. Twenty-seven VvAP genes were expressed in at least one of the six tissues examined; nineteen VvAPs responded to at least one abiotic stress, 12 VvAPs responded to powdery mildew infection, and most of the VvAPs responded to SA and ABA treatments. Furthermore, integrated synteny and phylogenetic analysis identified orthologous AP genes between grape and Arabidopsis, providing a unique starting point for investigating the function of grape AP genes. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape AP genes provide a framework for future analysis of AP genes in defining their roles during stress response. Integrated synteny and phylogenetic analyses provide novel insight into the

  12. Heterologous expression of the Monilinia fructicola CYP51 (MfCYP51) gene in Pichia pastoris confirms the mode of action of the novel fungicide, SYP-Z048

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fengping; Lin, Dong; Wang, Jingyuan; Li, Botao; Duan, Hongxia; Liu, Junli; Liu, Xili

    2015-01-01

    The novel agricultural fungicide 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinyl] pyridine (SYP-Z048) developed by China Shenyang Research Institute of Chemical Industry has been confirmed to be an ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor (EBI). Previous studies have shown that EBIs target the proteins from a range of genes, including CYP51, ERG2 and/or ERG24, and ERG27, which are involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. In the current study the ERG2, ERG24, and ERG27 genes were cloned from wild type and resistant mutants of Monilinia fructicola in an attempt to clarify the target site of SYP-Z048. Comparative analysis of the deduced aa sequence of these genes, as well as CYP51, revealed several point mutations that resulted in amino acid variation among the sensitive and resistant isolates. However, sensitivity assays indicated that only one, the substitution of phenylalanine (F) for the tyrosine (Y) at 136 in CYP51, was correlated with reduced sensitivity to SYP-Z048. Heterologous expression of MfCYP51-136Y (MfCYP136Y) and MfCYP51-136F (MfCYP136F) in Pichia pastoris revealed that MfCYP136F significantly reduced sensitivity to SYP-Z048, increasing the average EC50 of the transformants 11-fold relative to those carrying MfCYP136Y. However, neither the additional copy of MfCYP136Y nor multiple copies of MfCYP136F were found to reduce sensitivity relative to the empty vector control or single copy transformants, respectively. Molecular docking experiments using SYP-Z048 with HsCYP145Y and the mutated version HsCYP145F as substitutes for MfCYP136Y and MfCYP136F, respectively, indicated that the reduced affinity of HsCYP145F for SYP-Z048 resulted from the loss of a hydrogen bond between the fungicide and the active site. Taken together these results indicate that MfCYP51 is the major target site of SYP-Z048 in M. fructicola, which has important implications for the resistance management of this fungicide in the field. PMID:26042103

  13. Heterologous expression of the Monilinia fructicola CYP51 (MfCYP51) gene in Pichia pastoris confirms the mode of action of the novel fungicide, SYP-Z048.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengping; Lin, Dong; Wang, Jingyuan; Li, Botao; Duan, Hongxia; Liu, Junli; Liu, Xili

    2015-01-01

    The novel agricultural fungicide 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinyl] pyridine (SYP-Z048) developed by China Shenyang Research Institute of Chemical Industry has been confirmed to be an ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor (EBI). Previous studies have shown that EBIs target the proteins from a range of genes, including CYP51, ERG2 and/or ERG24, and ERG27, which are involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. In the current study the ERG2, ERG24, and ERG27 genes were cloned from wild type and resistant mutants of Monilinia fructicola in an attempt to clarify the target site of SYP-Z048. Comparative analysis of the deduced aa sequence of these genes, as well as CYP51, revealed several point mutations that resulted in amino acid variation among the sensitive and resistant isolates. However, sensitivity assays indicated that only one, the substitution of phenylalanine (F) for the tyrosine (Y) at 136 in CYP51, was correlated with reduced sensitivity to SYP-Z048. Heterologous expression of MfCYP51-136Y (MfCYP136Y) and MfCYP51-136F (MfCYP136F) in Pichia pastoris revealed that MfCYP136F significantly reduced sensitivity to SYP-Z048, increasing the average EC50 of the transformants 11-fold relative to those carrying MfCYP136Y. However, neither the additional copy of MfCYP136Y nor multiple copies of MfCYP136F were found to reduce sensitivity relative to the empty vector control or single copy transformants, respectively. Molecular docking experiments using SYP-Z048 with HsCYP145Y and the mutated version HsCYP145F as substitutes for MfCYP136Y and MfCYP136F, respectively, indicated that the reduced affinity of HsCYP145F for SYP-Z048 resulted from the loss of a hydrogen bond between the fungicide and the active site. Taken together these results indicate that MfCYP51 is the major target site of SYP-Z048 in M. fructicola, which has important implications for the resistance management of this fungicide in the field. PMID:26042103

  14. CYP99A3: functional identification of a diterpene oxidase from the momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L; Peters, Reuben J

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) produces momilactone diterpenoids as both phytoalexins and allelochemicals. Strikingly, the rice genome contains a biosynthetic gene cluster for momilactone production, located on rice chromosome 4, which contains two cytochrome P450 (CYP) mono-oxygenases, CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, with undefined roles; although it has been previously shown that RNA interference double knock-down of this pair of closely related CYPs reduced momilactone accumulation. Here we attempted biochemical characterization of CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, which was ultimately achieved by complete gene recoding, enabling functional recombinant expression in bacteria. With these synthetic gene constructs it was possible to demonstrate that while CYP99A2 does not exhibit significant activity with diterpene substrates, CYP99A3 catalyzes consecutive oxidations of the C19 methyl group of the momilactone precursor syn-pimara-7,15-diene to form, sequentially, syn-pimaradien-19-ol, syn-pimaradien-19-al, and syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid. These are presumably intermediates in momilactone biosynthesis, as a C19 carboxylic acid moiety is required for formation of the core 19,6-γ-lactone ring structure. We further were able to detect syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid in rice plants, which indicates physiological relevance for the observed activity of CYP99A3. In addition, we found that CYP99A3 also oxidized syn-stemod-13(17)-ene at C19 to produce, sequentially, syn-stemoden-19-ol, syn-stemoden-19-al, and syn-stemoden-19-oic acid, albeit with lower catalytic efficiency than with syn-pimaradiene. Although the CYP99A3 syn-stemodene-derived products were not detected in planta, these results nevertheless provide a hint at the currently unknown metabolic fate of this diterpene in rice. Regardless of any wider role, our results strongly indicate that CYP99A3 acts as a multifunctional diterpene oxidase in momilactone biosynthesis. PMID:21175892

  15. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Lars; Penell, Johanna; Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia; Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van; Lind, P. Monica

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.

  16. Erroneous prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia owing to a duplication of the CYP21A2 gene.

    PubMed

    Lekarev, O; Tafuri, K; Lane, A H; Zhu, G; Nakamoto, J M; Buller-Burckle, A M; Wilson, T A; New, M I

    2013-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder where steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex is impaired. The most common form is caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). Classical 21OHD is characterized by glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency and by overproduction of adrenal androgens. The diagnosis rests on biochemical and genetic analyses. In families with history of CAH, prenatal genetic diagnosis is offered. We herein present a case of an infant whose parents were identified to carry mutations on the CYP21A2 gene. The fetal DNA analysis demonstrated that the fetus carried a paternal exon 8 (Q318X) mutation and a maternal exon 8 (R356X) mutation. The fetus was presumed to be affected with CAH, yet his clinical presentation at birth was not consistent with the diagnosis. Repeated genetic analysis identified a paternal CYP21A2 gene duplication with Q318X mutation on one copy of CYP21A2. We conclude that a duplication of the CYP21A2 gene should be suspected when clinical and hormonal findings do not support the genetic diagnosis. Furthermore, because individuals with Q318X mutation frequently have a duplication of the CYP21A2 gene, when Q318X is detected, it is important to distinguish the severe point mutation in single gene copy alleles from the non-deficient variant in gene-duplicated alleles. PMID:23269230

  17. SNP genetic polymorphisms of MDR-1, CYP1A2 and CYPB11 genes in four canine breeds upon toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambí, Silvia; Arruga, M Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The fields of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have become increasingly promising regarding the clinical application of genetic data to aid in prevention of adverse reactions. Specific screening tests can predict which animals express modified proteins or genetic sequences responsible for adverse effects associated with a drug. Among the genetic variations that have been investigated in dogs, the multidrug resistance gene (MDR) is the best studied. However, other genes such as CYP1A2 and CYP2B11 control the protein syntheses involved in the metabolism of many drugs. In the present study, the MDR-1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B11 genes were examined to identify SNP polymorphisms associated with these genes in the following four canine breeds: Uruguayan Cimarron, Border Collie, Labrador Retriever and German Shepherd. The results revealed that several SNPs of the CYP1A2 and CYP2B11 genes are potential targets for drug sensitivity investigations. PMID:25797294

  18. SNP genetic polymorphisms of MDR-1, CYP1A2 and CYPB11 genes in four canine breeds upon toxicological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambí, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The fields of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have become increasingly promising regarding the clinical application of genetic data to aid in prevention of adverse reactions. Specific screening tests can predict which animals express modified proteins or genetic sequences responsible for adverse effects associated with a drug. Among the genetic variations that have been investigated in dogs, the multidrug resistance gene (MDR) is the best studied. However, other genes such as CYP1A2 and CYP2B11 control the protein syntheses involved in the metabolism of many drugs. In the present study, the MDR-1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B11 genes were examined to identify SNP polymorphisms associated with these genes in the following four canine breeds: Uruguayan Cimarron, Border Collie, Labrador Retriever and German Shepherd. The results revealed that several SNPs of the CYP1A2 and CYP2B11 genes are potential targets for drug sensitivity investigations. PMID:25797294

  19. Sequencing and characterization of mixed function monooxygenase genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 of Mink (Mustela vison) to facilitate study of dioxin-like compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaowei; Moore, Jeremy N.; Newsted, John L.; Hecker, Markus Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Jones, Paul D.; Bursian, Steven J.

    2009-02-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to understand aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity in mink, cDNAs encoding for CYP1A1 and the CYP1A2 mixed function monooxygenases were cloned and characterized. In addition, the effects of selected dibenzofurans on the expression of these genes and the presence of their respective proteins (P4501A) were investigated, and then correlated with the catalytic activities of these proteins as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) activities. The predicted protein sequences for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 comprise 517 and 512 amino acid residues, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of the mink CYP1As with protein sequences of other mammals revealed high sequence homology with sea otter, seals and the dog, with amino acid identities ranging from 89 to 95% for CYP1A1 and 81 to 93% for CYP1A2. Since exposure to both 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) and 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) resulted in dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 mRNA, CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP1A protein levels an underlying AhR-mediated mechanism is suggested. The up-regulation of CYP1A mRNA in liver was more consistent to the sum adipose TEQ concentration than to the liver TEQ concentration in minks treated with TCDF or PeCDF. The result suggested that the hepatic-sequestered fraction of PeCDF was biologically inactive to the induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2.

  20. Molecular cloning of a novel NF2/ERM/4.1 superfamily gene, ehm2, that is expressed in high-metastatic K1735 murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K; Nagamachi, Y; Tani, M; Kimura, K; Shiroishi, T; Wakana, S; Yokota, J

    2000-04-15

    We have cloned a novel gene, Ehm2, that is expressed in high-metastatic but not in low-metastatic K-1735 murine melanoma cells. The Ehm2 gene encodes a protein of 527 amino acid residues, showing up to 41% amino acid identity with the FERM domain of NF2/ERM/4.1 superfamily proteins, which have the function of connecting cell surface transmembrane proteins to cytoskeletal molecules. The Ehm2 gene was mapped to chromosome 4 and was expressed in the liver, lung, kidney, and testis and in 7- to 17-day embryos. The highest level of homology was observed with NBL4, which is a new subfamily protein of the NF2/ERM/4.1 superfamily. A human homologue of the mouse Ehm2 gene, showing significant homology (83% identity), was identified in the genomic DNA and EST databases. Furthermore, seven rat EST clones and one pig EST clone in the GenBank EST database were identified as having 83-92% sequence homology with the cDNA sequence of the mouse Ehm2 gene. Thus, Ehm2 is a highly conserved gene that encodes a novel member of the NF2/ERM/4.1 superfamily proteins. PMID:10783258

  1. Expression of two CYP1A genes in {beta}NF and TCDD-treated rainbow trout primary hepatocyte culture

    SciTech Connect

    Rabergh, C.M.; Lipsky, M.M.; Vroliijk, N.H.; Chen, T.T.

    1995-12-31

    In mammalian systems, it is well known that two CYP1A genes are expressed in response to environmental toxicants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and TCDD (2,3,7,3-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). The presence of two CYP1A genes in fish has been previously reported, though expression of these two genes has not been characterized. In this study, the authors examined the expression of these two genes in primary culture of rainbow trout hepatocytes treated with {beta}NF and TCDD. Hepatocytes were isolated by a modified two-step collagenase perfusion of the liver and cultured on polylysine coated dishes. The optimum time and concentration of induction was determined for both chemicals. The expression of the genes was also studied in long-term cultures up to 20 days. RNA was isolated by the method of Chomzynski and Sacchi and the RNase protection assay was used to detect the expression of the CYP1A genes by using antisense riboprobes specific for the MRNA of each gene. A differential concentration- and time-dependent expression of the two genes was observed in cells treated with {beta}NF and TCDD. Whether these two genes are paralogous, i.e., produced by gene duplication within the species, or whether one of them may in fact be an orthologue to a mammalian counterpart within the CYP1A family, remains to be determined.

  2. Identification of liver CYP51 as a gene responsive to circulating cholesterol in a hamster model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for CVD, which is a leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The biosynthetic pathways for cholesterol metabolism are well understood; however, the regulation of circulating cholesterol by diet is still not fully elucidated. The present study aimed to gain more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between circulating cholesterol levels and molecular effects in target tissues using the hamster model. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed with chow or diets containing 36 % energy from fat with or without 1 % cholesteyramine (CA) as a modulator of circulating cholesterol levels for 35 d. It was revealed that the expression of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) instead of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase mRNA expression was responsive to circulating cholesterol in hamsters fed hypercholesterolaemic diets. The high-fat diet increased circulating cholesterol and down-regulated CYP51, but not HMG-CoA reductase. The CA diet decreased cholesterol and increased CYP51 expression, but HMG-CoA reductase expression was not affected. The high-fat diet and CA diet altered the expression level of cholesterol, bile acids and lipid metabolism-associated genes (LDL receptor, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor (LXR) α, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5/8 (ABCG5/8)) in the liver, which were significantly correlated with circulating cholesterol levels. Correlation analysis also showed that circulating cholesterol levels were regulated by LXR/retinoid X receptor and PPAR pathways in the liver. Using the hamster model, the present study provided additional molecular insights into the influence of circulating cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol metabolism pathways during hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:27110359

  3. Antidepressant-induced akathisia-related homicides associated with diminishing mutations in metabolizing genes of the CYP450 family

    PubMed Central

    Lucire, Yolande; Crotty, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relation between variant alleles in 3 CYP450 genes (CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19), interacting drugs and akathisia in subjects referred to a forensic psychiatry practice in Sydney, Australia. Patients and methods: This paper concerns 10/129 subjects who had been referred to the first author’s practice for expert opinion or treatment. More than 120 subjects were diagnosed with akathisia/serotonin toxicity after taking psychiatric medication that had been prescribed for psychosocial distress. They were tested for variant alleles in CYP450 genes, which play a major role in Phase I metabolism of all antidepressant and many other medications. Eight had committed homicide and many more became extremely violent while on antidepressants. Ten representative case histories involving serious violence are presented in detail. Results: Variant CYP450 allele frequencies were higher in akathisia subjects compared with random primary care patients tested at the same facility. Ten subjects described in detail had variant alleles for one or more of their tested CYP450 genes. All but two were also on interacting drugs, herbals or illicit substances, impairing metabolism further. All those described were able to stop taking antidepressants and return to their previously normal personalities. Conclusion: The personal, medical, and legal problems arising from overuse of antidepressant medications and resulting toxicity raise the question: how can such toxicity events be understood and prevented? The authors suggest that the key lies in understanding the interplay between the subject’s CYP450 genotype, substrate drugs and doses, co-prescribed inhibitors and inducers and the age of the subject. The results presented here concerning a sample of persons given antidepressants for psychosocial distress demonstrate the extent to which the psychopharmacology industry has expanded its influence beyond its ability to cure. The roles of both regulatory agencies and drug

  4. Identification and expression analysis of ABC protein-encoding genes in Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasma gondii ATP-binding cassette superfamily.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Virginie; Millot, Jean-Marc; Aubert, Dominique; Visneux, Vincent; Marle-Plistat, Maggy; Pinon, Jean-Michel; Villena, Isabelle

    2006-06-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest evolutionarily conserved families of proteins. They are characterized by the presence of nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), which are highly conserved among organisms. In the present study, we used human and protozoan ABC sequences, and ATP-binding consensus motifs to screen the Toxoplasma gondii TwinScan2 predicted proteins database. We identified 24 ABC open reading frames (ORFs), whose deduced amino acid sequences exhibited all the typical biochemical features of the ABC family members. Fifteen of them clustered into five of the seven families of human ABC proteins: six ABCBs (drug, peptides and lipid export), two ABCCs (organic anion conjugates and drug export), one ABCE (Rnase L inhibitor, RLI, antibiotic resistance and translation regulation), one ABCF (drug resistance and regulation of gene expression) and five ABCGs (drug export and resistance). The nine other ORFs were represented by four ABCHs (energy-generating subunits), four SMCs (structural maintenance of chromosomes) and one member of unclear origin, whose closest homologue was the yeast Elf1 protein (mRNA export factor). A notable feature of the Toxoplasma ABC superfamily seems to be the absence of genes encoding ABCA and ABCD members. Expression analysis of ABC genes in tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages revealed the presence of ABC transcripts for all genes studied. Further research on the implication of these ABC proteins will increase our knowledge of the basic biology of Toxoplasma and provide the opportunity to identify novel therapeutic targets. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ABC transporters in T. gondii. PMID:16600400

  5. Molecular biology of the human cytosolic sulfotransferase gene superfamily implicated in the bioactivation of minoxidil and cholesterol in skin.

    PubMed

    Dooley, T P

    1999-08-01

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (ST) catalyze the sulfation of various phenolic agents, catecholamines, thyroid hormones, steroids, drugs, and procarcinogens, usually resulting in the inactivation and subsequent excretion of the compound. My laboratory's efforts have focused on the cloning of the human phenol-sulfating (PST) members of this gene superfamily, implicated in the bioactivation of the hair growth stimulant, minoxidil. At least two major forms of human PST enzymes have been characterized biochemically, the phenol-preferring PST (P-PST), and the catecholamine-preferring PST (M-PST). Various cDNAs have been cloned representing alleles of 3 gene loci termed as STP1, STP2, and STM, which were all mapped precisely to a small region on human chromosome 16p and to the homologous region of mouse chromosome 7. Human cosmid genomic clones have been sequenced to determine the genomic organization for each of the 3 highly-related genes. All contain 7 coding exons, with conserved intron-exon boundaries, and presumptive alternative tissue-specific promoters. At least one of the 3 PST-encoding genes is responsible for forming minoxidil sulfate in the lower outer root sheath of anagen hair follicles. The steroid sulfating genes, STD and STE, have been cloned by other laboratories. The isozyme products of these genes sulfate DHEA and estrogens, respectively. I hypothesize that either STE or STD is involved in the formation of cholesterol sulfate (CS) in epidermal keratinocytes. CS has been demonstrated by other groups to be an activator of keratinocyte Protein Kinase Ceta, which subsequently results in the activation of epidermal transglutaminase and formation of the cornified envelop. STE or STD might also be involved in bioinactivation of estrogens and androgens within skin. Our recent unpublished results have focused on elucidating the patterns of ST gene expression in cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts derived from human skin using RT-PCR, to understand which of the

  6. Mutations in exons of the CYP17-II gene affect sex steroid concentration in male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ruiqin; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Shi, Bao; Shi, Dan; Liu, Miao; Mu, Weijie; Zhang, Yuanqing; Hu, Jian; Han, Weiguo; Zhang, Jianan; Wang, Qingqing; Yuan, Yuren; Liu, Qun

    2012-03-01

    As a specific gene of fish, cytochrome P450c17-II ( CYP17-II) gene plays a key role in the growth, development an reproduction level of fish. In this study, the single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique was used to characterize polymorphisms within the coding region of CYP17-II gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in CYP17-II gene of Japanese flounder. They were c.G594A (p.G188R), c.G939A and c.G1502A (p.G490D). SNP1 (c.G594A), located in exon 4 of CYP17-II gene, was significantly associated with gonadosomatic index (GSI). Individuals with genotype GG of SNP1 had significantly lower GSI ( P < 0.05) than those with genotype AA or AG. SNP2 (c.G939A) located at the CpG island of CYP17-II gene. The mutation changed the methylation of exon 6. Individuals with genotype AA of SNP2 had significantly lower serum testosterone (T) level and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared to those with genotype GG. The results suggested that SNP2 could influence the reproductive endocrine of male Japanese flounder. However, the SNP3 (c.G1502A) located in exon 9 did not affect the four measured reproductive traits. This study showed that CYP17-II gene could be a potentially useful candidate gene for the research of genetic breeding and physiological aspects of Japanese flounder.

  7. CYP99A3: Functional identification of a diterpene oxidase from the momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Hillwig, Matthew L.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Rice (Oryza sativa) produces momilactone diterpenoids as both phytoalexins and allelochemicals. Strikingly, the rice genome contains a biosynthetic gene cluster for momilactone production, located on rice chromosome 4, which contains two cytochromes P450 mono-oxygenases, CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, with undefined roles; although it has been previously shown that RNAi double knock-down of this pair of closely related CYP reduced momilactone accumulation. Here we attempted biochemical characterization of CYP99A2 and CYP99A3, which ultimately was achieved by complete gene recoding, enabling functional recombinant expression in bacteria. With these synthetic gene constructs it was possible to demonstrate that, while CYP99A2 does not exhibit significant activity with diterpene substrates, CYP99A3 catalyzes consecutive oxidations of the C19 methyl group of the momilactone precursor syn-pimara-7,15-diene to form, sequentially, syn-pimaradien-19-ol, syn-pimaradien-19-al and syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid. These are presumably intermediates in momilactone biosynthesis, as a C19 carboxylic acid moiety is required for formation of the core 19,6-γ-lactone ring structure. We further were able to detect syn-pimaradien-19-oic acid in rice plants, which indicates physiological relevance for the observed activity of CYP99A3. In addition, we found that CYP99A3 also oxidized syn-stemod-13(17)-ene at C19 to produce, sequentially, syn-stemoden-19-ol, syn-stemoden-19-al and syn-stemoden-19-oic acid, albeit with lower catalytic efficiency than with syn-pimaradiene. Although the CYP99A3 syn-stemodene derived products were not detected in planta, these results nevertheless provide a hint at the currently unknown metabolic fate of this diterpene in rice. Regardless of any wider role, our results strongly indicate that CYP99A3 acts as a multifunctional diterpene oxidase in momilactone biosynthesis. PMID:21175892

  8. Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of the Cytochrome P450 3 (CYP3) Family in Actinopterygii (Ray-Finned Fish)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Cai, Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    Background The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is a multifunctional hemethiolate enzyme that is widely distributed from Bacteria to Eukarya. The CYP3 family contains mainly the four subfamilies CYP3A, CYP3B, CYP3C and CYP3D in vertebrates; however, only the Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) have all four subfamilies and detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationship of Actinopterygii CYP3 family members would be valuable. Methods and Findings Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolutionary history of the Actinopterygii CYP3 family genes. Selection analysis, relative rate tests and functional divergence analysis were combined to interpret the relationship of the site-specific evolution and functional divergence in the Actinopterygii CYP3 family. The results showed that the four CYP3 subfamilies in Actinopterygii might be formed by gene duplication. The first gene duplication event was responsible for divergence of the CYP3B/C clusters from ancient CYP3 before the origin of the Actinopterygii, which corresponded to the fish-specific whole genome duplication (WGD). Tandem repeat duplication in each of the homologue clusters produced stable CYP3B, CYP3C, CYP3A and CYP3D subfamilies. Acceleration of asymmetric evolutionary rates and purifying selection together were the main force for the production of new subfamilies and functional divergence in the new subset after gene duplication, whereas positive selection was detected only in the retained CYP3A subfamily. Furthermore, nearly half of the functional divergence sites appear to be related to substrate recognition, which suggests that site-specific evolution is closely related with functional divergence in the Actinopterygii CYP3 family. Conclusions The split of fish-specific CYP3 subfamilies was related to the fish-specific WGD, and site-specific acceleration of asymmetric evolutionary rates and purifying selection was the main force for the origin of the new subfamilies and functional

  9. Analysis of the Functional Polymorphism in the Cytochrome P450 CYP2C8 Gene rs11572080 with Regard to Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, José M.; Agúndez, José A. G.; Martínez, Carmen; Amo, Gemma; Ayuso, Pedro; García-Martín, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the known effects on drug metabolism and response, functional polymorphisms of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) play a role in cancer. Genes coding for XME act as low-penetrance genes and confer modest but consistent and significant risks for a variety of cancers related to the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Consistent evidence supports a role for polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 gene as a protecting factor for colorectal cancer susceptibility. It has been shown that CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 overlap in substrate specificity. Because CYP2C8 has the common functional polymorphisms rs11572080 and rs10509681 (CYP2C8*3), it could be speculated that part of the findings attributed to CYP2C9 polymorphisms may actually be related to the presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2C8 gene. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the CYP2C8 polymorphism in colorectal cancer. We analyzed the influence of the CYP2C8*3 allele in the risk of developing colorectal cancer in genomic DNA from 153 individuals suffering colorectal cancer and from 298 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Our findings do not support any effect of the CYP2C8*3 allele (OR for carriers of functional CYP2C8 alleles = 0.50 (95% CI = 0.16–1.59; p = 0.233). The absence of a relative risk related to CYP2C8*3 did not vary depending on the tumor site. We conclude that the risk of developing colorectal cancer does not seem to be related to the commonest functional genetic variation in the CYP2C8 gene. PMID:23420707

  10. Single tube genotyping of CYP2A6 gene deletion based on copy number determination by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-hui; Xun, Xiao-jie; Pang, Cong; Ma, Jun; Zou, Hui; Chen, Chao; Dai, Peng-gao

    2014-12-01

    The CYP2A6*4 allele, characterized as the whole deletion of this gene, is closely associated with nicotine dependence, cancer susceptibility, and drug responsiveness. It has long been a significant challenge for pharmacogenetics scientists to develop a reliable method to detect this molecular variant due to its high homology with its homologous genes CYP2A6 and CYP2A3 in the clinical setting. Here, we introduce a quantitative real-time PCR assay that specifically amplifies CYP2A6 by designing a specific set of primers and the probe, which effectively prevent the amplification of the CYP2A7 and CYP2A13 alleles. CYP2A6 gene copy numbers were normalized to albumin (ALB) which was co-amplified simultaneously in a single-tube duplex reaction and at a setting as the internal reference gene. The established assay was validated with a selection of previously genotyped DNA samples, which harbored none, one or two CYP2A6 gene copies. The results were in complete concordance with previously published data and no overlap between the three groups was observed. Further analysis of a cohort of 120 samples revealed high specificity and sensitivity of this assay as demonstrated by the agreement of determined gene copy numbers in all of the cases. In conclusion, this novel assay allows reliable and sensitive detection of the CYP2A6 gene deletion, which will be useful for pharmacogenetics studies and routine clinical settings. PMID:25446842

  11. Cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G51, modulates hydrocarbon production in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Fan, Yong-Liang; Bai, Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Terrestrial insects deposit a layer of hydrocarbons (HCs) as waterproofing agents on their epicuticle. The insect-specific CYP4G genes, subfamily members of P450, have been found in all insects with sequenced genomes to date. They are critical for HC biosynthesis in Drosophila; however, their functional roles in other insects including the piercing-sucking hemipterous aphids remain unknown. In this study, we presented the molecular characterization and a functional study of the CYP4G51 gene in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). CYP4G51 transcript was detectable across the whole life cycle of A. pisum, and was prominently expressed in the aphid head and abdominal cuticle. Up-regulation of CYP4G51 under desiccation stress was more significant in the third instar nymphs compared with the adults. Also, up-regulation of CYP4G51 was observed when the aphids fed on an artificial diet compared with those fed on the broad bean plant, and was positively correlated with a high level of cuticular HCs (CHCs). RNAi knockdown of CYP4G51 significantly reduced its expression and caused reductions in both internal and external HCs. A deficiency in CHCs resulted in aphids being more susceptible to desiccation, with increased mortality under desiccation stress. The current results confirm that CYP4G51 modulates HC biosynthesis to protect aphids from desiccation. Moreover, our data also indicate that saturated and straight-chain HCs play a major role in cuticular waterproofing in the pea aphid. A. pisum CYP4G51 could be considered as a novel RNAi target in the field of insect pest management. PMID:27425674

  12. Forward Genetics Identifies a Requirement for the Izumo-like Immunoglobulin Superfamily spe-45 Gene in Caenorhabditis elegans Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Singaravelu, Gunasekaran; Rahimi, Sina; Krauchunas, Amber; Rizvi, Anam; Dharia, Sunny; Shakes, Diane; Smith, Harold; Golden, Andy; Singson, Andrew

    2015-12-21

    Fertilization is a conserved process in all sexually reproducing organisms whereby sperm bind and fuse with oocytes. Despite the importance of sperm-oocyte interactions in fertilization, the molecular underpinnings of this process are still not well understood. The only cognate ligand-receptor pair identified in the context of fertilization is sperm-surface Izumo and egg-surface Juno in the mouse [1]. Here we describe a genetic screening strategy to isolate fertilization mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans in order to generate a more complete inventory of molecules required for gamete interactions. From this screening strategy, we identified, cloned, and characterized spe-45, a gene that encodes an Izumo-like immunoglobulin superfamily protein. Mammalian Izumo is required for male fertility and has the same basic mutant phenotype as spe-45. Worms lacking spe-45 function produce morphologically normal and motile sperm that cannot fuse with oocytes despite direct contact in the reproductive tract. The power of this screen to identify proteins with ancient sperm functions suggests that characterization of additional mutants from our screen may reveal other deeply conserved components in fertility pathways and complement studies in other organisms. PMID:26671668

  13. Transcriptional activation of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A) by nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Crestani, M; Sadeghpour, A; Stroup, D; Galli, G; Chiang, J Y

    1998-11-01

    The gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, is transcriptionally regulated by bile acids and hormones. Previously, we have identified two bile acid response elements (BARE) in the promoter of the CYP7A gene. The BARE II is located in nt -149/-118 region and contains three hormone response element (HRE)-like sequences that form two overlapping nuclear receptor binding sites. One is a direct repeat separated by one nucleotide DR1 (-146- TGGACTtAGTTCA-134) and the other is a direct repeat separated by five nucleotides DR5 (-139-AGTTCAaggccGGG TAA-123). Mutagenesis of these HRE sequences resulted in lower transcriptional activity of the CYP7A promoter/reporter genes in transient transfection assay in HepG2 cells. The orphan nuclear receptor, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4)1, binds to the DR1 sequence as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and activates the CYP7A promoter/reporter activity by about 9-fold. Cotransfection of HNF-4 plasmid with another orphan nuclear receptor, chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII), synergistically activated the CYP7A transcription by 80-fold. The DR5 binds the RXR/RAR heterodimer. A hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 (HNF-3) binding site (-175-TGTTTGTTCT-166) was identified. HNF-3 was required for both basal transcriptional activity and stimulation of the rat CYP7A promoter activity by retinoic acid. Combinatorial interactions and binding of these transcription factors to BAREs may modulate the promoter activity and also mediate bile acid repression of CYP7A gene transcription. PMID:9799805

  14. Mutation analysis of the CYP21A2 gene in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Forouzanfar, K; Seifi, M; Hashemi-Gorji, F; Karimi, N; Estiar, M A; Karimoei, M; Sakhinia, E; Karimipour, M; Ghergherehchi, R

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited autosomal recessive enzymatic disorder involving the synthesis of adrenal corticosteroids. 21-Hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most common form of the disease which is observed in more than 90% of patients with CAH. Early identification of mutations in the genes involved in this disease is critical. A marker of the disease, errors in the CYP21A2 gene, is thought to be part of the pathophysiology of CAH. Therefore, the identification of gene mutations would be very beneficial in the early detection of CAH. This research was a descriptive epidemiological study conducted on individuals elected by the inclusion criteria whom were referred to the Genetic Diagnosis Center of Tabriz during 2012 to 2013. After sampling and DNA extraction, PCR for the detection of mutations in the CYP21A2 gene was performed followed by sequencing. For data analysis, the results of sequencing were compared with the reference gene by blast, Gene Runner and MEGA-5 software. Obtained changes were compared with NCBI databases. The analysis of the sequencing determined the mutations located in Exons 6, 7, 8 and 10. The most frequent findings were Q318X (53%) and R356W (28%). Exon 6 cluster (7%), E431k (4%), V237E (2%), V281L (2%), E351K (2%), R426C (2%) were also frequent in our patients. The most frequent genotype was compound heterozygote, Q318X/R356W. Three rare mutations in our study were E431K, E351K and R426C. Observed mutation frequencies in this study were much higher than those reported in previous studies in Iranian populations. Thus, it seems that it is necessary to follow-up screening programs and use sequencing methods to better identify mutations in the development of the disease. PMID:26278268

  15. Interindividual Variability of CYP2C19-Catalyzed Drug Metabolism Due to Differences in Gene Diplotypes and Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Content

    PubMed Central

    Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Chaudhry, Amarjit S.; McDonald, Matthew; Prasad, Bhagwat; Wong, Timothy; Calamia, Justina C.; Fohner, Alie; Thornton, Timothy A.; Isoherranen, Nina; Unadkat, Jashvant D.; Rettie, Allan E.; Schuetz, Erin G.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Large interindividual variability has been observed in the metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates in vivo. The study aimed to evaluate sources of this variability in CYP2C19 activity, focusing on CYP2C19 diplotypes and the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP2C19 gene analysis was carried out on 347 human liver samples. CYP2C19 activity assayed using human liver microsomes (HLMs) confirmed a significant a priori predicted rank order for (S)-mephenytoin hydroxylase activity of CYP2C19*17/*17 > *1B/*17 > *1B/*1B > *2A/*17 > *1B/*2A > *2A/*2A diplotypes. In a multivariate analysis, the CYP2C19*2A allele and POR protein content were associated with CYP2C19 activity. Further analysis indicated a strong effect of the CYP2C19*2A, but not the *17, allele on both metabolic steps in the conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The present study demonstrates that interindividual variability in CYP2C19 activity is due to differences in both CYP2C19 protein content associated with gene diplotypes and the POR concentration. PMID:26323597

  16. Interindividual variability of CYP2C19-catalyzed drug metabolism due to differences in gene diplotypes and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase content.

    PubMed

    Shirasaka, Y; Chaudhry, A S; McDonald, M; Prasad, B; Wong, T; Calamia, J C; Fohner, A; Thornton, T A; Isoherranen, N; Unadkat, J D; Rettie, A E; Schuetz, E G; Thummel, K E

    2016-08-01

    Large interindividual variability has been observed in the metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates in vivo. The study aimed to evaluate sources of this variability in CYP2C19 activity, focusing on CYP2C19 diplotypes and the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP2C19 gene analysis was carried out on 347 human liver samples. CYP2C19 activity assayed using human liver microsomes confirmed a significant a priori predicted rank order for (S)-mephenytoin hydroxylase activity of CYP2C19*17/*17 > *1B/*17 > *1B/*1B > *2A/*17 > *1B/*2A > *2A/*2A diplotypes. In a multivariate analysis, the CYP2C19*2A allele and POR protein content were associated with CYP2C19 activity. Further analysis indicated a strong effect of the CYP2C19*2A, but not the *17, allele on both metabolic steps in the conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. The present study demonstrates that interindividual variability in CYP2C19 activity is due to differences in both CYP2C19 protein content associated with gene diplotypes and the POR concentration.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 1 September 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.58. PMID:26323597

  17. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR. PMID:26987505

  18. Identification of Candidate Target Cyp Genes for microRNAs Whose Expression Is Altered by PCN and TCPOBOP, Representative Ligands of PXR and CAR.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Nozomu; Kataoka, Hiromi; Nishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Kugawa, Fumihiko

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in mRNA post-transcriptional regulation. The deregulation of miRNAs affects the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters, and nuclear receptors, all of which are important in regulating drug metabolism. miRNA expression can be altered by several endogenous or exogenous agents, such as steroid hormones, carcinogens, and therapeutic drugs. However, it is unclear whether hepatic miRNA expression is regulated by nuclear receptors, such as pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), which are indispensable for the expression of the CYPs. Here we investigated the effects of the mouse PXR and CAR ligands pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN) and 1,4-bis[(3,5-dichloropyridin-2-yl)oxy]benzene (TCPOBOP) on hepatic miRNA expression in mice. We found that the expression of 9 miRNAs was increased (>2-fold) and of 4 miRNAs was decreased (>50%) in response to PCN, while TCPOBOP treatment led to the up-regulation of 8 miRNAs and down-regulation of 6 miRNAs. Using several miRNA target prediction algorithms, we found that the predicted target genes included several lesser known Cyp genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, Cyp2b10, Cyp2c38, Cyp2u1, Cyp4a12a/b, Cyp4v3, Cyp17a1, Cyp39a1, and Cyp51). We analyzed the expression of these genes in response to PCN and TCPOBOP and found changes in their mRNA levels, some of which were negatively correlated with the expression of their corresponding miRNAs, suggesting that miRNAs may play a role in regulating Cyp enzyme expression. Further studies will be required to fully elucidate the miRNA regulatory mechanisms that contribute to modulating CYP expression. PMID:27237601

  19. Role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 CYP1C genes in the reduced mesencephalic vein blood flow caused by activation of AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Akira; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Harano, Ryo; Peterson, Richard E.; Hiraga, Takeo; Teraoka, Hiroki

    2011-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various signs of toxicity in early life stages of vertebrates through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We previously reported a sensitive and useful endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in zebrafish, namely a decrease in blood flow in the dorsal midbrain, but downstream genes involved in the effect are not known. The present study addressed the role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 1C (CYP1C) genes in association with a decrease in mesencephalic vein (MsV) blood flow. The CYP1C subfamily was recently discovered in fish and includes the paralogues CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, both of which are induced via AHR2 in zebrafish embryos. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO or morpholino) to block initiation of translation of the target genes. TCDD-induced mRNA expression of CYP1Cs and a decrease in MsV blood flow were both blocked by gene knockdown of AHR2. Gene knockdown of CYP1C1 by two different morpholinos and CYP1C2 by two different morpholinos, but not by their 5 nucleotide-mismatch controls, was effective in blocking reduced MsV blood flow caused by TCDD. The same CYP1C-MOs prevented reduction of blood flow in the MsV caused by {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF), representing another class of AHR agonists. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 was induced by TCDD most strongly in branchiogenic primordia and pectoral fin buds. In situ hybridization using head transverse sections showed that TCDD increased the expression of both CYP1Cs in endothelial cells of blood vessels, including the MsV. These results indicate a potential role of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in the local circulation failure induced by AHR2 activation in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo. - Research Highlights: > We examine the roles of zebrafish CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in TCDD developmental toxicity. > TCDD induces mRNA expression of both CYP1Cs in the mesencephalic vein. > Knockdown of each

  20. Molecular characterization and oxidative stress response of a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP4G11) from Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weina; Sun, Jing; Xu, Baohua; Li, Han

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 proteins, widely distributed multifunctional enzymes, are mainly involved in biosynthetic and degradative pathways of endogenous compounds and the detoxification of xenobiotics in insects. Moreover, these enzymes exhibit peroxidase-like activity, therefore they may be involved in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we cloned a CYP4G11 gene--AccCYP4G11--from the Chinese honey-bee (Apis cerana cerana). The open reading frame of the cDNA was 1656 bp long and encoded a 551 amino acids polypeptide, which shared high sequence identity with homologous cytochrome P450 proteins. In the genomic DNA sequence, a 5'-flanking region consisting of 1168 bp was obtained, and some putative transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) revealed that the level of AccCYP4G11 was higher in the epidermis than in other tissues, and AccCYP4G11 was expressed in all stages with the highest level in two-week-old adult worker honey-bees. Moreover, the expression patterns under oxidative stress indicated that AccCYP4G11 transcription was significantly influenced by external factors, such as temperature challenges, ultraviolet (UV) light, and insecticide treatment. AccCYP4G11 was regulated differentially in response to oxidative stress and may be involved in protecting honey-bees from oxidative injury. PMID:24601089

  1. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-Il; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y L; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ-binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  2. Expression and Sequence Evolution of Aromatase cyp19a1 and Other Sexual Development Genes in East African Cichlid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Böhne, Astrid; Heule, Corina; Boileau, Nicolas; Salzburger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms are highly variable across teleost fishes and sexual development is often plastic. Nevertheless, downstream factors establishing the two sexes are presumably conserved. Here, we study sequence evolution and gene expression of core genes of sexual development in a prime model system in evolutionary biology, the East African cichlid fishes. Using the available five cichlid genomes, we test for signs of positive selection in 28 genes including duplicates from the teleost whole-genome duplication, and examine the expression of these candidate genes in three cichlid species. We then focus on a particularly striking case, the A- and B-copies of the aromatase cyp19a1, and detect different evolutionary trajectories: cyp19a1A evolved under strong positive selection, whereas cyp19a1B remained conserved at the protein level, yet is subject to regulatory changes at its transcription start sites. Importantly, we find shifts in gene expression in both copies. Cyp19a1 is considered the most conserved ovary-factor in vertebrates, and in all teleosts investigated so far, cyp19a1A and cyp19a1B are expressed in ovaries and the brain, respectively. This is not the case in cichlids, where we find new expression patterns in two derived lineages: the A-copy gained a novel testis-function in the Ectodine lineage, whereas the B-copy is overexpressed in the testis of the speciest-richest cichlid group, the Haplochromini. This suggests that even key factors of sexual development, including the sex steroid pathway, are not conserved in fish, supporting the idea that flexibility in sexual determination and differentiation may be a driving force of speciation. PMID:23883521

  3. The OsCYP19-4 Gene Is Expressed as Multiple Alternatively Spliced Transcripts Encoding Isoforms with Distinct Cellular Localizations and PPIase Activities under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Areum; Lee, Sang Sook; Jung, Won Yong; Park, Hyun Ji; Lim, Bo Ra; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important molecular mechanism by which single genes can generate multiple mRNA isoforms. We reported previously that, in Oryza sativa, the cyclophilin 19-4 (OsCYP19-4.1) transcript was significantly upregulated in response to cold stress, and that transgenic plants were cold tolerant. Here we show that, under cold stress, OsCYP19-4 produces eight transcript variants by intron retention and exon skipping, resulting in production of four distinct protein isoforms. The OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms exhibited different cellular localizations in the epidermal cells: in contrast to OsCYP19-4.1, the OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3 proteins were primarily targeted to guard and subsidiary cells, whereas OsCYP19-4.5, which consists largely of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting signal, was co-localized with the RFP-BiP marker in the ER. In OsCYP19-4.2, the key residues of the PPIase domain are altered; consistent with this, recombinant OsCYP19-4.2 had significantly lower PPIase activity than OsCYP19-4.1 in vitro. Specific protein-protein interactions between OsCYP19-4.2/3 and AtRCN1 were verified in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluoresence complementation (BiFC assays), although the OsCYP19-4 isoforms could not bind each other. Based on these results, we propose that two OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms, OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3, play roles linking auxin transport and cold stress via interactions with RCN1. PMID:27447607

  4. The OsCYP19-4 Gene Is Expressed as Multiple Alternatively Spliced Transcripts Encoding Isoforms with Distinct Cellular Localizations and PPIase Activities under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Areum; Lee, Sang Sook; Jung, Won Yong; Park, Hyun Ji; Lim, Bo Ra; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important molecular mechanism by which single genes can generate multiple mRNA isoforms. We reported previously that, in Oryza sativa, the cyclophilin 19-4 (OsCYP19-4.1) transcript was significantly upregulated in response to cold stress, and that transgenic plants were cold tolerant. Here we show that, under cold stress, OsCYP19-4 produces eight transcript variants by intron retention and exon skipping, resulting in production of four distinct protein isoforms. The OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms exhibited different cellular localizations in the epidermal cells: in contrast to OsCYP19-4.1, the OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3 proteins were primarily targeted to guard and subsidiary cells, whereas OsCYP19-4.5, which consists largely of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting signal, was co-localized with the RFP-BiP marker in the ER. In OsCYP19-4.2, the key residues of the PPIase domain are altered; consistent with this, recombinant OsCYP19-4.2 had significantly lower PPIase activity than OsCYP19-4.1 in vitro. Specific protein-protein interactions between OsCYP19-4.2/3 and AtRCN1 were verified in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluoresence complementation (BiFC assays), although the OsCYP19-4 isoforms could not bind each other. Based on these results, we propose that two OsCYP19-4 AS isoforms, OsCYP19-4.2 and OsCYP19-4.3, play roles linking auxin transport and cold stress via interactions with RCN1. PMID:27447607

  5. The cytochrome P450 genes of channel catfish: their involvement in disease defense responses as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) encode one of the most diverse enzyme superfamily in nature. They catalyze oxidative reactions of endogenous molecules and exogenous chemicals. Methods: We identifiedCYPs genes through in silico analysis using EST, RNA-Seq and genome databases of channel catfish.Phylogenetic ...

  6. Identification and Expression of Two Novel Cytochrome P450 Genes, CYP6CV1 and CYP9A38, in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Li, Chuan; Yang, Zhifan

    2015-01-01

    Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée can cause severe losses in rice. Cytochrome P450s play crucial roles in the metabolism of allelochemicals in herbivorous insects. Two novel P450 cDNAs, CYP6CV1 and CYP9A38, were cloned from the midgut of C. medinalis. CYP6CV1 encodes a protein of 500 amino acid residues, while CYP9A38-predicted protein has 531 amino acid residues. Both cDNA-predicted proteins contain the conserved functional domains for all P450s. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CYP6CV1 is grouped in the cluster containing CYP6B members, while CYP9A38 is in the cluster including CYP9 members. However, both clusters are contained in the same higher lineage. Homologous analysis revealed that CYP6CV1 is most similar to CYP6B8, CYP6B7, CYP6B6, CYP6B2, and CYP6B4 with the highest amino acid identity of 41%. CYP9A38 is closest to CYP9A17, CYP9A21, CYP9A20, and CYP9A19 with the highest amino acid identity of 66%. Studies of temporal expression profiles revealed that CYP9A38 showed a steady increase in mRNA level during the five instar stages, but a low-expression level in pupae, and then presented at a high-expression level again in adults. Similar expression patterns were obtained with CYP6CV1. In the fifth instar larvae, CYP6CV1 was mainly expressed in midgut and fat bodies, whereas CYP9A38 was mainly expressed in midgut. Expression studies also revealed a 3.20-fold over-expression of CYP6CV1 and 3.54-fold over-expression of CYP9A38 after larval exposure to host rice resistance. Our results suggest that both CYP6CV1 and CYP9A38 may be involved in detoxification of rice phytochemicals. PMID:25896119

  7. Expression of the CMRF-35 antigen, a new member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, is differentially regulated on leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Daish, A; Starling, G C; McKenzie, J L; Nimmo, J C; Jackson, D G; Hart, D N

    1993-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody, CMRF-35, has been generated that recognized a 224 amino acid cell surface protein which is a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. The antibody, raised against large granular lymphocytes (LGL), stains LGL, monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes but not platelets or erythrocytes. In addition, a subset of peripheral blood T lymphocytes (26.6 +/- 13.4% CD5+ cells) and B lymphocytes (13.7 +/- 6.8% CD20+ cells) stained with CMRF-35 but tonsil T and B cells were essentially negative. Expression of the CMRF-35 antigen (Ag) on different leucocyte populations was markedly influenced by stimulation of the cells with mitogens and cytokines. Activation of peripheral blood T cells with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore (CaI) led to a decrease in the proportion of CMRF-35+ T lymphocytes. In contrast, PHA activation of tonsil T lymphocytes resulted in an increase in CMRF-35 Ag expression (47.1 +/- 1.5% CD5 cells at 6 days). An increase in CMRF-35 Ag was also seen on phorbol ester and CaI-activated tonsil B cells. No change in CMRF-35 expression on natural killer (NK) cells occurred following activation with interleukin-2 (IL-2) but the CMRF-35 Ag was down-regulated following Fc receptor stimulation. A moderate increase in CMRF-35 expression occurred during monocyte-macrophage differentiation and the expression of the Ag on monocytes was differentially regulated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). This regulation of the CMRF-35 Ag on the leucocyte surface suggests that the molecule has an important function common to diverse leucocyte types. PMID:8509141

  8. Cytochrome P450 gene CYP337 and heritability of fitness traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    de Jong, M A; Wong, S C; Lehtonen, R; Hanski, I

    2014-04-01

    Fitness-related life history traits often show substantial heritable genetic variation in natural populations, but knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits is limited. In the Glanville fritillary butterfly, we measured the heritability of key life history traits in a large outdoor population cage during 2 years and generations and combined this experiment with an association study of a set of candidate genes. The genes were selected on the basis of previous genomic and transcriptomic studies and have been linked to the physiology and life history of this or other arthropod species. Heritability was high and significant for two traits, post-diapause larval development time (h(2) = 0.37) and lifetime egg (and larval) production (h(2) = 0.62); the latter is closely related to lifetime reproductive success and therefore fitness. We discovered a strong association between genetic polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP337 and lifetime egg production, which accounted for 14% of the additive variance in egg production. This gene belongs to a group of cytochrome P450 genes that have a well-documented role in host plant adaptations in Lepidoptera and other insects and is likely to play an important role in the ecology and microevolution of the Glanville fritillary. This study provides a prime example of a gene associated with heritable fitness variation, measured under semi-natural ecological conditions. PMID:24552294

  9. Expression and induction of three family 4 cytochrome P450 (CYP4)* genes identified from insecticide-resistant and susceptible western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    PubMed

    Scharf, M E; Parimi, S; Meinke, L J; Chandler, L D; Siegfried, B D

    2001-04-01

    We have previously determined that cytochrome P450-based oxidation is involved in resistance to the insecticides methyl parathion and carbaryl in geographically distinct Nebraska western corn rootworm populations. Three new family 4 cytochrome P450 (CYP4) gene fragments (CYP4AJ1, CYP4G18 and CYP4AK1) were cloned and sequenced from insecticide-resistant and -susceptible western corn rootworms. Insecticide bioassays indicated the resistant population employed in this study was significantly resistant to the insecticides methyl parathion and carbaryl. CYP4AJ1 and CYP4G18 were cloned from both genomic PCR and RT-PCR products, although only CYP4AJ1 contains an intronic region. Alignments of inferred amino acid sequences with other homologous insect CYP4 genes indicates a high degree of similarity. Northern analysis concurrently employing mixed probes representing each of the three rootworm CYP4 fragments identified increased mRNA transcript signals (i) in resistant rootworms and (ii) following induction by the P450 inducer pentamethyl benzene. These results support our previous documentation of P450-based insecticide resistance and suggest increased CYP4 transcript abundance can serve as a molecular resistance-associated marker. PMID:11422509

  10. 3-Methylcholanthrene elicits DNA adduct formation in the CYP1A1 promoter region and attenuates reporter gene expression in rat H4IIE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, Bhagavatula . E-mail: bmoorthy@bcm.tmc.edu; Muthiah, Kathirvel; Fazili, Inayat S.; Kondraganti, Sudha R.; Wang Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Jiang Weiwu

    2007-03-23

    Cytochrome CYP1A (CYP1A) enzymes catalyze bioactivation of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) to genotoxic metabolites. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CYP1A2 catalyzes formation of MC-DNA adducts that are preferentially formed in the promoter region of CYP1A1, resulting in modulation of CYP1A1 gene expression. MC bound covalently to plasmid DNA (50 {mu}g) containing human CYP1A1 promoter (pGL3-1A1), when incubated with wild-type (WT) liver microsomes (2 mg) and NAPPH 37 {sup o}C for 2 h, giving rise to 9 adducts, as determined by {sup 32}P-postlabeling. Eighty percent of adducts was located in the promoter region. Transient transfection of the adducted plasmids into rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells for 16 h, followed by MC (1 {mu}M) treatment for 24 h inhibited reporter (luciferase) gene expression by 75%, compared to unadducted controls. Our results suggest that CYP1A2 plays a key role in sequence-specific MC-DNA adduct formation in the CYP1A1 promoter region, leading to attenuation of CYP1A1 gene expression.

  11. Common Variants in CYP2R1 and GC Genes Predict Vitamin D Concentrations in Healthy Danish Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Janna; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Hansen, Bettina; Andersen, Rikke; Mejborn, Heddie; Madsen, Katja Howarth; Vogel, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors such as diet, intake of vitamin D supplements and exposure to sunlight are known to influence serum vitamin D concentrations. Genetic epidemiology of vitamin D is in its infancy and a better understanding on how genetic variation influences vitamin D concentration is needed. We aimed to analyse previously reported vitamin D-related polymorphisms in relation to serum 25(OH)D concentrations in 201 healthy Danish families with dependent children in late summer in Denmark. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and a total of 25 SNPs in GC, VDR, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, C10or88 and DHCR7/NADSYN1 genes were analysed in 758 participants. Genotype distributions were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for the adult population for all the studied polymorphisms. Four SNPs in CYP2R1 (rs1562902, rs7116978, rs10741657 and rs10766197) and six SNPs in GC (rs4588, rs842999, rs2282679, rs12512631, rs16846876 and rs17467825) were statistically significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children, adults and all combined. Several of the SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium, and the associations were driven by CYP2R1-rs10741657 and rs10766197, and by GC-rs4588 and rs842999. Genetic risk score analysis showed that carriers with no risk alleles of CYP2R1-rs10741657 and rs10766197, and/or GC rs4588 and rs842999 had significantly higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared to carriers of all risk alleles. To conclude, our results provide supporting evidence that common polymorphisms in GC and CYP2R1 are associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the Caucasian population and that certain haplotypes may predispose to lower 25(OH)D concentrations in late summer in Denmark. PMID:24587115

  12. In vivo and in vitro CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Willett, Kristine L; Ganesan, Shobana; Patel, Monali; Metzger, Christine; Quiniou, Sylvie; Waldbieser, Geoff; Scheffler, Brian

    2006-07-01

    Our goal was to study the induction of CYP1B mRNA expression in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). CYP1B belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily of genes, is involved in the oxidation of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and could potentially be a useful biomarker in fish for exposure to AhR ligands. The full-length catfish CYP1B cDNA is 2417 nt to the polyA tail and encodes a putative protein of 536 amino acids. It has 67% amino acid similarity to carp and zebrafish CYP1B and 68% similarity to carp CYP1B2. Male channel catfish were collected from three Mississippi Delta sites: Lake Roebuck, Itta Bena; Bee Lake, Thornton; and Sunflower River, Indianola. Total RNA was isolated from wild-caught catfish gill, blood, gonad and liver tissues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine relative induction of CYP1B in wild catfish compared to laboratory control and BaP-exposed catfish (20mg/kg i.p. after 4 days). BaP exposure significantly induced CYP1B message in blood, gonad, and liver of laboratory catfish. In these same tissues of wild catfish from sites with relatively low sediment contaminants, CYP1B message was not statistically increased relative to laboratory control catfish. CYP1B transcript abundance was higher in gills compared to other tissues in both laboratory and wild catfish. When primary cultured gill cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BaP, TCDD, and PCBs 77, 126 and 169, CYP1B mRNA was induced more than 10-fold while PCB153 and 4,4'DDT did not cause significant CYP1B induction. Our results suggest that catfish CYP1B is induced by the classic AhR ligands. PMID:16697458

  13. Association of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid mutation with polymorphism in CYP2E1 gene in oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rahul; Mehrotra, Divya; Catapano, Carlo; Choubey, Vimal; Sarin, Rajiv; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Stuti

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral carcinogenesis is a complex process affected by genetic as well as environmental factors. CYP2E1 gene is involved in metabolism of number of compounds and carcinogens. Its normal functioning is required for homeostasis of free radical. Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) is 10–100 times more susceptible to damage than nuclear DNA. Mitochondrial DNA large scale deletions are well documented in oral cancer. However, the relationship between CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and mtDNA damage is still not documented in literature. Materials and Methods Case–control study involving 50 subjects was carried out. Deoxyribonucleic acid extraction was done from study subject tissue samples. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was done to confirm CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms. The PCR amplification was done for mtDNA 4977 bp deletion. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 11.5 with χ2 tests. Results c1c1 and DD polymorphisms are prevalent in North Indian population having oral cancer. These polymorphisms are significantly associated with mtDNA 4977 bp deletion. Conclusion Mitochondrial DNA damage induced by wild CYP2E1 forms and imperfect DNA repair in mtDNA may act synergistically to greatly enhance oral cancer risk. PMID:25756024

  14. Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf), a TGF-beta superfamily gene, induces testis differentiation in the teleost fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hiroyo; Ijiri, Shigeho; Kobayashi, Tohru; Izumi, Hikari; Kuramochi, Yuki; Wang, De-Shou; Mizuno, Shouta; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2015-11-01

    The Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is a gonochoristic teleost fish with an XX/XY genetic system and is an excellent model for gonadal sex differentiation. In the present study, we screened novel genes that were expressed predominantly in either XY or XX undifferentiated gonads during the critical period for differentiation of gonads into ovaries or testes using microarray screening. We focused on one of the isolated 12 candidate genes, #9475, which was an ortholog of gsdf (gonadal soma-derived factor), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. #9475/gsdf showed sexual dimorphism in expression in XY gonads before any other testis differentiation-related genes identified in this species thus far. We also overexpressed the #9475/gsdf gene in XX tilapia, and XX tilapia bearing the #9475/gsdf gene showed normal testis development, which suggests that #9475/gsdf plays an important role in male determination and/or differentiation in tilapia. PMID:26265450

  15. Isolation and characterization of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP82E5v2 that mediates nicotine to nornicotine conversion in the green leaves of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gavilano, Lily B; Siminszky, Balazs

    2007-11-01

    In the species of genus Nicotiana, nicotine to nornicotine conversion is mediated by closely related nicotine N-demethylase (NND) proteins that are encoded by the CYP82E subfamily of cytochrome P450 genes. The diverse number and transcriptional regulation of the NND genes have created large variations in the time and rate of nornicotine production in various Nicotiana species. In tobacco, previous studies have identified the senescence-inducible CYP82E4 gene as an important factor controlling nicotine conversion. Nornicotine is an undesirable alkaloid in tobacco, because it serves as a precursor for N'-nitrosonornicotine, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible catalytic roles of additional NND genes in shaping the alkaloid profile of tobacco. A PCR-based strategy using primers complementary to conserved regions of CYP82E genes yielded a cDNA, designated CYP82E5v2, which conferred NND activity in heterologous expression studies using yeast as a host. PCR amplification of CYP82E5v2 orthologs revealed that of the two progenitor species of tobacco, CYP82E5v2 was donated by the N. tomentosiformis parent. A comparison of CYP82E4 and CYP82E5v2 expression using qualitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription of CYP82E5v2 was higher in the green leaves of all tobacco genotypes tested, while the expression of CYP82E4 dominated in the senescing leaves of converter tobacco. These results suggest that differentially regulated NND genes regulate nornicotine production in the green and senescing leaves of tobacco and provide tools to reduce nornicotine levels in tobacco leaves. PMID:17923451

  16. Developmental regulation of the 3-methylcholanthrene- and dioxin-inducible CYP1A5 gene in chick embryo liver in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bentivegna, C S; Ihnat, M A; Baptiste, N S; Hamilton, J W

    1998-07-01

    The cDNA sequences for two dioxin-inducible cytochrome P450s in chicken, CYP1A4 and CYP1A5, have recently been reported which correspond to two dioxin-inducible forms of P450 previously designated as TCDDAHH and TCDDAA, respectively. The developmental expression of CYP1A4-associated aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase (AHH) activity and its association with expression of the Ah receptor had previously been characterized in chick embryo liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental regulation of the second dioxin-inducible P450 gene, CYP1A5, in chick embryo liver. A partial gene sequence for CYP1A5 indicated that the intron/exon organization of this gene was identical to that of the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mammalian genes and was present in a single copy in the genome. CYP1A5 mRNA was expressed basally in chick embryo liver and was highly inducible by the Ah receptor ligands, 3-methylcholanthrene, beta-naphthoflavone, and 3,4,3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), but not by the phenobarbital analog, glutethimide. CYP1A5 mRNA levels were increased 40- to 50-fold within 5 h after a single TCB treatment, corresponding to a 30- to 40-fold increase in the transcription rate of the CYP1A5 gene at this time point. In contrast to a previous report that CYP1A5 mRNA expression was inducible by estradiol, we observed no effects of estradiol or dexamethasone on CYP1A5 mRNA expression, either alone or in combination with TCB. Basal and TCB-inducible CYP1A5 mRNA expression was maximal in liver at 8 days of development and remained high throughout the remainder of embryonic development. Thus, CYP1A5 appears to be regulated in a very similar manner to CYP1A4 in chick embryo liver. PMID:9705900

  17. Gene-gene-environment interactions between drugs, transporters, receptors, and metabolizing enzymes: Statins, SLCO1B1, and CYP3A4 as an example.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacogenetic biomarker tests include mostly specific single gene-drug pairs, capable of accounting for a portion of interindividual variability in drug response and toxicity. However, multiple genes are likely to contribute, either acting independently or epistatically, with the CYP2C9-VKORC1-warfarin test panel, an example of a clinically used gene-gene-dug interaction. I discuss here further instances of gene-gene-drug interactions, including a proposed dynamic effect on statin therapy by genetic variants in both a transporter (SLCO1B1) and a metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4) in liver cells, the main target site where statins block cholesterol synthesis. These examples set a conceptual framework for developing diagnostic panels involving multiple gene-drug combinations. PMID:23436703

  18. The EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein super-family: a genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Girard, F; Venail, J; Schwaller, B; Celio, M R

    2015-05-21

    In mice, 249 putative members of the superfamily of EF-hand domain Ca(2+)-binding proteins, manifesting great diversity in structure, cellular localization and functions have been identified. Three members in particular, namely, calbindin-D28K, calretinin and parvalbumin, are widely used as markers for specific neuronal subpopulations in different regions of the brain. The aim of the present study was to compile a comprehensive atlas of the gene-expression profiles of the entire EF-hand gene superfamily in the murine brain. This was achieved by a meticulous examination of the in-situ hybridization images in the Allen Brain Atlas database. Topographically, our analysis focused on the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex (barrel cortex in the primary somatosensory area), basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons and medulla, and on clearly identifiable sub-structures within each of these areas. The expression profiles of four family-members, namely hippocalcin-like 4, neurocalcin-δ, plastin 3 and tescalcin, that have not been hitherto reported, at either the mRNA (in-situ-hybridization) or the protein (immunohistochemical) levels, are now presented for the first time. The fruit of our analysis is a document in which the gene-expression profiles of all members of the EF-hand family genes are compared, and in which future possible neuronal markers for specific cells/brain areas are identified. The assembled information could afford functional clues to investigators, conducive to further experimental pursuit. PMID:25770968

  19. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 CYP1A2 gene (CYP1A2) in colorectal cancer patients and controls: allele frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and influence on caffeine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, Christoph; Bhambra, Upinder; Smith, Gillian; Lightfoot, Tracy J; Barrett, Jennifer H; Scollay, Jenna; Garner, R Colin; Boobis, Alan R; Wolf, C Roland; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2003-01-01

    Aim Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the cytochrome P450 enzyme 1A2 gene (CYP1A2) have been reported. Here, frequencies, linkage disequilibrium and phenotypic consequences of six SNPs are described. Methods From genomic DNA, 114 British Caucasians (49 colorectal cancer cases and 65 controls) were genotyped for the CYP1A2 polymorphisms −3858G→A (allele CYP1A2*1C), −2464T→delT (CYP1A2*1D), −740T→G (CYP1A2*1E and *1G), −164A→C (CYP1A2*1F), 63C→G (CYP1A2*2), and 1545T→C (alleles CYP1A2*1B, *1G, *1H and *3), using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. All patients and controls were phenotyped for CYP1A2 by h.p.l.c. analysis of urinary caffeine metabolites. Results In 114 samples, the most frequent CYP1A2 SNPs were 1545T→C (38.2% of tested chromosomes), −164A→C (CYP1A2*1F, 33.3%) and −2464T→delT (CYP1A2*1D, 4.82%). The SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium: the most frequent constellations were found to be −3858G/−2464T/−740T/−164A/63C/1545T (61.8%), −3858G/−2464T/−740T/−164C/63C/1545C (33.3%), and −3858G/−2464delT/−740T/−164A/63C/1545C (3.51%), with no significant frequency differences between cases and controls. In the phenotype analysis, lower caffeine metabolic ratios were detected in cases than in controls. This was significant in smokers (n = 14, P = 0.020), and in a subgroup of 15 matched case-control pairs (P = 0.007), but it was not significant in nonsmokers (n = 100, P = 0.39). There was no detectable association between CYP1A2 genotype and caffeine phenotype. Conclusions (i) CYP1A2 polymorphisms are in linkage disequilibrium. Therefore, only −164A→C (CYP1A2*1F) and −2464T→delT (CYP1A2*1D) need to be analysed in the routine assessment of CYP1A2 genotype; (ii) in vivo CYP1A2 activity is lower in colorectal cancer patients than in controls, and (iii) CYP1A2 genotype had no effect on phenotype (based on the caffeine metabolite ratio). However, this

  20. Salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with dysfunctional Cyp4a10 gene and kidney epithelial sodium channel

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kiyoshi; Holla, Vijaykumar R.; Wei, Yuan; Wang, Wen-Hui; Gatica, Arnaldo; Wei, Shouzou; Mei, Shaojun; Miller, Crystal M.; Cha, Dae Ryong; Price, Edward; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra; Breyer, Matthew D.; Guan, Youfei; Falck, John R.; Waterman, Michael R.; Capdevila, Jorge H.

    2006-01-01

    Functional and biochemical data have suggested a role for the cytochrome P450 arachidonate monooxygenases in the pathophysiology of hypertension, a leading cause of cardiovascular, cerebral, and renal morbidity and mortality. We show here that disruption of the murine cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily a, polypeptide 10 (Cyp4a10) gene causes a type of hypertension that is, like most human hypertension, dietary salt sensitive. Cyp4a10–/– mice fed low-salt diets were normotensive but became hypertensive when fed normal or high-salt diets. Hypertensive Cyp4a10–/– mice had a dysfunctional kidney epithelial sodium channel and became normotensive when administered amiloride, a selective inhibitor of this sodium channel. These studies (a) establish a physiological role for the arachidonate monooxygenases in renal sodium reabsorption and blood pressure regulation, (b) demonstrate that a dysfunctional Cyp4a10 gene causes alterations in the gating activity of the kidney epithelial sodium channel, and (c) identify a conceptually novel approach for studies of the molecular basis of human hypertension. It is expected that these results could lead to new strategies for the early diagnosis and clinical management of this devastating disease. PMID:16691295

  1. Transgenic plants of Petunia hybrida harboring the CYP2E1 gene efficiently remove benzene and toluene pollutants and improve resistance to formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daoxiang; Xiang, Taihe; Li, Peihan; Bao, Lumin

    2011-01-01

    The CYP2E1 protein belongs to the P450 enzymes family and plays an important role in the metabolism of small molecular and organic pollutants. In this study we generated CYP2E1 transgenic plants of Petunia using Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599. PCR analysis confirmed that the regenerated plants contained the CYP2E1 transgene and the rolB gene of the Ri plasmid. Southern blotting revealed the presence of multiple copies of CYP2E1 in the genome of transgenic plants. Fluorescent quantitative PCR revealed exogenous CYP2E1 gene expression in CYP2E1 transgenic plants at various levels, whereas no like expression was detected in either GUS transgenic plants or wild-types. The absorption of benzene and toluene by transgenic plants was analyzed through quantitative gas chromatography. Transgenic plants with high CYP2E1 expression showed a significant increase in absorption capacity of environmental benzene and toluene, compared to control GUS transgenic and wild type plants. Furthermore, these plants also presented obvious improved resistance to formaldehyde. This study, besides being the first to reveal that the CYP2E1 gene enhances plant resistance to formaldehyde, also furnishes a new method for reducing pollutants, such as benzene, toluene and formaldehyde, by using transgenic flowering horticultural plants. PMID:22215968

  2. Identification of seven novel CYP11B1 gene mutations in Chinese patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Nie, Min; Lu, Lin; Tong, Anli; Chen, Shi; Lu, Zhaolin

    2015-08-01

    Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD), one of common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by virilization, precocious pseudo-puberty, and hypertension. It is caused by CYP11B1 gene mutation. We performed molecular genetic analysis of the CYP11B1 gene in six patients with preliminary clinical diagnosis of 11β-OHD and four patients identified as potential 11β-OHD from a CAH cohort in which CYP21A2 gene mutations consecutively screened. Seven novel CYP11B1 mutations, including p.R454H, p.Q472P, p.Q155X, p.K173X, IVS2-1G>A, R454A fs 573X, and g.2704_g.3154del, and six previously described mutations (p.P94L, p.G267S, p.G379V, p.R448H, p.R454C and p.R141X) were identified. These mutations mainly clustered in exons 3 and 8. Eight of twenty alleles carried mutations occurring at the Arg454 position, which is a mutational hot spot for Han Chinese. The pathogenic nature of novel p.R454H mutation was predicted by protein sequence alignment and in silico analysis. All the identified mutations were responsible for the clinical features observed in these ten unrelated Chinese patients. This study expands the CYP11B1 mutation spectrum and provides evidence for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. Genetic analysis is an alternative approach to help clinicians confirm uncertain 11β-OHD diagnosis, facilitating reasonable steroid replacement. PMID:25911436

  3. Evolution and association analysis of GmCYP78A10 gene with seed size/weight and pod number in soybean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Yinhui; Zhang, Haowei; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Seed-size/weight traits, controlled by multiple genes in soybean, play an important role in determining seed yield. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the seed size and weight in soybean remain unclear. In Arabidopsis, P450/CYP78A gene family has been proved extremely relevant to seed size (such as AtCYP78A5, AtCYP78A6 and AtCYP78A9). We found that a soybean GmCYP78A10 gene underwent artificial selection during soybean breeding. The GmCYP78A10a allele mainly distributed in wild soybean (Glycine soja), but has been eliminated in the cultivars during early stage of soybean breeding, while the GmCYP78A10b allele has been accumulated and become the predominant allele in cultivated soybean (G. max). ANOVA analysis showed that the mean seed weight, seed width and seed thickness of soybean varieties with GmCYP78A10b allele was significantly heavier/bigger than those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01). The allele could explain 7.2 % variation in seed weight. The pod number of the soybeans with GmCYP78A10b allele significantly decreased compared to those with GmCYP78A10a allele (P < 0.01, R(2) = 5.8 %), while other agronomic traits including seed weight/plant were not significantly affected by these two alleles. We speculated that during the early stage of soybean breeding, breeders selected big seed carrying GmCYP78A10b allele, but lowered pod number simultaneously. Overall, the selection did not cause the significantly change in soybean seed yield. Our results suggests that the soybean GmCYP78A10 gene may have a similar function to those genes belonging to P450/CYP78A subfamily in Arabidopsis and provides new information for the genetic control of seed size in soybean. PMID:25324172

  4. Isolation and characterization of a pigeonpea cyclophilin (CcCYP) gene, and its over-expression in Arabidopsis confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Kambakam; Priyanka, Bhyri; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2010-08-01

    A full-length cDNA clone of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) encoding cyclophilin (CcCYP) has been isolated from the cDNA library of plants subjected to drought stress. Amino acid sequence of CcCYP disclosed similarity with that of single-domain cytosolic cyclophilins of various organisms. Expression profile of CcCYP in pigeonpea plants is strongly induced by different abiotic stresses, indicating its stress-responsive nature. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing CcCYP exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity and extreme temperatures as evidenced by increased plant survival, biomass, chlorophyll content and profuse root growth. The CcCYP transgenics, compared to the controls, revealed enhanced peptidyl-propyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity under stressed conditions, owing to transcriptional activation of stress-related genes besides intrinsic chaperonic activity of the cyclophilin. The transgenic plants subjected to salt stress exhibited higher Na(+) ion accumulation in roots as compared to shoots, while a reverse trend was observed in the salt-stressed control plants, implicating the involvement of CcCYP in the maintenance of ion homeostasis. Expression pattern of CcCYP:GFP fusion protein confirmed the localization of CcCYP predominantly in the nucleus as revealed by intense green fluorescence. The overall results amply demonstrate the implicit role of CcCYP in conferring multiple abiotic stress tolerance at whole-plant level. PMID:20374537

  5. Alteration of Panax ginseng saponin composition by overexpression and RNA interference of the protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase gene (CYP716A53v2)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Bum; Chun, Ju-Hyeon; Ban, Yong-Wook; Han, Jung Yeon; Choi, Yong Eui

    2015-01-01

    Background The roots of Panax ginseng contain noble tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins derived from dammarenediol-II. Dammarene-type ginsenosides are classified into the protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) groups based on their triterpene aglycone structures. Two cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) are critical for the production of PPD and PPT aglycones, respectively. CYP716A53v2 is a protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase that catalyzes PPT production from PPD in P. ginseng. Methods We constructed transgenic P. ginseng lines overexpressing or silencing (via RNA interference) the CYP716A53v2 gene and analyzed changes in their ginsenoside profiles. Result Overexpression of CYP716A53v2 led to increased accumulation of CYP716A53v2 mRNA in all transgenic roots compared to nontransgenic roots. Conversely, silencing of CYP716A53v2 mRNA in RNAi transgenic roots resulted in reduced CYP716A53v2 transcription. HPLC analysis revealed that transgenic roots overexpressing CYP716A53v2 contained higher levels of PPT-group ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, and Rf) but lower levels of PPD-group ginsenosides (Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd). By contrast, RNAi transgenic roots contained lower levels of PPT-group compounds and higher levels of PPD-group compounds. Conclusion The production of PPD- and PPT-group ginsenosides can be altered by changing the expression of CYP716A53v2 in transgenic P. ginseng. The biological activities of PPD-group ginsenosides are known to differ from those of the PPT group. Thus, increasing or decreasing the levels of PPT-group ginsenosides in transgenic P. ginseng may yield new medicinal uses for transgenic P. ginseng. PMID:26843821

  6. Impaired transactivation of the human CYP2J2 arachidonic acid epoxygenase gene in HepG2 cells subjected to nitrative stress

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Pei H; Lee, Andy C; Zhou, Fanfan; Murray, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Human cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) generates epoxyfatty acids that modulate cellular apoptosis and proliferation. CYP2J2 regulation has not been intensively studied but induction of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) subunit c-fos mediates CYP2J2 down-regulation in hypoxia, a component of ischaemic injury. Decreased CYP2J2 expression may contribute to tissue injury. Experimental approach: HepG2 cells were treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to induce nitrative stress, which has been associated with inflammation and infection in liver and other tissues. CYP2J2 protein and mRNA expression were evaluated by immunoblotting and real-time PCR respectively. The role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in CYP2J2 dysregulation was assessed using specific inhibitors and dominant negative MAP kinase expression plasmids. CYP2J2-luciferase reporter constructs and electromobility shift assays (EMSAs) were used to identify SNP-regulated regions in the CYP2J2 gene. Key results: Cytochrome P450 2J2 was down-regulated by SNP while the AP-1 proteins c-jun and c-fos were up-regulated; inhibition of p38 and ERK MAP kinases normalized their expression. The gene elements at −105/−95 and −56/−63 were required for the down-regulation of CYP2J2 induced by nitrative stress. Conclusions and implications: p38 and ERK MAP kinases transduce stress stimuli that down-regulate CYP2J2. Targeting these kinases may prevent the loss of CYP2J2 and epoxy-fatty acids that protect cells against deleterious stresses. PMID:20180943

  7. Novel CYP27B1 Gene Mutations in Patients with Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets Type 1A

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Minjing; Durmaz, Erdem; BinEssa, Huda; Nalbantoğlu, Özlem; Al-Rijjal, Roua A.; Meyer, Brian; Özkan, Behzat; Shi, Yufei

    2015-01-01

    The CYP27B1 gene encodes 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase. Mutations of this gene cause vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR-IA, OMIM 264700), which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. To investigate CYP27B1 mutations, we studied 8 patients from 7 unrelated families. All coding exons and intron-exon boundaries of CYP27B1 gene were amplified by PCR from peripheral leukocyte DNA and subsequently sequenced. Homozygous mutations in the CYP27B1 gene were found in all the patients and heterozygous mutations were present in their normal parents. One novel single nucleotide variation (SNV, c.1215 T>C, p.R379R in the last nucleotide of exon 7) and three novel mutations were identified:, a splice donor site mutation (c.1215+2T>A) in intron 7, a 16-bp deletion in exon 6 (c.1022-1037del16), and a 2-bp deletion in exon 5 (c.934_935delAC). Both c.1215 T>C and c.1215+2T>A were present together in homozygous form in two unrelated patients, and caused exon 7 skipping. However, c.1215 T>C alone has no effect on pre-mRNA splicing. The skipping of exon 7 resulted in a shift of downstream reading frame and a premature stop codon 57 amino acids from L380 (p.L380Afs*57). The intra-exon deletions of c.1022-1037del16 and c.934_935delAC also resulted in a frameshift and the creation of premature stop codons at p.T341Rfs*5, and p.T312Rfs*19, respectively, leading to the functional inactivation of the CYP27B1 gene. Clinically, all the patients required continued calcitriol treatment and the clinical presentations were consistent with the complete loss of vitamin D1α-hydroxylase activity. In conclusion, three novel mutations have been identified. All of them caused frameshift and truncated proteins. The silent c.1215 T>C SNV has no effect on pre-mRNA splicing and it is likely a novel SNP. The current study further expands the CYP27B1 mutation spectrum. PMID:26132292

  8. Diurnal variation in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity is determined by the -203A>C polymorphism of the CYP7A1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Vlachová, Miluše; Blahová, Tereza; Lánská, Věra; Leníček, Martin; Piťha, Jan; Vítek, Libor; Kovář, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the promoter polymorphism -203A>C of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase encoding gene (CYP7A1) affects diurnal variation in CYP7A1 enzyme activity. Methods The study included 16 healthy male volunteers – 8 homozygous for -203A and 8 homozygous for the -203C allele of CYP7A1. Three 15-hour examinations (from 7am to 10pm) were carried out for each of the participants: after one-day treatment with cholestyramine; after one-day treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA); and a control examination without any treatment. The plasma concentration of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), a marker of CYP7A1 activity, was determined in all the experiments at 90-min intervals. Results CYP7A1 activity was up-regulated after treatment with cholestyramine and suppressed after treatment with CDCA. There were no differences between -203A and -203C allele carriers in the response of enzyme activity to both drugs. In the control experiment, -203A allele carriers displayed diurnal variation in enzyme activity, whereas CYP7A1 activity did not change in -203C allele carriers. These results were confirmed by modeling the dynamics of C4 using polynomial regression. Conclusion The promoter polymorphism of the CYP7A1 gene has a pronounced impact on diurnal variation in CYP7A1 activity. PMID:27106353

  9. CYP7A1 Gene Polymorphism Located in the 5′ Upstream Region Modifies the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Iwanicki, Tomasz; Balcerzyk, Anna; Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Ochalska-Tyka, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Kosiorz-Gorczynska, Sylwia; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Zak, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Background. 7-Alpha cholesterol hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the first enzyme of classic conversion pathway leading from cholesterol to bile acids synthesis, is encoded by CYP7A1 gene. Its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence serum lipid levels and may be related to impaired lipid profile leading to coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible association between the rs7833904 CYP7A1 polymorphism and premature CAD. Material and Methods. Serum lipid levels and rs7833904 SNP were determined in 419 subjects: 200 patients with premature CAD and 219 age and sex matched controls. Results. The A allele carrier state was associated with CAD (OR = 1.76, 95% CI; 1.14–2.71, P = 0.014). The effect was even stronger in the male subgroups (OR = 2.16, 95% CI; 1.28–3.65, P = 0.003). There was no effect in the females. Risk factors of CAD and clinical phenotype of atherosclerosis were not associated with genotype variants of the rs7833904 SNP. Lipid profiles also did not differ significantly between individual genotypes. Conclusion. The CYP7A1 rs7833904 polymorphism may modify the risk of CAD. This effect is especially strong in male subjects. The studied polymorphism does not significantly influence serum lipid levels, in the present study. PMID:25944972

  10. Cytogenetic damage in Turkish coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Association with CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ada, Ahmet Oguz; Demiroglu, Canan; Yilmazer, Meltem; Suzen, Halit Sinan; Demirbag, Ali Eba; Efe, Sibel; Alemdar, Yilmaz; Iscan, Mumtaz; Burgaz, Sema

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and cytochalasin-blocked micronuclei (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes from Turkish coke oven workers and the influence of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms on these biomarkers. Cytogenetic analysis showed that occupational exposure significantly increased the CA and CBMN frequencies. Gene polymorphisms, on the other hand, did not affect CA or CBMN in either exposed or control subjects. However, due to the limited sample size, our findings need to be verified in future studies with a larger sample. PMID:24084344

  11. Expression of Aromatase in Radial Glial Cells in the Brain of the Japanese Eel Provides Insight into the Evolution of the cyp191a Gene in Actinopterygians

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Shan-Ru; Yueh, Wen-Shiun; Pen, Yi-Ting; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Pasquier, Jérémy; Dufour, Sylvie; Chang, Ching-Fong; Kah, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The cyp19a1 gene that encodes aromatase, the only enzyme permitting conversion of C19 aromatizable androgens into estrogens, is present as a single copy in the genome of most vertebrate species, except in teleosts in which it has been duplicated. This study aimed at investigating the brain expression of a cyp19a1 gene expressed in both gonad and brain of Japanese eel, a basal teleost. By means of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we show that cyp19a1 is expressed only in radial glial cells of the brain and in pituitary cells. Treatments with salmon pituitary homogenates (female) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (male), known to turn on steroid production in immature eels, strongly stimulated cyp19a1 messenger and protein expression in radial glial cells and pituitary cells. Using double staining studies, we also showed that aromatase-expressing radial glial cells exhibit proliferative activity in both the brain and the pituitary. Altogether, these data indicate that brain and pituitary expression of Japanese eel cyp19a1 exhibits characteristics similar to those reported for the brain specific cyp19a1b gene in teleosts having duplicated cyp19a1 genes. This supports the hypothesis that, despite the fact that eels also underwent the teleost specific genome duplication, they have a single cyp19a1 expressed in both brain and gonad. Such data also suggest that the intriguing features of brain aromatase expression in teleost fishes were not gained after the whole genome duplication and may reflect properties of the cyp19a1 gene of ancestral Actinopterygians. PMID:22957105

  12. Systematic interrogation of the Conus marmoreus venom duct transcriptome with ConoSorter reveals 158 novel conotoxins and 13 new gene superfamilies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conopeptides, often generically referred to as conotoxins, are small neurotoxins found in the venom of predatory marine cone snails. These molecules are highly stable and are able to efficiently and selectively interact with a wide variety of heterologous receptors and channels, making them valuable pharmacological probes and potential drug leads. Recent advances in next-generation RNA sequencing and high-throughput proteomics have led to the generation of large data sets that require purpose-built and dedicated bioinformatics tools for efficient data mining. Results Here we describe ConoSorter, an algorithm that categorizes cDNA or protein sequences into conopeptide superfamilies and classes based on their signal, pro- and mature region sequence composition. ConoSorter also catalogues key sequence characteristics (including relative sequence frequency, length, number of cysteines, N-terminal hydrophobicity, sequence similarity score) and automatically searches the ConoServer database for known precursor sequences, facilitating identification of known and novel conopeptides. When applied to ConoServer and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot databases, ConoSorter is able to recognize 100% of known conotoxin superfamilies and classes with a minimum species specificity of 99%. As a proof of concept, we performed a reanalysis of Conus marmoreus venom duct transcriptome and (i) correctly classified all sequences previously annotated, (ii) identified 158 novel precursor conopeptide transcripts, 106 of which were confirmed by protein mass spectrometry, and (iii) identified another 13 novel conotoxin gene superfamilies. Conclusions Taken together, these findings indicate that ConoSorter is not only capable of robust classification of known conopeptides from large RNA data sets, but can also facilitate de novo identification of conopeptides which may have pharmaceutical importance. PMID:24131469

  13. Identification of novel CYP4V2 gene mutations in 92 Chinese families with Bietti’s crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiao Hong; Guo, Hong; Xu, Hai Wei; Li, Qi You; Jin, Xin; Bai, Yun; Li, Shi Ying

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the spectrum of CYP4V2 gene mutations in 92 unrelated Chinese probands with Bietti’s crystalline dystrophy (BCD) and to describe the molecular and clinical characteristics of four novel CYP4V2 mutations associated with BCD. Methods All study participants underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Mutational screening of CYP4V2 coding regions and flanking intron sequences was examined via directional Sanger sequencing, with allele separation confirmed by screening other family members. Subsequent in silico analysis of the mutational consequence on protein function was undertaken, with the impact of the novel mutation on pre-mRNA splicing examined via RT–PCR. Results Fifteen disease-causing variants were identified in 92 probands with BCD, including four novel mutations and eleven previously reported mutations. The most prevalent mutation was c.802_810del17insGC, which was detected in 69 unrelated families, with an allele frequency of 52.7% (97/184). Homozygosity was revealed in 35 unrelated families, and compound heterozygosity was observed in 43 subjects. Four patients harbored four novel variants, with these mutations cosegregated within all affected individuals and were not found in unaffected family members and 100 unrelated controls. Transcriptional analysis of a novel splice mutation revealed altered RNA splicing. In silico analysis predicted that the missense variant, p.Tyr343Asp, disrupted the CYP4V2 surface electrostatic potential distribution and spatial conformation. Among the patients with four novel mutations, genotype did not always correlate with age at onset, disease course, or electroretinogram (ERG) changes, with phenotypic variations even noted within the same genotype. Conclusions The c.802_810del17insCG mutation was the most common mutation in the 92 Chinese probands with BCD examined. Four novel mutations were identified, contributing to the spectrum of CYP4V2 mutations associated with BCD, with no clear link

  14. Identification and Characterization of CYP9A40 from the Tobacco Cutworm Moth (Spodoptera litura), a Cytochrome P450 Gene Induced by Plant Allelochemicals and Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Long; Staehelin, Christian; Xia, Qing-Qing; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds. PMID:26393579

  15. Identification and Characterization of CYP9A40 from the Tobacco Cutworm Moth (Spodoptera litura), a Cytochrome P450 Gene Induced by Plant Allelochemicals and Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Long; Staehelin, Christian; Xia, Qing-Qing; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds. PMID:26393579

  16. Cloning and enhanced expression of the cytochrome P450nor gene (nicA; CYP55A5) encoding nitric oxide reductase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Masahiko; Matsumura, Kengo; Higashida, Katsuya; Hata, Yoji; Kawato, Akitsugu; Abe, Yasuhisa; Akita, Osamu; Takaya, Naoki; Shoun, Hirofumi

    2004-10-01

    We cloned and characterized the gene and cDNA of Aspergillus oryzae cytochrome P450nor (Anor). The Anor gene (nicA; CYP55A5) has a different gene structure from other P450nor genes in that it has an extra intron. There were not only two kinds of mRNA but also two sets of TATA-box and CCAAT-box, and it appears that this gene has two expression patterns, like CYP55A1 of Fusarium oxysporum. A reporter analysis using the uidA gene indicated that gene expression of CYP55A5 was induced under anaerobic conditions, like CYP55A1. When the CYP55A5 gene was overexpressed in A. oryzae, a large amount of active Anor were accumulated as intracellular protein. Anor employed both NADH and NADPH as electron donors for reducing nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. Anor measured the amount of NO generated from 3-(2-Hydroxy-1-(1-methylethyl)-2-nitrosohydrazino)-1-propanamine (NOC5) with a spectrophotometer. The sensitivity was 10 nmol/ml. PMID:15502348

  17. Global patterns of variation in allele and haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium across the CYP2E1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Mukherjee, Namita; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Khaliq, Shagufta; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Mehdi, S. Qasim; Speed, William C.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1, gene symbol CYP2E1, is one of a family of enzymes with a central role in activating and detoxifying xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Genetic variation at this gene has been reported in different human populations, and some association studies have reported increased risk for cancers and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, multi-SNP haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD) have not been systematically studied for CYP2E1 in multiple populations. Haplotypes can greatly increase the power both to identify patterns of genetic variation relevant for gene expression as well as to detect disease-related susceptibility mutations. We present frequency and LD data and analyses for 11 polymorphisms and their haplotypes that we have studied on over 2,600 individuals from 50 human population samples representing the major geographical regions of the world. The diverse patterns of haplotype variation found in the different populations we have studied show that ethnicity may be an important variable helping to explain inconsistencies that have been reported by association studies. More studies clearly are needed of the variants we have studied, especially those in the 5′ region, such as the VNTR, as well as studies of additional polymorphisms known for this gene to establish evidence relating any systematic differences in gene expression that exist to the haplotypes at this gene. PMID:18663376

  18. Tetra Primer ARMS PCR Optimization to Detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the CYP2E1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Suhda, Saihas; Paramita, Dewi Kartikawati; Fachiroh, Jajah

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection has been used extensively for genetic association studies of diseases including cancer. For mass, yet accurate and more economic SNP detection we have optimized tetra primer amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR) to detect three SNPs in the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) gene locus; i.e. rs3813865, rs2070672 and rs3813867. The optimization system strategies used were (1) designing inner and outer primers; (2) determining of their optimum primer concentration ratios; and (3) determining of the optimum PCR annealing temperature. The tetra primer ARMS PCR result could be directly observed using agarose gel electrophoresis. The method succesfully determined three SNPs in CYP2E1 locus, the results being consistent with validation using DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). PMID:27509930

  19. The Cytochrome P450 gene CYP6P12 confers pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Malaysian populations of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Ishak, Intan H.; Riveron, Jacob M.; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S.; Stott, Rob; Longbottom, Joshua; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Control of Aedes albopictus, major dengue and chikungunya vector, is threatened by growing cases of insecticide resistance. The mechanisms driving this resistance remain poorly characterised. This study investigated the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in Malaysian populations of Ae. albopictus. Microarray-based transcription profiling revealed that metabolic resistance (cytochrome P450 up-regulation) and possibly a reduced penetration mechanism (consistent over-expression of cuticular protein genes) were associated with pyrethroid resistance. CYP6P12 over-expression was strongly associated with pyrethroid resistance whereas CYP6N3 was rather consistently over-expressed across carbamate and DDT resistant populations. Other detoxification genes also up-regulated in permethrin resistant mosquitoes included a glucuronosyltransferase (AAEL014279-RA) and the glutathione-S transferases GSTS1 and GSTT3. Functional analyses further supported that CYP6P12 contributes to pyrethroid resistance in Ae. albopictus as transgenic expression of CYP6P12 in Drosophila was sufficient to confer pyrethroid resistance in these flies. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations predicted CYP6P12 possessing enzymatic activity towards pyrethroids. Patterns of polymorphism suggested early sign of selection acting on CYP6P12 but not on CYP6N3. The major role played by P450 in the absence of kdr mutations suggests that addition of the synergist PBO to pyrethroids could improve the efficacy of this insecticide class and overcome resistance in field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27094778

  20. Overexpression of the CYP51A1 Gene and Repeated Elements are Associated with Differential Sensitivity to DMI Fungicides in Venturia inaequalis.

    PubMed

    Villani, Sara M; Hulvey, Jon; Hily, Jean-Michel; Cox, Kerik D

    2016-06-01

    The involvement of overexpression of the CYP51A1 gene in Venturia inaequalis was investigated for isolates exhibiting differential sensitivity to the triazole demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides myclobutanil and difenoconazole. Relative expression (RE) of the CYP51A1 gene was significantly greater (P < 0.0001) for isolates with resistance to both fungicides (MRDR phenotype) or with resistance to difenoconazole only (MSDR phenotype) compared with isolates that were resistant only to myclobutanil (MRDS phenotype) or sensitive to both fungicides (MSDS phenotype). An average of 9- and 13-fold increases in CYP51A1 RE were observed in isolates resistant to difenoconazole compared with isolates with MRDS and MSDS phenotypes, respectively. Linear regression analysis between isolate relative growth on myclobutanil-amended medium and log10 RE revealed that little to no variability in sensitivity to myclobutanil could be explained by CYP51A1 overexpression (R(2) = 0.078). To investigate CYP51A1 upstream anomalies associated with CYP51A1 overexpression or resistance to difenoconazole, Illumina sequencing was conducted for three isolates with resistance to difenoconazole and one baseline isolate. A repeated element, "EL 3,1,2", with the properties of a transcriptional enhancer was identified two to four times upstream of CYP51A1 in difenoconazole-resistant isolates but was not found in isolates with the MRDS phenotype. These results suggest that different mechanisms may govern resistance to different DMI fungicides in the triazole group. PMID:26863444

  1. The Cytochrome P450 gene CYP6P12 confers pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Malaysian populations of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Intan H; Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Stott, Rob; Longbottom, Joshua; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Control of Aedes albopictus, major dengue and chikungunya vector, is threatened by growing cases of insecticide resistance. The mechanisms driving this resistance remain poorly characterised. This study investigated the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in Malaysian populations of Ae. albopictus. Microarray-based transcription profiling revealed that metabolic resistance (cytochrome P450 up-regulation) and possibly a reduced penetration mechanism (consistent over-expression of cuticular protein genes) were associated with pyrethroid resistance. CYP6P12 over-expression was strongly associated with pyrethroid resistance whereas CYP6N3 was rather consistently over-expressed across carbamate and DDT resistant populations. Other detoxification genes also up-regulated in permethrin resistant mosquitoes included a glucuronosyltransferase (AAEL014279-RA) and the glutathione-S transferases GSTS1 and GSTT3. Functional analyses further supported that CYP6P12 contributes to pyrethroid resistance in Ae. albopictus as transgenic expression of CYP6P12 in Drosophila was sufficient to confer pyrethroid resistance in these flies. Furthermore, molecular docking simulations predicted CYP6P12 possessing enzymatic activity towards pyrethroids. Patterns of polymorphism suggested early sign of selection acting on CYP6P12 but not on CYP6N3. The major role played by P450 in the absence of kdr mutations suggests that addition of the synergist PBO to pyrethroids could improve the efficacy of this insecticide class and overcome resistance in field populations of Ae. albopictus. PMID:27094778

  2. A novel CYP17A1 deletion causes a functional knockout of the steroid enzyme 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase in a Turkish family and illustrates the precise role of the CYP17A1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Camats, Núria; Üstyol, Ala; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Dick, Bernhard; Flück, Christa E

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A novel homozygous long-range deletion of the CYP17A1 gene abolished protein expression and caused the severest form of 17-hydroxylase deficiency in one kindred of a Turkish family. The affected subjects presented with 46,XY sex reversal and 46,XX lack of pubertal development as well as severe hypertension. PMID:26509008

  3. A novel CYP17A1 deletion causes a functional knockout of the steroid enzyme 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase in a Turkish family and illustrates the precise role of the CYP17A1 gene.

    PubMed

    Camats, Núria; Üstyol, Ala; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Dick, Bernhard; Flück, Christa E

    2015-10-01

    A novel homozygous long-range deletion of the CYP17A1 gene abolished protein expression and caused the severest form of 17-hydroxylase deficiency in one kindred of a Turkish family. The affected subjects presented with 46,XY sex reversal and 46,XX lack of pubertal development as well as severe hypertension. PMID:26509008

  4. Phylogenetic Comparison of F-Box (FBX) Gene Superfamily within the Plant Kingdom Reveals Divergent Evolutionary Histories Indicative of Genomic Drift

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Zhihua; Zou, Cheng; Shiu, Shin-Han; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of multigene families has been hypothesized as a major contributor to the evolution of complex traits and speciation. To help understand how such multigene families arose and diverged during plant evolution, we examined the phylogenetic relationships of F-Box (FBX) genes, one of the largest and most polymorphic superfamilies known in the plant kingdom. FBX proteins comprise the target recognition subunit of SCF-type ubiquitin-protein ligases, where they individually recruit specific substrates for ubiquitylation. Through the extensive analysis of 10,811 FBX loci from 18 plant species, ranging from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to numerous monocots and eudicots, we discovered strikingly diverse evolutionary histories. The number of FBX loci varies widely and appears independent of the growth habit and life cycle of land plants, with a little as 198 predicted for Carica papaya to as many as 1350 predicted for Arabidopsis lyrata. This number differs substantially even among closely related species, with evidence for extensive gains/losses. Despite this extraordinary inter-species variation, one subset of FBX genes was conserved among most species examined. Together with evidence of strong purifying selection and expression, the ligases synthesized from these conserved loci likely direct essential ubiquitylation events. Another subset was much more lineage specific, showed more relaxed purifying selection, and was enriched in loci with little or no evidence of expression, suggesting that they either control more limited, species-specific processes or arose from genomic drift and thus may provide reservoirs for evolutionary innovation. Numerous FBX loci were also predicted to be pseudogenes with their numbers tightly correlated with the total number of FBX genes in each species. Taken together, it appears that the FBX superfamily has independently undergone substantial birth/death in many plant lineages, with its size and rapid evolution potentially

  5. Simultaneous evaluation of human CYP3A4 and ABCB1 induction by reporter assay in LS174T cells, stably expressing their reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Inami, Keita; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Kumagai, Takeshi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2015-04-01

    The bioavailability of orally administered therapies are often significantly limited in the human intestine by the metabolic activities of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Predicting whether candidate compounds induce CYP3A4 and P-gp is a crucial stage in the drug development process, as drug-drug interactions may result in the induction of intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp. However, the assay systems needed to evaluate both CYP3A4 and P-gp induction in the intestine are yet to be established. To address this urgent requirement, LS174T cells were used to create two stable cell lines expressing the CYP3A4 or ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1, encoding P-gp) reporter genes. First, these stable cells were tested by treatment with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA) that induce CYP3A4 and P-gp in the intestines. All these compounds significantly increased both CYP3A4 and ABCB1 reporter activities in the stable cell lines. To simultaneously assess the induction of CYP3A4 and ABCB1, both stable cells were co-cultivated to measure their reporter activities. The mixed cells showed a significant increase in the CYP3A4 and ABCB1 reporter activities following treatment with 1,25(OH)2 D3, ATRA, and 9-cis RA. These activity levels were maintained after passaging more than 20 times and following multiple freeze-thaw cycles. These results demonstrate that our established cell lines can be used to evaluate simultaneously CYP3A4 and ABCB1 induction in the intestines, providing a valuable in vitro model for the evaluation of future drug candidates. PMID:25410880

  6. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of CYP4T expression in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Na; Cao, Li-hua; Jiang, Shan-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during RT-qPCR analysis. However, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. To identify the most suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments), seven reference genes, including beta actin (ACTB), beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), embryonic elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha tubulin (TUBA), ribosomal protein l8 (RPL8) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), were evaluated in this study. The stability and ranking of gene expression were analyzed using three different statistical programs: GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The expression errors associated with selection of the genes were assessed by the relative quantity of CYP4T. The results indicated that all the seven genes exhibited variability under the experimental conditions of this research, and the combination of ACTB/TUBA/EEF1A or of ACTB/EEF1A was the best candidate that raised the accuracy of quantitative analysis of gene expression. The findings highlighted the importance of validation of housekeeping genes for research on gene expression under different conditions of experiment and species. PMID:25249772

  7. Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma) mediates oxygen-dependent induction of aromatase (CYP19) gene expression during human trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Premlata; Mendelson, Carole R

    2011-09-01

    Differentiation of human cytotrophoblasts to syncytiotrophoblast and the associated induction of aromatase/hCYP19 gene expression are dependent upon a critical O(2) tension; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In this study, we provide compelling evidence that expression of the orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ), is also O(2) dependent, induced during human syncytiotrophoblast differentiation, and plays an obligatory role in the induction of placenta-specific hCYP19I.1 gene expression. Treatment with the selective ERRγ agonist, DY131, or overexpression of ERRγ, stimulated hCYP19 expression in syncytiotrophoblast. Overexpression of ERRγ prevented effects of hypoxia to repress hCYP19 gene expression in cultured trophoblasts. Conversely, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous ERRγ in primary trophoblasts markedly inhibited hCYP19 expression. Promoter and site-directed mutagenesis studies in transfected placental cells identified a nuclear receptor element within placenta-specific hCYP19 promoter I.1 required for ERRγ-stimulated activity. Recruitment of endogenous ERRγ to the nuclear receptor element region in hCYP19 promoter during trophoblast differentiation, assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, was prevented by hypoxia. Deferoxamine-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels decreased ERRγ expression, whereas knockdown of endogenous HIF-1α prevented ERRγ suppression by hypoxia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of trophoblasts cultured in hypoxia revealed recruitment of HIF-1α to one of two putative hypoxia response elements in the ERRγ promoter, providing in vivo evidence of a direct HIF-1α involvement in ERRγ expression. Collectively, these novel findings identify ERRγ as an O(2)-dependent transcription factor and HIF-1α target gene that serves a critical role in the induction of hCYP19 expression during human trophoblast differentiation. PMID:21757507

  8. Estrogen-Related Receptor γ (ERRγ) Mediates Oxygen-Dependent Induction of Aromatase (CYP19) Gene Expression during Human Trophoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Premlata

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of human cytotrophoblasts to syncytiotrophoblast and the associated induction of aromatase/hCYP19 gene expression are dependent upon a critical O2 tension; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In this study, we provide compelling evidence that expression of the orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ), is also O2 dependent, induced during human syncytiotrophoblast differentiation, and plays an obligatory role in the induction of placenta-specific hCYP19I.1 gene expression. Treatment with the selective ERRγ agonist, DY131, or overexpression of ERRγ, stimulated hCYP19 expression in syncytiotrophoblast. Overexpression of ERRγ prevented effects of hypoxia to repress hCYP19 gene expression in cultured trophoblasts. Conversely, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous ERRγ in primary trophoblasts markedly inhibited hCYP19 expression. Promoter and site-directed mutagenesis studies in transfected placental cells identified a nuclear receptor element within placenta-specific hCYP19 promoter I.1 required for ERRγ-stimulated activity. Recruitment of endogenous ERRγ to the nuclear receptor element region in hCYP19 promoter during trophoblast differentiation, assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation, was prevented by hypoxia. Deferoxamine-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels decreased ERRγ expression, whereas knockdown of endogenous HIF-1α prevented ERRγ suppression by hypoxia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of trophoblasts cultured in hypoxia revealed recruitment of HIF-1α to one of two putative hypoxia response elements in the ERRγ promoter, providing in vivo evidence of a direct HIF-1α involvement in ERRγ expression. Collectively, these novel findings identify ERRγ as an O2-dependent transcription factor and HIF-1α target gene that serves a critical role in the induction of hCYP19 expression during human trophoblast differentiation. PMID:21757507

  9. Characterization of cDNAs of the human pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein family, a new subfamily of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q.X.; Tease, L.A.; Shupert, W.L.; Chan, W.Y. )

    1990-03-20

    Three highly homologous cDNAs encoding human pregnancy-specific {beta}1-glycoprotein (SP1) were isolated from a human placental cDNA library. These cDNAs share >90% nucleotide homology in their coding sequences, and >79% of the encoded amino acids are homologous. Proteins encoded by these cDNAs are very similar to members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family and contain repeating domains, conserved disulfided bridges, and {beta}-sheet structure typical of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. However, the high degree of sequence homology and relatively lesser degree of glycosylation among the SP1 proteins suggest that they exist as a unique family instead of being members of the CEA family. Both soluble and potentially membrane-bound forms of SP1 proteins were present in the placenta. Northern blot analysis using specific probes confirmed the expression of multiple mRNA species in human term placenta.

  10. Association of CYP46 gene polymorphism with sporadic Alzheimer's disease in Chinese Han populations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhui; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Jianzhong; Yuan, Jianmin; Xia, Minghua; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Xingyan; Wu, Yue; Xu, Wenwei

    2013-04-01

    It is well known that genetic variants play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, several studies have found that an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46) gene was associated with sporadic AD (SAD). Within the CYP46 gene, the most well-studied SNP that has been found to be associated with an increased risk for SAD in Caucasians is the intronic SNP rs754203. Subsequently, other researchers have attempted to validate this finding in Chinese Han populations. However, these studies have produced both negative and positive results. To derive a more precise estimation for whether an association exists between rs754203 and SAD in the Chinese Han population, we performed the present meta-analysis of six case-control studies published up to July 2012 by searching the Medline, AlzGene, CNKI, and Wan Fang databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for four genetic models (allelic model: T vs. C; additive model: TT vs. CC; recessive model: TT + TC vs. CC; dominant model: TC + CC vs. TT) in the six studies, which included a total of 1187 cases and 1283 controls. The statistical analysis showed no significant differences in rs754203 between patients and controls for any of the four genetic models (p > 0.05 for each model). In conclusion, despite several limitations, this meta-analysis indicates that the CYP46 gene SNP rs754203 is not significantly associated with SAD susceptibility in Chinese Han populations. PMID:23167762

  11. Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations and Cytochrome P450 19 A1 (Cyp19) Gene Expression in Ovarian Granulosa Cells: An in vivo Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Hauser, Russ; Missmer, Stacey A.; Peretz, Jackye; Calafat, Antonia M.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in consumer products, has been associated with in vitro Cyp19 gene expression. Objective To evaluate an in vivo human model of Cyp19 gene expression in granulosa cells. Study Design A subset of an ongoing prospective cohort study of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) at Massachusetts General Hospital. Methods Mixed effect models were used to evaluate the association of urinary BPA concentrations with granulosa cell Cyp19 mRNA expression. Results In 61 women undergoing 76 IVF cycles, adjusted changes in mean Cyp19 expression (β estimate (95% CI)) for quartiles 2,3 and 4 as compared to the lowest quartile were: −0.97 (− 2.22, 0.28); −0.97 (−2.18, 0.24) and −0.38 (−1.58, 0.82). Conclusions An in vivo model for evaluation of Cyp19 gene expression was developed for use in epidemiologic studies. In this pilot study, we found no statistically significant linear association between urinary BPA concentrations and Cyp19 expression. PMID:23850856

  12. Polymorphisms in CYP17, COMT, and ESR1 genes in women after menopause and association with bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, C G; Almeida, B C; Camargo-Kosugi, C M; Costa, A M M; Silva, I D C G; Haidar, M A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated genetic factors related to the mineral density during post-menopause. We evaluated 110 women in the first 5 years post-menopause, without previous hormone replacement therapy. Cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) (rs743572), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) (rs4680), and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) (rs9322331) were examined for the presence of polymorphisms. Clinical data were collected by anamnesis; all patients had the osseous densitometry examined using a lunar instrument to determine mineral osseous densitometry in the lumbar column (L2-L4). CYP17, COMT, and ESR1 genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction with DNA collected from buccal swabs. The average age was 51.96 years. The average weights of the patients in control and osteopenia groups were 70.25 ± 12.00 and 62.45 ± 11.64, respectively (P = 0.001) and body mass index (P = 0.006; control: 29.43 ± 5.25; osteopenia: 26.72 ± 4.57). Related to CYP17 polymorphisms, 28.18% of women were TT (wild-type homozygous), 60% were TC (heterozygous), and 11.82% were CC (mutated homozygous). Related to COMT polymorphisms, 53.64% of women were GG (wild-type homozygous), 37.27% were GA (heterozygous), and 9.09% were AA (mutated homozygous). Related to ESR1, 53.64% of women were CC (wild-type homozygous), 40.91% were CT (heterozygous), and 5.45% were TT (mutated homozygous). The ESR1 variant allele was significantly higher in the osteopenia group when compared with women in the normal group (P = 0.02). ESR1 may be associated with low mineral osseous densitometry, while CYP17 and COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with mineral osseous densitometry. PMID:26634548

  13. Cyp15F1: a novel cytochrome P450 gene linked to juvenile hormone-dependent caste differention in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes.

    PubMed

    Tarver, Matthew R; Coy, Monique R; Scharf, Michael E

    2012-07-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that jointly utilize juvenile hormone (JH), pheromones, and other semiochemicals to regulate caste differentiation and achieve caste homeostasis. Prior EST sequencing from the symbiont-free gut transcriptome of Reticulitermes flavipes unexpectedly revealed a number of unique cytochrome P450 (Cyp) transcripts, including fragments of a Cyp15 family gene (Cyp15F1) with homology to other insect Cyp15s that participate in JH biosynthesis. The present study investigated the role of Cyp15F1 in termite caste polyphenism and specifically tested the hypothesis that it plays a role in JH-dependent caste differentiation. After assembling the full-length Cyp15F1 cDNA sequence, we (i) determined its mRNA tissue expression profile, (ii) investigated mRNA expression changes in response to JH and the caste-regulatory primer pheromones γ-cadinene (CAD) and γ-cadinenal (ALD), and (iii) used RNA interference (RNAi) in combination with caste differentiation bioassays to investigate gene function at the phenotype level. Cyp15F1 has ubiquitous whole-body expression (including gut tissue); is rapidly and sustainably induced from 3 h to 48 h by JH, CAD, and ALD; and functions at least in part by facilitating JH-dependent soldier caste differentiation. These findings provide the second example of a termite caste regulatory gene identified through the use of RNAi, and significantly build upon our understanding of termite caste homeostatic mechanisms. These results also reinforce the concept of environmental caste determination in termites by revealing how primer pheromones, as socioenvironmental factors, can directly influence Cyp15 expression and caste differentiation. PMID:22550027

  14. Optimized human CYP4B1 in combination with the alkylator prodrug 4-ipomeanol serves as a novel suicide gene system for adoptive T-cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Roellecke, K; Virts, E L; Einholz, R; Edson, K Z; Altvater, B; Rossig, C; von Laer, D; Scheckenbach, K; Wagenmann, M; Reinhardt, D; Kramm, C M; Rettie, A E; Wiek, C; Hanenberg, H

    2016-07-01

    Engineering autologous or allogeneic T cells to express a suicide gene can control potential toxicity in adoptive T-cell therapies. We recently reported the development of a novel human suicide gene system that is based on an orphan human cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP4B1, and the naturally occurring alkylator prodrug 4-ipomeanol. The goal of this study was to systematically develop a clinically applicable self-inactivating lentiviral vector for efficient co-expression of CYP4B1 as an ER-located protein with two distinct types of cell surface proteins, either MACS selection genes for donor lymphocyte infusions after allogeneic stem cell transplantation or chimeric antigen receptors for retargeting primary T cells. The U3 region of the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus in combination with the T2A site was found to drive high-level expression of our CYP4B1 mutant with truncated CD34 or CD271 as MACS suitable selection markers. This lentiviral vector backbone was also well suited for co-expression of CYP4B1 with a codon-optimized CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) construct. Finally, 4-ipomeanol efficiently induced apoptosis in primary T cells that co-express mutant CYP4B1 and the divergently located MACS selection and CAR genes. In conclusion, we here developed a clinically suited lentiviral vector that supports high-level co-expression of cell surface proteins with a potent novel human suicide gene. PMID:27092941

  15. Understanding CYP2D6 and its role in tamoxifen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edith Caroline

    2013-11-01

    The gene CYP2D6 has an extremely important role in drug metabolism. "Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6" is the official name of CYP2D6. The gene is located at position 13.1 on the long (q) arm of chromosome 21 and encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases that are heavily involved in drug metabolism (Genetics Home Reference, 2013), and many drugs are activated into their biologically active compounds. Because of numerous polymorphisms, the gene also has significant person-to-person variability. To date, more than 80 distinct CYP2D6 alleles and specific types and frequencies have been associated with different ethnic groups. CYP2D6*4 is the most common variant allele in Caucasians and, in that population, has a frequency of about 25%. On the other hand, CYP2D6*10 is common in the Asian population (Stearns & Rae, 2008). PMID:24161632

  16. Distribution of CYP2D6 alleles and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Deise C; Genro, Júlia P; Sortica, Vinicius A; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; de Moraes, Maria Elizabete; Pena, Sergio D J; dos Santos, Andrea K Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Hutz, Mara H

    2014-01-01

    The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil) to 10.2% (Northern Brazil). The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%). Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions. PMID:25329392

  17. Distribution of CYP2D6 Alleles and Phenotypes in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; de Moraes, Maria Elizabete; Pena, Sergio D. J.; dos Santos, Ândrea K. Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil) to 10.2% (Northern Brazil). The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%). Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions. PMID:25329392

  18. Repression of multiple CYP2D genes in mouse primary hepatocytes with a single siRNA construct.

    PubMed

    Elraghy, Omaima; Baldwin, William S

    2015-01-01

    The Cyp2d subfamily is the second most abun-dant subfamily of hepatic drug-metabolizing CYPs. In mice, there are nine Cyp2d members that are believed to have redundant catalytic activity. We are testing and optimizing the ability of one short interfering RNA (siRNA) construct to knockdown the expression of multiple mouse Cyp2ds in primary hepatocytes. Expression of Cyp2d10, Cyp2d11, Cyp2d22, and Cyp2d26 was observed in the primary male mouse hepatocytes. Cyp2d9, which is male-specific and growth hormone-dependent, was not expressed in male primary hepatocytes, potentially because of its dependence on pulsatile growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Several different siRNAs at different concentrations and with different reagents were used to knockdown Cyp2d expression. siRNA constructs designed to repress only one construct often mildly repressed several Cyp2d isoforms. A construct designed to knockdown every Cyp2d isoform provided the best results, especially when incubated with transfection reagents designed specifically for primary cell culture. Interestingly, a construct designed to knockdown all Cyp2d isoforms, except Cyp2d10, caused a 2.5× increase in Cyp2d10 expression, presumably because of a compensatory response. However, while RNA expression is repressed 24 h after siRNA treatment, associated changes in Cyp2d-mediated metabolism are tenuous. Overall, this study provides data on the expression of murine Cyp2ds in primary cell lines, valuable information on designing siRNAs for silencing multiple murine CYPs, and potential pros and cons of using siRNA as a tool for repressing Cyp2d and estimating Cyp2d's role in murine xenobiotic metabolism. PMID:25124873

  19. Differential vitamin D 24-hydroxylase/CYP24A1 gene promoter methylation in endothelium from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Karpf, Adam R; Omilian, Angela R; Bshara, Wiam; Tian, Lili; Tangrea, Michael A; Morrison, Carl D; Johnson, Candace S

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations occur in tumor-associated vessels in the tumor microenvironment. Methylation of the CYP24A1 gene promoter differs in endothelial cells isolated from tumors and non-tumor microenvironments in mice. The epigenetic makeup of endothelial cells of human tumor-associated vasculature is unknown due to difficulty of isolating endothelial cells populations from a heterogeneous tissue microenvironment. To ascertain CYP24A1 promoter methylation in tumor-associated endothelium, we utilized laser microdissection guided by CD31 immunohistochemistry to procure endothelial cells from human prostate tumor specimens. Prostate tissues were obtained following robotic radical prostatectomy from men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Adjacent histologically benign prostate tissues were used to compare endothelium from benign versus tumor microenvironments. Sodium bisulfite sequencing of CYP24A1 promoter region showed that the average CYP24A1 promoter methylation in the endothelium was 20% from the tumor microenvironment compared with 8.2% in the benign microenvironment (p < 0.05). A 2-fold to 17-fold increase in CYP24A1 promoter methylation was observed in the prostate tumor endothelium compared with the matched benign prostate endothelium in four patient samples, while CYP24A1 promoter methylation remained unchanged in two patient samples. In addition, there is no correlation of the level of CYP24A1 promoter methylation in prostate tumor-associated endothelium with that of epithelium/stroma. This study demonstrates that the CYP24A1 promoter is methylated in tumor-associated endothelium, indicating that epigenetic alterations in CYP24A1 may play a role in determining the phenotype of tumor-associated vasculature in the prostate tumor microenvironment. PMID:21725204

  20. Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations in the CYP27B1 Gene Lead to Pseudovitamin D-Deficient Rickets.

    PubMed

    Koek, W Nadia H; Zillikens, M Carola; van der Eerden, Bram C J; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M

    2016-09-01

    Pseudovitamin D deficiency is the consequence of a genetic defect in the CYP27B1 gene resulting in diminished or absent conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-(OH)D3) into 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) and leads to growth retardation and rickets, usually in the first 2 years of life. DNA obtained from human leucocytes from a patient suspected of pseudovitamin D deficiency and her healthy parents was sequenced for a genetic defect in the CYP27B1 gene. In silico analyses on the mutations were performed using online available software. The 1α-hydroxylase activity of the patient, her parents, and a sample derived from a mixed buffy coat of healthy blood donors was measured by culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells with 25-(OH)D3 and measuring 1,25-(OH)2D3 production. DNA sequencing of the patient suspected of pseudovitamin D deficiency revealed compound heterozygosity in the CYP27B1 gene for a (c413G>T) mutation in exon 3 (R138L) and a (c1232G>A) mutation in exon 8 (C411Y). In silico analyses confirmed that mutations at these positions are probably damaging for the protein since the amino acids are situated in a highly conserved region. In vitro analyses showed a nearly absent 1α-hydroxylase activity in the patient compared to the healthy blood donors. Her healthy parents each of whom carried one of the mutations also had compromised conversion of 25-(OH)D3 into 1,25-(OH)2D3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, being only marginally higher than in the patient. We discovered novel compound heterozygous mutations in the CYP27B1 gene in a young girl presenting with pseudovitamin D-deficient rickets, leading to severely decreased 1,25-(OH)2D3 production. Furthermore, both heterozygous parents showed a diminished 1α-hydroxylase activity. PMID:27364341

  1. Combined sequence and sequence-structure based methods for analyzing FGF23, CYP24A1 and VDR genes.

    PubMed

    Nagamani, Selvaraman; Singh, Kh Dhanachandra; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan

    2016-09-01

    FGF23, CYP24A1 and VDR altogether play a significant role in genetic susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Identification of possible causative mutations may serve as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for CKD. Thus, we adopted both sequence and sequence-structure based SNP analysis algorithm in order to overcome the limitations of both methods. We explore the functional significance towards the prediction of risky SNPs associated with CKD. We assessed the performance of four widely used pathogenicity prediction methods. We compared the performances of the programs using Mathews correlation Coefficient ranged from poor (MCC = 0.39) to reasonably good (MCC = 0.42). However, we got the best results for the combined sequence and structure based analysis method (MCC = 0.45). 4 SNPs from FGF23 gene, 8 SNPs from VDR gene and 13 SNPs from CYP24A1 gene were predicted to be the causative agents for human diseases. This study will be helpful in selecting potential SNPs for experimental study from the SNP pool and also will reduce the cost for identification of potential SNPs as a genetic marker. PMID:27114920

  2. Combined sequence and sequence-structure based methods for analyzing FGF23, CYP24A1 and VDR genes

    PubMed Central

    Nagamani, Selvaraman; Singh, Kh. Dhanachandra; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    FGF23, CYP24A1 and VDR altogether play a significant role in genetic susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Identification of possible causative mutations may serve as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for CKD. Thus, we adopted both sequence and sequence-structure based SNP analysis algorithm in order to overcome the limitations of both methods. We explore the functional significance towards the prediction of risky SNPs associated with CKD. We assessed the performance of four widely used pathogenicity prediction methods. We compared the performances of the programs using Mathews correlation Coefficient ranged from poor (MCC = 0.39) to reasonably good (MCC = 0.42). However, we got the best results for the combined sequence and structure based analysis method (MCC = 0.45). 4 SNPs from FGF23 gene, 8 SNPs from VDR gene and 13 SNPs from CYP24A1 gene were predicted to be the causative agents for human diseases. This study will be helpful in selecting potential SNPs for experimental study from the SNP pool and also will reduce the cost for identification of potential SNPs as a genetic marker. PMID:27114920

  3. [A new DNA diagnostic system for the detection of human CYP21 gene mutations associated with adrenal cortex hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Barannik, A P; Koltunova, A A; Ozolinia, L A; Lavrova, N V; Shilov, I A; Guzov, I I; Patrushev, L I

    2010-01-01

    Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most widespread severe autosomal recessive hereditary diseases. CAH is caused by the impaired biosynthesis of the key human hormones cortisol and aldosterone and is accompanied by the excess synthesis of androgens. Over 90% of CAH cases are caused by a deficiency of the steroid 21-hydrohylase (P450c21). The degree of damage in this enzyme is responsible for the severity of the clinical manifestation of CAH from potentially lethal to mild symptoms. Various mutations of the gene encoding this enzyme are the main source of the reduced activity of the 21-hydrolase. The location of the highly homological pseudogene CYP21P in close proximity to the functional gene impedes the DNA diagnostics of CAH. To detect the eight most frequent CYP21 gene mutations associated with CAH, we developed a new real-time PCR-based system of DNA diagnostics using new allele-specific primers and TaqMan probes for the analyzed mutations. The method was primarily tested on artificial DNA templates, where the analyzed mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. Then, it was tested on DNA samples from 43 patients with clinical and biochemical manifestations of CAH; seven patients were used as a control. Two mutant alleles were detected in two different individuals: the nonsense Q318X and the missense V281L mutations. PMID:20644590

  4. Use of CYP52A2A promoter to increase gene expression in yeast

    DOEpatents

    Craft, David L.; Wilson, C. Ron; Eirich, Dudley; Zhang, Yeyan

    2004-01-06

    A nucleic acid sequence including a CYP promoter operably linked to nucleic acid encoding a heterologous protein is provided to increase transcription of the nucleic acid. Expression vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acid sequence are also provided. The methods and compositions described herein are especially useful in the production of polycarboxylic acids by yeast cells.

  5. Phylogeny of the bacterial superfamily of Crp-Fnr transcription regulators: exploiting the metabolic spectrum by controlling alternative gene programs

    SciTech Connect

    Korner, Heinz; Sofia, Heidi J. ); Zumft, Walter G.

    2003-12-30

    The Crp-Fnr regulators, named after the first two identified members, are DNA-binding proteins which predominantly function as positive transcription factors, though roles of repressors are also important. Among over 1200 proteins with an N-terminally-located nucleotide-binding domain similar to the cAMP receptor protein, the distinctive additional trait of the Crp-Fnr superfamily is a C-terminally-located helix-turn-helix motif for DNA binding. From a curated database of 369 family members exhibiting both features, we provide a protein tree of Crp-Fnr proteins according to their phylogenetic relationships. This results in the assembly of the regulators ArcR, CooA, CprK, Crp, Dnr, FixK, Flp, Fnr, FnrBac, FnrN, MalR, NnrR, NtcA, PrfA, and YeiL and their homologues in distinct clusters. Lead members and representatives of these groups are described, placing emphasis on the less well known regulators and target processes. Several more groups consist of sequence-derived proteins of unknown physiological role; some of them are tight clusters of highly similar members. The Crp-Fnr regulators stand out in responding to a broad spectrum of intracellular and exogenous signals such as cyclic AMP, anoxia, the redox state, oxidative and nitrosative stress, nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), 2-oxoglutarate, or temperature. To accomplish their roles Crp-Fnr members have intrinsic sensory modules allowing the binding of allosteric effector molecules, or have prosthetic groups for the interaction with the signal. The regulatory adaptability and structural flexibility represented in the Crp-Fnr scaffold has led to the evolution of an important group of physiologically versatile transcription factors.

  6. Three novel cytochrome P450 genes identified in the marine polychaete Perinereis nuntia and their transcriptional response to xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Senlin; Chen, Bin; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Lin, Kangli; Yu, Xingguang

    2013-06-15

    Polychaetes have previously been used as bioindicators of environmental pollution. Their ability to eliminate organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been extensively analyzed. However, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) genes in polychaetes, which catalyze the first step of oxidative degradation of PAHs, have received little attention. Based on the partial sequences of three CYP genes that were enriched by subtractive cDNA libraries of the polychaete Perinereis nuntia, we amplified and sequenced the full-length cDNA of these novel CYP genes. These genes were named CYP4BB2, CYP423A1 and CYP424A1 by the Cytochrome P450 Nomenclature Committee. The deduced amino acid sequence of CYP4BB2 in P. nuntia showed 68% sequence identity to CYP4BB1 in Nereis virens, and was listed as a new member of the CYP4BB subfamily. The sequence of CYP423A1 and CYP424A1 both share less than 40% sequence identity to all known CYP enzymes and were classed into new CYP families. CYP family members are composite parts of a larger group called a clan. CYP4BB2 and CYP424A1 are listed as CYP4 clan members, while CYP423A1 is of the CYP2 clan. The 3D structures of these P. nuntia CYPs were successfully predicted by homology-modeling using the SWISS-MODEL workspace. The models of CYP424A1 and CYP4BB2 were created using 1jpzB (CYP102A) as a template, while CYP423A1 utilized 3czhB (CYP2R1) as its template. The presence of characteristic CYP superfamily motifs, such as the F-G⋯C-G amino acid sequence, and the conservation of the three-dimensional CYP structure shown by the modeling, suggested that these novel P. nuntia CYP genes may contain conserved functional domains of CYP monooxygenases. To examine the effect of xenobiotics on living organisms, we analyzed the transcriptional levels of these three new CYP genes in sandworms (P. nuntia) exposed to seawater artificially contaminated with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). We also exposed individuals to industrial wastewater

  7. Characterisation of the legume SERK-NIK gene superfamily including splice variants: Implications for development and defence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) genes are part of the regulation of diverse signalling events in plants. Current evidence shows SERK proteins function both in developmental and defence signalling pathways, which occur in response to both peptide and steroid ligands. SERKs are generally present as small gene families in plants, with five SERK genes in Arabidopsis. Knowledge gained primarily through work on Arabidopsis SERKs indicates that these proteins probably interact with a wide range of other receptor kinases and form a fundamental part of many essential signalling pathways. The SERK1 gene of the model legume, Medicago truncatula functions in somatic and zygotic embryogenesis, and during many phases of plant development, including nodule and lateral root formation. However, other SERK genes in M. truncatula and other legumes are largely unidentified and their functions unknown. Results To aid the understanding of signalling pathways in M. truncatula, we have identified and annotated the SERK genes in this species. Using degenerate PCR and database mining, eight more SERK-like genes have been identified and these have been shown to be expressed. The amplification and sequencing of several different PCR products from one of these genes is consistent with the presence of splice variants. Four of the eight additional genes identified are upregulated in cultured leaf tissue grown on embryogenic medium. The sequence information obtained from M. truncatula was used to identify SERK family genes in the recently sequenced soybean (Glycine max) genome. Conclusions A total of nine SERK or SERK-like genes have been identified in M. truncatula and potentially 17 in soybean. Five M. truncatula SERK genes arose from duplication events not evident in soybean and Lotus. The presence of splice variants has not been previously reported in a SERK gene. Upregulation of four newly identified SERK genes (in addition to the previously described MtSERK1) in

  8. Origin and evolution of TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) and the TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) have an ancient evolutionary origin that can be traced back to single copy genes within Arthropods. In humans, 18 TNFSF and 29 TNFRSF genes have been identified. Evolutionary models account for the increase in g...

  9. Evolutionary and expression analysis of a MADS-box gene superfamily involved in ovule development of seeded and seedless grapevines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yin, Xiangjing; Cheng, Chenxia; Wang, Hao; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhao, Jiao; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2015-06-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development, such as floral organ determination, fruit ripening, and embryonic development. Yet not much is known about grape (Vitis vinifera) MADS-box genes in a relatively comprehensive genomic and functional way during ovule development. Accordingly, we identified 54 grape MADS-box genes, aiming to enhance our understanding of grape MADS-box genes from both evolutionary and functional perspectives. Synteny analysis indicated that both segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape MADS-box family. Furthermore, synteny analysis between the grape and Arabidopsis genomes suggested that several grape MADS-box genes arose before divergence of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of exon-intron structures provided further insight into the evolutionary relationships between the genes, as well as their putative functions. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, grape MADS-box genes were divided into type I and type II subgroups. Tissue-specific expression analysis suggested roles in both vegetative and reproductive tissue development. Expression analysis of the MADS-box genes following gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment revealed their response to GA3 treatment and that seedlessness caused by GA3 treatment underwent a different mechanism from that of normal ovule abortion. Expression profiling of MADS-box genes from six cultivars suggests their function in ovule development and may represent potential ovule identity genes involved in parthenocarpy. The results presented provide a few candidate genes involved in ovule development for future study, which may be useful in seedlessness-related molecular breeding programs. PMID:25429734

  10. [The amplification of CYP9 genes as a preadaptation of the black garden ant Lasius niger to urban conditions].

    PubMed

    Konorov, E A; Nikitin, M A

    2015-01-01

    Ants are one of the most ancient and successful groups of eusocial animals and they are spread all over the world. The nucleotide sequences of the genomes of eight ant species were determined by the year 2014. In these species, the mechanisms of ecological success, cast differentiation, and social communication were studied at genomic level. In ants, the genes of the cytochromes P450 involved in metabolism of xenobiotics and various endogenic substances are amplified. Although the substrates for several cytochrome P450 families have been identified, the functions of the ninth family, which is one of the most amplified, remain unknown. The black garden ant Lasius niger is one of the spices that have successfully adapted to urban conditions. To study the mechanisms of adaptation, we have read and annotated the nucleotide sequence of the L. niger genome; we have predicted the functions of the CYP9 genes using virtual screening. The obtained data allow us to suggest that cytochromes P450 are involved in the metabolism of various xenobiotics such as phytotoxins, mycotoxins, and insecticides. We assume that the functional divergence of the new CYP9 duplications was initially aimed at developing resistance to various mycotoxins, in particular to those produced by Fusarium fungi and, subsequently, to other xenobiotics. PMID:26107899

  11. The cytochrome P450 genes of channel catfish: their involvement in disease defense responses as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Shikai; Sun, Luyang; Jiang, Yanliang; Feng, Jianbin; Liu, Nannan; Nelson, David; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) encode one of the most diverse enzyme superfamily in nature. They catalyze oxidative reactions of endogenous molecules and exogenous chemicals. Methods We identified CYPs genes through in silico analysis using EST, RNA-Seq and genome databases of channel catfish. Phylogenetic analyses and conserved syntenic analyses were conducted to determine their identities and orthologies. Meta-analysis of RNA-Seq databases was conducted to analyze expression profile of CYP genes following bacterial infection. Results A full set of 61 CYP genes were identified and characterized in channel catfish. Phylogenetic tree and conserved synteny provided strong evidence of their identities and orthorlogy. Lineage-specific gene duplication was evident in a number of clans in channel catfish. CYP46A1 is missing in the catfish genome as observed with syntenic analysis and RT-PCR analysis. Thirty CYPs were found up- or down-regulated in liver, while seven and eight CYPs were observed regulated in intestine and gill following bacterial infection. Conclusion We systematically identified and characterized a full set of 61 CYP genes in channel catfish and studied their expression profiles after bacterial infection. Strikingly large numbers of CYP genes appear to be involved in the bacterial defense processes. General significance This work provides an example to systematically study CYP genes in non-model species. Moreover, it provides a basis for further toxicological and physiological studies in channel catfish. PMID:24780645

  12. Introduction of the rice CYP714D1 gene into Populus inhibits expression of its homologous genes and promotes growth, biomass production and xylem fibre length in transgenic trees

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuiting; Bao, Yan; Wang, Qiuqing; Zhang, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa) OsCYP714D1 gene (also known as EUI) encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase which functions as a gibberellin (GA)-deactivating enzyme, catalysing 16α, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs. To understand whether it would also reduce the production of active GAs and depress the growth rate in transgenic trees, we constitutively expressed OsCYP714D1 in the aspen hybrid clone Populus alba×P. berolinensis. Unexpectedly, ectopic expression of OsCYP714D1 in aspen positively regulated the biosynthesis of GAs, including the active GA1 and GA4, leading to promotion of the growth rate and biomass production in transgenic plants. Transgenic lines which showed significant expression of the introduced OsCYP714D1 gene accumulated a higher GA level and produced more numerous and longer xylem fibres than did the wild-type plants. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that transcription of most homologous PtCYP714 genes was suppressed in these transgenic lines. Therefore, the promoted GA and biomass production in transgenic trees constitutively expressing OsCYP714D1 is probably attributed to the down-regulated expression of the native PtCYP714 homologues involved in the GA biosynthesis pathway, although their precise functions are yet to be further elucidated. PMID:23667043

  13. Multiple mechanisms regulate circadian expression of the gene for cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a), a key enzyme in hepatic bile acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Noshiro, Mitsuhide; Usui, Emiko; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Kubo, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Katsumi; Furukawa, Masae; Honma, Sato; Makishima, Makoto; Honma, Ken-ichi; Kato, Yukio

    2007-08-01

    electrophoretic mobility shift assay, REV-ERBalpha/beta bound to the promoter of Cyp7a . These observations suggest that (1) active CLOCK is essential for the robust circadian expression of hepatic metabolic enzymes (Cyp7a, Cyp8b, and Hmgcr); (2) clock-controlled genes--DBP, DEC2, and REV-ERBalpha/beta--are direct regulators required for the robust circadian rhythm of Cyp7a; and (3) the circadian rhythm of Cyp7a is regulated by multiple transcription factors, including DBP, REV-ERBalpha/beta, LXRalpha, HNF4alpha DEC2, E4BP4, and PPARalpha. PMID:17660447

  14. Identification of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2S1 in a Finnish Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Suitiala, Tuula; Holmila, Reetta; Impivaara, Olli; Järvisalo, Jorma; Hirvonen, Ari; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2004-10-01

    CYP2S1 is a recently discovered member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily. Interestingly, even though the DNA sequence identifies it as the sole member of the new CYP2S family, CYP2S1 exhibits many features typical to CYP1 family members, e.g. dioxin-inducibility mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). In addition, CYP2S1 metabolises some aromatic hydrocarbons as well as cellular substances. These characteristics, together with a wide extrahepatic tissue distribution, suggest that CYP2S1 may have an important role in both exogenous and endogenous metabolism. This is the first study characterising CYP2S1 alleles and naming them with the recommended CYP allele nomenclature. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and direct sequencing to investigate genetic variation of CYP2S1 in 100 male Finnish Caucasians. Those exons in which variation was found were examined in subsequent 100 subjects. The coding region of all of the nine exons, as well as a 449 bp fragment of the proximal promoter region, was analysed. This systematic investigation revealed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which comprise nine different variant alleles (haplotypes), in addition to the wild-type allele. Seven of the SNPs occurred in the protein-coding areas and one in the proximal 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Two of these sequence variations (10347C > T and 13106C > T) result in non-conservative amino acid substitutions, i.e. Arg380Cys and Pro466Leu, respectively. The respective allelic variants, CYP2S1*2 ([10347C > T]) and CYP2S1*3 (13106C > T; 13255A > G]), occurred in our study population at frequencies of 0.50 and 3.75%, respectively. The most common of the variant alleles was CYP2S1*1H (23.8%), harbouring a 13255A > G substitution located in the 3'UTR. PMID:15450424

  15. The rad18 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe defines a new subgroup of the SMC superfamily involved in DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, A.R.; Walicka, M.; Griffiths, D.J.F.; Carr, A.M.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the cloning and sequencing of the rad18 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and its essential role in cell proliferation. It also describes the isolation and sequencing of its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, designated RHC18. Genetic radiation effects were explored and results indicate the gene product`s importance in a DNA repair pathway that is distinct from classical nucleotide excision repair. 57 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A Major Facilitator Superfamily protein encoded by TcMucK gene is not required for cuticle pigmentation, growth and development in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Mun, Seulgi; Noh, Mi Young; Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-06-01

    Insect cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization (tanning) are vital physiological processes for insect growth, development and survival. We have previously identified several colorless precursor molecules as well as enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and processing to yield the mature intensely colored body cuticle pigments. A recent study indicated that the Bombyx mori (silkmoth) gene, BmMucK, which encodes a protein orthologous to a Culex pipiens quiquefasciatus (Southern house mosquito) cis,cis, muconate transporter, is a member of the "Major Facilitator Superfamily" (MFS) of transporter proteins and is associated with the appearance of pigmented body segments of naturally occurring body color mutants of B. mori. While RNA interference of the BmMucK gene failed to result in any observable phenotype, RNAi using a dsRNA for an orthologous gene from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was reported to result in molting defects and darkening of the cuticle and some body parts, leading to the suggestion that orthologs of MucK genes may differ in their functions among insects. To verify the role and essentiality of the ortholog of this gene in development and body pigmentation function in T. castaneum we obtained cDNAs for the orthologous gene (TcMucK) from RNA isolated from the GA-1 wild-type strain of T. castaneum. The sequence of a 1524 nucleotides-long cDNA for TcMucK which encodes the putatively full-length protein, was assembled from two overlapping RT-PCR fragments and the expression profile of this gene during development was analyzed by real-time PCR. This cDNA encodes a 55.8 kDa protein consisting of 507 amino acid residues and includes 11 putative transmembrane segments. Transcripts of TcMucK were detected throughout all of the developmental stages analyzed. The function of this gene was explored by injection of two different double-stranded RNAs targeting different regions of the TcMucK gene (dsTcMucKs) into young larvae to down

  17. Silencing of CYP6 and APN Genes Affects the Growth and Development of Rice Yellow Stem Borer, Scirpophaga incertulas

    PubMed Central

    Kola, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao; Renuka, P.; Padmakumari, Ayyagari Phani; Mangrauthia, Satendra K.; Balachandran, Sena M.; Ravindra Babu, V.; Madhav, Maganti S.

    2016-01-01

    RNAi is a powerful tool to target the insect genes involved in host-pest interactions. Key insect genes are the choice for silencing to achieve pest derived resistance where resistance genes are not available in gene pool of host plant. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of dsRNA designed from two genes Cytochrome P450 derivative (CYP6) and Aminopeptidase N (APN) of rice yellow stem borer (YSB) on growth and development of insect. The bioassays involved injection of chemically synthesized 5′ FAM labeled 21-nt dsRNA into rice cut stems and allowing the larvae to feed on these stems which resulted in increased mortality and observed growth and development changes in larval length and weight compared with its untreated control at 12–15 days after treatment. These results were further supported by observing the reduction in transcripts expression of these genes in treated larvae. Fluorescence detection in treated larvae also proved that dsRNA was readily taken by larvae when fed on dsRNA treated stems. These results from the present study clearly show that YSB larvae fed on dsRNA designed from Cytochrome P450 and Aminopeptidase N has detrimental effect on larval growth and development. These genes can be deployed to develop YSB resistance in rice using RNAi approach. PMID:26903874

  18. Double-Stranded RNA Uptake through Topical Application, Mediates Silencing of Five CYP4 Genes and Suppresses Insecticide Resistance in Diaphorina citri

    PubMed Central

    Killiny, Nabil; Hajeri, Subhas; Tiwari, Siddharth; Gowda, Siddarame; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2014-01-01

    Silencing of genes through RNA interference (RNAi) in insects has gained momentum during the past few years. RNAi has been used to cause insect mortality, inhibit insect growth, increase insecticide susceptibility, and prevent the development of insecticide resistance. We investigated the efficacy of topically applied dsRNA to induce RNAi for five Cytochrome P450 genes family 4 (CYP4) in Diaphorina citri. We previously reported that these CYP4 genes are associated with the development of insecticide resistance in D. citri. We targeted five CYP4 genes that share a consensus sequence with one dsRNA construct. Quantitative PCR confirmed suppressed expression of the five CYP4 genes as a result of dsRNA topically applied to the thoracic region of D. citri when compared to the expression levels in a control group. Western blot analysis indicated a reduced signal of cytochrome P450 proteins (45 kDa) in adult D. citri treated with the dsRNA. In addition, oxidase activity and insecticide resistance were reduced for D. citri treated with dsRNA that targeted specific CYP4 genes. Mortality was significantly higher in adults treated with dsRNA than in adults treated with water. Our results indicate that topically applied dsRNA can penetrate the cuticle of D. citri and induce RNAi. These results broaden the scope of RNAi as a mechanism to manage pests by targeting a broad range of genes. The results also support the application of RNAi as a viable tool to overcome insecticide resistance development in D. citri populations. However, further research is needed to develop grower-friendly delivery systems for the application of dsRNA under field conditions. Considering the high specificity of dsRNA, this tool can also be used for management of D. citri by targeting physiologically critical genes involved in growth and development. PMID:25330026

  19. Double-stranded RNA uptake through topical application, mediates silencing of five CYP4 genes and suppresses insecticide resistance in Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Hajeri, Subhas; Tiwari, Siddharth; Gowda, Siddarame; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2014-01-01

    Silencing of genes through RNA interference (RNAi) in insects has gained momentum during the past few years. RNAi has been used to cause insect mortality, inhibit insect growth, increase insecticide susceptibility, and prevent the development of insecticide resistance. We investigated the efficacy of topically applied dsRNA to induce RNAi for five Cytochrome P450 genes family 4 (CYP4) in Diaphorina citri. We previously reported that these CYP4 genes are associated with the development of insecticide resistance in D. citri. We targeted five CYP4 genes that share a consensus sequence with one dsRNA construct. Quantitative PCR confirmed suppressed expression of the five CYP4 genes as a result of dsRNA topically applied to the thoracic region of D. citri when compared to the expression levels in a control group. Western blot analysis indicated a reduced signal of cytochrome P450 proteins (45 kDa) in adult D. citri treated with the dsRNA. In addition, oxidase activity and insecticide resistance were reduced for D. citri treated with dsRNA that targeted specific CYP4 genes. Mortality was significantly higher in adults treated with dsRNA than in adults treated with water. Our results indicate that topically applied dsRNA can penetrate the cuticle of D. citri and induce RNAi. These results broaden the scope of RNAi as a mechanism to manage pests by targeting a broad range of genes. The results also support the application of RNAi as a viable tool to overcome insecticide resistance development in D. citri populations. However, further research is needed to develop grower-friendly delivery systems for the application of dsRNA under field conditions. Considering the high specificity of dsRNA, this tool can also be used for management of D. citri by targeting physiologically critical genes involved in growth and development. PMID:25330026

  20. Mechanism of superinduction of the CYP1A1 gene by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin (TCDD) plus cycloheximide

    SciTech Connect

    Lusska, A.E.; Whitlock, J.P. Jr. )

    1991-03-11

    TCDD increases CYP1A1 transcription by activating the Ah receptor, which binds to a specific DNA recognition sequence within an enhancer upstream of the CYP1A1 gene. Cycloheximide produces an additional increase of transcription. Nuclear runoff analyses of mouse hepatoma cells stably transfected with plasmids containing CYP1A1 regulatory DNA linked to a heterologous promoter and gene reveal that a DNA domain containing the receptor's recognition motif mediates superinduction. Gel retardation analyses reveal that mouse hepatoma cells contain a cycloheximide-sensitive, labile protein that binds to a DNA domain which overlaps the recognition motif for the Ah receptor. The labile protein is distinct from the Ah receptor in size and DNA binding specificity. Mutation of the binding site for the labile protein abolishes superinduction.

  1. Two highly homologous ribonuclease genes expressed in mouse eosinophils identify a larger subgroup of the mammalian ribonuclease superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Larson, K A; Olson, E V; Madden, B J; Gleich, G J; Lee, N A; Lee, J J

    1996-01-01

    Two putative ribonucleases have been isolated from the secondary granules of mouse eosinophils. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers inferred from peptide sequence data were used in reverse transcriptase-PCR reactions of bone marrow-derived cDNA. The resulting PCR product was used to screen a C57BL/6J bone marrow cDNA library, and comparisons of representative clones showed that these genes and encoded proteins are highly homologous (96% identity at the nucleotide level; 92/94% identical/similar at the amino acid level). The mouse proteins are only weakly homologous (approximately 50% amino acid identity) with the human eosinophil-associated ribonucleases (i.e., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein) and show no sequence bias toward either human protein. Phylogenetic analyses established that the human and mouse loci shared an ancestral gene, but that independent duplication events have occurred since the divergence of primates and rodents. The duplication event generating the mouse genes was estimated to have occurred < 5 x 10(6) years ago (versus 30 to 40 x 10(6) years ago in primates). The identification of independent duplication events in two extant mammalian orders suggests a selective advantage to having multiple eosinophil granule ribonucleases. Southern blot analyses in the mouse demonstrated the existence of three additional highly homologous genes (i.e., five genes total) as well as several more divergent family members. The potential significance of this observation is the implication of a larger gene subfamily in primates (i.e., humans). Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8901588

  2. Identification and Characterization of the Gene CYP340W1 from Plutella xylostella and Its Possible Involvement in Resistance to Abamectin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Abamectin has been used to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), which is a major agricultural pest that can rapidly develop resistance against insecticides including abamectin. Although cytochrome P450 has been confirmed to play an important role in resistance in P. xylostella, the specific P450 genes associated with the resistance are unclear. The full-length cDNA of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP340W1 was cloned and characterized in the present study. The cDNA assembly yielded a sequence of 1929 bp, containing the open reading frame (ORF) 1491 bp and encodes a 496-amino acid peptide. CYP340W1 was expressed in all P. xylostella developmental stages but its expression level was highest in larvae and especially in the heads of larvae. The expression of CYP340W1 was significantly higher in an abamectin-resistant strain (ABM-R) than in its susceptible counterpart (ABM-S). In addition, expression of CYP340W1 was increased when the ABM-R strain was exposed to abamectin. When injected into third-stage ABM-R larvae, CYP340W1 dsRNA significantly reduced CYP340W1 expression at 6 h and reduced expression by 83% at 12 h. As a consequence of RNAi, the mortality of the injected abamectin-resistant larvae increased after a 48-h exposure to abamectin. The results indicate that the overexpression of CYP340W1 plays an important role in abamectin resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:26999122

  3. Characterization of an Apis cerana cerana cytochrome P450 gene (AccCYP336A1) and its roles in oxidative stresses responses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Weixing; Liu, Feng; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Han; Xu, Baohua

    2016-06-15

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), widely distributed multifunctional enzymes, that play an important role in the oxidative metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Studies have found that these enzymes show peroxidase-like activity and may thus be involved in protecting organisms against reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this work, Apis cerana cerana was used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of P450 family genes in resisting ROS damage. A cytochrome P450 gene was isolated, AccCYP336A1. The open reading frame (ORF) of AccCYP336A1 is 1491bp in length and encodes a predicted protein of 496 amino acids. The obtained amino acid sequence of AccCYP336A1 shared a high sequence identity with homologous proteins and contained the highly conserved features of this protein family. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that AccCYP336A1 was present in some fast developmental stages and had a higher expression in the epidermis than in other tissues. Additionally, the expression levels of AccCYP336A1 were up-regulated by cold (4°C), heat (42°C), ultraviolet (UV) radiation, H2O2 and pesticide (thiamethoxam, deltamethrin, methomyl and phoxim) treatments. These results were confirmed by the western blot assays. Furthermore, the recombinant AccCYP336A1 protein acted as an antioxidant that resisted paraquat-induced oxidative stress. Taken together, these results suggest that AccCYP336A1 may play a very significant role in antioxidant defense against ROS damage. PMID:26877110

  4. Identification and Characterization of the Gene CYP340W1 from Plutella xylostella and Its Possible Involvement in Resistance to Abamectin

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Abamectin has been used to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (P. xylostella), which is a major agricultural pest that can rapidly develop resistance against insecticides including abamectin. Although cytochrome P450 has been confirmed to play an important role in resistance in P. xylostella, the specific P450 genes associated with the resistance are unclear. The full-length cDNA of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP340W1 was cloned and characterized in the present study. The cDNA assembly yielded a sequence of 1929 bp, containing the open reading frame (ORF) 1491 bp and encodes a 496-amino acid peptide. CYP340W1 was expressed in all P. xylostella developmental stages but its expression level was highest in larvae and especially in the heads of larvae. The expression of CYP340W1 was significantly higher in an abamectin-resistant strain (ABM-R) than in its susceptible counterpart (ABM-S). In addition, expression of CYP340W1 was increased when the ABM-R strain was exposed to abamectin. When injected into third-stage ABM-R larvae, CYP340W1 dsRNA significantly reduced CYP340W1 expression at 6 h and reduced expression by 83% at 12 h. As a consequence of RNAi, the mortality of the injected abamectin-resistant larvae increased after a 48-h exposure to abamectin. The results indicate that the overexpression of CYP340W1 plays an important role in abamectin resistance in P. xylostella. PMID:26999122

  5. A model for the transcriptional regulation of the CYP2B1/B2 gene in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, L; Upadhya, P; Ram, N; Nirodi, C S; Sultana, S; Vatsala, P G; Mani, S A; Rangarajan, P N; Surolia, A; Padmanaban, G

    1995-10-10

    The phenobarbitone-responsive minimal promoter has been shown to lie between nt -179 and nt + 1 in the 5' (upstream) region of the CYP2B1/B2 gene in rat liver, on the basis of the drug responsiveness of the sequence linked to human growth hormone gene as reporter and targeted to liver as an asialoglycoprotein-DNA complex in vivo. Competition analyses of the nuclear protein-DNA complexes formed in gel shift assays with the positive (nt -69 to -98) and negative (nt -126 to -160) cis elements (PE and NE, respectively) identified within this region earlier indicate that the same protein may be binding to both the elements. The protein species purified on PE and NE affinity columns appear to be identical based on SDS/PAGE analysis, where it migrates as a protein of 26-28 kDa. Traces of a high molecular weight protein (94-100 kDa) are also seen in the preparation obtained after one round of affinity chromatography. The purified protein stimulates transcription of a minigene construct containing the 179 nt on the 5' side of the CYP2B1/B2 gene linked to the I exon in a cell-free system from liver nuclei. The purified protein can give rise to all the three complexes (I, II, and III) with the PE, just as the crude nuclear extract, under appropriate conditions. Manipulations in vitro indicate that the NE has a significantly higher affinity for the dephosphorylated form than for the phosphorylated form of the protein. The PE binds both forms. Phenobarbitone treatment of the animal leads to a significant increase in the phosphorylation of the 26- to 28-kDa and 94-kDa proteins in nuclear labeling experiments followed by isolation on a PE affinity column. We propose that the protein binding predominantly to the NE in the dephosphorylated state characterizes the basal level of transcription of the CYP2B1/B2 gene. Phenobarbitone treatment leads to phosphorylation of the protein, shifting the equilibrium toward binding to the PE. This can promote interaction with an upstream

  6. A model for the transcriptional regulation of the CYP2B1/B2 gene in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, L; Upadhya, P; Ram, N; Nirodi, C S; Sultana, S; Vatsala, P G; Mani, S A; Rangarajan, P N; Surolia, A; Padmanaban, G

    1995-01-01

    The phenobarbitone-responsive minimal promoter has been shown to lie between nt -179 and nt + 1 in the 5' (upstream) region of the CYP2B1/B2 gene in rat liver, on the basis of the drug responsiveness of the sequence linked to human growth hormone gene as reporter and targeted to liver as an asialoglycoprotein-DNA complex in vivo. Competition analyses of the nuclear protein-DNA complexes formed in gel shift assays with the positive (nt -69 to -98) and negative (nt -126 to -160) cis elements (PE and NE, respectively) identified within this region earlier indicate that the same protein may be binding to both the elements. The protein species purified on PE and NE affinity columns appear to be identical based on SDS/PAGE analysis, where it migrates as a protein of 26-28 kDa. Traces of a high molecular weight protein (94-100 kDa) are also seen in the preparation obtained after one round of affinity chromatography. The purified protein stimulates transcription of a minigene construct containing the 179 nt on the 5' side of the CYP2B1/B2 gene linked to the I exon in a cell-free system from liver nuclei. The purified protein can give rise to all the three complexes (I, II, and III) with the PE, just as the crude nuclear extract, under appropriate conditions. Manipulations in vitro indicate that the NE has a significantly higher affinity for the dephosphorylated form than for the phosphorylated form of the protein. The PE binds both forms. Phenobarbitone treatment of the animal leads to a significant increase in the phosphorylation of the 26- to 28-kDa and 94-kDa proteins in nuclear labeling experiments followed by isolation on a PE affinity column. We propose that the protein binding predominantly to the NE in the dephosphorylated state characterizes the basal level of transcription of the CYP2B1/B2 gene. Phenobarbitone treatment leads to phosphorylation of the protein, shifting the equilibrium toward binding to the PE. This can promote interaction with an upstream

  7. Homozygous deletion of the CYP21A-TNXA-RP2-C4B gene region conferring C4B deficiency associated with recurrent respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, T; Ruuskanen, O; Truedsson, L; Lokki, M L

    1999-08-01

    The central class III region of the human major histocompatibility complex contains highly polymorphic genes that are associated with immune disorders and may serve as susceptibility factors for viral infections. Many HLA haplotype specific rearrangements, duplications, conversions and deletions, occur frequently in the C4 gene region. Genetic deficiencies of complement components are associated with recurrent occurrence of bacterial infections. We have studied the complement profile and the class III genes 5'-RP1-C4A-CYP21A-TNXA-RP2-C4B-CYP21B-TNXB -3' in a 4-year-old Caucasian patient. He has suffered from several pneumonias caused by respiratory viruses, eight acute otitis media, prolonged respiratory infections and urinary tract infection. Complement C4 was constantly low, but the other complement components, from C1 to C9, C1INH, factor B and properdin, were within normal limits. Immunological evaluation gave normal lymphocyte numbers and functions with the exception of subnormal T cell response to pokeweed mitogen. Molecular studies of the C4 gene region in the patient revealed homozygous deletion of CYP21A-TNXA-RP2-C4B generating total deficiency of C4B and the flanking 5' region up to C4A, and in the father a missing CYP21A gene. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the relationship between C4B deficiency and susceptibility to infections. PMID:10439316

  8. Adverse Effects, Expression of the Bk-CYP3045C1 Gene, and Activation of the ERK Signaling Pathway in the Water Accommodated Fraction-Exposed Rotifer.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Kang, Hye-Min; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Young Hwan; Hwang, Un-Ki; Zhou, Bingsheng; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-06-01

    To examine the deleterious effects of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil, the growth curve, fecundity, and lifespan of the monogonont rotifer (Brachionus koreanus) were measured for 24 h in response to three different doses (0.2×, 0.4×, and 0.8×) of WAFs. A higher dose of WAFs significantly reduced the fecundity and lifespan. A rotifer 32K microarray chip showed that the Bk-CYP3045C1 gene had the highest expression. Of the 25 entire CYP genes, the Bk-CYP3045C1 gene showed a significant expression for different doses and times in response to WAFs and chemical components of WAFs (naphthalene and phenanthrene); also, glutathione S-transferase genes, ABC transporter, and other genes showed dose responses upon exposure to 80% WAF over time. Different doses of WAFs increased the oxidative stress with an induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a depletion of glutathione (GSH). Exposure to WAFs did not show toxic effects on survivability in B. koreanus; however, toxicity to WAFs was shown when piperonyl butoxide, a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, was added. This toxicity was dose-dependent. After WAFs exposure, p-ERK was activated over time in response to WAFs, which suggests that WAFs can be activated by the p-ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27135705

  9. SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2: key genes involved in ABA metabolism during tomato fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Kai; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Dai, Shengjie; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Wang, Ya; Pei, Yuelin; Wang, Hongqing; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in fruit development and ripening. Here, three NCED genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway) and three CYP707A genes encoding ABA 8′-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA) were identified in tomato fruit by tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated tomato fruits had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. In SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening slowed down, and the entire fruit turned to orange instead of red as in the control. In comparison, the downregulation of SlCYP707A2 expression in SlCYP707A2-silenced fruit could promote ripening; for example, colouring was quicker than in the control. Silencing SlNCED2/3 or SlCYP707A1/3 made no significant difference to fruit ripening comparing RNAi-treated fruits with control fruits. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1transcript levels in the SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruit were downregulated to 21% and 19% of those in control fruit, respectively, but upregulated in SlCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruit. Silencing SlNCED1 or SlCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABA-signalling genes (PYL1, PP2C1, and SnRK2.2), lycopene-synthesis genes (SlBcyc, SlPSY1 and SlPDS), and cell wall-degrading genes (SlPG1, SlEXP, and SlXET) during ripening. These data indicate that SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2 are key genes in the regulation of ABA synthesis and catabolism, and are involved in fruit ripening as positive and negative regulators, respectively. PMID:25039074

  10. Inventory and general analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Yanjiao; Liu, Menghan; Meng, Zhaodong; Yu, Yanli

    2013-09-10

    The metabolic functions of ATP-binding cassette (or ABC) proteins, one of the largest families of proteins presented in all organisms, have been investigated in many protozoan, animal and plant species. To facilitate more systematic and complicated studies on maize ABC proteins in the future, we present the first complete inventory of these proteins, including 130 open reading frames (ORFs), and provide general descriptions of their classifications, basic structures, typical functions, evolution track analysis and expression profiles. The 130 ORFs were assigned to eight subfamilies based on their structures and homological features. Five of these subfamilies consist of 109 proteins, containing transmembrane domains (TM) performing as transporters. The rest three subfamilies contain 21 soluble proteins involved in various functions other than molecular transport. A comparison of ABC proteins among nine selected species revealed either convergence or divergence in each of the ABC subfamilies. Generally, plant genomes contain far more ABC genes than animal genomes. The expression profiles and evolution track of each maize ABC gene were further investigated, the results of which could provide clues for analyzing their functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments (PCR) were conducted to detect induced expression in select ABC genes under several common stresses. This investigation provides valuable information for future research on stress tolerance in plants and potential strategies for enhancing maize production under stressful conditions. PMID:23747399

  11. A genomewide association study identified CYP2J2 as a gene controlling serum vitamin D status in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Leach, R J; Reinhardt, T A; Thallman, R M; Lippolis, J D; Bennett, G L; Kuehn, L A

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin D is an important modulator of calcium homeostasis and has several effects on the immune system. The objective of the study was to estimate its heritability and to identify genomic regions associated with concentration of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in beef cattle. Status of vitamin D was measured in crossbred animals from Cycle VII of the United States Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation Project. Progeny were born from March through May in 2008 and in 2010. Heritability was estimated and a genomewide association study was conducted on the concentration of 25OHD measured in 1,432 animals at preconditioning and 1,333 animals at weaning. Genotyping of the population was done by imputing from the parental generation genotyped with a high density array (777,000 SNP) to a target population genotyped with a medium density SNP array (50,000 SNP). After imputation, 675,018 SNP were used in the genomewide association study. Heritability of concentration of circulating 25OHD in cattle at preconditioning and at weaning was 0.41 ± 0.08 and 0.32 ± 0.11, respectively. A region on chromosome 3 was associated with circulating 25OHD. The region on BTA3 had 7 SNP significantly (P < 7.4 × 10(-8)) associated at the genomewide level with serum concentrations of serum 25OHD. Genomewide significant SNP spanned the region between 84.93 and 86.65 megabases (Mb); however, 6 SNP reside between 86.64 and 86.65 Mb. The gene CYP2J2 was identified as a candidate gene associated with concentrations of serum 25OHD in cattle. This is 1 of 6 enzymes involved in metabolizing vitamin D to 25OHD. Results from the present study suggest that CYP2J2 is a gene controlling serum 25OHD concentrations in cattle. CYP2J2 should be considered a prime candidate for understanding both genetic and physiological factors affecting serum 25OHD concentrations in cattle and, therefore, vitamin D status. PMID:23736055

  12. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the Halloween gene spookiest (CYP307B1) impedes adult eclosion in the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroids play a critical role in coordinating insect growth, development, and reproduction. A suite of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases coded by what are collectively termed Halloween genes mediate ecdysteroid biosynthesis. In this study, we describe cloning and RNAi-mediated knockdown of the CYP3...

  13. Biocatalytic synthesis of flavones and hydroxyl-small molecules by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing the cyanobacterial CYP110E1 gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyanobacteria possess several cytochrome P450s, but very little is known about their catalytic functions. CYP110 genes unique to cyanaobacteria are widely distributed in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria including nitrogen-fixing genera Nostoc and Anabaena. We screened the biocatalytic functions of all P450s from three cyanobacterial strains of genus Nostoc or Anabaena using a series of small molecules that contain flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, low-molecular-weight drugs, and other aromatic compounds. Results Escherichia coli cells carrying each P450 gene that was inserted into the pRED vector, containing the RhFRed reductase domain sequence from Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 9784 P450RhF (CYP116B2), were co-cultured with substrates and products were identified when bioconversion reactions proceeded. Consequently, CYP110E1 of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, located in close proximity to the first branch point in the phylogenetic tree of the CYP110 family, was found to be promiscuous for the substrate range mediating the biotransformation of various small molecules. Naringenin and (hydroxyl) flavanones were respectively converted to apigenin and (hydroxyl) flavones, by functioning as a flavone synthase. Such an activity is reported for the first time in prokaryotic P450s. Additionally, CYP110E1 biotransformed the notable sesquiterpene zerumbone, anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and flurbiprofen (methylester forms), and some aryl compounds such as 1-methoxy and 1-ethoxy naphthalene to produce hydroxylated compounds that are difficult to synthesize chemically, including novel compounds. Conclusion We elucidated that the CYP110E1 gene, C-terminally fused to the P450RhF RhFRed reductase domain sequence, is functionally expressed in E. coli to synthesize a robust monooxygenase, which shows promiscuous substrate specificity (affinity) for various small molecules, allowing the biosynthesis of not only flavones (from flavanones) but also a variety of hydroxyl-small molecules

  14. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan Sirisangtrakul, Wanna; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression.

  15. Interaction between ALOX5AP and CYP3A5 gene variants significantly increases the risk for cerebral infarctions in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chi, Li-Fen; Yi, Xing-Yang; Shao, Min-Jie; Lin, Jing; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigated associations between susceptibility genes and cerebral infarctions in a Chinese population, and whether gene-gene interactions increase the risk of cerebral infarctions. Overall, 292 patients with cerebral infarctions and 259 healthy control individuals were included. Eight variants in five candidate genes were examined for the risk of stroke, including the SG13S32 (rs9551963), SG13S42 (rs4769060), SG13S89 (rs4769874), and SG13S114 (rs10507391) variants of the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) gene, the G860A (rs751141) variant of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (EPHX2) gene, the A1075C (rs1057910) variant of the CYP2C9*2 gene, the C430T (rs1799853) variant of the CYP2C9*3 gene, and the A6986G (rs776746) variant of the CYP3A5 gene. Gene-gene interactions were explored using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction methods. There were no statistically significant differences in the frequencies of the genotypes of the eight candidate genes. The generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed a significant gene-gene interaction between SG13S114 and A6986G, with scores of 10 for cross-validation consistency and 9 for the sign test (P=0.0107). These gene-gene interactions predicted a significantly higher risk of cerebral infarction (adjusted for age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus; odds ratio=1.80495%, confidence interval: 1.180-2.759, P=0.006). A two-loci gene interaction confers a significantly higher risk for cerebral infarction. The combinational analysis used in this study may be helpful in the elucidation of genetic risk factors for common and complex diseases. PMID:24368493

  16. Identification and functional analysis of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP9AQ2 involved in deltamethrin detoxification from Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanqiong; Zhang, Xueyao; Wu, Haihua; Yu, Rongrong; Zhang, Jianzhen; Zhu, Kun Yan; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2015-07-01

    A 1578-bp cDNA of a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP9AQ2) was sequenced from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. It contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1557 bp that encodes 519 amino acid residues. As compared with other known insect cytochrome P450 enzymes, the overall structure of its deduced protein is highly conserved. The expression of CYP9AQ2 was relatively higher in nymphal stages than in egg and adult stages, and the highest expression was found in fourth-instar nymphs, which was 8.7-fold higher than that of eggs. High expression of CYP9AQ2 was observed in foregut, followed by hindgut, Malpighian tubules, brain and fat bodies, which were 75~142-fold higher than that in hemolymph. Low expression was found in midgut, gastric cecum and hemolymph. The expression of CYP9AQ2 was up-regulated by deltamethrin at the concentrations of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 µg/mL and the maximal up-regulation was 2.6-fold at LD10 (0.04 µg/mL). RNA interference-mediated silencing of CYP9AQ2 led to an increased mortality of 25.3% when the nymphs were exposed to deltamethrin, suggesting that CYP9AQ2 plays an important role in deltamethrin detoxification in L. migratoria. Computational docking studies suggested that hydroxylation of the phenoxybenzyl moiety might be one of the deltamethrin metabolic pathways by CYP9AQ2. PMID:26071800

  17. Mutation frequencies of the cytochrome CYP2D6 gene in Parkinson disease patients and in families

    SciTech Connect

    Lucotte, G.; Turpin, J.C.; Gerard, N.

    1996-07-26

    The frequencies of five mutations of the debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) gene (mutations D6-A, B, C, D, and T), corresponding to poor metabolizer (PM) phenotypes, were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 47 patients with Parkinson disease, and compared with the findings in 47 healthy controls. These mutant alleles were about twice as frequent among patients as in controls, with an approximate relative risk ratio of 2.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.62). There seem to be no significant differences in frequencies of mutant genotypes in patients among gender and modalities of response with levodopa therapy; but frequency of the mutations was slightly enhanced after age-at-onset of 60 years. Mutations D6-B, D, and T were detected in 7 patients belonging to 10 Parkinson pedigrees. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Unusual phenotype of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with a novel mutation of the CYP21A2 gene.

    PubMed

    Raisingani, Manish; Contreras, Maria F; Prasad, Kris; Pappas, John G; Kluge, Michelle L; Shah, Bina; David, Raphael

    2016-07-01

    Gonadotropin independent sexual precocity (SP) may be due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and its timing usually depends on the type of mutation in the CYP21A2 gene. Compound heterozygotes are common and express phenotypes of varying severity. The objective of this case report was to investigate the hormonal pattern and unusual genetic profile in a 7-year-old boy who presented with pubic hair, acne, an enlarged phallus, slightly increased testicular volume and advanced bone age. Clinical, hormonal and genetic studies were undertaken in the patient as well as his parents. We found elevated serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione that were suppressed with dexamethasone, and elevated testosterone that actually rose after giving dexamethasone, indicating activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. An initial search for common mutations was negative, but a more detailed genetic analysis of the CYP21A2 gene revealed two mutations including R341W, a non-classical mutation inherited from his mother, and g.823G>A, a novel not previously reported consensus donor splice site mutation inherited from his father, which is predicted to be salt wasting. However, the child had a normal plasma renin activity. He was effectively treated with low-dose dexamethasone and a GnRH agonist. His father was an unaffected carrier, but his mother had evidence of mild non-classical CAH. In a male child presenting with gonadotropin independent SP it is important to investigate adrenal function with respect to the androgen profile, and to carry out appropriate genetic studies. PMID:27180336

  19. The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  20. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  1. DNA methylation level of cyp19a1a and Foxl2 gene related to their expression patterns and reproduction traits during ovary development stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Si, Yufeng; Ding, Yuxia; He, Feng; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; Zhao, Junli; Huang, Zhengju

    2016-01-10

    Foxl2 and cyp19a1a genes are crucial for the ovarian development, and Foxl2 could play a direct regulatory role on cyp19a1a transcription. In this study, we aimed to study DNA methylation status and mRNA expression patterns of Foxl2 and cyp19a1a genes during ovarian development of female Japanese flounder. The relative expression level of cyp19a1a and Foxl2 gene during the gonadal development stages was measured by quantitative PCR. Moreover, DNA methylation status in the promoter and coding regions of the two genes was detected by bisulfite sequencing. The estradiol-17β (E2) was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed low expression levels of cyp19a1a and Foxl2 genes in stages II and V, while the highest expression levels were detected in stage IV. The variation trend of the methylation level of all CpG sites in promoter and exon 1 of cyp19a1a gene and three CpG rich regions in coding region of Foxl2 gene was negatively associated with their expression levels during the ovarian development. In addition, two CpG sites in promoter and seven CpG sites in exon 1 of cyp19a1a were on the putative transcription factors binding sequence. Further studies showed that the forkhead domain, which is important for Foxl2 binding to cyp19a1a was located in the F1 and F2 region. These results provide a powerful theoretical basis for the regulatory mechanism on Foxl2 regulating cyp19a1a and promoting gonadal differentiation towards the female pathway, and further reveal that Foxl2 and cyp19a1a play a vital role in the female Japanese flounder gonad development. PMID:26343797

  2. Influence of Genetic Ancestry on INDEL Markers of NFKβ1, CASP8, PAR1, IL4 and CYP19A1 Genes in Leprosy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Pablo; Salgado, Claudio; Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Santos, Sidney; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Leprosy is an insidious infectious disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, and host genetic factors can modulate the immune response and generate distinct categories of leprosy susceptibility that are also influenced by genetic ancestry. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the possible effects of CYP19A1 [rs11575899], NFKβ1 [rs28362491], IL1α [rs3783553], CASP8 [rs3834129], UGT1A1 [rs8175347], PAR1 [rs11267092], CYP2E1 [INDEL 96pb] and IL4 [rs79071878] genes in a group of 141 leprosy patients and 180 healthy individuals. The INDELs were typed by PCR Multiplex in ABI PRISM 3130 and analyzed with GeneMapper ID v3.2. The NFKβ1, CASP8, PAR1 and IL4 INDELs were associated with leprosy susceptibility, while NFKβ1, CASP8, PAR1 and CYP19A1 were associated with the MB (Multibacilary) clinical form of leprosy. Conclusions/Significance NFKβ1 [rs28362491], CASP8 [rs3834129], PAR1 [rs11267092] and IL4 [rs79071878] genes are potential markers for susceptibility to leprosy development, while the INDELs in NFKβ1, CASP8, PAR1 and CYP19A1 (rs11575899) are potential markers for the severe clinical form MB. Moreover, all of these markers are influenced by genetic ancestry, and European contribution increases the risk to leprosy development, in other hand an increase in African contribution generates protection against leprosy. PMID:26367014

  3. The Proportion of Chromatin Graded between Closed and Open States Determines the Level of Transcripts Derived from Distinct Promoters in the CYP19 Gene.

    PubMed

    Kotomura, Naoe; Harada, Nobuhiro; Ishihara, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    The human CYP19 gene encodes aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens. CYP19 mRNA variants are transcribed mainly from three promoters. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the relative amounts of each of the three transcripts and determine the on/off state of the promoters. While some of the promoters were silent, CYP19 mRNA production differed among the other promoters, whose estimated transcription levels were 0.001% to 0.1% of that of the TUBB control gene. To investigate the structural aspects of chromatin that were responsible for this wide range of activity of the CYP19 promoters, we used a fractionation protocol, designated SEVENS, which sequentially separates densely packed nucleosomes from dispersed nucleosomes. The fractional distribution of each inactive promoter showed a similar pattern to that of the repressed reference loci; the inactive regions were distributed toward lower fractions, in which closed chromatin comprising packed nucleosomes was enriched. In contrast, active CYP19 promoters were raised toward upper fractions, including dispersed nucleosomes in open chromatin. Importantly, these active promoters were moderately enriched in the upper fractions as compared to active reference loci, such as the TUBB promoter; the proportion of open chromatin appeared to be positively correlated to the promoter strength. These results, together with ectopic transcription accompanied by an increase in the proportion of open chromatin in cells treated with an H3K27me inhibitor, indicate that CYP19 mRNA could be transcribed from a promoter in which chromatin is shifted toward an open state in the equilibrium between closed and open chromatin. PMID:26020632

  4. Bortezomib alleviates drug-induced liver injury by regulating CYP2E1 gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    PARK, WOO-JAE; KIM, SO-YEON; KIM, YE-RYUNG; PARK, JOO-WON

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure, i.e., the fatal deterioration of liver function, is the most common indication that emergency liver transplantation is necessary. Moreover, in the USA, drug-induced liver injury (DILI), including acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity, is the main cause of acute liver failure. Matching a donor for liver transplantation is extremely difficult, and thus the development of a novel therapy for DILI is urgently needed. Following recent approval by the FDA of the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib, its therapeutic effects on various human diseases, including solid and hematologic malignancies, have been validated. However, the specific action of proteasomal inhibition in cases of DILI had not been elucidated prior to this study. To examine the effects of proteasomal inhibition in DILI experimentally, male C56Bl/6 mice were injected with 1 mg bortezomib/kg before APAP treatment. Bortezomib not only alleviated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner, it also alleviated CCl4- and thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity. We also noted that bortezomib significantly reduced cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression and activity in the liver, which was accompanied by the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, bortezomib decreased hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α-induced promoter activation of CYP2E1 in Hep3B cells. By contrast, another proteasome inhibitor, MG132, did not cause ER stress and did not markedly affect CYP2E1 enzyme activity. Liver injury induced by APAP was aggravated by MG132, possibly via elevation of connexin 32 expression. This study suggests that proteasome inhibition has different effects in cases of DILI depending on the specific inhibitor being used. Furthermore, results from the mouse model indicated that bortezomib, but not MG132, was effective in alleviating DILI. ER stress induced by proteasome inhibition has previously been shown to exert various effects on DILI patients, and thus each

  5. Identification of Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2W1 in the Three Main Chinese Ethnicities: Han, Tibetan, and Uighur.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Kang, Xing; Yang, Ge; Dai, Penggao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Huijuan

    2016-09-01

    CYP2W1 is an orphan member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Recently, CYP2W1 has gained great research interest because of its unknown enzymatic function and tumor-specific expression property. This study aims to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2W1 gene in Chinese populations and explore the functions of the detected variants. All of the nine exons and exon-intron junction regions of the CYP2W1 gene were sequenced in 150 Chinese subjects, including 50 Han Chinese, 50 Tibetans, and 50 Uighurs. A total of 26 genetic variants were identified in this study, and 19 polymorphisms were detected in each population. Frequency comparison between populations showed that nine variants exhibited significantly different allelic distributions. A total of 12 different haplotypes were inferred from 150 samples by using the genotype data of nine exonic variants found in this study. CYP2W1*1A, *1B, *2, *4, and *6 were detected as the main alleles/haplotypes. Moreover, one, three, and two ethnically specific haplotypes were observed in the Han, Tibetan, and Uighur samples, respectively. Then, the effects of four detected missense mutations (Ala181Thr, Gly376Ser, Val432Ile, and Pro488Leu) on the CYP2W1 protein function were predicted using three in silico tools: Polymorphism Phenotyping v2, Sorts Intolerant from Tolerant, and MutationTaster. The results showed that Gly376Ser and Pro488Leu may have deleterious effects. In summary, this study showed that the genetic pattern of CYP2W1 is interethnically different among the three Chinese populations, and this finding can extend our understanding of population genetics of CYP2W1 in the Chinese population. PMID:27307299

  6. Metabolic effects of CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced gene mutation-A mammalian cell-based mutagenesis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Huai-chih; Wang, Chin-Ying; Lee, Hui-Ling; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2011-06-01

    Both cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) and cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) are involved in metabolic activation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and may play important roles in cigarette smoking-induced lung cancer. Unlike CYP2A6, effects of CYP2A13 on the tobacco-specific nitrosamine-induced mutagenesis in lung cells remain unclear. This study uses a supF mutagenesis assay to examine the relative effects of CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 on metabolic activation of a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and its resulting mutagenesis in human lung cells. A recombinant adenovirus-mediated CYP2A6/CYP2A13 expression system was established to specifically address the relative effects of these two CYPs. Mutagenesis results revealed that both CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 significantly enhanced the NNK-induced supF mutation and that the mutagenic effect of CYP2A13 was markedly higher than that of CYP2A6. Analysis of NNK metabolism indicated that {>=} 70% of NNK was detoxified to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), either with or without CYP2A6/CYP2A13 expression. Both CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 significantly enhanced the {alpha}-hydroxylation of NNK; and the {alpha}-hydroxylation activity of CYP2A13 was significantly higher than that of CYP2A6. Analysis of the NNK-related DNA adduct formation indicated that, in the presence of CYP2A13, NNK treatments caused marked increases in O{sup 6}-methylguanine (O{sup 6}-MeG). The present results provide the first direct in vitro evidence demonstrating the predominant roles of CYP2A13 in NNK-induced mutagenesis, possibly via metabolic activation of NNK {alpha}-hydroxylation.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 metabolic genes and risk of lung cancer in Asturias

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic genes have been associated with the function of metabolizing and detoxifying environmental carcinogens. Polymorphisms present in these genes could lead to changes in their metabolizing and detoxifying ability and thus may contribute to individual susceptibility to different types of cancer. We investigated if the individual and/or combined modifying effects of the CYP1A1 MspI T6235C, GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms are related to the risk of developing lung cancer in relation to tobacco consumption and occupation in Asturias, Northern Spain. Methods A hospital-based case–control study (CAPUA Study) was designed including 789 lung cancer patients and 789 control subjects matched in ethnicity, age, sex, and hospital. Genotypes were determined by PCR or PCR-RFLP. Individual and combination effects were analysed using an unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, pack-years, family history of any cancer and occupation. Results No statistically significant main effects were observed for the carcinogen metabolism genes in relation to lung cancer risk. In addition, the analysis did not reveal any significant gene-gene, gene-tobacco smoking or gene-occupational exposure interactions relative to lung cancer susceptibility. Lastly, no significant gene-gene combination effects were observed. Conclusions These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 metabolic genes were not significantly associated with lung cancer risk in the current study. The results of the analysis of gene-gene interactions of CYP1A1 MspI T6235C, GSTM1 present/null, GSTT1 present/null and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms in lung cancer risk indicate that these genes do not interact in lung cancer development. PMID:23013535

  8. Mutation detection of CYP21A2 gene in nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients with premature pubarche

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdouz, Mahsa; Hashemipour, Mahin; Khanahmad, Hossein; Rabbani, Bahareh; Salehi, Mansoor; Rabbani, Ali; Ansari, Arman; Naseri, Mona Mobalegh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to mutations in the gene encoding 21-hydroxilase is one of common disease with an autosomal recessive form. In this study, our aim is to detect the prevalence of eight common mutations in nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH). Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with clinical and laboratory evidence of NCAH was selected. Gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) without contamination of pseudogene was carried out, and PCR product of this step was used to amplification-refractory mutation system PCR on eight common mutations in CYP21A2 gene. Results: Two heterozygote patients for I2G mutation and six heterozygote patients for Q318X mutation is reported in our study. These mutations associated with the classic form of CAH, and heterozygotes presented with NC symptom, including premature pubarche and hirsutism. Conclusion: There are some data about the association of the mutation with the clinical form of CAH including classic (salt-wasting and simple virilizing) and NC form. I2G and Q318X mutations were reported in classic form in homozygote state, but the heterozygote form associated with NC form. CAH diagnosis with NC symptom and with measurement of 17-hydroxyprogestrone as NCAH is not a trusted assessment and require to molecular analysis for accurate diagnosis. PMID:27099846

  9. The Rodin-Ohno hypothesis that two enzyme superfamilies descended from one ancestral gene: an unlikely scenario for the origins of translation that will not be dismissed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Because amino acid activation is rate-limiting for uncatalyzed protein synthesis, it is a key puzzle in understanding the origin of the genetic code. Two unrelated classes (I and II) of contemporary aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) now translate the code. Observing that codons for the most highly conserved, Class I catalytic peptides, when read in the reverse direction, are very nearly anticodons for Class II defining catalytic peptides, Rodin and Ohno proposed that the two superfamilies descended from opposite strands of the same ancestral gene. This unusual hypothesis languished for a decade, perhaps because it appeared to be unfalsifiable. Results The proposed sense/antisense alignment makes important predictions. Fragments that align in antiparallel orientations, and contain the respective active sites, should catalyze the same two reactions catalyzed by contemporary synthetases. Recent experiments confirmed that prediction. Invariant cores from both classes, called Urzymes after Ur = primitive, authentic, plus enzyme and representing ~20% of the contemporary structures, can be expressed and exhibit high, proportionate rate accelerations for both amino-acid activation and tRNA acylation. A major fraction (60%) of the catalytic rate acceleration by contemporary synthetases resides in segments that align sense/antisense. Bioinformatic evidence for sense/antisense ancestry extends to codons specifying the invariant secondary and tertiary structures outside the active sites of the two synthetase classes. Peptides from a designed, 46-residue gene constrained by Rosetta to encode Class I and II ATP binding sites with fully complementary sequences both accelerate amino acid activation by ATP ~400 fold. Conclusions Biochemical and bioinformatic results substantially enhance the posterior probability that ancestors of the two synthetase classes arose from opposite strands of the same ancestral gene. The remarkable acceleration by short peptides of the

  10. Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex class III genes for serine/threonine kinase RP, complement component C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21, and tenascin TNX (the RCCX module). A mechanism for gene deletions and disease associations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Mendoza, A R; Welch, T R; Zipf, W B; Yu, C Y

    1999-04-23

    The frequent variations of human complement component C4 gene size and gene numbers, plus the extensive polymorphism of the proteins, render C4 an excellent marker for major histocompatibility complex disease associations. As shown by definitive RFLPs, the tandemly arranged genes RP, C4, CYP21, and TNX are duplicated together as a discrete genetic unit termed the RCCX module. Duplications of the RCCX modules occurred by the addition of genomic fragments containing a long (L) or a short (S) C4 gene, a CYP21A or a CYP21B gene, and the gene fragments TNXA and RP2. Four major RCCX structures with bimodular L-L, bimodular L-S, monomodular L, and monomodular S are present in the Caucasian population. These modules are readily detectable by TaqI RFLPs. The RCCX modular variations appear to be a root cause for the acquisition of deleterious mutations from pseudogenes or gene segments in the RCCX to their corresponding functional genes. In a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we discovered a TNXB-TNXA recombinant with the deletion of RP2-C4B-CYP21B. Elucidation of the DNA sequence for the recombination breakpoint region and sequence analyses yielded definitive proof for an unequal crossover between TNXA from a bimodular chromosome and TNXB from a monomodular chromosome. PMID:10207042

  11. CYP21A2 Gene Mutations in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Genotype−phenotype correlation in Turkish children

    PubMed Central

    Kayserili, Hülya; Darendeliler, Feyza; Uyguner, Oya; Günöz, Hülya; Yüksel Apak, Memnune; Atalar, Fatmahan; Bundak, Rüveyde; Wilson, Robert C.; New, Maria I.; Wollnik, Bernd; Saka, Nurçin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due 21−hydroxylase deficiency (21−OHD) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. It is caused by defects in the CYP21A2 gene. Objective: Our aim was to determine the frequency of common gene mutations and to evaluate genotype−phenotype correlations in Turkish 21−OHD patients. Methods: Molecular analysis of the CYP21A2 gene was performed for the detection of the eight most common point mutations [p.P30L, IVS2−13C>G (IVS−2), p.I172N, exon 6 mutation cluster (p.I236N, p.V237E, p.M239K), p.V281L, p.Q318X, p.R356W, 8−bp−deletion], of large deletion and conversion by southern blotting, allele specific semi−quantitative PCR/enzyme restriction method and sequencing, in 56 patients with 21−OHD, from 52 families. Results: Disease−causing mutations were identified in 77 out of 91 alleles (84.6%) of the patients. Mutations were found in 34 of 43 alleles (79.1%) in salt wasting (SW; n=26), 32 of 36 alleles (88.8%) in simple virilizing (SV; n=24) and 11 of 12 alleles (91.6%) in non−classical (NC; n=6) form of CAH. The most frequent mutations were IVS−2 (22.0%), large conversion (14.3%), p.I172N (9.9%) p.R356W (8.8%), and large deletion (6.6%). In the SW form, the most frequent genotypes were homozygous for IVS−2 (11.5%) and homozygous for large conversion of the gene (11.5%). In the SV form, the most frequent genotype was homozygous for IVS−2 (20%), followed by compound heterozygous for p.I172N/8−bp del (10%). Homozygous for p.V281L (16.7%) was most common in NC. In most cases there was good correlation between genotype and phenotype. In the SW and NC forms, genotypes of all the patients correlated with their phenotypes. Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive study on the molecular basis of CAH patients in the Turkish population. Based on these results, we propose a modified screening strategy to facilitate molecular testing of CAH patients in our population. Conflict of interest:None declared

  12. Effect of isodillapiole on the expression of the insecticide resistance genes GSTE7 and CYP6N12 in Aedes aegypti from central Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Lima, V S; Pinto, A C; Rafael, M S

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of dengue arbovirus and other arboviruses. Dengue prevention measures for the control of A. aegypti involve mainly the use of synthetic insecticides. The constant use of insecticides has caused resistance in this mosquito. Alternative studies on plant extracts and their products have been conducted with the aim of controlling the spread of the mosquito. Dillapiole is a compound found in essential oils of the plant Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) which has been effective as a biopesticide against A. aegypti. Isodillapiole is a semisynthetic substance obtained by the isomerization of dillapiole. In the present study, isodillapiole was evaluated for its potential to induce differential expression of insecticide resistance genes (GSTE7 and CYP6N12) in 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti. These larvae were exposed to this compound at two concentrations (20 and 40 μg/mL) for 4 h during four generations (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of GSTE7 and CYP6N12 genes. GSTE7 and CYP6N12 relative expression levels were higher at 20 than at 40 μg/mL and varied among generations. The decrease in GSTE7 and CYP6N12 expression levels at the highest isodillapiole concentration suggests that larvae may have suffered from metabolic stress, revealing a potential alternative product in the control of A. aegypti. PMID:26681019

  13. AtCYP710A1 gene-mediated stigmasterol production plays a role in imparting temperature stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Wang, Keri; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Stigmasterol and sitosterol, important sterols present in plants, are known to influence permeability and fluidity characteristics of the plasma membrane and other organellar membranes. We had previously demonstrated that the Arabidopsis Atcyp710A1 gene, which catalyzes conversion of sitosterol into stigmasterol, plays a role in plasma membrane permeability, thus influencing leakage of cellular nutrients and ions into apoplast. In this study, we investigated the role of this gene in imparting various abiotic stress tolerances in Arabidopsis. By analyzing Atcyp710a1 mutant and AtCYP710A1 overexpressor lines, we found that the AtCYP710A1 gene plays a role in imparting low and high temperature tolerance. PMID:23299431

  14. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure causes adaptive changes in p53 and CYP1A gene expression in Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus).

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Hubberstey, A V

    2014-11-01

    The Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) is able to survive and reproduce in high levels of environmentally contaminated areas of the Great Lakes. The purpose of this study was to establish whether there are adaptive genetic/molecular changes occurring in these fish that allow for their survival. Expression of a cell cycle regulator, p53 and the toxin metabolizing protein, CYP1A were measured in liver tissue from bullhead caught from either clean or contaminated areas of Lake Erie and surrounding areas. Wild caught fish and F1 raised offspring (whose parents originated from clean and contaminated sites) were used to measure endogenous gene expression levels. Results revealed that endogenous expression of p53 was on average 6.6× higher in contaminated fish than in fish caught from clean sites. Interestingly, when fed benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-treated food, p53 expression increased 0.2× in clean fish and decreased 2.6× in contaminated fish. Endogenous CYP1A expression was not detectable in clean fish and low in contaminated fish. Upon exposure to BaP-treated food, CYP1A expression increased in both clean and contaminated fish, although at a higher rate in clean fish. Furthermore, when fish were cleared and then re-exposed to BaP, CYP1A expression increased from basal levels at a higher rate in clean versus contaminated fish. CYP1A and p53 expression in F1 offspring was similar to wild caught fish at the endogenous level and when fed BaP treated food. Results suggest that fish in contaminated regions may be implementing an adaptive response to severe environmental stress by maintaining high expression of p53 and low expression of CYP1A; thus lending increased protection to cells and decreasing the potential amount of carcinogens produced by contaminant metabolism. PMID:25259779

  15. Effects of the differentiated keratinocyte phenotype on expression levels of CYP1-4 family genes in human skin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Du Liping; Neis, Mark M.; Ladd, Patricia A.; Yost, Garold S.; Keeney, Diane S. . E-mail: diane.keeney@vanderbilt.edu

    2006-06-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids produced by mouse CYP2B19 have been implicated in mechanisms regulating epidermal cornification (Ladd, P.A., Du, L., Capdevila, J.H., Mernaugh, R., Keeney, D.S., 2003. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids activate transglutaminases in situ and induce cornification of epidermal keratinocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 35184-35192). In this study, we aimed to identify CYPs that are up-regulated during keratinocyte differentiation and potentially responsible for epoxyeicosatrienoic acid formation in human skin. The cellular differentiation state of human epidermal cell cultures was manipulated to resemble the basal, spinous, and granular cell phenotypes in vivo. Changes in CYP mRNA levels were measured as a function of differentiation state for a panel of 15 CYPs that included known and putative arachidonate monooxygenases. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that all of the CYPs were expressed in differentiating epidermal cell cultures and in human epidermis, with the exception of CYP2B6, which was poorly expressed in vitro. Six CYPs were strongly up-regulated at Day 6 and Day 8 of in vitro differentiation (CYP4B1, 2W1, 2C18, 3A4, 2C19, 2C9); the increase in mRNA levels ranged from 27- to 356-fold. Only CYP2U1 mRNA levels decreased (6-fold change) during cellular differentiation. Six CYPs showed little variation (<2-fold change) in mRNA levels during in vitro differentiation (CYP2S1, 2J2, 1B1, 1A1, 2E1, 2D6). No single CYP was identifiable as being a functional counterpart to CYP2B19 in mouse skin since none qualified as being mainly responsible for epidermal epoxyeicosatrienoic acid formation. Rather, the data suggest that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in human skin are formed by several CYPs expressed in different cell layers of the epidermis. This would predict that CYP-derived eicosanoids have different functions in different epidermal cell layers.

  16. Effect of CYP2E1 gene deletion in mice on expression of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in response to VCD exposure.

    PubMed

    Keating, Aileen F; Rajapaksa, Kathila S; Sipes, I Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B

    2008-10-01

    Females are born with a finite number of primordial follicles. 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is a metabolite formed by epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) via its two monoepoxides 1,2- and 7,8-4-vinylcyclohexene monoepoxide (VCM). VCD specifically destroys small preantral (primordial and small primary) follicles in the rodent ovary. The phase I enzyme, cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in ovarian metabolism of VCM to VCD. Further, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) can detoxify VCD to an inactive tetrol (4-(1,2-dihydroxy)ethyl-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexane). This study evaluated the effects of VCD-induced ovotoxicity on mEH in CYP2E1+/+ and -/- mice (129S(1)/SvImJ background strain) using a postnatal day 4 mouse whole ovary culture system. The hypothesis of our study is that there is a relationship between CYP2E1 and mEH gene expression in the mouse ovary. Relative to control, VCD exposure caused follicle loss (p < 0.05) in ovaries from both genotypes; however, after 15 days, this loss was greater (p < 0.05) in CYP2E1+/+ ovaries. In a time course (2-15 days), relative to control, VCD (5 microM) caused an increase (p < 0.05) in mEH mRNA by 0.5-fold (day 10) and 1.84-fold (day 15) in CYP2E1-/- but not +/+ ovaries. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) also destroys ovarian follicles but, unlike VCD, is bioactivated by mEH to an ovotoxic 3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide metabolite. Incubation of ovaries in increasing concentrations of DMBA (0.5-1 microM, 15 days) resulted in greater (p < 0.05) follicle loss in CYP2E1-/-, relative to +/+ ovaries. With greater mEH (CYP2E1-/-), increased follicle loss with DMBA (bioactivation) and decreased follicle loss with VCD (detoxification) support that ovarian expression of CYP2E1 and mEH may be linked. PMID:18622027

  17. New aQTL SNPs for the CYP2D6 Identified by a Novel Mediation Analysis of Genome-Wide SNP Arrays, Gene Expression Arrays, and CYP2D6 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Boustani, Malaz; Liu, Yunlong; Skaar, Todd; Li, Lang

    2013-01-01

    Background. The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful during the last few years. A key challenge is that the interpretation of the results is not straightforward, especially for transacting SNPs. Integration of transcriptome data into GWAS may provide clues elucidating the mechanisms by which a genetic variant leads to a disease. Methods. Here, we developed a novel mediation analysis approach to identify new expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) driving CYP2D6 activity by combining genotype, gene expression, and enzyme activity data. Results. 389,573 and 1,214,416 SNP-transcript-CYP2D6 activity trios are found strongly associated (P < 10−5, FDR = 16.6% and 11.7%) for two different genotype platforms, namely, Affymetrix and Illumina, respectively. The majority of eQTLs are trans-SNPs. A single polymorphism leads to widespread downstream changes in the expression of distant genes by affecting major regulators or transcription factors (TFs), which would be visible as an eQTL hotspot and can lead to large and consistent biological effects. Overlapped eQTL hotspots with the mediators lead to the discovery of 64 TFs. Conclusions. Our mediation analysis is a powerful approach in identifying the trans-QTL-phenotype associations. It improves our understanding of the functional genetic variations for the liver metabolism mechanisms. PMID:24232670

  18. First case report of rare congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by mutations in the CYP11A1 gene in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Pomahačová, Renata; Sýkora, Josef; Zamboryová, Jana; Paterová, Petra; Varvařovská, Jana; Šubrt, Ivan; Dort, Jiří; Dortová, Eva

    2016-06-01

    We characterized a case of congenital adrenal insufficiency caused by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) deficiency. The patient presented after birth with cardiopulmonary instability, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. We confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency. There were no signs of the external genitalia virilism. The replacement therapy with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids led to normal laboratory results. At the age of 12 years, we confirmed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which revealed disorder of steroidogenesis in the adrenal glands and in the gonads. The enzymatic block was found at the beginning of steroidogenesis. The mutation was confirmed in the CYP11A1 gene. The patient is compound heterozygote for the novel CYP11A1 missense mutation c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) in exon 2 and frameshift mutation c.508_509delCT (p.Leu170Valfs*30) in exon 3. The CYP11A1: c.412G>A (p.Gly138Arg) was predicted as pathogenic by in silico analysis. So far, only 19 patients with CYP11A1 mutations causing P450scc deficiency have been reported worldwide. There are no related reports in the Czech Republic. PMID:27008691

  19. CYP86A33-Targeted Gene Silencing in Potato Tuber Alters Suberin Composition, Distorts Suberin Lamellae, and Impairs the Periderm's Water Barrier Function1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Olga; Soler, Marçal; Hohn, Carolin; Sauveplane, Vincent; Pinot, Franck; Franke, Rochus; Schreiber, Lukas; Prat, Salomé; Molinas, Marisa; Figueras, Mercè

    2009-01-01

    Suberin is a cell wall lipid polyester found in the cork cells of the periderm offering protection against dehydration and pathogens. Its biosynthesis and assembly, as well as its contribution to the sealing properties of the periderm, are still poorly understood. Here, we report on the isolation of the coding sequence CYP86A33 and the molecular and physiological function of this gene in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber periderm. CYP86A33 was down-regulated in potato plants by RNA interference-mediated silencing. Periderm from CYP86A33-silenced plants revealed a 60% decrease in its aliphatic suberin load and greatly reduced levels of C18:1 ω-hydroxyacid (approximately 70%) and α,ω-diacid (approximately 90%) monomers in comparison with wild type. Moreover, the glycerol esterified to suberin was reduced by 60% in the silenced plants. The typical regular ultrastructure of suberin, consisting of dark and light lamellae, disappeared and the thickness of the suberin layer was clearly reduced. In addition, the water permeability of the periderm isolated from CYP86A33-silenced lines was 3.5 times higher than that of the wild type. Thus, our data provide convincing evidence for the involvement of ω-functional fatty acids in establishing suberin structure and function. PMID:19109416

  20. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammad A; Shati, Ayed A; Zou, Minjing; Alsuheel, Ali M; Alhayani, Abdullah A; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M; Gilban, Hessa M; Meyer, Brain F; Shi, Yufei

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260 (∗) ), resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260 (∗) ) was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database). In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26265915

  1. Screening of the LTBP2 gene in 214 Chinese sporadic CYP1B1-negative patients with primary congenital glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueli; Chen, Yuhong; Fan, Bao Jian; Xia, Mingying; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify deleterious mutations in the latent transforming growth factor-β–binding protein 2 (LTBP2) gene in sporadic patients with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) from a Han Chinese population, which had been excluded for mutations in the CYP1B1 gene. Methods In this retrospective case–control study, 36 coding exons and adjacent exon–intron boundaries of LTBP2 were amplified with PCR and screened for mutations with Sanger sequencing in DNA samples of 214 sporadic patients with PCG. Sequence variants identified in the patients with PCG were subsequently screened in 100 unaffected control subjects and the unaffected parents of the patients with PCG who had sequence changes in LTBP2. Results Eight heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions of LTBP2 were identified in the patients with PCG. Four of these SNPs were missense changes that resulted in the replacement of amino acids (rs2304707, rs116914994, rs45468895, and rs763035721), two of which (rs2304707 and rs116914994) were also present in the control subjects. No significant differences in the frequencies of the missense SNPs were found between the patients with PCG and the controls. The two missense SNPs, rs45468895 and rs763035721, which were each found in one patient also existed in their unaffected parents, suggesting that these two SNPs were not segregated in these families and are unlikely to be a disease-causative variant. In addition, four synonymous SNPs were detected in the patients with PCG (rs61738025, rs862031, rs199805158, and rs12586758). Conclusions The results showed that no deleterious mutations were found in coding regions of LTBP2 in patients with PCG, suggesting that it is not a causal gene for PCG in the Han Chinese population. PMID:27293371

  2. Expression of Rice CYP450-Like Gene (Os08g01480) in Arabidopsis Modulates Regulatory Network Leading to Heavy Metal and Other Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Arti; Singh, Ruchi; Shirke, Pramod Arvind; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) toxicity has become a grave problem in the world since it leads to hazardous effects on living organisms. Transcriptomic/proteomic studies in plants have identified a large number of metal-responsive gene families. Of these, cytochrome-P450 (CYPs) family members are composed of enzymes carrying out detoxification of exogenous molecules. Here, we report a CYP-like protein encoded by Os08g01480 locus in rice that helps the plant to combat HM and other abiotic stresses. To functionally characterize CYP-like gene, cDNA and promoter were isolated from rice to develop Arabidopsis transgenic lines. Heterologous expression of Os08g01480 in Arabidopsis provided significant tolerance towards abiotic stresses. In silico analysis reveals that Os08g01480 might help plants to combat environmental stress via modulating auxin metabolism. Transgenic lines expressing reporter gene under control of Os08g01480 promoter demonstrated differential promoter activity in different tissues during environmental stresses. These studies indicated that differential expression of Os08g01480 might be modulating response of plants towards environmental stresses as well as in different developmental stages. PMID:26401987

  3. Association between the CYP11B2 gene -344T>C polymorphism and coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Liu, H L; Han, W; Yu, S J; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the CYP11B2 gene -344T>C polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. However, the specific association is still controversial. To address this issue, PubMed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for eligible articles that reported on the relationship between the CYP11B2 gene -344T>C polymorphism and CAD, and were published before April 2014. Data from five separate studies with 3687 subjects were analyzed by meta-analysis. No significant variation in CAD risk was detected by any of the genetic models in the overall study population. Taking into account the effect of ethnicity, further stratified analyses demonstrated significant association in both Caucasian (TT vs TC: OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.64-1.00) and Asian populations (TT vs TC: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.01-1.54; dominant model: OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.66-0.98). The pooled ORs were not substantially altered after the exclusion of one study in the control group that deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, highlighting the reliability of our meta-analysis results. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that the -344T>C polymorphism in the CYP11B2 gene might be associated with susceptibility to CAD in Caucasians and Asians. PMID:25966076

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of amh, dax1 and cyp19a1a genes and their response to 17α-methyltestosterone in Pengze crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Houpeng; Liang, Hongwei; Zheng, Yao; Qin, Fang; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2013-05-01

    The proteins encoded by amh, dax1 and cyp19a1a play important roles in gonad differentiation. Their functions have been far less studied in teleosts. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of amh, dax1 and cyp19a1a were cloned and characterized in a triploid gynogenic fish, the Pengze crucian carp. Their expression profilings in juvenile development, adult tissues and juveniles exposed to 100 ng/L 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) were investigated. Results showed that their putative proteins shared high identities to their counterparts in cyprinid fish species, respectively. The tissue distribution results indicated that amh and cyp19a1a were predominantly expressed in the ovary and dax1 was dominantly expressed in the liver. Gene profiling in the developmental stages showed that all the three target genes had a consistent highest expression at 48 days post hatching (dph). The period of 48 dph appeared to be a key time during the process of the gonad development of Pengze crucian carp. 100 ng/L MT significantly increased the mRNA expression of amh at 2- and 4-week exposures and enhanced dax1 and cyp19a1a at 6-week exposure. The present study indicated that MT could influence the gonad development in Pengze crucian carp by disturbing sex-differentiation associated gene expression. Furthermore, the present study will be of great significance to broaden the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the physiological processes of reproduction in fish. PMID:23528270

  5. Independent evolution of four heme peroxidase superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Zámocký, Marcel; Hofbauer, Stefan; Schaffner, Irene; Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Nicolussi, Andrea; Soudi, Monika; Pirker, Katharina F; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Four heme peroxidase superfamilies (peroxidase-catalase, peroxidase-cyclooxygenase, peroxidase-chlorite dismutase and peroxidase-peroxygenase superfamily) arose independently during evolution, which differ in overall fold, active site architecture and enzymatic activities. The redox cofactor is heme b or posttranslationally modified heme that is ligated by either histidine or cysteine. Heme peroxidases are found in all kingdoms of life and typically catalyze the one- and two-electron oxidation of a myriad of organic and inorganic substrates. In addition to this peroxidatic activity distinct (sub)families show pronounced catalase, cyclooxygenase, chlorite dismutase or peroxygenase activities. Here we describe the phylogeny of these four superfamilies and present the most important sequence signatures and active site architectures. The classification of families is described as well as important turning points in evolution. We show that at least three heme peroxidase superfamilies have ancient prokaryotic roots with several alternative ways of divergent evolution. In later evolutionary steps, they almost always produced highly evolved and specialized clades of peroxidases in eukaryotic kingdoms with a significant portion of such genes involved in coding various fusion proteins with novel physiological functions. PMID:25575902

  6. The Cytochrome P450 superfamily complement (CYPome) in the annelid Capitella teleta.

    PubMed

    Dejong, Chris A; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2014-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 super family (CYP) is responsible for a wide range of functions in metazoans, having roles in both exogenous and endogenous substrate metabolism. Annelids are known to metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and produce estrogen. CYPs are postulated to be key enzymes in these processes in annelids. In this study, the CYP complement (CYPome) of the annelid Capitella teleta has been robustly identified and annotated with the genome assembly available. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to understand the evolutionary relationships between CYPs in C. teleta and other species. Predictions of which CYPs are potentially involved in both PAH metabolism and steroidogensis were made based on phylogeny. Annotation of 84 full length and 12 partial CYP sequences predicted a total of 96 functional CYPs in C. teleta. A further 13 CYP fragments were found but these may be pseudogenes. The C. teleta CYPome contained 24 novel CYP families and seven novel CYP subfamilies within existing families. A phylogenetic analysis identified that the C. teleta sequences were found in 9 of the 11 metazoan CYP clans. Two CYPs, CYP3071A1 and CYP3072A1, did not cluster with any metazoan CYP clans. We found xenobiotic response elements (XREs) upstream of C. teleta CYPs related to vertebrate CYP1 (CYP3060A1, CYP3061A1) and from families with reported transcriptional upregulation in response to PAH exposure (CYP4, CYP331). C. teleta had a CYP51A1 with ∼65% identity to vertebrate CYP51A1 sequences and has been predicted to have lanosterol 14 α-demethylase activity. CYP376A1, CYP3068A1, CYP3069A1, and CYP3070A1 were the most appropriate candidates for steroidogenesis genes based on their phylogeny and warrant further analyses, though no specific aromatase (estrogen synthesis) candidates were found. Presence of XREs upstream of C. teleta CYPs may indicate a functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor in C. teleta and candidate CYPs for studies of PAH metabolism. PMID:25390889

  7. A novel SNP in a vitamin D response element of the CYP24A1 promoter reduces protein binding, transactivation, and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Roff, Alanna; Wilson, Robin Taylor

    2008-11-01

    The active form of vitamin D (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) is known to have antiproliferative effects and has been implicated in cancers of the colon, breast, and prostate. These cancers occur more frequently among African Americans than Caucasians, and individuals with African ancestry are known to have approximately twofold lower levels of serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) compared with individuals of European ancestry. However, epidemiological studies of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have shown inconsistent associations with cancer risk, suggesting that differences in other genes in the pathway may be important. We sought to identify functionally significant polymorphic variants in CYP24A1, a gene that is highly inducible by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) and that encodes the primary catabolic enzyme in the pathway. Here we report the identification of six novel SNPs in the human CYP24A1 promoter, including one at nucleotide -279 occurring within the distal vitamin D response element (VDRE2). Our experiments demonstrate that the VDRE2 variant results in decreased protein binding and transactivation in vitro, and reduced expression of CYP24A1 in cultured primary human lymphocytes provides evidence for an effect in vivo. This variant was only observed in our African American population, and represents a first step toward understanding differences in disease risk among racial/ethnic groups. PMID:18824104

  8. No association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms within the genes for debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) and the dopamine transporter (DAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.; Williams, J.; Asherson, P.; McGuffin, P.; Owen, M.

    1995-02-27

    It has been suggested that the cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase, debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, is involved in the catabolism and processing of neurotransmitters subsequent to their reuptake into target cells. It is also thought to be related to the dopamine transporter that acts to take released dopamine back up into presynaptic terminals. The present study used the association approach to test the hypothesis that mutations in the genes for debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) and the dopamine transporter (DAT) confer susceptibility to schizophrenia. There were no differences in allele or genotype frequencies between patients and controls in the mutations causing the poor metaboliser phenotype in CYP2D6. In addition there was no association found between schizophrenia and a 48 bp repeat within the 3{prime} untranslated region of DAT. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Increased expression of CSP and CYP genes in adult silkworm females exposed to avermectins.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Ning; Guo, Xia; Xie, Hong-Yan; Lou, Qi-Nian; Lu, Xing-Bo; Liu, Guo-Xia; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed 20 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes of the silkworm Bombyx mori. We found a high number of retrotransposons inserted in introns. We then analyzed expression of the 20 BmorCSP genes across tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Relatively low expression levels of BmorCSPs were found in the gut and fat body tissues. We thus tested the effects of endectocyte insecticide abamectin (B1a and B1b avermectins) on BmorCSP gene expression. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that a single brief exposure to insecticide abamectin increased dramatically CSP expression not only in the antennae but in most tissues, including gut and fat body. Furthermore, our study showed coordinate expression of CSPs and metabolic cytochrome P450 enzymes in a tissue-dependent manner in response to the insecticide. The function of CSPs remains unknown. Based on our results, we suggest a role in detecting xenobiotics that are then detoxified by cytochrome P450 anti-xenobiotic enzymes. PMID:24677614

  10. Characterization of polymorphisms of genes ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 and relationship to the alcoholism in a Colombian population

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identify and characterize polymorphisms of genes ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 in a Colombian population residing in the city of Bogotá and determine its possible relationship to the alcoholism. Methods: ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 genotypes a population of 148 individuals with non-problematic alcohol and 65 individuals with alcoholism were determined with TaqMan probes and PCR-RFLP. DNA was obtained from peripheral blood white cells. Results: Significant difference was found in family history of alcoholism and use of other psychoactive substances to compare alcoholics with controls. When allelic frequencies for each category (gender) were considered, frequency of A2 allele carriers in ADH2 was found higher in male patients than controls. In women, the relative frequency for c1 allele in CYP2E1 was lower in controls than alcoholics. The ALDH2 locus is monomorphic. No significant differences in allele distributions of the loci examined to compare two populations were observed, however when stratifying the same trend was found that these differences tended to be significant. Conclusions: This study allows us to conclude the positive association between family history of alcoholism and alcoholism suggesting that there is a favourable hereditary predisposition. Since substance dependence requires interaction of multiple genes, the combination of genotypes ADH2 * 2, CYP2E1 * 1 combined with genotype homozygous ALDH2 * 1 found in this study could be leading to the population to a potential risk to alcoholism. PMID:26848198

  11. Classification of rice (oryza sativa l. japonica nipponbare) immunophilins (fkbps, cyps) and expression patterns under water stress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins (CYPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) superfamily, which regulate much of metabolism through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. They are collectively referred to as immunophilin (IMM), being present in almost all cellular organs. In particular, a number of IMMs relate to environmental stresses. Results FKBP and CYP proteins in rice (Oryza sativa cv. Japonica) were identified and classified, and given the appropriate name for each IMM, considering the ortholog-relation with Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas or molecular weight of the proteins. 29 FKBP and 27 CYP genes can putatively be identified in rice; among them, a number of genes can be putatively classified as orthologs of Arabidopsis IMMs. However, some genes were novel, did not match with those of Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, and several genes were paralogs by genetic duplication. Among 56 IMMs in rice, a significant number are regulated by salt and/or desiccation stress. In addition, their expression levels responding to the water-stress have been analyzed in different tissues, and some subcellular IMMs located by means of tagging with GFP protein. Conclusion Like other green photosynthetic organisms such as Arabidopsis (23 FKBPs and 29 CYPs) and Chlamydomonas (23 FKBs and 26 CYNs), rice has the highest number of IMM genes among organisms reported so far, suggesting that the numbers relate closely to photosynthesis. Classification of the putative FKBPs and CYPs in rice provides the information about their evolutional/functional significance when comparisons are drawn with the relatively well studied genera, Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas. In addition, many of the genes upregulated by water stress offer the possibility of manipulating the stress responses in rice. PMID:21087465

  12. Canine cytochrome P450 (CYP) pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Court, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes are essential for the efficient elimination of many clinically used drugs. These enzymes typically display high interindividual variability in expression and function resulting from enzyme induction, inhibition, and genetic polymorphism thereby predisposing patients to adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure. There are also substantial species differences in CYP substrate specificity and expression that complicate direct extrapolation of information from humans to veterinary species. This article reviews the available published data regarding the presence and impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP-dependent drug metabolism in dogs in the context of known human-dog CYP differences. Canine CYP1A2, which metabolizes phenacetin, caffeine, and theophylline, is the most widely studied polymorphic canine CYP. A single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a CYP1A2 premature stop codon (c.1117C>T; R383X) with a complete lack of enzyme is highly prevalent in certain dog breeds including Beagle and Irish wolfhound. This polymorphism was shown to substantially affect the pharmacokinetics of several experimental compounds in Beagles during preclinical drug development. However, the impact on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin (a substrate specific for human CYP1A2) was quite modest probably because other canine CYPs are capable of metabolizing phenacetin. Other canine CYPs with known genetic polymorphisms include CYP2C41 (gene deletion), as well as CYP2D15, CYP2E1, and CYP3A12 (coding SNPs). However the impact of these variants on drug metabolism in vitro or on drug pharmacokinetics is unknown. Future systematic investigations are needed to comprehensively identify CYP genetic polymorphisms that are predictive of drug effects in canine patients. PMID:23890236

  13. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Directly Alters the Expression of Leydig Cell Genes and CYP17 Lyase Activity in Cultured Rat Fetal Testis

    PubMed Central

    Chauvigné, François; Plummer, Simon; Lesné, Laurianne; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Fostier, Alexis; Jégou, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to phthalates in utero alters fetal rat testis gene expression and testosterone production, but much remains to be done to understand the mechanisms underlying the direct action of phthalate within the fetal testis. We aimed to investigate the direct mechanisms of action of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on the rat fetal testis, focusing on Leydig cell steroidogenesis in particular. We used an in vitro system based on the culture for three days, with or without MEHP, of rat fetal testes obtained at 14.5 days post-coitum. Exposure to MEHP led to a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone production. Moreover, the production of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) (−68%) and androstenedione (−54%) was also inhibited by 10 µM MEHP, whereas 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) production was found to increase (+41%). Testosterone synthesis was rescued by the addition of androstenedione but not by any of the other precursors used. Thus, the hormone data suggested that steroidogenesis was blocked at the level of the 17,20 lyase activity of the P450c17 enzyme (CYP17), converting 17α-OHP to androstenedione. The subsequent gene expression and protein levels supported this hypothesis. In addition to Cyp17a1, microarray analysis showed that several other genes important for testes development were affected by MEHP. These genes included those encoding insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), which is involved in controlling testicular descent, and Inha, which encodes the alpha subunit of inhibin B. These findings indicate that under in vitro conditions known to support normal differentiation of the fetal rat testis, the exposure to MEHP directly inhibits several important Leydig cell factors involved in testis function and that the Cyp17a1 gene is a specific target to MEHP explaining the MEHP-induced suppression of steroidogenesis observed. PMID:22087261

  14. Ectopic expression of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene PtCYP714A3 from Populus trichocarpa reduces shoot growth and improves tolerance to salt stress in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuiting; Yang, Yang; Wang, Haihai; Ran, Xiaojuan; Li, Bei; Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2016-09-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 714 protein family represents a unique group of CYP monooxygenase, which functions as a shoot-specific regulator in plant development through gibberellin deactivation. Here, we report the functional characterizations of PtCYP714A3, an OsCYP714D1/Eui homologue from Populus trichocarpa. PtCYP714A3 was ubiquitously expressed with the highest transcript level in cambium-phloem tissues, and was greatly induced by salt and osmotic stress in poplar. Subcellular localization analyses indicated that PtCYP714A3-YFP fusion protein was targeted to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Expression of PtCYP714A3 in the rice eui mutant could rescue its excessive-shoot-growth phenotype. Ectopic expression of PtCYP714A3 in rice led to semi-dwarfed phenotype with promoted tillering and reduced seed size. Transgenic lines which showed significant expression of PtCYP714A3 also accumulated lower GA level than did the wild-type (WT) plants. The expression of some GA biosynthesis genes was significantly suppressed in these transgenic plants. Furthermore, transgenic rice plants exhibited enhanced tolerance to salt and maintained more Na(+) in both shoot and root tissues under salinity stress. All these results not only suggest a crucial role of PtCYP714A3 in shoot responses to salt toxicity in rice, but also provide a molecular basis for genetic engineering of salt-tolerant crops. PMID:26970512

  15. Rice microRNA osa-miR1848 targets the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene OsCYP51G3 and mediates the biosynthesis of phytosterols and brassinosteroids during development and in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojing; Tang, Huadan; Wang, Ren; Wu, Ping; Jia, Yongxia; Wei, Xiaoyi; Xu, Xinlan; Kang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Seong-Ki; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-11-01

    Phytosterols are membrane components or precursors for brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. As they cannot be transported long distances, their homeostasis is tightly controlled through their biosynthesis and metabolism. However, it is unknown whether microRNAs are involved in their homeostatic regulation. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants transformed with microRNA osa-miR1848 and its target, the obtusifoliol 14α-demethylase gene, OsCYP51G3, were used to investigate the role of osa-miR1848 in the regulation of phytosterol biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 directs OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage to regulate phytosterol and BR biosynthesis in rice. The role of OsCYP51G3 as one of the osa-miR1848 targets is supported by the opposite expression patterns of osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 in transgenic rice plants, and by the identification of OsCYP51G3 mRNA cleavage sites. Increased osa-miR1848 and decreased OsCYP51G3 expression reduced phytosterol and BR concentrations, and caused typical phenotypic changes related to phytosterol and BR deficiency, including dwarf plants, erect leaves, semi-sterile pollen grains, and shorter cells. Circadian expression of osa-miR1848 regulated the diurnal abundance of OsCYP51G3 transcript in developing organs, and the response of OsCYP51G3 to salt stress. We propose that osa-miR1848 regulates OsCYP51G3 expression posttranscriptionally, and mediates phytosterol and BR biosynthesis. osa-miR1848 and OsCYP51G3 might have potential applications in rice breeding to modulate leaf angle, and the size and quality of seeds. PMID:26083975

  16. Phenotypic, metabolic, and molecular genetic characterization of six patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by novel mutations in the CYP11B1 gene.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy-Hoang; Eiden-Plach, Antje; Hannemann, Frank; Malunowicz, Ewa M; Hartmann, Michaela F; Wudy, Stefan A; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of steroidogenesis. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) due to mutations in the CYP11B1 gene is the second most common form of CAH. In this study, 6 patients suffering from CAH were diagnosed with 11β-OHD using urinary GC-MS steroid metabolomics analysis. The molecular basis of the disorder was investigated by molecular genetic analysis of the CYP11B1 gene, functional characterization of splicing and missense mutations, and analysis of the missense mutations in a computer model of CYP11B1. All patients presented with abnormal clinical signs of hyperandrogenism. Their urinary steroid metabolomes were characterized by excessive excretion rates of metabolites of 11-deoxycortisol as well as metabolites of 11-deoxycorticosterone, and allowed definite diagnosis. Patient 1 carries compound heterozygous mutations consisting of a novel nonsense mutation p.Q102X (c.304C>T) in exon 2 and the known missense mutation p.T318R (c.953C>G) in exon 5. Two siblings (patient 2 and 3) were compound heterozygous carriers of a known splicing mutation c.1200+1G>A in intron 7 and a known missense mutation p.R448H (c.1343G>A) in exon 8. Minigene experiments demonstrated that the c.1200+1G>A mutation caused abnormal pre-mRNA splicing (intron retention). Two further siblings (patient 4 and 5) were compound heterozygous carriers of a novel missense mutation p.R332G (c.994C>G) in exon 6 and the known missense mutation p.R448H (c.1343G>A) in exon 8. A CYP11B1 activity study in COS-1 cells showed that only 11% of the enzyme activity remained in the variant p.R332G. Patient 6 carried a so far not described homozygous deletion g.2470_5320del of 2850 bp corresponding to a loss of the CYP11B1 exons 3-8. The breakpoints of the deletion are embedded into two typical 6 base pair repeats (GCTTCT) upstream and downstream of the gene. Experiments analyzing the influence of mutations on splicing and on enzyme

  17. Impact of the CYP4F2 gene polymorphisms on the warfarin maintenance dose: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XUE; YU, WAN-YING; MA, WAN-LE; HUANG, LI-HUA; YANG, GUO-PING

    2016-01-01

    Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant with significant interpatient variability in dosage. A large number of studies have confirmed that the individual warfarin dose is mainly affected by the cytochrome P450 complex subunit 2C9 and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1. However, the association between cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) gene polymorphisms and warfarin dosage in the Asian population remains controversial. To investigate the impact of the CYP4F2 polymorphism rs2108622 (p.V433M) on warfarin dose requirement, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. According to the strict inclusion and exclusion criteria set, a comprehensive literature search was performed, and the studies published before August 5, 2015 were searched for in PubMed, EMBASE and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. The references were checked by two independent reviewers. The association between the warfarin maintenance dose and CYP4F2 polymorphism was analyzed. Twenty-two studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the CYP4F2 genotype CC, carriers of the CT and TT genotypes required a 9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.0–13.0] and 20% (95% CI, 13.0–27.0) higher warfarin dose, respectively. In the combined analysis, T carriers (CT+TT) required an 11% (95% CI, 8.0–14.0) higher warfarin dose compared to the CC genotype. In addition, there was a 10% (95% CI, 5.0–15.0) higher warfarin dose in TT carriers compared to the CT genotype (all P<0.05). The results of the meta-analysis suggest that the effects of the CYP4F2 polymorphism on individual warfarin dose have a statistically significant difference, and the effect degree is variable in the subgroups. Further studies are expected to explore whether the pharmacogenetics model including the CYP4F2 polymorphism can strengthen the prediction of warfarin dose. PMID:27073641

  18. Association between the CYP11 family and six cancer types

    PubMed Central

    FAN, ZIWEI; WANG, ZHEN; CHEN, WEIRAN; CAO, ZHIWEI; LI, YIXUE

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are a major source of variability in pharmacokinetics and drug response. CYPs utilize a variety of small and large molecules as substrates in enzymatic reactions. The CYP genes may be divided into two groups: Endogenous CYPs (CYP family 7–51) and xenobiotic CYPs (CYP family 1–4). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous CYPs exhibit similar gene expression and mutations in various cancer types. The gene expression profiles and somatic mutations exhibited in colon adenocarcinoma, kidney renal clear cell carcinoma, liver hepatocellular carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma and uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma were analyzed using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The expression of CYP11A1 was significantly downregulated in all six cancer types. In addition, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 exhibited the highest number of mutations among endogenous CYPs in all samples. As the CYP11 family is important for steroid biosynthesis, and previous studies have demonstrated that steroid hormones are associated with certain cancers, these results indicate a common role of the CYP11 family in various cancer types. PMID:27347096

  19. Rapid, high-throughput, multiplex, real-time PCR for identification of mutations in the cyp51A gene of Aspergillus fumigatus that confer resistance to itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Balashov, Sergey V; Gardiner, Rebecca; Park, Steven; Perlin, David S

    2005-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important cause of life-threatening invasive fungal disease in patients with compromised immune systems. Resistance to itraconazole in A. fumigatus is closely linked to amino acid substitutions in Cyp51A that replace Gly54. In an effort to develop a new class of molecular diagnostic assay that can rapidly assess drug resistance, a multiplexed assay was established. This assay uses molecular beacons corresponding to the wild-type cyp51A gene and seven mutant alleles encoding either Arg54, Lys54, Val54, Trp54, or Glu54. Molecular beacon structure design and real-time PCR conditions were optimized to increase the assay specificity. The multiplex assay was applied to the analysis of chromosomal DNA samples from a collection of 48 A. fumigatus clinical and laboratory-derived isolates, most with reduced susceptibility to itraconazole. The cyp51A allelic identities for codon 54 were established for all of the strains tested, and mutations altering Gly54 in 23 strains were revealed. These mutations included G(54)W (n = 1), G(54)E (n = 12), G(54)K (n = 3), G(54)R (n = 3), and G(54)V (n = 4). Molecular beacon assay results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Multiplex real-time PCR with molecular beacons is a powerful technique for allele differentiation and analysis of resistance mutations that is dynamic and suitable for rapid high-throughput assessment of drug resistance. PMID:15634974

  20. Evaluation of mRNA Expression Levels of cyp51A and mdr1, Candidate Genes for Voriconazole Resistance in Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Azam; Zaini, Farideh; Kordbacheh, Parivash; Rezaie, Sasan; Safara, Mahin; Fateh, Roohollah; Farahyar, Shirin; Kanani, Ali; Heidari, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background: Voriconazole Resistance (VRC-R) in Aspergillus flavus isolates impacts the management of aspergillosis, since azoles are the first choice for prophylaxis and therapy. However, to the best of our knowledge, the mechanisms underlying voriconazole resistance are poorly understood. Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate mRNA expression levels of cyp51A and mdr1 genes in voriconazole resistant A. flavus by a Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: Five A. flavus isolates with resistance to VRC were examined by a RT-PCR approach. Results: Four out of five isolates revealed cyp51A and mdr1 mRNA overexpression. Interestingly, the isolate, which was negative for cyp51A and mdr1 mRNA expression showed a high voriconazole Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Furthermore, a computational-based analysis predicted that voriconazole resistance could be mediated through cooperation with a network protein interaction. Conclusions: Our experimental and in silico findings may provide new insight in the complex molecular pathways of drug resistance and also could assist design an efficient therapeutic strategy for aspergillosis treatment. PMID:26865941

  1. Precambrian origins of the TNFR superfamily.

    PubMed

    Quistad, S D; Traylor-Knowles, N

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the tumor necrosis factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNF/TNFR) is complicated and not well understood. To date, most TNFR studies have focused on vertebrate models leaving the role of TNFRs in invertebrates largely unexplored. The evolution of important cellular processes including stress response, apoptosis, development, and inflammation will be better understood by examining the TNF/TNFR superfamily in ancient invertebrate phyla. How widespread is this gene family within the evolutionary tree of life and is there evidence for similar function in invertebrates? A first step is to identify the presence or absence of these genes within basal metazoan taxa using the signature cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of the TNFR superfamily. In this perspective, we will start by examining what is currently known about the function of TNFRs in invertebrates. Then, we will assess the role of TNFRs in apoptosis and explore the origins of the domains found in TNFRs including the death domain (DD) and CRD. Finally, we will examine the phylogenetic relationship between TNFRs containing DDs identified to date. From these data, we propose a model for a Precambrian origin of TNFRs and their functional role in apoptosis. PMID:27551546

  2. Precambrian origins of the TNFR superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Quistad, S D; Traylor-Knowles, N

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the tumor necrosis factor/tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNF/TNFR) is complicated and not well understood. To date, most TNFR studies have focused on vertebrate models leaving the role of TNFRs in invertebrates largely unexplored. The evolution of important cellular processes including stress response, apoptosis, development, and inflammation will be better understood by examining the TNF/TNFR superfamily in ancient invertebrate phyla. How widespread is this gene family within the evolutionary tree of life and is there evidence for similar function in invertebrates? A first step is to identify the presence or absence of these genes within basal metazoan taxa using the signature cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of the TNFR superfamily. In this perspective, we will start by examining what is currently known about the function of TNFRs in invertebrates. Then, we will assess the role of TNFRs in apoptosis and explore the origins of the domains found in TNFRs including the death domain (DD) and CRD. Finally, we will examine the phylogenetic relationship between TNFRs containing DDs identified to date. From these data, we propose a model for a Precambrian origin of TNFRs and their functional role in apoptosis. PMID:27551546

  3. Polymorphism C242T in the Cyp19 gene in meat sheep.

    PubMed

    Mora, N H A P; Silva, S C C; Tanamati, F; Schuroff, G P; Macedo, F A F; Gasparino, E

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C242T polymorphism on the aromatase gene and the allelic and genotypic frequency of these variants in sheep belonging to four breed groups. Blood samples were collected from 187 animals of four breed groups: Dorper, Santa Inês, Texel and White Dorper, originated from herds in the region of Maringá/PR, Brazil. The genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline extraction, with subsequent amplification of the fragments via PCR with specific primer. The samples resulting from amplification were subjected to digestion process using the Dpn II restriction enzyme and to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis 10.0% and stained with silver nitrate. Three distinct genotypes were observed: homozygous (CC), heterozygous (CT) and homozygous for no cut (TT). The resulting data were analyzed using the POPGENE software with 5% significance. Genotypic frequencies among the breed groups were: Texel (CC - 0.426; CT - 0.511; TT - 0.064), Dorper (CC - 0.073; CT - 0.732; TT - 0.439), White Dorper (CC - 0.021; CT - 0.255; TT - 0.723) and Santa Inês (CC - 0.115; CT - 0.462; TT - 0.423). PMID:26909637

  4. Contribution of polymorphisms in ESR1, ESR2, FSHR, CYP19A1, SHBG, and NRIP1 genes to migraine susceptibility in Turkish population.

    PubMed

    CoŞkun, Salih; Yůcel, Yavuz; Çim, Abdullah; Cengiz, Beyhan; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Varol, Sefer; Özdemir, Hasan H; Uzar, ErtuĞrul

    2016-03-01

    Migraine, a highly prevalent headache disorder, is regarded as a polygenic multifactorial disease. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes that involved in sex hormone metabolism may comprise risk for migraine, but the results of previous genetic association studies are conflicting. The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic variants in genes involved in oestrogen receptor and oestrogen hormone metabolism in a Turkish population. A total of 12 SNPs in the ESR1, ESR2, FSHR, CYP19A1, SHBG and NRIP1 genes were genotyped in 142 migraine cases and 141 nonmigraine controls, using a BioMark 96.96 dynamic array system. In addition, gene-gene interactions were analysed using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) methods. According to GMDR analysis, our results indicated that there was a significant association between migraine and gene-gene interaction among the CYP19A1, FSHR, ESR1 and NRIP1. Single-gene variant analysis showed that a significant association was observed between the TT genotype of rs10046 and migraine susceptibility.When the analysis was performed only in women, the GG genotype of rs2229741 was different between migraineurs and controls.When the female migraine patients were divided into two groups, migraine related to menstruation (MRM) or migraine not related to menstruation (MNRM), GG genotype of rs726281 was significantly associated with MRM. These results suggested that rs10046 could play a potential role in migraine susceptibility in Turkish population. Also, the rare GG genotype of rs726281 appears to influence migraine susceptibility in a recessive manner in MRM subgroup of female patients. In addition, variant GG genotype of rs2229741 may reduce the risk of migraine in Turkish women. PMID:27019440

  5. Mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR and induce CYP1A genes expression in human hepatocytes and human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kubešová, Kateřina; Dořičáková, Aneta; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2016-07-25

    The effects of four copper(II) mixed-ligand complexes [Cu(qui1)(L)]NO3·H2O (1-3) and [Cu(qui2)(phen)]NO3 (4), where qui1=2-phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone, Hqui2=2-(4-amino-3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-propyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone-7-carboxamide, L=1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (1), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (mphen) (2), bathophenanthroline (bphen) (3), on transcriptional activities of steroid receptors, nuclear receptors and xenoreceptors have been studied. The complexes (1-4) did not influence basal or ligand-inducible activities of glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, thyroid receptor, pregnane X receptor and vitamin D receptor, as revealed by gene reporter assays. The complexes 1 and 2 dose-dependently induced luciferase activity in stable gene reporter AZ-AhR cell line, and this induction was reverted by resveratrol, indicating involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the process. The complexes 1, 2 and 3 induced CYP1A1 mRNA in LS180 cells and CYP1A1/CYP1A2 in human hepatocytes through AhR. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay EMSA showed that the complexes 1 and 2 transformed AhR in its DNA-binding form. Collectively, we demonstrate that the complexes 1 and 2 activate AhR and induce AhR-dependent genes in human hepatocytes and cancer cell lines. In conclusion, the data presented here might be of toxicological importance, regarding the multiple roles of AhR in human physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:27180721

  6. Effects of triclosan on the detoxification system in the yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco): expressions of CYP and GST genes and corresponding enzyme activity in phase I, II and antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Ku, Peijia; Wu, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xiangping; Ou, Ruikang; Wang, Lan; Su, Tian; Li, Yigang

    2014-11-01

    Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in pharmaceuticals and personal case products (PPCPs), has been universally detected in aquatic ecosystem in recent years. Unfortunately, there is limited information about its potential impacts on responses of genes and enzymes related to fish detoxification. In the present work, we cloned CYP3A and alpha-GST of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) and tested the transcriptional expression of CYP1A, CYP3A and GST as well as the alterations of their corresponding enzymes, including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT), and also the oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver of P. fulvidraco exposed to TCS. Amino acids of CYP3A and GST were deduced and phylogenetic tree was constructed respectively. High identity percent was exhibited between P. fulvidraco and other species, such as other fish, birds and mammals. Results indicated that TCS significantly elevated CYP1A and GST but decreased CYP3A expression, EROD activity and MDA content at lower concentrations of TCS at 24h. Moreover, CYP3A and GST were significantly inhibited at 72 h but induced at 168 h at lower concentrations. However, CYP3A was always induced at the highest concentration during the exposure period. Furthermore, CYP3A, GST, GST enzyme and MDA content exhibited a dose-effect relationship to some extent, but no significant responses were observed in ERND, APND and CAT except for individual treatments. Taken together, EROD was the most sensitive to TCS exposure as compared to other enzymes. Meanwhile, mRNA responses were more sensitive in yellow catfish. PMID:25064140

  7. Nutrients Can Enhance the Abundance and Expression of Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in the Rhizosphere of Ryegrass Planted in Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soil

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Muhammad; Afzal, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Iqbal, Samina; Khan, Qaiser M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K) in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination. PMID:25360680

  8. Alterations in the predicted regulatory and coding regions of the sterol 14α-demethylase gene (CYP51) confer decreased azole sensitivity in the oilseed rape pathogen Pyrenopeziza brassicae.

    PubMed

    Carter, Helen E; Fraaije, Bart A; West, Jonathan S; Kelly, Steven L; Mehl, Andreas; Shaw, Michael W; Cools, Hans J

    2014-06-01

    The incidence and severity of light leaf spot epidemics caused by the ascomycete fungus Pyrenopeziza brassicae on UK oilseed rape crops are increasing. The disease is currently controlled by a combination of host resistance, cultural practices and fungicide applications. We report decreases in sensitivity of modern UK P. brassicae isolates to the azole (imidazole and triazole) class of fungicides. By cloning and sequencing the P. brassicae CYP51 (PbCYP51) gene, encoding the azole target sterol 14α-demethylase, we identified two non-synonymous mutations encoding substitutions G460S and S508T associated with reduced azole sensitivity. We confirmed the impact of the encoded PbCYP51 changes on azole sensitivity and protein activity by heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant YUG37:erg11 carrying a controllable promoter of native CYP51 expression. In addition, we identified insertions in the predicted regulatory regions of PbCYP51 in isolates with reduced azole sensitivity. The presence of these insertions was associated with enhanced transcription of PbCYP51 in response to subinhibitory concentrations of the azole fungicide tebuconazole. Genetic analysis of in vitro crosses of sensitive and resistant isolates confirmed the impact of PbCYP51 alterations in coding and regulatory sequences on a reduced sensitivity phenotype, as well as identifying a second major gene at another locus contributing to resistance in some isolates. The least sensitive field isolates carry combinations of upstream insertions and non-synonymous mutations, suggesting that PbCYP51 evolution is ongoing and the progressive decline in azole sensitivity of UK P. brassicae populations will continue. The implications for the future control of light leaf spot are discussed. PMID:24298976

  9. Roles of CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphisms in Susceptibility to POAG and Individual Differences in Drug Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang-Long; Jia, Qiu-Ju; Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Zong-Ming; Liu, Hai; Duan, Xuan-Chu; Lyu, Xue-Man

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphisms in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) susceptibility and individual responses to drug treatment. Material/Methods This case-control study consisted of 93 cases with POAG and 125 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to analyze CYP2C19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After timolol treatment, patients were classified into side effect (SE) group and non-side effect (NSE) group. According to drug treatment responses, patients were divided into 3 groups: excellent group (Ex) (IOP ≥8 mm Hg); utility group (Ut) (5 CYP2C19 between the case group and the control group (both P>0.05). Frequencies of extensive metabolizer phenotype and poor metabolizer phenotype or poor metabolizer phenotype and intermediate metabolizer phenotype were significantly different between the SE group and NSE group (both P<0.05). The distribution of intermediate metabolizer phenotype and extensive metabolizer phenotype were significantly different among Ex group, Ut group, and In group (all P<0.05). Conclusions We found no evidence that CYP2C19 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to POAG. However, different CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotypes were identified and observed to have important effects on the individual differences in drug treatment response. PMID:26822491

  10. RsaI but not DraI polymorphism in CYP2E1 gene increases the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in Malaysians: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Lee, Chong Cin; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our study aimed to investigate the association of CYP2E1 C-1019T RsaI and T7678A DraI polymorphisms and factors such as age, gender and ethnicity to the risk of gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) in Malaysians. Design Case–control study. Setting Malaysia. Participants 520 consented healthy blood donors with no previous GIC record and 175 patients with GIC. Measurements C-1019T RsaI and T7678A DraI genotyping of CYP2E1 gene; direct sequencing. Results This study reveals that the variant c2 allele and carrier with at least one c2 allele of C-1019T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly increased the risk of GIC but no significant association was found between T7678A SNP and combined analysis of C-1019T and T7678A SNPs to risk of GIC. The Malaysian Chinese had greater risk of GIC compared with the Malays, Indians and KadazanDusun. An increased risk of GIC was observed in individuals aged >40 years and women had a 2.22-fold and 1.58-fold increased risk of stomach and colorectal cancers, respectively, when compared with men. Limitations The future research should be conducted with a larger sample population and including the gene–gene and gene–environmental interactions. Conclusions Our study suggests that the rare c2 allele and carrier with at least one c2 allele of CYP2E1 RsaI polymorphism significantly elevated the risk of GIC and may be used as a genetic biomarker for early screening of GIC in Malaysians. The risk age-group has been shifted to a younger age at 40s and women showed a significant greater risk of stomach and colorectal cancers than men. PMID:24394801

  11. Effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 Gene Variants on Warfarin Response in Patients with Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Topkara, Veli K; Knotts, Robert J; Jennings, Douglas L; Garan, A Reshad; Levin, Allison P; Breskin, Alexander; Castagna, Francesco; Cagliostro, Barbara; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Uriel, Nir; Mancini, Donna M; Eisenberger, Andrew; Naka, Yoshifumi; Colombo, Paolo C; Jorde, Ulrich P

    2016-01-01

    Bleeding and thrombotic complications continue to plague continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) therapy in patients with end-stage heart failure. Warfarin genotyping information can be incorporated into decision making for initial dosing as recommended by the Food and Drug Administration; however, clinical utility of this data in the CF-LVAD population has not been well studied. Genotypes testing for CYP2C9 and VCORC1 polymorphisms were determined in 90 CF-LVAD patients. Outcomes studied were the association of CYP2C9 (*1, *2, or *3) and VKORC1 (-1639 G>A) gene variants with time-to-target international normalized ratio (INR), total warfarin dose, maintenance warfarin dose. Continuous-flow left ventricular assist device patients carrying a rare variant in the VKORC1 gene had a significantly lower cumulative warfarin dose until target INR achieved (18.9 vs. 35.0 mg, p = 0.002), days spent until INR target achieved (4.9 vs. 7.0 days, p = 0.021), and discharge warfarin dose (3.2 vs. 5.6 mg, p = 0.001) compared with patients with wild-type genotype. Genotype-guided warfarin dosing may lead to safer anticoagulation and potentially improve outcomes in CF-LVAD patients. PMID:27258224

  12. Influence of Vitamin D-Related Gene Polymorphisms (CYP27B and VDR) on the Response to Interferon/Ribavirin Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A. G.; Maestro, María L.; Suárez, Avelina; Vidaurreta, Marta; Martínez, Carmen; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina; Ortega, Luis; Ladero, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Vitamin D exerts immunomodulatory effects on the host response against infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study was performed to assess the putative influence of polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes on the response to antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP27B-1260 gene promoter (rs10877012AC) and in vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene rs2228570TC, rs1544410CT, rs7975232AC and rs731236AT were analyzed in a cohort of 238 Caucasian CHC patients treated with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). Multivariate analyses were performed to exclude confounding effects of well-known baseline predictors of response to therapy (HCV genotype and load, IL28B genotype, age, and GGT and serum cholesterol). Results Three SNPs at the VDR gene (rs1544410, rs7975232 and rs731236) were in strong linkage disequilibrium, with the CCA haplotype predicting therapeutic failure [Odds ratio 2.743; (95% C.I. 1.313–5.731), p = 0.007]. The carrier state of the VDR rs2228570 T allele was inversely related to the probability of therapeutic failure [Odds ratio 0.438; 95 C.I. (0.204–0.882), p = 0.021]. No relation existed between CYP27B-1260 rs10877012 polymorphism and response to therapy. The area under the operating curve (AUROC) based on the model including all variables significantly related to the response to therapy was 0.846 (95% confidence interval = 0.793–0.899). Conclusion VDR gene polymorphisms are independently related to the response to Peg-IFN+RBV therapy in chronic hepatitis C and could be used as complementary biomarkers of response when included in a prediction algorithm in association with demographic, virologic, biochemical and genetic traits. PMID:24073221

  13. Phylogenomic analysis of the cystatin superfamily in eukaryotes and prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The cystatin superfamily comprises cysteine protease inhibitors that play key regulatory roles in protein degradation processes. Although they have been the subject of many studies, little is known about their genesis, evolution and functional diversification. Our aim has been to obtain a comprehensive insight into their origin, distribution, diversity, evolution and classification in Eukaryota, Bacteria and Archaea. Results We have identified in silico the full complement of the cystatin superfamily in more than 2100 prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. The analysis of numerous eukaryotic genomes has provided strong evidence for the emergence of this superfamily in the ancestor of eukaryotes. The progenitor of this superfamily was most probably intracellular and lacked a signal peptide and disulfide bridges, much like the extant Giardia cystatin. A primordial gene duplication produced two ancestral eukaryotic lineages, cystatins and stefins. While stefins remain encoded by a single or a small number of genes throughout the eukaryotes, the cystatins have undergone a more complex and dynamic evolution through numerous gene and domain duplications. In the cystatin superfamily we discovered twenty vertebrate-specific and three angiosperm-specific orthologous families, indicating that functional diversification has occurred only in multicellular eukaryotes. In vertebrate orthologous families, the prevailing trends were loss of the ancestral inhibitory activity and acquisition of novel functions in innate immunity. Bacterial cystatins and stefins may be emergency inhibitors that enable survival of bacteria in the host, defending them from the host's proteolytic activity. Conclusion This study challenges the current view on the classification, origin and evolution of the cystatin superfamily and provides valuable insights into their functional diversification. The findings of this comprehensive study provide guides for future structural and evolutionary studies

  14. Polymorphism of CYP3A4 and ABCB1 genes increase the risk of neuropathy in breast cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Kus, Tulay; Aktas, Gokmen; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Demiryurek, Abdullah Tuncay; Ulasli, Mustafa; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Sevinc, Alper; Kul, Seval; Camci, Celaletdin

    2016-01-01

    Background Interindividual variability of pharmacogenetics may account for unpredictable neurotoxicities of taxanes. Methods From March 2011 to June 2015, female patients with operable breast cancer who had received docetaxel- or paclitaxel-containing adjuvant chemotherapy were included in this study. All patients were treated with single-agent paclitaxel intravenously (IV) 175 mg/m2 every 3 weeks for four cycles, or IV 80 mg/m2 weekly for 12 cycles, and IV 100 mg/m2 docetaxel for four cycles as adjuvant treatment. We evaluated the relationship between neurotoxicity of taxanes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCB1, CYP3A4, ERCC1, ERCC2, FGFR4, TP53, ERBB2, and CYP2C8 genes. Taxane-induced neurotoxicity during the treatment was evaluated according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.03 prior to each cycle. Chi-squared tests were used to compare the two groups, and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used for determining possible risk factors of neuropathy. Results Pharmacogenetic analysis was performed in 219 females. ABCB1 3435 TT genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.759, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.172–6.493, P: 0.017) compared to TC and CC genotype, and also CYP3A4 392 AA and AG genotype had significantly higher risk for grade ≥2 neurotoxicity (OR: 2.259, 95% CI: 1.033–4.941, P: 0.038) compared to GG genotype. For FDGF4 gene with AG and GG genotype, OR was 1.879 (95% CI: 1.001–3.525, P: 0.048) compared to AA genotype with regard to any grade of neuropathy risk. We could not find any other association of other genotypes with neurotoxicity grades. Conclusion ABCB1 3435 TT genotype and CYP3A4 392 AA/AG genotypes may be used as predictors of neurotoxicity during taxane chemotherapy. PMID:27574448

  15. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor1

    PubMed Central

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro; Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J.; Celander, Malin C.

    2015-01-01

    Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ~400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ~3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of AhR2 or CYP1A in liver and gills of NBH fish. In NBH fish, but not in SC fish, there was increased mRNA expression of hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp upon exposure to either of the two PCB congeners. However, basal PXR and Pgp mRNA levels in liver of NBH fish were significantly lower than in SC fish. A different pattern was seen in gills, where there were no differences in basal mRNA expression of these genes between the two populations

  16. From electron microscopy to molecular cell biology, molecular genetics and structural biology: intracellular transport and kinesin superfamily proteins, KIFs: genes, structure, dynamics and functions.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2011-01-01

    Cells transport and sort various proteins and lipids following synthesis as distinct types of membranous organelles and protein complexes to the correct destination at appropriate velocities. This intracellular transport is fundamental for cell morphogenesis, survival and functioning not only in highly polarized neurons but also in all types of cells in general. By developing quick-freeze electron microscopy (EM), new filamentous structures associated with cytoskeletons are uncovered. The characterization of chemical structures and functions of these new filamentous structures led us to discover kinesin superfamily molecular motors, KIFs. In this review, I discuss the identification of these new structures and characterization of their functions using molecular cell biology and molecular genetics. KIFs not only play significant roles by transporting various cargoes along microtubule rails, but also play unexpected fundamental roles on various important physiological processes such as learning and memory, brain wiring, development of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, activity-dependent neuronal survival, development of early embryo, left-right determination of our body and tumourigenesis. Furthermore, by combining single-molecule biophysics with structural biology such as cryo-electrom microscopy and X-ray crystallography, atomic structures of KIF1A motor protein of almost all states during ATP hydrolysis have been determined and a common mechanism of motility has been proposed. Thus, this type of studies could be a good example of really integrative multidisciplinary life science in the twenty-first century. PMID:21844601

  17. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Bunde, Kristi L.; Harper, Tod A.; McQuistan, Tammie J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Bramer, Lisa M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Krueger, Sharon K.; and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  18. Pharmacogenetics in American Indian Populations: Analysis of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fohner, Alison; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Austin, Melissa A.; Gaedigk, Andrea; Gordon, Adam; Thornton, Timothy; Rieder, Mark J.; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Howlett, Kevin; Beatty, Patrick; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a dominant role in drug elimination and variation in these genes is a major source of interindividual differences in drug response. Little is known, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. We have developed a partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) in northwestern Montana to address this knowledge gap. Methods We resequenced CYP2D6 in 187 CSKT subjects and CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in 94 CSKT subjects. Results We identified 67 variants in CYP2D6, 15 in CYP3A4, 10 in CYP3A5, and 41 in CYP2C9. The most common CYP2D6 alleles were CYP2D6*4 and *41 (20.86 and 11.23%, respectively). CYP2D6*3, *5, *6, *9, *10, *17, *28, *33, *35, *49, *1xN, *2xN, and *4xN frequencies were less than 2%. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and *1B were detected with frequencies of 92.47, 26.81, and 2.20%, respectively. Allelic variation in CYP2C9 was low: CYP2C9*2 (5.17%) and *3 (2.69%). In general, allele frequencies in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 were similar to those observed in European Americans. There was, however, a marked divergence in CYP3A4 for the CYP3A4*1G allele. We also observed low levels of linkage between CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A5*1 in the CSKT. The combination of nonfunctional CYP3A5*3 and putative reduced function CYP3A4*1G alleles may predict diminished clearance of CYP3A substrates. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of conducting pharmacogenomic research in AI/AN populations and demonstrate that extrapolation from other populations is not appropriate. This information could help to optimize drug therapy for the CSKT population. PMID:23778323

  19. Assessing strategies for improved superfamily recognition

    PubMed Central

    Sillitoe, Ian; Dibley, Mark; Bray, James; Addou, Sarah; Orengo, Christine

    2005-01-01

    There are more than 200 completed genomes and over 1 million nonredundant sequences in public repositories. Although the structural data are more sparse (~13,000 nonredundant structures solved to date), several powerful sequence-based methodologies now allow these structures to be mapped onto related regions in a significant proportion of genome sequences. We review a number of publicly available strategies for providing structural annotations for genome sequences, and we describe the protocol adopted to provide CATH structural annotations for completed genomes. In particular, we assess the performance of several sequence-based protocols employing Hidden Markov model (HMM) technologies for superfamily recognition, including a new approach (SAMOSA [sequence augmented models of structure alignments]) that exploits multiple structural alignments from the CATH domain structure database when building the models. Using a data set of remote homologs detected by structure comparison and manually validated in CATH, a single-seed HMM library was able to recognize 76% of the data set. Including the SAMOSA models in the HMM library showed little gain in homolog recognition, although a slight improvement in alignment quality was observed for very remote homologs. However, using an expanded 1D-HMM library, CATH-ISL increased the coverage to 86%. The single-seed HMM library has been used to annotate the protein sequences of 120 genomes from all three major kingdoms, allowing up to 70% of the genes or partial genes to be assigned to CATH superfamilies. It has also been used to recruit sequences from Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL into CATH domain superfamilies, expanding the CATH database eightfold. PMID:15937274

  20. Lack of association between peri-procedural myocardial damage and CYP2C19 gene variant in elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hiromi; Kaikita, Koichi; Ono, Takamichi; Iwashita, Satomi; Nakayama, Naoki; Sato, Koji; Horio, Eiji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kojima, Sunao; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-09-01

    Peri-procedural myocardial damage (MD) is associated with increased risk of major in-hospital complications and adverse clinical events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation and CYP2C19-reduced-function gene variants on elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related MD. We measured changes in serum high-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) levels, CYP2C19 genotype, and on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation (PA) using VerifyNow(®) P2Y12 system in 91 patients who received stent implantation (stent group). The control group comprised 30 patients who did not receive PCI. Blood samples were obtained before and 24 h after PCI or coronary angiography (CAG). Patients of the stent group were divided into high and low MD groups based on the median value of hs-TnT level at 24 h after PCI. Serum hs-TnT levels were significantly higher 24 h after PCI (86.8 ± 121.5 pg/ml) compared with before PCI (9.4 ± 5.3, p < 0.001), whereas the levels were identical before and 24 h after CAG in the control group. Simple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that MD correlated with age (p = 0.014), estimated GFR (p = 0.003), hemoglobin A1c (p = 0.015), baseline serum hs-TnT (p = 0.049), and stent length (p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified old age, high hemoglobin A1c level, and long stent, but not CYP2C19 reduced-function allele or high on-clopidogrel PA, as independent predictors of elective PCI-related MD. The present study demonstrated no significant relation between peri-procedural MD and high on-clopidgrel PA associated with CYP2C19 reduced-function allele in patients undergoing elective PCI. PMID:24781308

  1. A Greek girl with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency due to compound heterozygosity for two novel mutations in CYP11B1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Marakaki, Chrisanthi; Papadopoulou, Anna; Karapanou, Olga; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios T; Kleanthous, Kleanthis

    2015-01-01

    Summary 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD), an autosomal recessive inherited disorder, accounts for 5–8% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In Greece, no cases of 11β-OHD have been described so far. The patient presented at the age of 13 months with mild virilization of external genitalia and pubic hair development since the age of 3 months. Hormonal profile showed elevated 11-deoxycortisol, adrenal androgens and ACTH levels. ACTH stimulation test was compatible with 11β-OHD. DNA of the proband and her parents was isolated and genotyped for CYP11B1 gene coding cytochrome P450c11. The girl was found to be compound heterozygous for two CYP11B1 novel mutations, p.Ala386Glu (exon 7), inherited from the father and p.Leu471Argin (exon 9) from the mother. Hydrocortisone supplementation therapy was initiated. Four years after presentation she remains normotensive, her growth pattern is normal and the bone age remains advanced despite adequate suppression of adrenal androgens. Learning points 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) deficiency (11OHD; OMIM +202010) is the second most common cause of CAH accounting for approximately 5–8% of cases with an incidence of 1:100 000–1:200 000 live births in non-consanguineous populations. Two CYP11B1 inactivating novel mutations, p.Ala386Glu and p.Leu471Arg are reported Regarding newborn females, in utero androgen excess results in ambiguous genitalia, whereas in the male newborn diagnosis may go undetected. In infancy and childhood adrenal androgen overproduction results in peripheral precocious puberty in boys and various degrees of virilization in girls. Accumulation of 11-deoxycorticosterone and its metabolites causes hypertension in about two thirds of patients. Diagnosis lies upon elevated 11-deoxycortisol and DOC plus upstream precursors, such as 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and Δ4-androstenedione. The established treatment of steroid 11β-OHD is similar to that of steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency and consists of

  2. Multicenter Study of Antibiotic Resistance Profile of H. pylori and Distribution of CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphism in Rural Population of Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ran; Lu, Hong; Jiang, Ming-Wan; Tan, Ke-Wen; Peng, Zhong; Hu, Jia-Li; Fang, Dian-Chun; Lan, Chun-Hui; Wu, Xiao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile of H. pylori and the distribution of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism in rural population of Chongqing, China. 214 and 111 strains of H. pylori were isolated from rural and urban patients, respectively. 99.53%, 20.09%, and 23.36% of the isolates in rural patients were found to be resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin, while the resistant rate in urban patients was 82.88%, 19.82%, and 24.32%. The multiple antibiotic resistance percentage significantly increased from 28.26% (below 45 years) to 41.80% (above 45 years) in rural patients. Up to 44.39%, 45.79%, and 9.81% of rural patients from whom H. pylori was isolated were found to be extensive metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers, and poor metabolizers. No correlation was observed between antibiotic resistance profile of H. pylori and genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 among rural population. There was a high prevalence of H. pylori strains resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin in rural patients in Chongqing, China. The choice of therapy in this area should be based on local susceptibility patterns. Amoxicillin, gentamicin, and furazolidone are recommended as the first-line empiric regimen. PMID:27247569

  3. Immunoglobulin superfamily proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, S A; Chothia, C

    2000-03-10

    The predicted proteins of the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans were analysed by various sequence comparison methods to identify the repertoire of proteins that are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). The IgSF is one of the largest families of protein domain in this genome and likely to be one of the major families in other multicellular eukaryotes too. This is because members of the superfamily are involved in a variety of functions including cell-cell recognition, cell-surface receptors, muscle structure and, in higher organisms, the immune system. Sixty-four proteins with 488 I set IgSF domains were identified largely by using Hidden Markov models. The domain architectures of the protein products of these 64 genes are described. Twenty-one of these had been characterised previously. We show that another 25 are related to proteins of known function. The C. elegans IgSF proteins can be classified into five broad categories: muscle proteins, protein kinases and phosphatases, three categories of proteins involved in the development of the nervous system, leucine-rich repeat containing proteins and proteins without homologues of known function, of which there are 18. The 19 proteins involved in nervous system development that are not kinases or phosphatases are homologues of neuroglian, axonin, NCAM, wrapper, klingon, ICCR and nephrin or belong to the recently identified zig gene family. Out of the set of 64 genes, 22 are on the X chromosome. This study should be seen as an initial description of the IgSF repertoire in C. elegans, because the current gene definitions may contain a number of errors, especially in the case of long sequences, and there may be IgSF genes that have not yet been detected. However, the proteins described here do provide an overview of the bulk of the repertoire of immunoglobulin superfamily members in C. elegans, a framework for refinement and extension of the repertoire as gene and protein definitions improve, and the basis

  4. Preemptive Pharmacogenomic Testing for Precision Medicine: A Comprehensive Analysis of Five Actionable Pharmacogenomic Genes Using Next-Generation DNA Sequencing and a Customized CYP2D6 Genotyping Cascade.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuan; Skierka, Jennifer M; Blommel, Joseph H; Moore, Brenda E; VanCuyk, Douglas L; Bruflat, Jamie K; Peterson, Lisa M; Veldhuizen, Tamra L; Fadra, Numrah; Peterson, Sandra E; Lagerstedt, Susan A; Train, Laura J; Baudhuin, Linnea M; Klee, Eric W; Ferber, Matthew J; Bielinski, Suzette J; Caraballo, Pedro J; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Black, John L

    2016-05-01

    Significant barriers, such as lack of professional guidelines, specialized training for interpretation of pharmacogenomics (PGx) data, and insufficient evidence to support clinical utility, prevent preemptive PGx testing from being widely clinically implemented. The current study, as a pilot project for the Right Drug, Right Dose, Right Time-Using Genomic Data to Individualize Treatment Protocol, was designed to evaluate the impact of preemptive PGx and to optimize the workflow in the clinic setting. We used an 84-gene next-generation sequencing panel that included SLCO1B1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and VKORC1 together with a custom-designed CYP2D6 testing cascade to genotype the 1013 subjects in laboratories approved by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act. Actionable PGx variants were placed in patient's electronic medical records where integrated clinical decision support rules alert providers when a relevant medication is ordered. The fraction of this cohort carrying actionable PGx variant(s) in individual genes ranged from 30% (SLCO1B1) to 79% (CYP2D6). When considering all five genes together, 99% of the subjects carried an actionable PGx variant(s) in at least one gene. Our study provides evidence in favor of preemptive PGx testing by identifying the risk of a variant being present in the population we studied. PMID:26947514

  5. An RNAi construct of the P450 gene CYP82D109 leads to increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov11) and increased feeding by Helicoverpa Zea larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The P450 CYP82D109 gene codes for an early step enzyme in the gossypol pathway in Gossypium. The terminal leaves of RNAi plants had a 90% reduction in hemigossypolone and heliocides levels, and a 70% reduction in gossypol levels compared to wild-type (WT) plants. Previous studies comparing glanded...

  6. SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE INDUCES CYP3A1 AND CYP3A2 IN PREPUBERTAL RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding soy diets has been shown to induce cytochrome P450s in gene family CYP3A in Sprague-Dawley rat liver. We compared expression of CYP3A enzymes on PND33 rats fed casein or soy protein isolate (SPI+)-based AIN-93G diets continuously from gestational day 4 through PND 33 or the diets were switc...

  7. Higher gene expression of CYP1A2, 2B1 and 2D2 in the brain of female compared with male rats.

    PubMed

    Nagai, K; Fukuno, S; Suzuki, H; Konishi, H

    2016-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the brain plays an essential role in the local metabolism of various compounds, including clinically used drugs, toxins, and endogenous substances. In the present study, we compared the expression profiles of mRNAs for several CYP subtypes in the brain between male and female rats. The expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, and CYP2D2 in females was significantly higher than that in males. On the other hand, the expression level of the other CYP subtypes examined in the male brain was similar to that in the female brain. These results strongly suggest that marked gender differences exist in the expression profiles of some CYP subtypes in rat brain. PMID:27455552

  8. Identification of two novel members of erbA superfamily by molecular cloning: the gene products of the two are highly related to each other.

    PubMed Central

    Miyajima, N; Kadowaki, Y; Fukushige, S; Shimizu, S; Semba, K; Yamanashi, Y; Matsubara, K; Toyoshima, K; Yamamoto, T

    1988-01-01

    Two v-erbA-related genes, named ear-2 and ear-3, have been identified in the human genome and characterized by cDNA cloning. These genes are predicted to encode proteins that are very similar in primary structure to receptors for steroid hormones or thyroid hormone (T3). In addition, amino acid sequences of the ear-2 and ear-3 gene products are very similar each other especially at the DNA binding domain (86% homology) and at the putative ligand binding domain (76% homology). Northern hybridization with ear DNA probes of RNAs from various tissues of a human fetus reveals that the expression of ear-2 is high in the liver whereas the expression of ear-3 is relatively ubiquitous. Hybridization analysis of DNAs from sorted chromosomes shows that the ear-2 gene is located on chromosome 19 and ear-3 on chromosome 5, indicating that the two genes are clearly different from each other. Images PMID:2905047

  9. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    PubMed

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Dal Santo, Silvia; Cañón, Paola; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine. PMID

  10. Inspection of the Grapevine BURP Superfamily Highlights an Expansion of RD22 Genes with Distinctive Expression Features in Berry Development and ABA-Mediated Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Santo, Silvia Dal; Cañón, Paola; de la Guardia, Amparo Rodríguez-Hoces; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine. PMID

  11. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  12. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity.

    PubMed

    Mazzari, Andre L D A; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C B; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  13. Identification of functional consequence of a novel selection signature in CYP11b1 gene for milk fat content in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Maryam, J.; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Nadeem, Asif; Yaqub, Tahir; Hashmi, Abu Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection for traits of economic importance is an emerging approach carrying tremendous potentials. Many of polygenic traits as milk fat, protein and yield have been characterize at genomic level and important selection signatures have been identified. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are potential loci for affecting many of dairy capabilities. Present study was conducted for genomic dissection of CYP11b1 gene in riverine buffaloes and seven genetic variations were identified. Out of these, one novel polymorphism (p.A313T) was found well associated with milk fat %age. AB genotyped buffaloes were found to have higher milk fat %age (8.9%) for this loci. p.A313T was further validated at larger data set by restriction digestion using CviAII enzyme. Functional consequences of this locus were also predicted by studying three dimensional structure of CYP11b1 protein. For this purpose, 3D protein model was predicted by homology modeling, secondary structural attributes were determined, signal peptide was predicted and a transmembrane helix was also identified. One of polymorphism (p.Y205L) was found in the vicinity of functionally significant F-G loop region, which is the part of protein gets attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane. But this variation could not be associated and needs further investigation. p.A30V, a popular selection marker in cattle, was found in buffaloes as well but could not be associated and might need further confirmation on larger data set. Results of this study illustrate the impending potential of this gene in determining dairy capabilities of buffaloes and might have a role in selection of superior dairy buffaloes. PMID:26629413

  14. Post-translational and Post-transcriptional Modifications of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) in Regulation of the Cytochrome P450 Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Smutny, Tomas; Mani, Sridhar; Pavek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors and is activated by a huge variety of endobiotics and xenobiotics, including many clinical drugs. PXR plays key roles not only as a xenosensor in the regulation of both major phase I and II drug metabolism and transporters but also as a physiological sensor in the modulation of bile acid and cholesterol metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, and bone and endocrine homeostasis. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation have been shown to modulate the activity of many NRs, including PXR, and constitute an important mechanism for crosstalk between signaling pathways and regulation of genes involved in both xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. In addition, microRNAs have recently been shown to constitute another level of PXR activity regulation. The objective of this review is to comprehensively summarize current understanding of post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications of PXR in regulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, mainly in hepatic tissue. We also discuss the importance of PXR in crosstalk with cell signaling pathways, which at the level of transcription modify expression of genes associated with some physiological and pathological stages in the organs. Finally, we indicate that these PXR modifications may have important impacts on CYP-mediated biotransformation of some clinically used drugs. PMID:24329114

  15. Gene variants in CYP2C19 are associated with altered in vivo bupropion pharmacokinetics but not bupropion-assisted smoking cessation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Andy Z X; Zhou, Qian; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-11-01

    Bupropion is used clinically to treat depression and to promote smoking cessation. It is metabolized by CYP2B6 to its active metabolite hydroxybupropion, yet alterations in CYP2B6 activity have little impact on bupropion plasma levels. Furthermore, less than 10% of a bupropion dose is excreted as urinary bupropion and its characterized metabolites hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion, suggesting that alternative metabolic pathways may exist. In vitro data suggested CYP2C19 could metabolize bupropion. The current study investigated the impact of functional CYP2C19 genetic variants on bupropion pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes. In 42 healthy volunteers, CYP2C19*2 (a reduced activity allele) was associated with higher bupropion area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), but similar hydroxybupropion AUC. The mean bupropion AUC was 771 versus 670 hours⋅ng/ml in individuals with and without CYP2C19*2, respectively (P = 0.017). CYP2C19*2 was also associated with higher threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion AUC (P < 0.005). Adjusting for CYP2B6 genotype did not alter these associations, and CYP2C19 variants did not alter the utility of the hydroxybupropion/bupropion ratio as a measure of CYP2B6 activity. Finally, in a clinical trial of 540 smokers, CYP2C19 genotype was not associated with smoking cessation outcomes, supporting the hypothesis that bupropion response is mediated by hydroxybupropion, which is not altered by CYP2C19. In conclusion, our study reports the first in vivo evidence that reduced CYP2C19 activity significantly increases the steady-state exposure to bupropion and its reductive metabolites threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion. These pharmacokinetic changes were not associated with differences in bupropion's ability to promote smoking cessation in smokers, but may influence the side effects and toxicity associated with bupropion. PMID:25187485

  16. RNA interference of the nicotine demethylase gene CYP82E4v1 reduces nornicotine content and enhances Myzus persicae resistance in Nicotiana tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Qin, Li-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang

    2016-10-01

    The CYP82E4v1 gene was identified to encode nicotine demethylase, which catalyzed the conversion of nicotine to nornicotine. In this study, we constructed CYP82E4v1-RNAi vector and genetically transformed tobacco variety K326. The determination results of nicotine and nornicotine content via HPLC demonstrated that there was significant increase of nicotine content and reduction of nornicotine content in transgenic plants compared with those in wild-type plants. Exogenous application of IAA or GA3 could reduce the nicotine content in tobaccos, while ABA or 6-BA could increase the content of nicotine. And the more significant difference of nicotine content change in transgenic plants. Aphid-inoculation experiment demonstrated the number of aphid population in transgenic plants was significantly lower than wild-type plants at 12 d after aphid-inoculation. Meanwhile, the activity of AOEs and PAL in transgenic and wild-type tobacco plants after aphid-inoculation was measured. At 3 d after aphid-inoculation, both AOEs and PAL activity were significantly higher than controls, including wild-type plants with aphid-inoculation and transgenic plants with mock-inoculation. Also, the relative expression of these genes involved in salicylic acid/jasmonic acid (SA/JA) signaling pathways was analyzed at different stages after aphid-inoculation and the results demonstrated that there was significantly higher expression of JA-induced LOX gene in both transgenic and wild-type plants inoculated by aphid than the non-inoculated ones while no significant difference in the expression of SA-induced PR-1a gene among them was found, which indicated the JA-mediated resistance response was activated during aphid infestation. Moreover, although the expression level of BGL (another JA-induced gene) was less significant between the two inoculated tobaccos, it was significantly higher than the plant without inoculation, which was 1.4 and 2.2 folds higher than the non-inoculated controls

  17. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Siddens, Lisbeth K; Bunde, Kristi L; Harper, Tod A; McQuistan, Tammie J; Löhr, Christiane V; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Krueger, Sharon K; Williams, David E; Baird, William M

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. PMID:26049101

  18. Studying TGF-beta superfamily signaling by knockouts and knockins.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Lau, A L; Matzuk, M M

    2001-06-30

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily has profound effects on many aspects of animal development. In the last decade, our laboratory and others have performed in vivo functional studies on multiple components of the TGF-beta superfamily signal transduction pathway, including upstream ligands, transmembrane receptors, receptor-associated proteins and downstream Smad proteins. We have taken gene knockout approaches to generate null alleles of the genes of interest, as well as a gene knockin approach to replace the mature region of one TGF-beta superfamily ligand with another. We found that activin betaB, expressed in the spatiotemporal pattern of activin betaA, can function as a hypomorphic allele of activin betaA and rescue the craniofacial defects and neonatal lethal phenotype of activin betaA-deficient mice. With the knockout approach, we have shown that the expression pattern of a component in the TGF-beta superfamily signal transduction cascade does not necessarily predict its in vivo function. Two liver-specific activins, activin betaC and activin betaE are dispensable for liver development, regeneration and function, whereas ubiquitously expressed Smad5 has specific roles in the development of multiple embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. PMID:11451570

  19. Ancestry and diversity of the HMG box superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, V; Stehelin, D; Clevers, H

    1993-01-01

    The HMG box is a novel type of DNA-binding domain found in a diverse group of proteins. The HMG box superfamily comprises a.o. the High Mobility Group proteins HMG1 and HMG2, the nucleolar transcription factor UBF, the lymphoid transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1, the fungal mating-type genes mat-Mc and MATA1, and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. The superfamily dates back to at least 1,000 million years ago, as its members appear in animals, plants and yeast. Alignment of all known HMG boxes defined an unusually loose consensus sequence. We constructed phylogenetic trees connecting the members of the HMG box superfamily in order to understand their evolution. This analysis led us to distinguish two subfamilies: one comprising proteins with a single sequence-specific HMG box, the other encompassing relatively non sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins with multiple HMG boxes. By studying the extent of diversification of the superfamily, we found that the speed of evolution was very different within the various groups of HMG-box containing factors. Comparison of the evolution of the two boxes of ABF2 and of mtTF1 implied different diversification models for these two proteins. Finally, we provide a tree for the highly complex group of SRY-like ('Sox' genes), clustering at least 40 different loci that rapidly diverged in various animal lineages. PMID:8506143

  20. HTR1B, ADIPOR1, PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and Obesity in a Cohort of Caucasians and African Americans: An Evaluation of Gene-Environment Interactions and Candidate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd L.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Villegas, Raquel; Cohen, Sarah S.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Fowke, Jay H.; Schlundt, David; Long, Ji Rong; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Jeffrey, Smith; Williams, Scott M.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Matthews, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that the number of obese and overweight adults has increased to 1.6 billion, with concomitant increases in comorbidity. While genetic factors for obesity have been extensively studied in Caucasians, fewer studies have investigated genetic determinants of body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) in African Americans. A total of 38 genes and 1,086 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans (n = 1,173) and 897 SNPs in Caucasians (n = 1,165) were examined in the Southern Community Cohort Study (2002–2009) for associations with BMI and gene × environment interactions. A statistically significant association with BMI survived correction for multiple testing at rs4140535 (β = −0.04, 95% confidence interval: −0.06, −0.02; P = 5.76 × 10−5) in African Americans but not in Caucasians. Gene-environment interactions were observed with cigarette smoking and a SNP in ADIPOR1 in African Americans, as well as between a different SNP in ADIPOR1 and physical activity in Caucasians. A SNP in PPARGC1A interacted with alcohol consumption in African Americans, and a different SNP in PPARGC1A was nominally associated in Caucasians. A SNP in CYP19A1 interacted with dietary energy intake in African Americans, and another SNP in CYP191A had an independent association with BMI in Caucasians. PMID:22106445

  1. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP142

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Max D.; McLean, Kirsty J.; Levy, Colin; Mast, Natalia; Pikuleva, Irina A.; Lafite, Pierre; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP142 is encoded in a large gene cluster involved in metabolism of host cholesterol. CYP142 was expressed and purified as a soluble, low spin P450 hemoprotein. CYP142 binds tightly to cholesterol and its oxidized derivative cholest-4-en-3-one, with extensive shift of the heme iron to the high spin state. High affinity for azole antibiotics was demonstrated, highlighting their therapeutic potential. CYP142 catalyzes either 27-hydroxylation of cholesterol/cholest-4-en-3-one or generates 5-cholestenoic acid/cholest-4-en-3-one-27-oic acid from these substrates by successive sterol oxidations, with the catalytic outcome dependent on the redox partner system used. The CYP142 crystal structure was solved to 1.6 Å, revealing a similar active site organization to the cholesterol-metabolizing M. tuberculosis CYP125, but having a near-identical organization of distal pocket residues to the branched fatty acid oxidizing M. tuberculosis CYP124. The cholesterol oxidizing activity of CYP142 provides an explanation for previous findings that ΔCYP125 strains of Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG cannot grow on cholesterol, because these strains have a defective CYP142 gene. CYP142 is revealed as a cholesterol 27-oxidase with likely roles in host response modulation and cholesterol metabolism. PMID:20889498

  2. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 have distinct functions in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sixue; Glawischnig, Erich; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Naur, Peter; Jørgensen, Bodil; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Hansen, Carsten H; Rasmussen, Hasse; Pickett, John A; Halkier, Barbara A

    2003-03-01

    Cytochromes P450 of the CYP79 family catalyze the conversion of amino acids to oximes in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, a group of natural plant products known to be involved in plant defense and as a source of flavor compounds, cancer-preventing agents and bioherbicides. We report a detailed biochemical analysis of the substrate specificity and kinetics of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, two cytochromes P450 involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using recombinant CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 expressed in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, we show that CYP79F1 metabolizes mono- to hexahomomethionine, resulting in both short- and long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. In contrast, CYP79F2 exclusively metabolizes long-chain elongated penta- and hexahomomethionines. CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 are spatially and developmentally regulated, with different gene expression patterns. CYP79F2 is highly expressed in hypocotyl and roots, whereas CYP79F1 is strongly expressed in cotyledons, rosette leaves, stems, and siliques. A transposon-tagged CYP79F1 knockout mutant completely lacks short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, but has an increased level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates, especially in leaves and seeds. The level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates in a transposon-tagged CYP79F2 knockout mutant is substantially reduced, whereas the level of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates is not affected. Biochemical characterization of CYP79F1 and CYP79F2, and gene expression analysis, combined with glucosinolate profiling of knockout mutants demonstrate the functional role of these enzymes. This provides valuable insights into the metabolic network leading to the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates, and into metabolic engineering of altered aliphatic glucosinolate profiles to improve nutritional value and pest resistance. PMID:12609033

  3. Two CYP3A-like genes in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis: mRNA expression modulation following short-term exposure to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Puinean, A Mirel; Labadie, Pierre; Ciocan, Corina; Itoh, Naoki; Kishida, Mitsuyo; Osada, Makoto; Minier, Christophe; Hill, Elizabeth M; Rotchell, Jeanette M

    2012-03-01

    Members of the vertebrate CYP3A subfamily are involved in the metabolism of steroids and a wide range of xenobiotics. In this study two CYP3A-like mRNAs have been isolated from the mussel (Mytilus edulis), and their seasonal expression profile and modulation by estrogens examined. Sexual dimorphism of CYP3A-like mRNA expression was not observed in mussel gonads of individuals collected throughout a year. Nevertheless, natural variation in gonadal CYP3A-like mRNA expression was observed, with highest levels of CYP3A isoform1 and lowest levels of CYP3A isoform2 mRNA during the maturation and spawning season. Exposure to a 10% sewage treatment works extract did not result in any significant changes in mRNA expression of CYP3A-like. In contrast, exposure to E2 (200 ng/L) and TBT (100 ng/L) significantly down-regulated the expression of CYP3A-like isoform1 but not CYP3A-like isoform2 suggesting differential regulation. PMID:22189070

  4. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic analysis of eight COL superfamily genes in group I related to photoperiodic regulation of flowering time in wild and domesticated cotton (Gossypium) species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  5. Genomic Analyses, Gene Expression and Antigenic Profile of the Trans-Sialidase Superfamily of Trypanosoma cruzi Reveal an Undetected Level of Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela F.; Mendes, Tiago A. O.; Rodrigues, Thiago S.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Bartholomeu, Daniella C.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, a highly debilitating human pathology that affects millions of people in the Americas. The sequencing of this parasite's genome reveals that trans-sialidase/trans-sialidase-like (TcS), a polymorphic protein family known to be involved in several aspects of T. cruzi biology, is the largest T. cruzi gene family, encoding more than 1,400 genes. Despite the fact that four TcS groups are well characterized and only one of the groups contains active trans-sialidases, all members of the family are annotated in the T. cruzi genome database as trans-sialidase. After performing sequence clustering analysis with all TcS complete genes, we identified four additional groups, demonstrating that the TcS family is even more heterogeneous than previously thought. Interestingly, members of distinct TcS groups show distinctive patterns of chromosome localization. Members of the TcSgroupII, which harbor proteins involved in host cell attachment/invasion, are preferentially located in subtelomeric regions, whereas members of the largest and new TcSgroupV have internal chromosomal locations. Real-time RT-PCR confirms the expression of genes derived from new groups and shows that the pattern of expression is not similar within and between groups. We also performed B-cell epitope prediction on the family and constructed a TcS specific peptide array, which was screened with sera from T. cruzi-infected mice. We demonstrated that all seven groups represented in the array are antigenic. A highly reactive peptide occurs in sixty TcS proteins including members of two new groups and may contribute to the known cross-reactivity of T. cruzi epitopes during infection. Taken together, our results contribute to a better understanding of the real complexity of the TcS family and open new avenues for investigating novel roles of this family during T. cruzi infection. PMID:22039427

  6. An unequal crossover between the RCCX modules of the human MHC leading to the presence of a CYP21B gene and a tenascin TNXB/TNXA-RP2 recombinant between C4A and C4B genes in a patient with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rupert, K L; Rennebohm, R M; Yu, C Y

    1999-01-01

    The RCCX module of the human MHC class III region is comprised of four genes arranged in tandem: RP, complement C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21), and tenascin X (TNX). Variations in the number and genes of the RCCX modules may lead to genetic and/or autoimmune diseases. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was utilized to determine the RCCX modular variation in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). In JRA patient L1, RFLP analysis suggested the presence of a bimodular RCCX structure containing both C4A long and C4B short genes, yet missing the markers for the CYP21A and TNXA genes usually located between the C4A and C4B genes. The 7.5-kb genomic fragment spanning the CYP21-TNX-RP2 genes was cloned and sequenced, revealing that a genetic recombination occurred between TNXA of a bimodular RCCX chromosome and TNXB of a monomodular RCCX chromosome. This recombination results in a new MHC haplotype with a CYP21B gene and a TNXB/TNXA-RP2 recombinant between the two C4 genes. Elucidation of the breakpoint region provides further evidence for the instability of the MHC class III gene region as a result of the RCCX modular variation. PMID:10343159

  7. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Eight COL Superfamily Genes in Group I Related to Photoperiodic Regulation of Flowering Time in Wild and Domesticated Cotton (Gossypium) Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  8. A CAR-responsive enhancer element locating approximately 31 kb upstream in the 5'-flanking region of rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A1 gene.

    PubMed

    Gamou, Toshie; Habano, Wataru; Terashima, Jun; Ozawa, Shogo

    2015-04-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is one of the principal regulators of hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) 3A (CYP3A). cDNA-mediated expression of a mature rat CAR (rCAR) into rat hepatoma cells induced CYP3A1 and CYP2B mRNAs. Aberrant rCAR failed in these inductions. Three important human CYP3A4 regulatory elements (REs), proximal ER6 (proER6), xenobiotic responsive enhancer module (XREM) and constitutive liver enhancer module (CLEM), support constitutive and inducible expression of CYP3As mediated by CAR and pregnane X receptor (PXR). NHR-scan software predicted proER6, XREM and CLEM at -255 b, -8 kb and -11.5 kb, respectively of CYP3A4, but neither XREM nor CLEM was predicted in rat CYP3A. A luciferase reporter construct carrying a 5'-flanking sequence of CYP3A1 (-31,739 to -31,585 from its transcription initiation site) revealed important for the rCAR-dependent transactivation of CYP3A1. This region includes two putative binding motifs of nuclear receptors (DR4 and DR2), a putative hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 binding motif (HNF1), nuclear factor-kappa B binding motif (NFκB), activator protein 1 binding motif (AP-1), and ecotropic viral integration site 1 binding motif (Evi1). We hereby conclude DR4 and/or DR2 motifs being primarily responsible and HNF1 being synergistically functioning elements for the rCAR-mediated transcription of CYP3A1. PMID:25989892

  9. The Insect Chemoreceptor Superfamily Is Ancient in Animals.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Hugh M

    2015-11-01

    The insect chemoreceptor superfamily consists of 2 gene families, the highly diverse gustatory receptors (GRs) found in all arthropods with sequenced genomes and the odorant receptors that evolved from a GR lineage and have been found only in insects to date. Here, I describe relatives of the insect chemoreceptor superfamily, specifically the basal GR family, in diverse other animals, showing that the superfamily dates back at least to early animal evolution. GR-Like (GRL) genes are present in the genomes of the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens, an anemone Nematostella vectensis, a coral Acropora digitifera, a polychaete Capitella teleta, a leech Helobdella robusta, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (and many other nematodes), 3 molluscs (a limpet Lottia gigantea, an oyster Crassostrea gigas, and the sea hare Aplysia californica), the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and the sea acorn Saccoglossus kowalevskii. While some of these animals contain multiple divergent GRL lineages, GRLs have been lost entirely from other animal lineages such as vertebrates. GRLs are absent from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica, and 2 available chaonoflagellate genomes, so it remains unclear whether this superfamily originated before or during animal evolution. PMID:26354932

  10. A multigene phylogeny of the fly superfamily Asiloidea (Insecta): Taxon sampling and additional genes reveal the sister-group to all higher flies (Cyclorrhapha).

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Michelle D; Wiegmann, Brian M; Yeates, David K

    2010-09-01

    Asiloidea are a group of 9 lower brachyceran fly families, considered to be the closest relative to the large Metazoan radiation Eremoneura (Cyclorrhapha+Empidoidea). The evidence for asiloid monophyly is limited, and few characters define the relationships between the families of Asiloidea and Eremoneura. Additionally, enigmatic genera, Hilarimorpha and Apystomyia, retain morphological characters of both asiloids and higher flies. We use the nuclear protein-coding gene CAD and 28S rDNA to test the monophyly of Asiloidea and to resolve its relationship to Eremoneura. We explore the effects of taxon sampling on support values and topological stability, the resolving power of additional genes, and hypothesis testing using four-cluster likelihood mapping. We find that: (1) the 'asiloid' genus Apystomyia is sister to Cyclorrhapha, (2) the remaining asiloids are monophyletic at the exclusion of the family Bombyliidae, and (3) our best estimate of relationships places the asiloid flies excluding Bombyliidae as the sister-group to Eremoneura, though high support is lacking. PMID:20399874

  11. Tobacco carcinogen-metabolizing genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms and their interaction with tobacco exposure influence the risk of head and neck cancer in Northeast Indian population.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Javed Hussain; Singh, Seram Anil; Kundu, Sharbadeb; Choudhury, Biswadeep; Talukdar, Fazlur R; Srivasta, Shilpee; Laskar, Ruhina S; Dhar, Bishal; Das, Raima; Laskar, Shaheen; Kumar, Manish; Kapfo, Wetetsho; Mondal, Rosy; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in tobacco-metabolizing genes may modulate the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). In Northeast India, head and neck cancers and tobacco consumption remains most prevalent. The aim of the study was to investigate the combined effect of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) T3801C, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes polymorphisms and smoking and tobacco-betel quid chewing in the risk of HNC. The study included 420 subjects (180 cases and 240 controls) from Northeast Indian population. Polymorphisms of CYP1A1 T3801C and GST (M1 & T1) were studied by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and multiplex PCR, respectively. Logistic regression (LR) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) approach were applied for statistical analysis. LR analysis revealed that subjects carrying CYP1A1 TC/CC + GSTM1 null genotypes had 3.52-fold (P < 0.001) increase the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Smokers carrying CYP1A1 TC/CC + GSTM1 null and CYP1A1 TC/CC + GSTT1 null genotypes showed significant association with HNC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 6.42; P < 0.001 and 3.86; P = 0.005, respectively). Similarly, tobacco-betel quid chewers carrying CYP1A1 TC/CC + GSTM1 null genotypes also had several fold increased risk of HNC (P < 0.001). In MDR analysis, the best model for HNSCC risk was the four-factor model of tobacco-betel quid chewing, smoking, CYP1A1 TC/CC, and GSTM1 null genotypes (testing balance accuracy [TBA] = 0.6292; cross-validation consistency [CVC] = 9/10 and P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that interaction of combined genotypes of carcinogen-metabolizing genes with environmental factors might modulate susceptibility of HNC in Northeast Indian population. PMID:25724184

  12. Expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in Human Foetal Tissues and its Correlation with Nuclear Receptors.

    PubMed

    Betts, Stina; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2015-10-01

    Previous reports have suggested that the nuclear receptors vitamin D receptor (VDR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are involved in the regulation of the drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 expression in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression of CYP3A4 and the foetal CYP3A7 in human foetal tissues and their relation to gene expression and genetic variations in the nuclear receptors VDR, PPARα, PXR and CAR. We determined the relative expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 and these nuclear receptors in foetal livers, intestines and adrenals, using quantitative PCR. In addition, the expression of these enzymes was also analysed in adult liver. There was a high interindividual variability in CYP3A4 and CYP3A7, 49 times and 326 times, respectively. Both CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 had the highest expression in the liver. There were significant correlations (p < 0.001) between the nuclear receptors studied and the expression of CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 in foetal liver, as well as the expression of CYP3A4 in foetal intestine. Polymorphisms in the VDR gene, rs1544410 and rs1523130 (TaqI), in the PXR gene, rs1523130, and in the PPARα gene, rs4253728, were not correlated with CYP3A4 or CYP3A7 expression. However, C-homozygous individuals of the TaqI VDR polymorphism had 60% lower VDR gene expression (p < 0.05), than individuals carrying one or two T alleles. In conclusion, differences in the expression of nuclear receptors might determine the variability in CYP3A4 and CYP3A7 expression observed in foetal liver. PMID:25689036

  13. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  14. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  15. Expression of CYP19 and CYP17 is associated with leg length, weight, and BMI.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Mitra; Karmaus, Wilfried; Mudd, Lanay M; Landgraf, Jeffrey R; Mikucki, Dorota; Haan, Pamela S; Zhang, Jessica; Osuch, Janet R

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates associations between gene expressions of aromatase (CYP19), 17α hydroxylase (CYP17), and estrogen receptors α and β and anthropometric measurements in offspring of the Michigan fish eater cohort. Leg and trunk length, height, weight, and BMI and gene expression in peripheral blood cells were measured in offspring of the Michigan fish eater cohort. The parental generation was followed between 1973 and 1991, and maternal age, height, and weight data were collected. Female offspring were contacted in 2001/2002 and followed up in 2006/2007; offspring information included age, education, reproductive history, smoking, and exercise. Gene expression was standardized against 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (18SrRNA) and RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII) expressions. Mixed models assessed the statistical effect of gene expression on anthropometric outcomes, accounting for multiple offspring from one mother. Anthropometric measurements and gene expression were measured in 139 female offspring. The two length and the height measurements were correlated, as were BMI and weight. CYP19 expression was correlated with the other gene expressions and both estrogen receptor expressions were associated. For every 1 unit of ΔC(t) (18SrRNA - CYP19) or ΔC(t) (RNA PolII - CYP19), BMI was increased by 0.9 (P = 0.03) and 0.87 kg/m(2) (P = 0.04), respectively, and weight by 2.35 kg (P = 0.03) and 2.1 kg (P = 0.03), respectively. For every 1 unit of ΔC(t) (18SrRNA - CYP17), leg length was increased by 0.84 cm (P = 0.04). The results suggest that CYP17 gene expression may influence growth during childhood and adolescence while CYP19 may be associated with the concurrent measures of weight and BMI. PMID:20539301

  16. Aldehyde dehydrogenase protein superfamily in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mei-Liang; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ming; Qi, Lei-Peng; Yang, Xiong-Bang; Zhang, Kai-Xuan; Pang, Jun-Feng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shao, Ji-Rong; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) is an important model organism for fundamental research in the agro-biotechnology field. Aldehydes were generated in response to a suite of environmental stresses that perturb metabolism including salinity, dehydration, desiccation, and cold and heat shock. Many biologically important aldehydes are metabolized by the superfamily of NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here, starting from the database of Z. mays, we identified 28 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes and 48 transcripts by the in silico cloning method using the ALDH-conserved domain amino acid sequence of Arabidopsis and rice as a probe. Phylogenetic analysis shows that all 28 members of the ALDH gene families were classified to ten distinct subfamilies. Microarray data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis reveal that ZmALDH9, ZmALDH13, and ZmALDH17 genes involve the function of drought stress, acid tolerance, and pathogens infection. These results suggested that these three ZmALDH genes might be potentially useful in maize genetic improvement. PMID:22983498

  17. Preferential expression of cytochrome CYP CYP2R1 but not CYP1B1 in human cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuoqi; Ren, Zhihua; Wang, Yanan; Ding, Xinxin; Jiang, Yongping

    2014-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes metabolize numerous endogenous substrates, such as retinoids, androgens, estrogens and vitamin D, that can modulate important cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The aim of this study is to characterize the expression of CYP genes in CD34+ human cord blood hematopoietic stem and early progenitor cells (CBHSPCs) as a first step toward assessment of the potential biological functions of CYP enzymes in regulating the expansion or differentiation of these cells. CD34+ CBHSPCs were purified from umbilical cord blood via antibody affinity chromatography. Purity of CD34+ CBHSPCs was assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RNA was isolated from purified CD34+ CBHSPCs and total mononuclear cells (MNCs) for RNA-PCR analysis of CYP expression. Fourteen human CYPs were detected in the initial screening with qualitative RT-PCR in CD34+ CBHSPCs. Further quantitative RNA-PCR analysis of the detected CYP transcripts yielded evidence for preferential expression of CYP2R1 in CD34+ CBHSPCs relative to MNCs; and for greater expression of CYP1B1 in MNCs relative to CD34+ CBHSPCs. These findings provide the basis for further studies on possible functions of CYP2R1 and CYP1B1 in CBHSPCs׳ proliferation and/or differentiation and their potential utility as targets for drugs designed to modulate CD34+ CBHSPC expansion or differentiation. PMID:26579418

  18. Preferential expression of cytochrome CYP CYP2R1 but not CYP1B1 in human cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuoqi; Ren, Zhihua; Wang, Yanan; Ding, Xinxin; Jiang, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes metabolize numerous endogenous substrates, such as retinoids, androgens, estrogens and vitamin D, that can modulate important cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The aim of this study is to characterize the expression of CYP genes in CD34+ human cord blood hematopoietic stem and early progenitor cells (CBHSPCs) as a first step toward assessment of the potential biological functions of CYP enzymes in regulating the expansion or differentiation of these cells. CD34+ CBHSPCs were purified from umbilical cord blood via antibody affinity chromatography. Purity of CD34+ CBHSPCs was assessed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. RNA was isolated from purified CD34+ CBHSPCs and total mononuclear cells (MNCs) for RNA-PCR analysis of CYP expression. Fourteen human CYPs were detected in the initial screening with qualitative RT-PCR in CD34+ CBHSPCs. Further quantitative RNA-PCR analysis of the detected CYP transcripts yielded evidence for preferential expression of CYP2R1 in CD34+ CBHSPCs relative to MNCs; and for greater expression of CYP1B1 in MNCs relative to CD34+ CBHSPCs. These findings provide the basis for further studies on possible functions of CYP2R1 and CYP1B1 in CBHSPCs׳ proliferation and/or differentiation and their potential utility as targets for drugs designed to modulate CD34+ CBHSPC expansion or differentiation. PMID:26579418

  19. The roles of CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 in imidacloprid resistance in the brown planthopper: Expression levels and detoxification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bao, Haibo; Gao, Hongli; Zhang, Yixi; Fan, Dongzhe; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Zewen

    2016-05-01

    Two P450 monooxygenase genes, CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1, were reported to contribute importantly to imidacloprid resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. Although recombinant CYP6AY1 could metabolize imidacloprid efficiently, the expression levels of CYP6ER1 gene were higher in most resistant populations. In the present study, three field populations were collected from different countries, and the bioassay, RNAi and imidacloprid metabolism were performed to evaluate the importance of two P450s in imidacloprid resistance. All three populations, DOT (Dongtai) from China, CNA (Chainat) from Thailand and HCM (Ho Chi Minh) from Vietnam, showed high resistance to imidacloprid (57.0-, 102.9- and 89.0-fold). CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 were both over expressed in three populations, with highest ratio of 13.2-fold for CYP6ER1 in HCM population. Synergism test and RNAi analysis confirmed the roles of both P450 genes in imidacloprid resistance. However, CYP6AY1 was indicated more important in CNA population, and CYP6AY1 and CYP6ER1 were equal in HCM population, although the expression level of CYP6ER1 (13.2-fold) was much higher than that of CYP6AY1 (4.11-fold) in HCM population. Although the recombinant proteins of both P450 genes could metabolize imidacloprid efficiently, the catalytic activity of CYP6AY1 (Kcat=3.627pmol/min/pmol P450) was significantly higher than that of CYP6ER1 (Kcat=2.785pmol/min/pmol P450). It was supposed that both P450 proteins were important for imidacloprid resistance, in which CYP6AY1 metabolized imidacloprid more efficiently and CYP6ER1 gene could be regulated by imidacloprid to a higher level. PMID:27017884

  20. Biochemical analysis of a multifunctional cytochrome P450 (CYP51) enzyme required for synthesis of antimicrobial triterpenes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Katrin; Hughes, Richard K.; Sainsbury, Frank; Lomonossoff, George P.; Rejzek, Martin; Fairhurst, Shirley; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Melton, Rachel E.; Hemmings, Andrew M.; Bak, Søren; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Members of the cytochromes P450 superfamily (P450s) catalyze a huge variety of oxidation reactions in microbes and higher organisms. Most P450 families are highly divergent, but in contrast the cytochrome P450 14α-sterol demethylase (CYP51) family is one of the most ancient and conserved, catalyzing sterol 14α-demethylase reactions required for essential sterol synthesis across the fungal, animal, and plant kingdoms. Oats (Avena spp.) produce antimicrobial compounds, avenacins, that provide protection against disease. Avenacins are synthesized from the simple triterpene, β-amyrin. Previously we identified a gene encoding a member of the CYP51 family of cytochromes P450, AsCyp51H10 (also known as Saponin-deficient 2, Sad2), that is required for avenacin synthesis in a forward screen for avenacin-deficient oat mutants. sad2 mutants accumulate β-amyrin, suggesting that they are blocked early in the pathway. Here, using a transient plant expression system, we show that AsCYP51H10 is a multifunctional P450 capable of modifying both the C and D rings of the pentacyclic triterpene scaffold to give 12,13β-epoxy-3β,16β-dihydroxy-oleanane (12,13β-epoxy-16β-hydroxy-β-amyrin). Molecular modeling and docking experiments indicate that C16 hydroxylation is likely to precede C12,13 epoxidation. Our computational modeling, in combination with analysis of a suite of sad2 mutants, provides insights into the unusual catalytic behavior of AsCYP51H10 and its active site mutants. Fungal bioassays show that the C12,13 epoxy group is an important determinant of antifungal activity. Accordingly, the oat AsCYP51H10 enzyme has been recruited from primary metabolism and has acquired a different function compared to other characterized members of the plant CYP51 family—as a multifunctional stereo- and regio-specific hydroxylase in plant specialized metabolism. PMID:23940321

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 in the South-Amerindian population of Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S; Vollrath, V; Vallejos, M P; Miquel, J F; Covarrubias, C; Raddatz, A; Chianale, J

    1998-08-01

    Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 genes show pronounced interethnic variation and have not been previously studied in the South-Amerindian population, which probably has an Asian origin. Therefore, a similar distribution of allelic and haplotype frequencies of cytochrome P450 genes to Asian populations might be expected in South-Amerindians. We analysed the allelic frequencies and haplotype distribution for CYP2D6, CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genes in the South-Amerindian population of Chile (Mapuche, n = 84) by Southern blot or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Similar allelic frequencies and haplotype distribution for the CYP2E1 gene between Mapuches and Asian populations were observed. Frequencies of the two major functional CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles and the CYP2D6*5 null allele were similar to most populations world-wide. The alleles CYP2D6*3 and *9, absent in Asians, were not found in Mapuches. The CYP2D6*4 allelic group, uncommon in Asian populations, had a low frequency in Mapuches (0.036). However, the CYP2D6*10 allele (Ch1, Ch2 and J), highly frequent in Asians (0.33-0.50), had a very low frequency (0.018) in our study population. In addition, the presence of the common Chinese 44 kb XbaI fragment of CYP2D6 (0.19-0.31 in Asians) was not detected in South-Amerindians. Interestingly, high frequencies for the rare m2 and Val alleles of the CYP1A1 gene were found in Mapuches (0.821 and 0.91, respectively), and the rare Val/m2 haplotype was significantly higher in Mapuches (0.748) than in Asians (0.24) (P < 0.01). The frequency of this haplotype in Mapuches is the highest frequency reported to date. The population studied was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for these polymorphisms. The major differences between Mapuches and Asians were for CYP2D6*10 and CYP1A1 allelic frequencies, as well as the absence of the common Chinese 44 kb XbaI fragment of CYP2D6. These differences might be interpreted as a consequence of genetic drifts caused

  2. Isolation of two cytochrome P450 cDNAs, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, from harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus).

    PubMed

    Tilley, Rachel E; Kemp, Graham D; Teramitsu, Ikuko; Hall, Ailsa J

    2002-06-01

    Two cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, cDNA sequences have been isolated and cloned from harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). EROD, a model substrate for CYP1A, and heterologous antibodies have been employed as a biomarker in marine mammals, however the CYP1A sequences have not been characterised in these two seal species. mRNA was used as the template in RT-PCR, rather than DNA as this indicates transcription of the CYP1A gene in these seal species exposed to environmental contaminants. Harp and grey seal CYP1A1 amino acid sequences exhibited >99% identity and the CYP1A2 sequences were >98% identical. Phylogenetic analyses of the two seal species with other mammalian, and avian CYP1A sequences, showed the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 sequences clustered with corresponding sequences in other mammalian species. The closest sequences to the seal CYP1As was dog CYP1A. The CYP1A sequence information presented in this study has provided the necessary data for the future production of species-specific probes for the use as biomarkers of environmental contaminant exposure. PMID:12106895

  3. The Associations of Novel Vitamin D3 Metabolic Gene CYP27A1 Polymorphism, Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio, and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Taiwanese Males

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia-Chu; Huang, Chun-Nung; Lee, Yung-Chin; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Chang, Chu-Fen; Kuo, Po-Lin; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) confers increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both vitamin D3 and adipocytokines (especially adiponectin and leptin) have a great impact on CVD and MetS. In vitamin D3 metabolism, the vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) are two key enzymes. This study aimed to examine the influence of vitamin D3 CYP27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on adipocytokines and MetS. Cross-sectional data and DNA samples were collected from male volunteers (n = 649, age: 55.7 ± 4.7 years). Two tagging SNPs, CYP27A1 rs4674344 and CYP27B1 rs10877012, were selected from the HapMap project. MetS was significantly associated with the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP (P = 0.04) and the ratio of adiponectin/leptin (A/L ratio) was most correlated to the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, appearing to be significantly lower in T-carriers than in AA subjects (3.7 ± 4.0 versus 5.1 ± 6.0, P = 0.001) and significantly negatively associated after adjustment. For each MetS component associated with the CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, the A/L ratios were significantly negative in preclinical stage (condition not meeting the individual criteria), except the blood pressure. In conclusion, CYP27A1 rs4674344 SNP, A/L ratio, and MetS are significantly associated and T-carriers might have a higher risk of developing MetS due to low A/L ratios in the preclinical stage. PMID:25628655

  4. Thunbergia laurifolia extract minimizes the adverse effects of toxicants by regulating P-glycoprotein activity, CYP450, and lipid metabolism gene expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rocejanasaroj, A; Tencomnao, T; Sangkitikomol, W

    2014-01-01

    Thunbergia laurifolia (TL) is widely used as an antidote in Thai traditional medicine against toxic substances such as alcohol, pesticides, arsenic, and strychnine. We found that the lyophilized form of TL in 80% ethanol possessed the antioxidant levels within the range 23,163.9 ± 1457.4 Trolox equivalents mM/kg dry mass and 899.8 ± 14.5 gallic acid equivalents mM/kg dry mass using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay and the Folin Ciocalteu phenol assay, respectively. TL extract (TLE) at a high dose (3000 mg/L) induced cytotoxicity according to the neutral red assay and the MTT assay. However, TLE doses of 800-3000 mg/L could reduce intracellular oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) using the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay. TLE significantly enhanced the mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and PPARg, but it significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of CYP3A7, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 (P < 0.05) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, TLE could increase the activity of a multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, which accelerated the excretion of toxic substances from HepG2 cells. It is suggested that TLE may be beneficial for detoxification by reducing oxidative stress, minimizing toxicity by regulating the expression CYP450 mRNAs for suitable production of CYP450 isoenzymes, and increasing PPARγ mRNA expression and P-glycoprotein activity in HepG2 cells, thereby maintaining xenobiotic biotransformation balance. PMID:24446304

  5. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  6. Cross-regulation between herpesviruses and the TNF superfamily members

    PubMed Central

    Šedý, John R.; Spear, Patricia G.

    2008-01-01

    Herpesviruses have evolved numerous strategies to subvert host immune responses so they can coexist with their host species. These viruses ‘co-opt’ host genes for entry into host cells and then express immunomodulatory genes, including mimics of members of the tumour-necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, that initiate and alter host-cell signalling pathways. TNF superfamily members have crucial roles in controlling herpesvirus infection by mediating the direct killing of infected cells and by enhancing immune responses. Despite these strong immune responses, herpesviruses persist in a latent form, which suggests a dynamic relationship between the host immune system and the virus that results in a balance between host survival and viral control. PMID:18949019

  7. Camel milk modulates the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    PubMed

    Korashy, Hesham M; El Gendy, Mohamed A M; Alhaider, Abdulqader A; El-Kadi, Ayman O

    2012-01-01

    There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1), and cancer-protective genes, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1), in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE)-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. PMID:22570534

  8. Camel Milk Modulates the Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Regulated Genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in Murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Korashy, Hesham M.; El Gendy, Mohamed A. M.; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.

    2012-01-01

    There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1), and cancer-protective genes, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1), in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE)-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. PMID:22570534

  9. Effect of Natural Polyphenols on CYP Metabolism: Implications for Diseases.

    PubMed

    Korobkova, Ekaterina A

    2015-07-20

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are a large group of hemeproteins located on mitochondrial membranes or the endoplasmic reticulum. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous molecules. The activity of CYP is associated with a number of factors including redox potential, protein conformation, the accessibility of the active site by substrates, and others. This activity may be potentially modulated by a variety of small molecules. Extensive experimental data collected over the past decade point at the active role of natural polyphenols in modulating the catalytic activity of CYP. Polyphenols are widespread micronutrients present in human diets of plant origin and in medicinal herbs. These compounds may alter the activity of CYP either via direct interactions with the enzymes or by affecting CYP gene expression. The polyphenol-CYP interactions may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs and thus influence the effectiveness of chemical therapies used in the treatment of different types of cancers, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CYPs are involved in the oxidation and activation of external carcinogenic agents, in which case the inhibition of the CYP activity is beneficial for health. CYPs also support detoxification processes. In this case, it is the upregulation of CYP genes that would be favorable for the organism. A CYP enzyme aromatase catalyzes the formation of estrone and estradiol from their precursors. CYPs also catalyze multiple reactions leading to the oxidation of estrogen. Estrogen signaling and oxidative metabolism of estrogen are associated with the development of cancer. Thus, polyphenol-mediated modulation of the CYP's activity also plays a vital role in estrogen carcinogenesis. The aim of the present review is to summarize the data collected over the last five to six years on the following topics: (1) the mechanisms of the interactions of CYP with food constituents that occur via the direct binding of

  10. The AAA+ superfamily of functionally diverse proteins

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jamie; Thibault, Guillaume; Houry, Walid A

    2008-01-01

    The AAA+ superfamily is a large and functionally diverse superfamily of NTPases that are characterized by a conserved nucleotide-binding and catalytic module, the AAA+ module. Members are involved in an astonishing range of different cellular processes, attaining this functional diversity through additions of structural motifs and modifications to the core AAA+ module. PMID:18466635

  11. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of the Mouse Cyp2j Subfamily: Tissue Distribution and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Graves, Joan P; Gruzdev, Artiom; Bradbury, J Alyce; DeGraff, Laura M; Li, Huiling; House, John S; Hoopes, Samantha L; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2015-08-01

    Members of the cytochrome P450 CYP2J subfamily are expressed in multiple tissues in mice and humans. These enzymes are active in the metabolism of fatty acids to generate bioactive compounds. Herein we report new methods and results for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis for the seven genes (Cyp2j5, Cyp2j6, Cyp2j8, Cyp2j9, Cyp2j11, Cyp2j12, and Cyp2j13) of the mouse Cyp2j subfamily. SYBR Green primer sets were developed and compared with commercially available TaqMan primer/probe assays for specificity toward mouse Cyp2j cDNA, and analysis of tissue distribution and regulation of Cyp2j genes. Each TaqMan primer/probe set and SYBR Green primer set were shown to be specific for their intended mouse Cyp2j cDNA. Tissue distribution of the mouse Cyp2j isoforms confirmed similar patterns of expression between the two qPCR methods. Cyp2j5 and Cyp2j13 were highly expressed in male kidneys, and Cyp2j11 was highly expressed in both male and female kidneys. Cyp2j6 was expressed in multiple tissues, with the highest expression in the small intestine and duodenum. Cyp2j8 was detected in various tissues, with highest expression found in the skin. Cyp2j9 was highly expressed in the brain, liver, and lung. Cyp2j12 was predominately expressed in the brain. We also determined the Cyp2j isoform expression in Cyp2j5 knockout mice to determine whether there was compensatory regulation of other Cyp2j isoforms, and we assessed Cyp2j isoform regulation during various inflammatory models, including influenza A, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, house dust mite allergen, and corn pollen. Both qPCR methods detected similar suppression of Cyp2j6 and Cyp2j9 during inflammation in the lung. PMID:25994032

  12. The presence of carbon nanostructures in bakery products induces metabolic stress in human mesenchymal stem cells through CYP1A and p53 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadi, Ahmed M; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2016-01-01

    Ingredients commonly present in processed foods are excellent substrates for chemical reactions during modern thermal cooking or processing, which could possibly result in deteriorative carbonization changes mediated by a variety of thermal reactions. Spontaneous self-assembling complexation or polymerization of partially combusted lipids, proteins, and other food macromolecules with synthetic food additives during high temperature food processing or baking (200-250 °C) would result in the formation of carbon nanostructures (CNs). These unknown nanostructures may produce adverse physiological effects or potential health risks. The present work aimed to identify and characterize the nanostructures from the crusts of bread. Furthermore, a toxicological risk assessment of these nanostructures was conducted using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a model for cellular uptake and metabolic oxidative stress, with special reference to induced adipogenesis. CNs isolated from bread crusts were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro risk assessment of the CNs was carried out in hMSCs using an MTT assay, cell morphological assessment, a reactive oxygen species assay, a mitochondrial trans-membrane potential assay, cell cycle progression assessment and gene expression analysis. Our results revealed that bread crusts contain CNs, which may form during the bread-making process. The in vitro results indicate that carbon nanostructures have moderately toxic effects in the hMSCs at a high dose (400 μg/mL). The mitochondrial trans-membrane potentials and intracellular ROS levels of the hMSCs were altered at this dose. The levels of the mRNA transcripts of metabolic stress-responsive genes such as CAT, GSR, GSTA4, CYP1A and p53 were significantly altered in response to CNs. PMID:26669907

  13. CYP2D6 polymorphism in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Peñas-Lledó, E M; Dorado, P; Agüera, Z; Gratacós, M; Estivill, X; Fernández-Aranda, F; Llerena, A

    2012-04-01

    CYP2D6 polymorphism is associated with variability in drug response, endogenous metabolism (that is, serotonin), personality, neurocognition and psychopathology. The relationship between CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism and the risk of eating disorders (ED) was analyzed in 267 patients with ED and in 285 controls. A difference in the CYP2D6 active allele distribution was found between these groups. Women carrying more than two active genes (ultrarapid metabolizers) (7.5 vs 4.6%) or two (67 vs 58.9%) active genes were more frequent among patients with ED, whereas those with one (20.6 vs 30.2%) or zero active genes (4.9 vs 6.3%) were more frequent among controls (P<0.05). Although further research is needed, present findings suggest an association between CYP2D6 and ED. CYP2D6 allele distribution in patients with ED seems related to increased enzyme activity. PMID:20877302

  14. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5' flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. PMID:23624173

  15. Two duplicate CYP704B1-homologous genes BnMs1 and BnMs2 are required for pollen exine formation and tapetal development in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bin; Zeng, Fangqin; Lei, Shaolin; Chen, Yunin; Yao, Xueqin; Zhu, Yun; Wen, Jing; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2010-09-01

    S45A, a double recessive mutant at both the BnMs1 and BnMs2 loci in Brassica napus, produces no pollen in mature anthers and no seeds by self-fertilization. The BnMs1 and BnMs2 genes, which have redundant functions in the control of male fertility, are positioned on linkage groups N7 and N16, respectively, and are located at the same locus on Arabidopsis chromosome 1 based on collinearity between Arabidopsis and Brassica. Complementation tests indicated that one candidate gene, BnCYP704B1, a member of the cytochrome P450 family, can rescue male sterility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the developing anther showed that pollen-wall formation in the mutant was severely compromised, with a lack of sporopollenin or exine. The phenotype was first evident at the tetrad stage (stage 7) of anther development, coinciding with the maximum BnCYP704B1 mRNA accumulation observed in tapetal cells at stages 7-8 (haploid stage). TEM also suggested that development of the tapetum was seriously defective due to the disturbed lipid metabolism in the S45A mutant. A TUNEL assay indicated that the pattern of programmed cell death in the tapetum of the S45A mutant was defective. Lipid analysis showed that the total fatty acid content was reduced in the S45A mutant, indicating that BnCYP704B1 is involved in lipid metabolism. These data suggest that BnCYP704B1 participates in a vital tapetum-specific metabolic pathway that is not only involved in exine formation but is also required for basic tapetal cell development and function. PMID:20598092

  16. Characterization and expression profile of the ovarian cytochrome P-450 aromatase (cyp19A1) gene during thermolabile sex determination in Pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karube, M.; Fernandino, J.I.; Strobl-Mazzulla, P.; Strussmann, C.A.; Yoshizaki, G.; Somoza, G.M.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (cyp19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens and may play a role in temperature- dependent sex determination (TSD) of reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. In this study, the ovarian P450 aromatase form (cyp19A1) of pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis, a teleost with marked TSD, was cloned and its expression profile evaluated during gonadal differentiation at feminizing (17??C, 100% females), mixed-sex producing (24 and 25??C, 73.3 and 26.7% females, respectively), and masculinizing (29??C, 0% females) temperatures. The deduced cyp19A1 amino acid sequence shared high identity (>77.8%) with that from other teleosts but had low identity (<61.8%) with brain forms (cyp19A2), including that of pejerrey itself. The tissue distribution analysis of cyp19A1 mRNA in adult fish revealed high expression in the ovary. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of the bodies of larvae revealed that cyp19A1 expression increased before the appearance of the first histological signs of ovarian differentiation at the feminizing temperature but remained low at the masculinizing temperature. The expression levels at mixed-sex producing temperatures were bimodal rather than intermediate, showing low and high modal values similar to those at the feminizing and masculinizing temperatures, respectively. The population percentages of high and low expression levels at intermediate temperatures were proportional to the percentage of females and males, respectively, and high levels were first observed at about the time of sex differentiation of females. These results suggest that cyp19A1 is involved in the process of ovarian formation and possibly also in the TSD of pejerrey. ?? 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A Global Analysis of CYP51 Diversity and Azole Sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Patrick C; Stefansson, Tryggvi S; Fountaine, James; Richina, Veronica; McDonald, Bruce A

    2016-04-01

    CYP51 encodes the target site of the azole class of fungicides widely used in plant protection. Some ascomycete pathogens carry two CYP51 paralogs called CYP51A and CYP51B. A recent analysis of CYP51 sequences in 14 European isolates of the barley scald pathogen Rhynchosporium commune revealed three CYP51 paralogs, CYP51A, CYP51B, and a pseudogene called CYP51A-p. The same analysis showed that CYP51A exhibits a presence/absence polymorphism, with lower sensitivity to azole fungicides associated with the presence of a functional CYP51A. We analyzed a global collection of nearly 400 R. commune isolates to determine if these findings could be extended beyond Europe. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that CYP51A played a key role in the emergence of azole resistance globally and provide new evidence that the CYP51A gene in R. commune has further evolved, presumably in response to azole exposure. We also present evidence for recent long-distance movement of evolved CYP51A alleles, highlighting the risk associated with movement of fungicide resistance alleles among international trading partners. PMID:26623995

  18. Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily in Neuroinflammation and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Sonar, Sandip; Lal, Girdhari

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) molecules play an important role in the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). Several TNF superfamily molecules are known to control alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and immunity. Development of transgenic and gene knockout animals, and monoclonal antibodies against TNFSF molecules have increased our understanding of individual receptor–ligand interactions, and their intracellular signaling during homeostasis and neuroinflammation. A strong clinical association has been observed between TNFSF members and CNS autoimmunity such as multiple sclerosis and also in its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therefore, they are promising targets for alternative therapeutic options to control autoimmunity. Although, TNFSF ligands are widely distributed and have diverse functions, we have restricted the discussions in this review to TNFSF receptor–ligand interactions and their role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and CNS autoimmunity. PMID:26257732

  19. Role of Metabolic Enzymes P450 (CYP) on Activating Procarcinogen and their Polymorphisms on the Risk of Cancers.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Feng, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are the most important metabolizing enzyme family exists among all organs. Apart from their role in the deactivation of most endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, they also mediate most procarcinogens oxidation to ultimate carcinogens. There are several modes of CYP450s activation of procarcinogens. 1) Formation of epoxide and diol-epoxides intermediates, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mediates PAHs oxidation to epoxide intermediates; 2) Formation of diazonium ions, such as CYP2A6, CYP2A13 and CYP2E1 mediates activation of most nitrosamines to unstable metabolites, which can rearrange to give diazonium ions. 3) Formation of reactive semiquinones and quinines, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transformation of estradiol to catechol estrogens, subsequently formation semiquinones; 4) Formation of toxic O-esterification, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 metabolizes PhIP to N(2)-acetoxy-PhIP and N(2)-sulfonyloxy-PhIP, which are carcinogenic metabolites. 5) Formation of free radical, such as CYP2E1 is involved in activation tetrachloromethane to free radicals. While for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, only a minor role has been found in procarcinogens activation. In addition, as the gene polymorphisms reflected, the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1A2 (- 163C/A and -2467T/delT), CYP1B1 (-48G/C, -119G/T and -432G/C), CYP2E1 (-1293G/C and -1053 C/T) have been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), and CYP2E1 (PstI/Rsa and 9-bp insertion) have an association with higher risk colon cancers, whereas CYP1A2 (-163C/A and -3860G/A) polymorphism is found to be among the protective factors. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1B1 -432G/C, CYP2B6 (-516G/T and -785A/G) may increase the risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 are responsible for most of the procarcinogens activation, and their gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of

  20. Common Genetic Variants of the Human Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Gene (CYP21A2) Are Related to Differences in Circulating Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Doleschall, Márton; Szabó, Julianna Anna; Pázmándi, Júlia; Szilágyi, Ágnes; Koncz, Klára; Farkas, Henriette; Tóth, Miklós; Igaz, Péter; Gláz, Edit; Prohászka, Zoltán; Korbonits, Márta; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Systematic evaluation of the potential relationship between the common genetic variants of CYP21A2 and hormone levels. Methods The relationships of CYP21A2 intron 2 polymorphisms and haplotypes with diverse baseline and stimulated blood hormone levels were studied in 106 subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI). The rationale for using NFAI subjects is dual: i) their baseline hormone profiles do not differ from those of healthy subjects and ii) hormone levels after stimulation tests are available. Results The carriers (N = 27) of a well-defined CYP21A2 haplotype cluster (c5) had significantly elevated levels of cortisol (p = 0.0110), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.0001) after ACTH stimulation, and 11-deoxycortisol after metyrapone administration (p = 0.0017), but the hormone values were in normal ranges. In addition, the carriers (N = 33) of the C allele of the rs6462 polymorphism had a higher baseline aldosterone level (p = 0.0006). The prevalence of these genetic variants of CYP21A2 did not differ between NFAI and healthy subjects. Conclusions The common CYP21A2 variants presumably exert the same effect on hormone levels in the healthy and disease-affected populations. Therefore, they may contribute to complex diseases such as some cardiovascular diseases, and may influence the genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) including the individual need for hormone substitution. PMID:25210767

  1. Effects of 22 novel CYP2D6 variants found in Chinese population on the metabolism of dapoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-ai; Gu, Er-min; Zhou, Quan; Yuan, Lingjing; Hu, Xiaoxia; Cai, Jianping; Hu, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Background CYP2D6 is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Its genetic polymorphism significantly influences the efficacy and safety of some drugs, which might cause adverse effects and therapeutic failure. Methods and results The aim of this research was mainly to explore the catalytic activities of 22 newly reported CYP2D6 isoforms (2D6*87, *88, *89, *90, *91, *92, *93, *94, *95, *96,*97, *98, *R25Q, F164L, E215K, F219S, V327M, D336N, V342M, R344Q, R440C, R497C) on dapoxetine in vitro. The research was designed with an appropriate incubation system in test tubes and carried out in the constant temperature water. Through detecting its two metabolites desmethyldapoxetine and dapoxetine-N-oxide, the available data were obtained to explain the influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the substrate drug dapoxetine. As a result, the intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) values of most variants were significantly altered when compared with the counterpart of CYP2D6*1, with most of these variants exhibiting either reduced Vmax and/or increased Km values. For dapoxetine demethylation pathway (which produces desmethyldapoxetine), 2D6*89 and E215K exhibited no markedly decreased relative clearance of 92.81% and 97.70%, respectively. The relative clearance of rest 20 variants exhibited decrease in different levels, ranging from 20.44% to 90.90%. For the dapoxetine oxidation pathway (which produces dapoxetine-N-oxide), the relative clearance values of three variants, 2D6*90, *94, and V342M, exhibited no markedly increased relative clearance of 106.17%, 107.78%, and 109.98%, respectively; the rest 19 variants exhibited significantly decreased levels ranging from 27.56% to 84.64%. In addition, the kinetic parameters of two CYP2D6 variants (2D6*92 and 2D6*96) could not be detected, due to the defect of the CYP2D6 gene. Conclusion As the first report of all aforementioned alleles for dapoxetine metabolism, these data may help in the clinical assessment of the

  2. Arabidopsis KLU homologue GmCYP78A72 regulates seed size in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baotian; Dai, Aihua; Wei, Haichao; Yang, Suxin; Wang, Baoshan; Jiang, Ning; Feng, Xianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crops in the world, and its yield is largely determined by grain weight and grain size. However, the genes that regulate soybean seed size have not been identified. CYP78A, which is highly conserved within terrestrial plants, regulates organ development. In Arabidopsis, AtCYP78A5/KLU has been shown to determine seed size. In the present study, soybean CYP78A72 (GmCYP78A72), one of the orthologs of KLU, was over-expressed in both Arabidopsis and soybean to examine its function in plant development. GmCYP78A72 heterologous expression in Arabidopsis resulted in enlarged sepals, petals, seeds and carpel. Over-expression of GmCYP78A72 in soybean resulted in increased pea size, which is an extremely desirable trait for enhancing productivity. Moreover, knock-down of GmCYP78A72 does not reduce grain size. However, silencing of GmCYP78A57, GmCYP78A70 and GmCYP78A72 genes in triplet reduces the seed size significantly indicating functional redundancy of these three GmCYP78A genes. In conclusion, we investigated the role of CYP78A in soybean seed regulation, and our strategy can be effectively used to engineer large seed traits in soybean varieties as well as other crops. PMID:26482479

  3. Utility of the Amborella trichopoda expansin superfamily in elucidating the history of angiosperm expansins.

    PubMed

    Seader, Victoria H; Thornsberry, Jennifer M; Carey, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Expansins form a superfamily of plant proteins that assist in cell wall loosening during growth and development. The superfamily is divided into four families: EXPA, EXPB, EXLA, and EXLB (Sampedro and Cosgrove in Genome Biol 6:242, 2005. doi: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-12-242 ). Previous studies on Arabidopsis, rice, and Populus trichocarpa have clarified the evolutionary history of expansins in angiosperms (Sampedro et al. in Plant J 44:409-419, 2005. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02540.x ). Amborella trichopoda is a flowering plant that diverged very early. Thus, it is a sister lineage to all other extant angiosperms (Amborella Genome Project in 342:1241089, 2013. doi: 10.1126/science.1241089 ). Because of this relationship, comparing the A. trichopoda expansin superfamily with those of other flowering plants may indicate which expansin genes were present in the last common ancestor of all angiosperms. The A. trichopoda expansin superfamily was assembled using BLAST searches with angiosperm expansin queries. The search results were analyzed and annotated to isolate the complete A. trichopoda expansin superfamily. This superfamily is similar to other angiosperm expansin superfamilies, but is somewhat smaller. This is likely because of a lack of genome duplication events (Amborella Genome Project 2013). Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses of A. trichopoda expansins have improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of expansins in angiosperms. Nearly all of the A. trichopoda expansins were placed into an existing Arabidopsis-rice expansin clade. Based on the results of phylogenetic and syntenic analyses, we estimate there were 12-13 EXPA genes, 2 EXPB genes, 1 EXLA gene, and 2 EXLB genes in the last common ancestor of all angiosperms. PMID:26646380

  4. Superfamilies of Evolved and Designed Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milo, Ron; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Kashtan, Nadav; Levitt, Reuven; Shen-Orr, Shai; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Sheffer, Michal; Alon, Uri

    2004-03-01

    Complex biological, technological, and sociological networks can be of very different sizes and connectivities, making it difficult to compare their structures. Here we present an approach to systematically study similarity in the local structure of networks, based on the significance profile (SP) of small subgraphs in the network compared to randomized networks. We find several superfamilies of previously unrelated networks with very similar SPs. One superfamily, including transcription networks of microorganisms, represents ``rate-limited'' information-processing networks strongly constrained by the response time of their components. A distinct superfamily includes protein signaling, developmental genetic networks, and neuronal wiring. Additional superfamilies include power grids, protein-structure networks and geometric networks, World Wide Web links and social networks, and word-adjacency networks from different languages.

  5. MOLECULAR VIEW OF THE SUPERFAMILY DIOCTOPHYMATOIDEA (NEMATODA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monophyly of the superfamily Dioctophymatoidea using 3 constituent genera was tested using a multilocus analysis of DNA sequence variation. Phylogenetic reconstruction involved maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference of 18s nuclear DNA (786 bp segment) and mitochondrial cytochro...

  6. Profiling of Vitamin D Metabolic Intermediates toward VDR Using Novel Stable Gene Reporter Cell Lines IZ-VDRE and IZ-CYP24.

    PubMed

    Bartonkova, Iveta; Grycova, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2016-07-18

    Variety of xenobiotics, including therapeutically used vitamin D analogues or environmental and alimentary endocrine disruptors, may interfere with vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling, with serious physiological or pathophysiological consequences. Therefore, it is of topical interest to have reliable and efficient in vitro screening tools for the identification of agonists and activators of human VDR. We present here two novel stably transfected human reporter cell lines allowing rapid, high-throughput, and selective identification of VDR agonists and activators. Human colon adenocarcinoma cells LS180 were stably transfected with reporter plasmids CYP24_minP-pNL2.1[Nluc/Hygro] (IZ-CYP24 cells contain the -326/-46 sequence from the human CYP24A1 promoter) or VDREI3_SV40-pNL2.1[Nluc/Hygro] (IZ-VDRE cells contain three copies of vitamin D response elements VDRE-I from the human CYP24A1 promoter). Both cell lines remained fully functional for over two months in the culture and also after cryopreservation. Luciferase inductions ranged from 10-fold to 25-fold (RLU 10(6)-10(7)) and from 30-fold to 80-fold (RLU 10(3)-10(4)) in IZ-VDRE and IZ-CYP24 cells, respectively. Time-course analyses revealed that detection of VDR activators is possible as soon as after 8 h of incubation. Cell lines were highly selective toward VDR agonists, displaying no cross-activation by retinoids, thyroids, and steroids. As a proof of concept, we used IZ-VDRE and IZ-CYP24 cells for profiling analogues of vitamin D, and intermediates in vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 metabolic pathways against VDR transcriptional activity. The data obtained revealed significant activation of VDR not only by obligatory ligands calcitriol and ergocalcitriol but also by their precursors and degradation products. PMID:27327272

  7. CYP3C1, the first member of a new cytochrome P450 subfamily found in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Corley-Smith, Graham E; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Wang-Buhler, Jun-Lan; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Hoang, Thuy; Chung, Woon-Gye; Buhler, Donald R

    2006-02-24

    We report a new cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily CYP3C and the cloning through PCR from zebrafish (Danio rerio) of the first member, CYP3C1. The CYP3C1 gene is on Chromosome 3 with 13 ORF exons encoding a 505 amino acid protein which has 44-54% identities with mammalian and teleost CYP3A and CYP3B forms. As evidenced by spectral analysis, the CYP3C1 protein heterologously expressed in yeast is functional. In silico analysis identified, on the same region of the chromosome, three more genes encoding CYP3C1-like proteins that formed a clade with CYP3C1 in a phylogenetic tree. Using RT-PCR, the CYP3C1 mRNA was detected in 1-6dpf embryo/larvae and in adult fish liver and seven extrahepatic tissues. Whole-mount in situ hybridization using a riboprobe demonstrated expression in the brain during 12-120 hpf. At the 120 hpf larval stage, CYP3C1 mRNA was also detected in the pharynx and gastrointestinal tract. TCDD, dexamethasone, and rifampicin, which up-regulated CYP3A65 mRNA in zebrafish larvae, did not alter the CYP3C1 transcript levels suggesting regulatory differences between CYP3A and CYP3C enzymes in this species. PMID:16414346

  8. Intrinsic Disorder in the Kinesin Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Mark A; Rice, Sarah E

    2013-09-01

    Kinesin molecular motors perform a myriad of intracellular transport functions. While their mechanochemical mechanisms are well understood and well-conserved throughout the superfamily, the cargo-binding and regulatory mechanisms governing the activity of kinesins are highly diverse and in general, are incompletely characterized. Here we present evidence from bioinformatic predictions indicating that most kinesin superfamily members contain significant regions of intrinsically disordered (ID) residues. ID regions can bind to multiple partners with high specificity, and are highly labile to post-translational modification and degradation signals. In kinesins, the predicted ID regions are primarily found in areas outside the motor domains, where primary sequences diverge by family, suggesting that ID may be a critical structural element for determining the functional specificity of individual kinesins. To support this idea, we present a systematic analysis of the kinesin superfamily, family by family, for predicted regions of ID. We combine this analysis with a comprehensive review of kinesin binding partners and post-translational modifications. We find two key trends across the entire kinesin superfamily. First, ID residues tend to be in the tail regions of kinesins, opposite the superfamily-conserved motor domains. Second, predicted ID regions correlate to regions that are known to bind to cargoes and/or undergo post-translational modifications. We therefore propose that ID is a structural element utilized by the kinesin superfamily in order to impart functional specificity to individual kinesins. PMID:24244223

  9. Intrinsic Disorder in the Kinesin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Mark A.; Rice, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Kinesin molecular motors perform a myriad of intracellular transport functions. While their mechanochemical mechanisms are well understood and well-conserved throughout the superfamily, the cargo-binding and regulatory mechanisms governing the activity of kinesins are highly diverse and in general, are incompletely characterized. Here we present evidence from bioinformatic predictions indicating that most kinesin superfamily members contain significant regions of intrinsically disordered (ID) residues. ID regions can bind to multiple partners with high specificity, and are highly labile to post-translational modification and degradation signals. In kinesins, the predicted ID regions are primarily found in areas outside the motor domains, where primary sequences diverge by family, suggesting that ID may be a critical structural element for determining the functional specificity of individual kinesins. To support this idea, we present a systematic analysis of the kinesin superfamily, family by family, for predicted regions of ID. We combine this analysis with a comprehensive review of kinesin binding partners and post-translational modifications. We find two key trends across the entire kinesin superfamily. First, ID residues tend to be in the tail regions of kinesins, opposite the superfamily-conserved motor domains. Second, predicted ID regions correlate to regions that are known to bind to cargoes and/or undergo post-translational modifications. We therefore propose that ID is a structural element utilized by the kinesin superfamily in order to impart functional specificity to individual kinesins. PMID:24244223

  10. Association of polymorphisms in AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes with levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Yongwen Chen; Yun Bai; Jing Yuan; Weihong Chen; Jianya Sun; Hong Wang; Huashan Liang; Liang Guo; Xiaobo Yang; Hao Tan; Yougong Su; Qingyi Wei; Tangchun Wu

    2006-09-15

    Accumulating evidence has shown that both DNA damage caused by the metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes contribute to individual susceptibility to PAH-induced carcinogenesis. However, the functional relevance of genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes in exposed individuals is still unclear. In this study of 240 coke-oven workers (the exposed group) and 123 non-coke-oven workers (the control group), we genotyped for polymorphisms in the AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes by PCR methods, and determined the levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay. It was found that the ln-transformed Olive tail moment (Olive TM) values in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, in the exposed group, the Olive TM values in subjects with the AhR Lys{sup 554} variant genotype were higher than those with the AhR Arg{sup 554}/Arg{sup 554} genotype. Similarly, the Olive TM values in the non-coke-oven workers with the CYP1A1 MspI CC + CT genotype were lower than the values of those with the CYP1A1 MspI TT genotype. However, these differences were not evident for GSTM1 and GSTT1. These results suggested that the polymorphism of AhR might modulate the effects of PAHs in the exposed group; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which this polymorphism may have affected the levels of PAH-induced DNA damage warrant further investigation.

  11. Competing endogenous RNA networks of CYP4Z1 and pseudogene CYP4Z2P confer tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lufeng; Li, Xiaoman; Meng, Xia; Chou, Jinjiang; Hu, Jinhang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Zhiting; Xing, Yingying; Liu, Yu; Xi, Tao

    2016-05-15

    Patients with estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer can be treated with endocrine therapy using anti-estrogens such as tamoxifen; nonetheless, patients often develop resistance limiting the success of breast cancer treatment. The potential mechanisms remain elusive. In detail, many miRNAs have been associated with breast cancer tamoxifen resistance, but no studies have addressed the role of miRNA-mediated competitive endogenous RNAs network (ceRNET) in tamoxifen resistance. The ceRNET between CYP4Z1 and pseudogene CYP4Z2P has been revealed to promote breast cancer angiogenesis. However, its function in tamoxifen resistance remains unclear. Here we report CYP4Z1 and CYP4Z2P were downregulated in MCF-7 cells compared with tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7-TamR cells. Enforced upregulation of CYP4Z1- or CYP4Z2P-3'UTR level renders MCF-7 Cells resistant to tamoxifen. We find that overexpression of CYP4Z1- or CYP4Z2P-3'UTR enhances the transcriptional activity of ERα through the activation of ERα phosphorylation. Furthermore, we find that CYP4Z1- and CYP4Z2P-3'UTRs increase ERα activity dependent on cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (CDK3). Reporter gene and western blot assays revealed that CYP4Z1- and CYP4Z2P-3'UTRs act as CDK3 ceRNAs. More importantly, the blocking of CYP4Z1- and CYP4Z2P-3'UTRs reversed tamoxifen resistance in MCF-7-TamR cells. Our data demonstrates that the ceRNET between CYP4Z1 and pseudogene CYP4Z2P acts as a sub-ceRNET to promote CDK3 expression in ER-positive breast cancer and is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. PMID:26980484

  12. Prevalence of CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, and CYP3A5*3 in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen treatment

    PubMed Central

    Charoenchokthavee, Wanaporn; Panomvana, Duangchit; Sriuranpong, Virote; Areepium, Nutthada

    2016-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in breast cancer treatment, but interindividual variabilities in TAM-metabolizing enzymes exist and have been linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the respective encoding genes. The different alleles and genotypes of these genes have been presented for Caucasians and Asians. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the incomplete functional alleles and genotypes of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment. Patients and methods In total, 134 Thai breast cancer patients were randomly invited to join the Thai Tamoxifen Project. Their blood samples were collected and extracted for individual DNA. The alleles and genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan® Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assays. Results The patients were aged from 27.0 years to 82.0 years with a body mass index range from 15.4 to 40.0, with the majority (103/134) in the early stage (stages 0–II) of breast cancer. The median duration of TAM administration was 17.2 months (interquartile range 16.1 months). Most (53%) of the patients were premenopausal with an estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of ER+/PR+ (71.7%), ER+/PR− (26.9%), ER−/PR+ (0.7%), and ER−/PR− (0.7%). The allele frequencies of CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, CYP3A5*1, and CYP3A5*3 were 72.9%, 3.2%, 1.1%, 22.8%, 37.3%, and 62.7%, respectively, while the genotype frequencies of CYP2D6*1/*1, CYP2D6*1/*2, CYP2D6*2/*2, CYP2D6*4/*4, CYP2D6*1/*10, CYP2D6*2/*10, CYP2D6*4/*10, CYP2D6*10/*10, CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*1/*3, and CYP3A5*3/*3 were 9.7%, 2.2%, 3.7%, 1.5%, 15.7%, 9.7%, 3.7%, 53.7%, 13.4%, 47.8%, and 38.8%, respectively. Conclusion The majority (97.8%) of Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment carry at least one incomplete functional allele, including 20.9% of the patients who carry only incomplete functional alleles for both the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes. This research

  13. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (p<0.01). No gender-differences were observed in tammar wallaby or Eastern grey kangaroo. Immunoblot analysis utilising anti-human CYP3A4 antibody detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test male and female marsupials including the koala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP

  14. The effect of pomelo mix ethyl acetate extract on CYP3A6 and P-glycoprotein gene transcripts in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Irshaid, Yacoub M; Zihlef, Malek A; Zmeili, Suheil M; Al-Antary, Eman T; Zmaily, Mais G; Al-Embideen, Somya N; Amireh, Abdallah O

    2014-07-01

    Pomelo fruit juice and pomelo ethylacetate extract have been shown to increase the bioavailability of some CYP3A substrates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if this effect might be contributed to by changes in CYP3A and p-glycoprotein mRNAs levels in the liver and proximal small intestine. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix was administered for 7 days to 10 rabbits. Nine rabbits were administered tap water for 7 days. The administration was through oral intubation to the stomach. On the 8(th) day, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the liver and the proximal 15 cm of the small intestine were dissected. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and cDNA was prepared by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 almost 5-folds in the intestine and 2-folds in the liver. In contrast, a 1-fold increase to the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was observed under the same experimental conditions. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 in both intestine and liver but to different degrees, while the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was not reduced. PMID:24856265

  15. Lack of Association between ESR1 and CYP1A1 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Uterine Leiomyoma in Female Patients of Iranian Descent

    PubMed Central

    Taghizade Mortezaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori, Morteza; Miraj, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma (UL) is the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumor with as yet unknown etiology and pathogenesis. This study was carried out to investigate the association of ESR1-351 A>G, ESR1 -397 T>C and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) polymorphisms with UL in female patients of Iranian origin. In this case-control study, 276 patients with UL and 156 healthy women were recruited. The genetic polymorphisms ESR1-351 A>G, ESR1-397 T>C and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). No significant difference were found in frequencies of both genotypes and alleles of ESR1-351 A>G, ESR1-397 T>C and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) polymorphisms between the two groups (p>0.05). Our findings indicated that these ESR1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms were not associated with the development of UL in the cases reported here. PMID:24567938

  16. Ripening-specific stigmasterol increase in tomato fruit is associated with increased sterol 22-desaturase (CYP710A7) gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosterol content and composition and sterol 22-desaturase (LeSD1; CYP710A7) transcript levels in pericarp tissue of 'Rutgers' tomato fruit were compared in the wild-type (wt) and isogenic lines of the non-ripening mutants nor and rin at four stages of ripening/aging. Fruit of wt were harvested at...

  17. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  18. A novel sterol 14alpha-demethylase/ferredoxin fusion protein (MCCYP51FX) from Methylococcus capsulatus represents a new class of the cytochrome P450 superfamily.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Colin J; Lamb, David C; Marczylo, Timothy H; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Manning, Nigel J; Lowe, David J; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2002-12-01

    Sterol 14alpha-demethylase encoded by CYP51 is a member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of enzymes and has been shown to have an essential role in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes, with orthologues recently being described in some bacteria. Examination of the genome sequence data for the proteobacterium Methylococcus capsulatus, a bacterial species known to produce sterol, revealed the presence of a single CYP with strong homology to CYP51, particularly to a form in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This M. capsulatus CYP51 protein represents a new class of CYP consisting of the CYP domain naturally fused to a ferredoxin domain at the C terminus via an alanine-rich linker. Expression of the M. capsulatus MCCYP51FX fusion in Escherichia coli yielded a P450, which, when purified to homogeneity, had the predicted molecular mass approximately 62 kDa on SDS/PAGE and bound lanosterol as a putative substrate. Sterol 14alpha-demethylase activity was shown (0.24 nmol of lanosterol metabolized per minute per nanomole of MCCYP51FX fusion) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with the activity dependent upon the presence of ferredoxin reductase and NADPH. Our unique findings describe a new class of naturally existing cytochrome P450, which will provide pivotal information for CYP structure/function in general. PMID:12235134

  19. An in vivo bioassay for detecting antiandrogens using humanized transgenic mice coexpressing the tetracycline-controlled transactivator and human CYP1B1 gene.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae Y; Cho, Jung S; Oh, Jae H; Shim, Sun B; Jee, Seung W; Lee, Su H; Seo, Su J; Kang, Hyun G; Sheen, Yhun Y; Lee, Seok H; Kim, Yong K

    2005-01-01

    The typical strategy used in analysis of antiandrogens involves the morphological changes of a marker in castrated rats Hershberger assay for the prostate, seminal vesicle, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC), Cowper's gland, and glans penis. However, there are disadvantages to this approach, such as the time required, and the results may not correspond to those in actual human exposure. To evaluate its ability for detecting antiandrogens, in vivo the dose effect of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and time effect of five antiandrogens, DEHP, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), linuron (3-(4-dichlorophenyl)-methoxy-1-methylurea), and 2,4'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)ethylene), were investigated using humanized transgenic mice coexpressing tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) and the human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme CYP1B1 (hCYP1B1). Adult transgenic males were treated with each of the five antiandrogens, and their tTA-driven hCYP1B1 expressions analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or Western blot and for O-debenzylation activity. Herein, the treatments of adult males with the five antiandrogens were shown to affect the increased levels of tTA-driven hCYP1B1 expression in both dose-dependent and repeated experiments. Thus, this novel in vivo bioassay, using humanized transgenic mice, is useful for measuring antiandrogens, and is a means to a more relevant bioassay relating to actual human exposure. PMID:16040568

  20. β-naphthoflavone interferes with cyp1c1, cox2 and IL-8 gene transcription and leukotriene B4 secretion in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) head kidney cells during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Holen, Elisabeth; Olsvik, Pål A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how β-naphthoflavone interacts with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and polyinosinic acid: polycytidylic acid (poly I: C) induced innate immune parameters as well as phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes in head kidney cells isolated from Atlantic cod. β-naphthoflavone is a pure agonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) while LPS and poly I: C are not. β-naphthoflavone was added to head kidney leukocytes alone or together with LPS or poly I: C and the responses were evaluated in terms of protein and gene expression. The results showed that β-naphthoflavone (25 nM), with and without LPS, significantly induced cytochrome P450 (cyp1c) transcription in cod head kidney cells. β-naphthoflavone (100 nM) in the presence of the virus mimic, poly I: C, also increased cyp1c1transcription. LPS induced cyp1c1, cyclooxygenase 2 (cox2), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) transcription, genes that were not affected by the tested β-naphthoflavone concentrations alone. However, β-naphthoflavone (25 and 50 nM) strengthened LPS induced cox2 and IL-8 transcription. Cod head kidney cells exposed to β-naphthoflavone concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 nM, with and without LPS or poly I: C, expressed AhR protein. LPS or β-naphthoflavone (5-50 nM) significantly induced leukotriene B4 (LTB4) secretion compared to control. In conclusion, this study suggests that β-naphthoflavone could interfere with LPS induced immune cell signaling in cod head kidney cells. PMID:27041667

  1. A Novel Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein Gene (sreA) Identified in Penicillium digitatum Is Required for Prochloraz Resistance, Full Virulence and erg11 (cyp51) Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Yuan, Yongze; Wu, Zhi; Li, Na; Chen, Yuanlei; Qin, Tingting; Geng, Hui; Xiong, Li; Liu, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. Additionally, control of the disease is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains due to the extensive use of triazole antifungal drugs. In this work, an orthologus gene encoding a putative sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) was identified in the genome of P. digitatum and named sreA. The putative SreA protein contains a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF2014) at its carboxyl terminus and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) leucine zipper DNA binding domain at its amino terminus, domains that are functionally associated with SREBP transcription factors. The deletion of sreA (ΔsreA) in a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and a significantly lower EC50 value compared with the HS-F6 wild-type or complementation strain (COsreA). A virulence assay showed that the ΔsreA strain was defective in virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of sreA could restore the virulence to a large extent. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that prochloraz-induced expression of cyp51A and cyp51B in PdHS-F6 was completely abolished in the ΔsreA strain. These results demonstrate that sreA is a critical transcription factor gene required for prochloraz resistance and full virulence in P. digitatum and is involved in the regulation of cyp51 expression. PMID:25699519

  2. A novel sterol regulatory element-binding protein gene (sreA) identified in penicillium digitatum is required for prochloraz resistance, full virulence and erg11 (cyp51) regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yuan, Yongze; Wu, Zhi; Li, Na; Chen, Yuanlei; Qin, Tingting; Geng, Hui; Xiong, Li; Liu, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. Additionally, control of the disease is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains due to the extensive use of triazole antifungal drugs. In this work, an orthologus gene encoding a putative sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) was identified in the genome of P. digitatum and named sreA. The putative SreA protein contains a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF2014) at its carboxyl terminus and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) leucine zipper DNA binding domain at its amino terminus, domains that are functionally associated with SREBP transcription factors. The deletion of sreA (ΔsreA) in a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and a significantly lower EC50 value compared with the HS-F6 wild-type or complementation strain (COsreA). A virulence assay showed that the ΔsreA strain was defective in virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of sreA could restore the virulence to a large extent. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that prochloraz-induced expression of cyp51A and cyp51B in PdHS-F6 was completely abolished in the ΔsreA strain. These results demonstrate that sreA is a critical transcription factor gene required for prochloraz resistance and full virulence in P. digitatum and is involved in the regulation of cyp51 expression. PMID:25699519

  3. Allele, Genotype and Haplotype Structures of Functional Polymorphic Variants in Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS), Angiotensinogen (ACE) and Aldosterone Synthase (CYP11B2) Genes in Healthy Pregnant Women of Indian Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Devendran, Anichavezhi; Nampoothiri, Sreekala; Shewade, Deepak Gopal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Jayaraman, Balachandar; Chandrasekharan, Adithan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variants in the candidate genes eNOS, CYP11B2 and ACE have been implicated as liable biomarkers that can predict complications like hypertension and preeclampsia. Studies on the impact and distribution of these variants on healthy pregnancy have not been done so far in south Indian or in any of the native Indian population. Examining these variants could lay a strong basis in understanding the genetic aspects of preeclampsia and further offer effective means in early risk assessment in a preeclampsia. Methods: Genotyping for 303 unrelated healthy women of Tamilian origin who underwent uncomplicated term pregnancies was executed by PCR-RFLP for eNOS, CYP11B2 and ACE variants. Haplotype assessment and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) investigation were performed by Haploview software. Results: The prevalence of eNOS variants (−786T>C, Glu298Asp and intron 4 VNTR) was 12%, 21.6% and 21.1%, respectively. The incidence of CYP11B2 (−344 C>T) and ACE (287 bp Alu I/D) variants was found to be 43.8% and 42.7%. The observed frequencies of the studied polymorphisms did not diverge from the HWE (p>0.05). Significant LD was observed between 3 eNOS gene polymorphisms. Six different haplotype structures with a frequency of >1% were generated from three eNOS variants. Among the haplotypes generated, the haplotype T-4b-G was the most common with the frequency of 64.4%. There was a statistically significant inconsistency in the study population in comparison to other global races. Conclusion: The outcome of this study could be used for investigating future therapeutic value of the variants in a preeclamptic set-up which could pose a credible diagnostic potential for primary risk assessment of women susceptible to preeclampsia/other pregnancy related complications. PMID:27110515

  4. Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333

  5. Genetic Basis of the Relationship Between Reproduction and Longevity: A Study on Common Variants of Three Genes in Steroid Hormone Metabolism--CYP17, HSD17B1, and COMT.

    PubMed

    Scarabino, Daniela; Scacchi, Renato; Pinto, Alessandro; Corbo, Rosa Maria

    2015-10-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging predict an antagonistic relationship between fertility and life span in humans, but the genetic basis of this phenomenon is not clear. The variation of three genes in steroid hormone metabolism--CYP17 (rs743572), HSD17B1 (rs 605059), and COMT (rs4680)--was examined to elucidate the genetic basis of the relationship between fertility and life span. A sample of 277 individuals (mean age, 82.9 years) was recruited in 2000. On the basis of mortality data collected in 2009, the sample was divided into two groups of subjects surviving to over 90 years (long-lived) or not (controls). Fertility data (number of children) were collected in the same sample. The HSD17B1 AA genotype was found to be significantly associated (p = 0.0085) with longevity only in the females (estimated odds ratio = 3.77). Because the HSD17B1 AA genotype was also associated with a higher number of children (5.3 ± 2.1) than the other genotypes (p = 0.006), we may infer that HSD17B1 genotypes could exert a positive pleiotropic action on longevity and fertility. CYP17 and COMT gene variation did not influence either life span or fertility. We then searched the literature for genes studied in relation to both reproduction and aging. A review of the studies showed a pleiotropic action for six out of 16 genes and revealed that genes may exert positive, or negative, or antagonistic pleiotropic actions. These potential actions may be modified by such environmental factors such as changing reproductive behaviors, which seem to be able to mitigate or enhance a gene's phenotypic effects. PMID:25936248

  6. Breast cancer risk, fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A gene-environment interactions in a province-wide case control study in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; VanLeeuwen, John; Cribb, Alastair; Andreou, Pantelis; Guernsey, Judith Read

    2012-05-01

    Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI) Canada. Specific objectives were: (1) to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2) to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46-1.17). Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research. PMID:22754477

  7. Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) in the mouse transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Miki, Harukata; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2003-06-01

    In the post genomic era where virtually all the genes and the proteins are known, an important task is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the expression of important classes of genes, such as those that are required for intracellular transport. We report the comprehensive analysis of the Kinesin Superfamily, which is the first and only large protein family whose constituents have been completely identified and confirmed in silico and at the cDNA, mRNA level. In FANTOM2, we have found 90 clones from 33 Kinesin Superfamily Protein (KIF) gene loci. The clones were analyzed in reference to sequence state, library of origin, detection methods, and alternative splicing. More than half of the representative transcriptional units (TU) were full length. The FANTOM2 library also contains novel splice variants previously unreported. We have compared and evaluated various protein classification tools and protein search methods using this data set. This report provides a foundation for future research of the intracellular transport along microtubules and proves the significance of intracellular transport protein transcripts as part of the transcriptome. PMID:12819144

  8. Comparative analysis of cation/proton antiporter superfamily in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Chuyu; Yang, Xiaohan; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-01-01

    The cation/proton antiporter superfamily is associated with the transport of monovalent cations across membranes. This superfamily was annotated in the Arabidopsis genome and some members were functionally characterized. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the cation/proton antiporter genes in diverse plant specieswas reported.We identified 240 cation/proton antiporters in alga, moss, and angiosperm. A phylogenetic tree was constructed showing these 240members are separated into three families, i.e., Na+/H+ exchangers, K+ efflux antiporters, and cation/H+ exchangers. Our analysis revealed that tandem and/or segmental duplications contribute to the expansion of cation/H+ exchangers in the examined angiospermspecies. Sliding windowanalysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios showed some differences in the evolutionary fate of cation/proton antiporter paralogs. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs among these 240 proteins and foundmostmotifs are family specific, demonstrating diverse evolution of the cation/proton antiporters among three families. In addition, we investigated the co-expressed genes of the cation/proton antiporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed some biological processes are enriched in the co-expressed genes, suggesting the cation/proton antiporters may be involved in these biological processes. Taken together, this study furthers our knowledge on cation/proton antiporters in plants.

  9. Generation and Characterization of a Cyp4b1 Null Mouse and the Role of CYP4B1 in the Activation and Toxicity of Ipomeanol

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    4-Ipomeanol (IPO) is a prototypical pulmonary toxin that requires P450-mediated metabolic activation to reactive intermediates in order to elicit its toxic effects. CYP4B1 is a pulmonary enzyme that has been shown, in vitro, to have a high capacity for bioactivating IPO. In order to determine, unambiguously, the role of CYP4B1 in IPO bioactivation in vivo, we generated Cyp4b1 null mice following targeted disruption of the gene downstream of exon 1. Cyp4b1 −/− mice are viable and healthy, with no overt phenotype, and no evidence of compensatory upregulation of other P450 isoforms in any of the tissues examined. Pulmonary and renal microsomes prepared from male Cyp4b1 −/− mice exhibited no detectable expression of the protein and catalyzed the in vitro bioactivation of IPO at < 10% of the rates observed in tissue microsomes from Cyp4b1 +/+ animals. Administration of IPO (20mg/kg) to Cyp4b1 +/+ mice resulted in characteristic lesions in the lung, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, which were completely absent in Cyp4b1 −/− mice. We conclude that CYP4B1 is a critical enzyme for the bioactivation of IPO in vivo and that the Cyp4b1 −/− mouse is a useful model for studying CYP4B1-dependent metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23748241

  10. Genome-wide association study of plasma levels of polychlorinated biphenyls disclose an association with the CYP2B6 gene in a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Esther; Salihovic, Samira; Monica Lind, P.; Mahajan, Anubha; Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; van Bavel, Bert; Morris, Andrew P.; Lind, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of man-made environmental pollutants which accumulate in humans with adverse health effects. To date, very little effort has been devoted to the study of the metabolism of PCBs on a genome-wide level. Objectives Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions involved in the metabolism of PCBs. Methods Plasma levels of 16 PCBs ascertained in a cohort of elderly individuals from Sweden (n=1016) were measured using gas chromatography–high resolution mass spectrophotometry (GC-HRMS). DNA samples were genotyped on the Infinium Omni Express bead microarray, and imputed up to reference panels from the 1000 Genomes Project. Association testing was performed in a linear regression framework under an additive model. Results Plasma levels of PCB-99 demonstrated genome-wide significant association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping to chromosome 19q13.2. The SNP with the strongest association was rs8109848 (p=3.7×10−13), mapping to an intronic region of CYP2B6. Moreover, when all PCBs were conditioned on PCB-99, further signals were revealed for PCBs -74, -105 and -118, mapping to the same genomic region. The lead SNPs were rs8109848 (p=3.8×10−12) for PCB-118, rs4802104 (p=1.4×10−9) for PCB-74 and rs4803413 (p=2.5×10−9) for PCB-105, all of which map to CYP2B6. Conclusions In our study, we found plasma levels of four lower-chlorinated PCBs to be significantly associated with the genetic region mapping to the CYP2B6 locus. These findings show that CYP2B6 is of importance for the metabolism of PCBs in humans, and may help to identify individuals who may be susceptible to PCB toxicity. PMID:25839716

  11. EXPRESSION OF CYP4F2 IN HUMAN LIVER AND KIDNEY: ASSESSMENT USING TARGETED PEPTIDE ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Vandana; Yarovoy, Anton; Kozeska, Anita; Magnusson, Ronald P.; Lasker, Jerome M.

    2008-01-01

    P450 enzymes comprising the human CYP4F gene subfamily are catalysts of eicosanoid (e.g., 20-HETE and leukotriene B4) formation and degradation, although the role that individual CYP4F proteins play in these metabolic processes is not well defined. Thus, we developed antibodies to assess the tissue-specific expression and function of CYP4F2, one of four CYP4F P450s found in human liver and kidney. Peptide antibodies elicited in rabbits to CYP4F2 amino acid residues 61–74 (WGHQGMVNPTEEG) and 65–77 (GMVNPTEEGMRVL) recognized on immuno