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1

Loop mediated isothermal amplification combined with nucleic acid lateral flow strip for diagnosis of cyprinid herpes virus-3.  

PubMed

An improved loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of cyprinid herpes virus-3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpes virus (KHV), was developed. The lower detection limit of the CyHV-3-LAMP assay is 10 fg DNA which equivalent to 30 copies of CyHV-3 genome. Nucleic acid lateral flow assay was used for visual detection of the LAMP products. The LAMP- nucleic acid lateral flow assay relies on DNA hybridization technology and antigen-antibody reactions in combination with LAMP. For application of this assay, the biotinylated LAMP product was hybridized with a FITC-labelled specific probe for 5 min. The resulting DNA complex could be visualised as purple band at the strip test line within 5 min of sample exposure. The nucleic acid lateral flow analysis of the LAMP product was equivalent in sensitivity but more rapid than the conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. The combination of LAMP assay with the nucleic acid lateral flow analysis can simplify the diagnosis and screening of CyHV-3 as it is simple, requires very little training, does not require specialized equipment such as a thermal cycler, the results are read visually with no need to run a gel and has a high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19781627

Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2010-02-01

2

Identifying the Viral Genes Encoding Envelope Glycoproteins for Differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Isolates  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic tree analysis, the Korean isolate was remarkably distinguished from USA, Israel, Japan isolates. These findings may be suitable for many applications including isolates differentiation and phylogeny studies.

Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Renault, Tristan; Choresca, Casiano; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang

2013-01-01

3

Herpes - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease - ...

4

Herpes - oral  

MedlinePLUS

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

5

Coordinated and sequential transcription of the cyprinid herpesvirus-3 annotated genes.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is the cause of a fatal disease in carp and koi fish. The disease is seasonal and appears when water temperatures range from 18 to 28°C. CyHV-3 is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, a family in the Herpesvirales order that encompasses mammalian, avian and reptilian viruses. CyHV-3 is a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) herpesvirus with a genome of approximately 295kbp, divergent from other mammalian, avian and reptilian herpesviruses, but bearing several genes similar to cyprinid herpesvirus-1 (CyHV-1), CyHV-2, anguillid herpesvirus-1 (AngHV-1), ictalurid herpesvirus-1 (IcHV-1) and ranid herpes virus-1 (RaHV-1). Here we show that viral DNA synthesis commences 4-8h post-infection (p.i.), and is completely inhibited by pre-treatment with cytosine ?-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C). Transcription of CyHV-3 genes initiates after infection as early as 1-2h p.i., and precedes viral DNA synthesis. All 156 annotated open reading frames (ORFs) of the CyHV-3 genome are transcribed into RNAs, most of which can be classified into immediate early (IE or ?), early (E or ?) and late (L or ?) classes, similar to all other herpesviruses. Several ORFs belonging to these groups are clustered along the viral genome. PMID:22841491

Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

2012-10-01

6

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on your genital or rectal area, buttocks, and thighs. You can get it from having sex, even oral sex. ... of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

7

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Genital Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that any sexually active person can get. ... to know that even without signs of the disease, it can still spread to sexual partners. Basic Fact Sheet | Detailed Version Espańol ... & Pregnancy Symptoms Diagnosis ...

8

Phylogenetic relationships of Iberian cyprinids: systematic and biogeographical implications.  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic relationships among all Iberian endemic cyprinids were inferred using the complete nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome b gene. The inferred molecular phylogeny included representatives from Central European, Asian and North African species, and is highly congruent with previous phylogenies based on osteological characters. Iberian cyprinids were grouped into only five, very speciose lineages (with the exception of the monotypic Anaecypris): Barbus, Luciobarbus, Chondrostoma, Leuciscus and Anaecypris. The existence of such a relatively small number of Iberian cyprinid lineages can be explained by the historical isolation of the Iberian Peninsula. North African and Asian barbels are the sister group of Iberian Luciobarbus, supporting a south-eastern route of colonization of the Iberian Peninsula for this subgenus. With leuciscins, Anaecypris hispanica was considered a relict species as it could not be related to any other Iberian cyprinid. The phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of Iberian cyprinids based on cytochrome b sequence data supported the traditional division of the Cyprinidae into two subfamilies: Cyprininae and Leuciscinae.

Zardoya, R; Doadrio, I

1998-01-01

9

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

10

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... can get herpes by having oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the disease. Fluids found ... to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. If you are sexually active, you can do ...

11

Genital herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... is most useful during the first outbreak. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) done on fluid from a blister ... reduce the chance of infecting the baby. Possible side effects from herpes medicines include: Fatigue Headache Nausea ...

12

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... around the mouth) can transmit the virus through oral sex to another person's genitals. Genital herpes is a ... intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their partners use dental dams as ...

13

Meet the Herps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

14

An interspecific comparison between morphology and swimming performance in cyprinids.  

PubMed

Flow regimes are believed to be of major evolutionary significance in fish. The flow regimes inhabited by cyprinids vary extensively from still flow regimes to riptide flow regimes. To test (i) whether flow-driven swimming performance and relevant morphological differentiation are present among fish species and (ii) whether evolutionary shifts between high-flow and low-flow habitats in cyprinids are associated with evolutionary trade-offs in locomotor performance, we obtained data on both steady and unsteady swimming performance and external body shape for 19 species of cyprinids that typically occur in different flow regimes (still, intermediate and riptide). We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and calculated the optimal swimming speed. Our results showed that fish species from riptide groups tend to have a higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit ), maximum linear velocity (Vmax ) and fineness ratio (FR) than fish from the other two groups. However, there was no correlation between the reconstructed changes in the steady and unsteady swimming performance of the 19 species. According to the phylogenetically independent contrast (PIC) method, the Ucrit was actively correlated with the MMR. These results indicated that selection will favour both higher steady and unsteady swimming performance and a more streamlined body shape in environments with high water velocities. The results suggested that steady swimming performance was more sensitive to the flow regime and that for this reason, changes in body shape resulted more from selective pressure on steady swimming performance than on unsteady swimming performance. No evolutionary trade-off was observed between steady and unsteady swimming performance, although Ucrit and MMR were found to have coevolved. However, a further analysis within each typically occurring habitat group suggested that the trade-off that may exist between steady and unsteady swimming performance may be concealed by the effect of habitat. PMID:23869541

Yan, G-J; He, X-K; Cao, Z-D; Fu, S-J

2013-08-01

15

Herpes Keratitis  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the world’s population. These infections are often asymptomatic, but ocular HSV-1 infections cause multiple pathologies with perhaps the most destructive being Herpes Stromal Keratitis (HSK). HSK lesions, which are immunoinflammatory in nature, can recur throughout life and often cause progressive corneal scaring resulting in visual impairment. Current treatment involves broad local immunosuppression with topical steroids along with antiviral coverage. Unfortunately, the immunopathologic mechanisms defined in animal models of HSK have not yet translated into improved therapy. Herein, we review the clinical epidemiology and pathology of the disease and summarize the large amount of basic research regarding the immunopathology of HSK. We examine the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the clearance of virus and the destruction of the normal corneal architecture that is typical of HSK. Our goal is to define current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms and recurrent nature of HSK and identify areas that require further study.

Rowe, A.; St Leger, A.; Jeon, S.; Dhaliwal, D.K.; Knickelbein, J.E.; Hendricks, R.L.

2012-01-01

16

Genital Herpes Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Field Search Button Advanced Search NIAID Home Health & Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Genital Herpes > Cause Genital Herpes Cause Transmission Symptoms ...

17

Nongenital herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact. Most of these infections involve the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). The diagnosis of an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually made by the appearance of the lesions (grouped vesicles or ulcers on an erythematous base) and patient history. However, if uncertain, the diagnosis of herpes labialis can be made by viral culture, polymerase chain reaction, serology, direct fluorescent antibody testing, or Tzanck test. Other nonoral herpes simplex virus type 1 infections include herpetic keratitis, herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, and herpetic sycosis of the beard area. The differential diagnosis of nongenital herpes simplex virus infection includes aphthous ulcers, acute paronychia, varicella-zoster virus infection, herpangina, herpes gestationis (pemphigoid gestationis), pemphigus vulgaris, and Behçet syndrome. Oral acyclovir suspension is an effective treatment for children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are effective in treating acute recurrence of herpes labialis (cold sores). Recurrences of herpes labialis may be diminished with daily oral acyclovir or valacyclovir. Topical acyclovir, penciclovir, and docosanol are optional treatments for recurrent herpes labialis, but they are less effective than oral treatment. PMID:21121552

Usatine, Richard P; Tinitigan, Rochelle

2010-11-01

18

Herpes zoster (shingles), disseminated (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. Herpes ...

19

Genital herpes. An overview.  

PubMed

Data from the National Disease and Therapeutic Index (NDTI) Survey indicate that the number of physician-patient consultations concerning genital herpes increased 15-fold between 1966 and 1984. Because of the increased incidence of genital herpes, the great variance in symptoms and severity of outbreaks, and the frequent misrepresentation of the nature of herpes simplex, all health-care practitioners should receive up-to-date information on the disorder. This article is intended to educate health-care professionals about genital herpes. PMID:2231078

Davies, K

1990-01-01

20

Herpes associated erythema multiforme.  

PubMed

Erythema multiforme is an acute and a self-limiting mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction triggered by certain infections and medications. One of the most common predisposing factors for erythema multiforme is infection with herpes simplex virus. Herpes associated erythema multiforme (HAEM) is an acute exudative dermatic and mucosal disease caused by the infecting herpes simplex virus. It has recurrence and idiorestriction, characterized by increasing of CD4+T leukomonocyte. This article reports a case of HAEM in a 9-year-old girl, with a review of relevant literature, and discusses the pathophysiology and treatment of erythema multiforme triggered by herpes simplex virus. PMID:22346171

Kamala, K A; Ashok, L; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G

2011-10-01

21

In vitro inhibition of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 replication by RNAi.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is an etiological agent of a notifiable disease that causes high mortality rates affecting both the common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio L. There is no current treatment strategy to save CyHV-3 infected fish. RNA mediated interference (RNAi) is an emerging strategy used for understanding gene function and is a promising method in developing novel therapeutics and antiviral medications. For this study, the possibility of activating the RNAi pathway by the use of small interfering (si)RNAs was tested to inhibit in vitro viral replication of CyHV-3 in common carp brain (CCB) cells. The siRNAs were designed to target either thymidine kinase (TK) or DNA polymerase (DP) genes, which both code for transcripts involved in DNA replication. The inhibition of viral replication caused by the siRNAs was measured by a reporter gene, termed ORF81. Treatment with siRNA targeting either TK or DP genes reduced the release of viral particles from infected CCB cells. However, siRNA targeting DP was most effective at reducing viral release as measured by qPCR. PMID:24893110

Gotesman, Michael; Soliman, Hatem; Besch, Robert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2014-09-01

22

Nationwide Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 contamination in natural rivers of Japan.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease is a significant threat for common and koi carp cultivators and for freshwater ecosystems. To determine the prevalence of CyHV-3 in Japanese rivers, a nationwide survey of all national class-A rivers was undertaken in the Summer of 2008. The virus was concentrated from river water samples using the cation-coated filter method. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 90 rivers, representing 90% of 103 successfully analysed rivers. More than 100,000 copies of CyHV-3 DNA per litre of sample were detected in four rivers, higher than that reported during the Yura River outbreak in 2007. For CyHV-3-positive rivers, the log CyHV-3 density was negatively correlated with the water temperature on the sampling date and positively correlated with the suspended solids and dissolved oxygen, which are annually averaged for each river. Our results demonstrate that virus detection using molecular biology techniques is a powerful tool for monitoring the presence of CyHV-3 in natural environments. PMID:21723573

Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Uchii, Kimiko; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2012-08-01

23

Molecular phylogeny of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).  

PubMed

The cyprinid tribe Labeonini (sensuRainboth, 1991) is a large group of freshwater fishes containing around 40 genera and 400 species. They are characterized by an amazing diversity of modifications to their lips and associated structures. In this study, a total of 34 genera and 142 species of putative members of this tribe, which represent most of the generic diversity and more than one third of the species diversity of the group, were sampled and sequenced for four nuclear genes and five mitochondrial genes (totaling 9465bp). Phylogenetic relationships and subdivision of this tribe were investigated and the placement and status of most genera are discussed. Partitioned maximum likelihood analyses were performed based on the nuclear dataset, mitochondrial dataset, combined dataset, and the dataset for each nuclear gene. Inclusion of the genera Paracrossochilus, Barbichthys, Thynnichthys, and Linichthys in the Labeonini was either confirmed or proposed for the first time. None of the genera Labeo, Garra, Bangana, Cirrhinus, and Crossocheilus are monophyletic. Taxonomic revisions of some genera were made: the generic names Gymnostomus Heckel, 1843, Ageneiogarra Garman, 1912 and Gonorhynchus McClelland, 1839 were revalidated; Akrokolioplax Zhang and Kottelat, 2006 becomes a junior synonym of Gonorhynchus; the species Osteochilus nashii was found to be a member of the barbin genus Osteochilichthys. Five historical hypotheses on the classification of the Labeonini were tested and rejected. We proposed to subdivide the tribe, which is strongly supported as monophyletic, into four subtribes: Labeoina, Garraina, Osteochilina, and Semilabeoina. The taxa included in each subtribe were listed and those taxa that need taxonomic revision were discussed. PMID:22728909

Yang, Lei; Arunachalam, M; Sado, Tetsuya; Levin, Boris A; Golubtsov, Alexander S; Freyhof, Jörg; Friel, John P; Chen, Wei-Jen; Hirt, M Vincent; Manickam, Raja; Agnew, Mary K; Simons, Andrew M; Saitoh, Kenji; Miya, Masaki; Mayden, Richard L; He, Shunping

2012-11-01

24

Subfunctionalization of cyprinid hypoxia-inducible factors for roles in development and oxygen sensing.  

PubMed

Among vertebrates, teleost fishes have evolved the most impressive adaptations to variable oxygen tensions in water (Shoubridge and Hochachka 1980; Nilsson and Randall 2010). Under conditions of oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), major changes in gene expression are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF alpha). Here we show that hif alpha genes were duplicated in the teleost specific whole-genome duplication. Although one of each paralogous gene pair was lost in most teleosts, both copies were retained in cyprinids. Computational analyses suggest that these duplicates have become subfunctionalized with complementary changes in coding and regulatory sequences within each paralogous gene pair. We tested our predictions with comparisons of hif alpha transcription in zebrafish, a cyprinid, and sturgeon, an outgroup that diverged from teleosts before the duplication event. Our experiments revealed distinct transcriptional profiles in the cyprinid duplicates: while one of each paralogous pair maintained the ancestral developmental response, the other was more sensitive to changes in oxygen tension. These results demonstrate the subfunctionalization of cyprinid hif alpha paralogs for specialized roles in development and the hypoxic stress response. PMID:23461336

Rytkönen, Kalle T; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Miandare, Hamed K; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Duan, Cunming; Leder, Erica H; Williams, Tom A; Nikinmaa, Mikko

2013-03-01

25

Gene action in fish of tetraploid origin. I. Cellular and biochemical parameters in cyprinid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In phylogenetically diploid and tetraploid Cyprinid fish species, erythrocyte volumes, protein contents, and mean activities of the enzymes LDH, 6PGD, and PGI per cell per active gene locus decline with increasing DNA contents. These findings are assumed to reflect an evolutionary tendency of polyploids to regulate their genic activity down to the level of the diploids.

Jiirg Schmidtke; Wolfgang Engel

1975-01-01

26

Adaptive evolution of cone opsin genes in two colorful cyprinids, Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus are two phylogenetically related freshwater cyprinids that both exhibit colorful, yet quite different nuptial coloration. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that differences in nuptial coloration between two species could reflect differences in color perception ability and the opsin genes that coded for it. Genes encoding the visual pigments of these two species

Feng Yu Wang; Wen Sung Chung; Hong Young Yan; Chyng Shyan Tzeng

2008-01-01

27

Quantitative evaluation of the distribution of proliferating cells in the adult retina in three cyprinid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a descriptive and quantitative analysis of all the proliferating cell populations present in the normal adult retina of three cyprinid species (goldfish, zebrafish, and tench) is reported. Evaluation of cell proliferation was performed in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeled tissue sections as well as in single-cell suspensions analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results show that the

Elena Cid; Almudena Velasco; Juana Ciudad; Alberto Orfao; José Aijón; Juan M. Lara

2002-01-01

28

Recruitment patterns of six species of cyprinid fishes in the lower River Trent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fisheries data were collected for six species of 0-group cyprinid fishes from eight sites in the lower reaches of the River Trent, England, between May and October 1999 inclusive, using a micromesh seine net. Recruitment and growth patterns were observed via monthly length-frequency histograms and estimations of mean length. In the cases of roach and dace, growth was approximately linear

A. D. Nunn; I. G. Cow; J. P. Harvey

2002-01-01

29

Genital Herpes (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Birth Control: What Parents Need to Know Genital Warts STDs Questions and Answers About Sex Can You ... About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Genital Herpes Genital Warts (HPV) Telling Your Partner You Have an STD ...

30

Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... the community. Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Genital herpes Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... to get pregnant again. Are gallstones common during pregnancy? Not common, but they do happen. Elevated hormones ...

31

Viable metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeastern Thai cyprinid fish dishes--as part of a rational program for control of O. viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Among the various types of chronic helminthic infections, only schistosomiasis hematobium, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis in a long-standing inflammation are found to be causative agents of cancer. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer are prevalent among the residents in northeastern Thailand, who prefer consuming raw or improperly cooked cyprinid fish. Although numerous studies have reported on the presence of O. viverrini metacercariae in freshwater cyprinid fishes, none of the data has been derived directly from cyprinid fish dishes. Here, we have demonstrated the presence of viable metacercariae in a number of cyprinid fish dishes that are among the favorite foods of northeastern Thais. Traditional salt-fermented and grilled cyprinid fish were found to be safe to consume, but not raw fish salad or cyprinid fish fermented in sticky rice for 69 h. This information could be used as part of a rational and sustainable control program for O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer. PMID:23052784

Prasongwatana, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai

2013-03-01

32

Vaccination for herpes simplex genitalis.  

PubMed Central

Type-specific vaccines containing heat-inactivated herpes simplex hominis virus type 1 or 2 have been developed for the treatment of herpes simplex genitalis. When patients with recurrent herpes genitalis were treated with the type 2 vaccine the clinical course of the disease improved and the eruption-free interval was extended. In severe cases, especially in permanent genital herpes, the concurrent administration of vaccine and immunoglobulin concentrates improved the clinical course of the disease. Antibody titres and the in-vitro stimulation of lymphocytes with phytohaemagglutinin or herpes simplex hominis virus antigens remained constant during administration of the vaccine.

Nasemann, T; Wassilew, S W

1979-01-01

33

Comparative microhabitat use of cyprinid larvae and juveniles in a lotic floodplain channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The microhabitat of six cyprinids in a braided side-channel of the Upper Rhône River, France, was studied June to September 1985, using ‘point abundance sampling’ by electrofishing. Correspondence analysis of the samples-by-species data and Jacob&s electivity index (calculated from the availability and exploitation of eight environmental variables) revealed three groups of species: (1) Leuciscus cephalus and Alburnus alburnus, which

Gordon H. Copp

1992-01-01

34

Aaptosyax grypus , a new genus and species of large piscivorous cyprinids from the middle Mekong River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and species of cyprinid fishes,Aaptosyax grypus, is described from the middle Mekong River of Laos and Thailand, This large and rarely seen species reaches a full meter\\u000a in length and lives in the main stem of the river. The species is a piscivore and the southernmost representative of the aspiin\\u000a lineage. Among the aspiins it is unique

Walter J. Rainboth

1991-01-01

35

Effects of summer drawdown on cyprinid fish larvae in Lake Biwa, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of artificial water-level manipulations in Lake Biwa, initiated in 1992 to prevent flooding, on cyprinid fish\\u000a larvae were assessed by measuring and estimating the topographic change in the reed zones. The shallow, litter-accumulated\\u000a water in those zones was inhabited by larvae of two species, Carassius spp. and Cyprinus carpio. More than 70% (by volume) of these shallow areas

Toshiya Yamamoto; Yukihiro Kohmatsu; Masahide Yuma

2006-01-01

36

Interdemic variation in haematocrit and lactate dehydrogenase in the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated whether the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri from Rwembaita Swamp (low-oxygen) and Njuguta River (high-oxygen) in the Kibale National Park, Uganda differed in traits related to aerobic and anaerobic metabolic potential. Haematocrit was measured as an index of blood oxygen-carrying capacity, and tissue activities and isozyme composition of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured as indices of tissue anaerobic

M. L. M ARTINEZ; L. J. C HAPMAN; J. M. G RADY; B. B. R EES

2004-01-01

37

Hands-on Herps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

Science Activities, 1987

1987-01-01

38

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3  

PubMed Central

Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is one of the most important grapevine viral diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. The impact on vine health, crop yield, and quality is difficult to assess due to a high number of variables, but significant economic losses are consistently reported over the lifespan of a vineyard if intervention strategies are not implemented. Several viruses from the family Closteroviridae are associated with GLD. However, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3), the type species for the genus Ampelovirus, is regarded as the most important causative agent. Here we provide a general overview on various aspects of GLRaV-3, with an emphasis on the latest advances in the characterization of the genome. The full genome of several isolates have recently been sequenced and annotated, revealing the existence of several genetic variants. The classification of these variants, based on their genome sequence, will be discussed and a guideline is presented to facilitate future comparative studies. The characterization of sgRNAs produced during the infection cycle of GLRaV-3 has given some insight into the replication strategy and the putative functionality of the ORFs. The latest nucleotide sequence based molecular diagnostic techniques were shown to be more sensitive than conventional serological assays and although ELISA is not as sensitive it remains valuable for high-throughput screening and complementary to molecular diagnostics. The application of next-generation sequencing is proving to be a valuable tool to study the complexity of viral infection as well as plant pathogen interaction. Next-generation sequencing data can provide information regarding disease complexes, variants of viral species, and abundance of particular viruses. This information can be used to develop more accurate diagnostic assays. Reliable virus screening in support of robust grapevine certification programs remains the cornerstone of GLD management.

Maree, Hans J.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Bester, Rachelle; Chooi, Kar Mun; Cohen, Daniel; Dolja, Valerian V.; Fuchs, Marc F.; Golino, Deborah A.; Jooste, Anna E. C.; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Naidu, Rayapati A.; Rowhani, Adib; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Burger, Johan T.

2013-01-01

39

The impact of feeding Cyprinids on river bed sediment structures and grain entrainment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In gravel-bed rivers, between bed-mobilising flood events, surface sediment particles are rearranged by moderate flows, generally into more stable "water-worked" positions characterised by structures of various types, including imbrication and pebble clusters. This surface layer of structured, relatively coarse particles moderates the availability of finer sub-surface sediment and the transfer of mobile material from upstream. The work reported here is focused on understanding how benthic feeding fish (Cyprinids and Salmonids) dismantle surface structures, making particles less stable and potentially rendering vulnerable sub-surface material more mobile. An increase in available, transportable sediment has implications for sediment transport fluxes, reach-scale sediment loads, channel morphology and aquatic habitat. However, almost nothing is known about the impacts of feeding fish on bed sediment structures, entrainment and sediment fluxes. A series of flume experiments will quantify the effects of six different species of fish on sediment structure and grain entrainment. The experiments will consider 1) topographic variations between pre- and post-feeding substrates using DEMs interpolated from laser scans and 2) differences in sediment entrainment from water-worked substrates exposed to feeding fish and control substrates, without fish. Using interpolated DEMs, a variety of structural parameters will be extracted (e.g. imbrication indices) to quantify the impact of each species whilst feeding. Underwater videography techniques will be used to establish entrainment thresholds and transport rates under low critical shear stresses. A second set of flume experiments are planned using a large outdoor flume to investigate the effects of feeding Barbel Barbus barbus on surface structure, to assess how disturbance and sediment mobility vary as a function of species size and shoal density. A final set of field experiments will consider the large-scale, geomorphological implications of Cyprinid ecosystem engineering in the River Idle in Nottinghamshire. Here we report on the initial results of this work, highlighting the role of Cyprinid species in deconstructing and destabilising water-worked gravel-bed textures.

Pledger, A.; Rice, S. P.; Millett, J.

2012-04-01

40

Herps of Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the University of Texas and the Texas Memorial Museum, this Website offers useful life history information on the Herps (lizards, turtles, snakes, crocodilians, salamanders, frogs, and toads) of Texas. Each broad group is further classified into Families, and each species is identified by scientific (Latin) and common name. To access descriptive and graphical information, click on the species of choice. Each species entry includes one or more color photograph(s), diagnostic features, natural history information, and a color range map (presence:absence, by county). The concise information in this useful resource should be helpful to seasoned researchers and beginners, alike.

41

Food and feeding behaviour of a planktivorous cyprinid, Pelecus cultratus (L.), in a shallow eutrophic lake, Neusiedler See (Austria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelecus cultratus (razor fish), a cyprinid fish, has become a dominant species in Neusiedler See. Gut content analyses of 400 specimens collected in 1989 and 1990 showed that Pelecus fed mainly on large zooplankton (Diaphanosoma, Leptodora and Arctodiaptomus), although their diet also included Insecta (larvae, pupae and adults) and Arachnida (spiders), occasionally small fishes. Comparison of the relative abundance of

Zhengwen Liu; Alois Herzig

1996-01-01

42

Survival and karyological analysis of reciprocal diploid and triploid hybrids between mud loach ( Misgurnus mizolepis) and cyprinid loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diploid and triploid hybrids between mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) and cyprinid loach (M. anguillicaudatus) and their reciprocal hybrids were produced by artificial fertilization and by cold shocks. Means of fertilization, hatching, and survival of all diploid groups were similar (P > 0.05). Triploid hybrids had lower hatching and early survival than their diploid counterparts (P < 0.05). Survival from yolk

Dong Soo Kim; Yoon Kwon Nam; In-Seok Park

1995-01-01

43

The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

Ensor, Deirdre

2005-01-01

44

Histopathology of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The histopathologic findings in a series of 21 eyes enucleated following herpes zoster ophthalmicus are reported. The interval between the onset of the disease and enucleation varied from seven days to eight years. Eighteen eyes revealed peculiar chronic ...

G. Naumann J. D. M. Gass R. L. Font

1968-01-01

45

Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... type 1 (see 'Likelihood of recurrence' above). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test — The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is a very sensitive test ... genital herpes are often advised to keep a supply of antiviral medication in their home, which they ...

46

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3: an interesting virus for applied and fundamental research  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae is the causative agent of a lethal, highly contagious and notifiable disease in common and koi carp. The economic importance of common and koi carp industries together with the rapid spread of CyHV-3 worldwide, explain why this virus became soon after its isolation in the 1990s a subject of applied research. In addition to its economic importance, an increasing number of fundamental studies demonstrated that CyHV-3 is an original and interesting subject for fundamental research. In this review, we summarized recent advances in CyHV-3 research with a special interest for studies related to host-virus interactions.

2013-01-01

47

Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade  

PubMed Central

Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade.

Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

2012-01-01

48

Dynamics of metal uptake and depuration in a parasitized cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea).  

PubMed

Infestation of fish by endoparasites may potentially influence metal uptake and elimination by the host. We quantified the metal uptake rate constant (k(u)) and efflux rate constants (k(e)) of radiolabeled Cd and Co in the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea experimentally infected with the parasite Ligula intestinalis. During 24h, the accumulation of Cd and Co increased linearly with no evident steady state in uninfected fish, infected fish and in the parasite. Following aqueous exposures, the k(u) for Cd in parasites was about 3× higher than that of infected fish and 6× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(u) for Co was up to 15× higher in the parasites than that of infected fish and 7.5× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(e) for excretion of Cd were consistently higher for the uninfected fish than for the infected fish and also higher for uninfected fish than the parasite. The k(e) for Co for the uninfected fish was 1.4-2.0× lower than in the infected fish, but higher for parasites compared to uninfected fish (1.3-2.3×). Pulse-chase feeding experiments with radiolabeled copepods showed that Cd assimilation efficiency from food was higher in infected fish, while Co was assimilated more effectively by uninfected fish. The observed differences in metal dynamics between infected and uninfected R. argentea in the laboratory concord with differences in metal concentrations measured in natural populations in Lake Victoria. Our findings provide evidence that L. intestinalis infection enhances Cd accumulation, but depletes the essential Co in the cyprinid fish R. argentea. We conclude that the combined stress of parasites and pollution changes metal risks to fish hosts in a metal specific manner. PMID:22885798

Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Admiraal, Wim; Osano, Odipo; Kraak, Michiel H S; Were-Kogogo, Pamela J A; Gichuki, John; Ngure, Veronica; Makwali, Judith; Ogwai, Caleb

2012-11-15

49

Parasitism, life history traits and immune defence in cyprinid fish from Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The main prediction of life-history theory is that optimal energy allocated among the traits is related to the growth, maintenance and survival. It is hypothesized that the optimal resource allocated to immune function, which generates resistance towards parasites and reduce the fitness losses caused by parasitism, is depending on other requirements for energetic resource and the benefits associated with them. The aims of this study are to investigate in a comparative way (1) how parasitism is related to fish life history traits (fecundity, longevity, mortality), (2) whether there is a trade-off between reproduction and immune investments in fish females (i.e. energetic hypothesis) and in males (i.e. immunohandicap hypothesis), (3) whether parasitism influences host immunity (spleen size) and reproduction (gonad size) in females and males. Results Data on metazoan parasites of 23 cyprinid fish species from Central Europe were used for the analyses as well as new data collected from a field study. Ectoparasite species richness was negatively correlated with the fish mortality estimated by the k-value and positively correlated with fish body size, suggesting that parasite diversity increases with fish longevity. A negative relationship between spleen size and gonad size, controlling for fish body size, was found in females but not in males. Moreover, parasite abundance was positively correlated with fish spleen size and negatively with fish gonad size in females. Conclusion The comparative analyses using cyprinid fish species demonstrated that natural mortality could be considered as a factor contributing to the variability of parasite species richness and moreover, parasite species benefit from long-lived fish. The results obtained from the analyses investigating the potential trade-off between reproduction and immunity could be interpreted as an energetic trade-off between female reproduction and immune function. The lack of negative relationship between gonad size and spleen size in males did not support our prediction based on the immunohandicap hypothesis.

2008-01-01

50

Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes

Longo, David J.; And Others

1988-01-01

51

Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE  

PubMed Central

Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe [1]. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should provide useful phylogenetic makers for future analyses of the evolutionary relationships among species in the family Cyprinidae.

2010-01-01

52

Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome  

PubMed Central

Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5), of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion Our data show that there is sufficient homology between the transcribed sequences of common carp and zebrafish to warrant an even deeper cyprinid transcriptome comparison. On the other hand, the comparative analysis illustrates the value in utilizing partially sequenced transcriptomes to understand gene structure in this diverse teleost group. We highlight the need for integrated resources to leverage the wealth of fragmented genomic data.

Christoffels, Alan; Bartfai, Richard; Srinivasan, Hamsa; Komen, Hans; Orban, Laszlo

2006-01-01

53

Herpes Simplex Virus: Dry Mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dry mass of herpes simplex virus particles was measured by quantitative electron microscopy after isolation by surface spreading and critical-point drying of infected cells. The core weighed about 2 x 10 to the minus 16th power gram, the empty naked capsi...

F. Lampert G. F. Bahr A. S. Rabson

1969-01-01

54

Let's Hear It for Herps!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

55

MRI of herpes simplex encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in eight patients with herpes simplex meningoencephalitis were reviewed: 14 examinations were analysed. The most striking finding was high signal intensity in the temporal lobe(s) with the typical configuration known from CT. Meningeal enhancement after Gd-DTPA administration was clearly seen in four patients. Haemorrhagic changes are much better seen on MRI than on CT.

Ph. Demaerel; G. Wilms; W. Robberecht; K. Johannik; P. Hecke; H. Carton; A. L. Baert

1992-01-01

56

Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

Glover, Elbert D.

1984-01-01

57

Ocular shedding of herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed Central

The presence, frequency, and relationship of ocular and oral shedding of herpes simplex virus to previous herpes keratitis was investigated. This was to determine if a history of herpes keratitis predisposes to shedding of the herpes simplex virus into the tear film and/or mouth. Swabs were collected from the eyes and mouth of two groups of patients thrice weekly over a two- to four-month period. Group A comprised nine patients with a history of herpes labialis, group B 15 patients with a history of herpes keratitis. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was isolated from 1.33% of mouth specimens but was not identified in any of the ocular specimens. There was no significant difference between groups A and B in terms of ocular or oral shedding. Oral shedding appears to be independent of a previous herpes keratitis. The tear film is an unlikely source of virus in persons either with no history of herpes keratitis or between attacks in those patients with a history of previous herpes keratitis.

Kaye, S B; Madan, N; Dowd, T C; Hart, C A; McCarthy, K; Patterson, A

1990-01-01

58

Skin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a mortal and highly contagious disease in common and koi carp. The skin is the major portal of entry of CyHV-3 in carp after immersion in water containing the virus. In the present study, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the effect of skin mucus removal and skin epidermis lesion on CyHV-3 entry. Physical treatments inducing removal of the mucus up to complete erosion of the epidermis were applied on a defined area of carp skin just before inoculation by immersion in infectious water. CyHV-3 entry in carp was drastically enhanced on the area of the skin where the mucus was removed with or without associated epidermal lesion. To investigate whether skin mucus inhibits CyHV-3 binding to epidermal cells, tail fins with an intact mucus layer or without mucus were inoculated ex vivo. While electron microscopy examination revealed numerous viral particles bound on the fins inoculated after mucus removal, no particle could be detected after infection of mucus-covered fins. Finally, anti-CyHV-3 neutralising activity of mucus extract was tested in vitro. Incubation of CyHV-3 with mucus extract reduced its infectivity in a dose dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that skin mucus removal and epidermal lesions enhance CyHV-3 entry in carp. It highlights the role of fish skin mucus as an innate immune protection against viral epidermal entry.

2011-01-01

59

Experimental infection of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae to the cyprinid fish, Barbonymus gonionotus.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini is an important public health problem, a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma in the Greater Mekong subregion including Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. Humans acquire the infection by consumption of raw, fermented or partially cooked freshwater cyprinid fish containing infective metacercariae. This study examined the effect of cercarial infection dosage (25-200 cercariae), age (1-60 day) and size (1-24mm) of Barbonymus gonionotus fish on infection success of O. viverrini cercariae. Additionally, the site of cyst formation of O. viverrini cercariae and subsequent development to the metacercariae was examined. The result showed that cercarial infection dose (F4,95=8.52, P<0.001) age (P<0.001, ?LR(2)=954.72) and size (P<0.001, ?LR(2)=1204.84) were significantly associated with number of O. viverrini metacercariae recovery with in every additional fish age, the O. viverrini metacercarial recovery rate increased by 5.4% (P<0.001). Most metacercariae were found in the body of the fish (81.4%). We concluded that O. viverrini cercarial infection dosage, and age and size of fish were important determinants for a successful infection to fish. PMID:24780189

Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Arunsan, Patpicha; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Wongmaneeprateep, Sutee; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Tesana, Smarn

2014-08-01

60

Seasonal reactivation enables Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 to persist in a wild host population.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases are of growing concern in wildlife conservation and animal health. To better understand the consequences of these diseases, a key question lies in how they persist in host populations after they emerge. Using a gene expression approach, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the persistence of an emerging virus, Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which has been spreading to wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Japan since 2003. Seasonal expression patterns of CyHV-3 genes in wild seropositive carp indicated that replication-related genes were transcribed only during the spring when water temperatures were permissive to CyHV-3 replication. In contrast, possible latency-related genes, which are expressed when CyHV-3 do not multiply, were also transcribed under nonpermissive conditions. These observations suggest that CyHV-3 may persist in carriers by establishing latent infection and then reactivating periodically coincident with the spring temperature increase when carp aggregate for mating, allowing successive virus transmissions between hosts during mating every year. Our results revealed that the life cycle of CyHV-3 may fit perfectly into the ecology of its host, resulting in the long-term persistence of this emerging virus in wild common carp populations. PMID:24256414

Uchii, Kimiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2014-02-01

61

Biology and host response to Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection in common carp.  

PubMed

Viruses from the family Alloherpesviridae form an aquatic clade of herpesviruses infecting fish and amphibia. Diseases caused by these herpesviruses are of increasing importance because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, and the difficulties in diagnosing latently infected carriers. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) induces a severe disease and mortality in common carp and thus greatly affects carp aquaculture and trade. This review summarises advancements in the understanding of the infection process and the current knowledge on immune responses of carp to CyHV-3. A focus is laid on host genetics and immunity responsible for resistance/survival from the disease and on the viral mechanisms accountable for evasion of carp immune responses. As current knowledge of immune responses to CyHV-3 is still limited, perspectives for future studies are outlined. Analysing CyHV-3 fish-host interactions will be useful and thought-provoking for a basic understanding of fish immune responses. PMID:23981329

Adamek, Miko?aj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae-Sung; Aoki, Takashi

2014-04-01

62

Spectacular morphological novelty in a miniature cyprinid fish, Danionella dracula n. sp.  

PubMed Central

Danionella dracula is a new species of sexually dimorphic, miniature and highly developmentally truncated cyprinid fish. Compared with its close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, it lacks 44 bones or parts thereof and represents one of the most developmentally truncated vertebrates. Absence of the majority of bones appears to be due to developmental truncation via terminal deletion. In contrast to these larval-like features, D. dracula also shows several hyperossifications. Uniquely, among carp-like fishes, male D. dracula have a series of long, pointed odontoid processes on the jaws greatly resembling the jaw dentition of teleosts with true teeth. The anterior-most process in each jaw is extended as a canine-like fang projecting through the epithelium. True jaw teeth are absent from all 3700 species of cypriniforms and were lost at least in the Upper Eocene. It remains to be investigated, however, whether the conserved pathways to regulate tooth development in cypriniforms have been used in D. dracula to form and pattern the odontoid processes. This new species represents a remarkable example linking progenetic paedomorphosis via heterochronic change in developmental timing to the evolution of morphological novelties.

Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W.; Ruber, Lukas

2009-01-01

63

Age and growth and maturity of southern Africa's largest cyprinid fish, the largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use specimens of the largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis, southern Africa's largest cyprinid [IUCN red-listed as Near Threatened (NT)], obtained from gillnet by-catch to describe aspects of its biology in order to assist future conservation and management decisions. Ninety three L. kimberleyensis were collected between March 2007 and May 2008 from Lake Gariep, South Africa. Labeobarbus kimberleyensis was present in 38% of all gillnet catches, but in low numbers (2% of the catch) and it contributed 8% to the catch by mass. Age was estimated using astericus otoliths. Growth increment formation on these otoliths was validated as annual using edge analysis and the mark-recapture of chemically tagged captive fish. Resultant analysis showed that the species is slow growing and the oldest aged fish was a 17 year, 690 mm fork length (L(F)) male. The smallest ripe female fish measured 394 mm L(F) and was 7+ years old and the smallest mature male was 337 mm L(F) and 5+ years old. Slow growth and late maturity make this species vulnerable to exploitation emphasizing the need for continued high conservation priority. PMID:22957869

Ellender, B R; Weyl, O L F; Winker, H

2012-09-01

64

Characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in different phases of infection: Implications for disease transmission and control.  

PubMed

Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging and highly contagious viral disease of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), causing mass mortalities and huge economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry. The disease has spread rapidly to 28 countries worldwide. However, mechanisms of koi herpesvirus (species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3; CyHV-3) transmission remain unclear. A potential experimental model of CyHV-3 infection in carp was used to characterise CyHV-3 in different phases of infection and to demonstrate that CyHV-3 persists in survivor fish and has the capacity to reactivate and transmit the disease to healthy fish. During acute infection, which occurred when fish were maintained at 22°C, viral genes were abundantly expressed and infectious virus was produced in association with tissue damage, clinical disease and mortality. In fish maintained at a lower temperature (11°C), viral DNA was present but viral gene expression was absent or greatly restricted, infectious virus was not recovered and there was no evidence of disease. Productive replication was re-initiated following an increase in water temperature to 22°C, resulting in 45% mortality. Shedding of reactivated virus killed 75% of cohabitating naďve fish, suggesting a potential risk for disease transmission. PMID:24704574

Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J; Schat, Karel A; Slobedman, Barry; Barnes, Andrew C; Walker, Peter J

2014-08-01

65

Diagnosis and Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention maps a herpes simplex labialis (HSL) susceptibility gene associated with HSL to the q11 region of chromosome 21. The invention provides methods of screening for susceptibility or resistance to herpes simplex virus, particularly herpes simple...

J. D. Kriesel M. F. Leppert S. L. Spruance B. E. Otterud M. R. Hobbs

2005-01-01

66

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

2009-04-01

67

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

2010-04-01

68

Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?  

MedlinePLUS

... it is possible to get genital herpes from oral sex. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes simplex ... use a dental dam every time they receive oral sex to help protect against STDs. And if either ...

69

The Development of the Herpes Symptom Checklist and the Herpes Outbreak Impact Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo develop measures of the day-to-day symptomatic and functional impact of recurrent genital herpes (RGH) outbreaks. The Herpes Outbreak Impact Questionnaire (HOIQ) and the Herpes Symptom Checklist (HSC) were designed to be acceptable to clinical professionals and to reflect patients' experience.

Lynda C. Doward; Stephen P. McKenna; David M. Meads; Kristijan Kahler; Feride Frech

2009-01-01

70

Histological spectrum of cutaneous herpes infections.  

PubMed

: Herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus are double-stranded DNA viruses that commonly infect humans, resulting in cutaneous manifestations. Diagnosis is generally made based on clinical findings; however, when the presentation is atypical, biopsy can aid in making a correct diagnosis. The classic histopathological findings of herpetic infection are well established (acantholysis, ballooning degeneration, intranuclear inclusions, multinucleation, necrosis, and formation of vesicles or ulcers). Herpes infection can also cause histopathological changes in many dermal structures. Furthermore, herpes can masquerade as a variety of hematologic malignancies or benign cutaneous conditions. The histopathological spectrum of herpes infections is reviewed and discussed. PMID:25051039

Hoyt, Brian; Bhawan, Jag

2014-08-01

71

Male primer endocrine responses to preovulatory female cyprinids under natural conditions in Sweden.  

PubMed

This study investigated two related aspects of male-female reproductive interactions in the family Cyprinidae: (1) whether ovulating female rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus (subfamily Leuciscinae) induce endocrine and gonadal priming responses in conspecific males, a phenomenon which has been described only in species from the subfamily Cyprininae such as goldfish, Carassius auratus, crucian carp Carassius carassius and common carp, Cyprinus carpio and (2) whether the stimuli mediating these responses are species-specific. Field studies of three sympatric European cyprinids, two leuciscins (S. erythrophthalmus and white bream Blicca bjoerkna) and one cyprinin (C. carassius), were conducted on fishes captured in Sweden in the spawning season and held in net pens under natural conditions. As previously reported in C. carassius, male S. erythrophthalmus increased milt (sperm and seminal fluid) volume and plasma concentrations of the sperm maturation hormone 4-pregnen-17,20?-diol-3-one (17,20?-P) when they were held with female S. erythrophthalmus induced to ovulate by injection of Ovaprim (GnRH analogue plus dopamine antagonist). Male S. erythrophthalmus had larger milt volumes than male C. carassius prior to and following exposure to ovulatory conspecifics, but exhibited a smaller proportional milt increase in response to stimulation, suggesting species differences in sperm allocation at spawning. The presence of female S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not affect milt volumes of C. carassius under two experimental conditions: (1) ovulating S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not increase the milt volumes of C. carassius and (2) S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not interfere with the milt volume increase induced in male C. carassius by ovulating conspecifics. These results suggest that, as in C. auratus, C. carassius and C. carpio (subfamily Cyprininae), female S. erythrophthalmus (subfamily Leuciscinae) release a preovulatory pheromone that exerts priming effects on male hormones and sperm allocation. The findings also indicate that C. carassius discriminate between the reproductive odours of conspecifics and heterospecifics. PMID:22220895

Stacey, N E; Van Der Kraak, G J; Olsén, K H

2012-01-01

72

Distribution and Abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Cyprinid Fish in Northeastern Thailand  

PubMed Central

To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats.

Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

2013-01-01

73

Distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in cyprinid fish in Northeastern Thailand.  

PubMed

To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats. PMID:24516277

Pinlaor, Somchai; Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

2013-12-01

74

Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

1992-01-01

75

Herpes Virus Therapy of Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our goal was to develop herpes vectors to treat prostate cancer in order to acquire the necessary data to advance toward clinical trials. We have studied G207, a multiple-mutated conditionally- replicating herpes simplex virus with deletions of both copie...

R. L. Martuza

1999-01-01

76

A Digenean Metacercaria (Apophallus sp.) and a Myxozoan (Myxobolus sp.) Associated with Vertebral Deformities in Cyprinid Fishes from the Willamette River, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high prevalence of vertebral deformities has been observed in various fishes, especially cyprinids, from certain regions of the Willamette River for many years. One proposed source of these deformities is exposure to toxicants. Histological evaluation of affected chiselmouth Acrocheilus alutaceus revealed that all lesions associated with vertebrae were associated with metacercariae of digenean trematodes. Approximately half of the northern

M. L. Kent; V. G. Watral; C. M. Whipps; M. E. Cunningham; C. D. Criscione; J. R. Heidel; L. R. Curtis; J. Spitsbergen; D. F. Markle

2004-01-01

77

Herpes myelitis after thoracic spine surgery.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex or herpes zoster reactivation after spinal surgery is rarely reported. This case report and review of the literature describes patients in whom this reactivation occurs to clarify the diagnosis and management. In addition to reporting their case, the authors reviewed case reports and series published between 1980 and 2012 found through a PubMed search. Herpes reactivation is generally confined to a vesicular rash that can be treated with acyclovir. However, occasional dissemination has occurred and has led to myelitis or encephalitis. Atypical presentations led to delays in diagnosis, delayed treatment, and poor neurological outcome. While rare, herpes simplex or herpes zoster reactivation is a complication of spine surgery that must be considered in the face of new-onset focal neurological symptoms in a dermatome pattern without a structural cause, even without a rash. PMID:23452248

Anderson, Mark Daniel; Tummala, Sudhakar

2013-05-01

78

Update on herpes zoster vaccination  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To answer frequently asked questions surrounding the use of the new herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. Sources of information Published results of clinical trials and other studies, recommendations from the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization, and the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; data were also obtained from the vaccine’s Health Canada–approved product monograph. Main message Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus; postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is its most common and serious complication. The incidence of PHN after HZ is directly related to age, with 50% of affected individuals older than 60 years experiencing persistent and unrelieved pain. The live virus HZ vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ by about 50% and the occurrence of PHN by two-thirds, with vaccinated individuals experiencing attenuated or shortened symptoms. The vaccine is contraindicated in many immunocompromised patients and might not be effective in patients taking antiviral medications active against the HZ virus. Physicians should be aware of the different recommendations for these groups. Conclusion The HZ vaccine is a safe and effective preventive measure for reducing the overall burden and severity of HZ in older adults. The vaccine appears to be cost-effective when administered to adults aged 60 years and older.

Shapiro, Marla; Kvern, Brent; Watson, Peter; Guenther, Lyn; McElhaney, Janet; McGeer, Allison

2011-01-01

79

Asymptomatic Reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus in Women after the First Episode of Genital Herpes  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine frequency, anatomic site, and host factors associated with asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus after initial episodes of genital herpes. Design Cohort study with follow-up for a median of 63 weeks. Setting Referral clinic. Patients Women (306) with first episode of herpes; 43 had primary herpes simplex virus type 1, and 227 and 36 had primary and nonprimary herpes simplex virus type 2, respectively. Measurements Cultures were obtained for herpes simplex virus every 4 to 6 weeks at times in which genital lesions and symptoms were not present. Main Results Asymptomatic shedding was detected among 11.9%, 18.3%, and 22.9% of women with primary herpes simplex virus type 1, primary HSV type 2, and nonprimary HSV type 2, respectively. Among patients with type 2 infection, previous type 1 antibody was associated with a lower rate of asymptomatic vulvar shedding. Asymptomatic cervical shedding was 3 times more frequent during the first three months after resolution of primary type 2 disease than during later time periods. In contrast, the rate of symptomatic recurrent herpes did not change over time. Conclusions Asymptomatic genital herpes simplex type 2 is more common than type 1. Asymptomatic genital shedding occurs more often during the first 3 Months after acquisition of primary type 2 disease than during later periods. Patients with HSV type 2 should be advised of this high early rate of asymptomatic shedding and of potential transmission to sexual partners.

Koelle, David M.; Benedetti, Jacqueline; Langenberg, Andria; Corey, Lawrence

2014-01-01

80

Unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a boxer: 'Boxing glove herpes'.  

PubMed

Herein, we describe a patient with lesions of cutaneous herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection over the knuckles of both hands in the context of an outbreak among boxers. Interestingly, the infection had an unusually long duration (4 weeks), and was not acquired directly through skin-to-skin contact, as it usually does among athletes (herpes gladiatorum). In our case, transmission was acquired through the use of shared boxing gloves contaminated by HSV-1. To the best of our knowledge, herpes gladiatorum, or wrestler's herpes, has not been described previously in boxers and infection over the knuckles is not commonly reported. PMID:23373892

García-García, Begońa; Galache-Osuna, Cristina; Coto-Segura, Pablo; Suárez-Casado, Héctor; Mallo-García, Susana; Jiménez, Jorge Santos-Juanes

2013-02-01

81

Paedocypris, a new genus of Southeast Asian cyprinid fish with a remarkable sexual dimorphism, comprises the world's smallest vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Paedocypris is a new genus of paedomorphic cyprinid fish from highly acidic blackwater peat swamps in Southeast Asia. It includes two new species, one of which (Paedocypris progenetica) appears to be the smallest fish and vertebrate known, with the smallest mature female measuring a mere 7.9?mm. Paedocypris has many ’larval’ features typically associated with paedomorphic fish (e.g. narrow frontals that leave the brain unprotected dorsally by bone and a precaudal larval-fin-fold), but, uniquely among fishes, males also possess highly modified pelvic fins with hypertrophied muscles and a keratinized pad in front of the pelvic girdle, which, we hypothesize, function together as a clasping or holding device, thereby suggesting an unusual reproductive mode. Unfortunately, habitat destruction jeopardizes the survival of these fishes and thus opportunities for further research.

Kottelat, Maurice; Britz, Ralf; Hui, Tan Heok; Witte, Kai-Erik

2006-01-01

82

Herpes Simplex Virus: Partner for Life  

PubMed Central

The authors provide a careful review of the characteristics of the herpes simplex virus and its various manifestations. They offer suggestions for its diagnosis and treatment, in various forms, and outline an approach to physician counselling of infected persons.

Blondeau, Joseph M.; Embil, Juan A.

1988-01-01

83

Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Infection with herpes simplex is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Because the infection is common in women of reproductive age it can be contracted and transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and the newborn. Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in the uterus, it occurs frequently during the transmission delivery. The greatest risk of transmission to the fetus and the newborn occurs in case of an initial maternal infection contracted in the second half of pregnancy. The risk of transmission of maternal-fetal-neonatal herpes simplex can be decreased by performing a treatment with antiviral drugs or resorting to a caesarean section in some specific cases. The purpose of this paper is to provide recommendations on management of herpes simplex infections in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission from mother to fetus.

Straface, Gianluca; Selmin, Alessia; Zanardo, Vincenzo; De Santis, Marco; Ercoli, Alfredo; Scambia, Giovanni

2012-01-01

84

Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Infection with herpes simplex is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Because the infection is common in women of reproductive age it can be contracted and transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and the newborn. Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in the uterus, it occurs frequently during the transmission delivery. The greatest risk of transmission to the fetus and the newborn occurs in case of an initial maternal infection contracted in the second half of pregnancy. The risk of transmission of maternal-fetal-neonatal herpes simplex can be decreased by performing a treatment with antiviral drugs or resorting to a caesarean section in some specific cases. The purpose of this paper is to provide recommendations on management of herpes simplex infections in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission from mother to fetus. PMID:22566740

Straface, Gianluca; Selmin, Alessia; Zanardo, Vincenzo; De Santis, Marco; Ercoli, Alfredo; Scambia, Giovanni

2012-01-01

85

Frog virus 3-like infections in aquatic amphibian communities.  

PubMed

Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses, are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), and they have been associated with infectious diseases that may be contributing to amphibian population declines. We examined the mode of transmission of an FV3-like virus, and potential hosts and reservoirs of the virus in a local amphibian community. Using the polymerase chain reaction to detect infected animals, we found an FV3-like virus in south-central Ontario, Canada, amphibian communities, where it infects sympatric amphibian species, including ranid and hylid tadpoles (Rana sylvatica, Hyla versicolor, and Pseudacris spp.), larval salamanders (Ambystoma spp.), and adult eastern-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). The high prevalence of FV3-like infections in caudate larvae suggests that salamanders are likely to be both hosts and reservoirs. In laboratory FV3 challenges of R. sylvatica, the rate of infection was dependent on the amount of virus to which the animals were exposed. In addition, although vertical transmission was suspected, horizontal transmission through exposure to infected pond water is the most likely route of infection in tadpoles. Based on our observations, a simple model of FV3/FV3-like virus transmission postulates that, in aquatic amphibian communities, transmission of the virus occurs between anuran and urodele species, with ambystomatid salamanders the most likely reservoir for the ranavirus in our study. PMID:18263826

Duffus, A L J; Pauli, B D; Wozney, K; Brunetti, C R; Berrill, M

2008-01-01

86

Antibody dependent enhancement of frog virus 3 infection  

PubMed Central

Background Viruses included in the family Iridoviridae are large, icosahedral, dsDNA viruses that are subdivided into 5 genera. Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species of the genus Ranavirus and the best studied iridovirus at the molecular level. Typically, antibodies directed against a virus act to neutralize the virus and limit infection. Antibody dependent enhancement occurs when viral antibodies enhance infectivity of the virus rather than neutralize it. Results Here we show that anti-FV3 serum present at the time of FV3 infection enhances infectivity of the virus in two non-immune teleost cell lines. We found that antibody dependent enhancement of FV3 was dependent on the Fc portion of anti-FV3 antibodies but not related to complement. Furthermore, the presence of anti-FV3 serum during an FV3 infection in a non-immune mammalian cell line resulted in neutralization of the virus. Our results suggest that a cell surface receptor specific to teleost cell lines is responsible for the enhancement. Conclusions This report represents the first evidence of antibody dependent enhancement in iridoviruses. The data suggests that anti-FV3 serum can either neutralize or enhance viral infection and that enhancement is related to a novel antibody dependent enhancement pathway found in teleosts that is Fc dependent.

2010-01-01

87

Herpes simplex virus growth, preparation, and assay.  

PubMed

In order to study the biology of herpes simplex virus or to use it as a vector in gene therapy, it is necessary to grow the virus and to prepare virus stocks. Many different protocols are available from different research groups working with herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 (HSV-1 or HSV-2). This chapter describes the procedures used in our laboratory. PMID:24671674

Marconi, Peggy; Manservigi, Roberto

2014-01-01

88

Herpes simplex encephalitis in patients with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case reports and animal models suggest that chemotherapy, corticosteroids and radiotherapy (RT) may increase the risk of herpes\\u000a simplex encephalitis (HSE). We retrospectively examined cases of HSE at an academic hospital devoted to cancer care. Patients\\u000a were identified by positive herpes simplex virus (HSV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or by\\u000a brain pathology. There were seven patients

Jerome J. Graber; Marc K. Rosenblum; Lisa M. DeAngelis

89

Hemorrhagic cystitis associated with herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man presented with hemorrhagic cystitis and was found to have herpes simplex infection of the bladder by biopsy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The patient had no clinical evidence of immunosuppression or disseminated infection. Although viral etiologies of hemorrhagic cystitis are recognized, to our knowledge only 4 cases of hemorrhagic cystitis due to herpes simplex virus have been reported. PMID:8254799

McClanahan, C; Grimes, M M; Callaghan, E; Stewart, J

1994-01-01

90

Herpes zoster in older adults.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common condition among older adults, manifested by pain and the classic presentation of a unilateral rash that follows a dermatomal distribution and does not cross the midline of the body. It is caused by reactivation of the virus that caused chickenpox during an earlier infection. In many cases, acute HZ is followed by a severe and disabling complication known as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), characterized by pain that persists for months or even years after the HZ rash heals. Using an individual example, this article provides information on the clinical manifestations, evidence-based treatment recommendations for, and prevention of HZ and PHN through use of the zoster vaccine Zostavax, licensed in the United States in 2006. PMID:20302254

Cadogan, Mary P

2010-03-01

91

Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Deborah Fornstrom, M.T. (ASCP). The Children's Hospital, Aurora, CO. Kristi Lookner, M.T. (ASCP). The Children's Hospital, Aurora, CO. Proudly sponsored by ... Learn more about ... Understanding ...

92

Concentration of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish ( Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta sp.) from the Kor River (Iran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of heavy metals in aquatic animals mainly occurs due to industrial contamination. In this study, the concentrations\\u000a of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish and in water collected from three\\u000a sections of the Kor River, Iran were determined using the inductively coupled plasma method. Pathological and hormonal changes\\u000a due to metal

Mansour Ebrahimi; Mahnaz Taherianfard

2010-01-01

93

Novel Targets for the Development of Anti-Herpes Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are members of the Herpesviridae family. HSV infections have been known since ancient times and are one of the most common communicable diseases in humans. Although infections are often subclinical, HSV can cause mild to severe diseases, especially in immunocompromised patients. Herpes simplex viruses establish latency in

A. Greco; J. J. Diaz; D. Thouvenot; F. Morfin

2007-01-01

94

[Severe form of herpes gestationis].  

PubMed

We report a very severe form of herpers gestationis that arose at the 26(th) week of pregnancy and reached us for observation at the 30(th) week. Herpes gestationis in an autoimmune vesicobullous dermatosis characterised by skin eruptions, intense itching and consequent increase in fetal morbility, with delayed intrauterine growth and prematurity. Owing to its particular severity (involvement of the entire body surface including the face), between the 30th and the 32(nd) weeks we had to address a severe clinical condition characterised by anaemia, marked hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hupertension and hyperglycaemia which led us to resort to the maximum dose of oral corticotherapy in association with topical therapy using clobetasol propionate. In our opinion the results obtained were highly statisfactory with the result that at the end of the 37(th) week, in consideration of the patient's obstetric history, podalic presentation and parity, we performed a Caesarean delivering a newborn of 3000 g in excellent condition. The patient was discharged symptom-free on the 6(th) day and the newborn was in full healt. PMID:14581874

Orsini, G; Loizzi, P; Morelli, L; Chiechi, L M; Sabatini, R; Distante, G

2003-06-01

95

Description of Rhabdochona (Globochona) rasborae sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Rasbora paviana Tirant in southern Thailand.  

PubMed

A new nematode species, Rhabdochona (Globochona) rasborae sp. n. (Rhabdochonidae), is described from the intestine of the freshwater cyprinid fish (sidestripe rasbora) Rasbora paviana Tirant in the Bangbaimai Subdistrict, Muang District, Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand. It differs from other representatives of the subgenus Globochona Moravec, 1972 which possess eggs provided with lateral swellings in having a spinose formation at the tail tip of both sexes and in some other morphological features, such as the body length of gravid female (8.6-23.7 mm), presence of two-three swellings on the egg, eight anterior prostomal teeth, length ratio of spicules (1:5.3-6.7) and arrangement of male genital papillae. This is the third nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 and the second species of the subgenus Globochona reported from fishes in Thailand. The three species of Rhabdochona recently described from fishes in Pakistan, viz. R. annai Kakar, Bilqees et Khan, 2012, R. bifurcatum [sic] Kakar et Bilqees, 2012, and R. pakistanica Kakar, Bilqees et Khan, 2012, are considered to be species inquirendae. PMID:23136801

Moravec, Frantisek; Kamchoo, Kanda

2012-09-01

96

Remarks on the seasonal occurrence and identification of young plasmodial stages of Myxobolus spp. infecting cyprinid fishes in Hungary.  

PubMed

During a survey on the Myxobolus infection of two cyprinid fishes, the ide (Leuciscus idus) and the roach (Rutilus rutilus), myxosporean developmental stages were found around the arteries of the gill filaments and in the gill lamellae. An analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences of these stages revealed that plasmodia developing in the ide belonged to Myxobolus elegans, those developing in the gill lamellae of the roach corresponded to M. intimus, while plasmodia developing in close contact with the cartilaginous gill rays proved to be developmental stages of M. feisti. A strict seasonal cycle with a very long intrapiscine development was recorded for M. elegans and M. intimus. Developing plasmodia of the latter Myxobolus spp. occurred from early summer to next spring, and spore formation took place only in April. No seasonality associated with M. feisti infections was found. Developing plasmodia and mature spores of this species occurred simultaneously in different seasons of the year. Myxobolus feisti spore formation always occurred in close contact with the cartilaginous tissue of the gill filaments but spores were rarely encapsulated in the cartilaginous gill rays. PMID:22366133

Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor; Székely, Csaba

2012-03-01

97

Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea.  

PubMed

Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria. PMID:23144655

Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

2012-11-01

98

Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in northeast Thailand.  

PubMed

A new nematode species, Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Rhabdochonidae), is described from the intestine of the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. It is mainly characterized by medium-sized, bifurcate deirids, the presence of 14 anterior prostomal teeth and distinct basal teeth, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of esophagus (1:6-9), length of the left spicule (669-774 ?m), absence of a dorsal barb on the right spicule, length ratio of spicules (1:4.9-6.0), arrangement of genital papillae, and smooth eggs without filaments or swellings. In addition, specifically unidentified fourth-stage larvae of Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) sp., morphologically similar to R. hypsibarbi, were recorded from the red-tailed tinfoil Barbonymus altus (Günther) (Cyprinidae) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. Rhabdochona hypsibarbi is the fourth nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 reported from fishes in Thailand and the second species of the nominotypical subgenus found in this country. PMID:23045998

Moravec, František; Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Kamchoo, Kanda

2013-04-01

99

Divergence with gene flow between Ponto-Caspian refugia in an anadromous cyprinid Rutilus frisii revealed by multiple gene phylogeography.  

PubMed

The Black and Caspian Seas have experienced alternating periods of isolation and interconnection over many Milankovitch climate oscillations and most recently became separated when the meltwater overflow from the Caspian Sea ceased at the end of the last glaciation. Climate-induced habitat changes have indisputably had profound impacts on distribution and demography of aquatic species, yet uncertainties remain about the relative roles of isolation and dispersal in the response of species shared between the Black and Caspian Sea basins. We examined these issues using phylogeographical analysis of an anadromous cyprinid fish Rutilus frisii. Bayesian coalescence analyses of sequence variation at two nuclear and one mitochondrial genes suggest that the Black and Caspian Seas supported separate populations of R. frisii during the last glaciation. Parameter estimates from the fitted isolation-with-migration model showed that their separation was not complete, however, and that the two populations continued to exchange genes in both directions. These analyses also suggested that majority of migrations occurred during the Pleistocene, showing that the variation shared between the Black and Caspian Seas is the result of ancient dispersal along the temporary natural connections between the basins, rather than of incomplete lineage sorting or recent human-mediated dispersal. Gene flow between the refugial populations was therefore an important source of genetic variation, and we suggest that it facilitated the evolutionary response of the populations to changing climate. PMID:18261049

Kotlík, Petr; Marková, Silvia; Choleva, Lukás; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Ekmekçi, F Guler; Ivanova, Petya P

2008-02-01

100

Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea  

PubMed Central

Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria.

Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

2012-01-01

101

Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

2003-01-01

102

Herpes, Syphilis, and Other Ulcerogenital Conditions.  

PubMed

This well-illustrated overview of herpes simplex virus infection, syphilis, and chancroid focuses on history, biology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, natural history, signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, and diagnostic problems. Clinicians are reminded of the high correlation between genital ulcer disease and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:10359960

Braverman

1996-02-01

103

Herpes zoster: A rash demanding careful evaluation.  

PubMed

This article discusses the incidence, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of herpes zoster, complications such as postherpetic neuralgia, and prevention through vaccination. Information on vaccine cost and insurance coverage is provided as well as two case studies illustrating various clinical presentations. PMID:24681697

Wilson, Denise D

2014-05-12

104

Disseminated herpes simplex in newborn infants  

PubMed Central

Six cases of disseminated herpes simplex virus infection in newborn infants have been collected. The morbid anatomical and histological findings are described for the various tissues of the body. For the first time, the typical lesions were found in the lung. This and the other findings are discussed from the aetiological point of view. Images

Bird, T.; Ennis, J. E.; Wort, A. J.; Gardner, P. S.

1963-01-01

105

Contralateral hemiparesis following herpes zoster ophthalmicus.  

PubMed Central

A case of herpes zoster ophthalmicus was followed, after a latent period of four weeks, by contralateral hemiparesis. An attempt is made to clarify the anatomical relationships involved in the pathogenesis of postherpetic cerebral complications. Detailed presentation of neuropathological findings in this case may provide evidence of vasculitis in the syndrome, with better understanding of the pathological anatomy. Images

Gasperetti, C; Song, S K

1985-01-01

106

Reevaluating Herpes Simplex Virus Hemifusion ?  

PubMed Central

Membrane fusion induced by enveloped viruses proceeds through the actions of viral fusion proteins. Once activated, viral fusion proteins undergo large protein conformational changes to execute membrane fusion. Fusion is thought to proceed through a “hemifusion” intermediate in which the outer membrane leaflets of target and viral membranes mix (lipid mixing) prior to fusion pore formation, enlargement, and completion of fusion. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) requires four glycoproteins—glycoprotein D (gD), glycoprotein B (gB), and a heterodimer of glycoprotein H and L (gH/gL)—to accomplish fusion. gD is primarily thought of as a receptor-binding protein and gB as a fusion protein. The role of gH/gL in fusion has remained enigmatic. Despite experimental evidence that gH/gL may be a fusion protein capable of inducing hemifusion in the absence of gB, the recently solved crystal structure of HSV-2 gH/gL has no structural homology to any known viral fusion protein. We found that in our hands, all HSV entry proteins—gD, gB, and gH/gL—were required to observe lipid mixing in both cell-cell- and virus-cell-based hemifusion assays. To verify that our hemifusion assay was capable of detecting hemifusion, we used glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked hemagglutinin (HA), a variant of the influenza virus fusion protein, HA, known to stall the fusion process before productive fusion pores are formed. Additionally, we found that a mutant carrying an insertion within the short gH cytoplasmic tail, 824L gH, is incapable of executing hemifusion despite normal cell surface expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that HSV gH/gL may not function as a fusion protein and that all HSV entry glycoproteins are required for both hemifusion and fusion. The previously described gH 824L mutation blocks gH/gL function prior to HSV-induced lipid mixing.

Jackson, Julia O.; Longnecker, Richard

2010-01-01

107

The ecological complexity of the Thai-Laos Mekong River: III. Health status of Mekong catfish and cyprinids, evidence of bioaccumulative effects.  

PubMed

Histopathology of fish organs was used as biomarkers of toxicity from environmental pollutants. A total of 117 fishes comprising of 52 cyprinids and 65 catfishes were randomly collected from the Mekong River from 5 stations: Chiang Rai, Loei, Nongkhai, Nakhon Phanom and Ubonratchathani. The health of the fish collected in December and April, winter and summer respectively, was evaluated. All fish from the 5 stations developed pathologic lesions with the same characteristics in their livers, kidneys and spleen. In the liver, there was vacuolation of hepatocytes, accumulation of brownish-green granules in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, necrosis of hepatocytes, granuloma formation and angiogenesis. Kidney lesions consisted of glomerular degeneration, necrosis and focal hyperplasia of renal tubules. In the spleen, there were haemorrhage, melanomacrophage centre infiltration and necrosis of the red pulp and white pulp. The pathologic severity of the catfish was found to be more severe than in the cyprinids and the catfish collected in summer were less healthy than the catfish collected in the winter. These histopathological appearances might arise from the fish feeding on the benthos and thereby accumulating toxic pollutants in their organs. The activities of the serum enzymes, Glutamic Oxalacetic Transaminase (GOT) and Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), were markedly increased, indicating detoxification activity. The highest activity of GOT found in the cyprinids from Chiang Rai 365.30 U/L whereas in the catfish from Nakhon Phanom the activity was 300.73 U/L. The highest GPT activity found in the cyprinids from Nakhon Phanom was 203.23 U/L where as in the catfish from the same station was GPT 389.77 U/L. According to the results from this study, catfish collected from Chiang Rai, Nakhon Phanom and Ubonratchathani showed more severe pathological changes than catfish from the other stations. Fish organs and river water were analysed for Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. The fish organs showed bioaccumulation of these toxic pollutants. BioConcentration Factors (BCFs) were calculated. Therefore an attempt is made to correlate these findings to the Mekong study in general. PMID:20853201

Phanwichien, Kantimanee; Pradermwong, Apichart; Keenan, Helen E; Masawang, Kamonporn; Lauhachinda, Nitaya; Songsasen, Apisit; Sakultantimetha, Arthit; Bangkedphol, Sornnarin; Gaines, Alec F

2010-11-01

108

[Four cases of urinary dysfunction associated with sacral herpes zoster].  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is caused by the infection of Varicella-Zoster virus. The anatomical distribution of herpes zoster in the sacral area is only 6. 9%1). Moreover, the onset rate of herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction is 0.6%1). The lesion sites of herpes zoster which cause urinary dysfunction are almost lumber and sacral areas. We describe four cases of sacral herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction in this report. All patients were elderly people (66-84 years old), and all patients were administered anti-virus drugs and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers. Because of urinary retention, three patients have performed clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC) for several weeks. As the lesions of herpes zoster healed, each patient recovered from urinary dysfunction. PMID:24755820

Matsuo, Tomohiro; Oba, Kojiro; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki

2014-02-01

109

Down-regulation of the cyprinid herpesvirus-3 annotated genes in cultured cells maintained at restrictive high temperature.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, in the order Herpesvirales. It causes a fatal disease in carp and koi fish. The disease is seasonal and is active when water temperatures ranges from 18 to 28 °C. Little is known about how and where the virus is preserved between the permissive seasons. The hallmark of the herpesviruses is their ability to become latent, persisting in the host in an apparently inactive state for varying periods of time. Hence, it could be expected that CyHV-3 enter a latent period. CyHV-3 has so far been shown to persist in fish maintained under restrictive temperatures, while shifting the fish to permissive conditions reactivates the virus. Previously, we demonstrated that cultured cells infected with CyHV-3 at 22 °C and subsequently transferred to a restrictive temperature of 30 °C preserve the virus for 30 days. The present report shows that cultured carp cells maintained and exposed to CyHV-3 at 30 °C are abortively infected; that is, autonomous viral DNA synthesis is hampered and the viral genome is not multiplied. Under these conditions, 91 of the 156 viral annotated ORFs were initially transcribed. These transcripts were down-regulated and gradually shut off over 18 days post-infection, while two viral transcripts encoded by ORFs 114 and 115 were preserved in the infected cells for 18 days p.i. These experiments, carried out in cultured cells, suggest that fish could be infected at a high non-permissive temperature and harbor the viral genome without producing viral particles. PMID:22841492

Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

2012-10-01

110

Acute Toxicity, Respiratory Reaction, and Sensitivity of Three Cyprinid Fish Species Caused by Exposure to Four Heavy Metals  

PubMed Central

Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg2+ to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L?1, 0.23 mg L?1, and 0.10 mg L?1, respectively; of Cu2+0.17 mg L?1, 0.09 mg L?1, and 0.12 mg L?1 respectively; of Cd2+6.5 mg L?1, 18.47 mg L?1, 5.36 mg L?1, respectively; and of Zn2+44.48 mg L?1, 31.37 mg L?1, and 12.74 mg L?1, respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg2+ and Cu2+ (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd2+. Zn2+ had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L?1, 0.046 mg L?1, 2.142 mg L?1, and 0.633 mg L?1 for Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor.

Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

2013-01-01

111

Feeding Cyprinus carpio with infectious materials mediates cyprinid herpesvirus 3 entry through infection of pharyngeal periodontal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as Koi herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of a mortal disease in common and koi carp. Recently, we investigated the entry of CyHV-3 in carp using bioluminescence imaging and a CyHV-3 recombinant strain expressing luciferase (LUC). We demonstrated that the skin is the major portal of entry after inoculation of carp by immersion in water containing CyHV-3. While this model of infection mimics some natural conditions in which infection takes place, other epidemiological conditions could favour entry of virus through the digestive tract. Here, we investigated whether ingestion of infectious materials mediates CyHV-3 entry through the digestive tract. Carp were fed with materials contaminated with the CyHV-3 LUC recombinant (oral contamination) or immersed in water containing the virus (contamination by immersion). Bioluminescence imaging analyses performed at different times post-infection led to the following observations: (i) the pharyngeal periodontal mucosa is the major portal of entry after oral contamination, while the skin is the major portal of entry after contamination by immersion. (ii) Both modes of inoculation led to the spreading of the infection to the various organs tested. However, the timing and the sequence in which some of the organs turned positive were different between the two modes of inoculation. Finally, we compared the disease induced by the two inoculation modes. They led to comparable clinical signs and mortality rate. The results of the present study suggest that, based on epidemiological conditions, CyHV-3 can enter carp either by skin or periodontal pharyngeal mucosal infection.

2012-01-01

112

Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed.

Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2012-01-01

113

Herpes Zoster Duplex Bilateralis in a Patient with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

The skin lesion of herpes zoster is classically limited to a single dermatome, and most cases of multi-dermatomal herpes zoster have contiguous skin lesions. Noncontigous multi-dermatomal herpes zoster is very rare in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed persons. The phenomenon of zoster occurring in two non-contiguous dermatomes has been referred to as zoster duplex unilateralis or bilateralis. We report here on a case of herpes zoster duplex bilateralis in a 49-year-old woman who had previously received chemotherapy for breast cancer treatment.

Yoo, Kwang Ho; Park, Ju Hee; Kim, Myeung Nam; Song, Kye Yong

2009-01-01

114

[Herpes simplex infection in the newborn infant].  

PubMed

A case of neonatal Herpes simplex infection is being described, which was diagnosed clinically as well as serologically. It concerns a child, which was born after 35 weeks of gestation. Two days after the delivery the mother showed typically efflorescences of Herpes simplex infection in the abdominal region. On the fifth day after birth the child showed a vesico-bullous exanthema beginning on the head and spreading out on breast and back. On day 14th a serious sepsis-like pattern of the disease with respiratory insufficiency and encephalitic symptoms could be seen. Treatment with Vidarabinphosphat and Acyclovir-Natrium was without definite success. At the age of five months the child showed a pseudobulbar-paralysis with tetra-spasticity. The cranial computer-tomography demonstrated a distinct hydrocephalus e vacuo and the electroencephalography registered only sporadic brain activity. PMID:2985861

Sobczak, H; Gebauer, W; Schütz, E

1985-01-01

115

Psychological factors in recurrent genital herpes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To review recent research into psychological aspects of genital herpes and assess possible implications for clinical practice. METHODS: Review of all papers in the field on Medline 1985-96. RESULTS: Much attention has been paid to possible links between stress and recurrent genital herpes. There is no convincing evidence that stress in itself causes recurrences. It may be that recurrences are preceded by a prodromal period of altered mood. Patients with recurrences show considerable stress as a result of the disease, although most individuals eventually adjust psychologically. The impact of social support on adjustment remains unclear. The little evidence available suggests that antiviral treatments can help adjustment and the effects may perhaps outlast the period of active treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Existing research gives some clues to optimal patient management but there is a need for future research to focus much more clearly on clinical issues, particularly on means of alleviating psychological distress and on the impact of antivirals.

Green, J; Kocsis, A

1997-01-01

116

New concepts in understanding genital herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is a lifelong infection that causes recurrent genital ulcers and, rarely, disseminated and visceral\\u000a disease. HSV-1 infection is an increasingly important cause of genital ulcers. HSV infections are the most common cause of\\u000a genital ulcers in adults, but acquisition and chronic infection are more commonly asymptomatic than symptomatic. Both the\\u000a symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of HSV

Joshua T. Schiffer; Lawrence Corey

2009-01-01

117

Herpes zoster as a systemic disease.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster (shingles, zona) is a viral infection commonly affliccting the skin and the nervous system with an overall occurring rate of 3 to 5 cases per 1000 persons per year, with higher rates in middle or later life. With the advancement of medicine, more and more case reports have started to emerge showing different incidences of VZV, some new localizations, clinical presentations, and complications, which break the well-known fact that "VZV affects the skin and nervous system." Skin lesions are the most important ones for the early and exact diagnosis of herpes zoster (HZ), due to its visibility and well-defined clinical picture of lesions. The most frequent condition following the acute herpes zoster eruption is postherapeutic neuralgia (PHN). There have been other reports of the disease with otorinolaryngologic complications and ophthalmologic ones, such as ophthalmoparesis/plegia. There have also been reports of delayed contralateral hemiparesis/hemiplegia following the infection, as a manifestation of vaculitis due to a direct VZV invasion of the cerebral arteries. Encephalitis and destructive myelitis is similarly rare, but a serious complication. Some authors found that patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at a significantly increased risk for herpes zoster. As a gastroenterologic complication, there have been several instances of HZV infection with symptoms resembling an acute abdomen. The diagnosis is hard to pinpoint, and a vast array of examinations are required to identify it, sometimes even posthumously. Nephrologic representations and complications have also been reported. With more and more skin diseases being acknowledged as systemic ones, this viral infection is a more likely candidate for the same title. PMID:24767191

Staikov, Ivan; Neykov, Neyko; Marinovic, Branka; Lipozen?i?, Jasna; Tsankov, Nikolai

2014-01-01

118

A New Species of Raiamas (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Lower Congo River, with a Phylogenetic Assessment of the Generic Limits of the Predatory Cyprinid Genera Opsaridium, Raiamas, and Leptocypris  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of ongoing survey work in the lower Congo River, two collections of an undescribed species of the predatory cyprinid genus Raiamas have been made; one in the Congo main channel in the vicinity of Inga, and a second in the Inkisi River, a large south bank tributary of the Congo. Discovery of this new taxon has prompted

Melanie L. J. Stiassny; Robert C. Schelly; Ulrich K. Schliewen; D. Buth

2006-01-01

119

Triploid hybridization of fast-growing transgenic mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis male to cyprinid loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus female: the first performance study on growth and reproduction of transgenic polyploid hybrid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic triploid hybrids between fast-growing transgenic mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) males and cyprinid loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) females were generated, and their performance on growth, feed conversion ability and reproduction was evaluated. Although the growth acceleration of diploid and triploid transgenic hybrids was not as much as that of the original transgenic mud loaches, they still represented significant growth stimulation ranging

Yoon Kwon Nam; In-Seok Park; Dong Soo Kim

2004-01-01

120

Herpes simplex encephalitis : from virus to therapy.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the cause of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), a devastating human disease which occurs in 2-4 cases per million/year. HSE results either from a primary infection or virus reactivation, in accordance with the common pattern of HSV infection which is a chronic lifelong process. However its pathophysiology remains largely unknown and its poor prognosis is in contrast with the usually good tolerance of most clinical herpetic manifestations. HSE is due to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) in most cases but HSV type 2 (HSV-2) may be also implicated, especially in infants in the context of neonatal herpes. Polymerase chain reaction detection of HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is the diagnosis of choice for HSE. Acyclovir, a nucleoside analogue which inhibits viral DNA polymerase activity, is the reference treatment of HSE while foscarnet constitutes an alternative therapy and the efficacy of cidofovir is currently uncertain in that context. The emergence of HSV resistance to acyclovir, a phenomenon which is mainly observed among immunocompromised patients, is a current concern although no case of HSE due to an acyclovir-resistant HSV strain has been reported to date. Nevertheless the identification and development of novel therapeutic strategies against HSV appears to be a non dispensable objective for future research in virology. PMID:21488834

Rozenberg, Flore; Deback, Claire; Agut, Henri

2011-06-01

121

Psychological aspects of recurrences of genital herpes.  

PubMed

Fifty-seven patients presenting with virologically confirmed first attacks of genital herpes were assessed for risk factors for time to the first recurrence. These factors included demographic details, personality traits, recent life events, herpes simplex biotype, frequency of orogenital intercourse and psychiatric illness as measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). This and our similar previous study (58 patients) were analysed separately and combined using a novel statistical technique (Cox's proportional hazards model). In the previous study there was a significant association only for GHQ score (p less than 0.02). For the present study age was the only statistical significant factor (the younger the patient the more likely a recurrence sooner (p less than 0.05), although there was a trend for high GHQ scorers to have recurrences sooner than low scorers. Data of the two studies combined showed that the only significant association with time to recurrence was the GHQ (p less than 0.02). These data support the notion that there is an association between psychiatric illness and recurrence of genital herpes. PMID:3772842

Goldmeier, D; Johnson, A; Jeffries, D; Walker, G D; Underhill, G; Robinson, G; Ribbans, H

1986-01-01

122

Immunity causing blindness: five different paths to herpes stromal keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes stromal keratitis (HSK) is a blinding infections disease that results from an array of immunopathogenic processes, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-specific T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells, cytotoxic T cells and antibodies. As discussed here by Wayne Streilein and colleagues, strategies designed to prevent and treat this syndrome must be aware of the fact that the disease

J. Wayne Streilein; M. Reza Dana; Bruce R. Ksander

1997-01-01

123

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Fulminant Hepatitis Successfully Treated with Acyclovir  

PubMed Central

Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is characterized by progressive multiple organ failure and high mortality rates up to 85% for untreated neonates. It can result from infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2. We report the first known case of disseminated neonatal herpes associated with fulminant liver failure caused by HSV-2 who survived without liver transplant.

Abuhasna, Said D.; Shihab, Zuhair M.; Al Niyadi, Shaikha M.; Tatari, Hossam M.; Al Jundi, Amer H.; Atwa, Khalid H.

2012-01-01

124

Neonatal herpes simplex fulminant hepatitis successfully treated with acyclovir.  

PubMed

Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is characterized by progressive multiple organ failure and high mortality rates up to 85% for untreated neonates. It can result from infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2. We report the first known case of disseminated neonatal herpes associated with fulminant liver failure caused by HSV-2 who survived without liver transplant. PMID:24027697

Abuhasna, Said D; Shihab, Zuhair M; Al Niyadi, Shaikha M; Tatari, Hossam M; Al Jundi, Amer H; Atwa, Khalid H

2012-04-01

125

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis during treatment with etanercept.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. They are associated with an increased risk for infections. We report a case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis in a patient receiving etanercept and review the literature on TNF-? and TNF-? inhibitors, and their importance in the pathophysiology of herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:24228826

Crusio, Robbert H J; Singson, Stephanie V; Haroun, Faysal; Mehta, Hetal H; Parenti, David M

2014-02-01

126

Herpes zoster and its complications in Italy: An observational survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to estimate the rate of Herpes zoster and its complications in Italy.Methods: this is an observational, retrospective study carried out by Dermatologists, Geriatric Doctors and General Practitioners. Details on demography, clinical and therapeutic aspects were reported on record forms. The rate of Herpes zoster was only calculated for patients aged 15 years or more, attending General Practitioners because this

Umberto di Luzio Paparatti; Fabio Arpinelli; Giovanni Visonŕ

1999-01-01

127

[Case report: prolonged croup due to herpes simplex infection].  

PubMed

In recent years only a few cases of croup due to herpes simplex infection among healthy children have been reported. This case report concerns a 15 month old, healthy boy who was admitted to the Children's Hospital with croup and failed to recover within the week. The boy had a positive throat culture for herpes simplex type 1 and was diagnosed with croup due to herpes simplex on the basis of serology. The boy was treated with corticosteroids; a recognised practice in severe cases of croup. The harmful effects of corticosteroids in herpes simplex croup, if indeed any, are not known. We surmise that in this case the use of corticosteroids was not a decisive factor, but it has been previously noted that prolonged corticosteroid treatment can play a role in herpes simplex infection. Furthermore it has been debated whether other viral pathogens proceed the infection, but in this case serology indicates otherwise. PMID:17206016

Sturludóttir, Margrét; Skúladóttir, Helga Margrét; Gudnason, Thornórólfur; Ardal, Bjoern

2006-12-01

128

[Therapy of herpes zoster neuralgia. Acute and residual neuralgia in herpes zoster].  

PubMed

We discuss the latest findings regarding the therapy of acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Aside from the conventional modes of treatment. We especially refer to the therapy with aciclovir. In addition, we present the techniques of transcutaneous electrostimulation and neurosurgery. PMID:2284830

Malin, J P

1990-08-01

129

Update on oral herpes virus infections.  

PubMed

Oral herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by oral health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other conditions of the oral mucosa. This article provides oral health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs. PMID:24655522

Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T

2014-04-01

130

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus associated with abducens palsy  

PubMed Central

The extraocular muscle palsies associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are transient, self-limiting conditions, usually seen in elderly patients. There are different treatment recommendations for paralytic complications, but prognosis has generally reported to be favorable. A 75-year-old male patient presented with diplopia. Clinical history revealed left facial vesicular eruptions and pain treated by oral aciclovir 1 week following symptom onset. On examination, we observed cicatricial lesions with crusts involving left hemiface, a limitation in abduction of the left eye, and a superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) with decreased visual acuity (4/10). Examination of the right eye was unremarkable. Hess screen test confirmed left six nerve palsy.

Chaker, Nibrass; Bouladi, Mejda; Chebil, Ahmed; Jemmeli, Mehdi; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

2014-01-01

131

Structure of the Acidianus Filamentous Virus 3 and Comparative Genomics of Related Archaeal Lipothrixviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 28 June 2007\\/Accepted 4 October 2007 Four novel filamentous viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, namely, Acidianus filamentous virus 3 (AFV3), AFV6, AFV7, and AFV8, have been characterized from the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidi- anus, and they are assigned to the Betalipothrixvirus genus of the family Lipothrixviridae. The structures of the approximately 2-m-long virions are similar, and one of them,

Gisle Vestergaard; Ricardo Aramayo; Tamara Basta; Monika Haring; Xu Peng; Kim Brugger; Lanming Chen; Reinhard Rachel; Nicolas Boisset; Roger A. Garrett; David Prangishvili

2008-01-01

132

Brain growth patterns in four European cyprinid fish species (Cyprinidae, Teleostei): roach (Rutilus rutilus), bream (Abramis brama), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and sabre carp (Pelecus cultratus).  

PubMed

This study compares brain growth in 4 species of cyprinids, each distinctly different in adult brain morphology: roach have generalized brains; bream are characterized by well-developed visual, octavolateralis and gustatory brain regions; common carp show chemosensory (gustatory)-dominated brains, and sabre carp octavolateralis-dominated brains. The growth patterns of 16 regions relative to total brain volume were investigated by computer-aided quantitative histology to illustrate internal brain allometries. In all species the tectum opticum decreases in relative size during growth, whereas the corpus cerebelli increases. In bream and common carp, primary taste centers steadily increase in relative size during growth. In most if not all fish, the brain attains no definite final morphology. Lifelong, growth-related shifts in relative sizes of primary sensory regions may reflect lifelong shifting sensory capabilities. PMID:2379081

Brandstätter, R; Kotrschal, K

1990-01-01

133

Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in Hamadan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Encephalitis can cause a severe public health problem. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the medical laboratory results of patients with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis. Materials and Methods Diagnosis of encephalitis for these patients was firstly based on a clinical profile for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), plus either a detected HSV1&2-DNA by PCR in CSF or brain neuro-imaging results. Results Molecular testing on CSF showed that 15 patients (15%) had HSV infection, 5 patients (5%) had Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and one case was positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-RNA in CSF. The cause of encephalitis in 79 out of 100 patients (79%) was unknown. The comparison of CSF analysis in HSV positives and negatives showed a significant increase of glucose and protein levels in HSV positives than negatives. The mortality rate was 46.6% (7/15) in patients with HSV encephalitis compared to 11.4% (10/85) in non-HSV encephalitis (P = 0.003). Conclusions In the current study, 15% of cases were diagnosed as having HSV.

Ghannad, Masoud Sabouri; Solgi, Ghasem; Hashemi, Sayed Hamid; Zebarjady-Bagherpour, Javad; Hemmatzadeh, Ali; Hajilooi, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

134

Behaviour disturbances during recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis.  

PubMed Central

Bizarre behaviour disturbances in four patients occurring during incomplete recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Some aspects of their behaviour were similar to that originally described by Klüver and Bucy in monkeys following bilateral temporal lobectomy. Previous reports of behavioural disturbances in man after herpes simplex encephalitis are reviewed and attention drawn to the aggressive and disruptive behaviour that is often seen. With the reduced mortality in herpes simplex encephalitis in recent years it is possible that behaviour disturbances such as those described here will be seen more frequently. Images

Greenwood, R; Bhalla, A; Gordon, A; Roberts, J

1983-01-01

135

Herpes gestationis factor reacts with the amniotic epithelial basement membrane.  

PubMed

Sera from five patients with clinically and immunopathologically proven herpes gestationis were studied by complement fixing immunofluorescence and complement fixing immuno-electron microscopy using specimens of skin, amniochorion and placenta. The results demonstrated that the complement fixation antibody (herpes gestationis factor) could bind to the basement membrane zone of skin, amnion and chorion laeve but not to that of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. These data suggest that the herpes gestationis factor may be induced by the basement membrane zone antigens of extra-villous cytotrophoblasts. PMID:3307892

Ortonne, J P; Hsi, B L; Verrando, P; Bernerd, F; Pautrat, G; Pisani, A; Yeh, C J

1987-08-01

136

Tic douloureux, Parkinson's disease and the herpes connection.  

PubMed

Several cases encountered in psychiatric practice are described in which herpetic involvement of the trigeminal nerve appeared to be crucial to the pathophysiology of the patient's illness. A brief history of herpes is discussed in terms of the anatomy and physiology of the trigeminal nerve. Particular attention is given to the effects of intraneuronal herpes on gasserian ganglion and spinal nuclei discharge thresholds, as well as viral pathways directly impacting the substantia nigra. Evidence characterizing Parkinson's disease as one of several important manifestations of CNS herpes is covered. PMID:9322115

Howard, J S

1997-01-01

137

Clinical Trials on Efficacy of Antivirals for the Treatment of Severe Herpes Virus Infections. Annual Report July 1981-June 1982,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The programs study four severe and life-threatening human herpesvirus diseases: herpes simplex encephalitis, neonatal herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster and progressive mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infections of immunocompromised hosts. The s...

R. J. Whitley C. A. Alford

1982-01-01

138

Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

1985-05-01

139

Reassessing the link between herpes zoster ophthalmicus and stroke.  

PubMed

This editorial will assess a proposed link between herpes zoster ophthalmicus and subsequent stoke. Herpes zoster (also called shingles) is caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), one of the 9 human herpesviruses. When children contract their primary VZV infection, virus often travels to the trigeminal ganglia and establishes latency. Upon reactivation in late adulthood, the same virus travels anterograde to cause herpes zoster ophthalmicus. In some people, the virus also traffics from the same trigeminal ganglion along afferent fibers around the carotid artery and its branches. Subsequently VZV-induced inflammation within the affected cerebral arteries leads to occlusion and stroke. In one retrospective analysis of people with herpes zoster ophthalmicus, there was a 4.5 fold higher risk of stroke than in a control group. Two other studies found a less compelling association. PMID:24678919

Grose, Charles; Adams, Harold P

2014-05-01

140

Psychological Adjustment among Women Living with Genital Herpes  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the psychosocial factors that influence psychological adjustment among women with genital herpes, while taking into account the physical factors. Women with herpes (N = 105, age 18–30) completed an on-line survey about factors related to their diagnosis and herpes-related quality of life. Perceived stigma, acceptance coping, denial coping, support from the Internet, and support from religious/spiritual figures accounted for 65.9 percent of the variance in quality of life scores. The findings reveal the importance of specific coping strategies and sources of support on psychological adjustment to herpes. Furthermore, a significant interaction between stigma and acceptance coping suggests a complex relationship between these two psychosocial factors that warrants future research.

BARNACK-TAVLARIS, JESSICA L.; REDDY, DIANE M.; PORTS, KATIE

2013-01-01

141

Psychological adjustment among women living with genital herpes.  

PubMed

This study investigated the psychosocial factors that influence psychological adjustment among women with genital herpes, while taking into account the physical factors. Women with herpes (N = 105, age 18-30) completed an on-line survey about factors related to their diagnosis and herpes-related quality of life. Perceived stigma, acceptance coping, denial coping, support from the Internet, and support from religious/spiritual figures accounted for 65.9 percent of the variance in quality of life scores. The findings reveal the importance of specific coping strategies and sources of support on psychological adjustment to herpes. Furthermore, a significant interaction between stigma and acceptance coping suggests a complex relationship between these two psychosocial factors that warrants future research. PMID:20709880

Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Reddy, Diane M; Ports, Katie

2011-01-01

142

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a)...

2013-04-01

143

The diagnosis and management of oral herpes simplex infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis and recurrent herpes labialis are the most common manifestations of infection with herpes\\u000a simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In primary and recrudescent HSV-associated disease, the symptoms may range from subclinical\\u000a to debilitating and life-threatening, depending on the host’s immune responses or competence level. In this paper, the typical\\u000a and atypical manifestations, and the current diagnostic and treatment

Catalena Birek; Giuseppe Ficarra

2006-01-01

144

Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposi’s sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been

Gieri Cathomas

2000-01-01

145

Anti-herpes virus activity of Dunbaria bella Prain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes inhibitory effect of Dunbaria bella Prain (Fabaceae), a Thai medicinal plant traditionally used to treat viral infections was investigated. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure, tertiary fractionation of a dichloromethane–methanol plant extract afforded a partially purified fraction (Fr.372) equally active against replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. The 50% inhibitory concentration determined by a viral

Pannarat Akanitapichat; Aree Wangmaneerat; Prapon Wilairat; Kenneth F. Bastow

2006-01-01

146

Frog Virus 3 Replication: Induction and Intracellular Distribution of Polypeptides in Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of the polypeptides induced in frog virus 3-infected cells was analyzed by high-resolution sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of radiolabeled cell extracts. Purified frog virus 3 contained 22 polypeptides, with molecular weights in the range 9 × 103 to 114 × 103. All of the structural and an additional seven nonstructural polypeptides were detected in infected cell lysates. The following three classes of induced polypeptides (under temporal control) were observed in BHK cells: at 2 h, four ? polypeptides; at 4 h, 13 ? polypeptides; and at 6 h, the remaining 12 ? polypeptides. The total molecular weight of the infected cell-specific polypeptides (ICPs) was ? 1.5 × 106, which accounts for about 30% of the coding capacity of the viral genome. At least 10 of the induced polypeptides were phosphorylated, but none was glycosylated or sulfated. No evidence for posttranslation cleavage of polypeptides in pulse-chase and inhibition experiments was obtained. The synthesis of ? polypeptides was not detected in the presence of the viral DNA replication inhibitors cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, but halogenated nucleotides apparently had no effect. These results suggest that ? and ? polypeptides are “early” events and that detectable ? polypeptide synthesis is dependent on the production of progeny viral DNA. The regulation of frog virus 3-induced polypeptide synthesis in infected BHK cells was examined by using inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis and amino acid analogs. These experiments confirmed the existence of three sequentially synthesized, coordinately regulated classes of polypeptides, designated ?, ?, and ?. The requirements for the synthesis of each class were as follows: (i) ? polypeptides did not require previous cell protein synthesis; (ii) ? polypeptides required a prescribed period of ? polypeptide synthesis and new mRNA synthesis; and (iii) ? polypeptides required prior synthesis of functional ? polypeptides and new mRNA synthesis. ? polypeptide synthesis was controlled by ? and ? polypeptides, and ? and ? polypeptides were involved in the suppression of host cell polypeptide synthesis. Indirect evidence was obtained for the temporal regulation of frog virus 3 transcription. The intracellular distribution of virus-induced polypeptides in cells infected with frog virus 3 was investigated by using standard cell fractionation techniques. Most of the 29 induced polypeptides were bound to structures within the nucleus, and only two ICPs were not associated with purified nuclei. When isolated nuclei were incubated in an infected cell cytoplasm preparation, all of the nuclear ICPs were incorporated in vitro. All of the ICPs were associated with ribosomal and rough endoplasmic reticulum fractions of infected cells, and a number of ICPs were found on smooth intracellular membranes. Most of the ICPs were also associated with purified plasma membranes of infected cells, and one polypeptide (ICP 58) was highly enriched in the plasma membrane compared with whole cell extracts or purified frog virus 3. Images

Elliott, R. M.; Kelly, D. C.

1980-01-01

147

Management of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus are common infections and are seen frequently in clinical practice. Infection with these viruses results in cutaneous lesions that may be diagnosed clinically, but widely available laboratory testing is useful for confirmation. Asymptomatic herpes simplex virus shedding, or "subclinical reactivation," likely occurs in all persons infected with herpes simplex virus and results in the transmission of virus despite the absence of signs or symptoms that suggest active infection. Oral and intravenous acyclovir are effective in treating initial and recurrent herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections. The daily administration of oral acyclovir as suppressive therapy is effective in patients with frequently recurring genital infection with herpes simplex virus by reducing the number of symptomatic recurrences and the frequency of asymptomatic virus shedding. Two new antiviral agents, famciclovir and valacyclovir hydrochloride, have been approved for the short-term treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus and recurrent zoster in nonimmunocompromised hosts. Famciclovir and valacyclovir demonstrate superior pharmacokinetics compared with acyclovir and allow for less frequent daily dosing with higher achievable serum drug concentrations. The attenuated live varicella virus vaccine is now available in the United States and prevents primary varicella-zoster virus infection in susceptible children and adults.

Erlich, K S

1997-01-01

148

New concepts in understanding genital herpes.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is a lifelong infection that causes recurrent genital ulcers and, rarely, disseminated and visceral disease. HSV-1 infection is an increasingly important cause of genital ulcers. HSV infections are the most common cause of genital ulcers in adults, but acquisition and chronic infection are more commonly asymptomatic than symptomatic. Both the symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of HSV are of clinical consequence for several reasons. HSV-2 infection enhances HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. In addition, sexual and perinatal transmission can occur during asymptomatic viral shedding. Perinatal transmission is of particular concern because neonatal HSV infection results in severe morbidity to the newborn. Antiviral medicines are effective for limiting recurrence duration and decreasing transmission likelihood, although no available intervention completely prevents transmission. This fact highlights the importance of laboratory diagnostics for this lifelong infection, and the need for an HSV vaccine. PMID:19857385

Schiffer, Joshua T; Corey, Lawrence

2009-11-01

149

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus associated with abducens palsy.  

PubMed

The extraocular muscle palsies associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are transient, self-limiting conditions, usually seen in elderly patients. There are different treatment recommendations for paralytic complications, but prognosis has generally reported to be favorable. A 75-year-old male patient presented with diplopia. Clinical history revealed left facial vesicular eruptions and pain treated by oral aciclovir 1 week following symptom onset. On examination, we observed cicatricial lesions with crusts involving left hemiface, a limitation in abduction of the left eye, and a superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) with decreased visual acuity (4/10). Examination of the right eye was unremarkable. Hess screen test confirmed left six nerve palsy. PMID:24966563

Chaker, Nibrass; Bouladi, Mejda; Chebil, Ahmed; Jemmeli, Mehdi; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

2014-04-01

150

Complications of herpes zoster in cancer patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Cancer patients tend to have a higher incidence of herpes zoster (HZ), but little is known about their risk of HZ complications. We conducted a retrospective study of 424 newly diagnosed hematologic (HM, n = 140) and solid tumor malignancy (STM, n = 284) patients who developed HZ between January 2001 and December 2006 to measure the frequency and identify risk factors of HZ complications. Patients were adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. HZ diagnosis and complications were confirmed by medical chart review. HM patients with HZ tended to have more HZ complications than STM patients (34% vs 23%, p = 0.02), largely due to more frequent non-pain complications. On multivariate analysis, older age and being male were associated with a higher risk of HZ complications in HM patients; more advanced cancer stage was associated with HZ complications in STM patients. HZ complications are frequent and can present extra disease burden in cancer patients who develop HZ. PMID:24796470

Tran, Trung N; Ray, G Thomas; Horberg, Michael A; Yawn, Barbara P; Castillo, Adrienne L; Saddier, Patricia; Habel, Laurel A

2014-07-01

151

Nucleotide sequence of an immediate-early frog virus 3 gene.  

PubMed

We have used "gene walking" with synthetic oligonucleotides and M13 dideoxynucleotide sequencing techniques to obtain the complete coding and flanking sequences of the gene encoding a major immediate-early RNA (molecular weight, 169,000) of frog virus 3. R-loop mapping of the cloned XbaI K fragment of frog virus 3 DNA with immediate-early RNA from infected cells showed that an RNA of approximately 500 to 600 nucleotides (the right size to code for the immediate-early viral 18-kilodalton protein of unknown function) hybridized to a region within 100 base pairs of one end of the XbaI K fragment; no evidence for splicing was observed in the electron microscope or by single-strand nuclease analysis. Further restriction mapping narrowed the location of the gene to the XbaI end of a 2-kilobase-pair XbaI-Bg/II fragment, which was bidirectionally subcloned into the bacteriophage pair mp10 and mp11 for sequencing. Mung bean nuclease mapping was used to identify both the 5' and the 3' ends of the mRNA. The 5' end mapped within an AT-rich region 19 base pairs upstream from two in-phase AUG start codons that were immediately followed by an open reading frame of 157 amino acids. Another AT-rich sequence was found at -29 base pairs from the 5' end of the mRNA start site; this sequence may function as a TATA box. The 3' end of the message displayed considerable microheterogeneity, but clearly terminated within a third AT-rich region 50 to 60 base pairs from the translation stop codon. The eucaryotic polyadenylic acid addition signal (AATAAA) was not present, a finding to be expected since frog virus 3 mRNA is not polyadenylated. Both the single-stranded mp10 clone of the XbaI-Bg/II fragment and a 15-base oligonucleotide complementary to the region flanking the two AUG translation start codons inhibited translation of the immediate-early 18-kilodalton protein in vitro, confirming the identity of the sequenced gene. As the regulatory sequences of this gene did not resemble those of known eucaryotic genes or of the cytoplasmic vaccinia virus, we conclude that frog virus 3 has evolved unique signals for the initiation and termination of transcription. PMID:6092719

Willis, D; Foglesong, D; Granoff, A

1984-12-01

152

Herpes zoster: diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approaches.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster (Hz), which generally presents as a localized, painful cutaneous eruption, is a common clinical problem, particularly among adults ? 50 years of age and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of Hz is mainly made clinically, except in patients with atypical manifestations or certain complications, such as central nervous system involvement, in which laboratory virologic testing is required. In addition to having a higher mortality rate, immunocompromised individuals have atypical and severe clinical findings and are at greater risk for complications and recurrence of Hz. Treatment of Hz includes the use of antiviral agents, analgesics for control of acute zoster pain, good skin care for healing, and prevention of secondary bacterial infection. Antiviral agents, preferably valacyclovir or famciclovir, should be started within 72 hours of onset to reduce the severity of the infection, the duration of the eruptive phase, and the intensity of acute pain. Herpes zoster has been associated with several complications, of which post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common and debilitating. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine and early treatment with either famciclovir or valacyclovir are the only measures proven to prevent PHN. The options for treating PHN include topical agents, such as lidocaine patches, and systemic agents, such as the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin. Measures for preventing Hz include infection control through routine hand hygiene and appropriate use of isolation precautions and personal protective equipment; immunoglobulins, such as the varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin and vaccine; and antiviral agents. The zoster vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of Hz and PHN. The vaccine is recommended for all individuals aged ? 60 years who have no contraindications, including individuals who report a previous episode of Hz. PMID:24113666

Bader, Mazen S

2013-09-01

153

Pediatric herpes simplex virus infections: an evidence-based approach to treatment.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus is a common virus that causes a variety of clinical presentations ranging from mild to life-threatening. Orolabial and genital herpes are common disorders that can often be managed in an outpatient setting; however, some patients do present to the emergency department with those conditions, and emergency clinicians should be aware of possible complications in the pediatric population. Neonatal herpes is a rare disorder, but prompt recognition and initiation of antiviral therapy is imperative, as the morbidity and mortality of the disease is high. Herpes encephalitis is an emergency that also requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose. Herpes simplex virus is also responsible for a variety of other clinical presentations, including herpes gladiatorum, herpetic whitlow, eczema herpeticum, and ocular herpes. This issue reviews the common clinical presentations of the herpes simplex virus, the life-threatening infections that require expedient identification and management, and recommended treatment regimens. PMID:24649621

Sanders, Jennifer E; Garcia, Sylvia E

2014-01-01

154

Antiviral Agent May Be Life-Saving for Certain Herpes Zoster Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Vidarabine, a drug used to treat patients with herpes virus encephalitis, can also prevent the life-threatening complications of herpes zoster in immunocompromised p...

1983-01-01

155

A Review of Photodynamic Therapy for Herpes Simplex: Benefits and Potential Risks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recently developed photodynamic therapy for herpes simplex consists of exposing viral lesions to visible light following application of a photosensitizing dye. Animal and human clinical trials show reduction of oral and genital herpes virus infectivity....

L. E. Bockstahler C. D. Lytle K. B. Hellman

1974-01-01

156

Patients with suspected herpes simplex encephalitis: rethinking an initial negative polymerase chain reaction result.  

PubMed

A statewide encephalitis diagnostic project of the California State Department of Health Services found that herpes simplex virus 1 DNA may not be detectable by molecular methods early in the clinical course of herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:11915008

Weil, Ana A; Glaser, Carol A; Amad, Zahwa; Forghani, Bagher

2002-04-15

157

Environmental chemical exposures and risk of herpes zoster.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether residence in Aberdeen, North Carolina, the location of the Aberdeen pesticides dumps site (a national priority list Superfund site containing organochlorine pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and metals), is associated with immune suppression as indicated by a higher incidence of herpes zoster and recent occurrences of other common infectious diseases. Study participants included 1,642 residents, 18-64 years of age, who responded to a telephone survey concerning potential occupational and recreational exposures to pesticides and other chemicals, lifetime history of herpes zoster (shingles), and the recent occurrence of other common infectious diseases. Stratified and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the cumulative incidence of herpes zoster among Aberdeen residents and residents of nearby communities. There was little evidence of an overall increased risk of herpes zoster among Aberdeen residents during the period 1951-1994 [relative risk (RR), 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-2.1]. However, an elevated risk of herpes zoster was noted consistently among Aberdeen residents of younger ages as compared to residents of the nearby communities. The RR was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-4.0) among those 18-40 years of age and was not affected by controlling for potential confounders. The RR of herpes zoster was also consistently elevated in all age groups for the period before 1985. No differences were noted between residents of Aberdeen and those of the nearby communities with respect to the recent occurrence of other common infectious diseases. These results support the plausibility of an association between exposure to the Aberdeen pesticides dumps site and immune suppression and the potential use of herpes zoster as a marker of immune suppression in studies of environmental chemical exposures. PMID:10504152

Arndt, V; Vine, M F; Weigle, K

1999-10-01

158

Diagnosis of genital herpes: the role and place of HSV testing in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2. It is an underdiagnosed and undertreated sexually transmitted\\u000a infection characterised by latency followed by reactivation. The seroprevalence of both types of HSV varies throughout Europe,\\u000a and HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital herpes. Transmission is through skin-to-skin contact, and neonatal herpes resulting\\u000a from transmission during delivery is a

Anders Strand

2006-01-01

159

Herpes simplex virus specific antibody determined by immunoblotting in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with the Guillain-Barr? syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The Guillain-Barré syndrome is often preceded by a herpes virus infection. Herpes simplex virus, however, has rarely been observed as the causative agent. A patient is described with a herpes simplex virus infection followed by a Guillain-Barré syndrome. Immunoblotting was used to detect herpes simplex virus-specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Images

Bernsen, H J; Van Loon, A M; Poels, R F; Verhagen, W I; Frenken, C W

1989-01-01

160

Resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 is influenced by major histocompatibility (MH) class II B gene polymorphism.  

PubMed

The role of MH class II B (Cyca-DAB1-like) genes in resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV) was analysed. The material consisted of 934 fish from six carp crosses. Fish were challenged with CyHV-3 at an age of 7 and 10 months. During challenge experiments the peak of mortality caused by CyHV-3 was observed at days 8-12 p.i. and the overall cumulative mortality reached 79.9%. Among six Cyca-DAB1-like genotypes, revealed by PCR-RF-SSCP analysis, one genotype (E) was found associated with higher resistance to CyHV-3. Three other genotypes (B, H and J) could be linked to higher susceptibility to CyHV-3. Analysis of the alleles that compose the Cyca-DAB1-like genotypes linked one particular allele (Cyca-DAB1*05) to significantly increased, and two alleles (Cyca-DAB1*02 and Cyca-DAB1*06) to significantly decreased resistance to CyHV-3. Our data indicate that MH class II B genes could be used as potential genetic markers in breeding of common carp for resistance to this virus. PMID:19328856

Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Adamek, Miko?aj; Siwicki, Andrzej K; Lepa, Agnieszka; Irnazarow, Ilgiz

2009-05-01

161

Garra waensis, a new cyprinid fish (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Nan River basin of the Chao Phraya River system, northern Thailand.  

PubMed

A new cyprinid fish, Garra waensis, is described from the Wa River, a tributary of the Nan River of the Chao Phraya River system in northern Thailand. The species is distinguishable from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: the absence of barbels; 7 branched dorsal fin rays; 31-37 lateral-line scales; 10-12 circumpeduncular scales; a small and broad head (head length [HL] 22.7-26.1% in standard length, head depth 56.1-64.9% HL, head width 74.0-85.0 % HL); a weakly developed proboscis in front of nostrils; the presence of reddish-orange spots (white or dull yellowish white in preserved specimens) on the side of the body; and a dark mid-lateral stripe running from the upper edge of the gill opening to the caudal peduncle and expanding into a large anteriorly-pointed triangular blotch at the end of the body (in preserved condition). A vomero-palatine organ of the species is also described in detail for the first time for Asian species of Garra. The genus Placocheilus is treated as a junior synonym of Garra.  PMID:24869886

Lothongkham, Amornchai; Arbsuwan, Sakda; Musikasinthorn, Prachya

2014-01-01

162

Invasive Cyprinid Fish in Europe Originate from the Single Introduction of an Admixed Source Population Followed by a Complex Pattern of Spread  

PubMed Central

The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential.

Simon, Andrea; Britton, Robert; Gozlan, Rodolphe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Hanfling, Bernd

2011-01-01

163

Molecular phylogeny of two lineages of Leuciscinae cyprinids (Telestes and Scardinius) from the peri-Mediterranean area based on cytochrome b data.  

PubMed

We examined phylogenetic relationships in two lineages of Leuciscinae cyprinid fishes based on the sequence data of the complete mitochondrial DNA region coding for the cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). Telestes includes obligate riverine, moderately cold water-adapted species whereas Scardinius comprises warm-adapted species living in lowland lakes and still waters of rivers and streams. We also analysed selected representatives of Leuciscus and Phoxinellus because the taxonomic status of some species belonging to these genera is dubious and they could be placed in the genus Telestes. The study includes 18 species, 43 populations, and 111 individuals from 9 of the 14 peri-Mediterranean ichthyogeographic districts. Clades recovered from the phylogenetic analyses do not support previous taxonomic assumptions based on morphology. Telestes, Leuciscus, and Phoxinellus do not form monophyletic assemblages; phylogenetic analyses suggest that L. polylepis, L. turskyi, P. croaticus, and P. metohiensis should be included in Telestes. Similarly, populations of Scardinius erythrophthalmus do not cluster together and the endangered S. scardafa, endemic to central Italy and surviving in a single locality, is nested within them. The radiations of Telestes and Scardinius occurred in different time periods. A major diversification of Telestes is consistent with a sea dispersal during the freshwater Messinian "Lago Mare" phase of the Mediterranean Sea. Cladogenetic events within Scardinius are likely related to the extension and confluence of river drainages in lowlands following multiple lowering of the sea level during the Quaternary glaciations. PMID:15288075

Ketmaier, Valerio; Bianco, Pier Giorgio; Cobolli, Marina; Krivokapic, Marijana; Caniglia, Romolo; De Matthaeis, Elvira

2004-09-01

164

Waterborne infectivity of the ranavirus Frog-Virus 3 in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Ranaviruses like Frog Virus 3 (FV3) are responsible of emerging infectious diseases spreading worldwide to fish, amphibian and reptilian species. We have developed, in Xenopus laevis, an experimental model to investigate viral transmission. We show that FV3 released in water by immunocompromised infected adults can infect adult and larval stages of Xenopus within 3 hours of exposure. Time course of virus load and viral transcription in different tissues suggests that early waterborne FV3 infection through the digestive tract leads to dissemination in the kidney. Finally, a fraction of adult macrophages becomes infected following exposure to waterborne FV3 as visualized by fluorescence microscopy using macrophage- and FV3-specific antibodies. Little cytopathicity and apoptosis were detected in infected macrophages, which is consistent with our proposition that macrophages are permissive to FV3. These data highlight the efficiency of FV3 infectivity by the water route and the ability of FV3 to adapt to its hosts.

Robert, Jacques; George, Erica; De Jesus Andino, Francisco; Chen, Guangchun

2011-01-01

165

Expression of frog virus 3 genes is impaired in mammalian cell lines  

PubMed Central

Frog virus 3 (FV3) is a large DNA virus that is the prototypic member of the family Iridoviridae. To examine levels of FV3 gene expression we generated a polyclonal antibody against the FV3 protein 75L. Following a FV3 infection in fathead minnow (FHM) cells 75L was found in vesicles throughout the cytoplasm as early as 3 hours post-infection. While 75L expressed strongly in FHM cells, our findings revealed no 75L expression in mammalian cells lines despite evidence of a FV3 infection. One explanation for the lack of gene expression in mammalian cell lines may be inefficient codon usage. As a result, 75L was codon optimized and transfection of the codon optimized construct resulted in detectable expression in mammalian cells. Therefore, although FV3 can infect and replicate in mammalian cell lines, the virus may not express its full complement of genes due to inefficient codon usage in mammalian species.

Eaton, Heather E; Metcalf, Julie; Brunetti, Craig R

2008-01-01

166

Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.  

PubMed Central

The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process.

Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

1997-01-01

167

Vaccination against Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia  

PubMed Central

Background. Herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) cause significant morbidity in older adults. The incidence and severity of HZ and PHN increase with age in association with an age-related decline in varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (VZV-CMI). VZV vaccines can boost VZV-CMI. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that VZV vaccination would protect older adults against HZ and PHN. Methods. We enrolled 38,546 adults ?60 years of age in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an investigational HZ vaccine and actively followed subjects for the development of HZ. The primary end point was the burden of illness due to HZ (HZ BOI), a composite measure of the incidence, severity, and duration of pain and discomfort caused by HZ. The secondary end point was the incidence of PHN. Results. Subject retention was >95%. HZ vaccine reduced the HZ BOI by 61.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.1%–69.1%; P < .001) and reduced the incidence of PHN by 66.5% (95% CI, 47.5%–79.2%; P < .001). The incidence of HZ was also reduced by 51.3% (95% CI, 44.2%–57.6%; P < .001). HZ vaccine was well tolerated; injection site reactions were generally mild. HZ vaccine neither caused nor induced HZ. Conclusion. The Shingles Prevention Study demonstrated that HZ vaccine significantly reduced the morbidity due to HZ and PHN in older adults.

Oxman, Michael N.; Levin, Myron J.

2008-01-01

168

Uncoating the Herpes Simplex Virus Genome  

PubMed Central

Summary Initiation of infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) involves a step in which the parental virus capsid docks at a nuclear pore and injects its DNA into the nucleus. Once “uncoated” in this way, the virus DNA can be transcribed and replicated. In an effort to clarify the mechanism of DNA injection, we examined DNA release as it occurs in purified capsids incubated in vitro. DNA ejection was observed following two different treatments, trypsin digestion of capsids in solution, and heating of capsids after attachment to a solid surface. In both cases, electron microscopic analysis revealed that DNA was ejected as a single double helix with ejection occurring at one vertex presumed to be the portal. In the case of trypsin-treated capsids, DNA release was found to correlate with cleavage of a small proportion of the portal protein, UL6, suggesting UL6 cleavage may be involved in making the capsid permissive for DNA ejection. In capsids bound to a solid surface, DNA ejection was observed only when capsids were warmed above 4°C. The proportion of capsids releasing their DNA increased as a function of incubation temperature with nearly all capsids ejecting their DNA when incubation was at 37°C. The results demonstrate heterogeneity among HSV-1 capsids with respect to their sensitivity to heat-induced DNA ejection. Such heterogeneity may indicate a similar heterogeneity in the ease with which capsids are able to deliver DNA to the infected cell nucleus.

Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.

2007-01-01

169

Chronic Ulcerative Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of the Vulva  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus infections in HIV-infected individuals can be clinically unusual and difficult to treat due to underlying problems with cell-mediated immunity and the occurrence of antiviral resistance. Additionally, partial or incomplete restoration of immune function may result in chronic ulcerations that require rotational treatments. In this report, we describe the case of a 38-year-old HIV-positive woman who developed the ulcerative form of chronic herpes simplex infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy and valacyclovir prophylaxis. Repeated intravenous courses of foscarnet and topical cidofovir finally controlled her erosions as her cell-mediated immunity was slowly restored. This case highlights the challenges that still exist in diagnosing and managing this rare presentation of herpes simplex virus

Griffith-Bauer, Kelly; O'Hearn, Mary; Ehst, Benjamin D.

2012-01-01

170

Nonvirion Antigens Produced by Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2  

PubMed Central

Of nine herpes simplex virus 1 strains (from lip, mouth, throat, cornea, or brain) only five produced enough nonvirion antigen (i.e., not a structural component of the virus) to be detected by complement fixation with specially prepared, virion-absorbed, type-1 guinea pig antisera, while the remaining four strains produced only enough of the same antigen to induce specific antibody in hyperimmunized guinea pigs. While the type 1 virion antiserum used reacted equally well by complement fixation with the type 1 and type 2 strains, the type 1 nonvirion antisera failed to react with nonvirion antigens produced by three type-2 (genital) strains. However, type 2 nonvirion antiserum reacted equally well with the three type 2 and four type 1 nonvirion antigens that were tested. It appears, therefore, that while herpes simplex virus 1 codes only for type 1 nonvirion antigen, herpes simplex 2 codes not only for an immunologically distinct type 2 nonvirion antigen but also for enough type 1 nonvirion antigen to stimulate antibody production for it. Herpes simplex 2 nonvirion antigen exhibited the same properties as type 1, i.e., its activity was lost on storage at 4° for 15 days, it was sedimented by centrifugation at 33,360 × g for 1 hr, and the maximum concentration was found at 3 hr in guinea pig kidney culture cells, but at 24 hr in HEp 2 and rabbit kidney culture cells. Sera from patients with genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus 2, as well as from randomly selected adults, failed to react with either type 2 or type 1 nonvirion antigens. Accordingly, the basic information is now available to permit the use of these nonvirion antigens to determine the possible role of the herpes simplex viruses in certain human cancers.

Tarro, Giulio; Sabin, Albert B.

1973-01-01

171

Isolated ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is a viral disease presenting with vesicular eruptions that are usually preceded by pain and erythema. Herpes zoster can be seen in any dermatome of the body but most commonly appears in the thoracic region. Herpes zoster virus is typically transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The virus remains dormant in the dorsal ganglion of the affected individual throughout his or her lifetime. Herpes zoster reactivation commonly occurs in elderly people due to normal age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication and is defined as persistent pain or dysesthesia 1 month after resolution of the herpetic rash. This article describes a healthy 51-year-old woman who experienced a burning sensation and shooting pain along the ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve. Ten days after the onset of pain, she developed cutaneous vesicular eruption and decreased light-touch sensation. Wrist and fourth and fifth finger range of motion were painful and slightly limited. Muscle strength was normal. Nerve conduction studies indicated an ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve lesion. She was treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and the use of a short-arm resting splint. At 5-month follow-up, she reported no residual pain, numbness, or weakness. Herpes zoster in the upper extremity may be mistaken for entrapment neuropathies and diseases characterized by skin eruptions; ulnar nerve zoster reactivation is rarely seen. The authors report an uncommon ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation. Clinicians should be aware of this virus during patients' initial evaluation. PMID:24025017

Kayipmaz, Murat; Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Kural, Cemal

2013-09-01

172

Therapy of genital herpes with topically applied interferon.  

PubMed Central

Ninety-four patients with recurrences of genital herpes were randomized in a double-blind trial to receive topical therapy for 5 days with either alpha-2a interferon at 30 X 10(6) IU/ml or 10 X 10(6) IU/ml or placebo six times daily. No differences were noted between either interferon dose and placebo with respect to the duration of viral shedding, the time to crusting, or the time to healing of herpetic lesions. Aqueous solutions of alpha-2a interferon applied topically to unroofed vesicles do not appear to be clinically useful in the treatment of recurrences of genital herpes.

Eron, L J; Toy, C; Salsitz, B; Scheer, R R; Wood, D L; Nadler, P I

1987-01-01

173

Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

2008-01-01

174

The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

McNab, Warren L.

1979-01-01

175

Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric

Gregory K Friedman; Joseph G Pressey; Alyssa T Reddy; James M Markert; G Yancey Gillespie

2009-01-01

176

[Phosphoramidate derivatives of acyclovir--herpes virus replication inhibitors].  

PubMed

A number of new phosphoramidates of acyclovir--compounds of interest as anti-virals against resistant strains of virus herpes was synthesized. Several methods of synthesis of these compounds were suggested. Optimal method appeared to be the obtaining of phosphoramidates through the phosphomonocloride with its subsequent treatment with various amines. Two compounds have shown moderate activity against HSV-1. PMID:22332360

Zakirova, N F; Shipitsyn, A V; Ias'ko, M V; Kochetkov, S N

2011-01-01

177

The limbic system and the localisation of herpes simplex encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective destruction of temporal and frontal lobe structures by herpes simplex encephalitis has been explained as a consequence of the proximity of those regions to the point of entry of the virus in the encephalon, through olfactory pathways or meningeal branches of the trigeminal nerves. An alternative hypothesis is presented: that the encephalitis is due to a special affinity

A R Damasio; G W Van Hoesen

1985-01-01

178

Herpes Zoster with disseminated lesions. What is it?  

PubMed Central

Herpes Zoster (HZ) is a Cutaneous Viral infection caused by Varicella zoster virus (VZV). Lesions of HZ are usually limited to one dermatome only but sometimes, there can be dissemination of lesions. The present case describes the role of proper examination of HZ case, which presents with disseminated lesions.

Gupta, S; Gupta, S; Thomas, M; Mahendra, A; Jindal, N; Bhaskar, G; Aggarwal, M

2013-01-01

179

Herpes Zoster with disseminated lesions. What is it?  

PubMed

Herpes Zoster (HZ) is a Cutaneous Viral infection caused by Varicella zoster virus (VZV). Lesions of HZ are usually limited to one dermatome only but sometimes, there can be dissemination of lesions. The present case describes the role of proper examination of HZ case, which presents with disseminated lesions. PMID:23599827

Gupta, S; Gupta, S; Thomas, M; Mahendra, A; Jindal, N; Bhaskar, G; Aggarwal, M

2013-03-15

180

Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus Replication by Tobacco Extracts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with the genesis of leukoplakias, epithelial atypia, and oral cancer. Tobacco habits, such as snuff dipping, are also definitely corre lated with this type of lesion. The normal cytolytic HSV-1 infection can, after in vitro inactivation, transform cells. Extracts of snuff were prepared and assayed for their ability to inhibit HSV-1

Jan-Michael Hirsch; Bo Svennerholm; Anders Vahlne

181

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) for cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer remains a serious threat to human health, causing over 500 000 deaths each year in US alone, exceeded only by heart diseases. Many new technologies are being developed to fight cancer, among which are gene therapies and oncolytic virotherapies. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic DNA virus with many favorable properties both as a delivery vector

Y Shen; J Nemunaitis

2006-01-01

182

Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

Rodu, Brad; And Others

1992-01-01

183

Intra-uterine and neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 (buccal) and type 2 (genital) present a serious threat to neonates. Infection may occur in utero, by transplacental or ascending infection, by exposure to genital lesions during delivery, or postnatally from relatives or attendants. Antiviral drugs, vidarabine and acyclovir are of equal efficacy and toxicity when used in infants with herpes simplex infections. Transplacental infection during early pregnancy is a very rare cause of congenital abnormality but there have been no recommendations for intervention. Most neonatal infections are acquired from the mother during delivery. Antepartum screening for virus excretion is of no value in predicting exposure at delivery and should not be performed. Caesarean section should be reserved for women who have active lesions at delivery. Even if active lesions are present, in women with a history of recurrent herpes, the risks to the infant are low. Prophylactic acyclovir during pregnancy cannot be recommended until evidence of safety and efficacy has been obtained from controlled trials. Staff should be alert to the dangers of postnatal infection and measures should be taken to exclude, or reduce virus excretion from, staff members or visitors who have orolabial or cutaneous herpes lesions. PMID:1803497

Jeffries, D J

1991-01-01

184

Herpes simplex virus hepatitis: expanding the spectrum of disease.  

PubMed

We describe 2 transplant patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis who were minimally symptomatic throughout their illness. The spectrum of disease caused by HSV hepatitis is more variable than previously reported in this population. HSV hepatitis should be considered in immunocompromised hosts with elevated transaminases without evidence of fulminant hepatic necrosis. PMID:16913977

Duckro, A N; Sha, B E; Jakate, S; Hayden, M K; Simon, D M; Saltzberg, S N; Arai, S; Kessler, H A

2006-09-01

185

Spread of herpes simplex virus in peripheral nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suckling mice were inoculated intradermally with herpes simplex virus into the sole of the hind foot. Titrations for infective virus from different levels of the sciatic nerve, dorsal ganglia, and spinal cord showed that virus was already present in the spinal cord two days after inoculation, and before virus could be recovered from the examined levels of the sciatic nerve.

Krister Kristensson; Erik Lycke; Johan Sjöstrand

1971-01-01

186

Herpes-Simplex Virus as Cause of Bell's Palsy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large percentage of cases of Bell's palsy may be caused by herpes-simplex virus (H.S.V.). It is suggested that H.S.V. takes up residence within the peripheral-nerve-cell axon, where it is protected from neutralizing antibody and sensitised mononuclear i...

D. P. McCormick

1972-01-01

187

Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection presenting with hypopigmented lesions.  

PubMed

Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a sexually transmitted infection that can be transmitted from mother to child in utero, perinatally, or postnatally. Cutaneous infection with HSV commonly presents as vesicles affecting the skin, eyes, or mouth. In our case, we report a well child with cutaneous hypopigmented patches at birth that preceded typical blistering. PMID:22010816

Low, Lynette C M; Carton, James; Walker, Marjorie; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Hardman, Catherine

2012-01-01

188

PAPILLEDEMA: AN UNUSUAL FINDING IN A PATIENT WITH HERPES ENCEPHALITIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus accounts for 10 to 25% of sporadic viral encephalitis throughout the world among people of different age with two peaks, one at 5 to 30 and the other at > 50 years of age. Pathologic process includes focal brain tissue inflammation and necrosis (predominantly temporal lobe). Therefore local neurological signs and symptoms will ensue. Although CSF pressure

A. Sudbakhsh; M. Mashayekh; S. Ghazvinian; B. Omidzohur

189

The IL-10 homologue encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in vivo.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. CyHV-3 ORF134 encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homologue. The present study was devoted to this ORF. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that ORF134 is expressed as a spliced gene belonging to the early-late class. Proteomic analyses of CyHV-3 infected cell supernatant demonstrated that the ORF134 expression product is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome. To investigate the role of ORF134 in viral replication in vitro and in virulence in vivo, a deleted strain and a derived revertant strain were produced using BAC cloning technologies. The recombinant ORF134 deleted strain replicated in vitro comparably to the parental and the revertant strains. Infection of fish by immersion in water containing the virus induced comparable CyHV-3 disease for the three virus genotypes tested (wild type, deleted and revertant). Quantification of viral DNA by real time TaqMan PCR (in the gills and the kidney) and analysis of carp cytokine expression (in the spleen) by RT-qPCR at different times post-infection did not revealed any significant difference between the groups of fish infected with the three virus genotypes. Similarly, histological examination of the gills and the kidney of infected fish revealed no significant differences between fish infected with ORF134 deleted virus versus fish infected with the control parental or revertant strains. All together, the results of the present study demonstrate that the IL-10 homologue encoded by CyHV-3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in common carp. PMID:23865540

Ouyang, Ping; Rakus, Krzysztof; Boutier, Maxime; Reschner, Anca; Leroy, Baptiste; Ronsmans, Maygane; Fournier, Guillaume; Scohy, Sophie; Costes, Bérénice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Vanderplasschen, Alain

2013-01-01

190

Gene expression analysis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) lines during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection yields insights into differential immune responses.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is the etiological agent of a virulent and lethal disease in common and koi carp. This study aimed to determine the genetic basis underlying the common carp immune response to the CyHV-3 virus. Two common carp lines (R3 and K) were infected with CyHV-3 by immersion. The R3 line presented a 20% higher survival rate compared to the K line and significantly lower viral loads as measured at day 3 post infection (p.i.). Microarray analysis using a common carp slides containing a number of 10,822 60-mer probes, revealed that 581 genes in line K (330 up-regulated, 251 down-regulated) and 107 genes in line R3 (77 up-regulated, 30 down-regulated), showed at least a 2-fold difference in expression at day 3 p.i. compared to day 0. Genes which showed at least a 4-fold difference in expression in both lines were selected as potential markers of a CyHV-3 infection in common carp. Additionally, 76 genes showed at least 2-fold differentially expression between K and R3 lines at day 3 p.i. Significantly higher expression of several immune-related genes including number of those which are involve in pathogen recognition, complement activation, MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation and development of adaptive mucosal immunity was noted in more resistant R3 line. Further real-time PCR based analysis provided evidence for higher activation of CD8(+) T cells in R3 line. This study uncovered wide array of immune-related genes involved into antiviral response of common carp toward CyHV-3. It is also demonstrated that the outcome of this severe disease in large extent could be controlled by genetic factors of the host. PMID:22212509

Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Adamek, Miko?aj; Palmeira, Leonor; Kawana, Yuriko; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Matras, Marek; Steinhagen, Dieter; Flasz, Barbara; Brogden, Graham; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Aoki, Takashi

2012-05-01

191

Infection level of the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger, from Anchar Lake, relative to season, sex, length and condition factor.  

PubMed

Various studies have shown that the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi causes great economic loss in hatcheries, fish farms as well as in lakes. In order to understand the seasonal variation of infection in a nutrient-enriched lake, parasitological investigation was carried out in the indigenous cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838 from September, 2008 to August, 2009. Overall, this study revealed definite seasonality of infection (p?

Zargar, Ummer Rashid; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmed, Fayaz

2012-01-01

192

The IL-10 homologue encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in vivo  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. CyHV-3 ORF134 encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homologue. The present study was devoted to this ORF. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that ORF134 is expressed as a spliced gene belonging to the early-late class. Proteomic analyses of CyHV-3 infected cell supernatant demonstrated that the ORF134 expression product is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome. To investigate the role of ORF134 in viral replication in vitro and in virulence in vivo, a deleted strain and a derived revertant strain were produced using BAC cloning technologies. The recombinant ORF134 deleted strain replicated in vitro comparably to the parental and the revertant strains. Infection of fish by immersion in water containing the virus induced comparable CyHV-3 disease for the three virus genotypes tested (wild type, deleted and revertant). Quantification of viral DNA by real time TaqMan PCR (in the gills and the kidney) and analysis of carp cytokine expression (in the spleen) by RT-qPCR at different times post-infection did not revealed any significant difference between the groups of fish infected with the three virus genotypes. Similarly, histological examination of the gills and the kidney of infected fish revealed no significant differences between fish infected with ORF134 deleted virus versus fish infected with the control parental or revertant strains. All together, the results of the present study demonstrate that the IL-10 homologue encoded by CyHV-3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in common carp.

2013-01-01

193

A Case Series: Herpes Simplex Virus as an Occupational Hazard  

PubMed Central

Statement of the Problem Herpes labialis infections are common and present a serious risk to the dental team. Purpose of the Study The purpose is to make dentists aware of the risks involved with treatment of patients with active herpes labialis. In addition, evidence-based risk-management strategies are presented. Methods and Materials The incidence and natural history of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are reviewed. Four previously unreported case histories are presented to illustrate the impact common sequelae of HSV-1 can have on the dental team. The differences between HSV-1 and the blood-borne diseases which are the focus of universal precautions are discussed. In particular, the highly contagious, highly transmissible nature of HSV-1 and its transmission through aerosols are highlighted. Finally, the need to include protection against aerosols in the profession's understanding of universal precautions is noted. Results The authors suggest limiting the treatment of patients with active lesions to urgent care only, and treating active HSV-1 lesions to reduce time of healing. For four common clinical situations involving HSV-1 infections, evidence-based methods for protecting the dental team and the patient from cross-contamination are also presented. Conclusion While it is clear that the treatment of patients with active herpes labialis lesions increases risk of cross-infection, there are good protocols for controlling this risk. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE By bringing common vectors of cross-infection to light and providing evidence-based protocols for preventing them, this article provides practitioners with positive steps that can be taken for controlling the risk of spreading herpes infections to the dental team. (J Esthet Restor Dent 24:61–67, 2012)

Browning, William D; McCarthy, James P

2012-01-01

194

Host specificity and colony impacts of the fire ant pathogen, Solenopsis invicta virus 3.  

PubMed

An understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed laboratory colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 genera and 4 subfamilies to this virus. Despite extreme exposure during these tests, active, replicating infections only occurred in Solenopsis invicta Buren and hybrid (S. invicta×S. richteri) fire ant colonies. The lack of infections in test Solenopsis geminata fire ants from the United States indicates that SINV-3 is restricted to the saevissima complex of South American fire ants, especially since replicating virus was also found in several field-collected samples of the black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri Forel. S. invicta colonies infected with SINV-3 declined dramatically with average brood reductions of 85% or more while colonies of other species exposed to virus remained uninfected and healthy. The combination of high virulence and high host specificity suggest that SINV-3 has the potential for use as either a biopesticide or a self-sustaining biocontrol agent. PMID:23665158

Porter, Sanford D; Valles, Steven M; Oi, David H

2013-09-01

195

The Molecular Biology of Frog Virus 3 and other Iridoviruses Infecting Cold-Blooded Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the best characterized member of the family Iridoviridae. FV3 study has provided insights into the replication of other family members, and has served as a model of viral transcription, genome replication, and virus-mediated host-shutoff. Although the broad outlines of FV3 replication have been elucidated, the precise roles of most viral proteins remain unknown. Current studies using knock down (KD) mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMO) and small, interfering RNAs (siRNA), knock out (KO) following replacement of the targeted gene with a selectable marker by homologous recombination, ectopic viral gene expression, and recombinant viral proteins have enabled researchers to systematically ascertain replicative- and virulence-related gene functions. In addition, the application of molecular tools to ecological studies is providing novel ways for field biologists to identify potential pathogens, quantify infections, and trace the evolution of ecologically important viral species. In this review, we summarize current studies using not only FV3, but also other iridoviruses infecting ectotherms. As described below, general principles ascertained using FV3 served as a model for the family, and studies utilizing other ranaviruses and megalocytiviruses have confirmed and extended our understanding of iridovirus replication. Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease.

Chinchar, V. Gregory; Yu, Kwang H.; Jancovich, James K.

2011-01-01

196

Topical application of polyethylenimine as a candidate for novel prophylactic therapeutics against genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause genital herpes, which can enhance the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus. The development of anti-HSV agents with novel mechanisms of action is urgently required in the topical therapy of genital herpes. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-HSV effects of Epomin SP-012(®), a highly cationic polyethylenimine, were evaluated. When the in vitro antiviral effects of SP-012 were assessed, this compound showed potent activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2. It inhibited the attachment of HSV-2 to host cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection in a concentration-dependent manner and exerted a virucidal effect. No SP-012-resistant HSV-2 was found when the virus was successively passaged in the presence of SP-012. In a mouse genital herpes model, topically administered SP-012 inhibited the progression of the disease caused by HSV infection. These data illustrate that SP-012 may be a novel class of HSV inhibitor that would be acceptable for long-term topical application. PMID:24046087

Hayashi, Kyoko; Onoue, Hiroki; Sasaki, Kohei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kumar, Penmetcha K R; Gopinath, Subash C B; Maitani, Yoshie; Kai, Takashi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

2014-03-01

197

Herpes Simplex Virus 2 ICP0? Mutant Viruses Are Avirulent and Immunogenic: Implications for a Genital Herpes Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0? mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0? mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0? mutant viruses were constructed and evaluated in terms of three parameters: i. interferon-sensitivity; ii. virulence in mice; and iii. capacity to elicit protective immunity against HSV-2. One ICP0? mutant virus in particular, HSV-2 0?NLS, achieved an optimal balance between avirulence and immunogenicity. HSV-2 0?NLS was interferon-sensitive in cultured cells. HSV-2 0?NLS replicated to low levels in the eyes of inoculated mice, but was rapidly repressed by an innate, Stat 1-dependent host immune response. HSV-2 0?NLS failed to spread from sites of inoculation, and hence produced only inapparent infections. Mice inoculated with HSV-2 0?NLS consistently mounted an HSV-specific IgG antibody response, and were consistently protected against lethal challenge with wild-type HSV-2. Based on their avirulence and immunogenicity, we propose that HSV-2 ICP0? mutant viruses merit consideration for their potential to prevent the spread of HSV-2 and genital herpes.

Halford, William P.; Puschel, Ringo; Rakowski, Brandon

2010-01-01

198

Indirect micro-immunofluorescence test for detecting type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

A rapid indirect micro-immunofluorescence test capable of detecting and differentiating type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus is described. The test proved highly sensitive and, in 80 patients with active herpes ocular infection, antibody was detected in 94%. No anti-herpes antibody was detected in a control group of 20 patients with adenovirus infections. Testing of animal sera prepared against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and of human sera from cases of ocular and genital herpes infections showed that the test can differentiate antibodies to the infecting serotypes. Specimens of whole blood, taken by fingerprick, and eye secretions, both collected on cellulose sponges, could be tested by indirect micro-immunofluorescence. Anti-herpes IgG, IgM, and IgA can also be detected. PMID:6245109

Forsey, T; Darougar, S

1980-02-01

199

The possible role of herpes viruses in multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis.  

PubMed

7 cases of multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis are reported here (6 females, 1 male). All clinical data were carefully considered. In all cases an aqueous sampling was made for the detection of anti-herpes virus antibodies in aqueous and serum. 3 specificities were tested: herpes simplex (HSV), herpes zoster (HVZ) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). An intraocular synthesis of specific antibodies was found against VZV in 2 cases and against HSV in 1 case. There was another presumptive case for HSV. PMID:2174419

Frau, E; Dussaix, E; Offret, H; Bloch-Michel, E

1990-10-01

200

Isolation of Herpes-T virus from a spontaneous disease in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herpes-T virus was isolated from 2 of 4 clinically ill squirrel monkeys. The clinical manifestations of the disease in the monkeys was characterized by oral and labial lesions. From one of two animals sacrificed for histopathological examination, Herpes-T virus was isolated from the tongue and salivary gland. Herpes-T was isolated from the oral swab of one of the two

M. D. Daniel; A. Karpas; L. V. Meléndez; N. W. King; R. D. Hunt

1967-01-01

201

Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection: New Fields for an Old Acquaintance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is the principal agent of chronic remittent genital herpes. Worldwide, only 10–20% of genital isolates are HSV-1. Studies from the British Isles and Scandinavia indicate, however, that HSV-1 is responsible for a significant proportion or even the majority of first clinical episodes of genital herpes in young women. Actual data show that a trend towards genital

Lars Lippelt; Rüdiger W. Braun; Joachim E. Kühn

2002-01-01

202

Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus Type1 in Patients with Fibrotic Lung Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study intends to investigate i) the incidence of herpes viruses including Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Human Herpes Virus -6, -7, -8 (HHV6, HHV7, HHV8) in two biological samples, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue biopsy, in different forms of pulmonary fibrosis, and ii) the induction of molecular pathways involved in fibrosis by herpesvirus

Ismini Lasithiotaki; Katerina M. Antoniou; Virginia-Maria Vlahava; Konstantinos Karagiannis; Demetrios A. Spandidos; Nikolaos M. Siafakas; George Sourvinos

2011-01-01

203

Herpes simplex encephalitis after brain surgery: case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Intracranial infection after neurosurgical intervention most often is caused by bacteria. A rare case of fatal herpes simplex encephalitis after removal of a meningioma is described and similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. Recent diagnostic tools, including detection of herpes viral DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction, complement clinical suspicion and facilitate mandatory early diagnosis, because herpes encephalitis, without rapid initiation of treatment, may lead to severe disability or death.??

Spuler, A.; Blaszyk, H.; Parisi, J.; Davis, D.

1999-01-01

204

Herpes Simplex and Herpes Genitalis Viruses in Etiology of Some Human Cancers*  

PubMed Central

The results of complement fixation tests on 202 sera from people without cancer and from patients with cancer in 29 different areas of the body indicated that only those with nine varieties of advanced cancer (lip, mouth, oropharynx, nasopharynx, kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, cervix uteri, and vulva-all of 56 tested) gave positive specific reactions with nonvirion antigens induced by the DNA herpes simplex (HSV 1) and herpes genitalis (HSV 2) viruses. None of 57 people without cancer (including 10 with current and 18 with recurrent HSV 1 or HSV 2 infections), none of 81 patients with 20 other varieties of advanced cancer (gum, tongue, tonsil, salivary gland, accessory sinus, epiglottis, lung-bronchus, stomach, colon, breast, corpus uteri, ovary, testis, liver, thyroid, Wilms' embryonal kidney, melanoma, Hodgkin's disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and acute myelocytic leukemia), and none of four women with early malignant changes in the cervix uteri gave positive results. The seven patients with advanced cancer of the lip or oropharynx gave positive reactions with HSV 1 but not with HSV 2 nonvirion antigens (compatible with involvement of only HSV 1), all of the 13 women with advanced cancer of the cervix uteri and the one woman with advanced cancer of the vulva gave positive reactions with both HSV 1 and HSV 2 nonvirion antigens (compatible with involvement of only HSV 2), while among the 35 other positive patients only two (one with cancer of the kidney and one with cancer of the bladder) reacted with HSV 1 and not at all with HSV 2 nonvirion antigens. Positive sera failed to react with cells harvested at different times after high-multiplicity infection with the DNA vaccinia virus. Massive absorption of positive sera with trypsinized, uninfected human embryonic kidney cells failed to remove, or lower the titer of, the HSV 1 and HSV 2 nonvirion antibodies. All of these data taken together are interpreted as indicating that HSV 1 and HSV 2 play an etiologic role in certain human cancers, because they provide the kind of evidence by which virus-free experimental cancers can be proved to have been originally induced by such DNA viruses as polyoma, Simian Virus 40, or certain types of adenovirus.

Sabin, Albert B.; Tarro, Giulio

1973-01-01

205

Herp depletion protects from protein aggregation by up-regulating autophagy.  

PubMed

Herp is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducible protein that participates in the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. However, the contribution of Herp to other protein degradation pathways like autophagy and its connection to other types of stress responses remain unknown. Here we report that Herp regulates autophagy to clear poly-ubiquitin (poly-Ub) protein aggregates. Proteasome inhibition and glucose starvation (GS) led to a high level of poly-Ub protein aggregation that was drastically reduced by stably knocking down Herp (shHerp cells). The enhanced removal of poly-Ub inclusions protected cells from death caused by glucose starvation. Under basal conditions and increasingly after stress, higher LC3-II levels and GFP-LC3 puncta were observed in shHerp cells compared to control cells. Herp knockout cells displayed basal up-regulation of two essential autophagy regulators-Atg5 and Beclin-1, leading to increased autophagic flux. Beclin-1 up-regulation was due to a reduction in Hrd1 dependent proteasomal degradation, and not at transcriptional level. The consequent higher autophagic flux was necessary for the clearance of aggregates and for cell survival. We conclude that Herp operates as a relevant factor in the defense against glucose starvation by modulating autophagy levels. These data may have important implications due to the known up-regulation of Herp in pathological states such as brain and heart ischemia, both conditions associated to acute nutritional stress. PMID:24120520

Quiroga, Clara; Gatica, Damian; Paredes, Felipe; Bravo, Roberto; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Pedrozo, Zully; Rodriguez, Andrea E; Toro, Barbra; Chiong, Mario; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Hetz, Claudio; Lavandero, Sergio

2013-12-01

206

Mealybugs and the spread of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in a New Zealand vineyard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) through a newly planted block of Merlot and Chardonnay grapevines\\u000a in a commercial vineyard was measured between 1998 and 2003. The population changes of the mealybug vector (Pseudococcus longispinus) were recorded over the same period in 12–17-year-old GLRaV-3-infected grapevines immediately adjacent to two sides of the\\u000a new block. Relationships between the spread

J. G. Charles; K. J. Froud; R. van den Brink; D. J. Allan

2009-01-01

207

Development of a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine effective against parainfluenza virus 3 infection in an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly attenuated, replication-deficient, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) was used to express the fusion (F) and\\/or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins of parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3). Initial recombinant viruses in which the HN gene was regulated by a very strong synthetic earlyllate promoter replicated poorly in permissive chick embryo cells evidently due to toxic levels of the gene product. This result

Linda S. Wyatt; Scott T. Shors; Brian R. Murphy; Bernard Moss

1996-01-01

208

Therapy for genital herpes in immunocompromised patients: a national survey. The Herpes Simplex Advisory Panel.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the extent of aciclovir refractory herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in HIV coinfected patients in the United Kingdom and survey clinicians on their approaches to its management. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey of representative sample of one third of United Kingdom HIV physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Use of antiviral therapies for genital HSV infections in HIV positive patients, reported frequency of aciclovir refractory HSV infection, its therapy, and access to antiviral susceptibility testing facilities. RESULTS: 53 responses were obtained (response rate 61%), representing a sample size of 23% of United Kingdom HIV physicians. Use of non-standard antiviral regimens for HSV infections in HIV coinfected patients was widely practised, irrespective of the clinical characteristics of the HSV infection. Aciclovir refractory HSV infection has been observed by 37 (70%) respondents. Although foscarnet was the most frequently used therapy, used by 27/37 (73%) respondents, in only seven of these 27 (19%) was it a first line treatment for aciclovir refractory cases, frequently being used at a late stage in the clinical course. Antiviral susceptibility testing facilities were available to 46 (87%) clinicians. No respondents reported any evidence of transmission of aciclovir resistant strains. CONCLUSIONS: HIV coinfection has a stronger influence on therapeutic choice than clinical immunosuppression or severity of herpetic infection. Aciclovir treatment failure is commoner than hitherto recognised. There is a need for wider awareness of use of foscarnet at an earlier stage in management of refractory HSV infection. Images

Scoular, A; Barton, S

1997-01-01

209

A rare cause of dysphagia: herpes simplex esophagitis.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is well documented in immunosuppressed patients. However, it is rare in the immunocompetent host. We present a case of HSE in a 21 year-old healthy lady who was admitted to our unit with dysphagia, odynophagia and chest pain. Clinical examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness and admission bloods including full blood picture, electrolytes and inflammatory markers were normal. She underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) which revealed severe exudative, well-circumscribed ulcerations in her distal esophagus. Biopsies confirmed severe esophagitis with acute ulceration and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1. Subsequent assessment failed to identify an immune disorder. HSE should be suspected when faced with characteristic endoscopic findings, even if the patient is immunocompetent. When the diagnosis of HSE is confirmed, an immune deficiency should be sought. PMID:17569149

Lee, Bee; Caddy, Grant

2007-05-21

210

Herpes Simplex Virus and the Chemokines that Mediate the Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are highly pervasive pathogens in the human host with a seroconversion rate upwards of 60% worldwide. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with the disease, herpetic stromal keratitis, the leading cause of infectious corneal blindness in the industrialized world. Individuals suffering from genital herpes associated with HSV type 2 (HSV-2) are found to be two to three fold more susceptible in acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The morbidity associated with these infections is principally due to the inflammatory response, the development of lesions, and scarring. Chemokines have become an important aspect in understanding the host immune response to microbial pathogens due in part to the timing of expression. In this paper, we will explore the current understanding of chemokine production as it relates to the orchestration of the immune response to HSV infection.

Carr, Daniel J.J.; Tomanek, Lisa

2014-01-01

211

Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsids and the enclosed DNA of adenoviruses, including the species C viruses adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) and Ad5, and herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), are targeted to the nuclei of epithelial, endothelial, fibroblastic, and neuronal cells. Cytoplasmic transport of fluorophore-tagged Ad2 and immuno- logically detected HSV-1 capsids required intact microtubules and the microtubule-dependent minus-end- directed motor

Hélčne Mabit; M. Y. Nakano; U. Prank; B. Saam; K. Dohner; Beate Sodeik; Urs F. Greber

2002-01-01

212

Manipulation of herpes simplex virus type 1 by dielectrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic behaviour of an enveloped mammalian virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 is described. It is demonstrated that over the range 10 kHz–20 MHz, these viral particles, when suspended in an aqueous medium of conductivity 5 mS m?1, can be manipulated by both positive and negative dielectrophoresis using microfabricated electrode arrays. The observed transition from positive to negative

Michael P. Hughes; Hywel Morgan; Frazer J. Rixon; Julian P. H. Burt; Ronald Pethig

1998-01-01

213

The floccular syndrome in herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis.  

PubMed

A woman with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encephalitis had downbeat nystagmus. The nystagmus was robust in primary gaze but attenuated during upgaze, suggestive of the flocculus involvement. FLAIR and T2-sequences of the brain MRI revealed cerebral lesions typical of HSV1, but also patchy hyperintensities in bilateral flocculi. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV1 infection. Encephalopathy and downbeat nystagmus gradually improved with acyclovir therapy. PMID:23218757

Shaikh, Aasef G; Termsarasab, Pichet; Riley, David E; Katirji, Bashar

2013-02-15

214

Interferon in the prevention of genital herpes recurrence.  

PubMed Central

Patients with genital herpes were treated three times weekly for 12 weeks with 3 X 10(6) IU of alpha 2b interferon (20 patients) or placebo (17 patients) administered by subcutaneous injection in a double-blind trial. Interferon had minimal effects on the suppression of recurrences and moderate toxicity (chills, fever, fatigue, and leukopenia), suggesting that this route and dosage of interferon may not be clinically useful for this indication.

Eron, L J; Harvey, L; Toy, C; Santomauro, D

1986-01-01

215

Basal ganglia involvement in a child with herpes simplex encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a leading cause of sporadic, nonepidemic viral encephalitis in children and adults. We\\u000a report a very rare case of HSE with involvement of bilateral thalamus, putamen, upper pons and midbrain, with development\\u000a of extrapyramidal symptoms which responded to corticosteroid therapy. A 15-mth-old female baby admitted with complaint of\\u000a fever for 5 days and generalised tonic

Gobinda Mondal; Roopesh Kumar; Jayant Kumar Ghosh; Kaberi Basu; Sukanta Chatterjee

2009-01-01

216

Herpes simplex virus sepsis and acute liver failure.  

PubMed

Acute liver failure is a life threatening disease mostly triggered by drug-induced or toxic liver damage or viral hepatitis. Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is rare and accounts for only 1% of all acute liver failures. The importance of HSV-induced acute liver failure is based on its extremely severe clinical course with lethality rates of almost 75%. HSV hepatitis is just one of several clinical manifestations of HSV sepsis leading more frequently to encephalitis, pneumonia and esophagitis. Local herpes infection or recurrence of dermal lesions (herpes labialis, herpes genitalis), however, is common and account for the high prevalence of HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection in adults. Another rare entity is visual dissemination, which mostly affects immunocompromised patients. Compromised cellular immunity is a major risk factor for HSV sepsis because of either primary infection or reactivation of occult chronic HSV infection. Delayed diagnosis without antiviral therapy significantly contributes to the unfavorable outcome. Typically, anicteric hepatitis is seen in patients with HSV hepatitis. Because of its low incidence, however, and the lack of dermal manifestations, HSV hepatitis is rarely considered in the context of acute liver failure. In addition, diagnostic tests might not always be available. Therefore, it is a generally accepted consensus to begin antiviral therapy pre-emptively with acyclovir in cases of acute liver failure of unknown origin, in which high urgency (HU) liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical option. Even in the case of early specific therapy, sepsis may prevail and the indication for HU transplantation must be evaluated carefully. The outcome after liver transplantation for HSV-induced liver failure with reported survival rates of more than 40% is good. Because of the risk of recurrence, lifelong prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended. PMID:19930315

Riediger, C; Sauer, P; Matevossian, E; Müller, M W; Büchler, P; Friess, H

2009-12-01

217

Extracts and molecules from medicinal plants against herpes simplex viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are important pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults. Moreover, HSV-2 has been reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great efforts. In this paper, we review anti-HSV substances from natural sources, including both extracts and pure compounds from

Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Arjumand Ather; Kenneth D. Thompson; Roberto Gambari

2005-01-01

218

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus vectors for cancer virotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors are emerging as an effective and powerful therapeutic approach for cancer. Replication-competent HSV-1 vectors with mutations in genes that affect viral replication, neuropathogenicity, and immune evasiveness have been developed and tested for their safety and efficacy in a variety of mouse models. Evidence to-date following administration into the brain attests to their

Susan Varghese; Samuel D Rabkin

2002-01-01

219

Subcortical type cognitive impairment in herpes zoster encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine immunocompetent patients with acute herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE) were studied with the help of neurological, neuroradiological\\u000a and neuropsychological investigations. All patients were treated with acyclovir. Neuropsychological performance was compared\\u000a with that of a group of 16 healthy controls. Computed tomography of the head showed infarct-like hypodense lesions in two\\u000a patients, involving the internal capsule in one case and the

Jyrki Launes; Erja Poutiainen; Leena Valanne; Oili Salonen; Jan Sirén; Matti Iivanainen

1997-01-01

220

Atypical herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as operculum syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report demonstrates the course of herpes simplex virus cerebritis in a patient aged 7 years 2 months who presented\\u000a with non-specific symptoms followed by an epileptic attack. Subcortical, bilateral opercular and bilateral thalamic lesions\\u000a were detected, but the temporal and inferior frontal lobes were spared. The patient developed anarthria, impairment of mastication\\u000a and swallowing consistent with operculum syndrome.

Rainer W. Wolf; Detlev Schultze; Christian Fretz; Markus Weissert; Peter Waibel

1999-01-01

221

Laser treatment of recurrent herpes labialis: a literature review.  

PubMed

Recurrent herpes labialis is a worldwide life-long oral health problem that remains unsolved. It affects approximately one third of the world population and causes frequent pain and discomfort episodes, as well as social restriction due to its compromise of esthetic features. In addition, the available antiviral drugs have not been successful in completely eliminating the virus and its recurrence. Currently, different kinds of laser treatment and different protocols have been proposed for the management of recurrent herpes labialis. Therefore, the aim of the present article was to review the literature regarding the effects of laser irradiation on recurrent herpes labialis and to identify the indications and most successful clinical protocols. The literature was searched with the aim of identifying the effects on healing time, pain relief, duration of viral shedding, viral inactivation, and interval of recurrence. According to the literature, none of the laser treatment modalities is able to completely eliminate the virus and its recurrence. However, laser phototherapy appears to strongly decrease pain and the interval of recurrences without causing any side effects. Photodynamic therapy can be helpful in reducing viral titer in the vesicle phase, and high-power lasers may be useful to drain vesicles. The main advantages of the laser treatment appear to be the absence of side effects and drug interactions, which are especially helpful for older and immunocompromised patients. Although these results indicate a potential beneficial use for lasers in the management of recurrent herpes labialis, they are based on limited published clinical trials and case reports. The literature still lacks double-blind controlled clinical trials verifying these effects and such trials should be the focus of future research. PMID:23584730

de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corręa; Simőes, Alyne; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Ramalho, Karen Muller; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Marotti, Juliana; Tunér, Jan

2014-07-01

222

Determinants of disclosure of genital herpes to partners  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify factors which determine whether and when patients will disclose infection with genital herpes to sexual partners. Methods: The sample was 26 women and 24 men attending a herpes clinic in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Semistructured interviews yielded quantitative data and also qualitative data which were subjected to content analysis. Results: Characteristics of partners were very important in determining whether disclosure occurred. Respondents were less likely to tell partners regarded as casual. Perception of the likely reaction of partners was important in deciding whether to tell. Many respondents assumed that they were not infectious if they were not currently having an attack or if they were taking antiviral medication. The decision whether to tell tended to be based on considerations of likely discovery and of honesty towards the partner rather than control of transmission. Of patient characteristics only self rated depressed mood was related to disclosure to the most recent partner. Conclusions: Perception of the partner and anticipated partner response is crucially important in determining whether and when disclosure of genital herpes infection occurs.

Green, J; Ferrier, S; Kocsis, A; Shadrick, J; Ukoumunne, O; Murphy, S; Hetherton, J

2003-01-01

223

Isolation of herpes simplex viruses by chick embryo culture.  

PubMed

The chick embryo is a versatile host system in diagnostic virology, especially for isolation of herpes simplex viruses. In this study, samples obtained from 57 clinically diagnosed patients with active herpetic lesions (35 genital & 22 non-genital) were cultured by chick embryo method for isolation of herpes simplex virus. After inoculation onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 10-11 days old chick embryo, typical CAM reactions (pocks) appeared in 23(40.3%) samples after 3 days. CAM reactions were identified and typed by direct fluorescence antibody test and 22(95.6%) of 23 isolates gave positive results. Of this, 9(40.9%) were HSV-1 & 13(59.1%) were HSV-2. HSV-1 was isolated from 8(36.4%) of non-genital samples and from 1(7.1%) genital sample. HSV-2 was isolated from 13(92.8%) of genital samples, but none were isolated from non-genital samples. High isolation rate was obtained from vesicular stage of both non-genital (71.5%) and genital (57.1%) samples and from early lesions (sampled within 72 hours) of non-genital (50%) and genital (52.9%) specimen. The chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo it is a simple, cheap and efficient method of cultivation of some viruses, including HSV. Thus, in settings where cell culture facilities are not available, it can be used for the isolation of herpes simplex viruses from clinical samples. PMID:23715363

Akter, T; Tabassum, S; Jahan, M; Nessa, A; Islam, M N; Giasuddin, M

2013-04-01

224

Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood.

Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Candido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2014-01-01

225

Neonatal Herpes Virus Infection and Extracorporeal Life Support  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, scant data exists regarding ECMO support in neonates with herpes virus infection. Objectives We investigated outcomes among neonates with herpes virus infection reported to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry and analyzed factors associated with death prior to hospital discharge with this virus. Design Retrospective analysis of ELSO registry dataset from 1985–2005. Setting 114 ECMO centers contributing data to the ELSO registry. Patients Patients 0–31 days of age with herpes simplex virus infection supported with ECMO and reported to the ELSO registry. Interventions None Methods Clinical characteristics, outcomes, and factors associated with death prior to hospital discharge were investigated for patients in the virus group. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival to hospital discharge according to virus type were investigated. Measurements and Main Results Newborns with HSV infection requiring ECMO support demonstrated much lower hospital survival rates (25%). Clinical presentation with septicemia/ shock was significantly associated with mortality for the HSV group on multivariate analysis. There was no difference in HSV mortality when comparing two era’s (? 2000 versus < 2000). Conclusions In this cohort of neonatal patients with overwhelming infections due to HSV who were supported with ECMO, survival was dismal. Patients with disseminated HSV infection presenting with septicemia/ shock are unlikely to survive, even with aggressive extracorporeal support.

Prodhan, Parthak; Wilkes, Ryan; Ross, Ashley; Garcia, Xiomara; Bhutta, Adnan T; Rycus, Peter; Fiser, Richard T

2011-01-01

226

Differentiation of primary from nonprimary genital herpes infections by a herpes simplex virus-specific immunoglobulin G avidity assay.  

PubMed Central

An immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody avidity assay which uses protein-denaturing agents and a modification of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have been investigated for their usefulness in distinguishing primary genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections from nonprimary infections. Forty-nine serum specimens from patients with primary, recurrent, and nonprimary first-episode genital herpes were studied. The clearest separation was obtained with 6 M urea treatment, giving mean avidity indices of 0.398 for sera < or = 100 days after the infection and 0.879 for sera > 100 days after the infection (P < 0.001). No significant difference in avidity indices was observed between the recurrent and nonprimary first-episode infections. Determination of the avidity of HSV-specific IgG will improve the diagnostic potential of HSV serology.

Hashido, M; Inouye, S; Kawana, T

1997-01-01

227

Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/?L, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following the first episode was 10 days (range 3 to 14 days, n?=?13). The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following a subsequent meningitic episode was 9 days (range 7 days to indefinite period, n?=?9). No patient was reported to have seizures, neurological disability, or death in extended follow-up (mean follow-up 3.4 years). Recurrence of meningitic symptoms was not universal. PMID:23494382

Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

2013-04-01

228

Monoclonal Antibodies Against Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Nucleocapsids and Kit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of producing clinical assays for use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the differentiation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 as a diagnostic kit for differentiating HSV-1 and HSV-2 utiliz...

B. Hampar M. Zweig H. Rabin

1980-01-01

229

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81),

G. Mazzanti; L. Battinelli; C. Pompeo; A. M. Serrilli; R. Rossi; I. Sauzullo; F. Mengoni; V. Vullo

2008-01-01

230

Avirulent Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Strains Engineered to Counter the Innate Host Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to an avirulent, oncolytic herpes simplex virus modified from a wild-type herpes simplex virus so that both (gamma)(sub 1)34.5 genes of the virus have been deleted and each replaced with an interferon-resistance gene that is ...

I. Mohr M. Mulvey

2005-01-01

231

Centripetal transport of herpes simplex virus in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus displays tropism for neurons and other polarized epithelial cells. We have grown human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture to study potential mechanisms whereby herpes simplex virus (type 1) is transported from the plasma membrane of the cell to the nucleus. The cells were highly polarized as determined by a variety of criteria. They were tightly coupled

K. S. Topp; K. Bisla; N. D. Saks; J. H. Lavail

1996-01-01

232

Myofascial trigger points in intercostal muscles secondary to herpes zoster infection of the intercostal nerve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pain in the chest wall is a major complication after herpes zoster infection of intercostal nerves. It is usually difficult to control pain of such origin. Two cases are reported of postherpetic neuralgia after herpes zoster infection involving the intercostal nerves. Both patients had shooting, burning, aching, and localized pain in the muscle supplied by the involved intercostal nerves

Shu-Min Chen; Jo-Tong Chen; Ta-Shen Kuan; Chang-Zern Hong

1998-01-01

233

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in the Brain, Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ? ?4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, it is not required nor sufficient to cause the disease on its own. Herpes viruses cause acute and chronic diseases of the central nervous system and have been implicated in AD. Using a sensitive polymerase chain reaction method, latent herpes simplex virus

Uwe Beffert; Philippe Bertrand; Danielle Champagne; Serge Gauthier; Judes Poirier

1998-01-01

234

Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results: HSV-1 accounted for 78% of female and 85% of male genital herpes (GH) infections,

Robert Horowitz; Sara Aierstuck; Elizabeth A. Williams; Bernette Melby

2010-01-01

235

The ubiquitin E3 ligase POSH regulates calcium homeostasis through spatial control of Herp  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin (Ub) domain protein Herp plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We now show that Herp is a substrate as well as an activator of the E3 Ub ligase POSH. Herp-mediated POSH activation requires the Ubl domain and exclusively promotes lysine-63–linked polyubiquitination. Confocal microscopy demonstrates that Herp resides mostly in the trans-Golgi network, but, shortly after calcium perturbation by thapsigargin (Tpg), it appears mainly in the ER. Substitution of all lysine residues within the Ubl domain abolishes lysine-63–linked polyubiquitination of Herp in vitro and calcium-induced Herp relocalization that is also abrogated by the overexpression of a dominant-negative POSHV14A. A correlation exists between the kinetics of Tpg-induced Herp relocalization and POSH-dependent polyubiquitination. Finally, the overexpression of POSH attenuates, whereas the inhibition of POSH by the expression of POSHV14A or by RNA interference enhances Tpg-induced calcium burst. Altogether, these results establish a critical role for POSH-mediated ubiquitination in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis through the spatial control of Herp.

Tuvia, Shmuel; Taglicht, Daniel; Erez, Omri; Alroy, Iris; Alchanati, Iris; Bicoviski, Vivian; Dori-Bachash, Mally; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Reiss, Yuval

2007-01-01

236

Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin interfere with intracellular trafficking of Herpes simplex virus-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although both lactoferrin (Lf), a component of the innate immune system of living organisms, and its N-terminal pepsin cleavage product lactoferricin (Lfcin) have anti-herpes activity, the precise mechanisms by which Lf and Lfcin bring about inhibition of herpes infections are not fully understood. In the present study, experiments were carried out to characterize the activity of bovine Lf and Lfcin

A. K. Marr; H. Jenssen; M. Roshan Moniri; R. E. W. Hancock; N. Panté

2009-01-01

237

Incidence of Alpha-Herpes virus induced ocular disease in Suriname.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the corneal stroma is the most prominent cause of scar formation impairing visual acuity and HSV keratitis is the leading cause of corneal opacity throughout the world. Suriname lacked test systems for microbial causes of ocular disease, therefore a polymerase chain reaction-based Herpes virus assay was introduced, enabling prompt recognition, and timely treatment, preventing progressive eye damage. The incidence and epidemiology of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in ocular disease in Suriname was assessed. In a cross-sectional prospective study, ocular swabs were collected from 91 patients with a presumptive ?-Herpes virus ocular infection attending the Academic Hospital between November 2008 and August 2010 and were tested by a PCR-based ?-Herpes virus assay. Alpha-Herpes virus ophthalmic infections were caused predominantly by HSV-1 with a prevalence of 31%. The prevalences of VZV, HSV-2, and a mixed HSV-1/HSV-2 infection were 4%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. The first reported annual incidence of herpetic induced ocular disease in Suriname was estimated at 11.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 4.8-18.1). No clear age, ethnic or gender dependent difference in incidence was observed. The information obtained on ?-Herpes virus positive ocular infections and the distribution of subtypes provided the first insight in the South American situation of ?-Herpes virus induced ocular disease. PMID:23080500

Adhin, Malti R; Grunberg, Meritha G; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Pawiroredjo, Jerrel

2012-12-01

238

Long-term Acyclovir Use to Prevent Recurrent Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of more than 12 months of oral acyclovir therapy in reducing recur- rences of ocular herpes simplex virus. Methods: We retrospectively compared ocular herpes simplex virus recurrence in 2 groups of patients. In group 1, patients used oral acyclovir for at least 12 months and then discontinued the treatment. In group 2, patients received the

Uchoandro B. C. Uchoa; Renata A. Rezende; Maria A. Carrasco; Christopher J. Rapuano; Peter R. Laibson; Elisabeth J. Cohen

2003-01-01

239

Long-term Acyclovir Use to Prevent Recurrent Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of more than 12 months of oral acyclovir therapy in reducing recur- rences of ocular herpes simplex virus. Methods: We retrospectively compared ocular herpes simplex virus recurrence in 2 groups of patients. In group 1, patients used oral acyclovir for at least 12 months and then discontinued the treatment. In group 2, patients received the

Uchoandro B. C. Uchoa; Renata A. Rezende; Maria A. Carrasco; Christopher J. Rapuano; Peter R. Laibson; Elisabeth J. Cohen

240

RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative. PMID:24835621

da Silva, Amanda Perse; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

2014-01-01

241

The efficacy and safety of Skinner herpes simplex vaccine towards modulation of herpes genitalis; report of a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomised, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial of intracellular subunit herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 vaccine NFU.Ac.HSV-1(S–)MRC (Skinner vaccine) was conducted at three medical centres in the United States. Subjects with documented herpes genitalis\\u000a of at least 1-year duration and a history of six or more genital HSV recurrences in the 12 months prior to study entry were\\u000a randomised to receive

G. R. B. Skinner; M. E. Turyk; C. A. Benson; G. D. Wilbanks; P. Heseltine; J. Galpin; R. Kaufmann; L. Goldberg; C. E. Hartley; A. Buchan

1997-01-01

242

Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses confirmed by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.  

PubMed

Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses is rare. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with herpes labialis and herpes zoster manifesting as a right-side facial eruption with vesicles and crusting. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay demonstrated the presence of both herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus in swab samples taken from the face, which was confirmed by real-time PCR, suggesting concurrent reactivation of both viruses. The use of the LAMP assay in the present case indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis of atypical herpes infections. PMID:24575004

Kobayashi, Tsukane; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2014-01-01

243

Molecular genetic studies on morphologically indistinguishable Myxobolus spp. infecting cyprinid fishes, with the description of three new species, M. alvarezae sp. nov., M. sitjae sp. nov. and M. eirasianus sp. nov.  

PubMed

While studying Myxobolus gill infections of cyprinid fishes, the authors found large, segmented plasmodia in three species: ide (Leuciscus idus), asp (Aspius aspius) and white bream (Blicca bjoerkna). As regards their size and morphology, the spores from these plasmodia corresponded to those of M. dujardini described from chub (Leuciscus cephalus). However, the 18S rDNA sequences of spores from the three cyprinids differed from those of M. dujardini. Based on molecular differences, this paper describes two new species: M. alvarezae sp. nov. from ide and asp, and M. sitjae sp. nov. from white bream. The two new species and M. dujardini had a similar tissue tropism, and infected the multilayered epithelium of the gill filaments. Histological examination of the infected filaments demonstrated that the large plasmodia with multiple buddings were formed from amalgamating small plasmodia. Besides carrying infection in the filamental epithelium, the three above fish species were infected by small intralamellar plasmodia as well. These plasmodia were filled by spores that resembled the roach parasite M. intimus both in morphology and seasonal development. The 18S rDNA sequences of 'intimus-like' spores from ide and asp differed only in some base pairs from spores found in the type host roach, and were identified as belonging to M. intimus. The spores found in white bream, however, showed 3.6-5.0% difference in DNA sequence from those of M. intimus; therefore, they have been described as M. eirasianus sp. nov. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the importance of using molecular methods for separating and identifying morphologically corresponding or closely similar Myxobolus spp. PMID:23129194

Cech, Gábor; Molnár, Kálmán; Székely, Csaba

2012-12-01

244

Isolation of pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A virus was isolated from the brains of pigeons suffering from nervous disorders in different localities of the Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The new isolate caused a high morbidity, ranging from 33% to 50%, and a mortality rate which reached 40%. The virus produced pinpoint greyish pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated hens' eggs and induced syncytial formation followed by rounding and lysis of the cells in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures. Virus infectivity was significantly reduced following treatment by 20% ether or chloroform. The isolated virus was identified as pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus by serum-neutralization, agar gel diffusion and fluorescent antibody staining techniques. PMID:2994283

Shalaby, M A; el-Sisi, M A; Ismail, O E; Afaleque, A I

1985-07-01

245

Treating and avoiding herpes and tinea infections in contact sports.  

PubMed

Sports that require skin-to-skin contact between competitors, such as wrestling, create environments where infections can spread. Skin screening checks are made before any wrestling competition, but this usually doesn't happen with other sports. Two of the most common skin infections are herpes gladiatorum (caused by the same virus that causes cold sores) and tinea gladiatorum, also known as ringworm (caused by a fungus). These skin infections can spread rapidly among teammates, coaches, and opponents, so it is very important to treat the infection as soon as it is discovered. Athletes who have active skin infections can be disqualified from competition and withheld from practice. PMID:20086383

Landry, Gregory L; Chang, Cindy J; Mees, Patricia D

2004-10-01

246

Unilateral Negative Myoclonus Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Various neurologic manifestations of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis have been reported on the literatures. Chorea, ballism, choreoathetosis and myoclonus were reported as movement disorders which might be related with brain lesion by HSV encephalitis, but negative myoclonus (NM) has never been reported before. NM can be characterized as a shock-like involuntary jerky movement caused by a sudden, brief interruption of muscle activity. We experienced a case of HSV encephalitis with NM in unilateral arm and leg. In polygraphic monitoring, electroencephalography (EMG) silent periods are 50–250 ms in duration with no detectable EMG correlate.

Park, Jin-Mo; Park, Jin-Sung; Kim, Yong-Won; Lee, Ho-Won; Lee, Da-In; Park, Sung-Pa; Song, Hyun Seok

2011-01-01

247

Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation.

Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

1988-01-01

248

Photodynamic treatment of herpes simplex virus during its replicative cycle.  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected hamster embryo fibroblasts (LSH strain) with a low concentration of proflavine (0.08 mug/10(5) cells per ml), a 3-9-diamine acridine dye, inhibited production not only of infectious progeny but also of virion particles. However, there was no appreciable inhibition of viral or cellular DNA synthesis, even when the infected cells were repeatedly exposed to this low concentration of dye and light during the replication cycle of the virus. It thus appears that photodynamic treatment of infected cells interferes with the processes involved in virus maturation.

Khan, N C; Melnick, J L; Biswal, N

1977-01-01

249

Herpes simplex and HIV infections and preterm PROM.  

PubMed

Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in pregnancy have potential for vertical transmission that may result in death or morbidity. The risk increases with preterm delivery and prolonged ruptured membranes. When managing preterm premature rupture of membranes, the risk of transmission must be weighed against the risk of prematurity. Before 32 to 34 weeks, expectant management is preferred for patients with well controlled HIV or recurrent active genital HSV infection. For patients with advanced HIV disease or primary genital HSV infection, the risk of vertical transmission is higher and many clinical factors need to be considered. PMID:21508703

Ehsanipoor, Robert M; Major, Carol A

2011-06-01

250

Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population.

Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

2009-01-01

251

Acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy prevents recurrent genital herpes and viral shedding.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes affects about 1 in 15,000 newborns and the prognosis for disseminated disease with encephalitis is poor. We investigated whether acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy effectively reduces the risk of viral shedding and, hence, of mother-to-child transmission at delivery. A prospective study was conducted. Pregnant women who had at least one episode of genital herpes during pregnancy were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (n=167) received oral acyclovir from 36 weeks of gestation to term; group 2 (n=121) received no treatment. Group 3 (n=201) comprised women not given prophylaxis who had a history of genital herpes, but no active episodes during pregnancy. No specific instruction were set up for obstetrical management except for cesarean section in case of a suspected herpes lesion at the time of labor. The rate of Cesarean section was 8.4% in group 1, 16.5% in group 2, and 9.9% in group 3 (p<0.001). 75% of cesareans in group 2 and 10% in group 3 were done for genital herpes. Percentage of viral shedding was, respectively, 0% (group1), 5% (group2), and 0.5%(group3) (p<0.05). These findings underline the value of antiviral prophylaxis in late pregnancy for women with a known history of genital herpes. Such prophylaxis only partly prevents neonatal herpes infection, because it is not applicable to patients with no known clinical history but may excrete the virus. PMID:11311761

Braig, S; Luton, D; Sibony, O; Edlinger, C; Boissinot, C; Blot, P; Oury, J F

2001-05-01

252

Successful differentiation of herpes zoster-associated erythema multiforme from generalized extension of herpes by rapid polymerase chain reaction analysis.  

PubMed

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 is available for use. Sometimes the differential diagnosis of the generalized herpes zoster (HZ), HSV1/2, and drug eruption is difficult. We report a case of HZ followed by the vesicular erythema multiforme (EM)-like lesion. In this case the use of PCR was of great assistance. A 78-year-old Japanese man without any significant previous history of disease was admitted to our hospital complaining of zosteriform vesicle on an erythematous base from his right shoulder to the upper arm. We diagnosed him with HZ at the level of right Th2. In spite of the prompt start of antiviral therapy, a secondary new vesiculous erythema developed on his trunk. Clinically, it was quite difficult to differentiate the lesion from the generalized HZ. Rapid PCR assay of effusion and crust for VZV was performed. A PCR assay of VZV was positive for the crust taken from the primary lesion, while it was negative for the effusion and crust of the secondary widespread lesion. We diagnosed the secondary widespread lesion as an EM-type drug eruption induced by acyclovir, or an EM associated with herpes zoster. We then stopped the use of acyclovir and applied steroid ointment of a very strong class for the secondary lesions, which improved after a few days. A PCR assay for VZV was useful for ruling out the generalized HZ in our case with secondary developed vesiculous lesions. PMID:24909215

Kasuya, Akira; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Kageyama, Reiko; Ikeya, Shigeki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Tokura, Yoshiki

2014-06-01

253

Rapid Detection of Herpes Viruses for Clinical Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are eight herpes viruses that infect humans, causing a wide range of diseases resulting in considerable morbidity and associated costs. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpes virus that causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. Approximately 1,000,000 new cases of shingles occur each year; post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) follows shingles in 100,000 to 200,000 people annually. PHN is characterized by debilitating, nearly unbearable pain for weeks, months, and even years. The onset of shingles is characterized by pain, followed by the zoster rash, leading to blisters and severe pain. The problem is that in the early stages, shingles can be difficult to diagnose; chickenpox in adults can be equally difficult to diagnose. As a result, both diseases can be misdiagnosed (false positive/negative). A molecular assay has been adapted for use in diagnosing VZV diseases. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is a non-invasive, rapid, sensitive, and highly specific method for VZV DNA detection. It provides unequivocal results and can effectively end misdiagnoses. This is an approximately two-hour assay that allows unequivocal diagnosis and rapid antiviral drug intervention. It has been demonstrated that rapid intervention can prevent full development of the disease, resulting in reduced likelihood of PHN. The technology was extended to shingles patients and demonstrated that VZV is shed in saliva and blood of all shingles patients. The amount of VZV in saliva parallels the medical outcome.

Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish

2013-01-01

254

Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

Hadigal, Satvik; Shukla, Deepak

2013-01-01

255

Recurrent herpes simplex virus ocular infection: epidemiological and clinical features.  

PubMed

The epidemiological and clinical features of recurrent herpes simplex virus ocular infection (RHSV) were studied. Of 108 patients with primary herpes simplex virus ocular infection (PHSV) who were followed up for two to 15 years 35 (32%) suffered one or more recurrent attacks. The recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients under 20 years of age, but there was no significant difference between recurrence rates in males and females. Of 35 patients with RHSV 17 (49%) had one recurrent attack, 14 (40%) had between two and five, and four (11%) had between six and 15 attacks. The mean time interval between PHSV and the first four RHSV attacks was 10 months, and was shorter in subsequent attacks. The duration and severity of RHSV were reduced in successive recurrences. Patients with more severe conjunctivitis and lid lesions during PHSV ocular infection had a higher incidence of recurrent infection. The severity of the corneal signs in PHSV had no influence on the incidence of recurrent infection. Several clinical forms of RHSV were observed. Conjunctivitis associated with lid lesions was observed in 29 (83%) patients. In six (17%) patients the disease presented as an acute follicular conjunctivitis without characteristic lid or corneal lesions. Dendritic ulcer was found in three (9%) patients, and in one of them it was associated with a disciform keratitis. A chronic blepharoconjunctivitis developed in eight (23%) patients. The epidemiological and clinical features of RHSV were compared with those of PHSV. PMID:3663560

Wishart, M S; Darougar, S; Viswalingam, N D

1987-09-01

256

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus therapy for peripheral nerve tumors.  

PubMed

Oncolytic viruses are one of many emerging cancer therapies. The surgical management of peripheral nerve tumors carries an inherent risk of damaging the nerves involved and so the search for novel therapies with reduced risk of morbidity continues. In this review the authors discuss the use of oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the treatment of peripheral nerve tumors. Herpes simplex virus has a number of characteristics that make it a useful oncolytic vector, including its large, sequenced genome that can accommodate multiple transgenes, its lack of insertional mutagenesis, its ability to infect a wide array of cell types in various species, and the availability of well-established antiviral therapies to treat it. The efficacy of oncolytic HSV therapy against schwannomas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors has been studied in multiple experimental models both in vitro and in vivo. The virus utilizes cell pathways unique to tumors to enhance its oncolytic efficacy, preferentially and effectively targeting and destroying peripheral nerve tumor cells without harming normal cells. This effect is augmented by transgenes expressing antiangiogenic factors, such as dominant-negative fibroblast growth factor receptor and platelet factor 4, and displays synergy with chemotherapy. Different oncolytic HSV vectors have been tested, including hrR3, G207, and G47D. In addition, new animal models have been developed to test the efficacy of oncolytic HSV therapy in peripheral nerve tumors. The safety of oncolytic HSV is well established and has been tested in nonhuman primates and in human clinical trials. PMID:17613221

Jeyaretna, Deva S; Rabkin, Samuel D; Martuza, Robert L

2007-01-01

257

Herpes simplex virus envelopment and maturation studied by fracture label.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus envelopment and maturation were investigated by thin-section fracture label. The distribution of glycoproteins B and D was analyzed by labeling with antibodies; the precursor and mature forms of the glycoproteins were differentiated by labeling with the lectins concanavalin A (ConA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), respectively. We report that the two glycoproteins were readily detected in the intracellular virion, whether located between the inner and outer nuclear membranes or within cytoplasmic membrane-bound vesicles and in the inner and outer nuclear membranes themselves. The enveloped virion between the inner and outer nuclear membranes labeled with ConA but not with WGA. During the transit to the extracellular space the reactivity of the virion membranes with ConA decreased and that with WGA ensued. The results document that herpes simplex viruses acquire at the inner nuclear membrane an envelope carrying the immature forms of the glycoproteins and that during the transit to the extracellular space the envelope glycoproteins become of the fully processed type. Images

Torrisi, M R; Di Lazzaro, C; Pavan, A; Pereira, L; Campadelli-Fiume, G

1992-01-01

258

The molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurotropic herpesvirus that establishes latency within sensory neurones. Following primary infection, the virus replicates productively within mucosal epithelial cells and enters sensory neurones via nerve termini. The virus is then transported to neuronal cell bodies where latency can be established. Periodically, the virus can reactivate to resume its normal lytic cycle gene expression programme and result in the generation of new virus progeny that are transported axonally back to the periphery. The ability to establish lifelong latency within the host and to periodically reactivate to facilitate dissemination is central to the survival strategy of this virus. Although incompletely understood, this review will focus on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of latency that centre on the functions of the virus-encoded latency-associated transcripts (LATs), epigenetic regulation of the latent virus genome and the molecular events that precipitate reactivation. This review considers current knowledge and hypotheses relating to the mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and reactivation herpes simplex virus latency.

Nicoll, Michael P; Proenca, Joao T; Efstathiou, Stacey

2012-01-01

259

National survey of diagnostic services for genital herpes  

PubMed Central

Methods: National survey of laboratories providing diagnostic services for genital herpes. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned from 25/32 (78%) laboratories participating in the Clinical Virology Network, including seven in London, 12 in the rest of England, one in Wales, four in Scotland, and one in Northern Ireland. Virus culture was the diagnostic method of choice in 20/25 (80%) laboratories; 5/25 (20%) routinely used HSV DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HSV PCR for DNA detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was available in 17/25 (68%) laboratories. Typing of isolates (HSV-1 or HSV-2) was performed routinely in 22/25 (88%) laboratories. Only 2/25 (8%) laboratories offered HSV type specific serology, although an additional 12/25 (48%) referred requests elsewhere. Consistent with this finding, the number of HSV type specific antibody tests referred to the Health Protection Agency increased by nearly fivefold between 1997 and 2003. Conclusions: Virus culture remains the preferred diagnostic method for genital herpes, despite evidence indicating that its sensitivity is suboptimal compared to PCR. As HSV PCR is widely available for testing of CSF, it is recommended that clinicians and virologists discuss ways to implement PCR testing of genital swabs, thus enabling greater diagnostic accuracy. A call is made for studies to assess the use of HSV type specific serology in genitourinary medicine (GUM) settings, now that rapid and validated assays have become available and guidelines have been issues to provide recommendations on their use.

Geretti, A; Brown, D

2005-01-01

260

Treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis with oral acyclovir.  

PubMed

In a double-blind, randomized, patient-initiated clinical trial, 174 nonimmunocompromised patients with a history of virus-culture-confirmed herpes simplex labialis were treated with acyclovir capsules, 400 mg five times daily for 5 days, or placebo capsules. For 97% of the patients, treatment started within 1 h of the first sign or symptom of a recurrence. The frequency of positive lesion virus cultures was significantly lower among acyclovir-treated subjects (29/114, 25%) than among placebo-treated subjects (29/60, 48%; P = .004). Drug treatment did not affect the development of lesions, measured by the frequency of macular and papular (aborted) lesions and mean maximum lesion size. However, acyclovir hastened lesion resolution among the patients who could start treatment in the prodrome or erythema lesion stage. For this group, the mean duration of pain was reduced by 36% (P = .02) and the mean healing time to loss of crust by 27% (P = .03). Thus, oral acyclovir alleviated some of the clinical manifestations of herpes simplex labialis. PMID:2153735

Spruance, S L; Stewart, J C; Rowe, N H; McKeough, M B; Wenerstrom, G; Freeman, D J

1990-02-01

261

Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

1981-04-01

262

A new rapid immunoperoxidase diagnostic staining of herpes simplex virus 1 indolent corneal ulcer.  

PubMed

A tear film aspirate, from the lower fornix of a 64-year-old man with the clinical diagnosis of a herpes simplex indolent corneal ulcer, was examined via a new, rapid immunoperoxidase staining technique. This 4-hour modified immunoperoxidase stain is both sensitive and specific for herpes simplex virus type 1. The corneal epithelial cells shed in the tear film from the indolent ulcer were strongly positive for herpes simplex type 1 viral antigen using this new technique. This case report supports the theory that the pathogenesis of indolent herpetic corneal ulcers involves both a hypersensitivity response to viral antigen and an active viral infection. PMID:6100242

Duke, M A; Webb, R M; Catalano, R A

1984-01-01

263

Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections  

SciTech Connect

The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

Straus, S.E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-12-01

264

Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines.

Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

2011-01-01

265

Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

1999-06-01

266

Treatment with acyclovir of genital herpes simplex virus infection complicated by eczema herpeticum.  

PubMed Central

Eczema herpeticum is a potentially serious disease that may be fatal. We report two cases of infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) that were complicated by eczema herpeticum and were treated successfully with acyclovir.

Robinson, G E; Underhill, G S; Forster, G E; Kennedy, C; McLean, K

1984-01-01

267

Disseminated Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in an Immunocompetent 8-Year Old Boy  

PubMed Central

Varicella results from a primary infection with the varicella virus while herpes zoster is caused by a reactivation of a latent infection. Dissemination of herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals. Reports of disseminated herpes zoster in children are even less common than in adults. An unusual case of disseminated herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an 8-year old immunocompetent black boy is presented. He had a previous primary Varicella zoster virus infection at three years of age. In the current report, he presented during an on-going chicken pox outbreak and survived with no significant complications. A breakthrough varicella virus re-infection or a reactivation is possible, both of which could present as zoster. This case emphasizes the need for prevention of varicella virus infection through universal childhood immunization and effective infection control strategies in health care settings.

Oladokun, Regina Eziuka; Olomukoro, Chikodili N; Owa, Adewale B.

2013-01-01

268

Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model  

SciTech Connect

Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

1987-09-01

269

Herpes Zoster Risk Reduction through Exposure to Chickenpox Patients: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review  

PubMed Central

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and may subsequently reactivate to cause herpes zoster later in life. The exogenous boosting hypothesis states that re-exposure to circulating VZV can inhibit VZV reactivation and consequently also herpes zoster in VZV-immune individuals. Using this hypothesis, mathematical models predicted widespread chickenpox vaccination to increase herpes zoster incidence over more than 30 years. Some countries have postponed universal chickenpox vaccination, at least partially based on this prediction. After a systematic search and selection procedure, we analyzed different types of exogenous boosting studies. We graded 13 observational studies on herpes zoster incidence after widespread chickenpox vaccination, 4 longitudinal studies on VZV immunity after re-exposure, 9 epidemiological risk factor studies, 7 mathematical modeling studies as well as 7 other studies. We conclude that exogenous boosting exists, although not for all persons, nor in all situations. Its magnitude is yet to be determined adequately in any study field.

Ogunjimi, Benson; Van Damme, Pierre; Beutels, Philippe

2013-01-01

270

Herpes (Shalbeket) in judaic sources: a synopsis of a book in preparation.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that the earliest reference to Herpes is that of the Greek historian Herodotus and was used as a description of various "creeping skin diseases"--approx. 2000 years ago. Herpes, known in Hebrew as Shalbeket (boil, vesicle) is mentioned in the Book of Exodus as early as about 3500 years ago. This is a significant revelation in medical history that the earliest reference to Herpes (shalbeket) was mentioned 3500 years ago as Shalbukin (vesicles) in conjunction with Shekhin. These names, "boils," "creeping" are two descriptions of the external signs of Herpes; indicative of the ability of the ancients to identify diseases by their external appearances and to deal with their medical and sociological aspects. PMID:3076608

Romano, A; Gertz, S

1988-01-01

271

75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0344] Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date...

2010-09-28

272

Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2) vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, \\

Thomas R Moench; Russell J Mumper; Timothy E Hoen; Mianmian Sun; Richard A Cone

2010-01-01

273

Prospective Study of Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infection of Patients Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report demonstrates that cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding occurs in 14-16% respectively of patients on hemodialysis. Shedding of both viruses occur in older patients but only CMV is associated with high mortality. CMV shed...

R. F. Betts R. V. M. Cestero R. G. Douglas R. B. Freeman R. C. Pablico

1974-01-01

274

75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0429] Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes...that 21 CFR part 866 be amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 1. The authority citation for...

2010-09-28

275

76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0429] Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes...Drugs, 21 CFR part 866 is amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 0 1. The authority citation...

2011-08-09

276

Acute Herpetic Gingivostomatitis Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus 2: Report of a Case  

PubMed Central

Herpetic gingivostomatitis represents the most commonly observed clinical manifestation of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. HSV-1 has been associated with oro-labial disease, with most infections occurring during childhood, and HSV-2 with genital disease. However, it is possible for HSV-2 to cause oro-labial herpes and HSV-1 to cause genital herpes. An unusual case of acute herpetic gingivostomatitis (AHGS) that presented as extremely painful multiple ulcerations of the gingiva and hard palate in a 32-year-old male patient is presented. The association of HSV-2 in the etiology of oral lesions is highlighted. The clinical presentation, course, differential diagnosis and management of AHGS are discussed. How to cite the article: George AK, Anil S. Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis associated with herpes simplex virus 2: Report of a case. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):99-102.

George, Annie Kitty; Anil, Sukumaran

2014-01-01

277

Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Herpes—Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966–2011 NOTE: The relative standard errors for genital ... IMS Health, Integrated Promotional Services™. IMS Health Report, 1966–2011. Next Figure File Formats Help: How do ...

278

Contacts with children and young people and adult risk of suffering herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a matched case–control study to analyze the possible association between exposure to the children and the risk of suffering herpes-zoster in adulthood. Cases of herpes zoster in immunocompetent healthy patients aged ?25 years seen in the dermatology department of the Sagrado Corazón Hospital in 2007–2008 were matched with four controls. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression.

M. Salleras; A. Domínguez; N. Soldevila; A. Prat; P. Garrido; N. Torner; E. Borrás; L. Salleras

2011-01-01

279

Herpes zoster by reactivated vaccine varicella zoster virus in a healthy child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varicella can be prevented by vaccination using the live-attenuated Oka vaccine strain of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Only mild breakthrough disease has been reported in seronegative vaccinees when exposed to the wild-type virus. The latent varicella vaccine virus has rarely caused herpes zoster in childhood and adolescence. We report a healthy 2-year-old girl who developed an impressive herpes zoster infection

Barbara Uebe; Andreas Sauerbrei; Stefan Burdach; Gerd Horneff

2002-01-01

280

Herpes Virus Infection of RPE and MDCK Cells: Polarity of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine quantitatively whether herpes simplex virus infects preferentially the apical or basolateral surfaces of two well-differentiated cell types, human retinal pigment epithelial cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells. Secondarily, we sought to localize the mannose 6-phosphate\\/insulin-like growth factor II receptor, a putative receptor for herpes simplex virus, in the membrane domains of the retinal pigment

KIMBERLY S. TOPP; ALANA L. ROTHMAN; JENNIFER H. LAVAIL

1997-01-01

281

The Possible Link Between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection and Neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are ubiquitous, neurotropic, and the most common pathogenic cause\\u000a of sporadic acute encephalitis in humans. Herpes simplex encephalitis is associated with a high mortality rate and significant\\u000a neurological sequelae, which afflict patients for life. HSV-1 has been suggested as an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer’s\\u000a disease. However, the link

Angara Zambrano; Margarita Concha

282

G207, modified herpes simplex virus type 1, kills human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreatic cancer is often fetal, and farther effective therapeutic options are needed. This study was designed to assess\\u000a whether the replication-restricted herpes simplex virus, G207, was effective in killing human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.\\u000a G207, a multimutated strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 carrying lacZ reporter gene, is capable of efficient cytolytic growth in many dividing cells, including

Jonathan H. Lee; Howard J. Federoff; Luke O. Schoeniger

1999-01-01

283

Herpes zoster vaccine: What are the potential benefits for the ageing and older adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden of illness and healthcare resource utilisation associated with herpes zoster in individuals aged 50 years or above is substantial, causing severe loss of quality of life (QoL). Herpes zoster incidence varies from 1.5 to 5.0 per 1000 person-years in adults of all ages, and reaches 10 cases per 1000 person-years in individuals aged over 60. The most frequent

P.-O. Lang; J.-P. Michel

2011-01-01

284

Inhibition of Anatid Herpes Virus1 replication by small interfering RNAs in cell culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by double stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a novel mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing. It is projected as a potential tool to inhibit viral replication. In the present paper, we demonstrate the suppression of replication of an avian herpes virus (Anatid Herpes Virus-1, AHV-1) by siRNA mediated gene silencing in avian cells. The UL-6 gene

Sunil Kumar Mallanna; T. J. Rasool; Bikash Sahay; Abi George Aleyas; Hira Ram; Bimalendu Mondal; Binita Nautiyal; Avinash Premraj; E. Sreekumar; M. P. Yadav

2006-01-01

285

Complementation of ts mutants by a herpes simplex virus ts-transformed cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE first evidence that human herpesvirus could transform cultured cells was provided by Munyon et al.1 who showed that the thymidine kinase activity of herpes simplex could be expressed in mouse-derived L cells lacking this enzyme (LTK- cells). The oncogenic potential of human herpes virus was demonstrated by Duff and Rapp2,3 who showed that hamster embryo cells transformed by ultraviolet-inactivated

Joan C. M. Macnab; Morag C. Timbury

1976-01-01

286

Granuloma annulare in a site of healed herpes zoster: Wolf's isotopic response.  

PubMed

A case of granuloma annulare that developed in a site of healed herpes zoster is reported. Polymerase chain reaction failed to detect VZV DNA in a biopsy specimen. The occurrence of different types of cutaneous reactions in a body area previously affected by herpes virus infection is known as Wolf's isotopic response. Pathogenesis may be due to a local neuroimmune dysregulation set off by herpesvirus-induced lesions of dermal sensory nerve fibres. PMID:14761138

Ruocco, E; Baroni, A; Cutrě, F Tripodi; Filioli, F Grimaldi

2003-11-01

287

Assessment of skin test with varicella-zoster virus antigen for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.  

PubMed

The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ?50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster. PMID:23218021

Okuno, Y; Takao, Y; Miyazaki, Y; Ohnishi, F; Okeda, M; Yano, S; Kumihashi, H; Gomi, Y; Maeda, K; Ishikawa, T; Mori, Y; Asada, H; Iso, H; Yamanishi, K

2013-04-01

288

Ras Signaling Influences Permissiveness of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells to Oncolytic Herpes  

PubMed Central

Lack of expression of neurofibromin in neurofibromatosis 1 and its lethal derivative, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), is thought to result in the overactivation of the Ras signaling pathway. Our previous studies have shown that cells with overactivation in the Ras pathway are more permissive to infection with herpes simplex virus 1 and its mutant version R3616. In this study, we show that among five different mouse MPNST cell lines, only the ones with elevated levels of Ras signaling are highly permissive to infection with oncolytic herpes G207. Specific inhibitors of the Ras, ERK, and JNK pathways all reduced the synthesis of viral proteins in MPNST cells. The cell lines that contained lower levels of Ras and decreased activation of downstream signaling components underwent an enhancement in apoptosis upon exposure to G207. Additionally, mouse SW10 Schwann cells were able to become infected by parental herpes but were found to be resistant to G207. The immortalization of these cell lines with the expression of SV40 large T antigen increased the levels of Ras activation and permissiveness to oncolytic herpes. A Ras/Raf kinase inhibitor reduced the synthesis of both herpes simplex virus-1 and G207 proteins in SW10 cells. The results of this study, therefore, introduce Ras signaling as a divergent turning point for the response of MPNST cells to an assault by oncolytic herpes.

Farassati, Faris; Pan, Weihong; Yamoutpour, Farnaz; Henke, Susann; Piedra, Mark; Frahm, Silke; Al-Tawil, Said; Mangrum, Wells I.; Parada, Luis F.; Rabkin, Samuel D.; Martuza, Robert L.; Kurtz, Andreas

2008-01-01

289

Ras signaling influences permissiveness of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells to oncolytic herpes.  

PubMed

Lack of expression of neurofibromin in neurofibromatosis 1 and its lethal derivative, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), is thought to result in the overactivation of the Ras signaling pathway. Our previous studies have shown that cells with overactivation in the Ras pathway are more permissive to infection with herpes simplex virus 1 and its mutant version R3616. In this study, we show that among five different mouse MPNST cell lines, only the ones with elevated levels of Ras signaling are highly permissive to infection with oncolytic herpes G207. Specific inhibitors of the Ras, ERK, and JNK pathways all reduced the synthesis of viral proteins in MPNST cells. The cell lines that contained lower levels of Ras and decreased activation of downstream signaling components underwent an enhancement in apoptosis upon exposure to G207. Additionally, mouse SW10 Schwann cells were able to become infected by parental herpes but were found to be resistant to G207. The immortalization of these cell lines with the expression of SV40 large T antigen increased the levels of Ras activation and permissiveness to oncolytic herpes. A Ras/Raf kinase inhibitor reduced the synthesis of both herpes simplex virus-1 and G207 proteins in SW10 cells. The results of this study, therefore, introduce Ras signaling as a divergent turning point for the response of MPNST cells to an assault by oncolytic herpes. PMID:18988803

Farassati, Faris; Pan, Weihong; Yamoutpour, Farnaz; Henke, Susann; Piedra, Mark; Frahm, Silke; Al-Tawil, Said; Mangrum, Wells I; Parada, Luis F; Rabkin, Samuel D; Martuza, Robert L; Kurtz, Andreas

2008-12-01

290

Herpes simplex virus 1 infection on a reconstructive free flap.  

PubMed

Objective: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is a widespread virus that primarily causes orofacial infection. Methods: We present a case of HSV1 infection on a free radial forearm flap used to reconstruct a palate defect. Initially, the free flap appeared healthy; however, after 48 hours the free flap appeared in distress, with dark red colour and fast capillary refill. Venous congestion was suspected, and the patient underwent a second operation where no vascular compromise was found. Vesicles were noted on the free flap; swabs revealed HSV1 infection. Results: Complete recovery of the free flap was achieved with acyclovir. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of HSV1 infection on a free flap that was found to be responsible for the free flap appearing distressed. PMID:23837109

Parys, Simon P; Leman, Thea; Gurfinkel, Reuven

2013-01-01

291

Quantitative analysis of herpes simplex virus in cranial nerve ganglia.  

PubMed

A susceptible individual exposed to herpes simplex virus (HSV) will develop latent infection in multiple cranial nerve ganglia. There are a few quantitative studies of the viral load within the trigeminal ganglion, but none that investigate other cranial nerve ganglia. In this study, human trigeminal, geniculate, vestibular (Scarpa's) and cochlear (spiral) ganglia were obtained from willed body donors. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the HSV DNA polymerase gene was performed on ipsilateral ganglion sets from the same individual. Viral load, expressed as HSV genomes per 105 cells, was significantly greater in the vestibular ganglion (mean +/- SD, 176705 +/- 255916) than in the geniculate (9948 +/- 22066), cochlear (3527 +/- 9360), or trigeminal (2017 +/- 5578) ganglia. There was not a significant correlation among ganglia from the same individual. The results support the hypothesis that neuronal subpopulations have variable susceptibility to HSV infection. PMID:15371151

Vrabec, Jeffrey T; Alford, Raye L

2004-08-01

292

Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.  

PubMed Central

Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers.

Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

1985-01-01

293

New-onset refractory status epilepticus mimicking herpes virus encephalitis.  

PubMed

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently defined clinical entity that describes patients who present with status epilepticus of unclear etiology that is highly refractory to therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NORSE usually discloses no specific abnormalities except for an occasional mild T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal of the mesial temporal lobe. Here, we report a peculiar case of NORSE in which brain MRI showed massive alteration of both temporal lobes, with features strongly supporting the diagnosis of herpes virus encephalitis, but lacking any laboratory evidence of viral infection in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. It showed also striking signal alterations in the thalamus, which got worse in the course of the disease. This report emphasizes the possibility that seizure activity alone plays a critical role in both determining the disease and whether it will be self-sustaining. PMID:24163672

Puoti, Gianfranco; Elefante, Andrea; Saracino, Dario; Capasso, Antonella; Cotrufo, Roberto; Anello, Clara Belluomo

2013-01-01

294

New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus Mimicking Herpes Virus Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently defined clinical entity that describes patients who present with status epilepticus of unclear etiology that is highly refractory to therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NORSE usually discloses no specific abnormalities except for an occasional mild T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal of the mesial temporal lobe. Here, we report a peculiar case of NORSE in which brain MRI showed massive alteration of both temporal lobes, with features strongly supporting the diagnosis of herpes virus encephalitis, but lacking any laboratory evidence of viral infection in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. It showed also striking signal alterations in the thalamus, which got worse in the course of the disease. This report emphasizes the possibility that seizure activity alone plays a critical role in both determining the disease and whether it will be self-sustaining.

Puoti, Gianfranco; Elefante, Andrea; Saracino, Dario; Capasso, Antonella; Cotrufo, Roberto; Anello, Clara Belluomo

2013-01-01

295

Photoinactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus in Rabbit Kidney Cells  

PubMed Central

The photoinactivation of actively and nonactively growing herpes simplex virus by neutral red and proflavine was studied in rabbit kidney cells. Active virus growth was inhibited by both dyes under conditions which did not destroy the cells. Neutral red caused a much greater inhibition than proflavine. Neutral red also caused a reduction in the reactivation rate of latent virus when the infected cells were treated during the latent period. In the treated cultures that did reactivate virus, the average length of the latent period was increased over the control value. Proflavine treatment did not reduce the rate of reactivation of latent virus and did not increase the average latent period of the treated cultures.

Kelleher, J. J.; Varani, J.

1976-01-01

296

Antiviral effect of chinonin against herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the antiviral effect of chinonin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV), the encephalitis model in mice and skin infection model in guinea pigs were established by HSV- I and HSV-II infection respectively. Acyclovir was used as the positive reference drug to evaluate the antiviral capacity of chinonin. Chinonin showed an obvious therapeutic effect on encephalitis in mice at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. At both dosages, chinonin demonstrated stronger protection than acyclovir (1 and 5 mg/kg) to the infected mice from death. It was also found that chinonin could treat the skin infection in guinea pigs effectively. The therapeutic effect of chinonin was similar to that of acyclovir (5 mg/kg) at 25 mg/kg but obviously better than that at 50 and 75 mg/ kg. In conclusion, chinonin is a potential candidate for the treatment against HSV. PMID:15641710

Jiang, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Ming; Xiang, Jizhou

2004-01-01

297

Antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin on herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Using tissue culture technique the present study for the first time indicated the antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin against type I herpes simplex virus (HSV-I). 4 methods were used for evaluating drug effectiveness (i.e., in vitro drug-on-virus direct action, simultaneous addition of drug-virus-inoculum to cell bottle, virus inoculation preceding drug addition, and drug addition followed by virus inoculation), it was readily found by log determination of HSV-I inhibition that isomangiferin somewhat exceeded such control drugs as acyclovir, idoxuridine, and cyclocytidine in log by 0.27-0.50, and that mangiferin was lower than isomangiferin in log by 0.53. The average plaque reduction rates of mangiferin and isomangiferin were 56.8% and 69.5% respectively. The antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin was presumably due to their capability of inhibiting virus replication within cells. PMID:2167819

Zheng, M S; Lu, Z Y

1990-02-01

298

Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

Sutter, Esther [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Kaech, Andres [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Lucas, Miriam S. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-08-01

299

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a trigger of brain autoimmunity.  

PubMed

In 5 prospectively diagnosed patients with relapsing post-herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were identified. Antibody synthesis started 1 to 4 weeks after HSE, preceding the neurological relapse. Three of 5 patients improved postimmunotherapy, 1 spontaneously, and 1 has started to improve. Two additional patients with NMDAR antibodies, 9 with unknown neuronal surface antibodies, and 1 with NMDAR and unknown antibodies, were identified during retrospective assessment of 34 HSE patients; the frequency of autoantibodies increased over time (serum, p=0.004; cerebrospinal fluid, p=0.04). The 3 retrospectively identified NMDAR antibody-positive patients also had evidence of relapsing post-HSE. Overall, these findings indicate that HSE triggers NMDAR antibodies and potentially other brain autoimmunity. PMID:24318406

Armangue, Thaís; Leypoldt, Frank; Málaga, Ignacio; Raspall-Chaure, Miquel; Marti, Itxaso; Nichter, Charles; Pugh, John; Vicente-Rasoamalala, Monica; Lafuente-Hidalgo, Miguel; Macaya, Alfons; Ke, Michael; Titulaer, Maarten J; Höftberger, Romana; Sheriff, Heather; Glaser, Carol; Dalmau, Josep

2014-02-01

300

Corneal latency and transmission of herpes simplex virus-1  

PubMed Central

The transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 by corneal transplantation has rarely been reported. It is believed that these cases have resulted either from reactivated virus traveling from the trigeminal ganglion to the cornea or from latent HSV-1 in the donor cornea itself. Studies of long-term viral presence in corneal tissue have sought to determine whether there is evidence of true non-neuronal latency, although there are problems in its definition. Recent studies provide new insights into neuronal latency, while similar HSV-1 gene regulation in the cornea may implicate corneal latency in pathophysiology and as a potential risk for transplant recipients. This issue has led to concerns over eye banking, which currently screens for other infectious agents but not HSV-1. Here we review the literature regarding corneal latency and the transmission of HSV-1.

Farooq, Asim V; Shukla, Deepak

2011-01-01

301

A case of herpes zoster uveitis with severe hyphema  

PubMed Central

Background Uveitis sometimes causes hyphema, but severe hyphema as a complication following herpes zoster uveitis has rarely been reported. We report a rare case of zoster sine herpete with unusually severe hyphema. Case presentation A 41-year-old Japanese female developed hyphema filling almost one-half of the depth of the anterior chamber after a two-week history of unilateral anterior uveitis. Hyphema persisted for four weeks while sectorial iris atrophy became gradually apparent. Systemic prednisolone and valaciclovir resulted in prompt resolution of uveitis and hyphema. Serum anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG measured by enzyme immunoassay was 116 at presentation and decreased to 20.3 four month later. In addition, the antibody level in aqueous humor was almost 10-fold higher than that in serum examined 9 months after presentation. Because there was no skin lesion, this case was diagnosed as zoster sine herpete. The patient underwent cataract operation due to secondary cataract. The final visual acuity in decimal notation was 1.0, but complications such as severe iris atrophy, wide anterior synechiae, corneal opacity, and decrease in corneal endothelial cell count remained. Conclusion Zoster sine herpete is an important differential diagnosis in a case of acute anterior uveitis with severe hyphema, although such cases are quite rare. Measurement of anti-VZV IgG levels by enzyme immunoassay in aqueous humor and serum would be useful in the diagnosis of VZV reactivation. Prompt diagnosis and administration of corticosteroids and anti-herpes virus medication may improve the outcome.

2014-01-01

302

Impact of Herpes simplex virus load and red blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid upon herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) often leads to severe disability or death. Factors usually associated with outcome include Simplified Acute Physiology Score, age and delay of initiation of acyclovir treatment. Our aim was to determine the impact of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) upon HSE outcome. Methods We retrospectively determined HSV load in the CSF of 43 patients with confirmed HSE, hospitalized in northern France from 1998 to 2005, using CSF samples collected the day of hospital admission and stored at ?20°C. We analyzed the association between HSV load and mortality/morbidity by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Fisher’s exact test and Wilcoxon’s test were used for statistical analysis. Results The M/F sex ratio was 1.7 and median patient age was 61 years. Median HSV load in CSF was 2.0 log copies/?L (IQR 25-75=1.2-2.6). The mortality rate was 32.6% six months after HSE diagnosis. Higher age was associated with mortality (p=0.03). Longer delay in acyclovir initiation tended to be associated with higher mortality but did not reach statistical significance (p=0.08). Severe disability and death due to HSV were associated with a higher Knaus score (p=0.004), later acyclovir initiation (p=0.006), older age (p=0.04) and presence of red blood cells in CSF (p=0.05). HSV load in CSF was neither associated with mortality (p=1.00) nor with morbidity (p=0.90). Conclusion In this study, HSV load in CSF was not found to be associated with poor outcome in patients with HSE. These data do not support measurement of HSV load at admission in patients with HSE.

2012-01-01

303

Non-traumatic acquisition of herpes simplex virus infection through the eye.  

PubMed Central

Primary ocular herpes is usually seen as a follicular conjunctivitis and blepharitis, with or without involvement of the cornea. It is unknown, however, to what extent asymptomatic and/or subclinical primary disease occurs, and whether primary ocular herpes follows direct droplet spread to the eye. Previous models of murine ocular herpes have used trauma (scarification) to introduce virus into the cornea, producing disease which results in significant corneal scarring. To mimic a likely route of infection in humans, a droplet containing virus was placed on the mouse eye and clinical disease recorded. At least 1 month after inoculation, serum was assayed for neutralising antibodies and the cornea, iris, and trigeminal ganglion were investigated for evidence of herpes simplex virus type 1, by cocultivation and the polymerase chain reaction. Some animals showed a severe ulcerative blepharitis with little to no involvement of the cornea, while disease was undetectable in others. The development of disease depended on the dose and strain of virus and age of the animal, with older mice appearing more resistant. Virus was isolated from the trigeminal ganglion of younger animals inoculated with higher doses of virus, after 21 days in culture, suggesting that latency had been established. Neutralising antibodies were present in most mice irrespective of the presence of recognisable clinical disease. Using primers for the thymidine kinase and glycoprotein C regions of the viral genome, herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA was found in the cornea, iris, and trigeminal ganglion of most animals and showed a good correlation with the presence of neutralising antibodies. It would thus appear that herpes simplex virus type 1 is able to accede into the cornea, iris, and trigeminal ganglion following nontraumatic application of virus onto the mouse eye. This model mimics primary ocular disease in humans and may be useful for studies on recurrent disease and the spread of ocular herpes. Images

Kaye, S B; Shimeld, C; Grinfeld, E; Maitland, N J; Hill, T J; Easty, D L

1992-01-01

304

An assay for the detection of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 using a single-chain fragment variable antibody.  

PubMed

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is a major pathogen of grapevine. A previously described single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody (scFvLR3), directed against the coat protein (CP) of GLRaV-3, was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to develop a diagnostic ELISA kit. The antibody was fused to the light chain constant domain of human immunoglobulin to create the bivalent reagent C(L)-LR3, which was purified from the periplasmic fraction, giving a yield of ~5 mg/l. The sensitivity of the reagent against recombinant GLRaV-3 CP was 0.1 ng. The sensitivity, specificity and durability of the reagent was similar to a commercial kit. The C(L)-LR3 showed a weak cross-reaction in immune electron microscopy assays to GLRaV-1 and -7, but not with the phylogenetically more distant GLRaV-2. A fully recombinant kit was developed with the inclusion of a recombinant GLRaV-3 CP expressed in bacteria, thus avoiding problems associated with virus propagation and purification. This system represents a rapid, simple, sensitive and standardized diagnostic protocol for GLRaV-3 detection. PMID:19082687

Cogotzi, Laura; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Nölke, Greta; Orecchia, Martin; Elicio, Vito; Castellano, Maria Antonietta; Martelli, Giovanni P; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan; Saldarelli, Pasquale

2009-01-01

305

Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations.  

PubMed

Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, cricket paste, and soybean oil adsorbed to defatted corn grit) effectively transmitted SINV-3 infections to S. invicta colonies. Correspondingly, viral infection was shown to be detrimental to colony health and productivity. By day 32, all ant colonies exposed to a single 24h pulse treatment of SINV-3 became infected with the virus regardless of the bait formulation. However, the SINV-3 sugar and cricket bait-treated colonies became infected more rapidly than the oil-treated colonies. Sugar and cricket-treated colonies exhibited significant declines in their brood ratings compared with the untreated control and oil bait-treated colonies. Measures of colony health and productivity evaluated at the end of the study (day 47) showed a number of differences among the bait treatments and the control group. Statistically significant and similar patterns were exhibited among treatments for the quantity of live workers (lower), live brood (lower), total colony weight (lower), worker mortality (higher), proportion larvae (lower), and queen weight (lower). Significant changes were also observed in the number of eggs laid by queens (lower) and the corresponding ovary rating in SINV-3-treated colonies. The study provides the first successful demonstration of SINV-3 as a potential biopesticide against fire ants. PMID:23602901

Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Choi, Man-Yeon; Oi, David H

2013-07-01

306

Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile  

PubMed Central

Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA on serum.

Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

2014-01-01

307

HIV-positive patient with herpes zoster: a manifestation of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is a common illness that can lead to serious morbidity. There is now evidence that HIV-infected patients who have been treated with antiretroviral therapy are at greater risk of developing herpes zoster not when they are severely immunocompromised but, paradoxically, when their immune system is recovering. This is a manifestation of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. The objectives of this report are to (1) inform health care providers that HIV-infected patients may develop multiple infectious, autoimmune, and oncological manifestations after treatment with antiretroviral medication, as they have immune system reconstitution, and (2) discuss herpes zoster, one of the possible manifestations. The patient is a 68-year-old HIV-positive man who presented with herpes zoster after being treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) when his immune system was recovering, not when he was most immunosuppressed. Emergency department physicians should be aware that HIV-infected patients treated with HAART may have clinical deterioration despite immune system strengthening. This immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome can present with infectious, autoimmune, or oncological manifestations. Our case patient, an HIV-positive man with immune system recovery after treatment with HAART, presented with an infectious manifestation, herpes zoster. PMID:21129888

Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

2012-01-01

308

The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study: Rationale, Design, and Description of a Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. Methods The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. Results We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. Conclusions The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese.

Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

2012-01-01

309

A Case of Herpes Zoster Peripheral Polyneuropathy Manifested by Foot Drop in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

In herpes zoster infection, neurological complications may be overlooked because pain is a more prominent symptom and because peripheral polyneuropathy associated with weakness is rare. A 57-year-old male visited our hospital, complaining of pain and skin eruptions on the right flank. He was diagnosed as having herpes zoster and the symptoms were alleviated by administration of acyclovir for a week. After three weeks, the herpes zoster relapsed. He was re-admitted and diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and imatinib mesylate was prescribed for five weeks. Ten weeks after the onset of herpes zoster, bilateral foot drops and numbness of the right foot dorsum developed. Through an electrodiagnostic study, he was diagnosed as having peripheral polyneuropathy that was suspected to be caused by neural invasion by varicella zoster virus. After administration of famciclovir, not only the pain but also the neurologic symptoms improved. We herein report a case of peripheral polyneuropathy that was supposed to be related to herpes zoster.

Seo, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Seong Jae; Hyun, Jung Keun

2012-01-01

310

To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

Farrell, Elizabeth F.

2005-01-01

311

Myelin lesions in the rabbit eye model as a bystander effect of herpes simplex and visna virus sensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabbits were immunized with herpes simplex and visna virus in complete Freund's adjuvant. Uv-inactivated herpes virus and the purified visna virus protein p 25 injected intraocularly into these rabbits elicited a moderate inflammatory cell infiltration in the epiretinal myelinated nerve fiber bundles accompanied by signs of demyelination. It is therefore apparent that also viral antigen can induce myelin lesions as

Krister Kristensson; Halldor Thormar; Henryk M. Wisniewski

1979-01-01

312

Whole Blood Polymerase Chain Reaction in a Neonate with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Infection and Liver Failure  

PubMed Central

A late preterm neonate born by cesarean section with intact membranes presented at 9 days of life with shock and liver failure. Surface cultures were negative but whole blood polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2, underscoring the value of this test in early diagnosis of perinatally acquired disseminated herpes simplex virus infection without skin lesions.

Scoble, Jennifer A.; Underwood, Mark A.

2013-01-01

313

No Increased Risk of Herpes Zoster Found in Cirrhotic Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background The association between liver cirrhosis (LC) and herpes zoster has rarely been studied. We investigated the hypothesis that LC, known as an immunodeficiency disease, may increase the risk of herpes zoster using a national health insurance database in Taiwan. Materials and Methods The study cohort included cirrhotic patients between 1998 and 2005 (n?=?4667), and a ratio of 1?5 randomly sampled age- and gender-matched control patients (n?=?23,335). All subjects were followed up for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether or not they had developed herpes zoster. Cox proportional-hazard regressions were performed to evaluate 5-year herpes zoster-free survival rates. Results Of all patients, 523 patients developed herpes zoster during the 5-year follow-up period, among whom 82 were LC patients and 441 were in the comparison cohort. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of herpes zoster in patients with LC was not higher (AHR: 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.59–1.01, p?=?0.06) than that of the controls during the 5-year follow-up. No increased risk of herpes zoster was found in LC patients after stratification by age, gender, urbanization level, income, geographic region, and all comorbidities. Conclusions This large nationwide population-based cohort study suggests that there is no increased risk for herpes zoster among people who have LC compared to a matching population.

Wu, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Chang, Wei-Pin

2014-01-01

314

Predictive values of prurigo nodularis and herpes zoster for HIV infection and immunosuppression requiring HAART in French Guiana.  

PubMed

Prurigo nodularis and herpes zoster frequently lead to the diagnosis of HIV in tropical areas. The WHO has established a clinical definition of AIDS for undeveloped countries. Prurigo and herpes zoster are both classified as stage 2. The main objective of this study was to compare the level of immunosuppression of patients diagnosed as HIV-positive after consulting for prurigo nodularis or herpes zoster in French Guiana. A retrospective study was conducted including patients consulting at the Department of Dermatology, Cayenne Hospital (French Guiana) for prurigo nodularis or herpes zoster between 1989 and 2007 for which the systematic HIV test was positive. Demographic data and CD4 counts of both groups were compared. Analysis of 346 patients consulting for herpes zoster (n=192) or prurigo nodularis (n=154) led to the discovery of 129 HIV infections. The positive predictive value (PPV) for HIV positivity was 38.5% for herpes zoster and 36% for prurigo nodularis. The median lymphocyte count was 302/mm(3) in herpes zoster and 87/mm(3) in prurigo nodularis (P<0.001). The PPV for having a CD4 lymphocyte count<200/mm(3) was 26.5% for herpes zoster and 72% for prurigo nodularis. Prurigo nodularis was predictive of advanced immunosuppression. This questions the pertinence of the WHO clinical classification of AIDS. In the absence of CD4 count, the present results suggest that for patients with prurigo nodularis, antiretrovirals should be initiated without delay. PMID:21621233

Magand, Florence; Nacher, Mathieu; Cazorla, Céline; Cambazard, Frederic; Marie, Dominique Sainte; Couppié, Pierre

2011-07-01

315

Identification of Herpes Simplex Virus Genital Infection: Comparison of a Multiplex PCR Assay and Traditional Viral Isolation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) is of major public health importance, as indicated by the marked increase in the prevalence of genital herpes over the past two decades. Viral culture has traditionally been regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis. In this study, we compared viral culture and the amplification of HSV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with

D. S. Marshall; D. R. Linfert; A. Draghi; Y. S. McCarter; G. J. Tsongalis

2001-01-01

316

Effect of Famciclovir on Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Corneal Disease and Establishment of Latency in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Famciclovir (FCV) is efficacious in the treatment of acute herpes zoster and recurrent genital infections but has not been used to treat ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. We evaluated the efficacy of orally administered FCV in treating HSV-1 epithelial keratitis and determined its effects on the establishment of latency and subsequent reactivation. Rabbits were inoculated with HSV-1 strain 17

JEANNETTE M. LOUTSCH; BRUNO SAINZ; MARY E. MARQUART; XIAODONG ZHENG; PRABAKARAN KESAVAN; SHIRO HIGAKI; JAMES M. HILL; RUTH TAL-SINGER

2001-01-01

317

A Deficiency of Herp, an Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Protein, Suppresses Atherosclerosis in ApoE Knockout Mice by Attenuating Inflammatory Responses  

PubMed Central

Herp was originally identified as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein in vascular endothelial cells. ER stress is induced in atherosclerotic lesions, but it is not known whether Herp plays any role in the development of atherosclerosis. To address this question, we generated Herp- and apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice (Herp?/?; apoE?/? mice) by crossbreeding Herp?/? mice and apoE?/? mice. Herp was expressed in the endothelial cells and medial smooth muscle cells of the aorta, as well as in a subset of macrophages in the atherosclerotic lesions in apoE?/? mice, while there was no expression of Herp in the Herp?/?; apoE?/? mice. The doubly deficient mice developed significantly fewer atherosclerotic lesions than the apoE?/? mice at 36 and 72 weeks of age, whereas the plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were not significantly different between the strains. The plasma levels of non-esterified fatty acids were significantly lower in the Herp?/?; apoE?/? mice when they were eight and 16 weeks old. The gene expression levels of ER stress response proteins (GRP78 and CHOP) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1) in the aorta were significantly lower in Herp?/?; apoE?/? mice than in apoE?/? mice, suggesting that Herp mediated ER stress-induced inflammation. In fact, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Herp-deficient mice and RAW264.7 macrophages in which Herp was eliminated with a siRNA expressed lower levels of mRNA for inflammatory cytokines when they were treated with tunicamycin. Herp deficiency affected the major mediators of the unfolded protein response, including IRE1 and PERK, but not ATF6. These findings suggest that a deficiency of Herp suppressed the development of atherosclerosis by attenuating the ER stress-induced inflammatory reactions.

Shinozaki, Shohei; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Kokame, Koichi; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Eiji; Shimokado, Kentaro

2013-01-01

318

Bowenoid papulosis at the site of prior herpes progenitalis.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old dentist came to the authors' attention for papular and vegetating lesions that had appeared on his penile shaft over the last 2 months. The lesions differed in their features: pink and vegetating on the left side, brown and papular on the right side (Figure 1). The obvious clinical diagnoses of genital warts on the left and Bowenoid papulosis on the right were confirmed by punch biopsies, which showed epithelial hyperplasia with diffuse cell vacuolization (koilocytes)in the left biopsy and moderate nuclear dysplasia in the right one (Figure 2). Human papillomavirus phenotyping was not performed. Interestingly, the patient reported a clear medical history of herpes progenital is (only one episode) that had involved the right side of his glans and prepuce 4 years ago. An immunomodulating treatment with imiquimod was started in the attempt to cure both the genital warts and Bowenoid papulosis lesions (imiquimod was applied three times a week for 8 weeks). At the end of the treatment, the genital warts had disappeared, whereas many Bowenoid papulosis lesions were still present on the right side of the penis (Figure 3). Treated with liquid nitrogen as well, the Bowenoid papulosis lesions disappeared. PMID:15538089

Ruocco, Eleonora; Cutrě, Francesco Tripodi; Baroni, Adone

2004-01-01

319

Interferon, antibody, and other host factors in herpes zoster  

PubMed Central

The influence of several factors on the course of herpes zoster was studied in 151 patients. Dissemination of zoster was associated with the presence of a concurrent disease, especially Hodgkin's disease, and/or the use of immunosuppressive therapy. Several host-immune parameters, including quantitative immunoglobulins, circulating lymphocyte counts, delayed hypersensitivity to multiple skin test antigens, and lymphocyte transformation to phytohemagglutinin did not correlate with dissemination of disease. Development of virus-specific complement-fixing antibody (CFA) was delayed in some patients with disseminated disease. Vesicle interferon (V-IF) titers were low early in the disease in patients with localized and disseminated zoster and then rose, usually abruptly, to a peak value and declined as pustulation and crusting occurred. However, titers in patients with localized disease rose at an earlier time. This could be seen in terms of time to development of intermediate values of V-IF or by the day on which the sharpest rise occurred. In 15 carefully studied patients with disseminated disease, the development of the maximum V-IF response was followed within 48 hr by cessation of dissemination. Half of the patients in this group had no CFA detectable until after dissemination had ceased. These findings suggest at least two host factors whose interaction might determine host response to zoster; local interferon production (possibly mediated by sensitized lymphocytes) and humoral antibody, acting to prevent or shorten dissemination of an initially local disease.

Stevens, David A.; Merigan, Thomas C.

1972-01-01

320

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: Disease Spectrum in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To establish the clinical profile of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) in adults younger than 40 years and correlate the clinical manifestation with their immune status. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients younger than 40 years who presented with HZO. Data were collected on demographics, medical history, clinical presentation, results of serological investigations, and visual outcome. Results: The study cohort comprised 18 subjects with a mean age of 29.7 ± 6.2 years. Ophthalmic features included lid edema, ptosis, cicatricial lid deformities, sclerokeratitis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, neuroparalytic keratitis, keratouveitis with concomitant glaucoma, secondary bacterial keratitis and superficial punctate keratitis with dry eye, optic neuritis, and trochlear nerve palsy. Eight of 18 (44.4%) subjects were found to be positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Disseminated herpetic lesions were seen present in 5 (63%) of these 8 subjects. Postherpetic neuralgia was noted in 6 (75%) of 8 HIV-positive subjects and in 1 HIV-negative patient. Final visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 90% of the immunocompetent subjects and 20/200 or worse in 100% of the HIV-positive subjects. Conclusions: Immunocompetent young adults do present with features of HZO. However, the disease spectrum in HIV-negative patients is localized, less severe, and more amenable to therapy as compared with young adults with HIV.

Gupta, Noopur; Sachdev, Ritika; Sinha, Rajesh; Titiyal, Jeewan S.; Tandon, Radhika

2011-01-01

321

Isotopic response, Köbner phenomenon and Renbök phenomenon following herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Linear skin diseases may follow Blaschko's lines, Langer's relaxed skin tension lines or head zones (dermatomes), thus indicating an embryogenic, hematogenic or neuronal aspect in their pathogenesis. Köbner phenomenon describes the eruption of an inflammatory skin disease following mechanical alteration of the skin. Renbök phenomenon describes an area of non-involvement in an otherwise generalized skin disease. Wolf's isotopic response may be understood as a special subtype of Köbner phenomenon, in which one skin disease triggers a second one. Pathogenically unrelated skin diseases may follow a zosteriform distribution, if they are linked to a preceding herpes zoster by Köbner phenomenon, Renbök phenomenon or an isotopic response. We report three instructive patients diagnosed with Wegener's granulomatosis, cutaneous graft-versus-host disease and lichen planus, whose skin manifestations were following or sparing a zosteriform distribution pattern. Köbner phenomenon, Renbök phenomenon or Wolf's isotopic response may link pathogenically unrelated skin diseases to a zosteriform pattern, which may present diagnostic difficulties even for dermatologists. PMID:21933259

Kroth, Julia; Tischer, Johanna; Samtleben, Walter; Weiss, Carolin; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wollenberg, Andreas

2011-11-01

322

Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide.

Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

323

Delayed hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus: murine model.  

PubMed Central

Cell-mediated immunity has been shown to be clinically important in recovery from herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. To investigate the role of delayed hypersensitivity (DH) in immunity and protection against HSV, we developed a murine model using the ear-swelling assay. Mice were infected subcutaneously with HSV-1 and ear-challenged, and the swelling was quantified. Significant ear swelling was detected by 3 to 4 days postinfection and peaked at 6 days. The kinetics of development of ear swelling were typical of DH: maximal swelling occurred 24 h post challenge and was diminished by 48 h, and the cellular infiltrate was predominantly mononuclear. Four-hour swelling, indicative of antibody-mediated, immediate-type hypersensitivity, was not detected until 15 days post immunization. The DH response was virus specific and could be transferred to normal recipients with lymph node T cells, but not with B cells or immune serum. This system will provide a useful model for evaluating the protective role of DH in HSV infection and for studying the specificity and interaction of T cells which mediate the response.

Schrier, R D; Pizer, L I; Moorhead, J W

1982-01-01

324

Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

2009-03-01

325

Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA  

SciTech Connect

Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions. HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed.

Danovich, R.M.; Frenkel, N.

1988-08-01

326

Herpes simplex type 1 ribonucleotide reductase. Mechanism studies with inhibitors.  

PubMed

Several known inhibitors of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase were studied for their interactions with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ribonucleotide reductase. MAIQ (4-methyl-5-amino-1-formylisoquinoline thiosemicarbazone) produced apparent inactivation of HSV-1 ribonucleotide reductase. Only catalytically cycling, not resting, enzyme could be inactivated. Double reciprocal replots of the rates of inactivation versus the concentration of MAIQ indicated that a reversible complex with the enzyme was formed prior to inactivation. In the presence of 10 microM CDP, the maximum rate of inactivation was 20 per h (t1/2 = 3 min). The half-maximum rate was achieved at about 15 microM MAIQ. INOX (periodate-oxidized inosine) also appeared to inactivate HSV-1 ribonucleotide reductase. In contrast to MAIQ, it readily inactivated resting as well as cycling enzyme. CDP retarded the rates of inactivation by INOX. An initial reversible complex between INOX and enzyme was not detectable under the conditions used. IMPY (2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo(2,3-a)imidazole) and guanazole (3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole) produced reversible inhibition. Although the data with both inhibitors were most consistent with the noncompetitive inhibition model (versus CDP), the data with guanazole were also marginally consistent with the uncompetitive model. PMID:2991215

Spector, T; Jones, T E

1985-07-25

327

Effect of centrifugation on herpes simplex virus isolation.  

PubMed

The effects of high-speed centrifugation on the isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were studied. Aliquots of laboratory or clinical specimens were inoculated into test tubes and flat-bottomed tubes containing HEp2 monolayers. Test tubes were incubated at 35 degrees C on roller drums (standard method), and flat-bottomed tubes were centrifuged at 15,000g at 35 degrees C for 1 hr, before being incubated at 35 degrees C without rolling (centrifuged method). Centrifugation of clinical and laboratory specimens of HSV type 1 and HSV type 2 produced significantly increased isolation rates compared with the standard method. When clinical and laboratory specimens were diluted, the centrifuged method was more sensitive at all dilutions. When 20 specimens were used for end-point titrations, the centrifuged method was 10 times more sensitive for 15 specimens and 100 times more sensitive for five specimens. There was no difference in the time taken for the appearance of cytopathic effect (CPE) between the standard and centrifuged methods. PMID:6278068

Darougar, S; Gibson, J A; Thaker, U

1981-01-01

328

Regulation of cellular genes transduced by herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies demonstrated that the rabbit beta-globin gene is transcribed from its own promoter and regulated as a herpes simplex virus (HSV) early gene following insertion into the early HSV thymidine kinase gene in the intact viral genome (J. R. Smiley, C. Smibert, and R. D. Everrett, J. Virol. 61:2368-2377, 1987). We report here that the beta-globin promoter remained under early control after insertion into the late HSV gene encoding glycoprotein C. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that the beta-globin promoter is functionally equivalent to an HSV early-control region. We found that a transduced human alpha-globin gene was also regulated as an early HSV gene, while two linked Alu elements mimicked the behavior of HSV late genes. These results demonstrate that certain aspects of HSV temporal regulation can be duplicated by cellular elements and provide strong support for the hypothesis that the regulation of HSV gene expression can occur through mechanisms that do not rely on recognition of virus-specific temporal control signals. Images

Panning, B; Smiley, J R

1989-01-01

329

Tranylcypromine reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection in mice.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the human population and establishes latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. Latent virus can undergo reactivation to cause recurrent infection. Both primary and recurrent infections can cause devastating diseases, including encephalitis and corneal blindness. Acyclovir is used to treat patients, but virus resistance to acyclovir is frequently reported. Recent in vitro findings reveal that pretreatment of cells with tranylcypromine (TCP), a drug widely used in the clinic to treat neurological disorders, restrains HSV-1 gene transcription by inhibiting the histone-modifying enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1. The present study was designed to examine the anti-HSV-1 efficacy of TCP in vivo because of the paucity of reports on this issue. Using the murine model, we found that TCP decreased the severity of wild-type-virus-induced encephalitis and corneal blindness, infection with the acyclovir-resistant (thymidine kinase-negative) HSV-1 mutant, and tissue viral loads. Additionally, TCP blocked in vivo viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglia. These results support the therapeutic potential of TCP for controlling HSV-1 infection. PMID:24590478

Yao, Hui-Wen; Lin, Pin-Hung; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Hsu, Sheng-Min; Chen, Shun-Hua

2014-05-01

330

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus vectors for cancer virotherapy.  

PubMed

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors are emerging as an effective and powerful therapeutic approach for cancer. Replication-competent HSV-1 vectors with mutations in genes that affect viral replication, neuropathogenicity, and immune evasiveness have been developed and tested for their safety and efficacy in a variety of mouse models. Evidence to-date following administration into the brain attests to their safety, an important observation in light of the neuropathogenicity of the virus. Phase I clinical traits of three vectors, G207, 1716, and NV1020, are either ongoing or completed, with no adverse events attributed to the virus. These and other HSV-1 vectors are effective against a myriad of solid tumors in mice, including glioma, melanoma, breast, prostate, colon, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer. Enhancement of activity was observed when HSV-1 vectors were used in combination with traditional therapies such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, providing an attractive strategy to pursue in the clinic. Oncolytic HSV-1 vectors expressing "suicide" genes (thymidine kinase, cytosine deaminase, rat cytochrome P450) or immunostimulatory genes (IL-12, GM-CSF, etc.) have been constructed to maximize tumor destruction through multimodal therapeutic mechanisms. Further advances in virus delivery and tumor specificity should improve the likelihood for successful translation to the clinic. PMID:12522436

Varghese, Susan; Rabkin, Samuel D

2002-12-01

331

Simian TRIM5? Proteins Reduce Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

Old World monkey TRIM5? proteins are known to block the replication of human immunodeficiency virus and other retroviruses in a species-specific fashion. In this report, we show that specific forms of simian TRIM5? proteins can restrict herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. To define the effect of TRIM5? on HSV replication, we examined HSV infection in HeLa cell lines that stably express simian and human orthologs of TRIM5? proteins. We demonstrated that several simian TRIM5? proteins can restrict HSV replication, with the TRIM5? protein of rhesus macaques showing the strongest inhibition of HSV infection. We also found that the level of the inhibition of virus replication was viral strain-specific. TRIM5? is likely to inhibit HSV at the early stage of infection; however, at later times of infection, the levels of TRIM5? are significantly decreased. Thus, some TRIM5? proteins exhibit antiviral effects that extend beyond retroviral infections, but HSV may be able to reduce this restriction by reducing TRIM5? levels during the later phases of virus replication. Our results also argue that TRIM5? is only part of the reduced level of HSV replication in rhesus macaques, which are known to be less susceptible to HSV infection than other primates.

Reszka, Natalia; Zhou, Changhong; Song, Byeongwoon; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Knipe, David M.

2010-01-01

332

Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection Impacts Stress Granule Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Interference with stress granule (SG) accumulation is gaining increased appreciation as a common strategy used by diverse viruses to facilitate their replication and to cope with translational arrest. Here, we examined the impact of infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) on SG accumulation by monitoring the localization of the SG components T cell internal antigen 1 (TIA-1), Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Our results indicate that SGs do not accumulate in HSV-2-infected cells and that HSV-2 can interfere with arsenite-induced SG accumulation early after infection. Surprisingly, SG accumulation was inhibited despite increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), implying that HSV-2 encodes previously unrecognized activities designed to maintain translation initiation downstream of eIF2?. SG accumulation was not inhibited in HSV-2-infected cells treated with pateamine A, an inducer that works independently of eIF2? phosphorylation. The SGs that accumulated following pateamine A treatment of infected cells contained G3BP and PABP but were largely devoid of TIA-1. We also identified novel nuclear structures containing TIA-1 that form late in infection. These structures contain the RNA binding protein 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68) and were noticeably absent in infected cells treated with inhibitors of viral DNA replication, suggesting that they arise as a result of late events in the virus replicative cycle.

Finnen, Renee L.; Pangka, Kyle R.

2012-01-01

333

Initiation of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase polypeptides.  

PubMed Central

When employed as a transgene reporter, the herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) thymidine kinase gene (tk) is ectopically expressed in mouse testis. The principal testicular mRNA lacks the 5'-end of the tk reading frame. As a result the principal translation products, P2 and P3, are N-terminally truncated. These co-migrate in SDS-PAGE with polypeptides synthesised during HSV1 infection that were previously thought to be initiated at methionine codons ATG46 and ATG60. Prompted by these observations we generated modified tk genes each carrying only one of the first three ATG codons. Transfected cells expressed both full-length enzyme (P1) and P2 when only ATG1 was unmodified, P2 and P3 when only ATG46 was unmodified or P2 and a fourth polypeptide (P4) when only ATG60 was unmodified. Our observations indicate that P3 is initiated at ATG46 rather than ATG60, while P2 is initiated at a non-ATG codon rather than ATG46 and P4 is initiated at ATG60. When either of two putative non-ATG initiation codons was modified P2 was no longer produced. Cells mainly expressing either P1 or P3 exhibited the same sensitivity to Ganciclovir as cells transfected with the unaltered tk gene. P1 and P3 both have TK activity while P4 probably has none.

Ellison, A R; Bishop, J O

1996-01-01

334

Herpes simplex primo-infection in an immunocompetent host with eosinophilic esophagitis.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic esophagitis and herpes simplex esophagitis are separately well-described entities, but their simultaneous occurrence may pose a special challenge to the clinician, especially regarding the optimal therapeutic approach. The following case report describes a patient with a history of cow's milk and dairy products intolerance, but without an underlying immunologic defect, in whom eosinophilic esophagitis was diagnosed in the course of primary herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) infection that clinically presented as herpes labialis and severe esophagitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction from cytological brush and by immunohistochemical staining that detected the presence of HSV1 DNA in esophageal mucosa, and histologically by persistent eosinophil-predominant inflammation, typical of eosinophilic esophagitis. Despite severe clinical presentation, the HSV1 infection was self-limited. After a directed elimination diet was introduced, the clinical course was favorable, without the need for antiviral therapy. PMID:23782375

Žaja Franulovi?, Orjena; Lesar, Tatjana; Busic, Nikolina; Tešovi?, Goran

2013-06-01

335

Fatal herpes simplex infection in a pygmy African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).  

PubMed

An adult pygmy African hedgehog developed acute posterior paresis attributed to a prolapsed intervertebral disc diagnosed by C-T scan. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in prompt resolution of the ataxia, but 2 weeks later the animal became anorexic and died. Macroscopically, the liver was stippled with punctate off-white foci which were confirmed microscopically to be foci of necrosis. Numerous hepatocytes contained intranuclear inclusions and syncytial cell formation was also present. A herpes virus was isolated and identified by fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction studies as herpesvirus simplex type 1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of herpes infection in the African hedgehog and the first time herpes simplex has been identified as a cause of disease in insectivores. PMID:11814325

Allison, N; Chang, T C; Steele, K E; Hilliard, J K

2002-01-01

336

Latency of Herpes Simplex Virus in Absence of Neutralizing Antibody: Model for Reactivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mice inoculated with herpes simplex virus (type 1) by the lip or corneal route and then passively immunized with rabbit antibody to herpes simplex virus developed a latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia within 96 hours. Neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus was cleared from the circulation and could not be detected in most of these mice after 2 months. Examination of ganglia from the antibody-negative mice revealed latent virus in over 90 percent of the animals, indicating that serum neutralizing antibody is not necessary to maintain the latent state. When the lips or corneas of these mice were traumatized, viral reactivation occurred in up to 90 percent of the mice, as demonstrated by the appearance of neutralizing antibody. This study provides a model for identifying factors that trigger viral reactivation.

Sekizawa, Tsuyoshi; Openshaw, Harry; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis

1980-11-01

337

Chromosomal mosaicism in a pregnant woman treated with acyclovir for herpes simplex encephalitis.  

PubMed

At 17th week of pregnancy, a 28-year-old woman was diagnosed as having herpes simplex encephalitis and treated with intravenous acyclovir. Follow-up by the serial ultrasound examinations, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was found. During the course of disease, cordocentesis was performed to evaluate the risk of the disease and the infant's chromosomal constitution. No herpes simplex virus infection on cord blood sample was observed; however, chromosomal analysis revealed: 46,XX/47,XX,+2/47,XX,+11/47,XX,+19/48,XX,+11. After termination of pregnancy, the fetus was found as having ventricular septum defect. The presence of the triploid cell lines mocaicism involving chromosome 2 and 19 were confirmed by the analysis of fetal skin tissues. No attributable finding to herpes simplex virus infection and acyclovir treatment was found, and the presence of the triploid cell lines mocaicism were appeared to be purely coincidental. PMID:11444361

Aktas, D; Tuncbilek, E; Onderoglu, L

2001-06-01

338

The epidemiology of herpes zoster and potential cost-effectiveness of vaccination in England and Wales.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) was quantified from a variety of data sources and the potential cost-effectiveness of vaccination assessed. The annual incidence and severity of zoster increases sharply with age, as measured by physician consultation and hospitalisation rates, average length of stay, average proportion of cases developing PHN and the age-specific case-fatality ratio. Combining these data with information on health related quality of life results in an estimated loss of 20000 quality adjusted life years (QALYs) annually in England and Wales from herpes zoster (17400 due to PHN). The current cost of treating herpes zoster associated disease is estimated to be 47.6m pounds annually. Since both the health and economic burden are high, vaccination of the elderly is expected to be cost-effective under most scenarios, the attractiveness of immunisation increasing with age due to the increased burden of disease in the very elderly. PMID:11312002

Edmunds, W J; Brisson, M; Rose, J D

2001-04-30

339

Solenopsis invicta virus 3: mapping of structural proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, and similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus.  

PubMed

Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV), an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order. PMID:24686475

Valles, Steven M; Bell, Susanne; Firth, Andrew E

2014-01-01

340

Study of antiviral and virucidal activities of aqueous extract of Baccharis articulata against Herpes suis virus.  

PubMed

Baccharis articulata is native of América and traditionally used for the treatment of digestive disorders and urinary infections. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of B. articulata was investigated in Vero cells. As the maximal non cytotoxic concentration has been established, this concentration has been used to evaluate antiviral and virucidal activities against Herpes suis virus type 1, member of the same subfamily of Herpes simplex virus. Aqueous extracts of B. articulata exhibited more than 95% of virucidal activity. These findings support their potential application as a disinfectant or antiseptic with low toxicity and provide a valuable knowledge to ethnopharmacology properties of Baccharis articulata. PMID:21834241

Torres, Cristina Vanesa; Domínguez, María Julia; Carbonari, José Luis; Sabini, María Carola; Sabini, Liliana Inés; Zanon, Silvia Matilde

2011-07-01

341

A prospective study of the psychological impact on patients with a first episode of genital herpes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To assess the psychological impact of first episode of genital herpes, and to determine whether this changes over time. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--The Departments of Genitourinary Medicine (GUM), and Dermatology, Middlesex Hospital London. The study group consisted of patients attending the department of GUM with a clinically proven first episode of genital herpes. Two control groups were recruited; firstly patients without herpes attending the GUM Department and secondly patients attending the Dermatology Department out patients with chronic dermatoses. METHODS--Patients and controls completed an 87 item, self-administered psychological questionnaire at 3 monthly intervals for a year. The questionnaire consisted of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ); the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (HADQ); Illness Attitude Scales and Illness Concern. Patients were also asked questions about their sexual behaviour. RESULTS--Ninety one patients (68 women, 23 men) with genital herpes, 61 GUM controls (42 women, 19 men) and 56 dermatology controls (36 women, 20 men) participated. There were no statistically significant demographic differences between patients and controls. At first visit the proportion of patients classified as "cases" by the GHQ (GHQ cases) were similar for primary herpes patients 62% (56/91) and Dermatology controls 52% (29/56) while a significantly smaller proportion of GUM controls 34% (21/61) were classified as GHQ cases. The primary herpes group were significantly more concerned about their illness than either the GUM controls or the Dermatology controls (p < 0.002). The proportion of primary herpes patients classified as "cases" by the GHQ reduced significantly over the initial three month period with 67% of patients classified as "cases" at their first visit becoming "noncases" after three months (p < 0.0001). Also 50% of those classified as "cases" at first visit by the HADQ become "noncases" after the initial three months (p = 0.007). The illness concern scores also decreased significantly from visit one to visit two (means 14.7 vs. 12.3; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION--The diagnosis of a first episode of genital herpes has a profound emotional effect on patients. If they do not have recurrent episodes, their emotional state improves. For those who do have recurrences, the level of anxiety and concern remains as high as at the time of their first diagnosis. Clinicians must be sensitive to the emotional impact such a diagnosis may bring.

Carney, O; Ross, E; Bunker, C; Ikkos, G; Mindel, A

1994-01-01

342

Role of débridement and trifluridine (trifluorothymidine) in herpes simplex dendritic keratitis.  

PubMed

Thirty-four patients with herpes simplex dendritic keratitis were randomized into three treatment categories: Group A had débridement alone; group B, trifluridine (trifluorothymidine) alone; and group C, débridement and trifluridine. Patients treated with débridement alone had a statistically higher failure rate than did the other two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed between trifluridine treatment alone and débridement combined with trifluridine treatment, with regard to healing time. Our results suggest that débridement alone is suboptimal therapy for herpes simplex dendritic keratitis and that débridement combined with trifluridine appears to offer no advantage over trifluridine alone. PMID:3922338

Parlato, C J; Cohen, E J; Sakauye, C M; Dreizen, N G; Galentine, P G; Laibson, P R

1985-05-01

343

Epigallocatechin gallate inactivates clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

In the absence of a fully effective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine, topical microbicides represent an important strategy for preventing HSV transmission. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (molecular weight, 458.4) is the primary catechin in green tea. The present study shows that EGCG has greater anti-HSV activity than other green tea catechins and inactivates multiple clinical isolates of HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. EGCG reduced HSV-2 titers by >or=1,000-fold in 10 to 20 min and reduced HSV-1 titers by the same amount in 30 to 40 min. The anti-HSV activity of EGCG is due to a direct effect on the virion, and incubating Vero and CV1 cells with EGCG for 48 h prior to infection with HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively, does not reduce HSV production. Electron microscopic (EM) studies showed that purified virions exposed to EGCG were damaged, and EM immunogold labeling of the envelope glycoproteins gB and gD was significantly reduced following EGCG treatment while capsid protein labeling was unchanged. When purified HSV-1 envelope glycoproteins gB and gD were incubated with EGCG and then examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, lower-molecular-weight gB and gD bands decreased and new higher-molecular-weight bands appeared, indicating the EGCG-dependent production of macromolecular complexes. gB and gD are essential for HSV infectivity, and these results suggest that EGCG could inactivate HSV virions by binding to gB, gD, or another envelope glycoprotein. EGCG is stable in the pH range found in the vagina and appears to be a promising candidate for use in a microbicide to reduce HSV transmission. PMID:18195068

Isaacs, Charles E; Wen, Guang Y; Xu, Weimin; Jia, Jun Hua; Rohan, Lisa; Corbo, Christopher; Di Maggio, Vincenzo; Jenkins, Edmund C; Hillier, Sharon

2008-03-01

344

Epigallocatechin Gallate Inactivates Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus?  

PubMed Central

In the absence of a fully effective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine, topical microbicides represent an important strategy for preventing HSV transmission. (?)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (molecular weight, 458.4) is the primary catechin in green tea. The present study shows that EGCG has greater anti-HSV activity than other green tea catechins and inactivates multiple clinical isolates of HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. EGCG reduced HSV-2 titers by ?1,000-fold in 10 to 20 min and reduced HSV-1 titers by the same amount in 30 to 40 min. The anti-HSV activity of EGCG is due to a direct effect on the virion, and incubating Vero and CV1 cells with EGCG for 48 h prior to infection with HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively, does not reduce HSV production. Electron microscopic (EM) studies showed that purified virions exposed to EGCG were damaged, and EM immunogold labeling of the envelope glycoproteins gB and gD was significantly reduced following EGCG treatment while capsid protein labeling was unchanged. When purified HSV-1 envelope glycoproteins gB and gD were incubated with EGCG and then examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, lower-molecular-weight gB and gD bands decreased and new higher-molecular-weight bands appeared, indicating the EGCG-dependent production of macromolecular complexes. gB and gD are essential for HSV infectivity, and these results suggest that EGCG could inactivate HSV virions by binding to gB, gD, or another envelope glycoprotein. EGCG is stable in the pH range found in the vagina and appears to be a promising candidate for use in a microbicide to reduce HSV transmission.

Isaacs, Charles E.; Wen, Guang Y.; Xu, Weimin; Jia, Jun Hua; Rohan, Lisa; Corbo, Christopher; Di Maggio, Vincenzo; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Hillier, Sharon

2008-01-01

345

Digallate dimers of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inactivate herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Topical microbicides are potentially an alternative method to vaccines for reducing the spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV). We have previously shown (S. Liu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1723:270-281, 2005) that the catechin (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inactivates HSV at neutral pH; however, to function in the female genital tract EGCG must also be effective at acidic pH. EGCG inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 at pH 8.0 by 3 log(10) to 4 log(10) but was ineffective at pH 5.7. The EGCG digallate dimers theasinensin A, P2, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3) inactivated both viruses by 3 log(10) to 4 log(10) at pH 5.7 and as much as 5 log(10) at pH 8.0. TF-3 inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 by 4 to 5 log(10) in the pH range of 4.0 to 5.7. Dimers with one gallate moiety had antiviral activity intermediate between the activities of EGCG and digallate dimers. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that theasinensin A did not damage Vero cells. All EGCG dimers inactivated enveloped viruses with class I, class II, and class III (HSV-1, HSV-2) fusion proteins more effectively than did monomeric EGCG. EGCG had no activity against the nonenveloped viruses tested, but TF-3 reduced the titer of 4 of 5 nonenveloped viruses by ?2 to 3.5 log(10). Results also showed that HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was aggregated more rapidly by theasinensin A than EGCG, which, when taken together with the nonenveloped virus data, suggests that dimers may inhibit the function of viral proteins required for infectivity. Digallate dimers of EGCG appear to have excellent potential as microbicidal agents against HSV at acidic and neutral pHs. PMID:21947401

Isaacs, Charles E; Xu, Weimin; Merz, George; Hillier, Sharon; Rohan, Lisa; Wen, Guang Y

2011-12-01

346

Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C  

SciTech Connect

Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

1987-01-27

347

Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus  

SciTech Connect

Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

1988-01-01

348

Targeted oncolytic herpes simplex viruses for aggressive cancers.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a well-known vector that is often used for gene therapy to treat cancers. The most attractive feature of HSV is its ability to destroy tumors through a distinctive oncolytic mechanism where the virus can destroy cancer cells via cell lysis, a killing function that no anti-cancer drugs can mimic. Importantly, HSV is a safe and effective virus that can be easily manipulated to preferentially replicate in tumor cells. In the last 20 years of reengineering efforts, a number of HSV designs, including the classical G207, have been focused on deleting viral genes in order to render the virus tumor specific. Although such designs can successfully destroy tumor xenografts in animal models, with minimal impact on normal tissues, a common trade-off is the marked attenuation of the virus. This problem is most profound in many clinical tumors, where virus dissemination is often hindered by the difficult cellular and molecular terrain of the human tumor mass. In order to harness all of HSV's replication potential to destroy tumor cells, efforts in our lab, as well as others, last several years have been focused on engineering an oncolytic HSV to target tumor cells without deleting any viral genes, and have since generated highly tumor specific viruses including our transcriptional translational dually regulated HSV (TTDR-HSV). In this review, we will discuss the improvements associated with the newer TTDR-HSV design compared to the classical defective HSV designs such as G207 and tk- HSV. Lastly, we will review additional cellular features of aggressive tumors, such as their immense cellular heterogeneity and volatility, which may serve to hinder the dissemintation of TTDR-HSV. The challenge for future studies would be to explore how TTDRHSV could be redesigned and/or employed with combinatorial approaches to better target and destroy the heterogeneous and dynamic cell populations in the aggressive tumor mass. PMID:21740360

Wong, Jennifer; Lee, Cleo; Zhang, Kevin; Rennie, Paul S; Jia, William

2012-07-01

349

Oncolytic virus therapy using genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) are promising therapeutic agents for cancer. They can replicate in situ, spread, and exhibit oncolytic activity via a direct cytocidal effect. In addition, oncolytic HSV-1 can transfer and express foreign genes in host cells. The phase I clinical study with G207, a double-mutated HSV-1, in recurrent malignant glioma patients has shown that oncolytic HSV-1 can be safely administered into human brains. The therapeutic benefits of oncolytic HSV-1 depend on the extent of both intratumoral viral replication and induction of host antitumor immune responses. We develop new-generation oncolytic HSV-1 by enhancing these properties while retaining the safety features. G47delta was created from G207 by introducing another genetic mutation. Compared with G207, G47delta showed 1) better stimulation of human antitumor immune cells, 2) better growth properties leading to higher virus yields and increased cytopathic effect in vitro, 3) better antitumor efficacy in both immuno-competent and -incompetent animals, and 4) preserved safety in the brain of HSV-1-sensitive mice. Preparation is under way for a clinical trial using G47delta in progressive glioblastoma patients. G47delta is also suited as a backbone vector for expressing foreign molecules. Using bacterial artificial chromosome and two DNA recombinases, we have created an "armed" oncolytic HSV-1 generation system that allows insertion of transgene(s) into the genome of G47delta in a rapid and accurate manner. We found that expression of immunostimulatory molecules can significantly enhance the antitumor efficacy of G47delta. Based on these advances, we anticipate that oncolytic virus therapy using oncolytic HSV-1 will soon be established as an important modality of cancer treatment. PMID:17981691

Todo, Tomoki

2008-01-01

350

Hypoxia enhances the replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Hypoxia contributes to the resistance of tumors to conventional therapies. We hypothesized that their replication in hypoxic environments like brain or oral mucosa would make oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) such as G207 (which has undergone clinical trials) replicate to a greater extent in hypoxic tumors like glioblastoma. Hypoxic cultured U87 cells yielded 4% more wild-type HSV (P = 0.04) and 3.6-fold more G207 (P = 0.001) after 48 hours of infection when compared with normoxic cells. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed a fivefold hypoxia-induced U87 upregulation of GADD34 mRNA, a factor complementing the gamma34.5 gene deletion in G207. The viral yield under conditions of hypoxia, as against normoxia, in GADD34 siRNA-treated U87 cells was 65% of that in control siRNA-treated cells. Treating subcutaneous U87 tumors in athymic mice with erythropoietin lowered the tumoral hypoxic fraction from 57.5 to 24.5%. Tumoral hypoxia dropped to 2.5% during 4 hours/day of hyperbaric chamber treatment. Each tumor-oxygenating maneuver reduced the G207 yield fourfold (P = 0.0001). Oncolytic HSV G207 exhibited enhanced replication in hypoxic environments, partly on account of increased GADD34 expression in hypoxic cells. The unique tropism of oncolytic HSVs for hypoxic environments contrasts with the hypoxia-mediated impairment of standard (radiation, chemotherapy) and other experimental therapies, and enhances HSV's appeal and efficacy in treating tumors like glioblastoma. PMID:18957963

Aghi, Manish K; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Rabkin, Samuel; Martuza, Robert L

2009-01-01

351

Hypoxia Enhances the Replication of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia contributes to the resistance of tumors to conventional therapies. We hypothesized that their replication in hypoxic environments like brain or oral mucosa would make oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) such as G207 (which has undergone clinical trials) replicate to a greater extent in hypoxic tumors like glioblastoma. Hypoxic cultured U87 cells yielded 4% more wild-type HSV (P = 0.04) and 3.6-fold more G207 (P = 0.001) after 48 hours of infection when compared with normoxic cells. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed a fivefold hypoxia-induced U87 upregulation of GADD34 mRNA, a factor complementing the ?34.5 gene deletion in G207. The viral yield under conditions of hypoxia, as against normoxia, in GADD34 siRNA-treated U87 cells was 65% of that in control siRNA-treated cells. Treating subcutaneous U87 tumors in athymic mice with erythropoietin lowered the tumoral hypoxic fraction from 57.5 to 24.5%. Tumoral hypoxia dropped to 2.5% during 4 hours/day of hyperbaric chamber treatment. Each tumor-oxygenating maneuver reduced the G207 yield fourfold (P = 0.0001). Oncolytic HSV G207 exhibited enhanced replication in hypoxic environments, partly on account of increased GADD34 expression in hypoxic cells. The unique tropism of oncolytic HSVs for hypoxic environments contrasts with the hypoxia-mediated impairment of standard (radiation, chemotherapy) and other experimental therapies, and enhances HSV's appeal and efficacy in treating tumors like glioblastoma.

Aghi, Manish K; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Rabkin, Samuel; Martuza, Robert L

2008-01-01

352

Digallate Dimers of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Inactivate Herpes Simplex Virus ?  

PubMed Central

Topical microbicides are potentially an alternative method to vaccines for reducing the spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV). We have previously shown (S. Liu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1723:270–281, 2005) that the catechin (?)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inactivates HSV at neutral pH; however, to function in the female genital tract EGCG must also be effective at acidic pH. EGCG inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 at pH 8.0 by 3 log10 to 4 log10 but was ineffective at pH 5.7. The EGCG digallate dimers theasinensin A, P2, and theaflavin-3,3?-digallate (TF-3) inactivated both viruses by 3 log10 to 4 log10 at pH 5.7 and as much as 5 log10 at pH 8.0. TF-3 inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 by 4 to 5 log10 in the pH range of 4.0 to 5.7. Dimers with one gallate moiety had antiviral activity intermediate between the activities of EGCG and digallate dimers. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that theasinensin A did not damage Vero cells. All EGCG dimers inactivated enveloped viruses with class I, class II, and class III (HSV-1, HSV-2) fusion proteins more effectively than did monomeric EGCG. EGCG had no activity against the nonenveloped viruses tested, but TF-3 reduced the titer of 4 of 5 nonenveloped viruses by ?2 to 3.5 log10. Results also showed that HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was aggregated more rapidly by theasinensin A than EGCG, which, when taken together with the nonenveloped virus data, suggests that dimers may inhibit the function of viral proteins required for infectivity. Digallate dimers of EGCG appear to have excellent potential as microbicidal agents against HSV at acidic and neutral pHs.

Isaacs, Charles E.; Xu, Weimin; Merz, George; Hillier, Sharon; Rohan, Lisa; Wen, Guang Y.

2011-01-01

353

Concurrent chemotherapy inhibits Herpes simplex virus 1 replication and oncolysis  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication in cancer cells leads to their destruction (viral oncolysis) and has been under investigation as an experimental cancer therapy in clinical trials as single agents, and as combinations with chemotherapy. Cellular responses to chemotherapy modulate viral replication, but these interactions are poorly understood. To investigate the effect of chemotherapy on HSV-1 oncolysis, viral replication in cells exposed to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan (CPT-11), methotrexate (MTX) or a cytokine (TNF-?) was examined. Exposure of colon and pancreatic cancer cells to 5-FU, CPT-11, or MTX in vitro significantly antagonizes both HSV-1 replication and lytic oncolysis. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation is required for efficient viral replication, and experimental inhibition of this response with an I?B? dominant-negative repressor significantly antagonizes HSV-1 replication. Nonetheless cells exposed to 5-FU, CPT-11, TNF-? or HSV-1 activate NF-?B. Cells exposed to MTX do not activate NF-?B, suggesting a possible role for NF-?B inhibition in the decreased viral replication observed following exposure to MTX. The role of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2?) dephosphorylation was examined; HSV-1 mediated eIF-2? dephosphorylation proceeds normally in HT29 cells exposed to 5-FU-, CPT-11-, or MTX. This report demonstrates that cellular responses to chemotherapeutic agents provide an unfavorable environment for HSV-1-mediated oncolysis, and these observations are relevant to the design of both preclinical and clinical studies of HSV-1 oncolysis.

Kulu, Yakup; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Donahue, James M.; Kasuya, Hideki; Cusack, James C.; Choi, Enid W.; Kuruppu, Darshini K.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.

2013-01-01

354

Inhibition of multiplication of herpes simplex virus by caffeic acid.  

PubMed

Hot water extracts of coffee grinds and commercial instant coffee solutions have been shown to exhibit marked antiviral and virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Specifically, it has been shown that caffeine and N-methyl-pyridinium formate inhibit the multiplication of HSV-1 in HEp-2 cells. The present study examined the virological properties and the antiviral activity of caffeic acid against HSV-1. Caffeic acid inhibited the multiplication of HSV-1 in vitro, while chlorogenic acid, a caffeic acid ester with quinic acid, did not. These reagents did not have a direct virucidal effect. The one-step growth curve of HSV-1 showed that the addition of caffeic acid at 8 h post infection (h p.i.) did not significantly affect the formation of progeny viruses. An analysis of the influence of the time of caffeic acid addition, revealed that addition at an early time post infection remarkably inhibited the formation of progeny infectious virus in the infected cells, but its addition after 6 h p.i. (i.e., the time of the completion of viral genome replication) did not efficiently inhibit this process. These results indicate that caffeic acid inhibits HSV-1 multiplication mainly before the completion of viral DNA replication, but not thereafter. Although caffeic acid showed some cytotoxicity by prolonged incubation, the observed antiviral activity is likely not the secondary result of the cytotoxic effect of the reagent, because the inhibition of the virus multiplication was observed before appearance of the notable cytotoxicity. PMID:21725588

Ikeda, Keiko; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Uozaki, Misao; Nishide, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Yukiko; Koyama, A Hajime; Yamasaki, Hisashi

2011-10-01

355

Herpes Zoster--Eye Complications: Rates and Trends  

PubMed Central

Purpose To provide population based data on the risk, types and outcomes of eye involvement in herpes zoster (HZ). Methods A cohort study based on medical record review of patients diagnosed with HZ between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2007. HZ was confirmed by typical rash and symptoms or laboratory testing and eye involvement was confirmed by ophthalmologists’ evaluation. Information was collected on all eye diagnoses, all HZ eye related visits, treatments, procedures and outcomes. Results Of the 2035 individuals with HZ in any dermatome, 184 patients (9.0%) had eye involvement. Mean age of the 184 was 62.6 with 5 cases in patients <21. Overall, 6.5% were immune suppressed at the time of the eye complications. The rate of increase of HZ eye involvement was 23% by decade from 1980 to 2007. Common eye complications were keratitis (76.2%), uveitis/iritis (46.6%) and conjunctivitis (35.4%). Recurrent keratitis and recurrent iritis/uveitis occurred in 6.9% and 7.4% respectively. Outcomes included six (3.3%) patients with new vision decrements to 20/200 or worse. Two individuals had successful corneal transplants. Another six (3.3%) individuals had lid ptosis that affected vision including one elderly woman with a permanent unilateral tarsorrhaphy. Severe HZ eye pain was reported to be directly responsible for one unsuccessful suicide attempt. No one developed ARN. A mean of 10.8 HZ eye visits per HZ patient with eye involvement were reported over a mean of 308 days. Conclusion Eye complications are common, result in significant health care utilization and in permanent vision decrement in about 6.6% of individuals with HZ eye involvement. Most health care utilization and long term adverse outcomes were in patients in whom administration of HZ prevention with the zoster vaccine would be possible.

Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter M.; St Sauver, Jennifer L.; Butterfield, Linda C.

2013-01-01

356

Intact Microtubules Support Adenovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Capsids and the enclosed DNA of adenoviruses, including the species C viruses adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) and Ad5, and herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), are targeted to the nuclei of epithelial, endothelial, fibroblastic, and neuronal cells. Cytoplasmic transport of fluorophore-tagged Ad2 and immunologically detected HSV-1 capsids required intact microtubules and the microtubule-dependent minus-end-directed motor complex dynein-dynactin. A recent study with epithelial cells suggested that Ad5 was transported to the nucleus and expressed its genes independently of a microtubule network. To clarify the mechanisms by which Ad2 and, as an independent control, HSV-1 were targeted to the nucleus, we treated epithelial cells with nocodazole (NOC) to depolymerize microtubules and measured viral gene expression at different times and multiplicities of infections. Our results indicate that in NOC-treated cells, viral transgene expression was significantly reduced at up to 48 h postinfection (p.i.). A quantitative analysis of subcellular capsid localization indicated that NOC blocked the nuclear targeting of Ad2 and also HSV-1 by more than 90% at up to 7 h p.i. About 10% of the incoming Texas Red-coupled Ad2 (Ad2-TR) was enriched at the nucleus in microtubule-depleted cells at 5 h p.i. This result is consistent with earlier observations that Ad2-TR capsids move randomly in NOC-treated cells at less than 0.1 ?m/s and over distances of less than 5 ?m, characteristic of Brownian motion. We conclude that fluorophore-tagged Ad2 and HSV-1 particles are infectious and that microtubules play a prominent role in efficient nuclear targeting during entry and gene expression of species C Ads and HSV-1.

Mabit, Helene; Nakano, Michel Y.; Prank, Ute; Saam, Bianca; Dohner, Katinka; Sodeik, Beate; Greber, Urs F.

2002-01-01

357

Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.  

PubMed

We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia. PMID:24436451

Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

2014-07-15

358

Functional Interaction between Class II Histone Deacetylases and ICP0 of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the physical and functional interactions between ICP0 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4, 5, and 7. Class II HDACs are mainly known for their partici- pation in the control of cell differentiation through the regulation of the activity of the transcription factor MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2), implicated in muscle

Patrick Lomonte; Joelle Thomas; Pascale Texier; Cecile Caron; Saadi Khochbin; Alberto L. Epstein

2004-01-01

359

Herpes Simplex Virus Dances with Amyloid Precursor Protein while Exiting the Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1) replicates in epithelial cells and secondarily enters local sensory neuronal processes, traveling retrograde to the neuronal nucleus to enter latency. Upon reawakening newly synthesized viral particles travel anterograde back to the epithelial cells of the lip, causing the recurrent cold sore. HSV1 co-purifies with amyloid precursor protein (APP), a cellular transmembrane glycoprotein and receptor for

Shi-Bin Cheng; Paulette Ferland; Paul Webster; Elaine L. Bearer; Thomas Schulz

2011-01-01

360

Infantile Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Diagnostic Features and Differentiation from Non-accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory.Methods: Screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Oxford for HSV polymerase

J. Kurtz; P. Anslow

2003-01-01

361

Dynamics of herpes simplex virus capsid maturation visualized by time-lapse cryo-electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capsid of the herpes simplex virus initially assembles as a procapsid that matures through a massive conformational change of its 182 MDa surface shell. This transition, which stabilizes the fragile procapsid, is facilitated by the viral protease that releases the interaction between the shell and the underlying scaffold; however, protease-deficient procapsids mature slowly in vitro. To study procapsid maturation

J. Bernard Heymann; Naiqian Cheng; William W. Newcomb; Benes L. Trus; Jay C. Brown; Alasdair C. Steven

2003-01-01

362

The effects of vaccination in an age-dependent model for varicella and herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for the infectious diseases varicella and herpes zoster, more commonly known as chickenpox and shingles. The United States Food and Drug Administration recently approved a VZV vaccine for use in children to prevent chickenpox. The VZV vaccine was tested in Japan, Korea, and the United States, and these extensive experimental investigations led to final

Linda J. S. Allen; David B. Thrasher

1998-01-01

363

351. Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy of a Cytokine Expressing Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Against Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncolytic herpes viruses that are currently in the forefront of novel therapeutic strategies exhibit a bimodal antitumoral effect, with direct cytolytic activity and an in situ vaccination effect, whereby virus destruction of tumors activate the host to mount a specific antitumoral immune response. This latter effect is especially relevant considering that many cancers, including, cancer of the prostate, have developed

Susan Varghese; Samuel D. Rabkin; Wenzheng Wang; Robert L. Martuza

2004-01-01

364

Influence of herpes simplex virus infection on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in monkey kidney cells  

SciTech Connect

Current research in our laboratory is designed to investigate the intracellular interactions of BP with oncogenic DNA viruses of animals and humans. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether BP is metabolized in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected cells and whether HSV-2 infection affects intracellular levels of the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system necessary for BP metabolism.

Degenhardt, J.H.; Whitcomb, B.; Hall, M.R.

1984-01-01

365

Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug  

SciTech Connect

A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel.

Price, R.

1984-12-18

366

Amino-terminal sequence of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus is a structural component of the virion envelope which stimulates production of high titers of herpes simplex virus type-common neutralizing antibody. The authors caried out automated N-terminal amino acid sequencing studies on radiolabeled preparations of gD-1 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 1) and gD-2 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 2). Although some differences were noted, particularly in the methionine and alanine profiles for gD-1 and gD-2, the amino acid sequence of a number of the first 30 residues of the amino terminus of gD-1 and gD-2 appears to be quite similar. For both proteins, the first residue is a lysine. When we compared out sequence data for gD-1 with those predicted by nucleic acid sequencing, the two sequences could be aligned (with one exception) starting at residue 26 (lysine) of the predicted sequence. Thus, the first 25 amino acids of the predicted sequence are absent from the polypeptides isolated from infected cells.

Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Hogue-Angeletti, R.; Cohen, G.H.

1984-01-01

367

Divergence and Recombination of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and is one of the most common sexually transmitted viruses. Here we sequenced a segment comprising 3.5% of the HSV-2 genome, including genes coding for glycoproteins G, I, and E, from 27 clinical isolates from Tanzania, 10 isolates from Norway, and 10 isolates from Sweden. The sequence variation was low

Peter Norberg; Mabula J. Kasubi; Lars Haarr; Tomas Bergstrom; Jan-Ĺke Liljeqvist

2007-01-01

368

Two paths for dissemination of Herpes simplex virus from infected trigeminal ganglion to the murine cornea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) was introduced into the mouse trigeminal ganglion by stereotaxic injection. We examined the form in which the virus was transported anterograde within axons and the spread of virus to glial and endoneurial cells of the nerve using EM immunocytochemistry. Our results indicate that viral dissemination in the trigeminal nerve may occur both within the

Peter T. Ohara; Andrew N. Tauscher; Jennifer H. LaVail

2001-01-01

369

Axonal Transport and Sorting of Herpes Simplex Virus Components in a Mature Mouse Visual System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time course for delivery and transport of two major proteins of herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been determined for mature mouse retinal ganglion cell axons in vivo. Twenty-four hours after intravitreal injection of HSV, valacyclovir was introduced into the drinking water of the mice to inhibit subsequent viral replication. Without treatment, viral spread and replication in periaxonal glial cells

Jennifer H. LaVail; Andrew N. Tauscher; Elda Aghaian; Ons Harrabi; Sukhvinder S. Sidhu

2003-01-01

370

Genetic and Molecular In Vivo Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus Assembly in Murine Visual System Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infects both epithelial cells and neuronal cells of the human host. Although HSV assembly has been studied extensively for cultured epithelial and neuronal cells, cultured neurons are bio- chemically, physiologically, and anatomically significantly different than mature neurons in vivo. Therefore, it is imperative that viral maturation and assembly be studied in vivo. To study viral assembly

Jennifer H. LaVail; Andrew N. Tauscher; James W. Hicks; Ons Harrabi; Gregory T. Melroe; David M. Knipe

2005-01-01

371

Viral regulation of the long distance axonal transport of herpes simplex virus nucleocapsid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many membranous organelles and protein complexes are normally transported anterograde within axons to the presynaptic terminal, and details of the motors, adaptors and cargoes have received significant attention. Much less is known about the transport in neurons of non-membrane bound particles, such as mRNAs and their associated proteins. We propose that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) can be used

J. H. LaVail; A. N. Tauscher; A. Sucher; O. Harrabi; R. Brandimarti

2007-01-01

372

Docosanol: new drug. Herpes labialis: barely more effective than an excipient.  

PubMed

(1) Herpes is a contagious, recurrent viral infection of the skin and mucous membranes. In immunocompetent patients the recurrences can be troublesome but they heal spontaneously. Management is mainly based on lifestyle measures. Local application of an antiviral drug such as aciclovir has modest effects. It reduces healing time by about 2 days provided treatment is started as soon as the first symptoms appear; (2) Docosanol, a fatty alcohol, was recently authorized in France for treatment of episodes of herpes labialis; (3) A trial in 474 patients showed no tangible difference between docosanol and 5% aciclovir in reducing healing time; (4) Clinical evaluation also includes two trials versus an excipient (polyethylene glycol) including 370 and 373 patients. The median healing time was reduced by less than a day; (5) In these trials, the adverse effects of docosanol were similar to those of the excipients. In particular, docosanol cream contains excipients that can provoke allergic reactions; (6) In practice, docosanol cream is barely or no more effective than an excipient in treating acute episodes of herpes labialis. Lifestyle measures are still the cornerstone of herpes management. PMID:19637417

2009-06-01

373

The effect of sorivudine on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in patients with acute herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Bromovinyl-uracil (BVU) is the principal metabolite of sorivudine, a potent anti-zoster nucleoside. BVU binds to, and irreversibly inhibits, the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). The objective of this study was to assess the time course of recovery of DPD activity after oral administration of sorivudine in patients with herpes zoster and to correlate restoration of DPD activity and levels of

Jieming Yan; Stephen K. Tyring; Monica M. McCrary; Patricia C. Lee; Stephen Haworth; Ralph Raymond; Steven J. Olsen; Robert B. Diasio

1997-01-01

374

Clinical evaluation of enzyme immunoassay in rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To evaluate the performance of antigen detection by IDEIA (NovoNordisk Ltd) in the rapid diagnosis of potentially serious herpes simplex (HSV) infections. METHODS: Nine hundred and twelve specimens from a variety of clinical sites, including ocular, mucocutaneous, respiratory and genital material, urines and necropsy tissue, were compared by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and conventional culture for the presence of HSV.

M Sillis

1992-01-01

375

The Immune Response to Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent microbial pathogen infecting 60% to 90% of the adult world population. The co-evolution of the virus with humans is due, in part, to adaptations that the virus has evolved to aid it in escaping im- mune surveillance, including the establishment of a latent in- fection in its human host. A latent

DANIEL J. J. CARR; PETER HÄRLE; BRYAN M. GEBHARDT

2001-01-01

376

Utilization of Microsatellite Polymorphism for Differentiating Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 152 kpb. It is divided into long and short regions of unique sequences termed UL and US, respectively, and these are flanked by regions of inverted internal and terminal repeats. Microsatellites are short tandem repeats of 1- to 6-nucleotide motifs; they are often highly variable and

C. Deback; D. Boutolleau; C. Depienne; C. E. Luyt; P. Bonnafous; A. Gautheret-Dejean; I. Garrigue; H. Agut

2009-01-01

377

Chronic active herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis in an asymptomatic immunocompetent child.  

PubMed

A unique form of chronic, active, granulomatous herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis is described in an asymptomatic, immunocompetent 8-year-old girl who acquired the virus as a neonate. The extensive, bilateral cerebral parenchymal involvement was discovered incidentally. Diagnosis was confirmed by a combination of serial neuroimaging, brain biopsy, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeted to DNA sequences in the glycoprotein G gene, allowing differentiation between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. The clinical course over a 5-year period, treatment with intermittent intravenous steroids, and daily valacyclovir, diagnostic imaging, and laboratory studies are reviewed in detail. This form of herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis hasn't been described previously and is significant because of its prolonged indolent course, absence of neurological findings or suggestive history, and benign behavior in this child, who is now 14 years old. The authors believe this entity can be unsuspected and underdiagnosed in the general pediatric population, especially in those with a prior maternal history of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. PMID:20179002

Brown, William D; Bearer, Elaine L; Donahue, John E

2010-07-01

378

Respiratory herpes simplex virus type 1 infection\\/colonisation in the critically ill: marker or mediator?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The clinical significance and pulmonary pathogenicity of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients are unclear. Objective: To determine the clinical features and course of respiratory HSV-1 infections\\/colonisations in the critically ill, in order to evaluate the contribution to outcome. Design: A retrospective cohort study in the intensive care unit of an university hospital,

Jan-Willem van den Brink; Alberdina M. Simoons-Smit; Albertus Beishuizen; Armand R. J. Girbes; Rob J. M. Strack van Schijndel; A. B. Johan Groeneveld

2004-01-01

379

Persistence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 DNA in Chronic Conjunctival and Eyelid Lesions of Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes chronic blepharitis and conjunctivitis as well as keratitis in humans. The pathogenesis of these inflammatory ocular and dermal lesions is not well understood. We have examined the persistence of HSV-1 DNA and its relationship to inflammatory lesions in the conjunctiva and eyelid skin of mice which were inoculated with HSV-1 by the corneal

DAVID J. MAGGS; ED CHANG; MARK P. NASISSE; WILLIAM J. MITCHELL

380

Diverse Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase Mutants in Individual Human Neurons and Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the thymidine kinase gene (tk) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) explain most cases of virus resistance to acyclovir (ACV) treatment. Mucocutaneous lesions of patients with ACV resistance contain mixed populations of tk mutant and wild-type virus. However, it is unknown whether human ganglia also contain mixed populations since the replication of HSV tk mutants in animal

Kening Wang; Gowtham Mahalingam; Susan E. Hoover; Erik K. Mont; Steven M. Holland; Jeffrey I. Cohen; Stephen E. Straus

2007-01-01

381

Neutralizing Antibodies Inhibit Axonal Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 to Epidermal Cells In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of antibodies to interfere with anterograde transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from neuronal axons to the epidermis was investigated in an in vitro model consisting of human fetal dorsal root ganglia innervating autologous skin explants in a dual-chamber tissue culture system. The number and size of viral cytopathic plaques in epidermal cells after axonal transmission from HSV

ZORKA MIKLOSKA; PIETRO PAOLO SANNA; ANTHONY L. CUNNINGHAM

382

Comparative Evaluation of Colorimetric Microtiter Plate Systems for Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, application of the PCR to the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with encephalitis and meningitis has become standard laboratory practice. However, from an operational perspective, the true diagnostic value of PCR in this setting is yet to be realized because most laboratories subject the amplification products

YI-WEI TANG; PAUL N. RYS; BARBARA J. RUTLEDGE; P. SHAWN MITCHELL; THOMAS F. SMITH; DAVID H. PERSING

1998-01-01

383

Disseminated tuberculosis, pulmonary aspergillosis and cutaneous herpes simplex infection in a patient with infliximab and methotrexate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case presentation Despite chemoprophylaxis with isoniazid a 58-year-old Creole patient with mild rheumatoid arthritis developed disseminated tuberculosis, pulmonary aspergillosis and cutaneous herpes simplex infection during treatment with infliximab and methotrexate. Treatment The patient received antituberculous drugs (ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin), amphotericin B, flucytosine, and valaciclovir, along with prolonged intensive care treatment and mechanical ventilation. Conclusions The present case confirms that

J. M. van der Klooster; R. J. Bosman; H. M. Oudemans-van Straaten; J. I. van der Spoel; J. P. J. Wester; D. F. Zandstra

2003-01-01

384

Noninvasive Bioluminescence Imaging of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection and Therapy in Living Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse models of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provide significant insights into viral and host genes that regulate disease pathogenesis, but conventional methods to determine the full extent of viral spread and replication typically require the sacrifice of infected animals. To develop a noninvasive method for detecting HSV-1 in living mice, we used a strain KOS HSV-1 recombinant

Gary D. Luker; J. Patrick Bardill; Julie L. Prior; Christina M. Pica; David Piwnica-Worms; David A. Leib

2002-01-01

385

Interferons Regulate the Phenotype of Wild-type and Mutant Herpes Simplex Viruses In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mechanisms responsible for neuroattenuation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been defined previously by studies of mutant viruses in cultured cells. The hypothesis that null mutations in host genes can override the attenuated phenotype of null mutations in certain viral genes was tested. Mutants such as those in infected cell protein (ICP) 0, thymidine kinase, ribonucleotide reductase, virion host

David A. Leib; Travis E. Harrison; Kathleen M. Laslo; Michael A. Machalek; Nathaniel J. Moorman; Herbert W. Virgin

386

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus vector with enhanced MHC class I presentation and tumor cell killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors are promising therapeutic agents for cancer. Their efficacy depends on the extent of both intratumoral viral replication and induction of a host antitumor immune response. To enhance these properties while employing ample safeguards, two conditionally replicating HSV-1 vectors, termed G47 and R47, have been constructed by deleting the 47 gene and the

Tomoki Todo; Robert L. Martuza; Samuel D. Rabkin; Paul A. Johnson

2001-01-01

387

Effect of Chemotherapy-Induced DNA Repair on Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viral Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gliomas treated with the alkylating agent temo- zolomide have incomplete responses in part because of tumoral repair of chemotherapy-induced DNA damage. Data from phase I trials suggest that G207, an oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) with mutated ribonucleotide reductase (RR) and ? 34.5 genes, is safe but needs greater viral oncolysis to be effec- tive. We hypothesized that temozolomide

Manish Aghi; Samuel Rabkin; Robert L. Martuza

388

Herpes Nodules in the Lung of the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach, 1797).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lymphoid nodules associated with Cowdry Type A intranuclear inclusions in epithelial and syncytial cells were found in the lungs of 74% of 50 African elephants in the Kruger National Park. Subsequent studies proved these were caused by a herpes virus. The...

R. M. McCully P. A. Basson J. G. Pienaar B. J. Erasmus E. Young

1971-01-01

389

Methylation of the Viral Genome in an in vitro Model of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro model of latency of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in a lymphoid cell line has been developed recently. CEM cells persistently infected with HSV-1 transiently ceased to produce virus for 24 days. This nonproductive state could either be reversed with phytohemagglutinin or maintained with concanavalin A. This system was used to study the relationship between DNA

Hagop Youssoufian; Scott M. Hammer; Martin S. Hirsch; Carel Mulder

1982-01-01

390

Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: Epidemiology of 11 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients.

B. Bourdarias; G. Perro; M. Cutillas; J. C. Castede; M. E. Lafon; R. Sanchez

1996-01-01

391

Induction and Prevention of Apoptosis in Human HEp2 Cells by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured human epithelial cells infected with an ICP27 deletion strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) show characteristic features of apoptotic cells including cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation. These cells do not show such apoptotic features when infected with a wild-type virus unless the infections are performed in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor. Thus, both

MARTINE AUBERT; JOHN A. BLAHO; Mount Sinai

1999-01-01

392

Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.

Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

2013-01-01

393

Herpes Simplex Virus Downregulates Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor: a Novel Immune Evasion Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an anti-inflammatory mediator of mucosal immunity, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cell culture. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that higher concentrations of SLPI in mucosal secretions are associated with a reduced risk of HIV transmission. The current studies were designed to test the hypothesis that HSV triggers a loss of SLPI

Esra Fakioglu; Sarah S. Wilson; Pedro M. M. Mesquita; Ehsan Hazrati; Natalia Cheshenko; John A. Blaho; Betsy C. Herold

2008-01-01

394

Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Attachment of Herpes Simplex Virus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antiherpetic agents, since the herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. Methods: An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis as well as phenolic extract compounds, i.e. caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against

Akram Astani; Jürgen Reichling; Paul Schnitzler

2012-01-01

395

Specific cell-mediated immunity and infections with herpes viruses in cardiac transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Immune responses and infections with herpes viruses were studied prospectively in 36 cardiac transplant recipients. Specific lymphocyte transformation and interferon production in response to viral antigens, viral culture results, antibody levels, responses to phytohemagglutinin, and T-cell numbers were determined. Responses to phytohemagglutinin and T-cell numbers were depressed for six to 12 weeks. Cytomegalovirus infection occurred in 100 percent of seropositive patients and in 62 percent of seronegative patients. Primary infection was more frequently symptomatic. Heart implantation from a seropositive patient wwas significantly correlated with subsequent infection in seronegative patients. Depression of transformation in response to cytomegalovirus correlated with prolonged shedding. Herpes simplex infection occurred in 95 percent of seropositive patients but decreased after 12 weeks. Asymptomatic shedding was rare, and primary infection did not occur. Return of transformation in response to herpes simplex was associated with decreased infection. Herpes zoster occurred in 22 percent during the first year, and transformation responses to varicella-zoster returned thereafter. Depression of interferon production in response to viruses did not correlate with infection as well as did lymphocyte transformation. PMID:6291387

Pollard, R B; Arvin, A M; Gamberg, P; Rand, K H; Gallagher, J G; Merigan, T C

1982-11-01

396

Herp coordinates compartmentalization and recruitment of HRD1 and misfolded proteins for ERAD  

PubMed Central

A functional unfolded protein response (UPR) is essential for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded secretory proteins, reflecting the fact that some level of UPR activation must exist under normal physiological conditions. A coordinator of the UPR and ERAD processes has long been sought. We previously showed that the PKR-like, ER-localized eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? kinase branch of the UPR is required for the recruitment of misfolded proteins and the ubiquitin ligase HRD1 to the ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), a staging ground for ERAD. Here we show that homocysteine-induced ER protein (Herp), a protein highly upregulated by this UPR branch, is responsible for this compartmentalization. Herp localizes to the ERQC, and our results suggest that it recruits HRD1, which targets to ERAD the substrate presented by the OS-9 lectin at the ERQC. Predicted overall structural similarity of Herp to the ubiquitin-proteasome shuttle hHR23, but including a transmembrane hairpin, suggests that Herp may function as a hub for membrane association of ERAD machinery components, a key organizer of the ERAD complex.

Leitman, Julia; Shenkman, Marina; Gofman, Yana; Shtern, Navit Ogen; Ben-Tal, Nir; Hendershot, Linda M.; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z.

2014-01-01

397

Chronic Granulomatous Herpes Encephalitis in a Child with Clinically Intractable Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Most patients with herpes simplex virus Type I encephalitis experience an acute, monophasic illness. Chronic encephalitis is much less common, and few late relapses are associated with intractable seizure disorders. A 10-year-old boy was admitted to our institution for intractable epilepsy as part of an evaluation for epilepsy surgery. His history was significant for herpes meningitis at age 4 months. At that time, he presented to an outside hospital with fever for three days, with acyclovir treatment beginning on day 4 of his 40-day hospital course. He later developed infantile spasms and ultimately a mixed seizure disorder. Video electroencephalogram showed a Lennox-Gastaut-type pattern with frequent right frontotemporal spikes. Imaging studies showed an abnormality in the right frontal operculum. Based on these findings, he underwent a right frontal lobectomy. Neuropathology demonstrated chronic granulomatous inflammation with focal necrosis and mineralizations. Scattered lymphocytes, microglial nodules and nonnecrotizing granulomas were present with multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry for herpes simplex virus showed focal immunoreactivity. After undergoing acyclovir therapy, he returned to baseline with decreased seizure frequency. This rare form of herpes encephalitis has only been reported in children, but the initial presentation of meningitis and the approximate 10-year-time interval in this case are unusual.

Hackney, James R.; Harrison, D. Keith; Rozzelle, Curtis; Kankirawatana, Suthida; Kankirawatana, Pongkiat; Palmer, Cheryl Ann

2012-01-01

398

Herpes-like virus infection in Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides): pathology, ultrastructure and molecular analysis.  

PubMed

A moribund juvenile Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) with skin lesions and ulceration was found in Dongting Lake, China. Pathologic examination, electron microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction of liver tissue revealed widely distributed necrotic lesions, sinusoidal dilatation, congestion and herpes-like virus particles. PMID:22247401

Pei, Chao; Lei, Xiao-Ying; Yuan, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Qing-Zhong; Zhang, Qi-Ya

2012-01-01

399

MIOCARDITIS VIRAL POR HERPES SIMPLE TIPO I: A PROPÓSITO DE UN CASO  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Up to now cases of viral myocarditis have not been described by herpes virus type I in groups eateries outside of the age neonatal. A case of a 2 year-old feminine input the one is reported which enters to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital the Children\\

Haylet Marin; María Cruces; Ramona Pardo; Angelo Sparano; Luis Maldonado

400

Is herpes zoster vaccine free for nurses or will we have to pay?  

PubMed

In her article on varicella zoster virus - chickenpox and shingles (CPD April 16), Dinah Gould writes that since September, a live attenuated vaccine (Zostavax) for herpes zoster has been offered to people in the UK aged 70-79. PMID:24779837

Piggott, Carol

2014-04-30

401

Inhibition of topoisomerase II by ICRF-193 prevents efficient replication of herpes simplex virus type 1.  

PubMed Central

Cellular topoisomerase II is specifically inactivated by the drug ICRF-193. This compound turns topoisomerase II into a closed clamp that is unable to cleave DNA. We have investigated the effects of this inhibitor on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1. We show that ICRF-193 at low multiplicities of infection dramatically inhibits viral DNA synthesis and the production of infectious virus. The inhibition is less efficient at high multiplicities of infection. In addition, inhibition of viral DNA synthesis was observed only when ICRF-193 was present during the first 4 h of the infectious cycle. The transient replication of plasmids containing a herpes simplex virus type 1 origin of DNA replication, oriS, was affected by ICRF-193 in the same way. In contrast, neither cellular DNA synthesis nor replication of plasmids containing a simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication was inhibited. The observed effect on herpes simplex virus DNA replication was not caused by a decreased transcription of replication genes inasmuch as the levels of UL8, UL9, UL29, and UL30 rmRNAs were unaffected by the drug. These results suggest that topoisomerase II plays a vital role during the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA. We speculate that topoisomerase II is involved in the decatenation of newly synthesized daughter molecules.

Hammarsten, O; Yao, X; Elias, P

1996-01-01

402

Sequence variation at a Bmy I\\/ Rsa I restriction site in ovine herpes virus 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA samples extracted from a bovine brain, one blood and one buffy coat sample from three cattle with malignant catarrhal fever, and from 47 samples of pooled sheep sera, were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for ovine herpes virus 2 (OHV-2). Confirmation of the specificity of the amplified DNA segment by restriction enzyme analysis with

A. M Masters; D. A Galvin; D. V Cousins

2003-01-01

403

A Rare Cause of Dysphagia in a Pregnant Woman:Herpes Simplex Esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) has rarely been reported in immunocompetent individuals. In a search of Medline until October 2012, we found only one case of HSE in a pregnant female. We present the first case of HSE in a healthy 36-year-old female at 27 weeks gestation who recovered without antiviral therapy.

Koubaa, Makram; Lahiani, Dorra; Maaloul, Imed; Makni, Saloua; Amouri, Ali; Marrakchi, Chakib; Hammami, Boussaima; Boudawara, Tahia; Tahri, Nabil; Ben Jemaa, Mounir

2013-01-01

404

Herpes Zoster Infections in SLE in a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia: Risk Factors and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Patients with SLE carry an increased risk of infection that account for 11–23% of all hospitalized patients and 50% of all SLE patients develop major infections during the course of their disease. Globally Herpes Zoster has been reported as the most frequent viral infection in SLE patients. We determined the clinical spectrum, disease sequelae and the risk factors associated with the development of Herpes Zoster in patients with SLE and their outcomes. Retrospective case control study of Herpes Zoster infections was done in SLE patients between 1982 and 2006. Cases were matched 1:2 to controls for age, race, sex and duration of follow up. Clinical features of the cases from the time of lupus diagnosis to the time of Zoster were compared to their respective controls over similar time periods. Thirty two SLE cases were compared to sixty four controls. Cases were more likely to have received cyclophosphamide (P = .0223) and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy (P = .0026), MMF (P < .02), had leucopenia (P = .0407) and hemolytic anemia (P = .0344). More cases than controls had lupus nephritis, cerebritis, thrombocytopenia but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The mean oral prednisolone dose and proportion of patients receiving immunosuppressives including pulse methylprednisolone therapy, IV Cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate was significantly higher in patients with active SLE compared to patients with SLE in remission at the time of Herpes Zoster (P < .05). Disseminated Zoster developed in patients with active SLE (7/9) compared to patients with SLE in remission (0/23). None of the patients had postherpetic neuralgia or bacterial super infection. Immunosuppressive medications were discontinued at the time of diagnosis of Zoster in 19 of 32 patients and all patients received antiviral medications.There were no permanent neurologic deficits or deaths. We conclude that Herpes Zoster infections occur at increased frequency among patients with SLE and carry significant morbidity. Immunosuppressive therapy and severe manifestations of lupus may be risk factors for the development of Herpes Zoster although not necessarily at the time of disease flare or immunosuppressive therapy. Our study suggests that although Herpes Zoster occurs frequently in patients with SLE, it has a relatively benign course.

Sayeeda, Afsar; Al Arfaj, Hussain; Khalil, Najma; Al Arfaj, A. S.

2010-01-01

405

Herpes Zoster Infections in SLE in a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia: Risk Factors and Outcomes.  

PubMed

Patients with SLE carry an increased risk of infection that account for 11-23% of all hospitalized patients and 50% of all SLE patients develop major infections during the course of their disease. Globally Herpes Zoster has been reported as the most frequent viral infection in SLE patients. We determined the clinical spectrum, disease sequelae and the risk factors associated with the development of Herpes Zoster in patients with SLE and their outcomes. Retrospective case control study of Herpes Zoster infections was done in SLE patients between 1982 and 2006. Cases were matched 1:2 to controls for age, race, sex and duration of follow up. Clinical features of the cases from the time of lupus diagnosis to the time of Zoster were compared to their respective controls over similar time periods. Thirty two SLE cases were compared to sixty four controls. Cases were more likely to have received cyclophosphamide (P = .0223) and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy (P = .0026), MMF (P < .02), had leucopenia (P = .0407) and hemolytic anemia (P = .0344). More cases than controls had lupus nephritis, cerebritis, thrombocytopenia but the differences did not reach statistical significance. The mean oral prednisolone dose and proportion of patients receiving immunosuppressives including pulse methylprednisolone therapy, IV Cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate was significantly higher in patients with active SLE compared to patients with SLE in remission at the time of Herpes Zoster (P < .05). Disseminated Zoster developed in patients with active SLE (7/9) compared to patients with SLE in remission (0/23). None of the patients had postherpetic neuralgia or bacterial super infection. Immunosuppressive medications were discontinued at the time of diagnosis of Zoster in 19 of 32 patients and all patients received antiviral medications.There were no permanent neurologic deficits or deaths. We conclude that Herpes Zoster infections occur at increased frequency among patients with SLE and carry significant morbidity. Immunosuppressive therapy and severe manifestations of lupus may be risk factors for the development of Herpes Zoster although not necessarily at the time of disease flare or immunosuppressive therapy. Our study suggests that although Herpes Zoster occurs frequently in patients with SLE, it has a relatively benign course. PMID:21152215

Sayeeda, Afsar; Al Arfaj, Hussain; Khalil, Najma; Al Arfaj, A S

2011-01-01

406

Exposure to herpes simplex virus type 1 and cognitive impairments in individuals with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naďve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes-specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations. PMID:22490995

Prasad, Konasale M; Watson, Annie M M; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

2012-11-01

407

The Effect of Pharmacist Intervention on Herpes Zoster Vaccination in Community Pharmacies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of community pharmacy-based interventions in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine. DESIGN Prospective intervention study with a pre-post design. SETTING Three independent community pharmacies in Tennessee. PATIENTS Patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated they were eligible for the vaccine and patients presenting to receive the vaccine at study sites. INTERVENTIONS Interventions initiated by pharmacists to promote the herpes zoster vaccine included a press release published in local newspapers, a flyer accompanying each prescription dispensed at participating pharmacies, and a personalized letter mailed to patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated they were eligible for the vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Comparison of vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine during the control period and intervention period and patients’ indication for their sources of education and influence in receiving the vaccine. RESULTS Vaccination rates increased from 0.37% (n=59/16121) during the control period to 1.20% (n=193/16062) during the intervention period (P<0.0001). Cochran-Armitage Trend analyses including the months before and after the interventions confirmed a significantly higher vaccination rate during the intervention month than other months analyzed. More patients indicated that they were educated about the herpes zoster vaccine by one of the pharmacist-driven interventions than by a physician, family/friend, or other source during the intervention period (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Also, more patients were influenced to receive the vaccination as a result of one of the pharmacist-driven interventions rather than a physician (P=0.0260) or other source (P<0.0001). No difference in the effectiveness of patient influence was found when the pharmacy interventions were compared with family/friends (P=0.1025). CONCLUSION The three pharmacist-driven interventions were effective in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine.

Wang, Junling; Ford, Lindsay J.; Wingate, La'Marcus; Uroza, Sarah Frank; Jaber, Nina; Smith, Cindy T.; Randolph, Richard; Lane, Steve; Foster, Stephan L.

2012-01-01

408

Secondary herpes simplex virus latent infection in transplanted ganglia.  

PubMed Central

Sensory ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) were transplanted beneath the renal capsule of syngeneic recipients, and the latent infection remaining was investigated. HSV latency-associated transcript (LAT) expression and reactivation of HSV after explant of transplanted dorsal root ganglia were monitored as markers of latency. Two to four weeks after transplantation, both indicated evidence of HSV latency in transplants. At those times, infectious virus was not detected in direct ganglion homogenates. In addition, viral antigen and infected cell polypeptide 4 RNA were not detected. Taken together, the results suggested that HSV latent infection rather than persistent infection was present in transplants. From these results, two explanations seemed possible: latency was maintained in transplanted neurons, or alternatively, latency developed after transplantation, in neurons not previously latently infected. The latter was considered putative secondary latency and was investigated in three ways. First, evidence of reactivation which might serve as a source for secondary latency was evaluated. Reactivation of HSV in transplants was evident from HSV antigen expression (52% of transplants) and the presence of cell-free virus (38% of transplants) 3 to 5 days after transplantation. Second, putative secondary latency was investigated in recipients immunized with HSV prior to receiving latently infected ganglia. Reactivation was not detected 3 to 5 days after transplantation in immunized recipients, and LAT expression was rare in these recipients after 3 to 4 weeks. Lastly, the possibility of secondary latency was investigated by comparing results obtained with standard HSV and with reactivation-defective thymidine kinase-negative (TK-) HSV. Defective reactivation of TK- HSV was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and by the inability to isolate infectious virus. Donor dorsal root ganglia latently infected with TK+ HSV showed many LAT-positive neurons 2 or more weeks after transplantation (average, 26 per transplant). However, LAT expression was undetectable or minimal > 2 weeks after transplantation in donor ganglia latently infected with TK- HSV (average, 0.2 per transplant). Impaired reactivation of TK- HSV-infected donor ganglia after transplantation, therefore, was correlated with subsequent limited LAT expression. From these results, the occurrence of secondary latency was concluded for ganglia latently infected with TK+ HSV and transplanted beneath the kidney capsule. In vivo reactivation in this transplant model may provide a more useful means to investigate HSV reactivation than in usual in vitro explant models and may complement other in vivo reactivation models. The occurrence of secondary latency was unique. The inhibition of secondary latency by the immune system may provide an avenue to evaluate immunological control of HSV latency. Images

Tenser, R B; Edris, W A; Gaydos, A; Hay, K A

1994-01-01

409

Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Cells Infected with Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

HEp-2 cells were pulse-labeled at different times after infection with herpes simplex virus, and nuclear ribonucleic acid (RNA) and cytoplasmic RNA were examined. The data showed the following: (i) Analysis by acrylamide gel electrophoresis of cytoplasmic RNA of cells infected at high multiplicities [80 to 200 plaque-forming units (PFU)/cell] revealed that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis falls to less than 10% of control (uninfected cell) values by 5 hr after infection. The synthesis of 4S RNA also declined but not as rapidly, and at its lowest level it was still 20% of control values. At lower multiplicities (20 PFU), the rate of inhibition was slower than at high multiplicities. However, at all multiplicities the rates of inhibition of 18S and 28S rRNA remained identical and higher than that of 4S RNA. (ii) Analysis of nuclear RNA of cells infected at high multiplicities by sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed that the synthesis and methylation of 45S rRNA precursor continued at a reduced but significant rate (ca. 30% of control values) at times after infection when no radioactive uridine was incorporated or could be chased into 28S and 18S rRNA. This indicates that the inhibition of rRNA synthesis after herpesvirus infection is a result of two processes: a decrease in the rate of synthesis of 45S RNA and a decrease in the rate of processing of that 45S RNA that is synthesized. (iii) Hybridization of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA of infected cells with herpesvirus DNA revealed that a significant proportion of the total viral RNA in the nucleus has a sedimentation coefficient of 50S or greater. The sedimentation coefficient of virus-specific RNA associated with cytoplasmic polyribosomes is smaller with a maximum at 16S to 20S, but there is some rapidly sedimenting RNA (> 28S) here too. (iv) Finally, there was leakage of low-molecular weight (4S) RNA from infected cells, the leakage being approximately three-fold that of uninfected cells by approximately 5 hr after infection.

Wagner, Edward K.; Roizman, Bernard

1969-01-01

410

Purification of the structural proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herpes simplex virus type-1 structural proteins were solubilized in formic acid and purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Purified proteins have been used to prepare monospecific polyclonal antibodies which neutralized virus infectivity in vitro.

G. R. Whittaker; D. M. Meredith

1990-01-01

411

A herpes-like virus infects a non-ostreid bivalve species: virus replication in Ruditapes philippinarum larvae.  

PubMed

Sporadic high mortalities were reported in June 1997 among hatchery-reared larval Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in a French commercial hatchery. Cellular abnormalities were observed in semi-thin sections in affected animals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of herpes-like virus particles in larvae. This is the first description of a herpes-like virus infection in larval R. philippinarum, a non-ostreid bivalve species. Virus particles were similar to other herpes-like viruses described from different oyster species with respect to ultrastructure and morphogenesis. Electron microscopic examination also demonstrated cells with condensed chromatin and extensive perinuclear fragmentation of chromatin. Like viruses infecting oysters, the herpes-like virus detected in clams may induce apoptosis in infected animals. PMID:11411639

Renault, T; Lipart, C; Arzul, I

2001-05-01

412

Different expression profiles of Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Intelectin (ITLN) and Purine nucleoside phosphorylase 5a (PNP 5a) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 and Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Intelectin (ITLN) and Purine nucleoside phosphorylase 5a (PNP5a) play important roles in innate immunity. In a previous study to identify differentially expressed immune-related genes, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) assay was used to characterize differentially expressed genes in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) infected with Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in which IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a were identified to be the three most significantly up-regulated genes (Xu et al., Archives of Virology, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-014-2011-9). In this study, the complete open reading frames (ORF) of IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a genes were cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNAs of the three genes contained an ORF of 597, 945 and 882 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 198, 314 and 293 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three genes shared high homology to other bony fish species including Zebrafish. Interestingly, the ITLN gene of crucian carp lacked a 10 aa peptide that was found in the C-terminal of other fish species. A real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to quantitatively examine their tissue distribution. We found that IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a were expressed at low levels in all of the tissues examined. To monitor the response of these genes to CyHV- 2 or Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) infection, we determined the expression level of IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a at different time points after infection in kidney. Significant up-regulation of IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a was only observed 72 h post-CyHV-2 injection (P < 0.01), whereas significant up-regulation was observed as early as 6 h after infection with A. hydrophila (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that host innate immune response to CyHV-2, at least in which IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a were involved, was slow in comparison to that induced by A. hydrophila. It suggested that CyHV-2 might suppress host innate response during early infection. The lack of a C-terminal peptide of crucian carp ITLN gene implied a possible functional difference of this gene during evolution, which merit further investigation. PMID:24636855

Podok, Patarida; Xu, Lijuan; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun

2014-05-01

413

Three genetic grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 variants identified from South African vineyards show high variability in their 5?UTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three genetic variants of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) were identified in vineyards of the Western Cape,\\u000a South Africa. The GLRaV-3 variants were identified by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) profiles generated from\\u000a a region amplified in ORF5. ORF5 sequence data confirmed the three genetic variant groups, and a specific SSCP profile was\\u000a assigned to each variant group. The results of

A. E. C. Jooste; H. J. Maree; D. U. Bellstedt; D. E. Goszczynski; G. Pietersen; J. T. Burger

2010-01-01

414

Effect of Prior Immunization on Induction of Cervical Cancer in Mice by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cervix produces premalignant and malignant lesions. In the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and Freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. It appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of cervical carcinoma.

Budd Wentz, W.; Heggie, Alfred D.; Anthony, Donald D.; Reagan, James W.

1983-12-01

415

Effect of Resiquimod 0.01% Gel on Lesion Healing and Viral Shedding When Applied to Genital Herpes Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resiquimod, a Toll-like receptor 7\\/8 agonist developed as a topical treatment to decrease recurrences of anogenital herpes, induces proinflammatory cytokines that may delay lesion healing. Adults with frequently recurring anogenital herpes were randomized within 24 h of onset of a recurrence to vehicle or resiquimod 0.01% gel two times per week for 3 weeks. Subjects underwent daily lesion assessments and

Kenneth H. Fife; Tze-Chiang Meng; Daron G. Ferris; Ping Liu

2008-01-01

416

Host strain-dependent difference in susceptibility in a rat model of herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is characterized by severe focal brain inflammation leading to substantial loss of nervous\\u000a tissue. The authors established a model of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV)-1-induced acute encephalitis in the rat by injecting into the whiskers’ area a virus strain isolated from\\u000a a fatal human HSE case. The model might resemble natural propagation of HSV-1 in

Biborka Bereczky-Veress; Olle Lidman; Farideh Sabri; Ivan Bednar; Fredrik Granath; Tomas Bergström; Christian Spenger; Alf Grandien; Tomas Olsson; Fredrik Piehl; Margarita Diez; Birgit Sköldenberg

2008-01-01

417

A herpes-like virus infects a non-ostreid bivalve species: virus replication in Ruditapes philippinarum larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sporadic high mortalities were reported in June 1997 among hatchery-reared larval Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in a French commercial hatchery. Cellular abnormalities were observed in semi-thin sections in affected animals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of herpes-like virus particles in larvae. This is the first description of a herpes-like virus infection in larval R. philippinarum, a non-ostreid bivalve species.

Tristan Renault; Cécile Lipart; Isabelle Arzul

2001-01-01

418

Comparison of safety, delivery, and efficacy of two oncolytic herpes viruses (G207 and NV1020) for peritoneal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

G207 and NV1020 are two replication-competent, multimutant oncolytic herpes simplex viruses evaluated in the current studies for their anticancer effects in the treatment of gastric cancer. Deletion of both ?134.5 genes and inactivation of ICP6 (ribonucleotide reductase) allows G207 to selectively replicate within tumor cells. NV1020 is another attenuated recombinant herpes virus with deletions of the HSV joint region, with

Joseph J Bennett; Keith A Delman; Bryan M Burt; Adam Mariotti; Sandeep Malhotra; Jonathan Zager; Henrik Petrowsky; Stephen Mastorides; Howard Federoff; Yuman Fong

2002-01-01

419

Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Vector G47# in Combination with Androgen Ablation for the Treatment of Human Prostate Adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The use of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 is a promising stategy for cancer treatment. We constructed herpes simplex virus type 1 vector G47D by deleting the a47 gene and the promoter region of US11 from G207. We now report studies demonstrating the potential of G47D as a therapeutic modality for prostate cancer in combination with androgen ablation.

Hiroshi Fukuhara; Robert L. Martuza; Samuel D. Rabkin; Yoshikazu Ito; Tomoki Todo

2005-01-01

420

Antiviral Activity of Obtained Extracts from Different Parts of Cupressus sempervirens against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s) The aim of this study was to search for new antiviral agents from herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts of C. semipervirens, C. semipervirens var. horizontalis and C. semipervirens cv. Cereiformis were used in experiments to test their influence on herpes viruses (HSV-1). Materials and Methods HeLa cells monolayers were infected with herpes viruses (HSV-1). Antiviral activity of the plant extracts

Seyed Ahmad Emami; Zahra Tayarani-Najaran; Masoud Sabouri Ghannad; Pezhman Khajeh Karamadini; Mehrangiz Khajeh Karamadini

421

Regulation of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in cells treated with a synergistic antiviral combination of alpha interferon and acyclovir.  

PubMed Central

Alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and acyclovir (ACV) are synergistic in their anti-herpes simplex virus activities. IFN-alpha treatment reduced the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) activity present in cells 6 h postinfection, while steady-state levels of TK mRNA remained at or above the amount in infected, untreated cells. The inhibition of TK production by IFN-alpha treatment appeared to be transient and translational, not transcriptional. Images

Taylor, J L; Tom, P; Guy, J; Selvarajan, R M; O'Brien, W J

1994-01-01

422

Regulation of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase in cells treated with a synergistic antiviral combination of alpha interferon and acyclovir.  

PubMed

Alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and acyclovir (ACV) are synergistic in their anti-herpes simplex virus activities. IFN-alpha treatment reduced the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) activity present in cells 6 h postinfection, while steady-state levels of TK mRNA remained at or above the amount in infected, untreated cells. The inhibition of TK production by IFN-alpha treatment appeared to be transient and translational, not transcriptional. PMID:8031058

Taylor, J L; Tom, P; Guy, J; Selvarajan, R M; O'Brien, W J

1994-04-01

423

Towards a Rational Design of an Asymptomatic Clinical Herpes Vaccine: The Old, the New, and the Unknown  

PubMed Central

The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and molecular immunology have stimulated creative efforts in controlling herpes infection and disease. However, before moving towards new vaccine strategy, it is necessary to answer two fundamental questions: (i) why past herpes vaccines have failed? (ii) Why the majority of HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., asymptomatic individuals) are naturally “protected” exhibiting few or no recurrent clinical disease, while other HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., symptomatic individuals) have frequent ocular, orofacial, and/or genital herpes clinical episodes? We recently discovered several discrete sets of HSV-1 symptomatic and asymptomatic epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from seropositive symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. These asymptomatic epitopes will provide a solid foundation for the development of novel herpes epitope-based vaccine strategy. Here we provide a brief overview of past clinical vaccine trials, outline current progress towards developing a new generation “asymptomatic” clinical herpes vaccines, and discuss future mucosal “asymptomatic” prime-boost vaccines that could optimize local protective immunity.

Alami Chentoufi, Aziz; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Yu, David M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2012-01-01

424

[Herpes Zoster and its prevention in Italy. Scientific consensus statement].  

PubMed

In this paper, an Italian group of experts presents a revision of the available data about epidemiology and prevention of Herpes Zoster (HZ). HZ is an acute viral diseases caused by the reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). HZ is characterized by neurological and dermatological symptoms with a dermatomeric localization. The reactivation of the virus from the latent status in the sensitive ganglia increases with age and failing cell mediated immunity. In Europe, more than 95% of adults presents antibodies against VZV. Incidence of HZ is similar all over the world, related to the age of the population: from 2-3/1000 persons/year in the age group 20 to 50 years to 5/1000 in the 60 years old, 6-7/1000 between 70 and 80 up to >1/100 in older than 80. In Italy, about 157,000 new cases of HZ are estimated every year with an incidence of 6.3/1000 persons/year mostly in older adults. Among the hospitalized cases, 60% are over 65 years of age. The more frequent and severe complication of HZ is post herpetic neuralgia (PHN), characterized by severe localized pain lasting at least 3 month after the beginning of the acute phase. The pain is responsible for a sharp decrease in the quality of life. In Europe, PHN is described in 2.6-27% of HZ cases. In Italy, data obtained by a network of General Practitioner show PHN in 20.6% of HZ patients, while 9.2% of the patients still presents PHN at 6 months. The more frequent localization is thoracic; when the virus reactivate at the level of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve most patients develop ocular complications. The clinical and therapeutical managements of HZ patients is difficult and the results are often poor. Prevention of HZ e PHN in the population over 50 years is possible using a live attenuated vaccine containing VZV (Oka/Merck strain, not less than 19.400 plaque forming units), available since 2006. Efficacy of anti-HZ vaccine was demonstrated in two large clinical trials that showed a 51% reduction in the incidence of HZ and a 61% decrease of the burden of illness. Incidence of PHN showed a reduction of 67% in immunized subjects. Long-term follow-up showed a persistence of the protection even if a decrease was noted in older subjects and with time. Effectiveness studies confirm the data of clinical trials and numerous pharmaco-economical evaluation show a favorable profile of HZ vaccine. The vaccine is recommended in USA, Canada and some European countries for people over 60. The expert group concluded that HZ and PHN represent an important clinical and Public Health problem in Italy and that the possibility to prevent them should be carefully evaluated. PMID:24770367

Franco, Elisabetta; Gabutti, Giovanni; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Stefano Valente, Marco Ercolani; Ferro, Antonio; Icardi, Giancarlo; Antonio Volpi, Marzia Lazzari; Maggi, Stefania; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Greco, Donato

2014-01-01

425

Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

1987-08-01

426

Herpes simplex virus infections in guinea pigs deficient in the fourth component of complement.  

PubMed Central

Separate groups of normal and C4-deficient guinea pigs were inoculated with herpes simplex virus by intradermal (i.d.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes. Virus infection, confirmed by clinical, virological, and serological criteria, did not last longer and was not more severe in C4-deficient guinea pigs than in normal guinea pigs. Serum C component levels were measured before, during, and after herpes simplex virus infection. In normal gruinea pigs there was no evidence for C4 utilization after either i.d. or i.p. inoculation. In both normal and C4-deficient guinea pigs, C1 and C3-9 levels remained unchanged in spite of i.d. or i.p. infection. These data suggested that C4 and the classical C pathway were not important for virus clearance.

Strunk, R C; John, T J; Sieber, O F

1977-01-01

427

Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with ?=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

2004-06-01

428

Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2006-07-01

429

Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions  

SciTech Connect

Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

1981-02-01

430

Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

1981-06-01

431

Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells  

SciTech Connect

The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.; Homa, F.L.; Levine, M.; Kelley, W.N.

1988-01-01

432

Activity of (+)-cyclaradine (Sch 31172) against herpes simplex virus in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed Central

(+)-Cyclaradine (Sch 31172) is the carbocyclic derivative of adenosine arabinoside (9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine). Because it is not deaminated by deaminase in serum, as is adenosine arabinoside, (+)-cyclaradine is about 2 to 5 times more active in vitro against herpes simplex virus. (+)-Cyclaradine has in vitro activity nearly equivalent to that of phosphonoformate but is significantly less active than acycloguanosine (acyclovir; ACV), trifluorothymidine, or 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine. The absolute ratios of in vitro activities are difficult to determine because of variability among virus strains, inoculum size, and dependence on the tissue culture cell line in which the comparative test is carried out. (+)-Cyclaradine is active against TK-, ACV-resistant mutants. In the guinea pig model of vaginal herpes simplex virus infection, (+)-cyclaradine is only slightly less active than ACV when both molecules are nearly equivalently bioavailable; thus, the large difference in activity seen in vitro is not reflected in this in vivo model system.

Schwartz, J; Ostrander, M; Butkiewicz, N J; Lieberman, M; Lin, C; Lim, J; Miller, G H

1987-01-01

433

A rapid and sensitive culture test for the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive cell culture test has been developed to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) in women with genital herpes. The virus is cultured by inoculation and centrifugation of cell monolayers, and the virus inclusions are detected using an indirect immunofluorescence test. The test takes only 48 hours to complete compared with the conventional cell culture test, which may take up to eight days. Of a total of 2100 cervical specimens collected from unselected women attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic and inoculated in parallel, HSV was isolated from 55 specimens by either or both tests. Of these 55 positive specimens, 54(98%) were positive by the rapid test but only 24(44%) by the conventional test (McNemars test; p less than 0.001). PMID:3013758

Darougar, S; Walpita, P; Thaker, U; Goh, B T; Dunlop, E M

1986-04-01

434

Herpes simplex encephalitis: clinical presentation, neurological sequelae and new prognostic factors. Ten years of experience.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most important viral encephalitis due to its high mortality and neurological sequelae. The aim of this study was to contribute to better characterise the HSE. We retrospectively analysed patients with a diagnosis of HSE in our hospital during 2000 and 2010. We included those patients who had a positive result for PCR for herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid and those with a negative result presenting with a consistent clinical and neuroimage profile. We included 26 patients (10 men, 16 women). Mean age was 58 years. Most frequent symptoms at admission were fever, confusion, aphasia and seizures. Mortality rate was 11 %. 2 patients presented a clinical relapse. In conclusion, the most frequent neurological sequelae were aphasia and amnesia. Disorientation, hyponatremia and abnormalities in initial brain CT were identified as new prognostic factors. PMID:23780666

Riancho, Javier; Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Sedano, Maria Jose; Polo, Jose Miguel; Berciano, Jose

2013-10-01

435

Acute herpes simplex virus 1 pneumonitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

A woman with severe and longstanding systemic lupus erythematosus presented with a 1-week history of fever up to 38°C and pain in her right flank. Computed tomography scan of the chest revealed interstitial infiltrates and multiple nodules. Bronchoalveolar lavage did not show any inflammatory cells. Gram stain and cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fungi, and Nocardia; acid-fast staining; polymerase chain reaction for tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus 6, and parvovirus B19; and IF staining for pneumocystic and Legionella antigen were all negative. Transbronchial biopsy was nondiagnostic. Open lung biopsy with polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed herpes simplex virus 1 infection. Acyclovir therapy was initiated and was followed by significant improvement. Herpes simplex virus 1 infection (although unusual) should be considered in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with an atypical clinical presentation. PMID:24356475

Sabugo, Francisca; Espinoza-Araya, Ricardo; Meneses, Manuel F; Cuchacovich, Miguel

2014-01-01

436

Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex.  

PubMed

Plant extracts and isolated compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics and food supplements to improve skin conditions. We first introduce the positive plant monographs with dermatological relevance of the former German Commission E. Subsequently clinical studies with botanicals for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex are discussed. The best studies have been conducted with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Mahonia aquifolium, Hypericum perforatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and certain traditional Chinese therapies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Mahonia aquifolium, Indigo naturalis and Capsicum frutescens are effective treatments for psoriasis. Green tea extract and tea tree oil have been investigated in the treatment of acne. Podophyllin and green tea extract are effective treatments for condylomata acuminata. Balm mint and a combination of sage and rhubarb have been shown to be effective in the treatment of herpes simplex in proof of concept studies. PMID:20707875

Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Weckesser, Steffi; Schempp, Christoph

2010-10-01

437

Treatment of recurrent genital herpes with topical alpha interferon gel combined with nonoxynol 9.  

PubMed

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was done to evaluate the efficacy of an alpha interferon preparation in 128 patients with recurrent genital herpes. The preparation containing 10(5) or 10(7) U alpha interferon with nonoxynol 9 in a cream base (Exovir-HZ) was applied three times daily for 5 days. The treatment did not cause any adverse reactions. Patients treated with either interferon concentration became negative for viral culture at a faster rate than placebo recipients. The end of new lesion formation, scabbing, and the healing of lesions were all superior in patients treated with 10(5) U to those treated with 10(7) U interferon. End of new lesion formation and scabbing were also statistically different in patients treated with 10(7) U from those patients treated with placebo. Results suggest that topical interferon might be useful in relieving symptoms of severe cases of genital herpes. PMID:3023457

Friedman-Kien, A E; Klein, R J; Glaser, R D; Czelusniak, S M

1986-11-01

438

Akathisia in association with herpes simplex encephalitis relapse and opercular syndrome in children.  

PubMed

We report a 2-year-old boy with herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis (HSE) and opercular syndrome who presented with clinical relapse characterized by chorea-like involuntary movements that suggest akathisia. The patient initially presented with multiple focal seizures that cause epilepsia partialis continua, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpes simplex virus type 1 was positive. He developed hypersalivation, speech and swallowing difficulties within 30days. Based on these findings the patient was diagnosed as having opercular syndrome due to HSE. He developed akathisia on 44th day of admission as a relapse and he was successfully treated with propranolol. Opercular syndrome might be seen HSE in children and it may cause neurological suquela. Akathisia might be seen after encephalitic process as a symptom of relapse, however diagnosis of akathisia is difficult in young children. It should be noted that because propranolol effective for these involuntary movements. It can be add additional choice of treatment in these patients. PMID:23518044

Kocak, Ozan; Yarar, Coskun; Yakut, Ayten; Ekici, Arzu; Yimenicioglu, Sevgi; Saylisoy, Suzan

2014-02-01

439

Fatigue in Medical Residents Leads to Reactivation of Herpes Virus Latency  

PubMed Central

The main objective of this study was to detect fatigue-induced clinical symptoms of immune suppression in medical residents. Samples were collected from the subjects at rest, following the first night (low-stress), and the last night (high-stress) of night float. Computerized reaction tests, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Wellness Profile questionnaires were used to quantify fatigue level. DNA of human herpes viruses HSV-1, VZV, EBV, as well as cortisol and melatonin concentrations, were measured in saliva. Residents at the high-stress interval reported being sleepier compared to the rest interval. EBV DNA level increased significantly at both stress intervals, while VZV DNA level increased only at low-stress. DNA levels of HSV-1 decreased at low-stress but increased at high-stress. Combined assessment of the viral DNA showed significant effect of stress on herpes virus reactivation at both stress intervals. Cortisol concentrations at both stress intervals were significantly higher than those at rest.

Uchakin, Peter N.; Parish, David C.; Dane, Francis C.; Uchakina, Olga N.; Scheetz, Allison P.; Agarwal, Neal K.; Smith, Betsy E.

2011-01-01

440

Experimental herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Effect of corticosteroids and pyrimidine nucleoside.  

PubMed

The effects of methylprednisolone sodium succinate and cytarabine have been examined in an experimental herpes simplex virus-induced encephalitis in rabbits. In this model herpes simplex virus (HSV) is normally cleared from the brains of untreated animals. Infected animals treated with large doses of methylprednisolone showed a slight delay in the rate of clearance of virus, and a minimal reduction in the inflammatory process, but did not otherwise differ from untreated controls. Animals treated with cytarabine displayed a notable rise in viral titers in brain at a time when virus had been cleared from untreated controls. Cytarabine-treated animals also showed persistence of intranuclear inclusions in the lesions, and moderate diminution in the extent of inflammatory response. Thus, while methylprednisolone appears to have little adverse effect on the encephalitic process, cytarabine, perhaps because of its immunosuppressive properties, results in a failure of normal clearance of virus from nervous system lesions. PMID:180935

Baringer, J R; Klassen, T; Grumm, F

1976-06-01

441

Herpes gladiatorum with ocular involvement in a mixed martial arts fighter.  

PubMed

We report a case of herpes gladiatorum (HG) in a professional mixed martial arts (MMA) fighter. The eruption appeared following a sparring session with a new partner and progressed to involve the left eye. Fever and facial rash prompted the patient to go to the hospital where he was treated with antiviral therapy. The considerable increase in popularity of MMA may lead to a greater prevalence of HG as well as other cutaneous infections contracted through skin-to-skin contact. PMID:21488573

Meulener, Marc; Smith, Barry L

2011-03-01

442

Herpes simplex virus mRNA species mapping in EcoRI fragment I.  

PubMed Central

We described the detailed characterization and high-resolution mapping of nine herpes simplex virus type 1 mRNAs encoded in EcoRI fragment I. Four of these mRNAs are partially colinear and encode the same sized polypeptide in vitro. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the DNA around the 5' ends of these mRNAs suggested that the larger may encode a small (ca. 100-dalton) polypeptide not resolvable by in vitro translation. Images

Hall, L M; Draper, K G; Frink, R J; Costa, R H; Wagner, E K

1982-01-01

443

Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 by aqueous extracts from shoots of Helichrysum aureonitens (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helichrysum aureonitens, a southern African medicinal plant reported to have antibacterial properties, was evaluated for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. The crude aqueous extract from shoots of H. aureonitens at a concentration of 1.35 mg\\/ml (w\\/v) showed significant antiviral activity on HSV-1 in human lung fibroblasts as demonstrated by the absence of a cytopathic

J. J. M. Meyer; A. J. Afolayan; M. B. Taylor; L. Engelbrecht

1996-01-01

444

Fulminant Hepatitis Due to Father-to-Newborn Transmission of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1.  

PubMed

We describe a case of a severe neonatal infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 acquired postnatally from his father. The delivery and the first days of life were normal. He developed liver failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation when he was 19 days old. He was treated with intravenous acyclovir and the outcome was favorable. This case underlines that prevention of post-natal transmission of HSV merits to be considered in educational pregnancy programs directed at mothers and fathers. PMID:24222807

Bal, A; Zandotti, C; Nougairede, A; Ninove, L; Roquelaure, B; Charrel, R N

2013-01-01