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1

Loop mediated isothermal amplification combined with nucleic acid lateral flow strip for diagnosis of cyprinid herpes virus-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of cyprinid herpes virus-3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpes virus (KHV), was developed. The lower detection limit of the CyHV-3-LAMP assay is 10 fg DNA which equivalent to 30 copies of CyHV-3 genome. Nucleic acid lateral flow assay was used for visual detection of the LAMP

Hatem Soliman; Mansour El-Matbouli

2010-01-01

2

Identifying the viral genes encoding envelope glycoproteins for differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 isolates.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic tree analysis, the Korean isolate was remarkably distinguished from USA, Israel, Japan isolates. These findings may be suitable for many applications including isolates differentiation and phylogeny studies. PMID:23435236

Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Renault, Tristan; Jr, Casiano Choresca; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang

2013-01-31

3

Identifying the Viral Genes Encoding Envelope Glycoproteins for Differentiation of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Isolates  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) diseases have been reported around the world and are associated with high mortalities of koi (Cyprinus carpio). Although little work has been conducted on the molecular analysis of this virus, glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic tree analysis, the Korean isolate was remarkably distinguished from USA, Israel, Japan isolates. These findings may be suitable for many applications including isolates differentiation and phylogeny studies.

Han, Jee Eun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Renault, Tristan; Choresca, Casiano; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Park, Se Chang

2013-01-01

4

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3.  

PubMed

The recently designated cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is an emerging agent that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp. Since its emergence in the late 1990s, this highly contagious pathogen has caused severe financial losses in common and koi carp culture industries worldwide. In addition to its economic role, recent studies suggest that CyHV-3 may have a role in fundamental research. CyHV-3 has the largest genome among viruses in the order Herpesvirales and serves as a model for mutagenesis of large DNA viruses. Other studies suggest that the skin of teleost fish represents an efficient portal of entry for certain viruses. The effect of temperature on viral replication suggests that the body temperature of its poikilotherm host could regulate the outcome of the infection (replicative vs. nonreplicative). Recent advances with regard to CyHV-3 provide a role for this virus in fundamental and applied research. PMID:21122210

Michel, Benjamin; Fournier, Guillaume; Lieffrig, Francois; Costes, Bérénice; Vanderplasschen, Alain

2010-12-01

5

Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3  

PubMed Central

The recently designated cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is an emerging agent that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp. Since its emergence in the late 1990s, this highly contagious pathogen has caused severe financial losses in common and koi carp culture industries worldwide. In addition to its economic role, recent studies suggest that CyHV-3 may have a role in fundamental research. CyHV-3 has the largest genome among viruses in the order Herpesvirales and serves as a model for mutagenesis of large DNA viruses. Other studies suggest that the skin of teleost fish represents an efficient portal of entry for certain viruses. The effect of temperature on viral replication suggests that the body temperature of its poikilotherm host could regulate the outcome of the infection (replicative vs. nonreplicative). Recent advances with regard to CyHV-3 provide a role for this virus in fundamental and applied research.

Michel, Benjamin; Fournier, Guillaume; Lieffrig, Francois; Costes, Berenice

2010-01-01

6

Neuroecology of cyprinids: comparative, quantitative histology reveals diverse brain patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Brain patterns are compared by quantitative histology in 28 native and introduced mid-European cyprinid species, considering 17 primary sensory and higher order brain areas. Cluster analysis (CLA) and principal component analysis (PCA) based on relative volumes of these brain areas indicate that cyprinid brains are diversified into four major groups, basic cyprinid, abramine, octavo-lateralis and chemosensory. PCA recognizes the

Kurt Kotrschal; Margit Palzenberger

1992-01-01

7

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Division of STD Prevention CS233825A What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) ... type 2 (HSV-2). How common is genital herpes? CDC estimates that, annually, 776,000 people in ...

8

Coordinated and sequential transcription of the cyprinid herpesvirus-3 annotated genes.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is the cause of a fatal disease in carp and koi fish. The disease is seasonal and appears when water temperatures range from 18 to 28°C. CyHV-3 is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, a family in the Herpesvirales order that encompasses mammalian, avian and reptilian viruses. CyHV-3 is a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) herpesvirus with a genome of approximately 295kbp, divergent from other mammalian, avian and reptilian herpesviruses, but bearing several genes similar to cyprinid herpesvirus-1 (CyHV-1), CyHV-2, anguillid herpesvirus-1 (AngHV-1), ictalurid herpesvirus-1 (IcHV-1) and ranid herpes virus-1 (RaHV-1). Here we show that viral DNA synthesis commences 4-8h post-infection (p.i.), and is completely inhibited by pre-treatment with cytosine ?-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C). Transcription of CyHV-3 genes initiates after infection as early as 1-2h p.i., and precedes viral DNA synthesis. All 156 annotated open reading frames (ORFs) of the CyHV-3 genome are transcribed into RNAs, most of which can be classified into immediate early (IE or ?), early (E or ?) and late (L or ?) classes, similar to all other herpesviruses. Several ORFs belonging to these groups are clustered along the viral genome. PMID:22841491

Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

2012-07-24

9

Herpes Simplex  

MedlinePLUS

... is an infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth ... weak immune systems. There are two types of HSV: HSV type 1 most commonly causes cold sores. ...

10

Herpes - resources  

MedlinePLUS

The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications_herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease - www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/genitalherpes The ...

11

Herpes viral culture of lesion  

MedlinePLUS

... infected with the herpes simplex virus. See also: Genital herpes Herpes labialis (cold sores) Serum herpes simplex antibodies ... virus. Herpes infections include herpes genitalis , which is genital herpes, or cold sores on the lips or in ...

12

Koi herpes virus: a review and risk assessment of Indian aquaculture.  

PubMed

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widely cultivated freshwater fish for human consumption, while koi carp, is a farmed colored sub species of common carp used for ornamental purposes. Since 1998, both common carp and koi carp are severely affected by a viral disease called as Koi herpes virus disease (KHVD). This disease is caused by Koi herpes virus (KHV), also known as cyprinid herpes virus-3. The virus causes interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis in carps, so it is also termed as carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus. KHV is a double stranded icosahedral DNA virus belonging to family Alloherpesviridae, with a genome size of 295 kbp, larger than any member of Herpesviridae. The viral genome encodes 156 potential protein coding open reading frames. Each virion consists of forty structural proteins, which are classified as capsid (3), envelope (13), tegument (2) and unclassified (22) structural proteins. Diagnosis of KHVD is mainly based on detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction amplification using specific primers or loop mediated isothermal amplification. Temperature dependent latent infection is unique to KHV; and carrier fish are often not detected, thereby possibly resulting in spread of this pathogen to newer areas. The disease is now known to occur in, or has been recorded from at least 26 different countries of the world. Fortunately, KHVD has not been reported from India or from Indian major carps. To monitor the disease status of the country, a total of 254 fish samples collected from different parts of India were screened by PCR for the presence of KHV. None of the tested samples were found to be positive for KHV. These results demonstrate that tested samples from different parts of India were apparently free from KHV. Preliminary risk assessment of KHV suggest that in the event of unrestricted importation of koi carps into our country, there is a higher probability of risk to aquaculture as compared to natural waters. So there is strong need to develop diagnostic capabilities and launch surveillance programmes for KHV in India. PMID:23997436

Rathore, Gaurav; Kumar, Gokhlesh; Raja Swaminathan, T; Swain, P

2012-09-06

13

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... surround the brain and spinal cord), seizures, and brain damage. How Is It Prevented? The only surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence . Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ...

14

Density and distribution of external taste buds in cyprinids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The aim of the present qualitative and quantitative study was to survey the density and distribution of external taste buds (TB) in 10 common European cyprinid species. TB pores were stained with silver nitrate and counted in 7 sample areas on the body and 3 on the fins. TB densities decrease from rostral to caudal and from ventral to

Andreas Gomahr; Margit Palzenberger; Kurt Kotrschal

1992-01-01

15

Enteroendocrine cells of the cyprinid fish, Barbus conchonius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the endocrine regulation of digestion in fish is scarce especially on stomachless cyprinids. In the present study (chapters I, III) 3 distinct enteroendocrine cell types will be described for the intestinal epithelium of Barbus conchonius. With the light microscope, enteroendocrine cells only stained moderately after some argyrophil reactions; therefore, the distinction is mainly based on the size of

J. H. W. M. Rombout

1980-01-01

16

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... oral sex, use a dental dam . Keep in mind that condoms may not cover all infected areas, so you can still get herpes even if you use a condom. Know that some methods of birth control, like birth control pills, shots, implants, or diaphragms, ...

17

Genital herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common. In both developed and developing countries, the incidence of infection appears to be increasing. The epidemiology of HSV is shifting, and new genital infections are increasingly with HSV-1. Such infections are indistinguishable from HSV-2 infections. Acquisition episodes are often asymptomatic and many individuals are unaware of their infection status. Recurrences are more

Raj Patel

2005-01-01

18

Herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster (HZ) or 'shingles' is a painful vesicular rash resulting from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus that also causes chickenpox. The incidence of HZ infection (HZI) increases with age and the degree of immunosuppresssion. Post herpetic neuralgia, the most common complication of HZ, occurs after the zoster rash has resolved. Conventional therapies include antivirals, corticosteroids and analgesics, both oral and topical. Here we report a case of HZ in an 80-year-old woman involving maxillary nerve and the article also reviews various treatment modalities available for the management of HZI. PMID:23771975

Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp; Singh, Udita; Agarwal, Neha

2013-06-13

19

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus  

MedlinePLUS

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is infection of the eye caused by varicella-zoster virus. Varicella-zoster is the virus ... reactivates and may spread to the skin, causing herpes zoster, also called shingles (see Viral Infections: Shingles ). If ...

20

Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. FINDINGS: Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci

Vincent Dubut; Melthide Sinama; Jean-François Martin; Emese Meglécz; Juliette Fernandez; Rémi Chappaz; André Gilles; Caroline Costedoat

2010-01-01

21

Genital Herpes Complicating Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2, and 2% of women will acquire HSV during pregnancy. Remarkably, up to 90% of these women are undiagnosed because they are asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms attributed to other vulvovaginal disorders. Diagnosis of genital herpes relies on laboratory confirmation with culture or polymerase chain reaction assay of genital

Carolyn Gardella; Anna Wald; Rhoda Ashley; Lawrence Corey; Zane A. Brown

22

Herpes Simplex: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments E - H Herpes simplex Diagnosis, treatment Herpes simplex: Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome How do dermatologists diagnose herpes simplex? During an outbreak, a dermatologist often can ...

23

Genital herpes simplex.  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5

Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

1981-01-01

24

Differentiation between Cyprinid herpesvirus type-3 lineages using duplex PCR.  

PubMed

To date, all the isolates of Cyprinid herpesvirus type-3 (CyHV3) responsible for serious outbreaks in carps Cyprinus carpio have been found to be very similar or identical on the basis of DNA sequences of a few reference genes. However, two genetic lineages (U/I and J) are distinguished by full-length genome sequencing. Two molecular markers presenting genetic variations were targeted for developing a duplex PCR assay able to distinguish CyHV3-U/I from CyHV3-J while avoiding DNA sequencing. The method was validated on a series of 42 samples of infected carps from France, The Netherlands and Poland collected from 2001 to 2008. Among these samples, both the U/I and J genotypes were identified, but also a third genotype representing a genetic intermediate between U/I and J for one of the two molecular markers. A classification of CyHV3 genotypes, based on the alleles of the two molecular markers, is proposed. The assay is easy to perform and provides a genotype information with samples moderately or highly concentrated. This tool should improve our knowledge regarding the present distribution and future diversification of this emerging virus. PMID:19428569

Bigarré, L; Baud, M; Cabon, J; Antychowicz, J; Bergmann, S M; Engelsma, M; Pozet, F; Reichert, M; Castric, J

2009-02-04

25

Nationwide Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 contamination in natural rivers of Japan.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease is a significant threat for common and koi carp cultivators and for freshwater ecosystems. To determine the prevalence of CyHV-3 in Japanese rivers, a nationwide survey of all national class-A rivers was undertaken in the Summer of 2008. The virus was concentrated from river water samples using the cation-coated filter method. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 90 rivers, representing 90% of 103 successfully analysed rivers. More than 100,000 copies of CyHV-3 DNA per litre of sample were detected in four rivers, higher than that reported during the Yura River outbreak in 2007. For CyHV-3-positive rivers, the log CyHV-3 density was negatively correlated with the water temperature on the sampling date and positively correlated with the suspended solids and dissolved oxygen, which are annually averaged for each river. Our results demonstrate that virus detection using molecular biology techniques is a powerful tool for monitoring the presence of CyHV-3 in natural environments. PMID:21723573

Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Uchii, Kimiko; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2011-07-01

26

[Light adaptation properties of receptor potentials of cyprinid retina].  

PubMed

It was previously reported that changes in sensitivities of electroretinographic b-wave in the course of light adaptation depended on the intensity of background lights. B-wave sensitivity decreased with time by dimmer background lights, while it recovered during illumination with background lights of higher intensities. In this work we examined light adaptation properties of glutamate-isolated receptor potentials (P III components), using isolated and superfused cyprinid retinas. During dimmer background illumination, P III components were unchanged. When background lights were increased above certain levels, P III components showed partial recovery with time in the light. A detailed analysis of spectral sensitivities of P III components and their increment thresholds for several wavelengths indicated that the recovery of P III sensitivity appeared with background lights at which rod function was taken over by cone function. The results suggest that the recovery of b-wave sensitivity during brighter background illumination is partially a reflection of the adaptation property of cone photoreceptors. PMID:1754898

Xu, L W; Yang, X L

1991-08-01

27

Polyradiculopathy and herpes zoster  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster causing skin eruptions and neuropathic pain is routinely seen in the clinical setting. We present an interesting case of weakness involving more than one nerve root level secondary to shingles. The differential diagnosis of lower extremity weakness is long. While a polyradiculopathy secondary to herpes zoster infection is rare, it must be considered in a patient with dermatomal involvement. A thorough history and physical examination with appropriate diagnostic testing is essential to establish the correct diagnosis and thus the appropriate treatment. We present a retrospective review of a case of polyradiculopathy secondary to herpes zoster infection.

Thomas, Milton; Wilson, Amy J.

2009-01-01

28

Intranuclear inclusion bodies within neurons of spinal and cranial ganglia in three cyprinid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A histological examination of 205 fish representing four cyprinid species from a site 2.5 miles north of Wheeling, West Virginia, on the Ohio River revealed large (2–4 µm) cuboidal intranuclear inclusion bodies (NIB's) within neurons in the cranial and spinal ganglia of three species. Because the minnows had been caught during a yearly sampling of fish, an additional 63 minnows

Karen L. Hoover; John C. Harshbarger; Cecil W. Lee; William Banfield; Sing Chen Chang

1981-01-01

29

Mitochondrial DNA variation in the highly endangered cyprinid fish Anaecypris hispanica: importance for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaecypris hispanica is a cyprinid fish which is endemic to the Guadiana River basin in the Iberian Peninsula, and whose abundance and geographical range have contracted considerably during the last 20 years. We investigated mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and control region variation among specimens representative of nine tributaries, using direct sequencing and diagnostic restriction fragment length polymorphism. The samples from

M. J. Alves; H. Coelho; M. J. Collares-Pereira; M. M. Coelho

2001-01-01

30

Behavioural pattern in cyprinid fish below a weir as detected by radio telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Changes in the behaviour of cyprinids belonging to different ecology groups were observed below a weir that was restricting their upstream migrations during the spawning period May- July. Positions of chub Leuciscus cephalus (L.), Prussian carp Carrasius auratus gibelio (Bloch 1783), bream Abramis brama (L.) and white bream Blicca bjoerkna (L.) were recorded every 12 min over a 24-h

P. Horky ´; O. Slavík; L. Bartoš; J. Kolá?ová; T. Randák

2007-01-01

31

Subfunctionalization of cyprinid hypoxia-inducible factors for roles in development and oxygen sensing.  

PubMed

Among vertebrates, teleost fishes have evolved the most impressive adaptations to variable oxygen tensions in water (Shoubridge and Hochachka 1980; Nilsson and Randall 2010). Under conditions of oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), major changes in gene expression are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF alpha). Here we show that hif alpha genes were duplicated in the teleost specific whole-genome duplication. Although one of each paralogous gene pair was lost in most teleosts, both copies were retained in cyprinids. Computational analyses suggest that these duplicates have become subfunctionalized with complementary changes in coding and regulatory sequences within each paralogous gene pair. We tested our predictions with comparisons of hif alpha transcription in zebrafish, a cyprinid, and sturgeon, an outgroup that diverged from teleosts before the duplication event. Our experiments revealed distinct transcriptional profiles in the cyprinid duplicates: while one of each paralogous pair maintained the ancestral developmental response, the other was more sensitive to changes in oxygen tension. These results demonstrate the subfunctionalization of cyprinid hif alpha paralogs for specialized roles in development and the hypoxic stress response. PMID:23461336

Rytkönen, Kalle T; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Miandare, Hamed K; Kamei, Hiroyasu; Duan, Cunming; Leder, Erica H; Williams, Tom A; Nikinmaa, Mikko

2012-10-29

32

Biomarker responses in cyprinids of the middle stretch of the River Po, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish belonging to three species of cyprinids, that is, barbel (Barbus plebejus), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), and Italian nase (Chondrostoma soeetta), were collected from two sites of the River Po, located upstream and downstream from the confluence of one of its middle-reach polluted tributaries, the River Lambro. The two groups of individuals caught for each species were analyzed and compared for

L. Vigano; Attilio Arillo; Federico Melodia; Patrizia Arlati; Cinzia Monti

1998-01-01

33

Use of terrestrial arthropod prey by a stream-dwelling cyprinid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The spatio-temporal availability to, and use of terrestrial (allochthonous) prey by, a subset of the fish assemblage of a Virginia piedmont stream were investigated during spring and summer. Terrestrial invertebrates were most abundant in drift nets, but least common in fish stomachs, during April. In contrast, during August, terrestrial prey dominated the diet of the major cyprinid fish,Notropis ardens,

Greg C. Garman

1991-01-01

34

Response of a Juvenile Cyprinid, Lake Minnow Eupallasella perenurus (Pallas), to Different Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three commercial starters (Carp Starter, Uni Starter and Perla Plus) and one non-commercial, with frozen Chironomidae larvae as a reference diet, were evaluated for the intensive rearing of juvenile lake minnow Eupallasella perenurus, a cyprinid fish that is critically endangered in Poland. The growth, condition, survival, body deformities, and chemical body composition were studied. The 90-day laboratory experiment was performed

Rafa? Kami?ski; Micha? Korwin-Kossakowski; Jan Kusznierz; Leszek Myszkowski; L. Andrzej Stanny; Jacek Wolnicki

2005-01-01

35

Viable metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeastern Thai cyprinid fish dishes--as part of a rational program for control of O. viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Among the various types of chronic helminthic infections, only schistosomiasis hematobium, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis in a long-standing inflammation are found to be causative agents of cancer. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer are prevalent among the residents in northeastern Thailand, who prefer consuming raw or improperly cooked cyprinid fish. Although numerous studies have reported on the presence of O. viverrini metacercariae in freshwater cyprinid fishes, none of the data has been derived directly from cyprinid fish dishes. Here, we have demonstrated the presence of viable metacercariae in a number of cyprinid fish dishes that are among the favorite foods of northeastern Thais. Traditional salt-fermented and grilled cyprinid fish were found to be safe to consume, but not raw fish salad or cyprinid fish fermented in sticky rice for 69 h. This information could be used as part of a rational and sustainable control program for O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer. PMID:23052784

Prasongwatana, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai

2012-10-05

36

Herpes Simplex and Mood: A Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) cause a wide spec- trum of diseases, the most common of which are oral herpes, commonly known as fever blisters or cold sores, and genital herpes. There are two types of HSV, known as HSV-1 and HSV-2. In most cases, HSV-1 is responsible for herpes above the waist and HSV-2 for herpes below the waist. Approximately

JAN DAUCVIST; TARJA-BRITA ROBINS WAHLIN; EVA BARTSCH; MARGIT FORSBECK

37

Algoneurodystrophy following herpes zoster.  

PubMed Central

Algoneurodystrophy frequently follows an identifiable triggering event. It is not widely recognized that herpes zoster can precipitate algoneurodystrophy and three such cases are described here. In one, the affected dermatome did not correspond to the limb involved by the algoneurodystrophy. Images Figure 1

Foster, O.; Askaria, A.; Lanham, J.; Perry, D.

1989-01-01

38

Genital herpes in adolescents.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections occur commonly among adolescents. Most HSV-2 infections are genital, but genital herpes can be caused by either HSV-1 or HSV-2. Weighted means were calculated based on published seroprevalence data on adolescents from the United States and found HSV-1 rates of 53.1 percent for adolescent males and 49.4 percent for adolescent females. The weighted means for HSV-2 was 15 percent for adolescent females and 12 percent for adolescent males. Most individuals who are infected with HSV-2 are unaware of their infection. Healthcare providers of adolescents should consider genital herpes even when an adolescent presents with nonspecific genital symptoms. In this article, we review current recommendations for diagnosis and management and review the psychological sequelae that can be associated with having genital herpes. Finally, we discuss biomedical interventions that are being developed to help reduce the epidemic of HSV and the challenges that these interventions face with regard to implementation. PMID:15685146

Auslander, Beth A; Biro, Frank M; Rosenthal, Susan L

2005-01-01

39

Daily Survival Rates for Juveniles of Six Great Plains Cyprinid Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected age-0 fish from the Canadian and Brazos rivers, Texas, and used otolith microstructure to estimate daily survival rates for juveniles of six cyprinid species during their first summer. Across all samples, daily survival rates averaged 0.944 and ranged from 0.920 to 0.964. Daily survival differed between fish from the Canadian River (mean = 0.948) and those from the

Gene R. Wilde; Bart W. Durham

2008-01-01

40

Distinct Evolutionary Patterns Between Two Duplicated Color Vision Genes Within Cyprinid Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the molecular evolution of duplicated color vision genes (LWS-1 and SWS2) within cyprinid fish, focusing on the most cavefish-rich genus—Sinocyclocheilus. Maximum likelihood-based codon substitution approaches were used to analyze the evolution of vision genes. We found that\\u000a the duplicated color vision genes had unequal evolutionary rates, which may lead to a related function divergence. Divergence\\u000a of LWS-1 was

Zhiqiang Li; Xiaoni Gan; Shunping He

2009-01-01

41

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.  

PubMed

Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is one of the most important grapevine viral diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. The impact on vine health, crop yield, and quality is difficult to assess due to a high number of variables, but significant economic losses are consistently reported over the lifespan of a vineyard if intervention strategies are not implemented. Several viruses from the family Closteroviridae are associated with GLD. However, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3), the type species for the genus Ampelovirus, is regarded as the most important causative agent. Here we provide a general overview on various aspects of GLRaV-3, with an emphasis on the latest advances in the characterization of the genome. The full genome of several isolates have recently been sequenced and annotated, revealing the existence of several genetic variants. The classification of these variants, based on their genome sequence, will be discussed and a guideline is presented to facilitate future comparative studies. The characterization of sgRNAs produced during the infection cycle of GLRaV-3 has given some insight into the replication strategy and the putative functionality of the ORFs. The latest nucleotide sequence based molecular diagnostic techniques were shown to be more sensitive than conventional serological assays and although ELISA is not as sensitive it remains valuable for high-throughput screening and complementary to molecular diagnostics. The application of next-generation sequencing is proving to be a valuable tool to study the complexity of viral infection as well as plant pathogen interaction. Next-generation sequencing data can provide information regarding disease complexes, variants of viral species, and abundance of particular viruses. This information can be used to develop more accurate diagnostic assays. Reliable virus screening in support of robust grapevine certification programs remains the cornerstone of GLD management. PMID:23596440

Maree, Hans J; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Bester, Rachelle; Chooi, Kar Mun; Cohen, Daniel; Dolja, Valerian V; Fuchs, Marc F; Golino, Deborah A; Jooste, Anna E C; Martelli, Giovanni P; Naidu, Rayapati A; Rowhani, Adib; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Burger, Johan T

2013-04-16

42

SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

43

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Identification of microsatellite loci for parentage analysis in roach Rutilus rutilus and eight other cyprinid fish by cross-species amplification, and a novel test for detecting hybrids between roach and other cyprinids.  

PubMed

In order to identify microsatellite loci for parentage analysis in roach Rutilus rutilus, 59 published primer sets were tested on roach and eight other cyprinid fish. Twenty polymorphic loci were identified for roach, of which the polymerase chain reaction products of seven could be pooled for sequencer analysis. Together, these seven loci have an exclusion probability of 0.997 for parentage, when no parents are known. We also describe a novel test for hybrids between roach and four other cyprinids, based on intraspecies length differences of internal transcribed spacer region 1. PMID:21585822

Hamilton, P B; Tyler, C R

2008-03-01

44

Herpes Virus Amplicon Vectors  

PubMed Central

Since its emergence onto the gene therapy scene nearly 25 years ago, the replication-defective Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon has gained significance as a versatile gene transfer platform due to its extensive transgene capacity, widespread cellular tropism, minimal immunogenicity, and its amenability to genetic manipulation. Herein, we detail the recent advances made with respect to the design of the HSV amplicon, its numerous in vitro and in vivo applications, and the current impediments this virus-based gene transfer platform faces as it navigates a challenging path towards future clinical testing.

de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J.

2009-01-01

45

Herps of Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the University of Texas and the Texas Memorial Museum, this Website offers useful life history information on the Herps (lizards, turtles, snakes, crocodilians, salamanders, frogs, and toads) of Texas. Each broad group is further classified into Families, and each species is identified by scientific (Latin) and common name. To access descriptive and graphical information, click on the species of choice. Each species entry includes one or more color photograph(s), diagnostic features, natural history information, and a color range map (presence:absence, by county). The concise information in this useful resource should be helpful to seasoned researchers and beginners, alike.

46

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease. PMID:23481105

Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

2013-04-01

47

[Management of herpes zoster infection].  

PubMed

Approximately 10 to 30% of the population will suffer from herpes zoster (HZ) during their lifetime. Prompt treatment of acute HZ with acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir is recommend, if patients are over 50 years old or have severe or moderate pain or severe or moderate rash or they are immonocompromised or suffer from herpes zoster ophtalmicus. Zoster lesions contain high concentrations of Varicella zoster virus that can spread, and cause chicken pox. There is no universal recommendations for varicella vaccination. It has been shown that zoster vaccine markedly reduced morbidity from herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among older adults. PMID:19769176

Lauhio, Anneli; Anttila, Veli-Jukka

2009-01-01

48

A COMPARISON OF CYPRINID FISH POPULATIONS IN THREE LARGE TRANSKEI RESERVOIRS WITH RESPECT TO ABUNDANCE AND REPRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gill net catches of fish in three turbid reservoirs (Lakes Xonxa and Lubisi on the Kei River system and Lake Umtata on the Mtata River) between 1982 and 1985 were dominated by two cyprinids the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and smallmouth yellowfish, Barbus aeneus. Mean catch per unit effort of carp was low in all three reservoirs (5–6.5 fish 120

M. Schramm

1993-01-01

49

Amacrine cells in the retina of a cyprinid fish: functional characterization and intracellular labelling with horseradish peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty amacrine cells in retinae of a cyprinid fish, the roach, were intracellularly labelled with horseradish peroxidase following electrophysiological identification as sustained depolarizing, sustained hyperpolarizing or transient units. Labelled cells were analysed by light microscopy and compared with a catalogue of amacrine cells established in a previous Golgi study on the same species. About 30% of the cell types characterized

M. B. A. Djamgoz; J. E. G. Downing; H.-J. Wagner

1989-01-01

50

A preliminary study of the age and growth of the Cyprinid fish Barilius moorii Blgr. from Lake Kivu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The age and growth of the Cyprinid fish Barilius moorii from Lake Kivu is studied by means of the growth rings occurring in the scales. Although the moment of ring formation and the duration of one growth season were not known, both overall length growth in a population as well as individual length growth could be calculated. Increase of weight

J. Robben; D. Thys Audenaerde

1984-01-01

51

Survival and karyological analysis of reciprocal diploid and triploid hybrids between mud loach ( Misgurnus mizolepis) and cyprinid loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diploid and triploid hybrids between mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) and cyprinid loach (M. anguillicaudatus) and their reciprocal hybrids were produced by artificial fertilization and by cold shocks. Means of fertilization, hatching, and survival of all diploid groups were similar (P > 0.05). Triploid hybrids had lower hatching and early survival than their diploid counterparts (P < 0.05). Survival from yolk

Dong Soo Kim; Yoon Kwon Nam; In-Seok Park

1995-01-01

52

The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

Ensor, Deirdre

2005-01-01

53

The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often…

Ensor, Deirdre

2005-01-01

54

Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

1979-01-01

55

Moral dilemmas, moral reasoning, and genital herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moral reasoning of 30 persons with genital herpes and 29 persons with no sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was examined. Participants with herpes were recruited by advertising in the community, whereas participants in the non?herpes group were recruited from an introductory psychology class at a local junior college and from a pool of community members who volunteered to participate in

Terri D. Conley; Rosemary A. Jadack; Janet Shibley Hyde

1997-01-01

56

Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes

Longo, David J.; And Others

1988-01-01

57

The enigma of herpes stromal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes stromal disease is due to direct damage as a result of viral replication, virally induced immune mechanisms, or a combination of the two. Viral replication may have a major initiating role in the production of herpes simplex and herpes zoster induced stromal disease, and steroids may initially be harmful in their treatment. On topical antiviral drugs alone, in patients

J McGill

1987-01-01

58

Epidemic of herpes zoster in a family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Varicella Zoster virus persists in sensory nerve ganglion cells after chicken pox and gets reactivated to cause herpes zoster after variable periods of time as a result of waning of specific cellular immunity. Susceptible contacts of herpes zoster can develop chicken pox and very rarely herpes zoster. We report an interesting case of two brothers and wife of an

Sanjog O. Chandak; Prashant K. Pandilwar

59

Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes

Longo, David J.; And Others

1988-01-01

60

Growth and development of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on salmonid and cyprinid hosts.  

PubMed

The obligate fish ectoparasite Argulus coregoni is strictly specific to salmonids and is very rarely found on other fish species. The ability of the parasite to grow and complete its life cycle on a cyprinid host, Rutilus rutilus, was compared with that on a typical salmonid host, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rearing experiments were run for 42 d with newly hatched metanauplii in flow-through tanks. Body length and sex of the parasites were recorded every 5 d. Growth rates on O. mykiss exceeded those on R. rutilus from the age of 2 wk, at which time the parasites reached a length of about 3.5 mm. Males grew faster than females at the beginning of the experiment up to a length of 2.5 to 3.0 mm; thereafter, a faster growth rate was observed in females. In another experiment, association of parasites with the hosts was monitored and residence time defined as the period between attachment and first detachment from the host. Longer residence time was observed on O. mykiss than on R. rutilus; female parasites stayed on both fish species longer than did males. Faster growth of parasites could be associated with longer uninterrupted periods of attachment to hosts, since frequent detachment means higher energy losses and less time available for feeding. Despite its slower growth on R. rutilus, A. coregoni matured and laid egg clutches, but took 5 d longer than on O. mykiss. The potential of A. coregoni to complete its life cycle on cyprinids could have important ecological consequences, creating an infection reservoir when the main salmonid hosts are rare or temporarily missing. PMID:15109143

Pasternak, A; Mikheev, V; Valtonen, E T

2004-03-10

61

Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade  

PubMed Central

Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade.

Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

2012-01-01

62

Treatment of herpes zoster  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review the evidence regarding treatment of herpes zoster (HZ) in the short-term, focusing on the prevention of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE The evidence relating to treatment of HZ is derived mainly from randomized controlled trials (level I evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Antiviral drugs might have some effect on the severity of acute pain and on the duration of skin lesions. Corticosteroids also alleviate acute pain. Oral antiviral medication reduces the risk of eye complications in patients with ophthalmic HZ. There is no convincing evidence that antiviral medication reduces the risk of PHN. Some studies, however, have shown that famciclovir and valacyclovir shorten the duration of PHN. The effectiveness of amitriptyline or cutaneous and percutaneous interventions in preventing PHN has not been proven. CONCLUSION Oral antiviral drugs should be prescribed to elderly HZ patients with high risk of PHN. Moreover, these drugs should be prescribed to all patients at the first signs of ophthalmic HZ, irrespective of age or severity of symptoms.

Opstelten, Wim; Eekhof, Just; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Verheij, Theo

2008-01-01

63

Herpes zoster vaccination.  

PubMed

Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly contagious airborne disease caused by primary infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Following the resolution of chickenpox, the virus can remain dormant in the dorsal sensory and cranial ganglion for decades. Shingles (herpes zoster [HZ]) is a neurocutaneous disease caused by reactivation of latent VZV and may progress to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is characterized by dermatomal pain persisting for more than 120 days after the onset of HZ rash, or "well-established PHN", which persist for more than 180 days. Vaccination with an attenuated form of VZV activates specific T-cell production, thereby avoiding viral reactivation and development of HZ. It has been demonstrated to reduce the occurrence by approximately 50-70%, the duration of pain of HZ, and the frequency of subsequent PHN in individuals aged ? 50 years in clinical studies. However, it has not proved efficacious in preventing repeat episodes of HZ and reducing the severity of PHN, nor has its long-term efficacy been demonstrated. The most frequent adverse reactions reported for HZ vaccination were injection site pain and/or swelling and headache. In addition, it should not be administrated to children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised persons or those allergic to neomycin or any component of the vaccine. PMID:23861997

Kim, Kyung Hoon

2013-07-01

64

Acute herpes hepatitis in pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

A 36 year old primigravid woman presented with a "flu-like" illness and premature labour, followed by severe pneumonitis and hepatitis in the late second trimester of pregnancy. Progressive deterioration obliged an elective delivery of twins, stillborn at 25 weeks of gestation. Herpes virus isolated from one placenta, but not from any fetal tissue, was the only indication of a systemic herpes simplex infection in which there were no mucocutaneous lesions seen before or during the illness. There was no history of herpes simplex infection and antibody studies were not helpful initially for a diagnosis that was confirmed in retrospect. Double staining for viral DNA and antigen showed that the virus was present in host monocytes.

Fink, C G; Read, S J; Hopkin, J; Peto, T; Gould, S; Kurtz, J B

1993-01-01

65

The efficiency of a closed-loop chemical-free water treatment system for cyprinid fish farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented has been carried out to evaluate the treatment performance, fish production and water consumption of a closed-loop chemical-free water treatment system for small-scale cyprinid fish farms. The closed-loop system consisted of a 36m3 experimental pond (Pond A) with initial carp load of 1kg\\/m3 (34 Cyprinus c. carpio); of a treatment train (TT) with a roughing filter (RF),

T. Griessler Bulc; D. Isteni?; A. Krivograd Klemen?i?

2011-01-01

66

Detection, characterization and utility of a new highly variable nuclear marker region in several species of cyprinid fishes (Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new non-coding nuclear marker region was detected in two species of cyprinid fishes. Polymerase chain reaction primers were\\u000a designed to amplify a part of this region in several genera, indicating a wide applicability within Cyprinidae. Sequence analysis\\u000a revealed large intergeneric length variation caused by various deletion or insertion events. Apart from length variability,\\u000a nucleotide differences were used for phylogenetic

Dietmar Lieckfeldt; Anne Kathrin Hett; Arne Ludwig; Jörg Freyhof

2006-01-01

67

The taxonomy and phylogeny of the cyprinid genus Opsariichthys Bleeker (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Taiwan, with description of a new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and mitochondrial genetic differentiation in the cyprinid genus, Opsariichthys Bleeker (Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde 1:187–218, 1863) have been surveyed in Taiwan. Among them, there are three valid species can be recognized in Taiwan including Opsariichthys pachycephalus Günther (1868) distributed in northern and western Taiwan, Opsariichthys evolans (Jordan and Evermann Proc US Nat Mus 25:315–368, 1902) in northern

I-Shiung Chen; Jui-Hsien Wu; Shih-Pin Huang

2009-01-01

68

The taxonomy and phylogeny of the cyprinid genus Opsariichthys Bleeker (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Taiwan, with description of a new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and mitochondrial genetic differentiation in the cyprinid genus, Opsariichthys Bleeker (Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde 1:187–218, 1863) have been surveyed in Taiwan. Among them, there are three valid species can be recognized in Taiwan including Opsariichthys pachycephalus Günther (1868) distributed in northern and western Taiwan, Opsariichthys evolans (Jordan and Evermann Proc US Nat Mus 25:315–368, 1902) in northern

I-Shiung Chen; Jui-Hsien Wu; Shih-Pin Huang

69

Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

Glover, Elbert D.

1984-01-01

70

DISTENSION ABDOMINAL POR HERPES ZOSTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Se presenta un caso de distensión abdominal por parálisis parietal debida a herpes zoster con erup- ción cutánea a nivel del 11° dermatoma dorsal izquierdo. El déficit motor en el zoster es inusual (2-3% de los casos publicados) y generalmente se observa en las extremidades. La frecuencia del compromiso de los músculos abdominales en series clínicas se estima en

FABIO A. BARROSO

71

Relapse of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report five children who had recurrent central nervous system signs after conventional acyclovir therapy for herpes simplex encephalitis. Secondary exacerbation was characterized clinically by severe ballismic movement disorder in all five children, associated with fever, impairment of consciousness, and seizures. Biologic analysis in all children and magnetic resonance imaging and neuropathology studies of the brain in three cases were

Marie-Anne Barthez-Carpentier; Flore Rozenberg; Elisabeth Dussaix; Pierre Lebon; Alain Goudeau; Catherine Billard; Marc Tardieu

1995-01-01

72

Herpes encephalitis masquerading as tumor.  

PubMed

A 54 year old lady presented with lethargy and 15?kg weight loss over the past year. CT scan of the head revealed left temporal lobe hypodensity with a discrete area of hemorrhage within the left mesial temporal lobe. Due to concerns about impending central herniation, lumbar puncture was not performed. MRI of the brain showed a large lesion of the left temporal lobe, extending to the left frontal lobe, and very patchy meningeal enhancement. There was a noncontiguous lesion of the right insula. A differential diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and multifocal infiltrative glioma was entertained. MR spectroscopy demonstrated an increased choline peak at the level of the medial left temporal lobe and MR perfusion demonstrated patchy areas of hyperperfusion within the left anterior temporal lobe, both suggestive of neoplastic disease. Following open brain biopsy, pathology revealed herpes simplex virus (HSV) positive nuclei in the cortex and subcortical white matter. As both herpes simplex encephalitis and low-grade glioma demontrate MRI findings of hypointensity on T1 images and hyperintensity on T2 images, the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis can be clouded by confounding factors, especially when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cannot be obtained. PMID:22389820

Peeraully, Tasneem; Landolfi, Joseph C

2011-04-19

73

De aanpak van herpes genitalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samenvatting  Genitale herpes is een belangrijk gezondheidsprobleem en is wereldwijd de belangrijkste oorzaak van genitale ulcera. In deze\\u000a ‘Clinical Review’ worden de evidence-based richtlijnen van de BASHH (British Association for Sexual Health and HIV), de CDC\\u000a (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) en andere expertgroepen weergegeven.

P. A. van Hasselt

2008-01-01

74

MRI of herpes simplex encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in eight patients with herpes simplex meningoencephalitis were reviewed: 14 examinations were analysed. The most striking finding was high signal intensity in the temporal lobe(s) with the typical configuration known from CT. Meningeal enhancement after Gd-DTPA administration was clearly seen in four patients. Haemorrhagic changes are much better seen on MRI than on CT.

Ph. Demaerel; G. Wilms; W. Robberecht; K. Johannik; P. Hecke; H. Carton; A. L. Baert

1992-01-01

75

Herpes Zoster and Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

No significant difference was found between 50 consecutive patients with multiple sclerosis and matched controls in respect of previous infection with rubella or measles and chicken-pox, or of previous vaccination and immunizing injections. Significantly more patients had a past history of herpes zoster compared with the controls.

J. A. R. Lenman; T. J. Peters

1969-01-01

76

Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE  

PubMed Central

Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe [1]. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should provide useful phylogenetic makers for future analyses of the evolutionary relationships among species in the family Cyprinidae.

2010-01-01

77

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

2009-04-01

78

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

2010-04-01

79

Diagnosis and Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention maps a herpes simplex labialis (HSL) susceptibility gene associated with HSL to the q11 region of chromosome 21. The invention provides methods of screening for susceptibility or resistance to herpes simplex virus, particularly herpes simple...

J. D. Kriesel M. F. Leppert S. L. Spruance B. E. Otterud M. R. Hobbs

2005-01-01

80

Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome  

PubMed Central

Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5), of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion Our data show that there is sufficient homology between the transcribed sequences of common carp and zebrafish to warrant an even deeper cyprinid transcriptome comparison. On the other hand, the comparative analysis illustrates the value in utilizing partially sequenced transcriptomes to understand gene structure in this diverse teleost group. We highlight the need for integrated resources to leverage the wealth of fragmented genomic data.

Christoffels, Alan; Bartfai, Richard; Srinivasan, Hamsa; Komen, Hans; Orban, Laszlo

2006-01-01

81

Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing fasciitis preceding herpes zoster  

PubMed Central

A 74-year-old white man presented with unilateral radicular pain extending across the left side of his chest and back. A diagnosis of postherpetic neuralgia, a sequela of herpes zoster, was made. Herpes zoster represents a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that lies dormant in patients with past chickenpox. Risk factors for the disease include advanced age, stress, immunodeficiency, and immunosuppression. Treatment of herpes zoster entails traditional antiviral medications, while prevention may be achieved with a new prophylactic vaccine.

Ha, Kelli Y.; Tyring, Stephen K.

2013-01-01

82

Spatio-temporal analysis of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 genetic diversity at a local scale.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), the causative agent of koi herpesvirus disease, is a major threat for carp populations in many countries worldwide, including Indonesia. It has been shown that many genotypes circulate worldwide, all highly related to one of the two known lineages U/I and J. In this study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution of CyHV-3 strains in a small enzootic area, the lake of Cirata (West Java, Indonesia). Of the 365 samples analysed, from clinical or asymptomatic fish, 244 were found positive for CyHV-3, suggesting a high occurrence of the virus. Genotyping of these viral specimens with a range of molecular markers revealed the presence of numerous haplotypes in the host population, all related to the J lineage. In single individuals, mixed-genotype infections occurred at high frequency. The present results demonstrate that polymorphic molecular markers are suitable to monitor the genetic evolution of a viral population in an enzootic area. PMID:22805046

Avarre, J-C; Santika, A; Bentenni, A; Zainun, Z; Madeira, J-P; Maskur, M; Bigarré, L; Caruso, D

2012-07-16

83

Integrated circoviral rep-like sequences in the genome of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Recently a new group of circoviruses have been detected in tissues of Barbel fish and European catfish in Hungary. In our study circovirus genomes were screened in eight additional fish species for the detection and characterization of circoviruses. Two species of these bore circoviral sequences based on conventional PCR assay targeting the replication-associated protein coding gene fragments. Interestingly, the methods successfully used before failed to amplify other parts of the circular viral genome, suggesting the presence of partial, integrated genetic elements in the genome of the host. The successfully sequenced fragments of the Indian rohu (Labeo rohita) encoded mutations which may cause frameshifts or termination in the coding region described previously in other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses presumed that integration of the viral genetic elements might have progressed concurrently or following the diversification of cyprinid fish. Further studies on the nature of whole circovirus genomes and integrated elements may help to understand their potential role and evolution in different fish species. PMID:23780219

Fehér, Enik?; Székely, Csaba; L?rincz, Márta; Cech, Gábor; Tuboly, Tamás; Singh, Hridaya Shanker; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia L

2013-06-19

84

Age and growth and maturity of southern Africa's largest cyprinid fish, the largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use specimens of the largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis, southern Africa's largest cyprinid [IUCN red-listed as Near Threatened (NT)], obtained from gillnet by-catch to describe aspects of its biology in order to assist future conservation and management decisions. Ninety three L. kimberleyensis were collected between March 2007 and May 2008 from Lake Gariep, South Africa. Labeobarbus kimberleyensis was present in 38% of all gillnet catches, but in low numbers (2% of the catch) and it contributed 8% to the catch by mass. Age was estimated using astericus otoliths. Growth increment formation on these otoliths was validated as annual using edge analysis and the mark-recapture of chemically tagged captive fish. Resultant analysis showed that the species is slow growing and the oldest aged fish was a 17 year, 690 mm fork length (L(F)) male. The smallest ripe female fish measured 394 mm L(F) and was 7+ years old and the smallest mature male was 337 mm L(F) and 5+ years old. Slow growth and late maturity make this species vulnerable to exploitation emphasizing the need for continued high conservation priority. PMID:22957869

Ellender, B R; Weyl, O L F; Winker, H

2012-08-17

85

A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems.

Chapman, Ben B.; Eriksen, Anders; Baktoft, Henrik; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P. Anders; Hulthen, Kaj; Bronmark, Christer; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Gr?nkjaer, Peter; Skov, Christian

2013-01-01

86

Answering Questions About Herpes in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Herpes during pregnancy is a common concern. Because one in every five women is infected with the herpes virus, it is likely that herpes may be a topic that will be raised during a prenatal class, or afterward in private. An expectant mother who has a history of herpes may have concerns about protecting her baby from this virus. She may also have concerns about her own health, relationship issues including the support of her husband and family, or how to communicate with her health-care provider and make the best choices for a safe birth experience. Her childbirth educator can be a source of support and empowerment.

Wood, Stacey

2011-01-01

87

Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.  

PubMed

Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. PMID:24012144

Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

2013-09-03

88

Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

Cummings, Anne L.

1999-01-01

89

Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

1992-01-01

90

Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

1985-01-01

91

The Heterogeneous Clinical Spectrum of Genital Herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: Most data of genital herpes have been collected in STD clinics in the USA where unrecognized forms accounted for 80% of HSV-2 infections. Our aim was to study the clinical features in an outpatient clinic of dermatology. Methods: The charts of 170 patients, previously monitored prospectively for a HIV prevalence study, with culture-confirmed genital herpes or herpetic

Stephan Lautenschlager; Alfred Eichmann

2001-01-01

92

Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

1985-01-01

93

Male primer endocrine responses to preovulatory female cyprinids under natural conditions in Sweden.  

PubMed

This study investigated two related aspects of male-female reproductive interactions in the family Cyprinidae: (1) whether ovulating female rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus (subfamily Leuciscinae) induce endocrine and gonadal priming responses in conspecific males, a phenomenon which has been described only in species from the subfamily Cyprininae such as goldfish, Carassius auratus, crucian carp Carassius carassius and common carp, Cyprinus carpio and (2) whether the stimuli mediating these responses are species-specific. Field studies of three sympatric European cyprinids, two leuciscins (S. erythrophthalmus and white bream Blicca bjoerkna) and one cyprinin (C. carassius), were conducted on fishes captured in Sweden in the spawning season and held in net pens under natural conditions. As previously reported in C. carassius, male S. erythrophthalmus increased milt (sperm and seminal fluid) volume and plasma concentrations of the sperm maturation hormone 4-pregnen-17,20?-diol-3-one (17,20?-P) when they were held with female S. erythrophthalmus induced to ovulate by injection of Ovaprim (GnRH analogue plus dopamine antagonist). Male S. erythrophthalmus had larger milt volumes than male C. carassius prior to and following exposure to ovulatory conspecifics, but exhibited a smaller proportional milt increase in response to stimulation, suggesting species differences in sperm allocation at spawning. The presence of female S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not affect milt volumes of C. carassius under two experimental conditions: (1) ovulating S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not increase the milt volumes of C. carassius and (2) S. erythrophthalmus and B. bjoerkna did not interfere with the milt volume increase induced in male C. carassius by ovulating conspecifics. These results suggest that, as in C. auratus, C. carassius and C. carpio (subfamily Cyprininae), female S. erythrophthalmus (subfamily Leuciscinae) release a preovulatory pheromone that exerts priming effects on male hormones and sperm allocation. The findings also indicate that C. carassius discriminate between the reproductive odours of conspecifics and heterospecifics. PMID:22220895

Stacey, N E; Van Der Kraak, G J; Olsén, K H

2012-01-01

94

Does interspecies hybridization affect the host specificity of parasites in cyprinid fish?  

PubMed Central

Background Host specificity varies among parasite species. Some parasites are strictly host-specific, others show a specificity for congeneric or non-congeneric phylogenetically related host species, whilst some others are non-specific (generalists). Two cyprinids, Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio, plus their respective hybrids were investigated for metazoan parasites. The aim of this study was to analyze whether interspecies hybridization affects host specificity. The different degrees of host specificity within a phylogenetic framework were taken into consideration (i.e. strict specialist, intermediate specialist, and intermediate generalist). Methods Fish were collected during harvesting the pond and identified using meristic traits and molecular markers. Metazoan parasite species were collected. Host specificity of parasites was determined using the following classification: strict specialist, intermediate specialist, intermediate generalist and generalist. Parasite species richness was compared between parental species and their hybrids. The effect of host species on abundance of parasites differing in host specificity was tested. Results Hybrids harbored more different parasite species but their total parasite abundance was lower in comparison with parental species. Interspecies hybridization affected the host specificity of ecto- and endoparasites. Parasite species exhibiting different degrees of host specificity for C. carpio and C. gibelio were also present in hybrids. The abundance of strict specialists of C. carpio was significantly higher in parental species than in hybrids. Intermediate generalists parasitizing C. carpio and C. gibelio as two phylogenetically closely related host species preferentially infected C. gibelio when compared to C. carpio, based on prevalence and maximum intensity of infection. Hybrids were less infected by intermediate generalists when compared to C. gibelio. Conclusions This finding does not support strict co-adaptation between host and parasite genotypes resulting in narrow host specificity, and showed that hybrid genotypes are susceptible to parasites exhibiting host specificity. The immune mechanisms specific to parental species might represent potential mechanisms explaining the low abundance of parasites in C. gibelio x C. carpio hybrids.

2013-01-01

95

Biomarker responses in cyprinids of the middle stretch of the River Po, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Fish belonging to three species of cyprinids, that is, barbel (Barbus plebejus), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), and Italian nase (Chondrostoma soeetta), were collected from two sites of the River Po, located upstream and downstream from the confluence of one of its middle-reach polluted tributaries, the River Lambro. The two groups of individuals caught for each species were analyzed and compared for several microsomal and cytosolic biochemical markers. The enzymatic activities assayed in fish liver included ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine-N-demethylase (APDM), uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the contents of reduced glutathione and nonprotein thiols were measured. Despite some differences among species, all microsomal activities (EROD, APDM, UDPGT) were found to be significantly induced in fish living downstream the River Lambro. With the exception of a higher GST enzyme activity of barbel from the downstream reach, no significant modification was evident in any of the tested cytosolic biomarkers. Results showed that barbel and nase better discriminated the two reaches of the River Po. In general, the alterations observed in feral fish are consistent with the results found in previous studies conducted with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under both laboratory and field conditions in the same middle reach of the River Po. All of the data indicate that the downstream tract of the main river is exposed to the load of pollutants transported by the River Lambro, including known inducers such as polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The latter were analyzed in sediments sampled at the two sites of fish collection, and the downstream sediment showed the highest concentrations of PAHs, although their levels are comparable to those present in moderately polluted locations. Regardless of the site of exposure, barbel seem to be characterized by more efficient antioxidant defenses.

Vigano, L. [National Council of Research, Milan (Italy). Water Research Inst.; Arillo, A.; Melodia, F. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Inst. of Zoology; Arlati, P.; Monti, C. [Presidio Multizonale Igiene Prevenzione, Lecco (Italy)

1998-03-01

96

Comparison of genetic population structure between two cyprinids, Hemigrammocypris rasborella and Pseudorasbora pumila subsp., in the Ise Bay basin, central Honshu, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two small cyprinid fishes, Hemigrammocypris rasborella and Pseudorasbora pumila subsp. (sensu Nakamura 1963), inhabit similar habitats and often occur sympatrically in the Ise Bay basin, central Honshu\\u000a Island, Japan. Their genetic population structures were revealed, using sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and then compared. Hemigrammocypris rasborella populations in the Ise Bay area formed a monophyletic group that

Katsutoshi Watanabe; Seiichi Mori

2008-01-01

97

Muscle Paralysis in Herpes Zoster  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster may, in some instances, cause motor paralysis as well as the usual sensory and cutaneous manifestations. It is suggested that the presence of electromyographic denervation potentials be used as the criterion of muscle paresis in order to avoid mistaking atrophy of disuse for true lower motor neuron disease. Use of the proper physical therapy procedures hastens the recovery of function and may serve to retard denervation atrophy and fibrosis in patients with muscle paralysis. ImagesFigure 1 (Case 1).Figure 1 (Case 1).

Rubin, David; Fusfeld, Robert D.

1965-01-01

98

EPIDEMIC ENCEPHALITIS AND SIMPLE HERPES  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to explain the state of our knowledge of the etiology of epidemic encephalitis, and especially to draw a line of demarcation between the established virus of simple herpes and the hypothetical virus of epidemic encephalitis. It had already been shown that the experimental observations on rabbits do no suffice to prove the identity of the herpes with the encephalitis virus. The discussion of the subject in this paper shows that identity cannot be postulated on the basis of the performed guinea pig experiments. Attention has been drawn to the significant fact that there is lack of harmony in the positive results of those investigators who believe that the incitants of epidemic encephalitis have been discovered. An attempt has been made to attribute some of the discrepancies reported by these investigators either to accidental and contaminating microbic agents, or to the uncovering of virulent agents preexisting in a latent state in the animals employed for inoculation, the existence of which was not previously known or suspected. Since past experience leads us to believe in a single incitant for widespread epidemic diseases, it is probable that, when certainly discovered, the microbe of epidemic encephalitis will prove to be simple and not multiple. The direct corollary to this point of view is that up to the present, the etiology of epidemic encephalitis has not been determined.

Flexner, Simon

1927-01-01

99

Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing fasciitis preceding herpes zoster.  

PubMed

A 74-year-old white man presented with unilateral radicular pain extending across the left side of his chest and back. A diagnosis of postherpetic neuralgia, a sequela of herpes zoster, was made. Herpes zoster represents a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that lies dormant in patients with past chickenpox. Risk factors for the disease include advanced age, stress, immunodeficiency, and immunosuppression. Treatment of herpes zoster entails traditional antiviral medications, while prevention may be achieved with a new prophylactic vaccine. PMID:23382617

Ha, Kelli Y; Tyring, Stephen K

2013-01-01

100

Herpes Virus Therapy of Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To improve the efficacy of intravenous administration of herpes vectors for metastatic prostate cancer we conducted experiments in the Tramp model system using clinically applicable agents that have been previously shown to transiently inactivate compleme...

R. L. Martuza

2003-01-01

101

Herpes zoster (shingles) on the arm (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... a picture of herpes zoster (shingles) on the arm. Shingles are caused by the same virus that ... skin. This distribution pattern, seen here on the arm, follows a dermatome (see the "dermatomes" picture).

102

Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Infection with herpes simplex is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Because the infection is common in women of reproductive age it can be contracted and transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and the newborn. Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in the uterus, it occurs frequently during the transmission delivery. The greatest risk of transmission to the fetus and the newborn occurs in case of an initial maternal infection contracted in the second half of pregnancy. The risk of transmission of maternal-fetal-neonatal herpes simplex can be decreased by performing a treatment with antiviral drugs or resorting to a caesarean section in some specific cases. The purpose of this paper is to provide recommendations on management of herpes simplex infections in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission from mother to fetus.

Straface, Gianluca; Selmin, Alessia; Zanardo, Vincenzo; De Santis, Marco; Ercoli, Alfredo; Scambia, Giovanni

2012-01-01

103

Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Infection with herpes simplex is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Because the infection is common in women of reproductive age it can be contracted and transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and the newborn. Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in the uterus, it occurs frequently during the transmission delivery. The greatest risk of transmission to the fetus and the newborn occurs in case of an initial maternal infection contracted in the second half of pregnancy. The risk of transmission of maternal-fetal-neonatal herpes simplex can be decreased by performing a treatment with antiviral drugs or resorting to a caesarean section in some specific cases. The purpose of this paper is to provide recommendations on management of herpes simplex infections in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission from mother to fetus. PMID:22566740

Straface, Gianluca; Selmin, Alessia; Zanardo, Vincenzo; De Santis, Marco; Ercoli, Alfredo; Scambia, Giovanni

2012-04-11

104

Glioblastoma Mimicking Herpes Simplex Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

We report a case of 70-year-old man with glioblastoma presenting as acute encephalitic illness. The patient exhibited sudden onset of cognitive impairment and headache for 2 days. Initial brain MRI showed left temporal lobe hyperintensity, and cerebrospinal fluid cytology revealed a mild pleocytosis. The patient had initially improved after medical treatment with a presumptive diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). After 8 months, the patient complained of recurrent seizures. A follow-up brain MRI revealed marked increases in size and surrounding perilesional edema in the left temporal lesion on T2-weighted images and a new contrast-enhancing lesion on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. Stereotactic brain biopsy revealed a glioblastoma. The atypical encephalitic presentation of glioblastoma should be considered if definitive evidence for the diagnosis of HSE cannot be obtained.

Choi, Kang-Ho; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Cho, Ki-Hyun

2011-01-01

105

Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Simplex Viruses. Specialty Laboratories, Use and Interpretation of Laboratory Tests Books [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.specialtylabs.com/books/display.asp?id=367 through http://www.specialtylabs.com . (2001). ...

106

Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Birth Control, Pregnancy & STDs > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

107

Preliminary Evidence for Herpes labialis Recurrence following Experimentally Induced Disgust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: After primary orofacial infection with the herpes simplex virus (type 1, HSV-1), up to 40% of HSV seropositive subjects suffer recurrent herpes infections which are characterized by painful erosions of the involved skin mainly around the lips (herpes labialis). Besides various other factors, there is growing evidence suggesting that psychosocial factors might trigger HSV. The present study was designed

Angelika Buske-Kirschbaum; Andrea Geiben; Cornelia Wermke; Karl-Martin Pirke; Dirk Hellhammer

2001-01-01

108

Concentration of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish ( Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta sp.) from the Kor River (Iran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of heavy metals in aquatic animals mainly occurs due to industrial contamination. In this study, the concentrations\\u000a of four heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic) in organs of two cyprinid fish and in water collected from three\\u000a sections of the Kor River, Iran were determined using the inductively coupled plasma method. Pathological and hormonal changes\\u000a due to metal

Mansour Ebrahimi; Mahnaz Taherianfard

2010-01-01

109

Current status and the need for immediate conservation of the Red Lined Torpedo Fish, an endangered and endemic cyprinid from Western Ghats (global biodiversity hotspot), India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A ‘Boom and Bust’ fishery and associated decline in wild stocks of the red lined torpedo fish, Puntius denisonii, Day an endangered and endemic cyprinid, from the streams of Western Ghats – a global biodiversity hotspot in peninsular India is documented. Study results based on extensive field surveys, traditional knowledge,and,published,data reveal that the species,is being,exploited on a,large scale from

Rajeev Raghavan; G. Prasad; Anvar Ali

110

Socializing makes thick-skinned individuals: on the density of epidermal alarm substance cells in cyprinid fish, the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cyprinid fish, density of epidermal club cells (i.e. alarm substance cells) has been found to vary between lakes with different\\u000a predator fauna. Because predators can be labelled with chemical cues from prey, we questioned if club cell density could be\\u000a controlled indirectly by predators releasing prey cues. In particular, we suspected a possible feedback mechanism between\\u000a chemical alarm signals

Ole B. Stabell; Anne Vegusdal

2010-01-01

111

Herpes simplex ulcerative esophagitis in healthy children.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus is a common cause of ulcerative esophagitis in the immunocompromised or debilitated host. Despite a high prevalence of primary and recurrent Herpes simplex virus infection in the general population, Herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) appears to be rare in the immunocompetent host. We report three cases of endoscopically-diagnosed HSVE in apparently immunocompetent children; the presentation was characterized by acute onset of fever, odynophagia, and dysphagia. In two cases, the diagnosis was confirmed histologically by identification of herpes viral inclusions and culture of the virus in the presence of inflammation. The third case was considered to have probable HSVE based on the presence of typical cold sore on his lip, typical endoscopic finding, histopathological evidence of inflammation in esophageal biopsies and positive serologic evidence of acute Herpes simplex virus infection. Two cases received an intravenous course of acyclovir and one had self-limited recovery. All three cases had normal immunological workup and excellent health on long-term follow-up. PMID:21912064

Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A; Fagih, Mosa A

112

The psychological impact of genital herpes stigma.  

PubMed

This article reviews the psychological consequences of genital herpes infection through the lens of a recently proposed framework for conceptualizing concealable stigmas. We incorporate research on identity, stigma, and the connection between psychological and physical health to outline how negative stigma-related psychological consequences perpetuate distress associated with genital herpes. Our review of the research suggests a model linking negative affect and poor coping to frequent recurrences of genital herpes outbreaks. Frequent outbreaks, in turn, increase the salience of the stigma, reinforcing a stigmatized self-schema, thereby creating negative psychological consequences, continuing the cycle. We conclude by discussing the implications of this model for future research and mental health treatment. PMID:20656766

Merin, Abigail; Pachankis, John E

2010-07-23

113

[Complete ophthalmoplegia following outburst of herpes zoster].  

PubMed

An 86-year-old female presented with eye pain, complete ophthalmoplegia, a visual acuity of 1/60, vitritis, ptosis, displacement of the eye, and a partially dilated pupil unresponsive to light. A computed tomography of the cerebrum was normal. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus was suspected and treatment with i.v. acyclovir and prednisolone was commenced, which led to a gradual improvement of the clinical condition. Complete ophthalmoplegia due to herpes zoster ophthalmicus is a very rare condition and no evidence-based treatment is available. The prognosis is very good with almost complete remission of the symptoms within 18 months. PMID:22735124

Bjerrum, Søren Solborg; Hessellund, Anders

2012-06-25

114

Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

2003-01-01

115

[Folliculitis barbae in herpes simplex infection].  

PubMed

A 60-year-old male athlete developed a folliculitis in the beard region after several competitions. After identification of herpes simplex antigen within the lesions, systemic therapy with acyclovir led to rapid improvement. In folliculitis resistant to antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy, viral and mycotic infections as well as eosinophilic folliculitis should be considered as differential diagnostic possibilities. PMID:14749868

Löhrer, R; Rübben, A

2004-01-01

116

Spinal Cord Involvement in Uncomplicated Herpes Zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively evaluated herpes zoster patients during the acute phase of the disease for central nervous system involvement. Of 24 patients with spinal zoster, 13 (54%) had spinal cord abnormality, which was asymptomatic in 12 of the 13. Age but not lack of acyclovir treatment was associated with such involvement. In all but 2, neurological involvement resolved within 6 months.

ISRAEL STEINER; BETTINA STEINER-BIRMANNS; NETTA LEVIN; KLILA HERSHKO; ISABELLE KORN-LUBETZKI; IFTAH BIRAN

2001-01-01

117

Orbital apex syndrome in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.  

PubMed

Orbital apex syndrome is a rare manifestation of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Herein we report on a case of orbital apex syndrome secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. A 75 year-old male complained of vision loss, conjunctival hyperemia and proptosis on the left eye, was referred to our clinic. Visual acuity was 5/10 Snellen lines and he had conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, minimal nuclear cataract and proptosis on the left eye. A diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was demonstrated firstly. The patient received oral and topical corticosteroids, antiinflammatory and antibiotic agents. On day 2, vesiculopustular lesions were observed, Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus was diagnosed and corticosteroid treatment stopped, oral acyclovir treatment initiated. Two days later, total ophthalmoplegia, ptosis and significant visual loss were observed on the left. The diagnosis of orbital apex syndrome was considered and the patient commenced on an intravenous acyclovir treatment. After the improvement of acute symptoms, a tapering dose of oral cortisone treatment initiated to accelarate the recovery of ophthalmoplegia. At 5-month follow-up, ptosis and ocular motility showed improvement. VA did not significantly improve because of cataract and choroidal detachment on the left. We conclude that ophthalmoplegia secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus responds favourably to intravenous acyclovir and steroids. PMID:22830066

Arda, Hatice; Mirza, Ertugrul; Gumus, Koray; Oner, Ayse; Karakucuk, Sarper; S?rakaya, Ender

2012-07-09

118

Orbital Apex Syndrome in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus  

PubMed Central

Orbital apex syndrome is a rare manifestation of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Herein we report on a case of orbital apex syndrome secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. A 75 year-old male complained of vision loss, conjunctival hyperemia and proptosis on the left eye, was referred to our clinic. Visual acuity was 5/10 Snellen lines and he had conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, minimal nuclear cataract and proptosis on the left eye. A diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was demonstrated firstly. The patient received oral and topical corticosteroids, antiinflammatory and antibiotic agents. On day 2, vesiculopustular lesions were observed, Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus was diagnosed and corticosteroid treatment stopped, oral acyclovir treatment initiated. Two days later, total ophthalmoplegia, ptosis and significant visual loss were observed on the left. The diagnosis of orbital apex syndrome was considered and the patient commenced on an intravenous acyclovir treatment. After the improvement of acute symptoms, a tapering dose of oral cortisone treatment initiated to accelarate the recovery of ophthalmoplegia. At 5-month follow-up, ptosis and ocular motility showed improvement. VA did not significantly improve because of cataract and choroidal detachment on the left. We conclude that ophthalmoplegia secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus responds favourably to intravenous acyclovir and steroids.

Arda, Hatice; Mirza, Ertugrul; Gumus, Koray; Oner, Ayse; Karakucuk, Sarper; S?rakaya, Ender

2012-01-01

119

Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures…

Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

2003-01-01

120

Psychotherapy with Patients Suffering from Genital Herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological consequences of genital herpes on five interrelated life areas: emotional life, sexual functioning, interpersonal functioning, self-concept and work\\/school performance are discussed. These consequences are placed in the context of the ethical dilemmas, social stigmas, and the dynamic and developmental issues which can complicate an individual's response to this disease. Psychological techniques, including information and counselling, cognitive therapy, assertiveness

Sanford Drob

1985-01-01

121

Herpes: A dilemma for client and clinician  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronicity of the disease and the fact that no cure exists has the effect of significantly altering the quality of life of its victims. A knowledgeable and sensitive nurse can reduce the anxiety and stress associated with having this disease through client education, counseling, and supportive physical care.Herpes genitalia is a serious sexually transmitted disease. Five million Americans have

Barbara J. Edlund; Gaye W. Poteet

1987-01-01

122

Characterization, tissue distribution and regulation of agouti-related protein (AgRP) in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti).  

PubMed

Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an important neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding in both mammals and fish. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA sequence for AgRP in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti). The AgRP gene, encoding 126-amino acids, was strongly expressed in the brain. The AgRP gene was detected in embryos at developmental stages. Further, its mRNA was detectable in unfertilized eggs. An experiment was conducted to determine the expression profile of AgRP during short-term and long-term fasting of the hypothalamus. The expression level of AgRP in unfed fish was significantly increased at 3 and 4h post-fasting than in fed fish but did not affect AgRP mRNA expression after 14 days fasting. Overall, our results suggest that AgRP is a conserved peptide that might be involved in the regulation of short-term feeding and other physiological function in Schizothorax prenanti. PMID:23774689

Wei, RongBin; Yuan, DengYue; Wang, Tao; Zhou, ChaoWei; Lin, FangJun; Chen, Hu; Wu, HongWei; Yang, ShiYong; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ju; Gao, YunDi; Li, ZhiQiong

2013-06-15

123

Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy.  

PubMed

Sixteen specimens of female crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.), during the breeding season, were investigated for post-mortem and full diagnostic examination during a mortality outbreak in a tributary stream of the Arno River in Tuscany in 2011. Necropsy highlighted the presence of a swollen anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized by necrosis of the secondary lamellae, congestion and multifocal lamellar fusion. The kidney showed necrosis, oedema, fibrin exudation and areas of haemorrhages, while in the spleen the main lesions were by multifocal necrosis of the lymphoid tissue. In the gills, transmission electron microscopy revealed herpesvirus-like particles, subsequently identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus-2 (CyHV-2) with a nested PCR protocol. Although it was not possible to attribute a pathogenic role to CyHV-2 in this mortality event, the identification of this herpesvirus in crucian carp increases the concern about its potential role in this species. PMID:23488630

Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Cocumelli, C; Vendramin, N; Toffan, A; Eleni, C; Siemoni, N; Fischetti, R; Susini, F

2013-03-11

124

Chromosomes of European cyprinid fishes: comparative cytogenetics and chromosomal characteristics of ribosomal DNAs in nine Iberian chondrostomine species (Leuciscinae).  

PubMed

Karyotypes and chromosomal features of both minor and major ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) were investigated in nine Iberian chondrostomine species by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. All species presented invariably diploid values of 2n = 50 and the characteristic leuciscin karyotype pattern with 6-7 metacentric (m), 15-16 submetacentric (sm) and 3-4 subtelo- to acrocentric (st/a) chromosome pairs. The largest chromosome pair of the set was st/a as typical of Leuciscinae and no heteromorphic chromosomes could be unequivocally associated to sex determination. Achondrostoma occidentale and Pseudochondrostoma willkommii were cytogenetically characterized for the first time while Achondrostoma arcasii and Iberochondrostoma lemmingii were revisited regarding previous karyotype descriptions. Remarkable variability in number and location was observed for both molecular chromosome markers, especially within Achondrostoma and Iberochondrostoma genera. Clusters of 5S rDNA were mostly terminally associated to st/a chromosomes varying from four to eight positive signals, whilst NOR sites directly detected by the 45S rDNA probe were identified in sm chromosomes varying from three to six independent clusters. Frequent population bottlenecks in Mediterranean-type semiarid habitats were hypothesized to explain not only such extensive polymorphism which seems unique among leuciscin cyprinids but also the increased probability of fixation of rDNA translocation events. PMID:23329299

Pereira, Carla Sofia A; Ráb, Petr; Collares-Pereira, Maria João

2013-01-18

125

Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea  

PubMed Central

Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria.

Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

2012-01-01

126

76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device...amending the special controls for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay...serological tests to identify antibodies to herpes simplex virus in serum, and the...

2011-08-09

127

75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device...to amend the special controls for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay...serological tests to identify antibodies to herpes simplex virus in serum, and the...

2010-09-28

128

Reevaluating herpes simplex virus hemifusion.  

PubMed

Membrane fusion induced by enveloped viruses proceeds through the actions of viral fusion proteins. Once activated, viral fusion proteins undergo large protein conformational changes to execute membrane fusion. Fusion is thought to proceed through a "hemifusion" intermediate in which the outer membrane leaflets of target and viral membranes mix (lipid mixing) prior to fusion pore formation, enlargement, and completion of fusion. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) requires four glycoproteins-glycoprotein D (gD), glycoprotein B (gB), and a heterodimer of glycoprotein H and L (gH/gL)-to accomplish fusion. gD is primarily thought of as a receptor-binding protein and gB as a fusion protein. The role of gH/gL in fusion has remained enigmatic. Despite experimental evidence that gH/gL may be a fusion protein capable of inducing hemifusion in the absence of gB, the recently solved crystal structure of HSV-2 gH/gL has no structural homology to any known viral fusion protein. We found that in our hands, all HSV entry proteins-gD, gB, and gH/gL-were required to observe lipid mixing in both cell-cell- and virus-cell-based hemifusion assays. To verify that our hemifusion assay was capable of detecting hemifusion, we used glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked hemagglutinin (HA), a variant of the influenza virus fusion protein, HA, known to stall the fusion process before productive fusion pores are formed. Additionally, we found that a mutant carrying an insertion within the short gH cytoplasmic tail, 824L gH, is incapable of executing hemifusion despite normal cell surface expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that HSV gH/gL may not function as a fusion protein and that all HSV entry glycoproteins are required for both hemifusion and fusion. The previously described gH 824L mutation blocks gH/gL function prior to HSV-induced lipid mixing. PMID:20844038

Jackson, Julia O; Longnecker, Richard

2010-09-15

129

Reevaluating Herpes Simplex Virus Hemifusion ?  

PubMed Central

Membrane fusion induced by enveloped viruses proceeds through the actions of viral fusion proteins. Once activated, viral fusion proteins undergo large protein conformational changes to execute membrane fusion. Fusion is thought to proceed through a “hemifusion” intermediate in which the outer membrane leaflets of target and viral membranes mix (lipid mixing) prior to fusion pore formation, enlargement, and completion of fusion. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) requires four glycoproteins—glycoprotein D (gD), glycoprotein B (gB), and a heterodimer of glycoprotein H and L (gH/gL)—to accomplish fusion. gD is primarily thought of as a receptor-binding protein and gB as a fusion protein. The role of gH/gL in fusion has remained enigmatic. Despite experimental evidence that gH/gL may be a fusion protein capable of inducing hemifusion in the absence of gB, the recently solved crystal structure of HSV-2 gH/gL has no structural homology to any known viral fusion protein. We found that in our hands, all HSV entry proteins—gD, gB, and gH/gL—were required to observe lipid mixing in both cell-cell- and virus-cell-based hemifusion assays. To verify that our hemifusion assay was capable of detecting hemifusion, we used glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked hemagglutinin (HA), a variant of the influenza virus fusion protein, HA, known to stall the fusion process before productive fusion pores are formed. Additionally, we found that a mutant carrying an insertion within the short gH cytoplasmic tail, 824L gH, is incapable of executing hemifusion despite normal cell surface expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that HSV gH/gL may not function as a fusion protein and that all HSV entry glycoproteins are required for both hemifusion and fusion. The previously described gH 824L mutation blocks gH/gL function prior to HSV-induced lipid mixing.

Jackson, Julia O.; Longnecker, Richard

2010-01-01

130

Rapid Communication Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection and prevents ocular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular infections with herpes simplex virus 1 can lead to corneal scarring and blindness, with herpes keratitis being the major infectious cause of blindness. There is currently no clinically approved vaccine and nearly all developmental vaccines are targeted against HSV-2 and genital herpes. We tested the ability of an HSV-2 replication-defective virus, a genital herpes vaccine candidate, to protect against

Allison L. van Lint; Ernesto Torres-Lopez; David M. Knipe

131

PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS-3 PULMONARY LESIONS ARE NOT ENHANCED BY BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI-3) is a common respiratory pathogen of cattle and sheep. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common bovine pathogen that may enhance respiratory disease. Two groups of neonatal lambs were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with PI-3/BVDV or PI-3 alone. Both...

132

Herpes zoster duplex bilateralis in an immunocompetent host.  

PubMed

Varicella zoster virus causes both chicken pox and herpes zoster. The phenomenon of herpes zoster occurring concurrently in two non-contiguous dermatomes involving different halves of the body is termed herpes zoster duplex bilateralis (HZDB). Few cases, reported in the literature, were seen in either an immunosuppressed host or in the older age group. Here we present a case of HZDB in an immunocompetent host, probably the first in India. PMID:23130258

Gahalaut, Pratik; Chauhan, Sandhya

2012-01-01

133

Herpes zoster laryngitis accompanied by ramsay hunt syndrome.  

PubMed

The most common presentation of herpes zoster in the head and neck region is called Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS), which rarely accompanies multiple cranial neuropathy. Herpes zoster also involves the mucous membrane of the tongue, palate, pharynx, and larynx. Herpes zoster infection of the larynx accompanied by Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cranial polyneuropathy is extremely rare, with only few reported cases in the literature. At the time of this report, a review of the medical literature disclosed 4 reported cases of herpes zoster laryngitis accompanied by Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Herein, we present 2 additional cases and report the clinical outcome of cranial polyneuropathy with a review of the literature. PMID:24036828

Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Joo, Young Eun; Lim, Sang Chul

2013-09-01

134

Evidence for herpes simplex viral latency in the human cornea.  

PubMed Central

Patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for prior herpes simplex keratitis (group A) and corneal disease unrelated to herpes simplex (group B) were investigated to assess whether the cornea is a site for herpes simplex viral latency. All patients were seropositive for herpes simplex viral antibody. Virus was isolated from the tear film postoperatively in one patient and on cocultivation from the cornea of another patient. Herpes simplex viral DNA, however, was detected in the corneas of all patients from group A and half of those from group B by means of the polymerase chain reaction and primers to three well separated regions of the viral genome. Three donor corneas had no evidence of herpes simplex viral DNA. Using RNA polymerase chain reaction, we found evidence of a latency associated transcript and also that of a glycoprotein C coding transcript in two corneas, indicating viral replication. Nine corneas had evidence of a latency associated transcript but no glycoprotein C transcript, which suggests that herpes simplex virus may be maintained in a latent state in the corneas of patients with prior herpes simplex keratitis and in some patients with corneal disease unrelated to the herpes simplex virus.

Kaye, S B; Lynas, C; Patterson, A; Risk, J M; McCarthy, K; Hart, C A

1991-01-01

135

Herpes Simplex Virus 2 ICP0- Mutant Viruses Are Avirulent and Immunogenic: Implications for a Genital Herpes Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0? mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0? mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0? mutant viruses were constructed

William P. Halford; Ringo Püschel; Brandon Rakowski; Darren P. Martin

2010-01-01

136

Thymopentin treatment of herpes simplex infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Twenty-seven patients suffering from long-standing, severe, recurrent herpes simplex (14 labial and 13 genital) who had not\\u000a responded adequately to prior therapy were recruited for this open, monitored study. They were treated with thymopentin 50\\u000a mg subcutaneously three times weekly for a period of 6 weeks. Clinical controls were performed once a week and then again\\u000a 6 weeks after cessation

J. DeMaubeugea; E. Hanekeb; D. Djawaric; K. Wolffd; G. Stingld; L. Moline; E. Schöpff; R. Stengelf; H. Degreefg; E. Panconesih; B. Wüthrichi; K. Bollaj

1985-01-01

137

New concepts in understanding genital herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is a lifelong infection that causes recurrent genital ulcers and, rarely, disseminated and visceral\\u000a disease. HSV-1 infection is an increasingly important cause of genital ulcers. HSV infections are the most common cause of\\u000a genital ulcers in adults, but acquisition and chronic infection are more commonly asymptomatic than symptomatic. Both the\\u000a symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of HSV

Joshua T. Schiffer; Lawrence Corey

2009-01-01

138

Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one individuals with recurrent genital herpes were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control. Each treatment condition contained two 5-member groups, and the waiting-list condition contained 11 members. Six consecutive weekly 90-min group treatment sessions were conducted for subjects in the first two conditions, whereas those in the waiting-list control condition were offered

David J. Longo; George A. Clum; Nancy J. Yaeger

1988-01-01

139

Neuromorphological aspects of experimental herpes infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

electron microscopic investigations in different variants of animal infection. Materials and Methods. The investigations were carded out in 233 white mongrel mice, 8-12 weeks of age, weighing 8-15 g, and 15 chinchilla rabbits, weighing 2.5-3 kg. The intracerebral and intradermal methods were used to infect the mice; the corneal and intraneural methods were used for the rabbits. Herpes simplex virus

A. A. Mikhailenko; B. S. Glushkov; L. N. Adel'son; T. Ya. Milovanova

1991-01-01

140

Effects of Caffeine on Herpes Simplex Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary At concentrations greater than 1 mg\\/ml, caffeine inhibited plaque formation by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), suppressed growth of HSV-1 at various steps of the replicative cycle, but did not inactivate virus infectivity. These effects were independent of each other and persisted through completion of virus replication, as determined by one-step growth studies. Some replication steps appeared to

Kimiyasu Shiraki; Fred Rapp

1988-01-01

141

Down-regulation of the cyprinid herpesvirus-3 annotated genes in cultured cells maintained at restrictive high temperature.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, in the order Herpesvirales. It causes a fatal disease in carp and koi fish. The disease is seasonal and is active when water temperatures ranges from 18 to 28 °C. Little is known about how and where the virus is preserved between the permissive seasons. The hallmark of the herpesviruses is their ability to become latent, persisting in the host in an apparently inactive state for varying periods of time. Hence, it could be expected that CyHV-3 enter a latent period. CyHV-3 has so far been shown to persist in fish maintained under restrictive temperatures, while shifting the fish to permissive conditions reactivates the virus. Previously, we demonstrated that cultured cells infected with CyHV-3 at 22 °C and subsequently transferred to a restrictive temperature of 30 °C preserve the virus for 30 days. The present report shows that cultured carp cells maintained and exposed to CyHV-3 at 30 °C are abortively infected; that is, autonomous viral DNA synthesis is hampered and the viral genome is not multiplied. Under these conditions, 91 of the 156 viral annotated ORFs were initially transcribed. These transcripts were down-regulated and gradually shut off over 18 days post-infection, while two viral transcripts encoded by ORFs 114 and 115 were preserved in the infected cells for 18 days p.i. These experiments, carried out in cultured cells, suggest that fish could be infected at a high non-permissive temperature and harbor the viral genome without producing viral particles. PMID:22841492

Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

2012-07-25

142

Reservoirs of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) DNA in sediments of natural lakes and ponds.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is a lethal DNA virus that infects common carp and koi. It has caused outbreak of the disease within both aquaculture and natural environmental ecosystems. However, there is not enough understanding of the distribution of CyHV-3 in the natural environments, partly because there is no suitable quantification method. In this study, we tested CyHV-3 extraction methods from sediment and then compared its abundance between sediment and water using real-time PCR. Sediment samples were taken from lake and pond, and total viral DNA was extracted using the viral elution method recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (manual method), as well as a commercial DNA extraction kit for soil (commercial kit method) before PCR detection. 7 of 12 (58%) and 5 of 10 (50%) sediment samples showed PCR positive signal for CyHV-3 DNA using the manual method and the commercial kit, respectively, and consistent results were obtained from the samples using the manual method between two independent primer sets. The quantification of CyHV-3 DNA in natural sediment using the manual method and external standard virus revealed that its concentration was 1.2×10(4) to 3.3×10(5) copies DNA/kg. The concentration in sediments was 46-1238 times higher than that in water from the same location, suggesting that sediment could act as a reservoir for CyHV-3 in natural freshwater environments. This is the first report of the existence of CyHV-3 in the sediment of a natural lake or pond. PMID:21983526

Honjo, Mie N; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2011-09-21

143

Growth of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in cell culture and experimental infection of goldfish Carassius auratus.  

PubMed

Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis has caused great economic damage to goldfish Carassius auratus aquaculture in Japan. The existence of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), the causative agent, has also been reported from several other countries. To prevent spread to other areas, basic virological information such as viral kinetics in infected fish is essential. Experimental infection trials using reliably prepared CyHV-2 for defining viral kinetics are difficult to carry out because successful and sustainable propagation of this virus in cell culture has previously been limited. Here we describe a method for sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in cell culture, and the results of fish infection experiments using the propagated virus. We found that goldfish fin (GFF) cells and standard Ryukin Takafumi (SRTF) cells established from goldfish fin can be used for continuous propagation of CyHV-2. Experimental infections using 2 varieties of goldfish, Ryukin and Edonishiki, were performed with the virus passaged 7 times in GFF cells. In transmission experiments with water temperature at 20°C, cumulative mortality was 30% in Ryukin infected by immersion, and 90 and 100% in Edonishiki and Ryukin intraperitoneally injected with the virus, respectively. In an experiment carried out at 25°C, 90% of Edonishiki challenged by immersion died. PCR detection of viral DNA from the organs of infected fish showed that systemic infection occurs and also that the kidney is a main viral multiplication site. Moreover, CyHV-2 was successfully re-isolated in GFF cells from the dead fish. PMID:23999703

Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Ozaki, Akiyuki; Sano, Motohiko; Fukuda, Hideo; Ototake, Mitsuru

2013-09-01

144

Acute toxicity, respiratory reaction, and sensitivity of three cyprinid fish species caused by exposure to four heavy metals.  

PubMed

Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg(2+) to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L(-1), 0.23 mg L(-1), and 0.10 mg L(-1), respectively; of Cu(2+)0.17 mg L(-1), 0.09 mg L(-1), and 0.12 mg L(-1) respectively; of Cd(2+)6.5 mg L(-1), 18.47 mg L(-1), 5.36 mg L(-1), respectively; and of Zn(2+)44.48 mg L(-1), 31.37 mg L(-1), and 12.74 mg L(-1), respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd(2+). Zn(2+) had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L(-1), 0.046 mg L(-1), 2.142 mg L(-1), and 0.633 mg L(-1) for Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+), respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor. PMID:23755209

Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

2013-06-03

145

Sexual disruption in a second species of wild cyprinid fish (the gudgeon, Gobio gobio) in United Kingdom freshwaters.  

PubMed

To establish whether the intersex condition seen in the roach (Rutilus rutilus) in United Kingdom (UK) rivers was species specific or a more general phenomenon in fish, evidence for sexual disruption was sought in a second cyprinid species, the gudgeon (Gobio gobio). Gudgeon were collected from the Rivers Aire and Lea (at locations that receive high-volume discharges of sewage treatment works [STW] effluent and that contain intersex roach) and from two still waters, and their gonads were examined histologically for evidence of intersexuality (the simultaneous presence of oocytes and testicular tissue). Intersex gonads were found at all sites, with the highest incidences occurring at one of the still waters (Lakeside Fisheries: 15%) and at sites on the River Aire (Thwaite Weir, Silsden Bridge, and Knostrop: 14, 13, and 12%, respectively). In the River Lea and Longton Park Lake, the incidence of intersexuality in gudgeon was 6%. In most cases, intersex gonads were characterized by a few primary oocytes/gonad section in an otherwise normal testis. However, at some sites on the River Aire (Thwaite Weir and Knostrop), the intersex condition was more severe. At Thwaite Weir, for example, more than half of the gonad in 40% of the intersex fish was comprised of ovarian tissue. Elevated concentrations of plasma vitellogenin both in male and in intersex fish indicated that fish had been exposed to estrogen(s). Some of the gudgeon were found at sites several kilometers downstream of any point discharge of STW effluent; therefore, the results likely are representative of this species in wild populations found in typical UK river ecosystems. Together with the findings in the roach, these data on the gudgeon confirm that sexual disruption in fish in UK rivers is not species specific. PMID:11764169

van Aerle, R; Nolan, T M; Jobling, S; Christiansen, L B; Sumpter, J P; Tyler, C R

2001-12-01

146

Early Life Stages and Life Histories of Cyprinid Fish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: with Emphasis on Spawning by Splittail, 'Pogonichthys macrolepidotus'. Volume 32. Tracy Fish Facility Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dichotomous keys were developed from examination of preserved and live specimens to identify the early life stages for 11 species of cyprinid fish (minnows) residing in Suisun Bay (the Bay) and the extended area associated with the Sacramento-San Joaquin ...

J. C. S. Wang R. C. Reyes

2007-01-01

147

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Fulminant Hepatitis Successfully Treated with Acyclovir  

PubMed Central

Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is characterized by progressive multiple organ failure and high mortality rates up to 85% for untreated neonates. It can result from infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2. We report the first known case of disseminated neonatal herpes associated with fulminant liver failure caused by HSV-2 who survived without liver transplant.

Abuhasna, Said D.; Shihab, Zuhair M.; Al Niyadi, Shaikha M.; Tatari, Hossam M.; Al Jundi, Amer H.; Atwa, Khalid H.

2012-01-01

148

Variability, Structural Glycoproteins, and Classification of Herpes Simplex Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

HERPES simplex is an infectious disease of man caused by a virus once known by the same name but which is now euphemistically known as herpesvirus hominis1. A characteristic of this disease is localization to particular parts of the body, frequently on the skin and near the lip, cornea, thigh or genitals. Immunological analysis2 of herpes viruses isolated from a

Bernard Roizman; John M. Keller; Patricia G. Spear

1970-01-01

149

Community and Patient Values for Preventing Herpes Zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recently recommended a new vaccine against herpes zoster (shingles) for routine use in adults aged >=60 years. However, estimates of the cost effectiveness of this vaccine vary widely, in part because of gaps in the data on the value of preventing herpes zoster. Our aims were to (i) generate comprehensive information

Tracy A. Lieu; Ismael Ortega-Sanchez; G. Thomas Ray; Donna Rusinak; W. Katherine Yih; Peter W. Choo; Irene Shui; Ken Kleinman; Rafael Harpaz; Lisa A. Prosser

2008-01-01

150

Herpes Simplex Virus Latency in Isolated Human Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus is most probably maintained in the ganglion neurons of the peripheral nervous system of humans in a latent form that can reactivate to produce recurrent disease. As an approximation of this cell-virus interaction, we have constructed a herpes simplex virus latency in vitro model system using human fetus sensory neurons as the host cell. Human fetus neurons

Brian Wigdahl; Carol A. Smith; Helen M. Traglia; Fred Rapp

1984-01-01

151

Herpes genitalis - Topical zinc sulfate: An alternative therapeutic and modality  

PubMed Central

Background: Herpes genitalis is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections in the world caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2. All herpes viruses show latency. Herpes genitalis caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2 is recurrent in 55 and 90% of case respectively. Aims: To comparatively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of topical zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) in varying concentrations in herpes genitalis. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients clinically diagnosed as herpes genitalis and confirmed by Tzanck test were taken up for study and divided into 3 groups of 30 patients each which were applied topical ZnSO4 in concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% respectively for 3 months. Ten patients of herpes genitalis were kept as control in whom only distilled water was applied. Patients were followed up for a total period of 6 months for any recurrences. Results: Ten patients of group 1 (1% ZnSO4) showed recurrence, 6 patients in group 2 (2% ZnSO4) and only one patient in group 3 (4% ZnSO4) showed recurrence. In the control group, 8 out of 10 patients showed recurrence. No serious side effects were seen in all 3 groups. Conclusion: Topical ZnSO4 has been found to be an effective therapeutic modality not only for treatment but also for prolonging remissions in herpes genitalis. Topical 4% ZnSO4 has been found to be most efficacious out of the three concentrations, without any side effects.

Mahajan, B. B.; Dhawan, Mohit; Singh, Rajwinder

2013-01-01

152

Patient and Physician Partnerships in Managing Genital Herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 GlaxoSmithKline Genital herpes simplex virus infections are widespread throughout the world and are char- acterized by stigma, myth, and anxiety by patients and the public but are perceived as trivial by most physicians. Surveys in the United States, Europe, Australia, and South Africa have measured the unfavorable effect of genital herpes on infected patients, health care resources, and workplace

Linda Alexander; Barbara Naisbett

2002-01-01

153

Recurrent genital herpes and quality of life in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent genital herpes is an incurable disease that may give rise to considerable psychological disturbance. This paper describes the impact of the disease on quality of life in a French population. The population study was also used to provide additional validation data for the French version of the RGHQoL (the Recurrent Genital Herpes Quality of Life) measure. The content of

Brenda Spencer; Alain Leplège; Emmanuel Ecosse

1999-01-01

154

Persistent Stress as a Predictor of Genital Herpes Recurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Results of several studies suggest that psy- chological stress and negative mood can trigger genital herpes recurrences, but results are inconsistent. Objective: To determine whether short-term or per- sistent psychological stress or specific negative moods are predictive of genital herpes recurrences in women. Methods: A prospective cohort study followed up par- ticipants for 6 months using weekly assessments of

Frances Cohen; Margaret E. Kemeny; Kathleen A. Kearney; Leonard S. Zegans; John M. Neuhaus; Marcus A. Conant

1999-01-01

155

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis during Treatment with Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

We report 3 cases of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors for rheumatologic disorders. Although TNF-? inhibitors have been reported to increase the risk of other infectious diseases, to our knowledge, an association between anti–TNF-? drugs and herpes simplex virus encephalitis has not been previously described.

Bradford, Russell D.; Pettit, April C.; Wright, Patty W.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Moreland, Larry W.; McLain, David A.; Gnann, John W.; Bloch, Karen C.

2012-01-01

156

Herpes simplex virus infection limited to the brainstem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Focal meningoencephalitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex virus infection, which typically affects temporal or frontal lobes, and carries a mortality rate of 70% if untreated. On rare occasions, however, the infection is restricted to the brain stem. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is the gold standard for the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. A 46-year-old male

Matjaz Jereb; Mitja Lainscak; Jozica Marin; Mara Popovic

2005-01-01

157

A case of late herpes simplex encephalitis relapse.  

PubMed

Late relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis, defined as recurrence more than 3 months after the first initial encephalitic episode, is a rare condition. We describe the case of an adult patient who presented a relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis 8 years after the first episode occurred at the age of 57 years and review the literature of this topic. PMID:23757375

Rigamonti, Andrea; Lauria, Giuseppe; Mantero, Vittorio; Salmaggi, Andrea

2013-06-10

158

Immunity causing blindness: five different paths to herpes stromal keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes stromal keratitis (HSK) is a blinding infections disease that results from an array of immunopathogenic processes, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-specific T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells, cytotoxic T cells and antibodies. As discussed here by Wayne Streilein and colleagues, strategies designed to prevent and treat this syndrome must be aware of the fact that the disease

J. Wayne Streilein; M. Reza Dana; Bruce R. Ksander

1997-01-01

159

Neonatal herpes encephalitis caused by a virologically confirmed acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 1 strain.  

PubMed

A neonate with herpes simplex virus 1 encephalitis was treated with intravenous acyclovir. During the course of therapy, the infection became intractable to the treatment and a mutation in the viral thymidine kinase gene (nucleotide G375T, amino acid Q125H) developed. This mutation was demonstrated in vitro to confer acyclovir resistance. PMID:23100343

Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Wakamatsu, Hajime; Kogawa, Kazuhiro; Wang, Lixin; Kinoshita-Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Inoue, Naoki; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Igarashi, Takashi; Saijo, Masayuki

2012-10-24

160

Seroepidemiology and control of genital herpes: the value of type specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional serological techniques cannot discriminate between antibodies specific to HSV types 1 and 2, so these methods cannot be used in the seroepidemiological investigation of genital herpes infections. The discovery of type specific antigens in HSV-1 and HSV-2, most notably glycoprotein G (gG), has been successfully exploited to develop assays for the detection of type specific HSV antibody. The presence

M J Slomka; J P Webster

161

Neonatal Herpes Encephalitis Caused by a Virologically Confirmed Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain  

PubMed Central

A neonate with herpes simplex virus 1 encephalitis was treated with intravenous acyclovir. During the course of therapy, the infection became intractable to the treatment and a mutation in the viral thymidine kinase gene (nucleotide G375T, amino acid Q125H) developed. This mutation was demonstrated in vitro to confer acyclovir resistance.

Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Wakamatsu, Hajime; Kogawa, Kazuhiro; Wang, Lixin; Kinoshita-Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Inoue, Naoki; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Igarashi, Takashi; Saijo, Masayuki

2013-01-01

162

[Herpes zoster oticus with cranial nerve affection].  

PubMed

Herpes zoster oticus (HZO) with cranial polyneuropathy is also known as Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS). After primary varicella infection, the varicella zoster virus (VZV) remains dormant in the nervous system and can reactivate later in life causing RHS. This case describes a 56-year-old man with HZO and palsy of N. V, VII, VIII, IX, X and XII. Anti-viral agents might be effective in patients with RHS, although the only randomized controlled clinical trial on this subject found no significant benefit. There are no randomized controlled trials to support the use of corticosteroid therapy. PMID:20961509

Lauridsen, Anita Guldager; Mirz, Frank

2010-10-11

163

Genital herpes: an Internet-based risk survey.  

PubMed

Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. We established a web-based survey to determine risk for genital herpes and encourage people to attend for herpes simplex virus testing. A survey was established on the Australian Herpes Management Forum (AHMF) website, consisting of 16 demographic and sexual health-related questions. Each question carried a numerical risk-weighting based on epidemiological data; the higher the overall score, the greater the risk of herpes. To determine how representative our sample was in relation to age and sex, we compared our survey with Australian Census data. Between October 2006 and August 2007 there were 5572 responses, 4358 (92%) were Australian. Compared with the Australian population, the survey population had a higher proportion of individuals aged less than 34 years, and a lower population over 55. Six hundred and eighty-six (13.8%) were classified as low risk, 2558 (51.6%) as medium risk and 1710 (34.5%) as high risk of having acquired genital herpes. In total, 39% reported four or fewer, and 38% reported 10 or more, sex partners in their lifetime. A large number of individuals participated in this survey, confirming that the Internet is a useful tool for health promotion for genital herpes. PMID:19793847

Mindel, A; McHugh, L; Christie, E; Chung, C; Berger, T

2009-09-30

164

[Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].  

PubMed

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-?/? and IFN-? production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated. PMID:23399415

Rozenberg, F

2013-02-08

165

Herpes oncolytic therapy of salivary gland carcinomas.  

PubMed

Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSV) have demonstrated potent antitumoral effects against a variety of human malignancies in preclinical studies and are in early clinical trials. We explored the activity of an attenuated, replication-competent, oncolytic HSV (NV1023) for the treatment of human salivary gland carcinomas. NV1023 was able to successfully enter into 4 mucoepidermoid carcinoma (H292, H3118, HTB-41, UT-MUC-1) and 2 adenocarcinoma (HSY, HSG) cell lines, as measured by lacZ assays after exposure to 5 viral particles per cell (MOI 5). Viral plaque assays showed variation of viral replication within these cell lines, ranging from a 268-fold increase (H292) to a 3-fold increase (HSG) in viral titer. At MOI 5, all cell lines showed >95% cytotoxicity from NV1023 by Day 7, except for HSY (73%). At MOI 0.1, H3118 and UT-MUC-1 remained highly sensitive to NV1023, both showing >95% cytotoxicity by Day 7. The mucoepidermoid carcinomas were more sensitive to NV1023 at low viral concentrations compared with the adenocarcinomas. Flank tumors of H3118, HTB-41 and HSY in nude mice showed significant tumor volume reductions after a single intratumoral injection of NV1023 (2 x 10(7) plaque-forming units). These data suggest that oncolytic herpes viruses have significant efficacy entering, replicating within, and lysing human salivary gland carcinomas. These promising biologic agents should be further investigated as novel therapy for patients with salivary carcinomas failing conventional treatment. PMID:17764117

Reid, Vincent; Yu, Zhenkun; Schuman, Theodore; Li, Sen; Singh, Paramjeet; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Richard J

2008-01-01

166

Herpes Zoster (Shingles) and Postherpetic Neuralgia  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster (HZ), commonly called shingles, is a distinctive syndrome caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). This reactivation occurs when immunity to VZV declines because of aging or immunosuppression. Herpes zoster can occur at any age but most commonly affects the elderly population. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), defined as pain persisting more than 3 months after the rash has healed, is a debilitating and difficult to manage consequence of HZ. The diagnosis of HZ is usually made clinically on the basis of the characteristic appearance of the rash. Early recognition and treatment can reduce acute symptoms and may also reduce PHN. A live, attenuated vaccine aimed at boosting immunity to VZV and reducing the risk of HZ is now available and is recommended for adults older than 60 years. The vaccine has been shown to reduce significantly the incidence of both HZ and PHN. The vaccine is well tolerated, with minor local injection site reactions being the most common adverse event. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations and treatment of HZ and PHN, as well as the appropriate use of the HZ vaccine.

Sampathkumar, Priya; Drage, Lisa A.; Martin, David P.

2009-01-01

167

Herpes zoster following intra-articular corticosteroid injection.  

PubMed

Localized herpes zoster following intra-articular corticosteroid injection is remarkable. We describe an 80-year-old woman with severe osteoarthritis that received an intra-articular injection of 80 mg methylprednisolone in her knee, followed 1 day later by the appearance of linear unilateral vesicles and bullae on her leg in a dermatomal distribution adjacent to the injection site. The roofs of several blisters showed classic viral cytopathic effects for herpes including keratinocytes with multinucleation and margination of chromatin. Varicella zoster virus immunostaining revealed positive staining in the keratinocytes. One plausible explanation is herpes zoster virus reactivation secondary to localized immunosuppression from corticosteroid injection. PMID:19350185

Fernandes, Neil F; Malliah, Rajit; Stitik, Todd P; Rozdeba, P; Lambert, W Clark; Schwartz, Robert A

2009-03-01

168

AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

McCormick, Kathleen

1985-01-01

169

A Generalized Herpes Virus Infection in Owl Monkeys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The generalized viral disease caused by a herpes virus in owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) is an acute fulminating disease that has been 100% fatal. The incubation period for all experimentally inoculated owl monkeys except the intracerebrally infected ani...

W. G. Sheldon M. A. Ross

1966-01-01

170

Herpes zoster vaccine for the elderly: boosting immunity  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a disease that results from the reactivation of a latent infection of the varicella zoster virus, which is usually encountered during early childhood. Aging is associated with an increased risk for herpes zoster and its complications. Boosting immunological memory is the key strategy for keeping the latent varicella zoster virus infection under control. A live attenuated virus vaccine is safe, effective and approved for use among healthy elderly adults aged 60 years or older. However, significant problems remain in the prevention of herpes zoster with the current vaccine. Future studies for improved vaccines and studies into the epidemiology of herpes zoster are required in order to address this significant public health burden.

Chua, Joel V; Chen, Wilbur H

2010-01-01

171

[Hemophagocytic syndrome due to Herpes simplex virus after hysteroscopy].  

PubMed

Hemophagocytic syndrome is an uncommon but life-threatening complication of Herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 infection. Diagnosis is difficult to establish given the low specificity of clinical and biological signs. PMID:22958898

Désidéri-Vaillant, C; Exbrayat, S; Sapin-Lory, J; Lambrechts, D; Rouxel, M; Nicolas, X

2012-09-05

172

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a)...

2013-04-01

173

A not so simplex case of genital herpes.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 28-year-old, HIV-positive woman presenting with painful vesicular and ulcerating lesions in the ano-genital region caused by varicella zoster virus that appeared similar to herpes simplex infection. The case highlights that herpes zoster needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of genital lesions, particularly in HIV-positive individuals, and the importance of virological diagnosis by PCR to direct appropriate management. PMID:24096072

Philip, K E J; Goodman, A; Pallawela, S N S; Sathia, L; Webster, D P

2013-10-04

174

Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposi’s sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been

Gieri Cathomas

2000-01-01

175

Antiviral-Resistant Fulminant Herpes Hepatitis in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Fulminant herpes hepatitis with disseminated extrahepatic involvement in pregnancy is rare and carries a high mortality risk. Although acyclovir remains standard first-line therapy, effective management of acyclovir-resistant disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) in pregnancy remains elusive. We present a case of disseminated HSV resistant to both acyclovir and foscarnet, the first double-agent resistant case in pregnancy reported in the literature to date. In this case, therapeutic delivery was the ultimate treatment resulting in full recovery.

Herrera, Christina A.; Eichelberger, Kacey Y.; Chescheir, Nancy C.

2013-01-01

176

Antiviral-resistant fulminant herpes hepatitis in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Fulminant herpes hepatitis with disseminated extrahepatic involvement in pregnancy is rare and carries a high mortality risk. Although acyclovir remains standard first-line therapy, effective management of acyclovir-resistant disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) in pregnancy remains elusive. We present a case of disseminated HSV resistant to both acyclovir and foscarnet, the first double-agent resistant case in pregnancy reported in the literature to date. In this case, therapeutic delivery was the ultimate treatment resulting in full recovery. PMID:24147242

Herrera, Christina A; Eichelberger, Kacey Y; Chescheir, Nancy C

2013-05-21

177

Disseminated Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Elderly Patient  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster is a cutaneous infection that is characterized by an acute vesicobullous rash with ipsilateral one or two dermatomal distribution and painful allodynia, while predominantly being found in the elderly. Extensive cutaneous dissemination has been reported in immune-compromised patients, such as those who suffer from HIV infections, cancer, chemotherapy, and corticosteroid therapy patients. However, we report a case of disseminated herpes zoster infection in an immuno-competent elderly individual.

Kim, Su Hwa; Lee, Eun Ha; Choi, Ji Hye

2013-01-01

178

Persistence in herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed Central

Diseases of man caused by the virus of herpes simplex fall into two broad categories. The primary disease occurs only once in any individual's life and is caused by transmission of virus from an already infected human. Thereafter, the individual may be subject to recurrent herpetic disease, the manifestations of which are different from the primary disease. Recurrent disease varies in severity from trivial, to incapacitating and frankly lethal (as in diseases resulting from the virus's neurotropic and oncogenic properties). The source of the virus in recurrent herpetic disease has never been conclusively resolved, but is almost certainly endogenous to the patient. Theories, case reports and experiments exist to show that endogenous virus may, in periods of clinical quiescence, be latent (or persistent) at the site of the recurrent lesions itself, or more remotely in nerve tissues related to the site of recurrence. Images Fig. 1

Longson, M.

1978-01-01

179

Ophthalmoplegia secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus.  

PubMed

An 80-year-old Caucasian woman had been diagnosed with right herpes zoster ophthalmicus 2 ½ weeks before presentation to our department. Ten days after stopping oral aciclovir, she presented with periorbital pain, visual loss, ptosis and complete ophthalmoplegia. On examination, visual acuity in her right eye was hand movements, with a relative afferent pupillary defect and 2 mm proptosis. MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement within the orbit extending into the apex, suggestive of an inflammatory process. Oral treatment was started with oral aciclovir and corticosteroids for 2 months, when she had resolution of the optic neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia. Vision recovered to 6/9 and repeat neuroimaging revealed regression of the inflammatory process. PMID:22798518

Ugarte, Marta; Dey, Sarju; Jones, Carole A

2010-11-19

180

Herpes zoster: diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approaches.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster (Hz), which generally presents as a localized, painful cutaneous eruption, is a common clinical problem, particularly among adults ? 50 years of age and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of Hz is mainly made clinically, except in patients with atypical manifestations or certain complications, such as central nervous system involvement, in which laboratory virologic testing is required. In addition to having a higher mortality rate, immunocompromised individuals have atypical and severe clinical findings and are at greater risk for complications and recurrence of Hz. Treatment of Hz includes the use of antiviral agents, analgesics for control of acute zoster pain, good skin care for healing, and prevention of secondary bacterial infection. Antiviral agents, preferably valacyclovir or famciclovir, should be started within 72 hours of onset to reduce the severity of the infection, the duration of the eruptive phase, and the intensity of acute pain. Herpes zoster has been associated with several complications, of which post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common and debilitating. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine and early treatment with either famciclovir or valacyclovir are the only measures proven to prevent PHN. The options for treating PHN include topical agents, such as lidocaine patches, and systemic agents, such as the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin. Measures for preventing Hz include infection control through routine hand hygiene and appropriate use of isolation precautions and personal protective equipment; immunoglobulins, such as the varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin and vaccine; and antiviral agents. The zoster vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of Hz and PHN. The vaccine is recommended for all individuals aged ? 60 years who have no contraindications, including individuals who report a previous episode of Hz. PMID:24113666

Bader, Mazen S

2013-09-01

181

Interferon Gamma Production by Herpes Simplex Virus Antigen-specific T Cell Clones from Patients with Recurrent Herpes Labialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Nineteen herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigen-specific human T lymphocyte clones were established from three volunteers with recent recurrent herpes labialis. All produced interferon gamma (IFN-y) at titres of 200 to 700 units\\/ml when cultured in vitro with HSV antigen and irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as filler cells. All 10 of those clones whose phenotype was determined were

ANTHONY L. CUNNINGHAM; PATRICIA A. NELSON; C. GARRISON FATHMAN; THOMAS C. MERIGAN

1985-01-01

182

75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2009-N-0344] Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation...The direct final rule corrects the regulation classifying herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assays by removing the...

2010-09-28

183

Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2011  

MedlinePLUS

... About STD Data, Contact Us Figure 55. Genital Herpes—Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966–2011 NOTE: The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

184

Waterborne infectivity of the ranavirus Frog-Virus 3 in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Ranaviruses like Frog Virus 3 (FV3) are responsible of emerging infectious diseases spreading worldwide to fish, amphibian and reptilian species. We have developed, in Xenopus laevis, an experimental model to investigate viral transmission. We show that FV3 released in water by immunocompromised infected adults can infect adult and larval stages of Xenopus within 3 hours of exposure. Time course of virus load and viral transcription in different tissues suggests that early waterborne FV3 infection through the digestive tract leads to dissemination in the kidney. Finally, a fraction of adult macrophages becomes infected following exposure to waterborne FV3 as visualized by fluorescence microscopy using macrophage- and FV3-specific antibodies. Little cytopathicity and apoptosis were detected in infected macrophages, which is consistent with our proposition that macrophages are permissive to FV3. These data highlight the efficiency of FV3 infectivity by the water route and the ability of FV3 to adapt to its hosts.

Robert, Jacques; George, Erica; De Jesus Andino, Francisco; Chen, Guangchun

2011-01-01

185

Diagnosis of genital herpes: the role and place of HSV testing in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2. It is an underdiagnosed and undertreated sexually transmitted\\u000a infection characterised by latency followed by reactivation. The seroprevalence of both types of HSV varies throughout Europe,\\u000a and HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital herpes. Transmission is through skin-to-skin contact, and neonatal herpes resulting\\u000a from transmission during delivery is a

Anders Strand

2006-01-01

186

Public health strategies to prevent genital herpes: Where do we stand?  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 25% of the United States population has overt or subclinical genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, and herpes\\u000a probably is the sexually transmitted disease of greatest concern to sexually active persons, aside from AIDS. In addition\\u000a to its direct clinical and psychosexual complications, genital herpes is an important determinant of sexual transmission of\\u000a HIV. Genital herpes is usually

H. Hunter Handsfield

2000-01-01

187

Latent Infection of Sensory Ganglia with Herpes Simplex Virus: Efficacy of Immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice were used to test the efficacy of active immunization in preventing latent infection of local sensory ganglia that follows inoculation of superficial epithelial surfaces with herpes simplex virus. Substantial but not complete protection was observed in animals immunized and challenged with herpes simplex virus type 1, but no protection was noted in animals immunized and challenged with herpes simplex

Richard W. Price; M. Antoinette Walz; Charles Wohlenberg; Abner Louis Notkins

1975-01-01

188

Diagnosis and Assessment of Pain Associated With Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate evaluation of pain plays a critical role in identifying new interventions for the treatment and prevention of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Different types of pain and other sensory symptoms are found in patients with herpes zoster, and these vary greatly with respect to their presence, location, duration, intensity, and quality. The results of recent studies of herpes

Robert H. Dworkin; John W. Gnann; Anne Louise Oaklander; Srinivasa N. Raja; Kenneth E. Schmader; Richard J. Whitley

2008-01-01

189

Suppressive valacyclovir therapy to reduce genital herpes transmission: Good public health policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocturnal asthma (NA) is increasing in prevalence, affecting millions of people Genital herpes is a widespread sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Suppressive valacyclovir therapy has been shown to significantly reduce HSV transmission. The benefits and costs of using valacyclovir to reduce transmission in couples discordant for genital herpes will be analyzed in order to better

Paul E Bonnar

2009-01-01

190

Epidemiology of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of type specific recurrent genital herpes, and to compare the duration of recurrent genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2.Methods: Participants were enrolled at clinics across the United States. Adults suspected of having active genital herpes were eligible. Lesions were cultured for HSV and typed. Data from 940 participants with

L Solomon; M J Cannon; M Reyes; J M Graber; N T Wetherall; W C Reeves

2003-01-01

191

Pityriasis Lichenoides Chronica Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Pityriasis lichenoides is a rare, acquired spectrum of skin conditions of an unknown etiology. Case Report. A 28-year-old man presented with recurrent outbreaks of herpes simplex virus associated with the onset of red-to-brown maculopapules located predominantly in trunk in each recurrence. Positive serologies to herpes simplex virus type 2 were detected. Histopathological examination of one of the lesions was consistent with a diagnosis of pityriasis lichenoides chronica. Discussion. Pityriasis lichenoides is a rare cutaneous entity of an unknown cause which includes different clinical presentations. A number of infectious agents have been implicated based on the clustering of multiple outbreaks and elevated serum titers to specific pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and herpes simplex virus). In our patient, resolution of cutaneous lesions coincided with the administration of antiviral drugs and clinical improvement in each genital herpes recurrence. In conclusion, we report a case in which cutaneous lesions of pityriasis lichenoides chronica and a herpes simplex virus-type 2-mediated disease have evolved concomitantly.

Gonzalez Rodriguez, Antonio Javier; Montesinos Villaescusa, Encarnacion; Jorda Cuevas, Esperanza

2012-01-01

192

Management of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster and its sequela post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) are conditions with significant morbidity. PHN is a chronic, debilitating neuropathic pain that can persist long beyond resolution of visible cutaneous manifestations. This paper provides practical guidelines for management of herpes zoster and PHN. For herpes zoster, antivirals should be started, preferably within 72 h of onset, to reduce the severity and duration of the eruptive phase and to reduce the intensity of acute pain. PHN can be treated with either topical or systemic agents. Topical lidocaine and capsaicin are effective. For patients with more severe pain, the following systemic agents can be considered (in decreasing order of recommendation): the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin, the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline, and desipramine, and, lastly, the opioid analgesics tramadol, morphine, oxycodone, and methadone. For patients at high risk of developing PHN, early initiation of gabapentin or amitriptyline after the onset of herpes zoster is suggested. The new zoster vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of herpes zoster and PHN. PMID:23456596

Gan, Emily Yiping; Tian, Elizabeth Ai Lian; Tey, Hong Liang

2013-04-01

193

Human herpes virus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus).  

PubMed

Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is a recently discovered herpesvirus related to Herpesvirus saimiri and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It has been assigned to the Rhadinovirus genus (gamma-2 herpesvirus) on the basis of its genomic sequence and structure. HHV-8 is the first member of this genus known to infect humans and it is now evident that it is the likely cause of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The virus is present in endothelial and spindle cells of KS, and in HIV disease the presence of HHV-8 in peripheral blood, and/or serum IgG antibodies to HHV-8, predicts the development of AIDS-related KS. HHV-8 can also infect CD19 + B cells and is of aetiological significance in the development of body cavity B cell lymphomas of AIDS. Of note, the translation products of viral open reading frames (ORFs) reveal HHV-8 to be a molecular pirate, capable of producing homologues of several human gene products that may result in alterations in cell cycle arrest, inhibit apoptosis and cell-mediated immune responses, and thus provide the potential for tumour production. PMID:9659514

Porter, S R; Di Alberti, L; Kumar, N

1998-01-01

194

Peptide inhibitors against herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a significant human pathogen causing mucocutaneous lesions primarily in the oral or genital mucosa. Although acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogs provide successful treatment, HSV remains highly prevalent worldwide and is a major cofactor for the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. Encephalitis, meningitis, and blinding keratitis are among the most severe diseases caused by HSV. ACV resistance poses an important problem for immunocompromised patients and highlights the need for new safe and effective agents; therefore, the development of novel strategies to eradicate HSV is a global public health priority. Despite the continued global epidemic of HSV and extensive research, there have been few major breakthroughs in the treatment or prevention of the virus since the introduction of ACV in the 1980s. A therapeutic strategy at the moment not fully addressed is the use of small peptide molecules. These can be either modeled on viral proteins or derived from antimicrobial peptides. Any peptide that interrupts protein-protein or viral protein-host cell membrane interactions is potentially a novel antiviral drug and may be a useful tool for elucidating the mechanisms of viral entry. This review summarizes current knowledge and strategies in the development of synthetic and natural peptides to inhibit HSV infectivity. PMID:23389903

Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Tarallo, Rossella; Russo, Luigi; Galdiero, Emilia; Cantisani, Marco; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

2013-02-07

195

THE PATHOGENESIS OF HERPES VIRUS ENCEPHALITIS  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis and myelitis was studied in suckling mice using routine titration procedures and fluorescent antibody staining for the identification of infected cells. After intracerebral inoculation virus was shown to disperse rapidly in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), multiply in meninges and ependyma, and then invade the underlying parenchyma infecting both neurons and glia. Following extraneural inoculation virus gained access to the central nervous system (CNS) by both hematogenous and neural pathways. After intraperitoneal and intranasal inoculation virus was found to multiply in viscera and produce viremia; foci of CNS infection then developed around small cerebral vessels. After subcutaneous and intranasal inoculation neural spread of virus was demonstrated along corresponding peripheral and cranial nerves. This spread resulted from the centripetal infection of endoneural cells (Schwann cells and fibroblasts). Antigen was not found in axons even after infection of the corresponding ganglion cell perikaryon. Subsequent spread within the CNS was unrelated to neural tracts, and there was no evidence of axonal spread of virus in the host-virus system studied. These findings are discussed in relation to previous and current theories of the viral "blood-brain barrier" and neural pathways of infection.

Johnson, Richard T.

1964-01-01

196

Prodromal herpes zoster mimicking odontalgia--a diagnostic challenge.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster (shingles) is caused by reactivation of the latent varicella zoster virus which is present due to an earlier varicella infection (chicken-pox). Herpes Zoster is a less common and endemic disease than varicella, although factors causing reactivation are still not well known, but it occurs in older and/or immunocompromised individuals. Involvement of C3, T5, L1, L2 and first division of trigeminal nerve are the most frequently encountered whereas the involvement of second and third division of trigeminal nerve is rarely seen. During the prodromal stage, the only presenting symptom may be odontalgia, which may prove to be a diagnostic challenge for the dentist, since many diseases can cause orofacial pain, and the diagnosis must be properly established before final treatment. Here we present a case of herpes zoster involving the second division of trigeminal nerve masquerading as odontalgia. The difficulties in diagnosis and management are discussed. PMID:23559842

Patil, Shilpa; Srinivas, K; Reddy, Bh Satheesha; Gupta, Mudit

2013-03-01

197

Herpes zoster: epidemiology, natural history, and common complications.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is a disease associated with aging that can significantly impair quality of life for affected individuals. Anyone infected with varicella (chickenpox) virus in childhood is at risk for reactivation of dormant virus and the onset of zoster disease, although it occurs with increasing frequency in the elderly as a result of waning of cell-mediated immunity. The most common complication of herpes zoster is postherpetic neuralgia, which can cause chronic and debilitating pain. Current treatments can decrease the severity of zoster rash and pain but cannot prevent disease onset or completely eliminate the most frequent symptoms. The zoster vaccine may help prevent the onset of herpes zoster in the target population of those age 60 years and older. This summary reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, natural history, and common symptoms of zoster disease. PMID:18021864

Weinberg, Jeffrey M

2007-12-01

198

The challenge of developing a herpes simplex virus 2 vaccine  

PubMed Central

HSV infections are prevalent worldwide. A vaccine to prevent genital herpes would have a significant impact on this disease. Several vaccines have shown promise in animal models; however, so far these have not been successful in human clinical studies. Prophylactic HSV vaccines to prevent HSV infection or disease have focused primarily on eliciting antibody responses. Potent antibody responses are needed to result in sufficiently high levels of virus-specific antibody in the genital tract. Therapeutic vaccines that reduce recurrences need to induce potent T-cell responses at the site of infection. With the increasing incidence of HSV-1 genital herpes, an effective herpes vaccine should protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Novel HSV vaccines, such as replication-defective or attenuated viruses, have elicited humoral and cellular immune responses in preclinical studies. These vaccines and others hold promise in future clinical studies.

Dropulic, Lesia K; Cohen, Jeffrey I

2013-01-01

199

Herpes zoster of trigeminal nerve after dental extraction.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is an uncommon acute viral infection caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus. During the prodromal stage, the only presenting symptom may be odontalgia, which may prove to be a diagnostic challenge for the dentist. Practicing dentist may carry out emergency treatment that might result in irreversible damage or may delay the appropriate treatment. With an ever-increasing number of elderly and immunocompromised patients reporting to the dentist, the dental profession can expect to encounter an increased number of herpes zoster patients. Dentist must be familiar with the presenting signs and symptoms of patients experiencing the prodromal manifestations of herpes zoster of the trigeminal nerve. This article focuses on the difficulties in management of such cases, and one such case is reported here. PMID:24025898

Guttiganur, Nagappa; Devanoorkar, Archana; Aspalli, Shivanand; Shetty, Sudhir

200

Isolated ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is a viral disease presenting with vesicular eruptions that are usually preceded by pain and erythema. Herpes zoster can be seen in any dermatome of the body but most commonly appears in the thoracic region. Herpes zoster virus is typically transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The virus remains dormant in the dorsal ganglion of the affected individual throughout his or her lifetime. Herpes zoster reactivation commonly occurs in elderly people due to normal age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication and is defined as persistent pain or dysesthesia 1 month after resolution of the herpetic rash. This article describes a healthy 51-year-old woman who experienced a burning sensation and shooting pain along the ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve. Ten days after the onset of pain, she developed cutaneous vesicular eruption and decreased light-touch sensation. Wrist and fourth and fifth finger range of motion were painful and slightly limited. Muscle strength was normal. Nerve conduction studies indicated an ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve lesion. She was treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and the use of a short-arm resting splint. At 5-month follow-up, she reported no residual pain, numbness, or weakness. Herpes zoster in the upper extremity may be mistaken for entrapment neuropathies and diseases characterized by skin eruptions; ulnar nerve zoster reactivation is rarely seen. The authors report an uncommon ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation. Clinicians should be aware of this virus during patients' initial evaluation. PMID:24025017

Kayipmaz, Murat; Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Kural, Cemal

2013-09-01

201

Complete genome sequence of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3.  

PubMed

Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a recently described positive-strand RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, S. invicta. The genome of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3(ArgSF )) obtained from the Santa Fe region of Argentina was sequenced in entirety. Assembly of nine overlapping fragments yielded a consensus genome sequence 10,386 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail present on the 3' end (Genbank accession number GU017972). With the exception of the poly(A) tail, the genome length of SINV-3(ArgSF ) was identical to the North American isolate (SINV-3(USDM )). The SINV-3(ArgSF ) genome possessed three major open reading frames (ORFs) (comprised of >or=100 codons) in the sense orientation; SINV-3(USDM ) possessed only two. ORFs 1 and 2 had identical start and stop genome positions for both isolates. Blastp analysis of the translated ORF 1 of SINV-3(ArgSF ) recognized conserved domains for helicase, protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These domains and their corresponding positions were identical to those reported for SINV-3(USDM ). ORF 2a, unique to the SINV-3(ArgSF ) genome, was also found in frame 2 and had a canonical start codon located at nucleotide position 8,351 and a stop codon ending at position 8,827. Blastp analysis of the translated amino acid sequence of ORF 2a revealed no significant similarity in the Genbank database. The two SINV-3 isolates exhibited 96.2% nucleotide sequence identity across the entire genome. The amino acid sequences of ORFs 1 and 2 exhibited higher identities (99.0 and 98.2%, respectively) than the corresponding nucleotide regions within the genome. These data indicated that the nucleotide differences between the SINV-3 isolates were largely synonymous. This observation was corroborated by codon substitution rate analysis. Thus, the majority of the SINV-3 codon changes were silent in the two polyproteins, indicating purifying selection pressure on the viral genome. PMID:20033838

Valles, Steven M; Allen, Clare; Varone, Laura; Briano, Juan

2009-12-24

202

Discrimination of Antibody to Herpes B Virus from Antibody to Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 in Human and Macaque Sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antigenic cross-reactive characteristics of herpes B virus and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 are responsible for false-positive diagnoses by serological assays in humans and macaques. In the present study, we developed a fluorometric indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recom- binant herpes B virus glycoprotein D (gD) and HSV-1 and HSV-2 gG (gG-1 and gG-2,

Akikazu Fujima; Yoshitsugu Ochiai; Aya Saito; Yuki Omori; Atsuya Noda; Yukumasa Kazuyama; Hiroshi Shoji; Kiyoshi Tanabayashi; Fukiko Ueda; Yasuhiro Yoshikawa; Ryo Hondo

203

Radiation enhanced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine.  

PubMed

Ultaviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since cafeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation. PMID:183108

Hellman, K B; Lytle, C D; Bockstahler, L E

1976-09-01

204

Chronic Human Herpes Virus 8 Infection Successfully Treated With Valganciclovir  

PubMed Central

Background A 57 year old Italian female with a 3 year history of constituitional symptoms with non-HIV Kaposi sarcoma was referred to the immunology clinic. She was previously diagnosed with chronic human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) infection with positive HHV8 polymerase chain reaction in serum. Objective Is valganciclovir effective in treating chronic human herpes virus 8 infection without Multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD)? Results She was started on valganciclovir, resulting in remission of her symptoms, improvement in inflammatory markers and clearing of detectable HHV8 viraemia Conclusion Valganciclovir is effective in treating symptomatic HHV8 infections without MCD.

2009-01-01

205

Ictal asystole secondary to suspected herpes simplex encephalitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus is a leading cause of sporadic encephalitis. While seizures are a common feature of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis, and periods of asystole have been reported in Herpes simplex virus patients, there have been no prior reports of ictal asystole secondary to such an infection. This case report describes a 33 year old, previously healthy, gentleman of Malaysian descent, with new onset seizures resulting in a twenty-one second period of ictal asystole. In hospital the patient developed focal neurological symptoms. A diagnosis of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis was made, although this diagnosis was not confirmed by lumbar puncture, magnetic resonance imaging or biopsy. Literature is reviewed regarding ictal asystole as well as clinical features and cardiac complications of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Given the link between ictal asystole and Herpes simplex virus encephalitis, cardiac monitoring would be recommended for Herpes simplex virus encephalitis patients having seizures. The use of anticonvulsants with cardiac side effects should be carefully considered.

2009-01-01

206

Invasive Cyprinid Fish in Europe Originate from the Single Introduction of an Admixed Source Population Followed by a Complex Pattern of Spread  

PubMed Central

The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential.

Simon, Andrea; Britton, Robert; Gozlan, Rodolphe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Hanfling, Bernd

2011-01-01

207

Inducible expression of encephalomyocarditis virus 3C protease activity in stably transformed mouse cell lines.  

PubMed Central

An inducible expression vector system has been developed to facilitate the study of the effects of individual virus gene products on cell function. The vector utilizes the mouse metallothionein promoter carried on the bovine papillomavirus genome. Conditions which optimize the induced expression of open reading frames inserted downstream from the mouse metallothionein promoter have recently been described. In this communication we describe the use of this system to clone and express the encephalomyocarditis virus 3C protease in cultured mouse cells. Stably transformed cell lines could be induced to produce levels of 3C protease activity comparable to those observed during normal virus infection. In spite of this, no effects on cellular protein synthesis rate or membrane permeability were observed. It was also discovered that 3C protease as well as 3C protease-containing polyproteins are turned over. This was true not only in the induced cell clones, but also during the normal course of encephalomyocarditis virus infection, as well as in translation systems in vitro. This phenomenon was highly specific for this family of polypeptides, perhaps explaining their apparent lack of cytotoxic effects. Images

Lawson, T G; Smith, L L; Palmenberg, A C; Thach, R E

1989-01-01

208

A divergent variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 is present in California  

PubMed Central

Background Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses are a problem for grape production globally. Symptoms are caused by a number of distinct viral species. During a survey of Napa Valley vineyards (California, USA), we found evidence of a new variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3). We isolated its genome from a symptomatic greenhouse-raised plant and fully sequenced it. Findings In a maximum likelihood analysis of representative GLRaV-3 gene sequences, the isolate grouped most closely with a recently sequenced variant from South Africa and a partial sequence from New Zealand. These highly divergent GLRaV-3 variants have predicted proteins that are more than 10% divergent from other GLRaV-3 variants, and appear to be missing an open reading frame for the p6 protein. Conclusions This divergent GLRaV-3 phylogroup is already present in grape-growing regions worldwide and is capable of causing symptoms of leafroll disease without the p6 protein.

2012-01-01

209

Cellular LITAF interacts with frog virus 3 75L protein and alters its subcellular localization.  

PubMed

Iridoviruses are a family of large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that are composed of 5 genera, including the Lymphocystivirus, Ranavirus, Megalocytivirus, Iridovirus, and Chloriridovirus genera. The frog virus 3 (FV3) 75L gene is a nonessential gene that is highly conserved throughout the members of the Ranavirus genus but is not found in other iridoviruses. FV3 75L shows high sequence similarity to a conserved domain found in the C terminus of LITAF, a small cellular protein with unknown function. Here we show that FV3 75L localizes to early endosomes, while LITAF localizes to late endosomes/lysosomes. Interestingly, when FV3 75L and LITAF are cotransfected into cells, LITAF can alter the subcellular localization of FV3 75L to late endosomes/lysosomes, where FV3 75L then colocalizes with LITAF. In addition, we demonstrated that virally produced 75L colocalizes with LITAF. We confirmed a physical interaction between LITAF and FV3 75L but found that this interaction was not mediated by two PPXY motifs in the N terminus of LITAF. Mutation of two PPXY motifs in LITAF did not affect the colocalization of LITAF and FV3 75L but did change the location of the two proteins from late endosomes/lysosomes to early endosomes. PMID:23097445

Eaton, Heather E; Ferreira Lacerda, Andressa; Desrochers, Guillaume; Metcalf, Julie; Angers, Annie; Brunetti, Craig R

2012-10-24

210

Genital Herpes in a Primary Care Clinic: Demographic and Sexual Correlates of Herpes Simplex Type 2 Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background,and Objectives: Genital herpes,remains one of the most prevalent,sexually transmitted,diseases (STDs). The sexual behavioral correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in the general population,have not been,well characterized. Goals: To assess demographic,and sexual behavioral,correlates of symptomatic,and subclinical HSV-2 infection. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of 922 randomly chosen patients and 78 of their partners (1,000 total) in a

Anna Mph Koutsky; Laura Ashley; L Rhoda

211

Neonatal herpes in herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV-seropositive pregnant patients; the role of preventive measures in the absence of clinical disease of herpes.  

PubMed

There is very little knowledge about how herpes simplex virus (HSV) seropositivity of HIV-positive mothers could complicate the occurrence of neonatal herpetic disease, in the absence of genital ulcers, in this group of patients. We present a case of fatal disseminated neonatal herpes infection in a baby, born to a HIV-positive patient, and wish to discuss the potential need for changes in the management of this group of patients during pregnancy. Disseminated HSV disease is a rare, yet serious condition in newborns of HSV-infected mothers, and women with HIV infection have shown to frequently shed more HSV DNA in their genital secretions, even in the absence of active herpetic ulcers. This is the first case report of this rare association and, as a result, the evidence in support of our hypothesis has been extrapolated from other studies. PMID:18073024

Nasoodi, A; Quah, S; Dinsmore, W W

2007-12-01

212

The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

McNab, Warren L.

1979-01-01

213

Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

Rodu, Brad; And Others

1992-01-01

214

Herpes simplex virus meningitis complicated by ascending paralysis.  

PubMed

A case of herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis complicated by ascending paralysis with almost complete recovery following antiviral treatment is reported. We present this case to illustrate the importance of including HSV-induced neuropathy in the differential diagnosis of acute neurologic symptoms following the viral illness. PMID:23814385

Benjamin, Mina M; Gummelt, Kyle L; Zaki, Rabeea; Afzal, Aasim; Sloan, Louis; Shamim, Sadat

2013-07-01

215

Herpes Simplex Virus Binds to Human Serum Lipoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Binding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 to the various subclasses of human serum lipoproteins was investigated. Studies were performed with human serum lipoproteins purified by differential ultracentrifugation and artificial proteoliposomes containing only one type of apolipoprotein (Al5 E) by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, column chromatography, and electron microscopy. All tested lipoprotein subclasses (very low, low-,

H. P. Huemer; H. J. Menzel; D. Potratz; B. Brake; D. Falke; G. Utermann; M. P. Dierich

1988-01-01

216

Asociación de linfomas malignos con herpes virus I y II  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objectives: To know the prevalence of seropositivity for herpes virus I and II in patients with malignant non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and the association with the cell lineage (B or T). Patients and Methods: We considered 60 new or in first recurrence patients with NHL at the Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara from August 1999 to December 2000. We analyzed

ALARCON-ROZAS Ashley Efraín; SALAS SÁNCHEZ Fernando; VILLACRES VELA; GUEVARA Karina; GUEVARA Julio

2002-01-01

217

Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Cells Disarm Killer Lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human endothelial cells or human foreskin fibroblasts infected with herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) potently inhibit the lytic activity of natural killer cells and interleukin 2-activated killer cells. The inhibition occurs after as little as 8 hr of viral infection and requires contact between effector cells and HSV-infected targets. Inhibition evidently stems from direct blockade of killer cell function because killer

Dennis L. Confer; Gregory M. Vercellotti; Dusan Kotasek; Jesse L. Goodman; Augusto Ochoa; Harry S. Jacob

1990-01-01

218

Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)|

Rodu, Brad; And Others

1992-01-01

219

Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus Reactivation by Dipyridamole  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation from latency was investigated. Reactivation of thymidine kinase-negative HSV, which is defective for reactivation, was greatly enhanced by thymidine (TdR). The reactivation-enhancing effect of TdR was blocked by dipyridamole (DPM), a known nucleoside transport inhibitor. DPM also inhibited wild-type HSV reactivation, suggesting potential antiviral use.

Tenser, Richard B.; Gaydos, Andrew; Hay, Kathleen A.

2001-01-01

220

Complex regional pain syndrome-like symptoms during herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) associated with herpes zoster (HZ) was first reported by Sudeck in 1901 (Sudeck, 1901) and is recognized clinically. However, only 13 cases have been published in the literature, and nothing is known about the incidence, prevalence, or natural history (Chester, 1992; Foster et al., 1989; Grosslight et al., 1986; Ketz and Schliack,1968; Kishimoto et al.,

James D Berry; Michael C Rowbotham; Karin Lottrup Petersen

2004-01-01

221

Herpes-type virus particles associated with a fungus.  

PubMed

A cultutre of the fungus Thraustochytrium, isolated from an estuary, was infected by ani enveloped virus. The nucleocapsid measured 110 nanometers in diameter and containied a core of DNA. The virus replicated in the nucleus. These findings stronigly suggest that the particles are a herpes-type virus. PMID:5054143

Kazama, F Y; Schornstein, K L

1972-08-25

222

The limbic system and the localisation of herpes simplex encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective destruction of temporal and frontal lobe structures by herpes simplex encephalitis has been explained as a consequence of the proximity of those regions to the point of entry of the virus in the encephalon, through olfactory pathways or meningeal branches of the trigeminal nerves. An alternative hypothesis is presented: that the encephalitis is due to a special affinity

A R Damasio; G W Van Hoesen

1985-01-01

223

Intra-uterine and neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 (buccal) and type 2 (genital) present a serious threat to neonates. Infection may occur in utero, by transplacental or ascending infection, by exposure to genital lesions during delivery, or postnatally from relatives or attendants. Antiviral drugs, vidarabine and acyclovir are of equal efficacy and toxicity when used in infants with herpes simplex infections. Transplacental infection during early pregnancy is a very rare cause of congenital abnormality but there have been no recommendations for intervention. Most neonatal infections are acquired from the mother during delivery. Antepartum screening for virus excretion is of no value in predicting exposure at delivery and should not be performed. Caesarean section should be reserved for women who have active lesions at delivery. Even if active lesions are present, in women with a history of recurrent herpes, the risks to the infant are low. Prophylactic acyclovir during pregnancy cannot be recommended until evidence of safety and efficacy has been obtained from controlled trials. Staff should be alert to the dangers of postnatal infection and measures should be taken to exclude, or reduce virus excretion from, staff members or visitors who have orolabial or cutaneous herpes lesions. PMID:1803497

Jeffries, D J

1991-01-01

224

Herpes simplex virus and oral mucositis in children with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and oral mucositis was investigated in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. HSV culture was performed in 20 children with stomatitis developing after antineoplastic chemotherapy. Viral isolates were typed and susceptibility to acyclovir was investigated. The virus was isolated from oral lesions in 10 of 20 children with severe oral mucositis. Viral reactivation was the

G. Carrega; E. Castagnola; A. Canessa; P. Argenta; R. Haupt; G. Dini; A. Garaventa

1994-01-01

225

Herpes-Simplex Virus as Cause of Bell's Palsy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large percentage of cases of Bell's palsy may be caused by herpes-simplex virus (H.S.V.). It is suggested that H.S.V. takes up residence within the peripheral-nerve-cell axon, where it is protected from neutralizing antibody and sensitised mononuclear i...

D. P. McCormick

1972-01-01

226

Herpes Simplex Virus Viremia during Primary Genital Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is com- monly associated with systemic symptoms. A systematic eval- uation of HSV viremia during primary genital infection has not been performed previously. Plasma samples from adults with a first clinical episode of genital HSV infection were as- sayed for HSV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. One hun- dredsixty-fouradultshadconfirmedprimarygenitalHSVin- fection. Of these, 40

Christine Johnston; Amalia Magaret; Stacy Selke; Michael Remington; Lawrence Corey; Anna Wald

2008-01-01

227

Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone.

K. D. Cockley; K. Shiraki; F. Rapp

1988-01-01

228

Effect of Viral Load on the Outcome of Herpes Zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, primary infection with which causes varicella, more commonly known as chicken pox. Characteristic of members of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily, VZV is neurotropic and establishes latency in sensory neurons. Reactivation of VZV causes herpes zoster, also known as shingles. The most frequent complication following zoster is chronic and often debilitating pain

M. L. Quinlivan; K. Ayres; H. Ran; S. McElwaine; M. Leedham-Green; F. T. Scott; R. W. Johnson; J. Breuer

2007-01-01

229

Dielectrophoretic manipulation and characterization of herpes simplex virus-1 capsids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dielectrophoretic behaviour of the capsids of herpes simplex virus type-1 has been measured over a range of conductivities of KCl solutions, with and without the addition of mannitol. The dielectrophoretic response of the capsids was recorded by measuring the frequency corresponding to zero dielectrophoretic force. The data were analysed using a multi-shelled model, and the permittivity and conductivity of

Michael P. Hughes; Hywel Morgan; Frazer J. Rixon

2001-01-01

230

Mouse hepatitis virus-3 induced prothrombinase (Fgl2) maps to proximal chromosome 5  

SciTech Connect

Infection with mouse hepatitis virus-3 (MHV-3), a member of the coronavirus family, leads to a strain-dependent spectrum of liver disease. Mice of the BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA strains are fully susceptible, exhibiting 100% mortality when infected with as little as 0.1 PFU of MHV-3, while A/J mice are resistant, as defined by complete survival and normal liver histology after infection with 2 X 10{sup 4} PFU. All of these strains are permissive for viral replication, suggesting that host immune factors, rather than viral cytopathology, are responsible for the observed difference in mortality. While the pathogenesis of MHV-3-induced liver disease is not fully understood, several lines of evidence indicate that local activation of the coagulation cascade prior to detectable viral replication plays an important role in liver cell injury. First, microscopy performed early in the infection of susceptible mice has shown sinusoidal thrombosis and foci of coagulation necrosis associated with varying degrees of inflammatory cell infiltration. Second, a correlation between disease severity and the induction of macrophage procoagulant activity (PCA) has been established, with susceptible mice developing an earlier and heightened PCA response relative to resistant strains. Finally, treatment of mice with a monoclonal antibody to MHV-3-induced PCA prevents the lethality associated with infection. Genetic linkage in the form of an identical strain distribution pattern was established between susceptibility to infection with MHV-3 and inducible macrophage PCA, using the set of AXB/BXA recombinant inbred strains derived from resistant (A/J) and susceptible (C57BL/6J) progenitors. 18 refs., 1 tab.

Qureshi, S.T. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]|[Montreal General Hospital (Canada); Clermont, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fung, Lai Sum [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

1995-09-01

231

Transcriptome analysis of Frog Virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae  

PubMed Central

Frog virus 3 is the best characterized species within the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. FV3's large (?105 kbp) dsDNA genome encodes 98 putative open reading frames (ORFs) that are expressed in a coordinated fashion leading to the sequential appearance of immediate early (IE), delayed early (DE) and late (L) viral transcripts. As a step toward elucidating molecular events in FV3 replication, we sought to identify the temporal class of viral messages. To accomplish this objective an oligonucleotide microarray containing 70-mer probes corresponding to each of the 98 FV3 ORFs was designed and used to examine viral gene expression. Viral transcription was initially monitored during the course of a productive replication cycle at 2, 4 and 9 hours after infection. To confirm results of the time course assay, viral gene expression was also monitored in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX), which limits expression to only IE genes, and following infection with a temperature sensitive (ts) mutant which at non-permissive temperatures is defective in viral DNA synthesis and blocked in late gene expression. Subsequently, microarray analyses were validated by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Using these approaches we identified 33 IE genes, 22 DE genes and 36 L viral genes. The temporal class of the 7 remaining genes could not be determined. Comparison of putative protein function with temporal class indicated that, in general, genes encoding putative regulatory factors, or proteins that played a part in nucleic acid metabolism and immune evasion, were classified as IE and DE genes, whereas those involved in DNA packaging and virion assembly were considered L genes. Information on temporal class will provide the basis for determining whether members of the same temporal class contain common upstream regulatory regions and perhaps allow us to identify virion-associated and virus-induced proteins that control viral gene expression.

Majji, S.; Thodima, V.; Sample, R.; Whitley, D.; Deng, Y.; Mao, J.; Chinchar, V. G.

2009-01-01

232

Herpes virus-based recombinant herpes vectors: gene therapy for pain and molecular tool for pain science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews work by Yeomans and Wilson in the area of herpes vector-mediated gene transfer to sensory neurons. Beginning in 1997, these researchers have published a number of papers describing and exploiting this technology in altering the phenotype of pain-sensing neurons (nociceptors). Their initial work, continuing to the present, inserted a transgene cassette encoding the human preproenkephalin gene into

D C Yeomans; S P Wilson

2009-01-01

233

Acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in children: reactivation of an undiagnosed latent neonatal herpes infection.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is known to cause acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The availability of HSV-2-specific polymerase chain reaction tests for diagnostic analysis has greatly increased our ability to discriminate ARN caused by HSV-2 from ARN caused by either herpes simplex virus type 1 or varicella zoster virus (VZV). Of great interest, HSV-2 appears to be the most common cause of viral ARN in children and adolescents. Although a few children with ARN are known to have had neonatally acquired herpes infection, most children lack a history of known herpes disease. Thus, the origin of the HSV-2 infection is a mystery. The hypothesis of this review is that HSV-2 ARN in children and adolescents may be the first sign of a previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic neonatal HSV-2 infection, which has reactivated several years later from latency in a cranial nerve and entered the retina. The review brings together 7 previously published ARN cases, plus one new case is added. Thus, this review also expands the spectrum of complications from neonatal HSV-2 infection. PMID:22889540

Grose, Charles

2012-09-01

234

Gene expression analysis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) lines during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection yields insights into differential immune responses.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is the etiological agent of a virulent and lethal disease in common and koi carp. This study aimed to determine the genetic basis underlying the common carp immune response to the CyHV-3 virus. Two common carp lines (R3 and K) were infected with CyHV-3 by immersion. The R3 line presented a 20% higher survival rate compared to the K line and significantly lower viral loads as measured at day 3 post infection (p.i.). Microarray analysis using a common carp slides containing a number of 10,822 60-mer probes, revealed that 581 genes in line K (330 up-regulated, 251 down-regulated) and 107 genes in line R3 (77 up-regulated, 30 down-regulated), showed at least a 2-fold difference in expression at day 3 p.i. compared to day 0. Genes which showed at least a 4-fold difference in expression in both lines were selected as potential markers of a CyHV-3 infection in common carp. Additionally, 76 genes showed at least 2-fold differentially expression between K and R3 lines at day 3 p.i. Significantly higher expression of several immune-related genes including number of those which are involve in pathogen recognition, complement activation, MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation and development of adaptive mucosal immunity was noted in more resistant R3 line. Further real-time PCR based analysis provided evidence for higher activation of CD8(+) T cells in R3 line. This study uncovered wide array of immune-related genes involved into antiviral response of common carp toward CyHV-3. It is also demonstrated that the outcome of this severe disease in large extent could be controlled by genetic factors of the host. PMID:22212509

Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Adamek, Miko?aj; Palmeira, Leonor; Kawana, Yuriko; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Matras, Marek; Steinhagen, Dieter; Flasz, Barbara; Brogden, Graham; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Aoki, Takashi

2011-12-24

235

Characterization of a new cell line from caudal fin of koi, Cyprinus carpio koi, and first isolation of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in China.  

PubMed

A new continuous cell line (KCF-1) from caudal fin of koi, Cyprinus carpio koi, was developed and sub-cultured more than 100 passages since the present study was initiated in March 2006. KCF-1 predominantly consisted of short fibroblast-like cells and grew well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Chromosome analysis revealed that 56% of the KCF-1 cells maintained normal diploid chromosome number (2n=100) at Passage 82. Using the KCF-1 cell line, a strain of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (designated as CyHV-3-QY08) was isolated from the diseased koi. CyHV-3-QY08 continuously propagated in the KCF-1 cells, as confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). KCF-1 cells infected with CyHV-3-QY08 produced typical cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation, deformation of nuclei, and marginalization of the nuclear chromatin, which are consistent with those of previous reports. CyHV-3-QY08 was purified and subsequently analyzed by SDS-PAGE and TEM. The results showed that the purified virions contained two types of morphologies and were composed of more than 30 obvious viral polypeptides. An infectivity experiment revealed that CyHV-3-QY08 could cause 100% mortality in the infected koi. Based on the genome sequence of CyHV-3-I/U, the CyHV-3(I/U)-ORF136 homologue in CyHV-3-QY08 was cloned and sequenced. Multiple sequence alignments of CyHV-3-I/U-ORF136 homologues showed that CyHV-3-QY08 belonged to the typical Asian genotype. The CyHV-3(I/U)-ORF136 homologue seems to be a novel molecule marker, which can be used to distinguish Asia isolates from Europe-America strains. PMID:21839788

Dong, Chuanfu; Weng, Shaoping; Li, Wei; Li, Xuezhu; Yi, Yang; Liang, Qiuling; He, Jianguo

2011-08-04

236

Intestinal barrier of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during a cyprinid herpesvirus 3-infection: molecular identification and regulation of the mRNA expression of claudin encoding genes.  

PubMed

As a major part of tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium of vertebrates, claudin proteins are crucial to develop a selective permeable function and to maintain integrity of the barrier. The intestine has been reported as one of the targeted tissue of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) which causes major disease problems in carp production worldwide. To analyse the impact of the disease on the epithelial barrier of the intestine, carp claudin encoding genes were cloned, their tissue expression was described, and the abundance of gene transcripts in the intestine of carp under CyHV-3 infection was determined. Some of the carp claudin genes such as claudin-7 and -11 were expressed in various tissues, whilst others, like claudin-2 and -23, showed more tissue-specific expression profiles, which may reflect specific functions of these particular claudins. Along the gut axis, a spatial distribution of claudin gene expressions was found, with a lower abundance of gene transcripts in anterior regions of the intestine and increased expression in the distal section of the intestine, which might indicate specific functions of different regions in the intestinal tract of carp. In carp under CyHV-3 infection, an up-regulation in the expression of IFN-a2, IL-1beta and iNOS was observed, together with an elevation of transcriptional levels of claudin-2, -3c, -11, and -23. The data suggest that expression of claudins is involved in the reorganisation of the intestinal epithelium in CyHV-3-infected carp, which may be responsible for changes in the paracellular permeability. An increased expression of the claudins might be a response to the disturbance of the hydromineral balance in carp under CyHV-3 infection. PMID:23194746

Syakuri, Hamdan; Adamek, Miko?aj; Brogden, Graham; Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Matras, Marek; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter

2012-11-26

237

The IL-10 homologue encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in vivo  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. CyHV-3 ORF134 encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homologue. The present study was devoted to this ORF. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that ORF134 is expressed as a spliced gene belonging to the early-late class. Proteomic analyses of CyHV-3 infected cell supernatant demonstrated that the ORF134 expression product is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome. To investigate the role of ORF134 in viral replication in vitro and in virulence in vivo, a deleted strain and a derived revertant strain were produced using BAC cloning technologies. The recombinant ORF134 deleted strain replicated in vitro comparably to the parental and the revertant strains. Infection of fish by immersion in water containing the virus induced comparable CyHV-3 disease for the three virus genotypes tested (wild type, deleted and revertant). Quantification of viral DNA by real time TaqMan PCR (in the gills and the kidney) and analysis of carp cytokine expression (in the spleen) by RT-qPCR at different times post-infection did not revealed any significant difference between the groups of fish infected with the three virus genotypes. Similarly, histological examination of the gills and the kidney of infected fish revealed no significant differences between fish infected with ORF134 deleted virus versus fish infected with the control parental or revertant strains. All together, the results of the present study demonstrate that the IL-10 homologue encoded by CyHV-3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in common carp.

2013-01-01

238

Sequence structure and intragenomic variability of ribosomal ITS2 in monozoic tapeworms of the genus Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

The sequence structure of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) was determined for six species of Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish in the Holarctic Region. Homologous intragenomic ITS2 structure was found in Khawia armeniaca, Khawia baltica, and Khawia rossittensis; whereas divergent intragenomic ITS2 copies were detected in Chinese, Japanese, and Slovak isolates of Khawia sinensis and in Khawia japonensis, both parasitic in common carp, and in Khawia saurogobii, recently described from Chinese lizard gudgeon in China. Despite distinct morphological differences between K. saurogobii and K. sinensis, both species display very high level of molecular homogeneity. Variation in number of short repetitive motifs [(GCCT)(n) (GCCC)(n)], [(GTG)(n)], [(ATAC)(n)], [ACGTGT (TCGTGT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], and [(ACCT)(n) (GCCT)(n)] resulted in assortment of ITS2 sequences in four ITS2 variants in K. saurogobii from China, three in Chinese and Japanese isolates of K. sinensis, and five ITS2 variants in K. sinensis from Slovakia. In K. japonensis, the structure and arrangement of microsatellites was different from those of K. sinensis and K. saurogobii. The heterogeneity in the number of two microsatellite regions [(TG)(n); (TTG)(n)] divided ITS2 clones into two variants-first ITS2 variant (472 bp) with (TG)(5) and (TTG)(6), and second variant with (TG)(7) and (TTG)(2) (465 bp). Sequence identity of K. saurogobii with all but one (K. sinensis) congeneric species ranged between 49.5 and 69.2%, which corresponds to the interspecific differences. In contrast, sequence identity of K. saurogobii and K. sinensis (87.6-95.0%) failed into the range of intraspecific variation determined for K. sinensis samples. This close genetic similarity indicates that recently described K. saurogobii may have undergone morphological divergence as a result of ongoing sympatric speciation by host switching. PMID:22814768

Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Oros, Mikuláš; Scholz, Tomáš

2012-07-20

239

Response to fish specific reproductive hormones and endocrine disrupting chemicals of a Sertoli cell line expressing endogenous receptors from an endemic cyprinid Gnathopogon caerulescens.  

PubMed

Fish Sertoli cells play a critical role in spermatogenesis by mediating androgen and progestogen signaling. Their hormonal response, however, considerably differ among species. Therefore it would be ideal to use Sertoli cells originated from the fish of interest to investigate the effects of hormones as well as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the responses to reproductive hormones and EDCs of a Sertoli cell line that we established from an endemic cyprinid Gnathopogon caerulescens. As the Sertoli cell line expressed endogenous androgen and progestogen receptors, we were able to detect hormone responses by transfecting only a reporter vector (pGL4.36) expressing luciferase under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus-long terminal repeat (MMTV-LTR) promoter into the cell line. Unlike previous reporter gene assays using fish steroid hormone receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines, luciferase activities were induced by the fish specific androgen (11-ketotestosterone) and progestogen (17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one), but not by testosterone and progesterone, at physiologically relevant concentrations. Furthermore, we found 4-nonylphenol (NP) but not bisphenol A showed strong anti-androgenic effects, implying that NP may have direct anti-androgenic effects on fish Sertoli cells in vivo. This is the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, of anti-androgenic effects of NP in a fish Sertoli cell line. In addition, neither NP nor BPA showed anti-progestogenic effects. These results suggest that the Sertoli cell line established from the fish of interest can be a useful in vitro tool for investigating the mechanisms of reproductive hormones and EDCs in the specific fish. PMID:23770217

Higaki, Shogo; Koyama, Yoshie; Shimada, Manami; Ono, Yuriko; Tooyama, Ikuo; Fujioka, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Noriyoshi; Ikeuchi, Toshitaka; Takada, Tatsuyuki

2013-06-13

240

Infection level of the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger, from Anchar Lake, relative to season, sex, length and condition factor.  

PubMed

Various studies have shown that the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi causes great economic loss in hatcheries, fish farms as well as in lakes. In order to understand the seasonal variation of infection in a nutrient-enriched lake, parasitological investigation was carried out in the indigenous cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838 from September, 2008 to August, 2009. Overall, this study revealed definite seasonality of infection (p?

Zargar, Ummer Rashid; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmed, Fayaz

2011-07-08

241

Herpes zoster[ndash ]associated voiding dysfunction: A retrospective study and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chen P-H, Hsueh H-F, Hong C-Z. Herpes zoster[ndash ]associated voiding dysfunction: a retrospective study and literature review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1624-8. Objectives: (1) To describe the demographic features of patients with voiding dysfunction associated with herpes zoster; (2) to discuss the pathophysiology of voiding dysfunction associated with herpes zoster; and (3) to suggest the best management policy. Design: A

Po-Hong Chen; Hsiu-Fang Hsueh; Chang-Zern Hong

2002-01-01

242

The negative association between a history of recurrent herpes labialis and cervical neoplasia.  

PubMed

We considered the possibility that herpetic recurrences and herpes virus associated neoplasia are mutually exclusive disorders because they are expressions of different herpes virus-host relationships. We assumed that the human body copes with orofacial and genital herpes infections in the same manner. In our retrospective study, the relative risk of a history of fever blisters for cervical neoplasia was estimated to be 0.49, with 0.34 and 0.69 as the limits of the 95% confidence interval. It is suggested that recurrent herpes labialis is presumably a determinant of an effective immune response in general. PMID:3176912

Burger, M P; Wilterdink, J B

1988-01-01

243

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Presenting with Normal CSF Analysis.  

PubMed

A 28 years old female presented with headache, fever, altered sensorium and right side weakness for one week. She was febrile and drowsy with right sided hemiplegia and papilledema. Tuberculous or bacterial meningitis, tuberculoma and abscess were at the top of the diagnosis list followed by Herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis (HSE). MRI showed abnormal signal intensity of left temporal lobe without significant post-contrast enhancement and midline shift. CSF examination was normal, gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed no micro-organism, or acid fast bacilli. CSF for MTB PCR was negative. PCR DNA for Herpes simplex 1 on CSF was detected. Acyclovir was started and the patient was discharged after full recovery. A high index of suspicion is required for HSE diagnosis in Pakistan where other infections predominantly affect the brain and HSE may be overlooked as a potential diagnosis. PMID:24169394

Ahmed, Rizwan; Kiani, Ismaa Ghazanfar; Shah, Faridullah; Najeeb-Ur-Rehman, Rao; Ehsan-Ul-Haq, M

2013-11-01

244

Pediatric herpes simplex virus encephalitis: a retrospective multicenter experience.  

PubMed

Knowledge on pediatric herpes simplex virus encephalitis is limited. Here we summarize 6 neonates and 32 children diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (n = 37) or serological studies (n = 1), respectively. Diagnosis was difficult, as only 15 patients presented neurologic symptoms. Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid glucose, protein, and leukocytes were normal in 6 patients. Subsequently, all but 2 showed neurologic symptoms. Diffusion-weighted neuroimaging was the most sensitive early imaging method. Despite acyclovir treatment, 8 patients experienced early relapses, showing movement abnormalities, impaired vigilance, and seizures. Diffuse white matter changes, found in 3 of 5 relapse patients on neuroimaging, and a negative cerebrospinal fluid herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction suggested inflammatory processes. All relapse patients were again treated with acyclovir, and 3 responded to additional corticosteroid treatment. Whereas outcome after relapses was poor, overall outcome was good. No child died; 14 were asymptomatic at discharge, and neuroimaging remained normal in 7 of 30 patients studied. PMID:23329585

Schleede, Lena; Bueter, Wolfgang; Baumgartner-Sigl, Sara; Opladen, Thomas; Weigt-Usinger, Katharina; Stephan, Susanne; Smitka, Martin; Leiz, Steffen; Kaiser, Olaf; Kraus, Verena; van Baalen, Andreas; Skopnik, Heino; Hartmann, Hans; Rostasy, Kevin; Lücke, Thomas; Schara, Ulrike; Häusler, Martin

2013-01-16

245

Herpes simplex virus esophagitis in the immunocompetent host: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to delineate the characteristics of herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) in the immunocompetent host.METHODS:The study entailed a case report and a review of relevant literature through a MEDLINE search back to 1966. All cases with documented HSVE in patients without immunosuppression were selected and their characteristics defined.RESULTS:A total of 38 cases were identified. The

Jambunathan Ramanathan; Majed Rammouni; Joseph Baran; Riad Khatib

2000-01-01

246

Latent infection of the peripheral ANS with herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN both experimentally infected animals1,2 and in asymptomatic human subjects3,4 herpes simplex virus (HSV) can establish a latent infection in the sensory ganglia of the nervous system. It is probably the periodic reactivation of virus within these ganglia that gives rise to recurrent herpetic eruptions on epithelial surfaces innervated by the infected ganglia. The ganglia of the peripheral autonomic nervous

Richard W. Price; Barrett J. Katz; Abner Louis Notkins

1975-01-01

247

Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in Human UNC-93B Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of sporadic viral encephalitis in western countries. Its pathogenesis remains unclear, as it affects otherwise healthy patients and only a small minority of HSV-1-infected individuals. Here, we elucidate a genetic etiology for HSE in two children with autosomal recessive deficiency in the intracellular protein UNC-93B, resulting in impaired cellular

Armanda Casrouge; Shen-Ying Zhang; Céline Eidenschenk; Emmanuelle Jouanguy; Anne Puel; Kun Yang; Alexandre Alcais; Capucine Picard; Nora Mahfoufi; Nathalie Nicolas; Lazaro Lorenzo; Sabine Plancoulaine; Brigitte Sénéchal; Frédéric Geissmann; Koichi Tabeta; Kasper Hoebe; Xin Du; Richard L. Miller; Bénédicte Héron; Cyril Mignot; Thierry Billette de Villemeur; Pierre Lebon; Olivier Dulac; Flore Rozenberg; Bruce Beutler; Marc Tardieu; Laurent Abel; Jean-Laurent Casanova

2006-01-01

248

TLR3 Deficiency in Patients with Herpes Simplex Encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide immunity to experimental infections in animal models, but their contribution to host defense in natural ecosystems is unknown. We report a dominant-negative TLR3 allele in otherwise healthy children with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. TLR3 is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where it is required to control HSV-1, which spreads

Shen-Ying Zhang; Emmanuelle Jouanguy; Sophie Ugolini; Asma Smahi; Gaëlle Elain; Pedro Romero; David Segal; Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu; Lazaro Lorenzo; Anne Puel; Capucine Picard; Ariane Chapgier; Sabine Plancoulaine; Matthias Titeux; Céline Cognet; Horst von Bernuth; Cheng-Lung Ku; Armanda Casrouge; Xin-Xin Zhang; Luis Barreiro; Joshua Leonard; Claire Hamilton; Pierre Lebon; Bénédicte Héron; Louis Vallée; Lluis Quintana-Murci; Alain Hovnanian; Flore Rozenberg; Eric Vivier; Frédéric Geissmann; Marc Tardieu; Laurent Abel; Jean-Laurent Casanova

2007-01-01

249

Inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by methyl daunosamine.  

PubMed Central

Methyl daunosamine inhibited the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in a dose-dependent manner. The growth of the host Vero cells was not affected by daunosamine levels that had significant antiviral activity (2.5 mM) but was inhibited by concentrations of 5 mM or greater. Methyl daunosamine appears to be unique among the sugars with antiviral activity because at antiviral concentrations it did not inhibit the glycosylation of macromolecules.

Spivack, J G; Prusoff, W H; Tritton, T R

1982-01-01

250

Herpes simplex virus in patients with aphthous ulcers in Bangkok.  

PubMed

Fifty-two paired sera and 40 single sera and swabs from the aphthous like ulcers of the tongue, gum, and buccal mucosa were collected from patients at a private clinic and from workers of canned fish packaging company in an attempt to isolate herpes simplex virus. Sixty-eight percent had positive HVH isolation with high ELISA antibody titers. Among 52 paired sera from patients, 68.4% had recurrent infections and 31.6% had primary infection. PMID:6283680

Tantivanich, S; Vanadurongwan, S; Tharavanij, S

1981-12-01

251

Nonvirion Antigens Produced by Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of nine herpes simplex virus 1 strains (from lip, mouth, throat, cornea, or brain) only five produced enough nonvirion antigen (i.e., not a structural component of the virus) to be detected by complement fixation with specially prepared, virion-absorbed, type-1 guinea pig antisera, while the remaining four strains produced only enough of the same antigen to induce specific antibody in hyperimmunized

Giulio Tarro; Albert B. Sabin

1973-01-01

252

Manipulation of herpes simplex virus type 1 by dielectrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic behaviour of an enveloped mammalian virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 is described. It is demonstrated that over the range 10 kHz–20 MHz, these viral particles, when suspended in an aqueous medium of conductivity 5 mS m?1, can be manipulated by both positive and negative dielectrophoresis using microfabricated electrode arrays. The observed transition from positive to negative

Michael P. Hughes; Hywel Morgan; Frazer J. Rixon; Julian P. H. Burt; Ronald Pethig

1998-01-01

253

Herpes Zoster in Breast Cancer Patients after Radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have studied the incidence of herpes zoster in patients with adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer with special emphasis on possible correlations with other prognostic factors or survival. Patients and Methods: From 1\\/1985 through 12\\/1993, 1 155 breast cancer patients received postoperative radiotherapy with curative interent in our department. After mastectomy 961 patients were irradiated and after breast-preserving treatment

Jürgen Dunst; Bettina Steil; Steffi Furch; Annette Fach; Gisela Bormann; Wolfgang Marsch

2000-01-01

254

Neuropsychologic outcomes in children with neonatal herpes encephalitis.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection with involvement of the central nervous system is a serious disease with high morbidity, even with acyclovir therapy. The disability includes cerebral palsy and different aspects of cognitive dysfunction which are of utmost importance for the child's future habilitation. We conducted a descriptive cohort study to define neuropsychologic outcomes and determine the relationship between neonatal neuroimaging and neuropsychologic outcomes. Among 267,690 children born in the Stockholm area over 12 years (1989-2000), 14 were diagnosed with neonatal herpes including central nervous system involvement. Nine children were neuropsychologically evaluated. Neonatal herpes virus infection had an even greater impact on cognitive function, speech ability, and attention deficit than anticipated. Relapse leading to deterioration was demonstrated in one child. Social skills were influenced to a lesser degree. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of the children were not well-correlated with extent of cerebral damage as visualized by computed tomography at 7-28 days after onset of signs. Neuropsychologic assessment is essential in the habilitation of the child, and a prerequisite for the evaluation of new treatments and for the assessment of deterioration of cerebral function related to relapses. PMID:18486821

Engman, Mona-Lisa; Adolfsson, Ingrid; Lewensohn-Fuchs, Ilona; Forsgren, Marianne; Mosskin, Mikael; Malm, Gunilla

2008-06-01

255

Orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus  

PubMed Central

We report our findings for a patient with orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Our patient was initially admitted to a neighborhood hospital because of nausea and loss of appetite of 10 days’ duration. The day after hospitalization, she developed skin vesicles along the first division of the trigeminal nerve, with severe lid swelling and conjunctival injection. On suspicion of meningoencephalitis caused by varicella zoster virus, antiviral therapy with vidarabine and betamethasone was started. Seventeen days later, complete ptosis and ophthalmoplegia developed in the right eye. The light reflex in the right eye was absent and anisocoria was present, with the right pupil larger than the left. Fat-suppressed enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images showed high intensity areas in the muscle cone, cavernous sinus, and orbital optic nerve sheath. Our patient was diagnosed with orbital apex syndrome, and because of skin vesicles in the first division of the trigeminal nerve, the orbital apex syndrome was considered to be caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus. After the patient was transferred to our hospital, prednisolone 60 mg and vidarabine antiviral therapy was started, and fever and headaches disappeared five days later. The ophthalmoplegia and optic neuritis, but not the anisocoria, gradually resolved during tapering of oral therapy. From the clinical findings and course, the cause of the orbital apex syndrome was most likely invasion of the orbital apex and cavernous sinus by the herpes virus through the trigeminal nerve ganglia.

Kurimoto, Takuji; Tonari, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Norihiko; Monta, Mitsuhiro; Hirata, Saori; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugasawa, Jun; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

2011-01-01

256

Chloroquine diphosphate: a risk factor for herpes zoster in patients with dermatomyositis/polymyositis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Herpes zoster has been widely described in the context of different systemic autoimmune diseases but not dermatomyositis/polymyositis. Therefore, we analyzed the prevalence, risk factors and herpes zoster outcomes in this population. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study of herpes zoster infections in dermatomyositis/polymyositis patients was performed. The patients were followed at a tertiary center from 1991 to 2012. For the control group, each patient with herpes zoster was paired with two patients without herpes zoster. Patients were matched by gender and the type of myositis, age at myositis onset and disease duration. RESULTS: Of 230 patients, 24 (10.4%) had a histories of herpes zoster (19 with dermatomyositis and five with polymyositis, two-thirds female). The mean age of the patients with herpes zoster was 44.6±16.8 years. No difference between the groups was found regarding cumulative clinical manifestations. Disease activity, autoantibody, muscle and leukogram parameters were also comparable between the groups. No differences in immunosuppressive (alone or in association with other immunosuppressive therapies) or glucocorticoid (current use, medium dose and cumulative dose in the last two months) therapies were found between patients with and without herpes zoster. However, a higher proportion of patients in the herpes zoster group received chloroquine diphosphate compared to the control group. All of the patients received acyclovir; 58.3% of patients had postherpetic neuralgia and no cases of recurrence were reported. Furthermore, individuals who were taking high prednisone doses at the time of the herpes zoster diagnosis had reduced levels of postherpetic neuralgia. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that chloroquine diphosphate could predispose patients with dermatomyositis/polymyositis to developing herpes zoster, particularly women and dermatomyositis patients.

da Cunha, Gilmara Franco; de Souza, Fernando Henrique Carlos; Levy-Neto, Mauricio; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki

2013-01-01

257

Report of twelve years experience in open study of Skinner herpes simplex vaccine towards prevention of herpes genitalis.  

PubMed

Three hundred and forty-seven subjects at risk for herpes genitalis were vaccinated with Skinner vaccine, NFUAc.HSV1.(S-MRC5), and were followed for an average duration of 2 years representing a total consortship of 664.4 years. Based on survey information obtained during this consortship, there were estimated to be 3076 recurrences which summated to 3.5 years total duration of disease and comprised at least 6794 lesions; there were an estimated 51997 episodes of intercourse including at least 241 episodes of unprotected intercourse in the presence of herpetic lesions. The rate of contraction of herpes genitalis was 6 of 54 consorts (11.1%) who received one vaccination and 7 of 293 (2.4%) who received two, three of four vaccinations. There was no evidence of physical or psychological side effects from vaccination. PMID:1549071

Skinner, G R; Fink, C; Melling, J; Wiblin, C; Thornton, B; Hallworth, J; Gardner, W; McLeish, P; Hartley, C; Buchan, A

1992-01-01

258

Report of twelve years experience in open study of Skinner herpes simplex vaccine towards prevention of herpes genitalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred and forty-seven subjects at risk for herpes genitalis were vaccinated with Skinner vaccine, NFUAc.HSV1.(S-MRC 5), and were followed for an average duration of 2 years representing a total consortship of 664.4 years. Based on survey information obtained during this consortship, there were estimated to be 3076 recurrences which summated to 3.5 years total duration of disease and comprised

G. R. B. Skinner; C. Fink; J. Melling; C. Wiblin; B. Thornton; J. Hallworth; W. Gardner; P. McLeish; C. Hartley; A. Buchan

1992-01-01

259

Psychological Investigation of Genital Herpes Recurrence: Prospective Assessment and Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for a Chronic Physical Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that anxiety and\\/or depressed mood are associated with recurrence of genital herpes lesions. The present study sought to extend the assessment of factors associated with genital herpes and to investigate the impact of psychological therapy on features of the disorder. Sixteen genital herpes patients received 5 weeks of either structured discussion or cognitive restructuring (CR) therapy in

Lydia D. McLarnon; Danny G. Kaloupek

1988-01-01

260

Current recommendations for the treatment of genital herpes.  

PubMed

The incidence of genital herpes continues to increase in epidemic-like fashion. Aciclovir (acyclovir) has been the original gold standard of therapy. The recent addition of famciclovir and valaciclovir as antiherpes drugs has improved convenience as well as the efficacy of treatment. Although aciclovir remains a widely prescribed and reliable drug, its administration schedule falls short of the ease of usage that the newer nucleoside analogues offer, for both episodic and suppressive therapy. Suppression of symptomatic disease and asymptomatic shedding from the genitalia have both become popular approaches, if not the primary targets of antiviral therapy. Knowing that asymptomatic disease leads to most cases of transmission strongly suggests that suppression with antiviral agents could reduce transmission risk in discordant couples. Unfortunately, the role for antivirals in reducing transmission remains to be proven in clinical trials. Neonatal herpes is now successfully treated using aciclovir. Current randomised clinical trials are examining aciclovir and valaciclovir administration, as well as safety and efficacy for post-acute suppressive therapy. Prevention of recurrences in pregnancy is also a topic under investigation, with a view to reducing the medical need for Cesarean section, or alternatively (and far less likely to be accomplished) to protect the neonate. Although resistance is largely limited to the immunocompromised and a change in resistance patterns is not expected, several drugs are available for the treatment of aciclovir-resistant strains of herpes simplex. Foscarnet is the main alternative with proven efficacy in this setting. Unfortunately, administration of foscarnet requires intravenous therapy, although a single anecdote of topical foscarnet efficacy in this setting has been published. Alternatives include cidofovir gel, which is not commercially available but can be formulated locally from the intravenous preparation. Less effective alternatives include trifluridine and interferon. Future possibilities for treatment of genital herpes include a microparticle-based controlled-release formulation of aciclovir and resiquimod (VML-600; R-848). The search for an effective therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes has not been successful to date, although a live virus glycoprotein H-deficient (DISC) vaccine is currently in clinical trials. Recent data suggest that seronegative women are protected (albeit, not fully) by a glycoprotein D recombinant vaccine with adjuvant. Despite the established safety and convenience of current treatment options, better suppressive options and topical treatment options are much needed. Studies using existing agents as potential tools to avoid Cesarean section, or transmission to neonate or partner are ongoing. Both vaccines and antivirals may eventually play a role in prevention of infection. PMID:11152015

Leung, D T; Sacks, S L

2000-12-01

261

Art and memory: A 7-year follow-up of herpes encephalitis in a professional artist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement following acute disorders giving rise to severe amnesia may be more common than is generally assumed, although there have been relatively few follow-up studies in herpes encephalitis. Patient DJ is a professional artist whose herpes encephalitis was remarkably unilateral, affecting the left temporal lobe. This resulted in severe impairments of episodic memory, naming and word-finding, and a surface dyslexia.

Nicola Stanhope; Michael D. Kopelman

2000-01-01

262

Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

2008-01-01

263

Defensive effects of a fucoidan from brown alga Undaria pinnatifida against herpes simplex virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from an edible brown alga Undaria pinnatifida, was previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the in vitro replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 is a member of herpes viruses that cause infections ranging from trivial mucosal ulcers to life-threatening disorders in immunocompromised hosts. In the in vivo conditions, the replication

Kyoko Hayashi; Takahisa Nakano; Minoru Hashimoto; Kenji Kanekiyo; Toshimitsu Hayashi

2008-01-01

264

U.S. Teens More Vulnerable to Genital Herpes, Study Suggests  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. U.S. Teens More Vulnerable to Genital Herpes, Study Suggests They ... October 17, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Genital Herpes Teen Sexual Health THURSDAY, Oct. 17 (HealthDay News) -- Today's ...

265

Monoclonal Antibodies Against Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Nucleocapsids and Kit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of producing clinical assays for use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the differentiation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 as a diagnostic kit for differentiating HSV-1 and HSV-2 utiliz...

B. Hampar M. Zweig H. Rabin

1980-01-01

266

Monthly Recurrent Herpes Simplex Virus Blepharitis in a Boy for More Than 10 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is generally accepted to be a unilateral disease and simultaneous bilateral recurrent ocular HSV disease is uncommon. Recurrent ocular herpes was generally thought to be characterized by corneal involvement. We here report an 11-year-old boy with monthly bilateral recurrent HSV type 1 blepharitis for more than 10 years. He had a general normal immunological

C.-H. Tsao; C.-Y. Chen; K.-W. Yeh; J.-L. Huang

2003-01-01

267

Conjunctival geographic ulcer and blepharitis in primary ocular herpes: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Conjunctival geographic ulcer is a rare manifestation of ocular herpes simplex. Geographic ulcers are formed when sloughing of the epithelium occurs in the areas between the dendrite and a broad area of epithelial involvement with irregular angulated borders is formed. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of primary ocular herpes with blepharitis and geographic ulceration of the conjunctiva in

Rohina Swaroop

2009-01-01

268

Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

2000-06-01

269

Topical interferon cream for the treatment of herpes genitalis: a double-blind controlled trial.  

PubMed

Thirty-five women with primary herpes genitalis and 34 women with recurrent herpes genitalis were treated with either placebo, or beta Interferon cream (20,000 iu/g). In comparison with the placebo group, the treatment group showed no benefit in either symptom relief, speed of healing of lesions or length of viral shedding time from lesions. PMID:3028362

Batcheler, L M; Bonham, D G; Collins, R; Liddell, H S

1986-08-01

270

Herpes virus infection can cause intervertebral disc degeneration: a causal relationship?  

PubMed

It has been proposed that intervertebral disc degeneration might be caused by low-grade infection. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence of herpes viruses in intervertebral disc specimens from patients with lumbar disc herniation. A polymerase chain reaction based assay was applied to screen for the DNA of eight different herpes viruses in 16 patients and two controls. DNA of at least one herpes virus was detected in 13 specimens (81.25%). Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 (HSV-1) was the most frequently detected virus (56.25%), followed by Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (37.5%). In two patients, co-infection by both HSV-1 and CMV was detected. All samples, including the control specimens, were negative for Herpes Simplex Virus type-2, Varicella Zoster Virus, Epstein Barr Virus, Human Herpes Viruses 6, 7 and 8. The absence of an acute infection was confirmed both at the serological and mRNA level. To our knowledge this is the first unequivocal evidence of the presence of herpes virus DNA in intervertebral disc specimens of patients with lumbar disc herniation suggesting the potential role of herpes viruses as a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of degenerative disc disease. PMID:21911538

Alpantaki, K; Katonis, P; Hadjipavlou, A G; Spandidos, D A; Sourvinos, G

2011-09-01

271

Experimental development of herpes simplex virus infection in hamster buccal pouch.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have developed an intraoral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model in the hamster buccal pouch. This animal model could be used for further oral cancer research related to herpes simplex virus infection. PMID:3856800

Park, N H; Herbosa, E G; Shklar, G

1985-02-01

272

Syndrome d’immunodéficience acquise (AIDS) révélé par un herpes génital sévère  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present 2 cases of AIDS revealed by severe recurrent genital herpes simplex. The patients are 2 young, previously healthy, African women without histories of homosexuality or drug abuse. The first patient died after 5 months of follow-up (post mortem findings: viral bronchopneumonia with positive cultures for herpes and cytomegalovirus (CMV), viral colitis due to CMV). The second patient

J. De Maubeuge; F. Mascart-Lemone; N. Clumeck; C. Jonas; J. M. Panzer; G. Decaux; J. André; J. Goens; M. Ledoux-Corbusier; G. Achten

1984-01-01

273

Developing a Measure of Quality of Life for Patients with Recurrent Genital Herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes has been shown to have a profound psychological impact upon sufferers. Although it is episodic, the negative public perception of the condition and uncertainty about the timing of outbreaks means that patients are continually under emotional stress. Despite this, no herpes-specific measure is available for assessing quality of life.This paper describes the theoretical basis for, and the initial

Lynda C. Doward

1994-01-01

274

Coping and adjustment to genital herpes: The effects of time and social support  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the relationship of the passage of time and membership in a self-help group with coping behaviors and distress among people with genital herpes. A comparison between 116 people in herpes support groups and 36 community volunteers on the use of coping and level of emotional adjustment was undertaken. Results of the study indicated that people employed

Sharon Manne; Irwin Sandler; Alex Zautra

1986-01-01

275

Type-specific protein in herpes simplex virus envelope reacts with neutralising antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

CERVICAL carcinoma has been correlated with previous infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 detected serologically1-3. These tests have, however, been confused by the fact that type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex viruses cross neutralise and it is therefore difficult to use the data to provide clear evidence for previous type 2 infection4. We have previously shown that antisera

K. L. Powell; A. Buchan; Caroline Sim; D. H. WATSON

1974-01-01

276

Management of women with recurrent genital herpes in pregnancy in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To document clinical practice for the management of recurrent genital herpes in pregnant women in Australia. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A questionnaire to all doctors associated with the Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Policies for antenatal herpes screening, circumstances in which delivery by caesarean section was considered appropriate, and the use of aciclovir during pregnancy.

C. Marks; K. Fethers; A. Mindel

1999-01-01

277

Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

2008-01-01

278

Grover's disease secondarily infected with herpes simplex virus and Staphylococcus aureus: Case report and review.  

PubMed

The case of a 73-year old man with herpes simplex and staphylococcus aureus infection complicating established Grover's disease is presented. This was treated successfully with valaciclovir. While reports of bacterial and herpetic infections complicating other acantholytic diseases, such as Darier's disease, have been published previously, only one publication to date shows herpes simplex infection in Grover's disease. PMID:23013197

Bunce, Penelope Am; Stanford, Duncan G

2012-09-26

279

The impact of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia on quality-of-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The potentially serious nature of herpes zoster (HZ) and the long-term complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) are often underestimated. One in four people will contract herpes zoster in their lifetime, with this risk rising markedly after the age of 50 years, and affecting one in two in elderly individuals. Pain is the predominant symptom in all phases of HZ disease,

Robert W Johnson; Didier Bouhassira; George Kassianos; Alain Leplège; Kenneth E Schmader; Thomas Weinke

2010-01-01

280

Herp, a new ubiquitin-like membrane protein induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, injures endothelial cells through undefined mechanisms. We previously identified several homocysteine-responsive genes in cultured human vascular endothelial cells, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident molecular chaperone GRP78/BiP. Here, we demonstrate that homocysteine induces the ER stress response and leads to the expression of a novel protein, Herp, containing a ubiquitin-like domain at the N terminus. mRNA expression of Herp was strongly up-regulated by inducers of ER stress, including mercaptoethanol, tunicamycin, A23187, and thapsigargin. The ER stress-dependent induction of Herp was also observed at the protein level. Immunochemical analyses using Herp-specific antibodies indicated that Herp is a 54-kDa, membrane-associated ER protein. Herp is the first integral membrane protein regulated by the ER stress response pathway. Both the N and C termini face the cytoplasmic side of the ER; this membrane topology makes it unlikely that Herp acts as a molecular chaperone for proteins in the ER, in contrast to GRP78 and other ER stress-responsive proteins. Herp may, therefore, play an unknown role in the cellular survival response to stress. PMID:10922362

Kokame, K; Agarwala, K L; Kato, H; Miyata, T

2000-10-20

281

Anti-herpes simplex type 1 activity in IgG subclasses produced systemically and intrathecally in patients with herpes encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the humoral immune response in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is largely unknown. The finding that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) induced IgG Fc receptor binds to all IgG subclasses except IgG 3 prompted an investigation of anti-HSV activity in IgG subclasses from serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in ten patients with proven or highly probable

P. J. H. Johansson; J. Blomberg

1986-01-01

282

The efficacy and safety of Skinner herpes simplex vaccine towards modulation of herpes genitalis; report of a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomised, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial of intracellular subunit herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 vaccine NFU.Ac.HSV-1(S–)MRC (Skinner vaccine) was conducted at three medical centres in the United States. Subjects with documented herpes genitalis\\u000a of at least 1-year duration and a history of six or more genital HSV recurrences in the 12 months prior to study entry were\\u000a randomised to receive

G. R. B. Skinner; M. E. Turyk; C. A. Benson; G. D. Wilbanks; P. Heseltine; J. Galpin; R. Kaufmann; L. Goldberg; C. E. Hartley; A. Buchan

1997-01-01

283

Herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections during pregnancy: current concepts of prevention, diagnosis and therapy. Part 1: Herpes simplex virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with transplacental\\u000a virus transmission and fetal infection. The consequences may be abortion, stillbirth and congenital malformations. In neonates,\\u000a the clinical findings after intrauterine HSV infection are characterized by skin lesions, diseases of the eye and neurologic\\u000a damage. Herpes genitalis of pregnant women at

A. Sauerbrei; P. Wutzler

2007-01-01

284

Imaging and laboratory investigation in herpes simplex encephalitis  

PubMed Central

A 14 day old baby presented with signs of an acute encephalitis. Clinically, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was suspected. Early MRI and EEG were normal and there was rapid clinical improvement. A negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result on the initial CSF sample seemed to make HSE most unlikely. This diagnosis was subsequently proved after demonstration of specific antibody production using immunoelectrophoresis of the CSF. The child had extensive damage to brain tissue. The need for sequential analysis of CSF in making or refuting this diagnosis is illustrated.??

Coren, M; Buchdahl, R; Cowan, F; Riches, P; Miles, K; Thompson, E

1999-01-01

285

Imaging and laboratory investigation in herpes simplex encephalitis.  

PubMed

A 14 day old baby presented with signs of an acute encephalitis. Clinically, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was suspected. Early MRI and EEG were normal and there was rapid clinical improvement. A negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result on the initial CSF sample seemed to make HSE most unlikely. This diagnosis was subsequently proved after demonstration of specific antibody production using immunoelectrophoresis of the CSF. The child had extensive damage to brain tissue. The need for sequential analysis of CSF in making or refuting this diagnosis is illustrated. PMID:10407002

Coren, M E; Buchdahl, R M; Cowan, F M; Riches, P G; Miles, K; Thompson, E J

1999-08-01

286

Herpes simplex following intra-articular sacroiliac corticosteroid injection.  

PubMed

Localized herpes simplex (HSV) type II following intra-articular corticosteroid injection is remarkable. We describe a 51-year-old woman with sacroiliitis following a fall. She was treated with an intra-articular injection of 80 mg methylprednisolone into her sacroiliac joint, followed 2 days later by a cluster of herpetiform vesicles adjacent to the injection site. Swab of punctured vesicles demonstrated HSV type II by polymerase chain reaction. One plausible explanation is HSV reactivation secondary to localized immunosuppression from corticosteroid injection. PMID:19784528

Meydani, Ahou; Schwartz, Robert A; Foye, Patrick M; Patel, Atul D

2009-09-01

287

Fulminant herpes simplex hepatitis in a patient with ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed Central

A 16 year old girl with ulcerative colitis developed hepatitis with a high fever, leukopenia and a marked rise in serum transaminases without jaundice. There were no skin, oral, or genital lesions. Liver biopsy was precluded by abnormalities in coagulation. Postmortem examination of the liver by light and electron microscopy, culture, immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescent staining confirmed the diagnosis of hepatitis due to type 1 herpes simplex virus. Despite the rarity, this viral aetiology should be included in the differential diagnosis of all patients with severe hepatitis. The absence of mucocutaneous lesions should not exclude the diagnosis, especially when other clinical features are compatible. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Shlien, R D; Meyers, S; Lee, J A; Dische, R; Janowitz, H D

1988-01-01

288

Acute hydrocephalus secondary to herpes simplex type II meningitis.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old woman presented with a rapid onset of meningitic symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a lumbar puncture revealed a leucocytosis with a preponderance of monocytes, elevated protein and reduced glucose. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type II was subsequently confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of CSF. The patient's level of consciousness deteriorated and a CT scan revealed hydrocephalus. The patient required placement of an external ventricular drain for 5 days; however, she made a full recovery without specific antiviral therapy. This is the first reported case of hydrocephalus secondary to isolated HSV type II meningitis. PMID:18710809

Heppner, Peter A; Schweder, Patrick M; Monteith, Stephen J; Law, Andrew J J

2008-08-16

289

Current management and recommendations for access to antiviral therapy of herpes labialis.  

PubMed

Herpes labialis is a common skin infective condition, worldwide, which is primarily caused by HSV-1. Recurrent episodes of herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, can be frequent, painful, long-lasting and disfiguring for infected patients. At present, there are two types of antivirals for the treatment of herpes labialis, topical and oral, which are available over the counter or as prescription-only. The aim of antiviral therapy is to block viral replication to enable shortening the duration of symptoms and to accelerate healing of the lesions associated with herpes labialis. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of current topical and oral antivirals in the management of recurrent episodes of herpes labialis. In most countries, oral antivirals for herpes labialis are available as prescription-only. However, in early 2010, the oral antiviral famciclovir was reclassified from prescription-only medicine to pharmacist-controlled status in New Zealand. The benefits and risks associated with moving an antiviral therapy for herpes labialis from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled status are reviewed here, and the implications for patients, general physicians and pharmacists are considered. PMID:21889905

Cunningham, Anthony; Griffiths, Paul; Leone, Peter; Mindel, Adrian; Patel, Rajul; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard

2011-09-01

290

The effects of caudal fin amputation on metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species with different metabolic modes.  

PubMed

Metabolic competitive modes between digestion and locomotion are classified into three categories, termed the additive, digestion- and locomotion-priority modes. In nature, the caudal fin is frequently observed to sustain damage as a result of social rank, predation or disease. To test whether the metabolic mode changed differently for fish with different metabolic mode after caudal fin amputation as a consequence of intensified energy competition, we investigated the swimming performance of fasting and fed fish with and without the caudal fin in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species: qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis, locomotion-priority mode), common carp (Cyprinus carpio, additive mode) and goldfish (Carassius auratus, digestion-priority mode). The critical swimming speed (U(crit)) of fasting qingbo, common carp and goldfish decreased significantly by 49%, 32% and 35% after caudal fin amputation. The maximum tail beat amplitude (TBA(max)) (all three fishes), maximum tail beat frequency (TBF(max)) (only common carp and goldfish) and (or) active metabolic rate (M?O(2active)) (only common carp) increased significantly after caudal fin amputation. In the control fish, digestion let to a significantly lower U(crit) in goldfish but not in qingbo and common carp, and the M?O(2active) of digesting common carp was higher than that of fasting fish, suggesting locomotion-priority, additive and digestion-priority metabolic modes in qingbo, common carp and goldfish, respectively. However, after fin amputation, digestion showed no effect on U(crit) in any of the three fishes, and only the digesting common carp showed a higher M?O(2active) than their fasting counterparts. This result suggested that the metabolic mode of the goldfish changed from the digestion- to the locomotion-priority mode, whereas the metabolic mode of the other two fishes remained the same after fin amputation. The metabolic mode of the common carp showed no change after fin amputation likely due to the high flexibility of the cardio-respiratory capacity of this fish, as indicated by the increased M?O(2active). Although the metabolic mode remained the same, the feeding metabolism in the fin-amputated qingbo was down-regulated at a lower swimming speed than that of the control group due to the intensified competition between digestion and locomotion. The underlying mechanism for the metabolic mode change in the goldfish is not clear and needs further investigation. However, we speculated that in caudal-fin-intact goldfish, the decreased swimming efficiency, rather than irreducible digestive loading, caused a decreased U(crit) in digesting fish (i.e. false digestion-priority mode), and the metabolic mode should not be judged simply by the relative magnitude of the metabolic rates of fasting and digesting fish. PMID:23269108

Fu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

2012-12-23

291

Exploiting herpes simplex virus entry for novel therapeutics.  

PubMed

Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms. PMID:23752649

Hadigal, Satvik; Shukla, Deepak

2013-06-10

292

Herpes Virus Fusion and Entry: A Story with Many Characters  

PubMed Central

Herpesviridae comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses all of whom employ orthologs of the same three glycoproteins, gB, gH and gL. Additionally, herpesviruses often employ accessory proteins to bind receptors and/or bind the heterodimer gH/gL or even to determine cell tropism. Sorting out how these proteins function has been resolved to a large extent by structural biology coupled with supporting biochemical and biologic evidence. Together with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, gB is a charter member of the Class III fusion proteins. Unlike VSV G, gB only functions when partnered with gH/gL. However, gH/gL does not resemble any known viral fusion protein and there is evidence that its function is to upregulate the fusogenic activity of gB. In the case of herpes simplex virus, gH/gL itself is upregulated into an active state by the conformational change that occurs when gD, the receptor binding protein, binds one of its receptors. In this review we focus primarily on prototypes of the three subfamilies of herpesviruses. We will present our model for how herpes simplex virus (HSV) regulates fusion in series of highly regulated steps. Our model highlights what is known and also provides a framework to address mechanistic questions about fusion by HSV and herpesviruses in general.

Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Atanasiu, Doina; Cairns, Tina M.; Gallagher, John R.; Krummenacher, Claude; Cohen, Gary H.

2012-01-01

293

Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

Hadigal, Satvik; Shukla, Deepak

2013-01-01

294

Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

1981-04-01

295

Two Cases of Herpes Zoster Appearing after Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections  

PubMed Central

Two patients under the authors' care developed facial herpes zoster that erupted soon after cosmetic treatment with botulinum toxin type A (BTA). Both patients received typical doses of BTA in the glabella, forehead, and lateral periorbital areas. Within one week after treatment, each patient began experiencing symptoms of herpes zoster in one of the dermatomes supplied by the trigeminal nerve. Since the resolution of the herpes zoster, both patients have gone on to receive further treatments of BTA with prophylactic oral antivirals without sequelae.

Dover, Jeffrey S.; Arndt, Kenneth A.

2011-01-01

296

Legal and Moral Considerations in Educating Children with Herpes in Public School Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines legal and moral implications in providing classroom education to children with herpes. Conclusions suggest the integration of the child into educationally appropriate programs during the disease's inactive stage. (CL)

Guess, Doug; And Others

1984-01-01

297

Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in rugby players.  

PubMed

Skin infections, both bacterial and viral, are endemic in contact sports such as wrestling and rugby football. In this report, we describe four cases of extensive cutaneous herpes simplex virus in players on a rugby team. All players had a prodrome of fever, malaise, and anorexia with a weight loss of 3.6 to 9.0 kg. Two players experienced ocular lesions associated with cutaneous vesicular lesions of the face. A third player, who had herpetic lesions on his lower extremity, experienced paresthesias, weakness, and intermittent urinary retention and constipation. All infected players on the team were forwards or members of the "scrum," which suggests a field-acquired infection analogous to the herpetic infections seen in wrestlers (herpes gladiatorum). Considering the serious sequelae of recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, the traumatic skin lesions in rugby football players should be cultured for herpes virus, and infected individuals should be restricted from playing until crusted lesions have disappeared. PMID:6737650

White, W B; Grant-Kels, J M

1984-07-27

298

Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

1999-06-01

299

Herpes (Shalbeket) in judaic sources: a synopsis of a book in preparation.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that the earliest reference to Herpes is that of the Greek historian Herodotus and was used as a description of various "creeping skin diseases"--approx. 2000 years ago. Herpes, known in Hebrew as Shalbeket (boil, vesicle) is mentioned in the Book of Exodus as early as about 3500 years ago. This is a significant revelation in medical history that the earliest reference to Herpes (shalbeket) was mentioned 3500 years ago as Shalbukin (vesicles) in conjunction with Shekhin. These names, "boils," "creeping" are two descriptions of the external signs of Herpes; indicative of the ability of the ancients to identify diseases by their external appearances and to deal with their medical and sociological aspects. PMID:3076608

Romano, A; Gertz, S

1988-01-01

300

A case of human immunodeficiency virus infection initially presented with disseminated herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is characterized by unilateral grouped vesicles along the distribution of a single dermatome. Disseminated herpes zoster usually is defined as a generalized eruption of more than 20 extra-dermatomal vesicles occurring within a week of the onset of classic dermatomal herpes zoster. It occurs chiefly in old or debilitated individuals, and especially in patients with underlying malignancy, immunosuppressive therapy, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 51-year-old man presented with segmental grouped vesicles on the left upper trunk and arm, and a varicella-like eruption over the entire body. Tzanck smear preparation and punch biopsy done on the vesicles of the trunk indicated a herpetic infection. Later, he was found to be HIV-positive. We report a rare case of HIV infection initially presenting with disseminated herpes zoster. PMID:20548914

Shin, Bong Seok; Na, Chan Ho; Song, In Guk; Choi, Kyu Chul

2010-05-18

301

Fulminant herpes simplex hepatitis in an adult: report of a case in renal transplant recipient.  

PubMed

A case of disseminated herpes simplex infection is reported in a 31-year-old renal transplant recipient. The patient presented with a unique clinical syndrome: high fever, severe sore throat with buccal and pharyngeal ulcerations, fulminant hepatitis, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. The patient died from hepatic failure, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnosis was made by positive herpes simplex virus culture from the throat, and was confirmed at autopsy by typical Cowdry's type A intranuclear inclusions in hepatocytes with positive herpes simplex virus culture from the liver. Review of the literature reveals that other reported cases have had very similar clinical findings, making disseminated herpes simplex infection with fulminant hepatitis a recognizable syndrome. PMID:174968

Anuras, S; Summers, R

1976-03-01

302

Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2) vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, \\

Thomas R Moench; Russell J Mumper; Timothy E Hoen; Mianmian Sun; Richard A Cone

2010-01-01

303

Gender-specific predictors of genital herpes vaccine acceptance in a college population.  

PubMed

Vaccines represent one promising method for reducing the sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemic. This study evaluated whether influences on the decision to accept a genital herpes vaccine differed by gender. In all, 518 college students completed a questionnaire on sexual history, health beliefs, and acceptance of a potential genital herpes vaccine. Each predictor variable plus a gender interaction term were analysed in separate logistic regression models. Follow-up analyses were performed by gender for outcomes that displayed significant interactions. Results indicated that a prior history of an STD and increased perception of risk for acquiring genital herpes were significant predictors of vaccine acceptance for men, while younger age and concerns about vaccine safety were significant predictors for women. Endorsement of a vaccine strategy targeting sexually experienced people was an influential factor for both genders, but was a much stronger one for women. Results suggest that gender-specific strategies may be crucial to genital herpes vaccine acceptance. PMID:15705269

Auslander, B A; Rosenthal, S L; Succop, P A; Mills, L M; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I

2005-01-01

304

Isolation and characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3, a new positive-strand RNA virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report the discovery of a new virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) represents the third virus identified from this ant species using the metagenomics approach. The single (positive)-strand RNA, monopartite, bicistronic genome of SINV-3 wa...

305

Enhancing sensitivity of human herpes virus diagnosis with DNA microarrays using dendrimers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA microarray technology has become a promising new tool for the detection and identification of viral pathogens in human plasma and cell cultures. For exploration of this technology, we have developed DNA microarrays that encode capture oligonucleotide probes for different human herpes viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) HSV-1, HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and HHV-6.

Hans-Martin Striebel; Eckhard Birch-Hirschfeld; Renate Egerer; Zeno Földes-Papp; Gernot P. Tilz; Axel Stelzner

2004-01-01

306

Herpes zoster vaccine: What are the potential benefits for the ageing and older adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden of illness and healthcare resource utilisation associated with herpes zoster in individuals aged 50 years or above is substantial, causing severe loss of quality of life (QoL). Herpes zoster incidence varies from 1.5 to 5.0 per 1000 person-years in adults of all ages, and reaches 10 cases per 1000 person-years in individuals aged over 60. The most frequent

P.-O. Lang; J.-P. Michel

2011-01-01

307

Activity of AMP against experimental herpes simplex virus type 1 infections in mice.  

PubMed Central

Administration of AMP soon after inoculation of mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 inhibited development of virus-induced lesions and appeared to prevent establishment of virus latency. These effects were dependent on both the AMP dose and the time of AMP administration. Regression of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced lesions was also accelerated significantly by AMP treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner.

Blue, W T; Macias, E A; Sklar, S H

1983-01-01

308

Herpes simplex Virus Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Patient with Ebstein-Barr Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis can cause transient immune deficiency which may predispose to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the immunocompetent host. We report the case of a 15-year-old male who presented with severe odynophagia and herpes labialis during the course of Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis that had been diagnosed ten days before. Esophagoscopy revealed extensive ulcerations

M. Tzouvala; A. Gaglia; N. Papantoniou; K. Triantafyllou; G. Karamanolis

2008-01-01

309

[Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifested as severe genital herpes. Apropos of 2 cases].  

PubMed

The authors present 2 cases of AIDS revealed by severe recurrent genital herpes simplex. The patients are 2 young, previously healthy, African women without histories of homosexuality or drug abuse. The first patient died after 5 months of follow-up (post mortem findings: viral bronchopneumonia with positive cultures for herpes and cytomegalovirus (CMV), viral colitis due to CMV). The second patient survived. She has been treated, during the last 11 months, for filariasis, buccal and vaginal candidiasis and cerebral toxoplasmosis. PMID:6325263

De Maubeuge, J; Mascart-Lemone, F; Clumeck, N; Jonas, C; Panzer, J M; Decaux, G; André, J; Goens, J; Ledoux-Corbusier, M; Achten, G

1984-01-01

310

Validation of the genital herpes treatment satisfaction questionnaire (GHerpTSQ) in status and change versions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new measure of treatment satisfaction (GHerpTSQ) for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) was validated and used\\u000a to evaluate two therapeutic strategies widely used for the management of HSV: episodic treatment, where individual herpes\\u000a outbreaks are treated as they arise; suppressive therapy, where treatment is taken daily to prevent HSV outbreaks. Satisfaction\\u000a with treatment is important since daily dosing

Nathan Asher Taback; Clare Bradley

2006-01-01

311

Molecular epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 genital infection in association with clinical manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The antigenic types of herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2 are considered to be the etiology of genital herpes. Symptoms\\u000a of primary HSV-1 and HSV-2 genital infections are similar, however, recurrence of the infection is less frequent after the\\u000a HSV-1-related genital infection. We determined genotypes of 79 HSV-1 strains isolated from genital lesions in women (43 from\\u000a primary and

K. Umene; T. Kawana

2000-01-01

312

Management of genital herpes by genitourinary physicians: does experience or doctor's gender influence clinical management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the variation in management of genital herpes by genitourinary physicians, and whether their duration of experience or gender influence their clinical management. METHODS--A postal questionnaire was sent to UK consultant genitourinary physicians with detailed questions about management of primary and recurrent herpes. The gender and duration of genitourinary medicine experience of the physicians were also recorded. RESULTS--One hundred

J M Russell; M Cracknell; S E Barton; J Catalan

1993-01-01

313

[Effect of riodoxol on herpes simplex virus morphogenesis in experimental eye infection].  

PubMed

The effect of riodoxol on herpes simplex type 1 viruses was studied. It was shown to affect multiplication and maturation of the virus as manifested in the appearance of virions with incomplete nucleoid structure and long-term presence of virions in cytoplasmic vacuoles in cells. Submicroscopic changes suggest a dual effect of riodoxol on herpes simplex virus: on the DNA replicative cycle and on the stage of late maturation of virus at the time of its release from the nucleus.' PMID:6280397

Stebaeva, L F; Nikolaeva, I S; Pershin, G N

314

Frontal impairment and confabulation after herpes simplex encephalitis: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Del Grosso Destreri N, Farina E, Calabrese E, Pinardi G, Imbornone E, Mariani C. Frontal impairment and confabulation after herpes simplex encephalitis: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:423-6. We describe the rehabilitation training of a 53-year-old woman with severe confabulatory and dysexecutive syndrome, as well as memory impairment, after herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Secondary narcolepsy was also present.

Nicoletta Del Grosso Destreri; Elisabetta Farina; Elena Calabrese; Giovanna Pinardi; Emilia Imbornone; Claudio Mariani

2002-01-01

315

Transfer of the Herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene from human cells to mouse cells by means of metaphase chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient human cells were infected with ultraviolet light-inactivated Herpes simplex virus type 1, and “transformed” cells that expressed Herpes TK activity were isolated. Purified metaphase chromosomes were isolated from the transformed human line and incubated with TK-deficient mouse cells. TK+cells were selected, and it was shown that these cells were gene transferents which expressed Herpes TK activity, identical

Dennis J. Sabourin; Richard L. Davidson

1979-01-01

316

Herpes Simplex Epithelial and Stromal Keratitis: An Epidemiologic Update  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of ocular diseases, including epithelial and stromal keratitis. HSV can cause stromal opacification and is believed to be the leading cause of infectious blindness in the developed world. An improved understanding of the global burden of HSV keratitis, including the incidence of severe vision loss, could have a significant effect on prevention and treatment and place it in perspective among causes of corneal ulceration. We found that the global incidence of HSV keratitis is roughly 1.5 million, including 40,000 new cases of severe monocular visual impairment or blindness each year. We also discuss relevant epidemiologic issues regarding HSV epithelial and stromal disease.

Farooq, Asim V.; Shukla, Deepak

2013-01-01

317

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection on a Reconstructive Free Flap  

PubMed Central

Objective: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is a widespread virus that primarily causes orofacial infection. Methods: We present a case of HSV1 infection on a free radial forearm flap used to reconstruct a palate defect. Initially, the free flap appeared healthy; however, after 48 hours the free flap appeared in distress, with dark red colour and fast capillary refill. Venous congestion was suspected, and the patient underwent a second operation where no vascular compromise was found. Vesicles were noted on the free flap; swabs revealed HSV1 infection. Results: Complete recovery of the free flap was achieved with acyclovir. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of HSV1 infection on a free flap that was found to be responsible for the free flap appearing distressed.

Parys, Simon P.; Leman, Thea; Gurfinkel, Reuven

2013-01-01

318

Local clinical phototreatment of herpes infection in São Paulo.  

PubMed

The clinical use of topical photodynamic therapy in herpes simplex lesions in São Paulo is presented and discussed. Although previous attempts utilising this type of approach in the USA were discontinued in the early 1970s due to several presentations of post-treatment Bowen's disease, none of the cases from the clinic presented here have displayed any complications on follow-up. In addition, lesion recrudescence periods are generally much longer than with conventional approaches. This is thought to be due to improvements in the treatment protocol, viz. use of the non-toxic photosensitisers methylene blue and Hypericum perforatum extract in place of proflavine and neutral red in the original trials, differences in photosensitisation pathway and illumination of the treatment site with red rather than fluorescent/UV light. Post-treatment cosmesis is also excellent. PMID:22594981

Tardivo, Joao Paulo; Wainwright, Mark; Baptista, Mauricio S

2012-02-10

319

Herpes simplex virus binds to human serum lipoprotein.  

PubMed

Binding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 to the various subclasses of human serum lipoproteins was investigated. Studies were performed with human serum lipoproteins purified by differential ultracentrifugation and artificial proteoliposomes containing only one type of apolipoprotein (A1, E) by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, column chromatography, and electron microscopy. All tested lipoprotein subclasses (very low, low-, high-density lipoproteins; VLDL, LDL, HDL, HDL1) showed significant binding of purified HSV type 1. Furthermore, HSV bound to all different synthetic proteoliposomes. Adsorption of envelope proteins isolated from purified HSV to Sepharose-bound lipoproteins revealed binding of HSV glycoprotein B. Based on these results we reached the conclusion that in HSV-lipoprotein complex formation the lipid component in the lipoproteins and the glycoprotein B in HSV are the preferential reaction partners. PMID:2842273

Huemer, H P; Menzel, H J; Potratz, D; Brake, B; Falke, D; Utermann, G; Dierich, M P

1988-01-01

320

New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus Mimicking Herpes Virus Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently defined clinical entity that describes patients who present with status epilepticus of unclear etiology that is highly refractory to therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NORSE usually discloses no specific abnormalities except for an occasional mild T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal of the mesial temporal lobe. Here, we report a peculiar case of NORSE in which brain MRI showed massive alteration of both temporal lobes, with features strongly supporting the diagnosis of herpes virus encephalitis, but lacking any laboratory evidence of viral infection in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. It showed also striking signal alterations in the thalamus, which got worse in the course of the disease. This report emphasizes the possibility that seizure activity alone plays a critical role in both determining the disease and whether it will be self-sustaining.

Puoti, Gianfranco; Elefante, Andrea; Saracino, Dario; Capasso, Antonella; Cotrufo, Roberto; Anello, Clara Belluomo

2013-01-01

321

Update on herpes virus infections of the nervous system.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are human neurotropic viruses that establish latent infection in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for the entire life of the host. From the DRG they can reactivate to cause human morbidity and mortality. Although they vary, in part, in the clinical disorders they cause, and in their molecular structure, they share several features that govern the biology of their infection of the human nervous system. HSV-1 is the causative agent of encephalitis, corneal blindness, and several peripheral nervous system disorders; HSV-2 is responsible for meningoencephalitis in neonates and meningitis in adults. The biology of their ability to establish latency, maintain it for the entire life of the host, reactivate, and cause primary and recurrent disease is being studied in animal models and in humans. This review covers recent advances in understanding the biology and pathogenesis of HSV-related disease. PMID:24142852

Steiner, Israel; Benninger, Felix

2013-12-01

322

Human herpes virus 6 and endogenous biotin in salivary glands.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To detect the presence of human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) and endogenous biotin in paraffin wax embedded and frozen salivary glands. METHODS: Two stage indirect and streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase techniques were used to visualise the antigens. RESULTS: HHV6 could not be shown in any of the tissues. However, considerable endogenous biotin antigenicity was detected in the glandular elements of the paraffin wax embedded material. CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained with avidin-biotin detection systems should be interpreted with caution, especially when glandular epithelium is being stained. This may apply to both immunoperoxidase and in situ hybridisation techniques. The use of an anti-biotin antibody as a standard control should be considered. Images

Green, M; Sviland, L; Taylor, C E; Peiris, M; McCarthy, A L; Pearson, A D; Malcolm, A J

1992-01-01

323

Therapeutic hypothermia for severe adult Herpes simplex virus encephalitis.  

PubMed

Despite antiviral treatment and advances in critical care, the Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) still has a poor outcome in a significant portion of patients. In severe cases of HSE, reduced carbon dioxide reactivity is usually present and these patients don't respond to the usual treatment of brain edema and intracranial hypertension. We present case series of patients with severe form of HSE treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and describe in detail the indications, methods, and the rationale for its use. In this case series, patients presented with severely impaired consciousness and very high predicted death rate as measured by Glasgow coma scale and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score respectively. According to our findings, TH in carefully selected patients with HSE holds promise as an adjunctive to the antiviral treatment. PMID:23229577

Kutleša, Marko; Barši?, Bruno

2012-12-11

324

Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.  

PubMed Central

Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers.

Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

1985-01-01

325

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis involving the right thalamus.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is a rare but often fatal disease if left untreated. A 50-year-old woman was admitted with lethargy, confusion, dysphasia and cough. MRI brain demonstrated bilateral temporal and perisylvian hyperintense signal abnormality extending into the cingulate gyrus, typical of HSV encephalitis. However, there was also signal abnormality involving the right thalamus, indicating thalamic involvement. EEG and cerebrospinal fluid PCR confirmed HSV encephalitis. The patient was started on intravenous acyclovir resulting in marked improvement. Adequate assessment and prompt treatment of HSV encephalitis will aid in achieving adequate recovery. Radiological investigation plays a crucial role in diagnosis with typical MR features a useful aid to diagnosis. HSV encephalitis classically involves the medial temporal lobes, insula and cingulated gyri. The basal ganglia and thalami are nearly always spared. We present a very rare case of HSV encephalitis which involved the right thalamus. PMID:23784771

Navin, Patrick; Delanty, Norman; Brennan, Paul; Looby, Seamus

2013-06-19

326

Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Olive latent virus 3, a new putative member of the family Tymoviridae.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence and the genome organization were determined of a putative new member of the family Tymoviridae, tentatively named Olive latent virus 3 (OLV-3), recovered in southern Italy from a symptomless olive tree. The sequenced ssRNA genome comprises 7148 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and contains four open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a polyprotein of 221.6kDa in size, containing the conserved signatures of the methyltransferase (MTR), papain-like protease (PRO), helicase (HEL) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains of the replication-associated proteins of positive-strand RNA viruses. ORF2 overlaps completely ORF1 and encodes a putative protein of 43.33kDa showing limited sequence similarity with the putative movement protein of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV). ORF3 codes for a protein with predicted molecular mass of 28.46kDa, identified as the coat protein (CP), whereas ORF4 overlaps ORF3 and encodes a putative protein of 16kDa with sequence similarity to the p16 and p31 proteins of Citrus sudden death-associated virus (CSDaV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), respectively. Within the family Tymoviridae, OLV-3 genome has the closest identity level (49-52%) with members of the genus Marafivirus, from which, however, it differs because of the diverse genome organization and the presence of a single type of CP subunits. PMID:20561953

Alabdullah, Abdulkader; Minafra, Angelantonio; Elbeaino, Toufic; Saponari, Maria; Savino, Vito; Martelli, Giovanni P

2010-05-31

327

Impact of Herpes simplex virus load and red blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid upon herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) often leads to severe disability or death. Factors usually associated with outcome include Simplified Acute Physiology Score, age and delay of initiation of acyclovir treatment. Our aim was to determine the impact of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) upon HSE outcome. Methods We retrospectively determined HSV load in the CSF of 43 patients with confirmed HSE, hospitalized in northern France from 1998 to 2005, using CSF samples collected the day of hospital admission and stored at ?20°C. We analyzed the association between HSV load and mortality/morbidity by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Fisher’s exact test and Wilcoxon’s test were used for statistical analysis. Results The M/F sex ratio was 1.7 and median patient age was 61 years. Median HSV load in CSF was 2.0 log copies/?L (IQR 25-75=1.2-2.6). The mortality rate was 32.6% six months after HSE diagnosis. Higher age was associated with mortality (p=0.03). Longer delay in acyclovir initiation tended to be associated with higher mortality but did not reach statistical significance (p=0.08). Severe disability and death due to HSV were associated with a higher Knaus score (p=0.004), later acyclovir initiation (p=0.006), older age (p=0.04) and presence of red blood cells in CSF (p=0.05). HSV load in CSF was neither associated with mortality (p=1.00) nor with morbidity (p=0.90). Conclusion In this study, HSV load in CSF was not found to be associated with poor outcome in patients with HSE. These data do not support measurement of HSV load at admission in patients with HSE.

2012-01-01

328

Cellular and Humoral Immunity in the Pathogenesis of Recurrent Herpes Viral Infections in Patients with Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

86 patients with lymphoma were evaluated prospectively for clinical and laboratory evidence of recurrent varicella-zoster, herpes simplex, and cytomegalovirus infections during the first 16 mo of treatment. Cellular immunity to the viral antigens was measured by in vitro lymphocyte transformation and interferon production. Antibody titers and nonspecific measures of cellular immunity, including T-cell quantitation and transformation to phytohemagglutinin, were also assessed. The patients treated with radiation and chemotherapy had the highest incidence of reactivation of each of the viruses (15-19%). Greater susceptibility to herpes viral reactivation in these patients correlated with suppression of cell-mediated immunity to the specific virus. In individual patients, suppression of cellular immunity to the specific herpes viral antigen preceded each episode of reactivation, but recurrent infection did not occur in all patients with diminished specific lymphocyte transformation. Absence of the response appears to be a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the recrudescence of latent infection. Better preservation of cellular immunity to herpes simplex antigen during treatment was associated with infrequent reactivation of herpes simplex. In 25 patients with acute herpes zoster, uncomplicated recovery from the infection was accompanied by the development of lymphocyte transformation and interferon production to varicella-zoster antigen. Quantitation of T-cell numbers and phytohemagglutinin transformation did not correlate with the presence of viral cellular immunity in treated patients. Responses returned while T-cell numbers were low, and the recovery of phytohemagglutinin transformation often preceded recovery of the responses to viral antigens. Although some patients had deficiencies in viral cellular immunity at diagnosis, the duration of the suppression of specific antiviral responses resulting from treatment appears to be the most important factor predisposing to the recurrence of herpes infections in lymphoma patients.

Arvin, A. M.; Pollard, R. B.; Rasmussen, L. E.; Merigan, T. C.

1980-01-01

329

British Cooperative Clinical Group national survey on diagnostic issues surrounding genital herpes. MSSVD Special Interest Group on Genital Herpes and the British Cooperative Clinical Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the current use of diagnostic methods for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, to determine how information from these tests influences clinical practice, and to identify areas for future guideline development within genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in the United Kingdom. METHODS: National survey of 173 consultants in UK GUM clinics. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were returned by 146

A. Scoular; G. Kinghorn

1999-01-01

330

Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 infection diagnosed by HSV DNA detection in blood and successfully managed by liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of neonatal herpes presenting with liver failure and disseminated coagulopathy which followed unrecognised maternal primary genital herpes and was diagnosed by herpes simplex virus DNA detection in blood by polymerase chain reaction 2 weeks after initiation of empiric intravenous aciclovir. The child underwent liver transplantation while receiving suppressive antiviral therapy and remains well after 10 months

Mary Twagira; Nedim Hadzic; Melvyn Smith; Meghna Ramaswamy; Anita Verma; Anil Dhawan; A. S. Knisely; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; AnnaMaria Geretti

2004-01-01

331

Acute Morphine Administration Reduces Cell-Mediated Immunity and Induces Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in BALB\\/c Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute morphine administration is known to alter the course of herpes simplex virus infection. In this study, the effect of acute morphine administration on the reactivation of latent herpes was investigated in a mouse model. Because of the important role of cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in the inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivation, the effect of

Shafi Mojadadi; Abbas Jamali; Behzad Khansarinejad; Hoorieh Soleimanjahi; Taravat Bamdad

2009-01-01

332

Prevention of genital herpes in a guinea pig model using a glycoprotein D-specific single chain antibody as a microbicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genital herpes (GH) is a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes significant morbidity and is also the major source of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cases of neonatal herpes. Vaccination is a current goal which has had limited success so far in preventing GH and microbicides offer an attractive alternative. Treatment of primary disease cannot prevent establishment of

Jianmin Chen; Sanat K Davé; Anthony Simmons

2004-01-01

333

Herpes simplex virus type 2 detection by culture and polymerase chain reaction and relationship to genital symptoms and cervical antibody status during the third trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to define the frequency of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding by culture and polymerase chain reaction and to correlate our findings with cervical anti–herpes simplex virus type 2 immunoglobulin A production.STUDY DESIGN: Women who were seropositive for herpes simplex virus type 2 collected daily genital tract samples during the third trimester for culture and

Kim A. Boggess; D. Heather Watts; Ann C. Hobson; Rhoda L. Ashley; Zane A. Brown; Lawrence Corey

1997-01-01

334

Frog virus 3 open reading frame 97R localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and induces nuclear invaginations.  

PubMed

Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. The genome of FV3 is 105,903 bases in length and encodes 97 open reading frames (ORFs). The FV3 ORF 97R contains a B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) homology 1 (BH1) domain and has sequence similarity to the myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) protein, suggesting a potential role in apoptosis. To begin to understand the role of 97R, we characterized 97R through immunofluorescence and mutagenesis. Here we demonstrated that 97R localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at 24 h posttransfection. However, at 35 h posttransfection, 97R localized to the ER but also began to form concentrated pockets continuous with the nuclear membrane. After 48 h posttransfection, 97R was still localized to the ER, but we began to observe the ER and the outer nuclear membrane invaginating into the nucleus. To further explore 97R targeting to the ER, we created a series of C-terminal transmembrane domain deletion mutants. We found that deletion of 29 amino acids from the C terminus of 97R abolished localization to the ER. In contrast, deletion of 12 amino acids from the C terminus of 97R did not affect 97R localization to the ER. In addition, a hybrid protein containing the 97R C-terminal 33 amino acids was similarly targeted to the ER. These data indicate that the C-terminal 33 amino acids of 97R are necessary and sufficient for ER targeting. PMID:23760249

Ring, Brooke A; Ferreira Lacerda, Andressa; Drummond, Dylan J; Wangen, Christina; Eaton, Heather E; Brunetti, Craig R

2013-06-12

335

Performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 EIA for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in seven African countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to the gold standard HSV-2 Western blot, among HIV-1 uninfected men and women in East and Southern Africa. Methods 3399 HIV-1 uninfected women and men from 7 countries in East and Southern Africa were tested for HSV-2 antibody using Focus HerpeSelect-2 EIA. The performance of the HerpesSelect-2 EIA was compared with the gold standard HSV-2 specific Western blot. Results Two-thirds (2294/3399) of participants were male and two-thirds (2242/3399) were from East Africa. By Western blot testing, HSV-2 prevalence was 68%, 59% in men and 85% in women. At the manufacturer’s recommended cut-off value of greater than 1.1, the HerpeSelect-2 EIA had a sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity 80.3%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot analysis indicated that the optimum cut-off was 2.1 or greater with sensitivity 93.9% and specificity 90.5%. Diagnostic accuracy was modestly higher for Southern Africa (AUC=0.979, 95% CI: 0.970-0.988) compared with East Africa (AUC=0.954, 95% CI: 0.942-0.965; p<0.001 for Southern vs. East Africa). Conclusions The Focus HerpeSelect-2 EIA has acceptable diagnostic accuracy for determination of HSV-2 serostatus in African HIV-1 uninfected adults. An assay cut-off value of 2.1 or greater results in approximately 90% sensitivity and specificity, against a gold standard HSV-2 Western blot. Diagnostic accuracy differed slightly by geographical region.

Mujugira, Andrew; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Celum, Connie; Lingappa, Jairam; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Fife, Kenneth H.; Heffron, Renee; De Bruyn, Guy; Homawoo, Brigitte; Karita, Etienne; Mugo, Nelly; Vwalika, Bellington; Baeten, Jared M.

2011-01-01

336

Characterization of the host immune response in human Ganglia after herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chicken pox) and establishes latency in ganglia, from where it reactivates to cause herpes zoster (shingles), which is often followed by postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), causing severe neuropathic pain that can last for years after the rash. Despite the major impact of herpes zoster and PHN on quality of life, the nature and kinetics of the virus-immune cell interactions that result in ganglion damage have not been defined. We obtained rare material consisting of seven sensory ganglia from three donors who had suffered from herpes zoster between 1 and 4.5 months before death but who had not died from herpes zoster. We performed immunostaining to investigate the site of VZV infection and to phenotype immune cells in these ganglia. VZV antigen was localized almost exclusively to neurons, and in at least one case it persisted long after resolution of the rash. The large immune infiltrate consisted of noncytolytic CD8(+) T cells, with lesser numbers of CD4(+) T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages and no dendritic cells. VZV antigen-positive neurons did not express detectable major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, nor did CD8(+) T cells surround infected neurons, suggesting that mechanisms of immune control may not be dependent on direct contact. This is the first report defining the nature of the immune response in ganglia following herpes zoster and provides evidence for persistence of non-latency-associated viral antigen and inflammation beyond rash resolution. PMID:20573825

Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Steain, Megan; Cunningham, Anthony L; Rodriguez, Michael; Blumbergs, Peter; Slobedman, Barry; Abendroth, Allison

2010-06-23

337

[Central nervous system infection due to Herpes simplex virus in AIDS].  

PubMed

Infections of the central nervous system by Herpes simplex viruses (Herpes simplex type 1 and Herpes simplex type 2) are uncommon in acquired immune deficiency syndrome and are often clinically and pathologically atypical. We have collected 11 cases of herpes simplex encephalomyelitis in AIDS patients reported in the literature. Only 3 of these cases presented with a typical, necrotizing, limbic encephalitis. Other clinicopathological patterns included ventriculitis, rhombencephalitis and myelitis. Ventriculitis and rhombencephalitis were usually due to infection by HSV-1, whereas myelitis was mostly due to HSV-2 infection. Distinction between the 2 types of virus is often difficult by immunohistochemistry due to frequent cross reactivity and usually requires tissue culture, in situ hybridization, or polymerase chain reaction. Association of HSV encephalomyelitis with productive infection of the central nervous system by the human immunodeficiency virus was only found in one case. In contrast, co-infection with cytomegalovirus was found in 9 of the 11 cases. One case also had had varicella zoster virus vasculitis, and another case also had a cerebral malignant non Hodgkin's lymphoma in which Epstein Barr virus genome was identified. This supports the view that concomitant herpes-virus infections of the central nervous system is a characteristic feature of AIDS. PMID:9382607

Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Wingerstmann, L; de Truchis, P; Baudrimont, M; Perronne, C; Gray, F

1997-01-01

338

[Possibilities for the treatment of varicella-herpes zoster infections in juvenile leukemia].  

PubMed

Chicken pox and herpes zoster represent afraid complications in patients with malignant diseases which may take a noxious course. During the sequence of two chicken pox epidemias in 1973 in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemias, the prevention and therapeutic possibilities were checked again. Chicken pox or herpes zoster convalescent sera being compatible for blood groups and zoster-immunoglobulin were not available. At the time of the epidemia the first reports on the effect of cytarabine (Alexan) were published. Moreover, we received an information on the therapeutic application of small pox vaccine inactivated with formaldehyde (vaccinia antigen) in adults with herpes zoster and herpes labialis. From 10 children with leukaemias, who were affected with chicken pox or herpes zoster, 7 received up to 1.0 ml of inactivated small pox vaccine intramuscularly on the first day of manifestation. In 6 of the patients there were no new efflorescences on the third day. A third child died. First of all it seems probable that this influence may be due to an induction of interferon formation. Further studies will have to elucidate to what extent this mechanism will also be efficient in severe cases of immunosuppression. PMID:64406

Exadaktylos, P; Grävinghoff, J

1976-01-01

339

Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients  

PubMed Central

There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers.

Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin

2013-01-01

340

The use of FTIR microscopy for evaluation of herpes viruses infection development kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of Herpes simplex infection development was studied using an FTIR microscopy (FTIR-M) method. The family of herpes viruses includes several members like H. simplex types I and II (HSV I, II), Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses which are involved in various human and animal infections of different parts of the body. In our previous study, we found significant spectral differences between normal uninfected cells in cultures and cells infected with herpes viruses at early stages of the infection. In the present study, cells in cultures were infected with either HSV-I or VZV and at various times post-infection they were examined either by optical microscopy or by advanced FTIR-M. Spectroscopic measurements show a consistent decrease in the intensity of the carbohydrate peak in correlation with the viral infection development, observed by optical microscopy. This decrease in cellular carbohydrate level was used as indicator for herpes viruses infection kinetics. This parameter could be used as a basis for applying a spectroscopic method for the evaluation of herpes virus infection development. Our results show also that the development kinetics of viral infection has an exponential character for these viruses.

Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mukmanov, Igor; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2004-08-01

341

Application and tolerability of Herpotherm(®) in the treatment of genital herpes.  

PubMed

Genital herpes is the manifestation of a herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Standard treatment uses both local and systemic approaches. Here, we report on the results of a local therapy approach with 31 female patients at a gynecological practice. In the here-described approach, established genital herpes infection was treated with the medical device Herpotherm(®), with or without virostatic drugs. Herpotherm(®) is a certified medical device operating on the basis of local heat application. Parameters evaluated during the approach were (i) subjective patient assessments and (ii) objective assessment of the physician. In the described therapy approach a positive effect in terms of nature and severity in the course of the disease using Herpotherm(®) could be demonstrated. It could be shown that Herpotherm(®) can also be used for genital herpes and that it is well tolerated. In relation to other therapies using topical treatment for genital herpes, an extremely rapid reduction of pain and herpetic symptoms could be observed. Intolerances or discontinued use as a result of complications were not observed. PMID:23776340

Schlippe, Gerrit; Voss, Werner; Brenn, Lars Christian

2013-06-05

342

Impact of suppressive antiviral therapy on the health related quality of life of patients with recurrent genital herpes infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether suppressive antiviral therapy improves health related quality of life in patients with recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Health related quality of life was measured using the disease specific recurrent genital herpes quality of life questionnaire (RGHQoL) as part of a randomized, double blind, 52 week, placebo controlled, dose ranging study of once and twice daily valaciclovir or

R. Patel; S. Tyring; A. Strand; M. J. Price; D. M. Grant

1999-01-01

343

To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

Farrell, Elizabeth F.

2005-01-01

344

Anatomy of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA: Strain Differences and Heterogeneity in the Locations of Restriction Endonuclease Cleavage Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestion of herpes simplex virus DNA by the HinIII or EcoRI restriction endonucleases yielded 11 to 15 fragments with molecular weights between 1 × 106 and 28 × 106. The electrophoretic profiles obtained in 0.3% agarose gels with DNA fragments from nine different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 could be readily differentiated from the patterns exhibited by the

G. S. Hayward; N. Frenkel; B. Roizman

1975-01-01

345

Whole blood polymerase chain reaction in a neonate with disseminated herpes simplex virus infection and liver failure.  

PubMed

A late preterm neonate born by cesarean section with intact membranes presented at 9 days of life with shock and liver failure. Surface cultures were negative but whole blood polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2, underscoring the value of this test in early diagnosis of perinatally acquired disseminated herpes simplex virus infection without skin lesions. PMID:24147237

Scoble, Jennifer A; Underwood, Mark A

2013-03-19

346

Acute Postoperative Herpes Zoster With a Sciatic Nerve Distribution After Total Joint Arthroplasty of the Ipsilateral Hip and Contralateral Knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential diagnosis of a patient with acute onset of hip pain during the postoperative recovery period after total hip arthroplasty includes sciatic nerve injury, infection, incisional pain, hardware, or simply muscular issues related to overactivity. Moreover, because the rash of herpes zoster develops after 4 or 5 days of pain, it is difficult to diagnose herpes zoster during the

Kyung Soon Park; Taek Rim Yoon; Sung Kyu Kim; Hyeoung Won Park; Eun Kyoo Song

2010-01-01

347

Latent Ganglionic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2: Viral Reactivation in vivo after Neurectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of the cornea, lip, or footpad of mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 resulted in a latent infection of the local sensory ganglia. Inoculation of the vagina and cervix with herpes simplex virus type 2, as well as type 1, also induced a latent ganglionic infection. With the use of sciatic nerve section as a stimulus, a reproducible

M. Antoinette Walz; Richard W. Price; Abner Louis Notkins

1974-01-01

348

Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus\\/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex

Elena Anzivino; Daniela Fioriti; Monica Mischitelli; Anna Bellizzi; Valentina Barucca; Fernanda Chiarini; Valeria Pietropaolo

2009-01-01

349

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oxycodone and of gabapentin for acute pain in herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although acute pain in patients with herpes zoster can be severe and has a substantial impact on health-related quality of life, there have been no randomized clinical trials of oral medications specifically for its ongoing treatment. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in which 87 subjects ?50 years of age with herpes zoster within 6 calendar days of rash onset

Robert H. Dworkin; Richard L. Barbano; Stephen K. Tyring; Robert F. Betts; Michael P. McDermott; Janet Pennella-Vaughan; Gary J. Bennett; Erhan Berber; John W. Gnann; Carrie Irvine; Cornelia Kamp; Karl Kieburtz; Mitchell B. Max; Kenneth E. Schmader

2009-01-01

350

Predictive values of prurigo nodularis and herpes zoster for HIV infection and immunosuppression requiring HAART in French Guiana.  

PubMed

Prurigo nodularis and herpes zoster frequently lead to the diagnosis of HIV in tropical areas. The WHO has established a clinical definition of AIDS for undeveloped countries. Prurigo and herpes zoster are both classified as stage 2. The main objective of this study was to compare the level of immunosuppression of patients diagnosed as HIV-positive after consulting for prurigo nodularis or herpes zoster in French Guiana. A retrospective study was conducted including patients consulting at the Department of Dermatology, Cayenne Hospital (French Guiana) for prurigo nodularis or herpes zoster between 1989 and 2007 for which the systematic HIV test was positive. Demographic data and CD4 counts of both groups were compared. Analysis of 346 patients consulting for herpes zoster (n=192) or prurigo nodularis (n=154) led to the discovery of 129 HIV infections. The positive predictive value (PPV) for HIV positivity was 38.5% for herpes zoster and 36% for prurigo nodularis. The median lymphocyte count was 302/mm(3) in herpes zoster and 87/mm(3) in prurigo nodularis (P<0.001). The PPV for having a CD4 lymphocyte count<200/mm(3) was 26.5% for herpes zoster and 72% for prurigo nodularis. Prurigo nodularis was predictive of advanced immunosuppression. This questions the pertinence of the WHO clinical classification of AIDS. In the absence of CD4 count, the present results suggest that for patients with prurigo nodularis, antiretrovirals should be initiated without delay. PMID:21621233

Magand, Florence; Nacher, Mathieu; Cazorla, Céline; Cambazard, Frederic; Marie, Dominique Sainte; Couppié, Pierre

2011-05-28

351

Establishment of Latent Ganglionic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus via Maxillary Gingiva and Viral Reactivation in vivo after Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus can remain latent for months or years in sensory and autonomic ganglia of animals and man, and can be re-activated in vivo by several procedures such as neurectomy, irritation of epithelial surfaces, and administration of immunosuppressive agents. The objective of this study was to determine whether dental stimuli can cause re-activation of the latent herpes simplex virus.

F. Shimizu; Y. Monma; T. Sekizawa; K. Kamiyama

1989-01-01

352

Whole Blood Polymerase Chain Reaction in a Neonate with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Infection and Liver Failure  

PubMed Central

A late preterm neonate born by cesarean section with intact membranes presented at 9 days of life with shock and liver failure. Surface cultures were negative but whole blood polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2, underscoring the value of this test in early diagnosis of perinatally acquired disseminated herpes simplex virus infection without skin lesions.

Scoble, Jennifer A.; Underwood, Mark A.

2013-01-01

353

Genital Herpes Has Played a More Important Role than Any Other Sexually Transmitted Infection in Driving HIV Prevalence in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExtensive evidence from observational studies suggests a role for genital herpes in the HIV epidemic. A number of herpes vaccines are under development and several trials of the efficacy of HSV-2 treatment with acyclovir in reducing HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression have just reported their results or will report their results in the next year. The potential impact of

Laith J. Abu-Raddad; Amalia S. Magaret; Connie Celum; Anna Wald; Ira M. Longini; Steven G. Self; Lawrence Corey; David R. Bangsberg

2008-01-01

354

To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

Farrell, Elizabeth F.

2005-01-01

355

Sunlight is an important causative factor of recurrent herpes simplex.  

PubMed

To evaluate the role of exposure to solar UV radiation (UVR) in primary and recurrent herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, we investigated the self-reported cause of infection among diagnosed patients in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. Among 4295 infected patients, 3678 had HSV-1, and 2656 of those patients (72.2%) had a recurrent flare-up. Fatigue was the most commonly reported cause of a flare-up among all patients, followed by the common cold and sun exposure. Sun-induced HSV-1 flare-up was reported by 10.4% of the total study population. However, this increased to 19.7% among patients diagnosed in July and August, to 28% among patients younger than 30 years diagnosed in July and August, and to 40% among patients younger than 30 years diagnosed in July and August with a recurrent infection. These results suggest the important role of solar UVR in the development of recurrent HSV-1, possibly due to UVR-induced immunosuppression or direct reactivation of HSV-1 in the neural ganglia. PMID:15603217

Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Nagai, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2004-11-01

356

Radioimmunoassay for herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive RIA for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) has been developed. This assay is based on competition for the binding site of a rabbit antibody against purified HSV-1 TK, between a purified /sup 3/H-labeled HSV-1 TK and a sample containing an unknown amount of viral TK. The assay is capable of detecting 8 ng or more of the HSV enzyme. Purified HSV-1 TK denatured to <1% of its original kinase activity is as effective in binding to the antibody as is native HSV-1 TK. Viral TK is detectable at ranges of 150-460 ng/mg protein of cell extract from infected cells or cells transformed by HSV or HSV genetic material. HSV-2 TK appears highly cross-reactive, VZV TK is slightly less so, and the vaccinia TK shows little or no cross-reactivity. This RIA may serve as a tool for monitoring the expression of the HSV TK during an active herpes virus infection, a latent ganglionic infection, or in neoplastic cells which may have arisen by viral transformation.

McGuirt, P.V.; Keller, P.M.; Elion, G.B.

1982-01-30

357

Herpes zoster complicating imatinib mesylate for gastrointestinal stromal tumour.  

PubMed

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is uncommon in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and who have not been exposed to extensive radiotherapy and/or high-dose chemotherapy. We report a 56-year-old Nigerian man with GIST who developed VZV infection while on imatinib mesylate therapy. From August 2003 to November 2005, 64 patients (GIST/CML = 6/58) were enrolled into an ongoing Glivec (imatinib mesylate) international patient-assistance programme therapy for Philadelphia/bcr-abl-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and CD117-positive GIST patients at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The patient developed herpes zoster (HZ) infection 23 months into therapy with Glivec. With his absolute lymphocyte count at 2,774 cells per microlitre and CD4 count at 950 cells per microlitre, no obvious immunological defect was observed. Prompt resolution of symptoms without sequelae was achieved by treating with acyclovir, analgesic and dressing of lesions with desiccant. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of HZ infection in a patient with GIST on Glivec therapy, and the response is similar to that of CML patients who developed VZV while on similar therapy. PMID:17245498

Durosinmi, M A; Ogbe, P O; Salawu, L; Oyekunle, A A

2007-01-01

358

Herpes simplex virus: selection of origins of DNA replication.  

PubMed Central

A selection procedure was devised to study the role of cis -acting sequences at origins of DNA replication. Two regions in Herpes simplex virus oriS were examined: an AT-rich spacer sequence and a putative binding site, box III, for the origin binding protein. Plasmid libraries were generated using oligonucleotides with locally random sequences. The library, amplified in Escherichia coli , was used to transfect BHK cells followed by superinfection with HSV-1. Replicated plasmids resistant to Dpn I cleavage were amplified in E. coli. The selection scheme was repeated. Plasmids were isolated at different stages of the procedure and their replication efficiency was determined. Efficiently replicating plasmids had a high AT content in the spacer sequence as well as a low helical stability of this region. In contrast, this was not seen using the box III library. We also noted that the wild type sequence invariably dominated the library after five rounds of selection. These plasmids arose from recombination between plasmids and viral DNA. Our results imply that a large group of sequences can mechanistically serve as origins of DNA replication. In a viral system, however, where the initiation process might be rate-limiting, this potentially large group of sequences would always converge towards the most efficient replicator.

Hammarsten, O; Elias, P

1997-01-01

359

"Armed" oncolytic herpes simplex viruses for brain tumor therapy.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) are promising therapeutic agents for brain tumors and other solid cancers. They can replicate in situ, spread and exhibit oncolytic activity via a direct cytocidal effect. One of the advantages of HSV-1 is the capacity to incorporate large and/or multiple transgenes within the viral genome. Oncolytic HSV-1 can therefore be "armed" to add certain functions. Recently, the field of armed oncolytic HSV-1 has drastically advanced, due to development of recombinant HSV-1 generation systems that utilize bacterial artificial chromosome and multiple DNA recombinases. Because antitumor immunity is induced in the course of oncolytic activities of HSV-1, transgenes encoding immunomodulatory molecules have been most frequently used for arming. Other armed oncolytic HSV-1 include those that express antiangiogenic factors, fusogenic membrane glycoproteins, suicide gene products, and proapoptotic proteins. Provided that the transgene product does not interfere with viral replication, such arming of oncolytic HSV-1 results in augmentation of antitumor efficacy. Immediate-early viral promoters are often used to control the arming transgenes, but strict-late viral promoters have been shown useful to restrict the expression in the late stage of viral replication when desirable. Some armed oncolytic HSV-1 have been created for the purpose of noninvasive in vivo imaging of viral infection and replication. Development of a wide variety of armed oncolytic HSV-1 will lead to an establishment of a new genre of therapy for brain tumors as well as other cancers. PMID:19262110

Todo, Tomoki

2008-07-28

360

Zostavax : a subcutaneous vaccine for the prevention of herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Introduction: Herpes zoster (HZ) occurs as a reactivation of dormant varicella zoster virus (VZV), and occurs more frequently in the aging population or the immunocompromised due to waning cell-mediated immunity. Up to 1 million cases of HZ are reported annually in the USA with an estimated 10 - 30% of the population being affected by shingles in their lifetime. HZ is a debilitating illness, and while mortality is low, morbidity remains a significant cause for concern with prevention efforts aimed at reducing VZV reactivation and its complications. The HZ vaccine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for individuals aged 50-years or older. However, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices recommends the vaccine in individuals aged 60-years or older. Areas covered: Recent literature investigating the efficacy and indications of live attenuated zoster vaccine. Expert opinion: Live attenuated zoster vaccine is safe and efficacious in preventing HZ and decreasing the morbidity associated with postherpetic neuralgia. The vaccine is FDA approved in individuals aged 50-years or older but further studies are warranted to investigate the vaccine's efficacy in immunosuppressed and immunocompromised patients. PMID:23984934

Doan, Hung Q; Ung, Bothland; Ramirez-Fort, Marigdalia K; Khan, Farhan; Tyring, Stephen K

2013-08-29

361

[Mechanism of specific vaccine therapy in ocular herpes simplex].  

PubMed

The mechanism of specific vaccine therapy in herpetic eye disease was studied. The effectiveness of the therapy in the observation period of 3 to 8 years was established. In 71 (62%) of 114 patients relapses of the disease disappeared completely, in 32 (26%) became less frequent and in 11 (10%) their frequency did not change. The clinical course of relapses in all cases became milder. The vaccination courses given were shown not to influence the level of virusneutralizing antibody but to induce the appearance in the lacrimal fluid of immunoglobulins G and M and to increase considerably the level of IgA. The vaccint therapy enhanced the reactions of cell-mediated immunity which was manifested in increased specific blasttransformation of lymphocytes (up to 18%) and reduced the migrational capacity of leucocytes to inactivated antigen of herpesvirus. The effect of the vaccine persisted only for a few months. The immunological and clinical analyses showed that it was expedient to give vaccine in courses at 6--12-month intervals after an attack of herpes. PMID:206026

Shubladze, A K; Za?tseva, N S; Maevskaia, T M; Cheglakov, Iu A; Murav'eva, T V

362

Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

2009-03-01

363

Comparative analysis of salivary zinc level in recurrent herpes labialis  

PubMed Central

Background: Recurrent Herpes Labialis (RHL) is one of most common infective vesiculoulcerative lesions. According to some studies administration of topical and/or systemic zinc compositions has been effective in treatment and prevention. This article aims to comparison of zinc level in healthy subjects and RHL patients in acute and convalescent phases. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective case – control study, carried on 80 individuals (40 normal and 40 RHL patients) mean age=34.5 and 34.4, respectively. Saliva samples were taken in patients in acute phase once and after healing of lesions in convalescent phase (averagely 21 days later) and in normal individuals. Salivary zinc level concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer by dry digestion method. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS software by t-test (?=0.05). Results: Results showed that salivary zinc level in case group in acute and convalescent phases were 160.8 ngr/mland 205.7 ngr/ml respectivly and significant differences between them were existed (P <0.05). Also significant differences were existed between zinc concentration in healthy subjects and patient groups (in both phases) (P=.001 and .002 for acute and convalescent phases respectively). Conclusion: According to the results, zinc level is significantly lower in acute phase than in convalescent phase and significantly lower in both phases compared to healthy individuals,so determination of serum zinc level and prescribing zinc complement in low serum status has both treatmental and preventive effects in RHL patients.

Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Jafari, Nasim; Attar, Ahmad Movahedian; Jafari, Shahram; Ataie, Masoud

2012-01-01

364

Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA  

SciTech Connect

Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions. HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed.

Danovich, R.M.; Frenkel, N.

1988-08-01

365

Herpes simplex type 1 ribonucleotide reductase. Mechanism studies with inhibitors.  

PubMed

Several known inhibitors of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase were studied for their interactions with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ribonucleotide reductase. MAIQ (4-methyl-5-amino-1-formylisoquinoline thiosemicarbazone) produced apparent inactivation of HSV-1 ribonucleotide reductase. Only catalytically cycling, not resting, enzyme could be inactivated. Double reciprocal replots of the rates of inactivation versus the concentration of MAIQ indicated that a reversible complex with the enzyme was formed prior to inactivation. In the presence of 10 microM CDP, the maximum rate of inactivation was 20 per h (t1/2 = 3 min). The half-maximum rate was achieved at about 15 microM MAIQ. INOX (periodate-oxidized inosine) also appeared to inactivate HSV-1 ribonucleotide reductase. In contrast to MAIQ, it readily inactivated resting as well as cycling enzyme. CDP retarded the rates of inactivation by INOX. An initial reversible complex between INOX and enzyme was not detectable under the conditions used. IMPY (2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo(2,3-a)imidazole) and guanazole (3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole) produced reversible inhibition. Although the data with both inhibitors were most consistent with the noncompetitive inhibition model (versus CDP), the data with guanazole were also marginally consistent with the uncompetitive model. PMID:2991215

Spector, T; Jones, T E

1985-07-25

366

Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention: a case report.  

PubMed

An 87-year-old woman presents with a 4-week history of urinary incontinence during which she had been treated for disseminated herpes zoster virus (HZV). On physical exam painful vesicles involving the entire vulvar region with mainly right sacral distribution were found. A catheterized volume exceeded 600 ml of retained urine after the patient failed to void spontaneously. Multichannel voiding-pressure urodynamic studies revealed an acontractile neurogenic bladder with overflow incontinence. The patient was discharged on a conservative regimen with arrangement for visiting nurse services to perform intermittent self-catheterization twice daily. Urodynamic testing was repeated 10 weeks after initial symptoms. During voiding cystometry a biphasic increase in detrusor pressure of 15 cm H2O was observed with no increase in abdominal pressure. The patient emptied 400 ml with a postvoid residual of 300 ml. Recovery from HZV-associated bladder emptying dysfunction can be achieved usually through conservative management, including intermittent self-catheterization. Complete recovery time ranges from 4 to 10 weeks. PMID:16520890

Julia, Jimmy J; Cholhan, Hilary J

2006-03-07

367

CELLULAR IMMUNITY TO HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS MEDIATED BY INTERFERON  

PubMed Central

Rabbit kidney cell monolayers infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) were incubated with leukocytes from rabbits immunized with complete Freund's adjuvant. When the leukocytes were exposed to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), viral replication and plaque formation were markedly inhibited. Similarly, when leukocytes from animals immunized with HSV were exposed to UV-inactivated HSV, viral replication was markedly inhibited. Exposure of leukocytes from unimmunized animals or animals immunized with incomplete Freund's adjuvant to UV-inactivated virus or PPD produced relatively little inhibition of viral replication. Examination of supernatant fluids from stimulated cultures revealed a soluble mediator that had the properties of interferon. Interferon production was detected within several hours after exposure of sensitized leukocytes to antigen. Supernatant fluids from as few as one sensitized leukocyte per 200 rabbit kidney cells inhibited HSV replication by over 90%. These findings support the concept that the cellular immune response to HSV consists of two phases: an immunologically specific antigen recognition phase, and a nonspecific effector phase that stops HSV spread by generating interferon.

Lodmell, Donald L.; Notkins, Abner Louis

1974-01-01

368

Growth of herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus in cultured human alveolar macrophages.  

PubMed

In laboratory animals, macrophages play a central role in controlling certain viral infections. Because the adult human lung is more susceptible to infection with cytomegalovirus than herpes simplex virus, we compared the replication of these two viruses in vitro in human alveolar macrophages. The growth of herpes simplex virus in alveolar macrophages was extremely limited, peak titers being only 1.8-fold greater than adsorbed virus titers. Cytomegalovirus, on the other hand, replicated in normal adult alveolar macrophages to the same extent as in permissive tissue culture cell. These data suggest that the human alveolar macrophage may play a central role in the control of lung infection with herpes simplex virus. PMID:219737

Drew, W L; Mintz, L; Hoo, R; Finley, T N

1979-02-01

369

Bilateral subcutaneous fibrosarcomas in a cat following feline parvo-, herpes- and calicivirus vaccination.  

PubMed

A crossbred cat developed a subcutaneous fibrosarcoma on the left side of the thorax at the site of previous administration of a feline parvo-, herpes- and calicivirus vaccine. A few months later the cat developed a second mass on the right side of the thorax after a booster vaccine had been administered at this site. This unique case of bilateral fibrosarcomas in a cat shortly after vaccination with parvo-, herpes- and caliciviruses suggests an individual disposition for the development of vaccine-associated sarcomas and a possible triggering of this type of pathological response which could have precipitated the development of the second tumour. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of vaccine-induced fibrosarcomas occurring bilaterally after injection of a feline parvo-, herpes- and calicivirus containing vaccine at different sides of the thorax. PMID:17664079

De Man, Marc M G; Ducatelle, Richard V

2007-07-30

370

Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when immerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

Tam, Phuong Dinh; Trung, Tran; Tuan, Mai Anh; Chien, Nguyen Duc

2009-09-01

371

Encapsidation and expression of the herpes thymidine kinase gene in polyoma virus.  

PubMed Central

A recombinant DNA of 5,150 base pairs was prepared containing the intact early region of polyoma virus, including the viral origin of replication and the structural sequences of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene. Although no thymidine kinase activity was detected when herpes structural sequences alone were transfected into cells, activity was produced when the structural gene followed the polyoma early region. The recombinant DNA was encapsidated into polyoma virions when cotransfected into mouse 3T6 cells with helper DNA from an early polyoma virus mutant. Herpes thymidine kinase activity was detected by a rapid in situ autoradiographic assay in which [125]iododeoxycytidine was utilized as a substrate for the viral but not the cellular enzyme. Images

Dinces, N B; Milman, G

1982-01-01

372

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine increases susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus infection in mice.  

PubMed

Abused by >1.2 million Americans, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (commonly referred to as ecstasy) is popular in the dance club, rave, and circuit party scenes. MDMA and other similar drugs are reportedly associated with increased incidence of sexually transmitted infectious diseases, such as AIDS and genital herpes, and may have immunological effects. In the present study, we demonstrate that MDMA causes increased susceptibility to herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in mice and earlier onset of genital herpes. We also demonstrate that MDMA has an effect on the cytokines of the innate immune system-both systemically and, for the first time, in the genital tract. These data suggest that MDMA may play an important biological role in infection. PMID:19758099

Pennock, Jeffry W; Stegall, Rachael; Bubar, Marcy J; Milligan, Gregg; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Bourne, Nigel

2009-10-15

373

Herpes simplex Virus Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Patient with Ebstein-Barr Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis can cause transient immune deficiency which may predispose to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the immunocompetent host. We report the case of a 15-year-old male who presented with severe odynophagia and herpes labialis during the course of Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis that had been diagnosed ten days before. Esophagoscopy revealed extensive ulcerations with distinct borders and whitish exudates at the mid and distal esophagus. Polymerase chain reaction detected HSV-1 DNA in the biopsy specimens. The patient was treated with intravenous acyclovir. The symptoms resolved rapidly within 3 days, in accordance with improved endoscopic findings.

Tzouvala, M.; Gaglia, A.; Papantoniou, N.; Triantafyllou, K.; Karamanolis, G.

2008-01-01

374

[Eczema herpeticum caused by herpes simplex virus type 2. Review of the literature about one case].  

PubMed

Eczema herpeticum is an extensive vesicular eruption caused by cutaneous dissemination of herpes simplex virus in patients who have underlying skin conditions or epidermal barrier disruption. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) is the most common etiology. This is the first report in Chile of a case of eczema herpeticum caused by HSV 2 in a patient with Darier's disease, We review the literature and emphasize the use of sensitive and specific assays as real time polymerase chain reaction, that allow to initiate timely the correct treatment. PMID:19802405

Schroeder H, Francisca; Elgueta N, Andrea; Martínez G, M José

2009-09-23

375

[The effect of symptom-free genital herpes on the course and outcome of pregnancy].  

PubMed

The incidence of primary genital herpes among women of the childbearing age in Khabarovsk is 2.6% or from 0 to 10.4 per 1000. Asymptomatic herpes simplex virus (HSV) carrier state in the genital tract was detected in 24.1 +/- 5.2% normal women. The virus-carrier state exerts untoward effects on the course of pregnancy and condition of the fetus. In women infected with HSV, the hazard of abortion is 1.8 times as frequent, premature delivery is 3.2 times as frequent, and children of such mothers have symptoms of intrauterine hypotrophy 4.5 times as frequently as normally. PMID:1664557

Vlasova, M A; Ostrovskaia, O V; L'vov, N D; Nikitina, A A

376

[Brachial plexitis and myelitis and herpes-zoster lumbar plexus disorder in patient treated with infliximab].  

PubMed

Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody, is a TNF-a inhibitor approved for use in refractory rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn s disease. We present the case of a patient affected by severe rheumatoid arthritis who was successfully treated with infliximab. She suffered diverse neurological complications: brachial plexitis, asymptomatic thoracic myelitis with extensive lesions in MRI study, and herpes zoster lumbar plexitis. We review the neurological adverse effects of infliximab (aseptic meningitis, opportunistic germs infections, disseminated herpes zoster) and focus in their potential adverse effect to induce central and peripheral nervous system demyelination. PMID:16163582

Arias, M; Arias-Rivas, S; Dapena, D; Mera, A

2005-09-01

377

Protection from oral herpes simplex virus infection by a nucleic acid-free virus vaccine.  

PubMed Central

The effect of immunization with inactivated herpes virus vaccines, including a vaccine free of all nucleic acid, was investigated in a mouse model system. Protection against oral lesions induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 was demonstrated by several criteria: (i) reduction in the incidence and severity of primary oral lesions; (ii) decrease in acute and latent infection of the regional sensory ganglia; and (iii) protection from viral encephalitis and death. The immune response of mice to the vaccine and to subsequent virus challenge was measured by following serum-neutralizing antibody titers.

Kitces, E N; Morahan, P S; Tew, J G; Murray, B K

1977-01-01

378

Susceptibilities of Several Drug-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strains to Alternative Antiviral Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 strains were obtained under the selective pressure of acyclovir, ganciclovir, bromovinyldeoxyuridine, foscarnet, 2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl (PME) derivatives of adenine and 2,6-diaminopurine, 3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl derivatives of adenine and cytosine, and 2-amino- 7-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)purine (S2242). The drug susceptibility profiles of resistant strains point to differencesinthemodesofactionofPMEand3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropylderivativesandcommon mechanismsofactionoffoscarnet,S2242,andPMEderivativesagainstherpessimplexvirustype1replication. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is associated with primary and recurrent mucocutaneous infections. HSV type

G. ANDREI; R. SNOECK

1995-01-01

379

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency  

PubMed Central

Primary infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can cause clinical symptoms in the peripheral and central nervous system, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Recurrent ocular shedding leads to corneal scarring that can progress to vision loss. Consequently, HSV-1 is the leading cause of corneal blindness due to an infectious agent. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) has similar biological properties to HSV-1 and is a significant health concern to the cattle industry. Latency of BHV-1 and HSV-1 is established in sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia, but latency can be interrupted periodically, leading to reactivation from latency and spread of infectious virus. The ability of HSV-1 and BHV-1 to reactivate from latency leads to virus transmission and can lead to recurrent disease in individuals latently infected with HSV-1. During latency, the only abundant HSV-1 RNA expressed is the latency-associated transcript (LAT). In latently infected cattle, the latency-related (LR) RNA is the only abundant transcript that is expressed. LAT and LR RNA are antisense to ICP0 or bICP0, viral genes that are crucial for productive infection, suggesting that LAT and LR RNA interfere with productive infection by inhibiting ICP0 or bICP0 expression. Numerous studies have concluded that LAT expression is important for the latency-reactivation cycle in animal models. The LR gene has recently been demonstrated to be required for the latency-reactivation cycle in cattle. Several recent studies have demonstrated that LAT and the LR gene inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death) in trigeminal ganglia of infected animals and transiently transfected cells. The antiapoptotic properties of LAT map to the same sequences that are necessary for promoting reactivation from latency. This review summarizes our current knowledge of factors regulating the latency-reactivation cycle of HSV-1 and BHV-1.

Jones, Clinton

2003-01-01

380

Targeted oncolytic herpes simplex viruses for aggressive cancers.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a well-known vector that is often used for gene therapy to treat cancers. The most attractive feature of HSV is its ability to destroy tumors through a distinctive oncolytic mechanism where the virus can destroy cancer cells via cell lysis, a killing function that no anti-cancer drugs can mimic. Importantly, HSV is a safe and effective virus that can be easily manipulated to preferentially replicate in tumor cells. In the last 20 years of reengineering efforts, a number of HSV designs, including the classical G207, have been focused on deleting viral genes in order to render the virus tumor specific. Although such designs can successfully destroy tumor xenografts in animal models, with minimal impact on normal tissues, a common trade-off is the marked attenuation of the virus. This problem is most profound in many clinical tumors, where virus dissemination is often hindered by the difficult cellular and molecular terrain of the human tumor mass. In order to harness all of HSV's replication potential to destroy tumor cells, efforts in our lab, as well as others, last several years have been focused on engineering an oncolytic HSV to target tumor cells without deleting any viral genes, and have since generated highly tumor specific viruses including our transcriptional translational dually regulated HSV (TTDR-HSV). In this review, we will discuss the improvements associated with the newer TTDR-HSV design compared to the classical defective HSV designs such as G207 and tk- HSV. Lastly, we will review additional cellular features of aggressive tumors, such as their immense cellular heterogeneity and volatility, which may serve to hinder the dissemintation of TTDR-HSV. The challenge for future studies would be to explore how TTDRHSV could be redesigned and/or employed with combinatorial approaches to better target and destroy the heterogeneous and dynamic cell populations in the aggressive tumor mass. PMID:21740360

Wong, Jennifer; Lee, Cleo; Zhang, Kevin; Rennie, Paul S; Jia, William

2012-07-01

381

Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD-nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody. PMID:24100313

Lee, Cheng Chung; Lin, Li Ling; Chan, Woan Eng; Ko, Tzu Ping; Lai, Jiann Shiun; Wang, Andrew H J

2013-09-20

382

Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C  

SciTech Connect

Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

1987-01-27

383

Hypoxia Enhances the Replication of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia contributes to the resistance of tumors to conventional therapies. We hypothesized that their replication in hypoxic environments like brain or oral mucosa would make oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) such as G207 (which has undergone clinical trials) replicate to a greater extent in hypoxic tumors like glioblastoma. Hypoxic cultured U87 cells yielded 4% more wild-type HSV (P = 0.04) and 3.6-fold more G207 (P = 0.001) after 48 hours of infection when compared with normoxic cells. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed a fivefold hypoxia-induced U87 upregulation of GADD34 mRNA, a factor complementing the ?34.5 gene deletion in G207. The viral yield under conditions of hypoxia, as against normoxia, in GADD34 siRNA-treated U87 cells was 65% of that in control siRNA-treated cells. Treating subcutaneous U87 tumors in athymic mice with erythropoietin lowered the tumoral hypoxic fraction from 57.5 to 24.5%. Tumoral hypoxia dropped to 2.5% during 4 hours/day of hyperbaric chamber treatment. Each tumor-oxygenating maneuver reduced the G207 yield fourfold (P = 0.0001). Oncolytic HSV G207 exhibited enhanced replication in hypoxic environments, partly on account of increased GADD34 expression in hypoxic cells. The unique tropism of oncolytic HSVs for hypoxic environments contrasts with the hypoxia-mediated impairment of standard (radiation, chemotherapy) and other experimental therapies, and enhances HSV's appeal and efficacy in treating tumors like glioblastoma.

Aghi, Manish K; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Rabkin, Samuel; Martuza, Robert L

2008-01-01

384

Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus  

SciTech Connect

Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

1988-01-01

385

Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus  

PubMed Central

Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

2013-01-01

386

Comprehensive Characterization of Extracellular Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Virions?  

PubMed Central

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome is contained in a capsid wrapped by a complex tegument layer and an external envelope. The poorly defined tegument plays a critical role throughout the viral life cycle, including delivery of capsids to the nucleus, viral gene expression, capsid egress, and acquisition of the viral envelope. Current data suggest tegumentation is a dynamic and sequential process that starts in the nucleus and continues in the cytoplasm. Over two dozen proteins are assumed to be or are known to ultimately be added to virions as tegument, but its precise composition is currently unknown. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of all proteins found in HSV-1 virions is still lacking. To better understand the implication of the tegument and host proteins incorporated into the virions, highly purified mature extracellular viruses were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The method proved accurate (95%) and sensitive and hinted at 8 different viral capsid proteins, 13 viral glycoproteins, and 23 potential viral teguments. Interestingly, four novel virion components were identified (UL7, UL23, UL50, and UL55), and two teguments were confirmed (ICP0 and ICP4). In contrast, UL4, UL24, the UL31/UL34 complex, and the viral UL15/UL28/UL33 terminase were undetected, as was most of the viral replication machinery, with the notable exception of UL23. Surprisingly, the viral glycoproteins gJ, gK, gN, and UL43 were absent. Analyses of virions produced by two unrelated cell lines suggest their protein compositions are largely cell type independent. Finally, but not least, up to 49 distinct host proteins were identified in the virions.

Loret, Sandra; Guay, Ginette; Lippe, Roger

2008-01-01

387

Digallate dimers of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inactivate herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Topical microbicides are potentially an alternative method to vaccines for reducing the spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV). We have previously shown (S. Liu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1723:270-281, 2005) that the catechin (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inactivates HSV at neutral pH; however, to function in the female genital tract EGCG must also be effective at acidic pH. EGCG inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 at pH 8.0 by 3 log(10) to 4 log(10) but was ineffective at pH 5.7. The EGCG digallate dimers theasinensin A, P2, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3) inactivated both viruses by 3 log(10) to 4 log(10) at pH 5.7 and as much as 5 log(10) at pH 8.0. TF-3 inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 by 4 to 5 log(10) in the pH range of 4.0 to 5.7. Dimers with one gallate moiety had antiviral activity intermediate between the activities of EGCG and digallate dimers. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that theasinensin A did not damage Vero cells. All EGCG dimers inactivated enveloped viruses with class I, class II, and class III (HSV-1, HSV-2) fusion proteins more effectively than did monomeric EGCG. EGCG had no activity against the nonenveloped viruses tested, but TF-3 reduced the titer of 4 of 5 nonenveloped viruses by ?2 to 3.5 log(10). Results also showed that HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was aggregated more rapidly by theasinensin A than EGCG, which, when taken together with the nonenveloped virus data, suggests that dimers may inhibit the function of viral proteins required for infectivity. Digallate dimers of EGCG appear to have excellent potential as microbicidal agents against HSV at acidic and neutral pHs. PMID:21947401

Isaacs, Charles E; Xu, Weimin; Merz, George; Hillier, Sharon; Rohan, Lisa; Wen, Guang Y

2011-09-26

388

Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed

Edouard M. Cantin; Richard Eberle; Joseph L. Baldick; Bernard Moss; Dru E. Willey; Abner L. Notkins; Harry Openshaw

1987-01-01

389

The Herpes Simplex Virus Gene Pol Expressed in Herpes-Associated Erythema Multiforme Lesions Upregulates\\/Activates SP1 and Inflammatory Cytokines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Herpes-simplex-virus-associated erythema multiforme (HAEM) is characterized by lesional skin expression of the viral protein Pol and localized inflammation. The objective of this study is to examine the mechanism whereby Pol induces localized inflammation. Methods: A431 cells transfected with Pol or an empty vector and lesional skin from HAEM or drug-induced erythema multiforme patients were examined for expression of the

Michael D. Gober; Jennifer M. Laing; Joseph W. Burnett; Laure Aurelian

2007-01-01

390

Diversity of the CD8+ T-Cell Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Proteins among Persons with Genital Herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytolytic T cells play a major role in controlling herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections in humans. In an effort to more thoroughly evaluate the response to HSV-2 directly, ex vivo, we developed an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay that utilized pools of overlapping synthetic peptides pre- sented by autologous dendritic cells to purified CD8 T cells. Donor response rates

Nancy Hosken; Patrick McGowan; Amalia Meier; David M. Koelle; Paul Sleath; Felecia Wagener; Mark Elliott; Ken Grabstein; Christine Posavad; Lawrence Corey

2006-01-01

391

The Quantity of Latent Viral DNA Correlates with the Relative Rates at Which Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Cause Recurrent Genital Herpes Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) have evolved specific anatomic tropisms and site- dependent rates of reactivation. To determine whether reactivation rates depend on distinct abilities of HSV-1 and -2 to establish latency and to express latency-associated transcripts (LATs), virulent strains of each virus were studied in the guinea pig genital model. Following infection with equivalent

JULIE A. LEKSTROM-HIMES; LESLEY PESNICAK; STEPHEN E. STRAUS

392

Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific T Cells in the Murine Female Genital Tract Following Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A murine model of genital infection with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was utilized to examine the development of the local T cell response in the genital mucosa and draining genital lymph nodes (gLN). HSV-specific cytokine-secreting T cells were detected in the gLN 4 days postintravaginal inoculation but not in the urogenital tract

Gregg N. Milligan; David I. Bernstein

1995-01-01

393

Immunization with Recombinant Varicella-Zoster Virus Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein D Reduces the Severity of Genital Herpes in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an attractive candidate for a live-virus vector for the delivery of foreign antigens. The Oka vaccine strain of VZV is safe and effective in humans, and recombinant Oka VZV (ROka) can be generated by transfecting cells with a set of overlapping cosmid DNAs. By this method, the herpes simplexvirustype2(HSV-2)glycoproteinD(gD2)genewasinsertedintoanintergenicsiteintheuniqueshort region of the Oka VZV genome. Expression

THOMAS C. HEINEMAN; BEVERLY L. CONNELLY; NIGEL BOURNE; LAWRENCE R. STANBERRY; ANDJEFFREY COHEN

394

Immunization with a highly attenuated replication-competent herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant, HF10, protects mice from genital disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is an intractable disease caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2), and is a major concern in public health. A previous infection with HSV type 1 (HSV-1) enhances protection against primary HSV-2 infection to some extent. In this study, we evaluated the ability of HF10, a naturally occurring replication-competent HSV-1 mutant, to protect against genital infection in mice caused by HSV-2. Subcutaneous inoculation of HF10-immunized mice against lethal infection by HSV-2, and attenuated the development of genital ulcer diseases. Immunization with HF10 inhibited HSV-2 replication in the mouse vagina, reduced local inflammation, controlled emergence of neurological dysfunctions of HSV-2 infection, and increased survival. In HF10-immunized mice, we observed rapid and increased production of interferon-? in the vagina in response to HSV-2 infection, and numerous CD4+ and a few CD8+ T cells localized to the infective focus. CD4+ T cells invaded the mucosal subepithelial lamina propria. Thus, the protective effect of HF10 was related to induction of cellular immunity, mediated primarily by Th1 CD4+ cells. These data indicate that the live attenuated HSV-1 mutant strain HF10 is a promising candidate antigen for a vaccine against genital herpes caused by HSV-2.

Luo, Chenhong; Goshima, Fumi; Kamakura, Maki; Mutoh, Yoshifumi; Iwata, Seiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Yukihiro

2012-01-01

395

Herpes simplex encephalitis with occipital localization in an infant: a different route of entry in the brain system?  

PubMed

Herpes simplex encephalitis classically involves the periventricular white matter in infants and the mesial temporal lobes, inferior frontal lobes, and insula in older children and adults. However, the increasing use of polymerase chain reaction to detect viral DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid has allowed the expansion of the spectrum of radiologic findings possibly associated with herpes simplex encephalitis. This study presents a rare case of a previously healthy infant with herpes simplex encephalitis with occipital involvement and permanent visual impairment. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23668872

Venturini, Elisabetta; Chiappini, Elena; Fonda, Claudio; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio

2013-06-01

396

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Suppresses RNA-Induced Gene Silencing in Mammalian Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA-induced silencing is a potent innate antiviral defense strategy in plants, and suppression of silencing is a hallmark of pathogenic plant viruses. However, the impact of silencing as a mammalian antiviral defense mechanism and the ability of mammalian viruses to suppress silencing in natural host cells have remained controversial. The ability of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to suppress

Zetang Wu; Yali Zhu; David M. Bisaro; Deborah S. Parris

2009-01-01

397

Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

2010-01-01

398

Influence of herpes simplex virus infection on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in monkey kidney cells  

SciTech Connect

Current research in our laboratory is designed to investigate the intracellular interactions of BP with oncogenic DNA viruses of animals and humans. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether BP is metabolized in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected cells and whether HSV-2 infection affects intracellular levels of the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system necessary for BP metabolism.

Degenhardt, J.H.; Whitcomb, B.; Hall, M.R.

1984-01-01

399

Echinacea purpurea Polysaccharide Reduces the Latency Rate in Herpes Simplex Virus Type1 Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: During the latency period of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), the virus can occasionally reactivate, travel back to the eye and cause recurrent ocular disease. As this condition arises from the ability of HSV-1 to produce a dormant infection, effective medication to prevent the virus enter a latent state should prevent it. In this study, we applied Echinacea polysaccharide

Amir Ghaemi; Hoorieh Soleimanjahi; Pooria Gill; Ehsan Arefian; Sara Soudi; Zuhair Hassan

2009-01-01

400

Virus-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis Blocked by the Herpes Simplex Virus Latency-Associated Transcript  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent infections with periodic reactivation are a common outcome after acute infection with many viruses. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is required for wild-type reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In rabbit trigeminal ganglia, extensive apoptosis occurred with LAT- virus but not with LAT+ viruses. In addition, a plasmid expressing LAT blocked apoptosis in

Guey-Chuen Perng; Clinton Jones; Janice Ciacci-Zanella; Melissa Stone; Gail Henderson; Ada Yukht; Susan M. Slanina; Florence M. Hofman; Homayon Ghiasi; Anthony B. Nesburn; Steven L. Wechsler

2000-01-01

401

Disseminated Herpes Zoster Mimicking Rheumatoid Vasculitis in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient on Etanercept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?)-blocking agents are immunomodulating agents introduced for treatment of a variety of chronic inflammatory disease conditions. Adverse effects include an increased incidence of infections. Clinically, these infections often have atypical presentations that may hamper prompt diagnosis. In our report of a patient on etanercept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, the correct diagnosis was delayed because disseminated herpes zoster

S. Tresch; R. M. Trüeb; J. Kamarachev; L. E. French; G. F. L. Hofbauer

2009-01-01

402

Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets…

Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

2010-01-01

403

The oncogenic potential of herpes simplex viruses: evidence for a `hit-and-run' mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to determine the mechanism of transformation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) have identified fragments of viral DNA which are able to initiate transformation. No set of viral genes seems to be consistently retained or expressed in the transformed cells or in human cervical tumours, suggesting that viral DNA is not needed to maintain the transformed phenotype. In fact there

Denise A. Galloway; James K. McDougall

1983-01-01

404

Intraoral herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

We report a challenging case of an atypical presentation of recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Oral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present with unusual clinical features that can mimic non-infectious diseases. This report discusses the diagnostic steps necessary for definitive diagnosis and to guide appropriate and effective management. PMID:23933299

Villa, Alessandro; Treister, Nathaniel S

2013-08-08

405

Divergent Effects of Human Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus1 on Cellular Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses rely on the metabolic network of the host cell to provide energy and macromolecular precursors to fuel viral replication. Here we used mass spectrometry to examine the impact of two related herpesviruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), on the metabolism of fibroblast and epithelial host cells. Each virus triggered strong metabolic changes that were conserved

Livia Vastag; Emre Koyuncu; Sarah L. Grady; Thomas E. Shenk; Joshua D. Rabinowitz

2011-01-01

406

Herpes Simplex Virus Triggers and Then Disarms a Host Antiviral Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus infection induces an antiviral response that is predominantly associated with the synthesis and secretion of soluble interferon. Here, we report that herpes simplex virus type 1 virions induce an interferon- independent antiviral state in human embryonic lung cells that prevents plaquing of a variety of viruses. Microarray analysis of 19,000 human expressed sequence tags revealed induction of a limited

KAREN L. MOSSMAN; PASCALE F. MACGREGOR; JACOB J. ROZMUS; ANDREW B. GORYACHEV; ALED M. EDWARDS; JAMES R. SMILEY

2001-01-01

407

Dendrimers, a New Class of Candidate Topical Microbicides with Activity against Herpes Simplex Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrimers are large highly branched macromolecules synthesized from a polyfunctional core. They have shown a variety of biological properties, including, in some instances, antiviral activity. In this study, five dendrimers were evaluated for in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 by cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition and plaque reduction (PR) assay in human foreskin fibroblast cells.

N. Bourne; L. R. Stanberry; E. R. Kern; G. Holan; B. Matthews; D. I. Bernstein

2000-01-01

408

Herpes zoster and controlateral hemiplegia in an African patient infected with HIV-1.  

PubMed

One of the neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection are cerebrovascular accidents. In HIV infected patients, ischemic strokes have been reported secondary to nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis and cerebral arteritis. We describe an unusual cause of stroke in HIV-1 infection: Herpes Zoster ophtalmicus with contralateral hemiplegia. PMID:1867123

Carneiro, A V; Ferro, J; Figueiredo, C; Costa, L; Campos, J; de Pádua, F

409

Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

2013-01-28

410

Global Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Transcription Using an Oligonucleotide-Based DNA Microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 transcripts of various abundances and kinetic classes are expressed during phases of productive and latent infections by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1. To carry out rapid global analysis of variations in such patterns as a function of perturbation of viral regulatory genes and cell differentiation, we have made DNA microchips containing sets of 75-mer oligonucleotides specific

S. W. Stingley; J. J. GARCIA RAMIREZ; S. A. Aguilar; K. Simmen; R. M. Sandri-Goldin; P. Ghazal; E. K. Wagner

2000-01-01

411

Functional Interaction between Class II Histone Deacetylases and ICP0 of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the physical and functional interactions between ICP0 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4, 5, and 7. Class II HDACs are mainly known for their partici- pation in the control of cell differentiation through the regulation of the activity of the transcription factor MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2), implicated in muscle

Patrick Lomonte; Joelle Thomas; Pascale Texier; Cecile Caron; Saadi Khochbin; Alberto L. Epstein

2004-01-01

412

Herpes Simplex Virus Downregulates Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor: a Novel Immune Evasion Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an anti-inflammatory mediator of mucosal immunity, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cell culture. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that higher concentrations of SLPI in mucosal secretions are associated with a reduced risk of HIV transmission. The current studies were designed to test the hypothesis that HSV triggers a loss of SLPI

Esra Fakioglu; Sarah S. Wilson; Pedro M. M. Mesquita; Ehsan Hazrati; Natalia Cheshenko; John A. Blaho; Betsy C. Herold

2008-01-01

413

Elsberg syndrome: radiculomyelopathy and acute urinary retention in patient with genital herpes.  

PubMed

We describe a case of a sexually active woman who presented acute urinary retention associated with herpes genitalis infection and with few other neurological signs. The outcome of the disease was positive. We stress the utility of a careful CSF examination. PMID:1601638

Lepori, P; Marcacci, G; Gaglianone, S

1992-05-01

414

Specific cell-mediated immunity and infections with herpes viruses in cardiac transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Immune responses and infections with herpes viruses were studied prospectively in 36 cardiac transplant recipients. Specific lymphocyte transformation and interferon production in response to viral antigens, viral culture results, antibody levels, responses to phytohemagglutinin, and T-cell numbers were determined. Responses to phytohemagglutinin and T-cell numbers were depressed for six to 12 weeks. Cytomegalovirus infection occurred in 100 percent of seropositive patients and in 62 percent of seronegative patients. Primary infection was more frequently symptomatic. Heart implantation from a seropositive patient wwas significantly correlated with subsequent infection in seronegative patients. Depression of transformation in response to cytomegalovirus correlated with prolonged shedding. Herpes simplex infection occurred in 95 percent of seropositive patients but decreased after 12 weeks. Asymptomatic shedding was rare, and primary infection did not occur. Return of transformation in response to herpes simplex was associated with decreased infection. Herpes zoster occurred in 22 percent during the first year, and transformation responses to varicella-zoster returned thereafter. Depression of interferon production in response to viruses did not correlate with infection as well as did lymphocyte transformation. PMID:6291387

Pollard, R B; Arvin, A M; Gamberg, P; Rand, K H; Gallagher, J G; Merigan, T C

1982-11-01

415

Methylation of the Viral Genome in an in vitro Model of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro model of latency of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in a lymphoid cell line has been developed recently. CEM cells persistently infected with HSV-1 transiently ceased to produce virus for 24 days. This nonproductive state could either be reversed with phytohemagglutinin or maintained with concanavalin A. This system was used to study the relationship between DNA

Hagop Youssoufian; Scott M. Hammer; Martin S. Hirsch; Carel Mulder

1982-01-01

416

Spontaneous Tooth Exfoliation after Trigeminal Herpes Zoster: A Case Series of an Uncommon Complication  

PubMed Central

The most significant and debilitating complication of herpes zoster (HZ) is herpetic neuralgia that accompanies and may persist in 10-15% of all zoster patients, particularly those over 60 years of age. The described 3 cases had an uncommon complication of spontaneous tooth exfoliation after trigeminal HZ that rarely finds mention in dermatology literature.

Mahajan, Vikram K; Ranjan, Nitin; Sharma, Sangeet; Sharma, Nand Lal

2013-01-01

417

Are Steroids a Beneficial Adjunctive Therapy in the Immunosuppressed Patient with Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis?  

PubMed Central

Few reports describe the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus causing encephalitis (HSVE) in patients undergoing brain radiation therapy and a concomitant steroid regimen. The role for steroid use in the treatment of patients with HSVE has not been fully elucidated. We report the case of a female patient immunosuppressed by steroids and brain radiation who developed HSVE and responded to acyclovir and dexamethasone.

Lizarraga, Karlo J.; Alexandre, Lucien C.; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Merenda, Amedeo

2013-01-01

418

Herpes Simplex Virus Dances with Amyloid Precursor Protein while Exiting the Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1) replicates in epithelial cells and secondarily enters local sensory neuronal processes, traveling retrograde to the neuronal nucleus to enter latency. Upon reawakening newly synthesized viral particles travel anterograde back to the epithelial cells of the lip, causing the recurrent cold sore. HSV1 co-purifies with amyloid precursor protein (APP), a cellular transmembrane glycoprotein and receptor for

Shi-Bin Cheng; Paulette Ferland; Paul Webster; Elaine L. Bearer; Thomas Schulz

2011-01-01

419

Compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in young and adult individuals in two regions of Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to explore the knowledge and acceptance of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Herpes Zoster (HZ) vaccination in the general Italian population, where the HZ vaccine has not yet been distributed, using a prevalence study of subjects from two regions in Italy. METHODS: A group of 3,173 individuals were interviewed using a questionnaire. The youngest age

Antonino Parlato; Vincenzo Romano Spica; Massimo Ciccozzi; Francesca Farchi; Francesca Gallè; Valeria Di Onofrio; Elisabetta Franco; Giorgio Liguori

2010-01-01

420

Effects of innate immunity on herpes simplex virus and its ability to kill tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several clinical trials have or are being performed testing the safety and efficacy of different strains of oncolytic viruses (OV) for malignant cancers. OVs represent either naturally occurring or genetically engineered strains of viruses that exhibit relatively selective replication in tumor cells. Several types of OV have been derived from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). Tumor oncolysis depends on the

H Wakimoto; P R Johnson; D M Knipe; E A Chiocca

2003-01-01

421

Herpes Vector–mediated Gene Transfer in the Treatment of Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pain is a major health concern with up to 50% of patients finding little if any relief following traditional pharmacotherapy. This review describes the treatment of chronic pain using herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV)-based vectors. HSV can be effectively used to deliver pain-modulating transgenes to sensory neurons in vivo following intradermal inoculation. The vector genome persists in peripheral

Joseph C Glorioso; David J Fink

2009-01-01

422

A Case of Ramsay Hunt-Like Syndrome Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

PubMed Central

We report an immunocompetent patient with recurrent auricular and facial vesicles associated with painful paresthesias and facial paralysis, consistent with Ramsay Hunt syndrome [1], due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Clinical and laboratory-proven acyclovir resistance developed during therapy. Immunologic assays revealed normal reactivity to HSV-2.

Diaz, George A.; Rakita, Robert M.; Koelle, David M.

2005-01-01

423

Management of Herpes Simplex Virus Stromal Keratitis: An Evidence-based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) stromal keratitis is a leading cause of corneal opacification and an important indication for penetrating keratoplasty. Based on several observational studies and clinical trials, the current standard of care includes topical corticosteroids and antivirals. However, corticosteroids have significant side effects, and antivirals are only beneficial if replicating virus is present. High-quality clinical trials investigating therapies for

Jared E. Knickelbein; Robert L. Hendricks; Puwat Charukamnoetkanok

2009-01-01

424

Varicella and Herpes Zoster in Madrid, based on the Sentinel General Practitioner Network: 1997–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Varicella (chickenpox) is the primary disease caused by varicella-zoster virus. It is extremely contagious and is frequent in children. Indeed, in the absence of vaccination, a high proportion of the population is liable to contract it. Herpes zoster -more frequent among adults- is caused by reactivation of the latent virus. The objective of this study is to describe the

Napoleón Pérez-Farinós; María Ordobás; Cristina García-Fernández; Luis García-Comas; Soledad Cañellas; Inmaculada Rodero; Ángeles Gutiérrez-Rodríguez; Juan García-Gutiérrez; Rosa Ramírez

2007-01-01

425

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Augment Antitumor Efficacy of Herpes-based Oncolytic Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication-conditional (oncolytic) mutants of herpes simplex virus (HSV), are considered promising therapeutic alternatives for human malignancies, and chemotherapeutic adjuvants are increasingly sought to augment their efficacy. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a new class of antineoplastic agents because of their potent activity in growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptotic death of cancer cells. The ability of the HDAC inhibitors to upregulate

Akihiro Otsuki; Ankita Patel; Kazue Kasai; Masataka Suzuki; Kazuhiko Kurozumi; E Antonio Chiocca; Yoshinaga Saeki

2008-01-01

426

Virucidal activity of polysaccharide extracts from four algal species against herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2) infections are common, but can cause serious infections in neonates and the immunocompromised. Drugs currently used to treat cutaneous or genital HSV infections are effective in limiting disease, but the emergence of drug resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals can be problematic. While the prophylactic oral treatment with antiviral drugs can reduce

Emma A. Harden; Ruth Falshaw; Susan M. Carnachan; Earl R. Kern; Mark N. Prichard

2009-01-01

427

Determinants of non-compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in the community-dwelling elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a series of studies on vaccine acceptance, we assessed determinants of compliance of the community-dwelling elderly with herpes zoster (HZ) vaccination in an existing influenza vaccination program. General practitioners (GPs) sent out a questionnaire to 1778 patients aged ?65 years, and offered them free HZ vaccination simultaneously with the yearly influenza vaccination. In all, 690 patients (39%)

Wim Opstelten; Gerrit A. van Essen; Eelko Hak

2009-01-01

428

The effect of lithium chloride on the replication of Herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium chloride inhibited the replication of type 1 and type 2Herpes simplex virus at concentrations which permitted host cell replication. Virus polypeptide and antigen synthesis were unaffected while viral DNA synthesis was inhibited. The replication of two other DNA viruses, pseudorabies and vaccinia virus, was inhibited but there was no inhibition of two RNA viruses, namely, EMC and influenza virus.

G. R. B. Skinner; C. Hartley; A. Buchan; L. Harper; P. Gallimore

1980-01-01

429

Lactoferrin inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV1) infection to mouse cornea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lactoferrin inhibits bacterial growth in the conjunctival sac. However, its antiviral function particularly in ocular tissue has not been reported in the literature. We studied whether lactoferrin inhibits infection of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) in vitro using Vero cell monolayer. We also tested the inhibitory effect of lactoferrin on HSV-1 infection in the mouse cornea. Lactoferrin prevented HSV-1

T. Fujihara; K. Hayashi

1995-01-01

430

Carbamazepine Hypersensitivity Syndrome Triggered by a Human Herpes Virus Reactivation in a Genetically Predisposed Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe hypersensitivity syndrome, triggered by carbamazepine in the presence of a concomitant active human herpes virus (HHV) 6 and 7 infection is described. To further understand the molecular mechanism of this adverse reaction, analyses of the genetic variants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and of the epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1), previously associated with carbamazepine hypersensitivity, were performed.

Lorenzo Calligaris; Gabriele Stocco; Sara De Iudicibus; Sara Marino; Giuliana Decorti; Egidio Barbi; Marco Carrozzi; Federico Marchetti; Fiora Bartoli; Alessandro Ventura

2009-01-01

431

The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of

Bernard Roizman

1996-01-01

432

Sendai Virus and Herpes Virus Type 1 Induce Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports suggest that several viruses, besides human immunodeficiency virus, induce apoptosis in infected cells. We report here that Sendai virus or Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), two potent inducers of interferon-?, caused cell death in a consistent number of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A careful analysis of infected cells by different techniques, such as optical and electron

Franco Tropea; Leonarda Troiano; Daniela Monti; Elena Lovato; Walter Malorni; Gabriella Rainaldi; Paolo Mattana; Giuseppe Viscomi; Maria Cristina Ingletti; Marinella Portolani; Claudio Cermelli; Andrea Cossarizza; Claudio Franceschi

1995-01-01

433

Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors Expressing Bcl2 Are Neuroprotective When Delivered After a Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable interest has focused on the possibility of using viral vectors to deliver genes to the central nervous system for the purpose of decreasing necrotic neuronal injury. To that end, we have previously shown that a herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector expressing Bcl-2 could protect neurons from ischemia. In that study, vector was delivered before the ischemia. However, for such

Matthew S. Lawrence; John R. McLaughlin; Guo-Hua Sun; Dora Y. Ho; Laura McIntosh; David M. Kunis; Robert M. Sapolsky; Gary K. Steinberg

1997-01-01

434

Immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine against herpes B virus in mice and rhesus macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) is endemic in captive macaque populations and poses a serious threat to humans who work with macaques or their tissues. A vaccine that could prevent or limit B virus infection in macaques would lessen occupational risk. To that end, a DNA vaccine plasmid expressing the B virus glycoprotein B (gB) was constructed and tested

Jennifer E Loomis-Huff; R Eberle; Kristen M Lockridge; Gary Rhodes; Peter A Barry

2001-01-01

435

Herpes simplex virus and intraoral ulcers in immunocompromised patients with haematologic malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible factors predisposing to the development of intraoral ulcers in immunocompromised patients with haematologic malignancies were investigated. Among 46 patients undergoing antineoplastic treatment, 18 developed an intraoral ulcer during the prospective study. Patients with or without ulcers were comparable with respect to underlying disease, presence of teeth, the qualitative composition of the aerobic and facultatively anaerobic oral microflora, herpes simplex

O. J. Bergmann; S. C. Mogensen; J. Ellegaard

1990-01-01

436

Oral Manifestation of Cytomegalovirus Associated With Herpes Simplex Virus in Renal Transplant Recipient  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with oral lesions associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). This female patient, who underwent a living donor renal transplant 26 months prior, presented with a painful buccal lesion after an episode of leukopenia. The search for CMV antigen was negative. A biopsy incision was made in

R. B. Lima; P. S. S. Santos; P. Malafronte; H. Muller; H. H. Caiaffa-Filho; Y. A. S. Sens

2008-01-01

437

Hamster model for herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Adult Syrian hamsters were inoculated with a mouse brain passage of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) along an intradermal and an oral route after local scarification. For both routes, clinical symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement were seen in the period between five and 12 days post infection. Compared with the route via the buccal mucosa, CNS

L. T. S. van Ekdom; P. Herbrink; M. J. M. Meddens

1987-01-01

438

Crossing Diagnostic Borders: Herpes Encephalitis Complicated by Cultural and Language Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

cal history. The differential diagnosis of delirium is broad, ranging from the benign to the potentially fatal. The diagnostic uncertainty inherent in primary care is compounded when language and cultural differences interfere with physician-patient communication. Methods: We undertook a MEDLINE-assisted review of the medical literature concerning herpes sim- plex encephalitis. Additionally, we performed an Internet search of several government Web

John Muench; Alexandra Verdieck; Alfonso Lopez-Vasquez

439

Prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 1 in different population groups in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are observed worldwide, and antibodies to HSV have been demonstrated in more than 90 % of subjects by the fourth decade of life (1). Much of the humoral immune response to HSV is to type-common antigenic determinants. Serological assays that can measure the relative selectivity of serum antibodies to the two subtypes have shown

E. Franco; F. Caprilli; L. Zaratti; P. Pasquini

1987-01-01

440

Systemic Contact Dermatitis from Herbal and Homeopathic Preparations Used for Herpes Virus Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic contact dermatitis may occur in contact- sensitized individuals when they are exposed to haptens orally, transcutaneously, intravenously or by inhalation. We report the case of a woman developing a diffuse skin eruption after the topical use of Rhus toxicodendron alcoholic extract and the oral introduction of a homeopathic preparation of the same substance for herpes treatment. An open test,

Carla Cardinali; Stefano Francalanci; Barbara Giomi; Marzia Caproni; Achille Sertoli; Paolo Fabbri

2004-01-01

441

Using the evidence base on genital herpes: optimising the use of diagnostic tests and information provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been several important advances in the range of available diagnostic tests for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in recent years; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is emerging in routine clinical use and the potential role of type specific serological tests is currently under debate. Several large trials of prophylactic vaccines, subsequently proved to be ineffective, have expanded knowledge

A Scoular

2002-01-01

442

Patient attitudes to type specific serological tests in the diagnosis of genital herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess patient attitudes to HSV-2 serotesting and the effect of providing detailed information regarding genital herpes, the blood test, and its implications. METHODS: Consecutive genitourinary medicine clinic attenders were asked to complete an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Half received minimal additional information while the other half received a detailed information sheet. RESULTS: Overall, 200 clinic attenders with a

I Fairley; E F Monteiro

1997-01-01

443

Psychosocial impact of serological diagnosis of herpes simplex virus type 2: a qualitative assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the emotional and psychosocial responses to a serological diagnosis of HSV-2 infection in individuals without previous history of genital herpes. Methods: 24 individuals who had a positive HSV-2 serology by western blot and no clinical history of disease were recruited from four clinics (sexually transmitted disease, maternal and infant care, family medicine, and virology research) over a

J Melville; S Sniffen; R Crosby; L Salazar; W Whittington; D Dithmer-Schreck; R DiClemente; A Wald

2003-01-01

444

High-Frequency Intermolecular Homologous Recombination during Herpes Simplex Virus-Mediated Plasmid DNA Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homologous recombination is a prominent feature of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 DNA replication. This has been demonstrated and traditionally studied in experimental settings where repeated sequences are present or are being introduced into a single molecule for subsequent genome isomerization. In the present study, we have designed a pair of unique HSV amplicon plasmids to examine in detail

Xinping Fu; Hua Wang; Xiaoliu Zhang

2002-01-01

445

Cell Fusion Induced by Herpes Simplex Virus is Promoted and Suppressed by Different Viral Glycoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the factors that regulate membrane fusion resulting in polykaryocyte formation have been investigated, using the model system of human cells infected with mutants of herpes simplex virus (HSV). One of the mutant viruses used in this study (MP) failed to produce the viral glycoprotein designated C2-a nonlethal defect that has previously been correlated with the polykaryocyte-inducing phenotype of

Roberto Manservigi; Patricia G. Spear; Alexander Buchan

1977-01-01

446

Cellular Proteasome Activity Facilitates Herpes Simplex Virus Entry at a Postpenetration Step  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry into cells is a multistep process that engages the host cell machinery. The proteasome is a large, ATP-dependent, multisubunit protease that plays a critical role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. A battery of assays were used to demonstrate that proteasome inhibitors blocked an early step in HSV entry that occurred after capsid penetration into

Mark G. Delboy; Devin G. Roller; Anthony V. Nicola

2008-01-01

447

Temporal Morphogenesis of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1Infected and Brefeldin A-Treated Human Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insights in the herpesvirus-cell interactions are of general cell biology interest, especially to studies of intracellular transport, and of considerable significance in the efforts to generate drugs, vaccines, and gene therapy. However, the pathway of virus particle egress and matu- ration is a contentious issue. Materials and Methods: The intracellular transport was inhibited in cultured herpes simplex virus type

Helle L. Jensen; Bodil Norrild

2002-01-01

448

Herpes Zoster Outbreak in a 20-year-old, Collegiate Volleyball Player: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes Zoster, more commonly known as Shingles, is caused by the Chicken Pox (varicella zoster) virus. After an outbreak of the Chicken Pox, the virus remains in the body, lying dormant in the spinal cord. For reasons that are somewhat unknown, the virus can reactivate and travel along nerves, presenting as a red, blistering rash, often accompanied by pain and

Emilee Anderson

2012-01-01

449

Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed.…

Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

2010-01-01

450

Paresthesia induced by cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the effects of herpetic infection on somatic sensations, herpes simplex virus type-1 was inoculated into the unilateral hind paw of the rat and its behavioral responses to noxious pressure and tactile stimulation were examined. Herpetic infection significantly increased the nociceptive threshold of the treated hind paw with a delay around 4 days. The increase in the nociceptive threshold

Tsugunobu Andoh; Kimiyasu Shiraki; Masahiko Kurokawa; Yasushi Kuraishi

1995-01-01

451

Infantile Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Diagnostic Features and Differentiation from Non-accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory.Methods: Screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Oxford for HSV polymerase

J. Kurtz; P. Anslow

2003-01-01

452

Herpes simplex encephalitis: long term magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first comprehensive in vivo documentation of the long term profile of pathological and spared tissue is described in a group of 10 patients with a diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, who were left with memory difficulties as a major residual sequel of their condition. With a dedicated MRI protocol, which included high resolution images of temporal lobe and limbic

N Kapur; S Barker; E H Burrows; D Ellison; J Brice; L S Illis; K Scholey; C Colbourn; B Wilson; M Loates

1994-01-01

453

The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency-Associated Transcript Gene Regulates the Establishment of Latency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 establishes latent infections in sensory neurons. During latency only one locus, the latency-associated transcript (LAT), is abundantly transcribed. Several lines of evidence suggest that this locus is required for the efficient reactivation from latency in experimental models. However, it is not yet clear whether this is a direct effect on the reactivation process per se

RICHARD L. THOMPSON; N. M. SAWTELL

1997-01-01

454

Projected cost-savings with herpes simplex virus screening in pregnancy: towards a new screening paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in newborns are an uncommon but potentially devastating consequence of genital HSV infection in women. Current practice focuses on preventing perinatal transmission by women with prevalent HSV, but transmission risk is greatest when genital HSV is acquired for the first time late in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and

Ashleigh R Tuite; Caitlin J McCabe; Jennifer Ku; David N Fisman

2010-01-01

455

The Application of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses to the Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to lack of effective therapy, primary brain tumors are the focus of intense investigation of novel experimental approaches that use vectors and recombinant viruses. Therapeutic approaches have been both indirect, whereby vectors are used, or direct to allow for direct cell killing by the introduced virus. Genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses are currently being evaluated as an experimental approach

Samita S. Andreansky; Bin He; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; James Markert; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley

1996-01-01

456

Intracellular Trafficking of the UL11 Tegument Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing evidence indicates that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acquires its final envelope in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). During the envelopment process, the viral nucleocapsid as well as the envelope and tegument proteins must arrive at this site in order to be incorporated into assembling virions. To gain a better understanding of how these proteins associate with cellular membranes

JOSHUA S. LOOMIS; J. BRADFORD BOWZARD; RICHARD J. COURTNEY; JOHN W. WILLS

2001-01-01

457

A cytosolic herpes simplex virus protein inhibits antigen presentation to CD8+ T lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of human fibro- blasts rapidly renders the cells resistant to lysis by HSV-specific CDS+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which normally recognize cell surface major histocom- patibillty complex (MHC) class I proteins presenting viral peptides. Within 3 hr of infection with HSV, MHC class I protein complexes are retained in the endoplas- mic reticulum (ER)\\/cis

Ian A. York; Cindy Roop; David W. Andrews; Stanley R. Riddell; Frank L. Graham; David C. Johnson

1994-01-01

458

Herpes Simplex Virus Type1 Infection of Corneal Epithelial Cells Induces Apoptosis of the Underlying Keratocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether primary corneal infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 induces keratocyte apoptosis in the rabbit. New Zealand white rabbit eyes were inoculated with HSV-1 strain 17 Syn+. Rabbits that developed slit lamp signs of epithelial infection were killed between 12 and 120 hr post infection. One cornea of each animal was fresh-frozen

STEVEN E. WILSON; LIA PEDROZA; ROGER BEUERMAN; JAMES M. HILL

1997-01-01

459

Complete nucleotide sequence of a Chinese isolate of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 reveals a 5' UTR of 802 nucleotides.  

PubMed

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is widely spread in China. Here we report, for the first time, the complete nucleotide sequence of the Chinese isolate (LN) of GLRaV-3. The 18,563-nt genomic RNA is the largest of the GLRaV-3 genomes reported to date, with a 5' untranslated region of 802 nt. Its sequence shares 87.99-98.15 % identity with those of previously reported isolates, and phylogenetic analysis suggested placing isolate LN in group 3, together with another fully sequenced isolate, PL-20. PMID:23011775

Fei, Fei; Lyu, Mu-Di; Li, Jie; Fan, Zai-Feng; Cheng, Yu-Qin

2012-09-26

460

The Effect of Pharmacist Intervention on Herpes Zoster Vaccination in Community Pharmacies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of community pharmacy-based interventions in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine. DESIGN Prospective intervention study with a pre-post design. SETTING Three independent community pharmacies in Tennessee. PATIENTS Patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated they were eligible for the vaccine and patients presenting to receive the vaccine at study sites. INTERVENTIONS Interventions initiated by pharmacists to promote the herpes zoster vaccine included a press release published in local newspapers, a flyer accompanying each prescription dispensed at participating pharmacies, and a personalized letter mailed to patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated they were eligible for the vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Comparison of vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine during the control period and intervention period and patients’ indication for their sources of education and influence in receiving the vaccine. RESULTS Vaccination rates increased from 0.37% (n=59/16121) during the control period to 1.20% (n=193/16062) during the intervention period (P<0.0001). Cochran-Armitage Trend analyses including the months before and after the interventions confirmed a significantly higher vaccination rate during the intervention month than other months analyzed. More patients indicated that they were educated about the herpes zoster vaccine by one of the pharmacist-driven interventions than by a physician, family/friend, or other source during the intervention period (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Also, more patients were influenced to receive the vaccination as a result of one of the pharmacist-driven interventions rather than a physician (P=0.0260) or other source (P<0.0001). No difference in the effectiveness of patient influence was found when the pharmacy interventions were compared with family/friends (P=0.1025). CONCLUSION The three pharmacist-driven interventions were effective in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine.

Wang, Junling; Ford, Lindsay J.; Wingate, La'Marcus; Uroza, Sarah Frank; Jaber, Nina; Smith, Cindy T.; Randolph, Richard; Lane, Steve; Foster, Stephan L.

2012-01-01

461

[Herpes simplex virus vaccine studies: from past to present].  

PubMed

The dramatical increase in the prevalence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the significant physical and psychosocial morbidity of HSV type 2 infections, generate the need for an efficacious HSV vaccine. The most important properties of HSVs that should be targeted for a successful vaccine are neuronal invasion, latency and reactivation in spite of specific host immune responses. The major expectation for an ideal HSV vaccine candidate is to induce sterilizing immunity, which must be effective at all portals of HSV entry; to prevent or reduce the symptomatic disease and to eliminate or at least to limit the asymptomatic viral shedding. The first vaccine studies have began in the 1920s and in the intervening eight decades there have been many attempts to develop an effective one. Although encouraging findings came from experiments in various animal models, human studies have been disappointing, unfortunately. The vaccine strategies that have undergone clinical evaluation until today included autoinoculation of live HSV, whole inactivated vaccines, attenuated live virus vaccines, modified live virus subunit vaccines, cell culture-derived subunit vaccines, recombinant subunit (glycoprotein) vaccines, DISC (Disabled Infectious Single Cycle) virus vaccines, viral vectors and naked DNA vaccines. In most of the clinical studies the failure of HSV vaccines in spite of inducing very high levels of specific neutralizing antibodies have emphasized that cell-mediated immune response, especially Thl type immunity is important in preventing both primary disease and recurrences with HSV, rather than humoral response. The most hopeful result was obtained with HSV-2 gD and alum/MPL vaccine in clinical studies. This vaccine was found 74% effective in preventing genital disease in HSV seronegative women but was not effective in men or seropositive women. In recent years it is possible to genetically engineer HSV to produce a vaccine strain that is protective without causing human disease. An example for this strategy was the development of a live attenuated vaccine from which neurovirulence gene (gamma1 34.5) has been removed. Another promising one was the replication-defective DISC virus HSV vaccine which is derived from a virus with an essential gene (e.g. gH gene) deleted, so the replication has been limited only to a single cycle. As a result, intensive HSV vaccine trials are currently underway, although all the previous attempts to produce an effective vaccine for the prophylaxis and immunotherapy against HSV have been largely unsuccessful. In this review the history of HSV vaccine development together with the preclinical and clinical studies from past to present has been summarized and recent progress for an effective HSV vaccine together with the further improvements required for an immunogenic vaccine have been discussed. PMID:17205702

Us, Dürdal

2006-10-01

462

Effect of an herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum on reduction of herpes zoster pain: a pilot clinical trial.  

PubMed

Administration of hot water extracts of a herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum, WTMCGEPP (Wisteria floribunda 0.38, Trapa natans 0.38, Miristica agrans 0.38, Coix lachryma-jobi 0.75, cultivated Ganoderma lucidum 0.75, Elfuinga applanata 0.38, tissue cultured Panax ginseng 0.3, and Punica granatum 0.38: numerals designate dry weight gram/dose), decreased herpes zoster pain for five Japanese patients suffering from shingles. Pain relief started within a few days of intake and was almost complete within 10 days. Two acute herpes zoster with manifestations including trigeminal nerve ophthalmia (both 74 years old), lower body zoster (70 years old), herpes zoster oticus (17 years old), and leg herpes (28 years old), responded quickly to treatment and no patient developed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) after more than one year of follow-up. PMID:16173526

Hijikata, Yasuyo; Yasuhara, Akihiro; Sahashi, Yuko

2005-01-01

463

Effects of adenosine monophosphate on the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 infections of mice.  

PubMed

Adenosine monophosphate pretreatment of mice with latent herpes simplex virus type 1 infections significantly reduced the rate of reactivation of latent virus. Adenosine monophosphate pretreatment did not, however, eradicate latent virus. PMID:7342880

Blue, W T; Winland, R D; Stobbs, D G; Kirksey, D F; Savage, R E

1981-10-01

464

Effects of Adenosine Monophosphate on the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections of Mice  

PubMed Central

Adenosine monophosphate pretreatment of mice with latent herpes simplex virus type 1 infections significantly reduced the rate of reactivation of latent virus. Adenosine monophosphate pretreatment did not, however, eradicate latent virus.

Blue, William T.; Winland, Roger D.; Stobbs, Darlene G.; Kirksey, Donny F.; Savage, Russell E.

1981-01-01

465

Herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus infections in pregnancy: consequences of neonatal or intrauterine infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1\\/2 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belong to the human herpes viruses and are among the most ubiquitous viruses in the adult population. In spite of the fact that a large proportion of women at childbearing age are seropositive to these viruses, especially to HSV, primary or secondary infections with these viruses may occur during pregnancy.Genital

Meytal Avgil; Asher Ornoy

2006-01-01

466

Neurosyphilis versus Herpes Encephalitis in a Patient with Confusion, Memory Loss, and T2-Weighted Mesiotemporal Hyperintensity  

PubMed Central

Acute confusion and memory loss associated with asymmetrical mesiotemporal hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI are characteristic of herpes encephalitis. The authors report the case of a patient with these symptoms and MRI presentation who had neurosyphilis. Recently clinical and imaging patterns usually associated with herpes simplex encephalitis have been seen in patients with neurosyphilis. Because syphilis is “The Great Pretender” not only clinically but also in imaging and because its numbers are rising, it must be sought as a differential diagnosis.

Vedes, Elisa; Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Rodrigues, Rita; Reimao, Sofia; Ribeiro, Alice; Antunes, Francisco

2012-01-01

467

HerpDigest: The First Free Electronic Newsletter Dedicated Only to Reptile and Amphibian Conservation and Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HerpDigest is "the first free, electronic newsletter dedicated only to reptile and amphibian science and conservation." Delivered by email each Monday, HerpDigest offers the latest news from both the scientific and general media, information on new legislation, job notices and professional information, and related resources. Users may view tables of contents and subscribe at the site. The full text of archived issues is available for registered users only.

2000-01-01

468

APOE genotype is associated with oral herpetic lesions but not genital or oral herpes simplex virus shedding  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundApolipoprotein E is polymorphic in the human population. APOE4 has previously been reported to correlate with symptomatic oral and genital herpes disease.MethodsAPOE was genotyped in 182 subjects with herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2 and in 62 subjects with HSV-1, including 44 subjects with both viral types for a total of 200 adults. HSV shedding was measured by PCR from swab

David M Koelle; Amalia Magaret; Terri Warren; Gerard D Schellenberg; Anna Wald

2010-01-01

469

Importance of myeloid differentiation factor 88 in innate and acquired immune protection against genital herpes infection in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role as pattern-recognition receptors to sense and respond to pathogens. Our laboratory and others have shown recently that activation of TLR\\/MyD88 signaling through vaginal administration of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, either singly or in combination with recombinant glycoprotein from herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), confers immunity against genital herpes infection. In this study, we have

Sara Tengvall; Ali M. Harandi

2008-01-01

470

Detection of viral antigens in cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits with experimental herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis.  

PubMed

We investigated several methods for the rapid diagnosis of herpes simplex virus induced encephalitis in a rabbit model. The corneas of twenty-two rabbits were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and diagnosis of Herpes encephalitis was made by virus isolation, immunofluorescent and peroxidase staining of brain biopsies, demonstration of anti-HSV IgM in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), designed for detection of viral antigens. With the last method we were able to demonstrate viral antigens in cerebrospinal fluid six days post infection, before clinical signs of encephalitis appeared. In three rabbits this was before anti-HSV IgM appeared in the CSF. Virus was isolated from brain samples of 67 per cent of the animals which died from Herpes encephalitis. Nine rabbits received cortisone before infection, resulting in markedly lower antibody titers and a higher lethality, 77 per cent, as compared to 46 per cent in nontreated rabbits. For rapid diagnosis of Herpes encephalitis in rabbits, demonstration of herpes simplex virus antigens in CSF by means of an indirect ELISA is superior to the other methods investigated. PMID:3530193

Bos, C A; Wilterdink, J B; Scheffer, A J

1986-01-01

471

Towards a Rational Design of an Asymptomatic Clinical Herpes Vaccine: The Old, the New, and the Unknown  

PubMed Central

The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and molecular immunology have stimulated creative efforts in controlling herpes infection and disease. However, before moving towards new vaccine strategy, it is necessary to answer two fundamental questions: (i) why past herpes vaccines have failed? (ii) Why the majority of HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., asymptomatic individuals) are naturally “protected” exhibiting few or no recurrent clinical disease, while other HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., symptomatic individuals) have frequent ocular, orofacial, and/or genital herpes clinical episodes? We recently discovered several discrete sets of HSV-1 symptomatic and asymptomatic epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from seropositive symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. These asymptomatic epitopes will provide a solid foundation for the development of novel herpes epitope-based vaccine strategy. Here we provide a brief overview of past clinical vaccine trials, outline current progress towards developing a new generation “asymptomatic” clinical herpes vaccines, and discuss future mucosal “asymptomatic” prime-boost vaccines that could optimize local protective immunity.

Alami Chentoufi, Aziz; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Yu, David M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2012-01-01

472

Towards a rational design of an asymptomatic clinical herpes vaccine: the old, the new, and the unknown.  

PubMed

The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and molecular immunology have stimulated creative efforts in controlling herpes infection and disease. However, before moving towards new vaccine strategy, it is necessary to answer two fundamental questions: (i) why past herpes vaccines have failed? (ii) Why the majority of HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., asymptomatic individuals) are naturally "protected" exhibiting few or no recurrent clinical disease, while other HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., symptomatic individuals) have frequent ocular, orofacial, and/or genital herpes clinical episodes? We recently discovered several discrete sets of HSV-1 symptomatic and asymptomatic epitopes recognized by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from seropositive symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. These asymptomatic epitopes will provide a solid foundation for the development of novel herpes epitope-based vaccine strategy. Here we provide a brief overview of past clinical vaccine trials, outline current progress towards developing a new generation "asymptomatic" clinical herpes vaccines, and discuss future mucosal "asymptomatic" prime-boost vaccines that could optimize local protective immunity. PMID:22548113

Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Yu, David M; Nesburn, Anthony B; Benmohamed, Lbachir

2012-03-26

473

Expression of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein D in Baculovirus Expression System and Evaluation of Its Immunogenicity in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is highly prevalent and major cause of genital herpes in humans. The life-long nature of infection and the increasing prevalence of genital herpes imply that vaccination is the best strategy for controlling the spread of infection and limiting HSV disease. HSV glycoprotein D (gD) is one of the most important viral immunogen which

Fatemeh Fotouhi; Hoorieh Soleimanjahi; Mohammad Hasan Roostaee; Abdolhossein Dalimi Asl

2008-01-01

474

Severe genital herpes infections in HIV-infected individuals with impaired herpes simplex virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses  

PubMed Central

The specific mechanisms underlying the varied susceptibility of HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals to opportunistic infections (OI) are still incompletely understood. One hypothesis is that quantitative differences in specific T cell responses to a colonizing organism determine the development of an AIDS-defining OI. We evaluated this hypothesis for herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, a common OI in HIV+ patients. Using limiting dilution analyses, the frequency of HSV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors (pCTL) and proliferative precursors were quantitated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 patients coinfected with HIV and HSV-2. The frequency of HSV-specific CD8+ pCTL in HSV+HIV+ individuals was significantly lower than in HSV+HIV? individuals (1 in 77,000 vs. 1 in 6,000, P = .0005) and was not different than in HSV-HIV? individuals (1 in 100,000, P = .24). HIV+ patients who suffered more severe genital herpes recurrences had significantly lower HSV-specific CD8+ pCTL frequencies than those patients with mild recurrences (1 in 170,000 vs. 1 in 26,000, P = .03). In contrast, no significant difference was seen in proliferative precursor frequencies between those patients with mild vs. severe genital herpes (1 in 3,800 vs. 1 in 6,600, P > .5). Quantitative differences in pCTL frequency to HSV appear to be the most important host factor influencing the frequency and severity of HSV reactivation in HIV+ patients. Studies to reconstitute such immunity, especially in people with acyclovir-resistant HSV, appear warranted.

Posavad, Christine M.; Koelle, David M.; Shaughnessy, Mary F.; Corey, Lawrence

1997-01-01

475

An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum managed by vaccination of players and sociosexual contacts.  

PubMed

An outbreak of herpes rugbiorum involved nine players including the scrum half and the full back. The infection was characterized by significant constitutional upset with decreased levels of general fitness and match performance for 1-4 months following the outbreak; one player had herpetic lesions on his right eyelid and corneum. Every infected player, 15 non-infected players and five sociosexual contacts received two vaccinations with intracellular subunit vaccine NFU. Ac. HSV-1 (S-MRC5). None of the players or contacts developed cutaneous herpetic recurrence during a follow-up period of 3 years; the player with ocular disease had one recurrence at 30 months following the original episode. These findings encourage consideration of prophylactic or post-exposure vaccination of participants in rugby or other contact sports with this or other appropriate herpes simplex vaccine. PMID:8945704

Skinner, G R; Davies, J; Ahmad, A; McLeish, P; Buchan, A

1996-11-01

476

Gene expression of herpes simplex virus. II. Uv radiological analysis of viral transcription units  

SciTech Connect

The transcriptional organization of the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 was analyzed by measuring the sensitivity of viral polypeptide synthesis to uv irradiation of the infecting virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was irradiated with various doses of uv light and used to infect xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. Immediate early transcription units were analyzed by having cycloheximide present throughout the period of infection, removing the drug at 8 h postinfection, and pulse-labeling proteins with (355)methionine. Delayed early transcription units were analyzed in similar studies by having 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine present during the experiment to block replication of the input irradiated genome. The results indicate that none of the immediate early genes analyzed can be cotranscribed, whereas some of the delayed early genes might be cotranscribed. No evidence was found for the existence of large, multigene transcription units.

Millette, R. L.; Klaiber, R.

1980-06-01

477

Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells  

SciTech Connect

The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.; Homa, F.L.; Levine, M.; Kelley, W.N.

1988-01-01

478

A Tail-like Assembly at the Portal Vertex in Intact Herpes Simplex Type-1 Virions  

PubMed Central

Herpes viruses are prevalent and well characterized human pathogens. Despite extensive study, much remains to be learned about the structure of the genome packaging and release machinery in the capsids of these large and complex double-stranded DNA viruses. However, such machinery is well characterized in tailed bacteriophage, which share a common evolutionary origin with herpesvirus. In tailed bacteriophage, the genome exits from the virus particle through a portal and is transferred into the host cell by a complex apparatus (i.e. the tail) located at the portal vertex. Here we use electron cryo-tomography of human herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) virions to reveal a previously unsuspected feature at the portal vertex, which extends across the HSV-1 tegument layer to form a connection between the capsid and the viral membrane. The location of this assembly suggests that it plays a role in genome release into the nucleus and is also important for virion architecture.

Schmid, Michael F.; Hecksel, Corey W.; Rochat, Ryan H.; Bhella, David; Chiu, Wah; Rixon, Frazer J.

2012-01-01

479

Social Stress and the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.

Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald

1998-06-01

480

Midtrimester fetal herpes simplex-2 diagnosis by serology, culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in utero comprises a minority of neonatal herpes infections. Prenatal diagnosis is rare. We describe a midtrimester diagnosis of fetal HSV-2 infection. Ultrasound at 20 weeks for elevated maternal serum ?-fetoprotein (MSAFP) showed lagging fetal growth, echogenic bowel, echogenic myocardium, and liver with a mottled pattern of echogenicity. Amniocentesis demonstrated normal karyotype, elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase. Culture isolated HSV-2 with an aberrant growth pattern. Maternal serology was positive for HSV-2. Quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed 59 million copies/ml. Fetal autopsy demonstrated widespread tissue necrosis but only sparse HSV-2 inclusions. Fetal HSV-2 infection can be suspected when an elevated MSAFP accompanies ultrasound findings suggesting perinatal infection. Maternal HSV serology, amniotic fluid culture and quantitative PCR are recommended for diagnostic certainty and counseling. PMID:23075531

Curtin, William M; Menegus, Marilyn A; Patru, Maria-Magdalena; Peterson, C Jeanne; Metlay, Leon A; Mooney, Robert A; Stanwood, Nancy L; Scheible, Amy L; Dorgan, Angela

2012-10-11