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1

Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Herpes Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... HSV-1 and HSV-2? 1. How can herpes be prevented? Oral herpes (mouth sores, skin lesions ...

2

Herpes Simplex  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Herpes simplex Herpes simplex Herpes simplex: After clearing, herpes simplex sores ... on the face or genitals. Learn more about herpes simplex: Herpes simplex: Signs and symptoms Herpes simplex: ...

3

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Herpes Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Share Compartir Genital Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that ... questions about sexually transmitted diseases. What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is an STD caused by two ...

4

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . Genital herpes is probably best known for the sores and blisters ... do not see a sore. How does genital herpes infection occur? The herpes virus can pass through ...

5

Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3  

PubMed Central

The recently designated cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is an emerging agent that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp. Since its emergence in the late 1990s, this highly contagious pathogen has caused severe financial losses in common and koi carp culture industries worldwide. In addition to its economic role, recent studies suggest that CyHV-3 may have a role in fundamental research. CyHV-3 has the largest genome among viruses in the order Herpesvirales and serves as a model for mutagenesis of large DNA viruses. Other studies suggest that the skin of teleost fish represents an efficient portal of entry for certain viruses. The effect of temperature on viral replication suggests that the body temperature of its poikilotherm host could regulate the outcome of the infection (replicative vs. nonreplicative). Recent advances with regard to CyHV-3 provide a role for this virus in fundamental and applied research. PMID:21122210

Michel, Benjamin; Fournier, Guillaume; Lieffrig, François; Costes, Bérénice

2010-01-01

6

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... and TB Prevention Division of STD Prevention Genital Herpes – CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that ... still spread to sexual partners. What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is an STD caused by two ...

7

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Genital Herpes Information for adults A A A This image displays a grouping of blisters on the buttocks in a patient with herpes simplex. Overview Genital herpes is a recurrent, lifelong ...

8

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

9

Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)  

MedlinePLUS

... 19, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV AND HIV HOW IS HSV TRANSMITTED? HOW IS HERPES TREATED? CAN HERPES BE PREVENTED? THE BOTTOM LINE ...

10

Pregnancy and herpes  

MedlinePLUS

HSV; Congenital herpes; Herpes - congenital; Birth-acquired herpes; Herpes during pregnancy ... Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus: In the uterus (this is ... herpes, the most common method of infection) Right ...

11

Phylogenetic relationships of Iberian cyprinids: systematic and biogeographical implications  

E-print Network

cyprinids (e.g. Coelho 1992; Berrebi et al. 1995; Coelho et al. 1995; Karakousis et al. 1995; Carmona et al to analyse the interrelationships among the main lineages of cyprinids is largely wanting (Berrebi et al

Zardoya, Rafael

12

Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... page It's been added to your dashboard . Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted ... the United States has genital herpes. Can genital herpes cause complications during pregnancy? Yes. Genital herpes can ...

13

Common culture practices for cyprinids in Asia.  

PubMed

Cyprinids are the largest group of cultured freshwater fish and thus the most important from the aspect of fish-borne parasitic zoonoses. The common practices employed in the culture of this group are described to provide background information which may be used in the formulation of strategies for the control of these zoonoses. Only the common carp is cultured in monoculture: all the rest of the carp species are usually cultured in polyculture systems incorporating several species. Polyculture of cyprinids may be carried out in ponds, cages or in free range culture in natural or man-made water bodies, Polyculture of cyprinids is often integrated with agriculture, such as livestock, poultry or crop farming, utilizing byproducts of the agriculture activity, especially manure, as a source of nutrient for the fish pond. If precautions are not taken, this practice may provide an avenue for the transmission of fish borne parasites to man. PMID:9656353

Singh, T

1997-01-01

14

Herpes Simplex: Signs and Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments E - H Herpes simplex Signs, symptoms Herpes simplex: Signs and symptoms Herpes simplex: If a ... 6 weeks (the first outbreak) Learn more about herpes simplex: Herpes simplex Herpes simplex: Who gets and ...

15

Genital herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... disease, even if you do not have symptoms. Condoms are the best way to protect against catching genital herpes during sexual activity: Using a condom correctly and consistently helps prevent spread of the ...

16

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence . Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time they have any form of sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their ...

17

Herpes Simplex: Tips for Managing  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments E - H Herpes simplex Tips Herpes simplex: Tips for managing There are things you ... support groups, and a hotline. Learn more about herpes simplex: Herpes simplex Herpes simplex: Signs and symptoms ...

18

Herpes Zoster Oticus  

MedlinePLUS

... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Herpes Zoster Oticus Information Page Synonym(s): Ramsay Hunt Syndrome ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Herpes Zoster Oticus? Herpes zoster oticus, also called Ramsay ...

19

Genital Herpes (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), although it also can be caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), which normally causes ...

20

Meet the Herps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

21

Herpes Keratitis  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the world’s population. These infections are often asymptomatic, but ocular HSV-1 infections cause multiple pathologies with perhaps the most destructive being Herpes Stromal Keratitis (HSK). HSK lesions, which are immunoinflammatory in nature, can recur throughout life and often cause progressive corneal scaring resulting in visual impairment. Current treatment involves broad local immunosuppression with topical steroids along with antiviral coverage. Unfortunately, the immunopathologic mechanisms defined in animal models of HSK have not yet translated into improved therapy. Herein, we review the clinical epidemiology and pathology of the disease and summarize the large amount of basic research regarding the immunopathology of HSK. We examine the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the clearance of virus and the destruction of the normal corneal architecture that is typical of HSK. Our goal is to define current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms and recurrent nature of HSK and identify areas that require further study. PMID:22944008

Rowe, A.; St Leger, A.; Jeon, S.; Dhaliwal, D.K.; Knickelbein, J.E.; Hendricks, R.L.

2012-01-01

22

Identification of B Cells as a Major Site for Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Latency  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM+ WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM+ WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM? WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM+ WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM+ WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at ?127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. IMPORTANCE This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein-Barr virus and ICP4 from herpes simplex virus 1, which are genes important for latency. These strongly suggest that latency is evolutionally conserved across vertebrates. PMID:24899202

Reed, Aimee N.; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P.; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing

2014-01-01

23

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

24

Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-01-01

25

Herpes Zoster (Shingles)  

MedlinePLUS

... 30, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 509 Herpes Zoster (Shingles) WHAT IS SHINGLES? SHINGLES AND HIV ... a very painful disease caused by the same herpes virus that causes chickenpox (varicella zoster virus). Like ...

26

Shingles (Herpes Zoster)  

MedlinePLUS

... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... will develop shingles, also known as zoster or herpes zoster, in their lifetime. There are an estimated ...

27

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Though more common near the lips, grouped blisters (vesicles) can occur anywhere in herpes infections. Overview The first eruption of skin or ...

28

Genital herpes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ...

29

Occurrence of cyprinids in fish ladders in relation to flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyse the relationship between spawning migrations and flow, cyprinids from ten fish ladders of the Elbe River (Czech\\u000a Republic) were collected during the period of spawning migrations (April–June) in 1996, 2000 and 2001. Number of species and\\u000a individuals in the fish ladders increased with increasing flow up to medium values, followed by further decrease during high\\u000a flows, whilst length

Ond?ej Slavík; Pavel Horký; Lud?k Bartoš

2009-01-01

30

Herpes Simplex: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome  

MedlinePLUS

... and treatments E - H Herpes simplex Diagnosis, treatment Herpes simplex: Diagnosis, treatment, and outcome How do dermatologists diagnose herpes simplex? During an outbreak, a dermatologist often can ...

31

Wilde and Durham 1 A Life-history Model for Peppered Chub, a Broadcast Spawning Cyprinid  

E-print Network

Wilde and Durham 1 A Life-history Model for Peppered Chub, a Broadcast Spawning Cyprinid Gene R for peppered chub, a broadcast spawning cyprinid. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 000:000-000. #12;Wilde and Durham 2 Abstract.-- We estimated age-specific fecundity and survival rates for peppered

Wilde, Gene

32

Interactions of pH and Habitat on Cyprinid Distributions in Appalachian Streams of Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyprinid populations in the Appalachian Plateaus Province of Maryland may be at risk from the effects of acidification because of the high proportion of acid-sensitive streams and elevated levels of acidic deposition within the region. During 1989, we related water chemistry, physical habitat, and watershed characteristics to cyprinid distributions in 56 Appalachian streams in Maryland. These streams were dominated by

Michael J. Pinder; Raymond P. Morgan II

1995-01-01

33

Genital herpes simplex.  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

1981-01-01

34

Herpes Simplex: Who Gets and Causes  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments E - H Herpes simplex Who gets, causes Herpes simplex: Who gets and causes Who gets herpes simplex? Most people get HSV-1 (herpes simplex ... due to a disease or medicine. What causes herpes simplex? Herpes simplex viruses spread from person to ...

35

Seasonal Distribution of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Lake Biwa, Japan? †  

PubMed Central

The seasonal distribution of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) in Lake Biwa, Japan, was investigated. CyHV-3 was distributed all over the lake 5 years after the first outbreak. The mean concentration of CyHV-3 in water showed annual oscillation, with a peak in the summer and a trough in winter. Our results suggested that CyHV-3 is present at high density in reductive environments, such as reed zones and turbid or eutrophic water. PMID:19734343

Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N.; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2009-01-01

36

Herpes zoster (shingles), disseminated (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

37

Population differentiation of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri across dissolved oxygen regimes  

E-print Network

Population differentiation of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri across dissolved oxygen regimes structure was associated with (i) dissolved oxygen regime (hypoxia or normoxia), (ii) geographical distance, or (iii) a combination of dissolved oxygen regime and geographical distance. Our results indicate

Chapman, Lauren J.

38

Changing Fish Biodiversity: Predicting the Loss of Cyprinid Biodiversity Due to Global Climate Change  

E-print Network

Micropterus dolomieu are currently limited in their northern distribution by temperature-related effects of a predatory fish species, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, on native cyprinid species in northern Ontario

Jackson, Don

39

CyHV-3: the third cyprinid herpesvirus  

PubMed Central

Common carp (including ornamental koi carp) Cyprinus carpio L. are ecologically and economically important freshwater fish in Europe and Asia. C. carpio have recently been endangered by a third cyprinid herpesvirus, known as cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), the etiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), which causes significant morbidity and mortality in koi and common carp. Clinical and pathological signs include epidermal abrasions, excess mucus production, necrosis of gill and internal organs, and lethargy. KHVD has decimated major carp populations in Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan, Germany, Canada, and the USA, and has been listed as a notifiable disease in Germany since 2005, and by the World Organisation for Animal Health since 2007. KHVD is exacerbated in aquaculture because of the relatively high host stocking density, and CyHV-3 may be concentrated by filter-feeding aquatic organisms. CyHV-3 is taxonomically grouped within the family Alloherpesviridae, can be propagated in a number of cell lines, and is active at a temperature range of 15 to 28°C. Three isolates originating from Japan (KHV-J), USA (KHV-U), and Israel (KHV-I) have been sequenced. CyHV-3 has a 295 kb genome with 156 unique open reading frames and replicates in the cell nucleus, and mature viral particles are 170 to 200 nm in diameter. CyHV-3 can be detected by multiple PCR-based methods and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several modes of immunization have been developed for KHVD; however, fish immunized with either vaccine or wild-type virus may become carriers for CyHV-3. There is no current treatment for KHVD. PMID:23872859

Gotesman, Michael; Kattlun, Julia; Bergmann, Sven M.; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2014-01-01

40

Are the Immunocompetence and the Presence of Metazoan Parasites in Cyprinid Fish Affected by Reproductive Efforts of Cyprinid Fish?  

PubMed Central

Each organism has the limited resources of energy that is distributed among important life traits. A trade-off between immune response and other physiological demands of organism especially costly reproduction is expected. Leuciscus cephalus, the cyprinid fish, was investigated during three periods varying in reproductive investment, that is, before-breeding, breeding, and after-breeding periods. We tested whether a potentially limited investment in immunity during the breeding is associated with higher susceptibility to the metazoan parasites. Following the immunocompetence handicap and sperm protection hypotheses, males expressing more elaborated sexual ornamentation should produce better quality sperm and be more parasitized. We found that reproductive investments in fish play an important role for energy allocation into somatic condition, immunity, and reproduction. The immune parameters including respiratory burst and leukocyte count were higher in breeding; however, parasite species richness and abundance appeared low. Males investing more in spawning tubercles reached high spermatocrite and were more parasitized by digeneans. PMID:20145709

Rohlenová, Karolína; Šimková, Andrea

2010-01-01

41

Hands-on Herps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

Science Activities, 1987

1987-01-01

42

Relations among Habitat Characteristics, Exotic Species, and Turbid-River Cyprinids in the Missouri River Drainage of Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from 91 stream reaches in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming to determine whether abiotic and biotic factors were related to the abundance of four cyprinid species associated with turbid-river environments: flathead chub Platygobio gracilis, sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, plains minnow Hybognathus placitus, and western silvery minnow H. argyritis. The abundance of these cyprinids was positively related

Michael C. Quist; Wayne A. Hubert; Frank J. Rahel

2004-01-01

43

Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. FINDINGS: Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci

Vincent Dubut; Melthide Sinama; Jean-François Martin; Emese Meglécz; Juliette Fernandez; Rémi Chappaz; André Gilles; Caroline Costedoat

2010-01-01

44

In vitro inhibition of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 replication by RNAi.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is an etiological agent of a notifiable disease that causes high mortality rates affecting both the common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio L. There is no current treatment strategy to save CyHV-3 infected fish. RNA mediated interference (RNAi) is an emerging strategy used for understanding gene function and is a promising method in developing novel therapeutics and antiviral medications. For this study, the possibility of activating the RNAi pathway by the use of small interfering (si)RNAs was tested to inhibit in vitro viral replication of CyHV-3 in common carp brain (CCB) cells. The siRNAs were designed to target either thymidine kinase (TK) or DNA polymerase (DP) genes, which both code for transcripts involved in DNA replication. The inhibition of viral replication caused by the siRNAs was measured by a reporter gene, termed ORF81. Treatment with siRNA targeting either TK or DP genes reduced the release of viral particles from infected CCB cells. However, siRNA targeting DP was most effective at reducing viral release as measured by qPCR. PMID:24893110

Gotesman, Michael; Soliman, Hatem; Besch, Robert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2014-09-01

45

Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed. PMID:23858399

Choi, Won Suk

2013-07-01

46

Herps of Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the University of Texas and the Texas Memorial Museum, this Website offers useful life history information on the Herps (lizards, turtles, snakes, crocodilians, salamanders, frogs, and toads) of Texas. Each broad group is further classified into Families, and each species is identified by scientific (Latin) and common name. To access descriptive and graphical information, click on the species of choice. Each species entry includes one or more color photograph(s), diagnostic features, natural history information, and a color range map (presence:absence, by county). The concise information in this useful resource should be helpful to seasoned researchers and beginners, alike.

47

Quantitative scanning electron microscopy of solitary chemoreceptor cells in cyprinids and other teleosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Solitary chemosensory cells (SCC) occur in the epidermis of many lower, aquatic vertebrates. By scanning electron microscopy, SCC apices were counted and density distributions estimated along various transects at the head and body of 12 species of teleost fishes, 7 cyprinids, 2 perciforms, 2 catfish and 1 characinid. In contrast to taste buds (TB), the distribution of SCCs is

Kurt Kotrschal; Konrad Lorenz

1992-01-01

48

Introgressive hybridization between two Iberian endemic cyprinid fish: a comparison between two independent hybrid zones  

E-print Network

Introgressive hybridization between two Iberian endemic cyprinid fish: a comparison between two markers to explore the extent of introgressive hybridization between these fishes. Two natural hybrid independent hybrid zones M. A. ABOIM*1 , J. MAVA´ REZ à1 , L. BERNATCHEZà & M. M. COELHO* *Centro de Biologia

Bernatchez, Louis

49

Spawning behaviour and sexual dimorphism in the North American cyprinid fish Notropis leedsi, the bannerfin shiner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spawning behaviour and sexual dimorphism of the little known North American cyprinid fish, Notropis leedsi, is described based on observations made in laboratory aquaria. Notropis leedsi is a crevice spawning species, a trait characteristic of members of the subgenus Cyprinella. Males establish breeding territories through ‘mock battles’ and defend them by chasing away intruding males or, at times, through

Felix G. Rabito Jr; David C. Heins

1985-01-01

50

Food consumption and growth of larvae and juveniles of three cyprinid species at different food levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The relationships between food availability, consumption and growth were analyzed from the onset of feeding to an age of 90 days in three cyprinid species. Fish were held at 20 ± 0.5° C and given two (three) constant rations of approximately 30, (40) or 100% dry body weight (dbw) ind-1 day-1. Food consisted of living zooplankton, the size of

Hubert Keckeis; Fritz Schiemer

1992-01-01

51

The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

Ensor, Deirdre

2005-01-01

52

SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

53

Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

1979-01-01

54

Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes

Longo, David J.; And Others

1988-01-01

55

Daily Survival Rates for Juveniles of Six Great Plains Cyprinid Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected age-0 fish from the Canadian and Brazos rivers, Texas, and used otolith microstructure to estimate daily survival rates for juveniles of six cyprinid species during their first summer. Across all samples, daily survival rates averaged 0.944 and ranged from 0.920 to 0.964. Daily survival differed between fish from the Canadian River (mean = 0.948) and those from the

Gene R. Wilde; Bart W. Durham

2008-01-01

56

Cyprinid assemblages, and the physical and chemical characteristics of small northern Ontario lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  The cyprinid species, and physical and chemical characteristics were recorded from 58 small lakes in the Algoma district of\\u000a northern Ontario. A group of typical stream-dwelling lithophilous species, which included common shiner, Notropis cornutus, creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus, and blacknose dace, Rhinichthys atratulus, tended to occupy lakes of larger than average drainage areas. Phoxinus spp., pearl dace, Semotilus margarita, and

Barry E. Bendell; Donald K. McNicol

1987-01-01

57

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3  

PubMed Central

Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is one of the most important grapevine viral diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. The impact on vine health, crop yield, and quality is difficult to assess due to a high number of variables, but significant economic losses are consistently reported over the lifespan of a vineyard if intervention strategies are not implemented. Several viruses from the family Closteroviridae are associated with GLD. However, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3), the type species for the genus Ampelovirus, is regarded as the most important causative agent. Here we provide a general overview on various aspects of GLRaV-3, with an emphasis on the latest advances in the characterization of the genome. The full genome of several isolates have recently been sequenced and annotated, revealing the existence of several genetic variants. The classification of these variants, based on their genome sequence, will be discussed and a guideline is presented to facilitate future comparative studies. The characterization of sgRNAs produced during the infection cycle of GLRaV-3 has given some insight into the replication strategy and the putative functionality of the ORFs. The latest nucleotide sequence based molecular diagnostic techniques were shown to be more sensitive than conventional serological assays and although ELISA is not as sensitive it remains valuable for high-throughput screening and complementary to molecular diagnostics. The application of next-generation sequencing is proving to be a valuable tool to study the complexity of viral infection as well as plant pathogen interaction. Next-generation sequencing data can provide information regarding disease complexes, variants of viral species, and abundance of particular viruses. This information can be used to develop more accurate diagnostic assays. Reliable virus screening in support of robust grapevine certification programs remains the cornerstone of GLD management. PMID:23596440

Maree, Hans J.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Bester, Rachelle; Chooi, Kar Mun; Cohen, Daniel; Dolja, Valerian V.; Fuchs, Marc F.; Golino, Deborah A.; Jooste, Anna E. C.; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Naidu, Rayapati A.; Rowhani, Adib; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Burger, Johan T.

2013-01-01

58

[Herpes gestationis. A case report].  

PubMed

Case report. 21 years old woman with 30 week pregnancy, complicated by a 3 month multitreated skin condition, who was referred to General Hospital Morelia, with probable diagnosis of Kapossi sarcoma and sus- pected HIV. She presented with exulcerations involving the palate, lips, chest, abdomen, back and extremities. The lesions were, itchy and painful, with thick yellowish secretion, accompanied by dysphagia to solid foods. Laboratory results showed normochromic normocytic anemia, elevation of ESR, hypocalcaemia, increased PCR, results in alterations in various TORCH listing, HIV negative. The biopsy of a lesion of the forearm reported histological changes consistent with herpes, subsequently confirmed by direct immunofluorescence. Liquid aspiration secretion of one of the lesions reported coagulase negative staphylococcus sp and Enterobacter cloacae. The final diagnosis was 30 weeks pregnant women with gestational herpes complicated by pyogenic infection of the lesions, discarding infection with HIV and found positive for IgG to toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes virus. PMID:25510061

Moreno-Diaz, Jorge Arturo; Paredes-Solis, Vanessa; Martínez-Chagolla, Blanca de Jesús; Sereno-Coló, José Antonio

2014-10-01

59

Herpes viruses hedge their bets.  

PubMed

Static latency is the hallmark of all herpes viruses. The varicella zoster virus, for instance, causes varicella (chickenpox), and after a latent phase of between 5 and 40 years, it can give rise to herpes zoster (shingles). This latency and the subsequent reactivation has intrigued and puzzled virologists. Although several factors have been suggested, it is unknown what triggers reactivation. However, latency can be explained with a simple evolutionary model. Here, we demonstrate that a simple, yet efficient, bet-hedging strategy might have evolved in a number of viruses, especially those belonging to the herpes virus family and most importantly in varicella zoster virus. We show that the evolution of latency can be explained by the population dynamics of infectious diseases in fluctuating host populations. PMID:12409612

Stumpf, Michael P H; Laidlaw, Zoe; Jansen, Vincent A A

2002-11-12

60

Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

Glover, Elbert D.

1984-01-01

61

Let's Hear It for Herps!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

62

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

2011-04-01

63

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

2012-04-01

64

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

2014-04-01

65

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

2013-04-01

66

21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

2010-04-01

67

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A This image displays grouped blisters within an inflamed area of skin typical of herpes simplex. Overview Herpes infections are caused by both ...

68

Devario deruptotalea, a new species of cyprinid fish from Manipur, India (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

Devario deruptotalea, a new cyprinid fish, is described from Dutah Stream, a tributary of the Yu River (Chindwin drainage) in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from all its congeners by a unique colour pattern consisting of the following combination of pigmented elements: 4?6 dark brown irregularly shaped and arranged bars that are partly confluent with adjacent bars at different levels on the anterior one-third of the side of the body, followed by three distinct dark brown stripes posteriorly, a P stripe that is darker and about twice as broad as other stripes and extending to the tip of the median caudal-fin rays. PMID:25081148

Ramananda, Yumnam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

2014-01-01

69

Notropis rupestris, A New Cyprinid from the Middle Cumberland River System, Tennessee, with Comments on Variation in Notropis heterolepis  

E-print Network

Notropis rupestris, A New Cyprinid from the Middle Cumberland River System, Tennessee, with Comments on Variation in Notropis heterolepis Author(s): Lawrence M. Page and Eugene C. Beckham Source AND EUGENE C. BECKHAM Notropis rupestris, n. sp., endemic to the middle Cumberland River system, Tennessee

Hulsey, C. Darrin

70

Abstract The Sacramento splittail is an endemic cyprinid fish of the San Francisco estuary and its trib-  

E-print Network

Abstract The Sacramento splittail is an endemic cyprinid fish of the San Francisco estuary and its young-of-year splittail from five major rivers draining into the estuary: Cosumnes, Napa, Petaluma Microsatellites Ã? Population genetics Ã? Sacramento splittail Ã? San Francisco estuary Introduction The San

May, Bernie

71

Mutation patterns of mitochondrial H- and L-strand DNA in closely related Cyprinid fishes.  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial genome replication is asymmetric. Replication starts from the origin of heavy (H)-strand replication, displacing the parental H-strand as it proceeds along the molecule. The H-strand remains single stranded until light (L)-strand replication is initiated from a second origin of replication. It has been suggested that single-stranded H-strand DNA is more sensitive to mutational damage, giving rise to substitutional rate differences between the two strands and among genes in mammalian mitochondrial DNA. In this study, we analyzed sequences of the cytochrome b, ND4, ND4L, and COI genes of cyprinid fishes to investigate rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution in the mitochondrial genome. To test for strand-asymmetric mutation pressure, a likelihood-ratio test was developed and applied to the cyprinid sequences. Patterns of substitution and levels of strand-asymmetric mutation pressure were largely consistent with a mutation gradient between the H- and L-strand origins of replication. Significant strand bias was observed among rates of transitional substitution. However, biological interpretation of the direction and strength of strand asymmetry for specific classes of substitutions is problematic. The problem occurs because the rate of any single class of substitution inferred from one strand is actually a sum of rates on two strands. The validity of the likelihood-ratio test is not affected by this problem. PMID:12583346

Bielawski, Joseph P; Gold, John R

2002-01-01

72

Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

1992-01-01

73

Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

Cummings, Anne L.

1999-01-01

74

Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

1985-01-01

75

Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)  

E-print Network

by gravity from Blind Pony Lake Dam 1 2 3 4 5 10 7 11 6 12 8 9 #12;Pallid Sturgeon Restoration EffortIsolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) Suggests an Interclass Host #12;· Pallid Sturgeon Conservation within the Missouri River Basin ­ History of the decline

Gray, Matthew

76

[Necrotizing herpes folliculitis. Report of one case].  

PubMed

Herpes folliculitis is a rare manifestation of herpes virus infection. It usually represents a diagnostic challenge, due to the absence of characteristic skin manifestations such as vesicles or pustules. The reported cases are mainly associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and less commonly with herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 y HSV-2). We report a 51-year-old male with a relapsing non-Hodgkin Lymphoma under chemotherapy, with history of extensive follicular lesions lasting one month. The pathologic study of the lesions was consistent with necrotizing herpes folliculitis. The patient was treated with Valacyclovir, achieving remission of the lesions. The appearance of folliculitis, especially in an immunocompromised patient, should raise the suspicion of herpes virus infection. Polymerase chain reaction may help to elucidate the diagnosis when pathologic findings are non-specific. PMID:23677233

Bello, Cristina C; Burgos, Susana C; Cárdenas, Consuelo D; González, Sergio B

2012-12-01

77

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3: an interesting virus for applied and fundamental research  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae is the causative agent of a lethal, highly contagious and notifiable disease in common and koi carp. The economic importance of common and koi carp industries together with the rapid spread of CyHV-3 worldwide, explain why this virus became soon after its isolation in the 1990s a subject of applied research. In addition to its economic importance, an increasing number of fundamental studies demonstrated that CyHV-3 is an original and interesting subject for fundamental research. In this review, we summarized recent advances in CyHV-3 research with a special interest for studies related to host-virus interactions. PMID:24073814

2013-01-01

78

Dynamics of metal uptake and depuration in a parasitized cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea).  

PubMed

Infestation of fish by endoparasites may potentially influence metal uptake and elimination by the host. We quantified the metal uptake rate constant (k(u)) and efflux rate constants (k(e)) of radiolabeled Cd and Co in the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea experimentally infected with the parasite Ligula intestinalis. During 24h, the accumulation of Cd and Co increased linearly with no evident steady state in uninfected fish, infected fish and in the parasite. Following aqueous exposures, the k(u) for Cd in parasites was about 3× higher than that of infected fish and 6× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(u) for Co was up to 15× higher in the parasites than that of infected fish and 7.5× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(e) for excretion of Cd were consistently higher for the uninfected fish than for the infected fish and also higher for uninfected fish than the parasite. The k(e) for Co for the uninfected fish was 1.4-2.0× lower than in the infected fish, but higher for parasites compared to uninfected fish (1.3-2.3×). Pulse-chase feeding experiments with radiolabeled copepods showed that Cd assimilation efficiency from food was higher in infected fish, while Co was assimilated more effectively by uninfected fish. The observed differences in metal dynamics between infected and uninfected R. argentea in the laboratory concord with differences in metal concentrations measured in natural populations in Lake Victoria. Our findings provide evidence that L. intestinalis infection enhances Cd accumulation, but depletes the essential Co in the cyprinid fish R. argentea. We conclude that the combined stress of parasites and pollution changes metal risks to fish hosts in a metal specific manner. PMID:22885798

Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Admiraal, Wim; Osano, Odipo; Kraak, Michiel H S; Were-Kogogo, Pamela J A; Gichuki, John; Ngure, Veronica; Makwali, Judith; Ogwai, Caleb

2012-11-15

79

Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade  

PubMed Central

Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade. PMID:22276096

Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

2012-01-01

80

Acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes zoster is a common illness in aged patients that is characterized by shingles and severe segmental pain. The nature\\u000a and duration of the illness is highly variable, and it is also very difficult to relieve. This review of pain in acute herpes\\u000a zoster and postherpetic neuralgia analyzes clinical observations and describes new treatments that have the potential to improve

Elena Catala; Marta Ferrandiz

1999-01-01

81

Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Birth Control, Pregnancy & STDs > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

82

Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE  

PubMed Central

Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe [1]. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should provide useful phylogenetic makers for future analyses of the evolutionary relationships among species in the family Cyprinidae. PMID:20426875

2010-01-01

83

Case study: inoculation herpes barbae.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old white man in otherwise excellent general health was referred for a painful, progressive, facial eruption with associated fever, malaise, and cervicofacial lymphadenopathy. The patient reported that a vesicular eruption progressed from the left side of his face to also involve the right side of his face over the 48 hours preceding his clinic visit. He also reported some lesions in his throat and the back of his mouth causing pain and difficulty swallowing. Four to 7 days before presentation to us, the patient noted exposure to his girlfriend's cold sore. Additionally, he complained of a personal history of cold sores, but had no recent outbreaks. Physical examination revealed a somewhat ill man with numerous vesicles and donut-shaped, 2-4 mm, crusted erosions predominantly on the left side of the bearded facial skin. There were fewer, but similar-appearing lesions, on the right-bearded skin. The lesions appeared folliculocentric (Figure). Cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy was present. Oral exam showed shallow erosions on the tonsillar pillars and soft palate. Genital examination was normal. The remainder of the physical exam was unremarkable. A Tzanck smear of vesicular lesions was positive for balloon cells and many multinucleated giant cells with nuclear molding. A viral culture was performed which, in several days, came back positive for herpes simplex virus. The complete blood cell count documented a white blood cell count of 8000/mm3 with 82.6% neutrophils and 9.0% lymphocytes. Based on the clinical presentation and the positive Tzanck smear, the patient was diagnosed with herpes simplex barbae, most likely spread by shaving. The patient was started on acyclovir 200 mg p.o. five times daily for 10 days. Oxycodone 5 mg in addition to acetaminophen 325 mg (Percocet; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Chadds Ford, PA) was prescribed for pain relief. A 1:1:1 suspension of viscous lidocaine (Xylocaine; AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE), diphenhydramine (Benadryl; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY), and attapulgite (Kaopectate; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY) was given as a swish and spit to relieve the oral discomfort. Good hygiene, no skin-to-skin contact with others, and no further shaving to prevent autoinoculation were stressed. He was advised to discard his old razor. PMID:15891258

Parlette, Eric C; Polo, James M

2005-01-01

84

Pathogenesis of acute and chronic diseases caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) was studied using different lineages of carp/koi. After exposure to the virus, infected cells were first found in the skin by histopathology and by in situ hybridization. The epidermis of the skin was most severely damaged and often sloughed off in the fish sampled on days 5 through 8, and the fish that were highly sensitive to the virus died within 8 or 10 days after infection. Serum osmolality of the infected fish, particularly just before death, was significantly lower, suggesting that the osmotic shock consequent on the damage to the skin was the direct cause of the acute deaths. On the other hand, clinical and histopathological observations indicate that the carp of a less sensitive lineage most probably died of viral encephalitis around 3 weeks after infection. For these fish, the largest number of infected cells was found in the central nervous system (CNS) sampled on day 12. A substantial amount of viral genome was found in the CNS of carp surviving more than 1 year after the infection. Thus, the CNS is probably a major target for CyHV-3, and the virus can persistently infect the CNS, presumably establishing latency. PMID:25073413

Miwa, S; Kiryu, I; Yuasa, K; Ito, T; Kaneko, T

2014-07-30

85

Age and growth and maturity of southern Africa's largest cyprinid fish, the largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to use specimens of the largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis, southern Africa's largest cyprinid [IUCN red-listed as Near Threatened (NT)], obtained from gillnet by-catch to describe aspects of its biology in order to assist future conservation and management decisions. Ninety three L. kimberleyensis were collected between March 2007 and May 2008 from Lake Gariep, South Africa. Labeobarbus kimberleyensis was present in 38% of all gillnet catches, but in low numbers (2% of the catch) and it contributed 8% to the catch by mass. Age was estimated using astericus otoliths. Growth increment formation on these otoliths was validated as annual using edge analysis and the mark-recapture of chemically tagged captive fish. Resultant analysis showed that the species is slow growing and the oldest aged fish was a 17 year, 690 mm fork length (L(F)) male. The smallest ripe female fish measured 394 mm L(F) and was 7+ years old and the smallest mature male was 337 mm L(F) and 5+ years old. Slow growth and late maturity make this species vulnerable to exploitation emphasizing the need for continued high conservation priority. PMID:22957869

Ellender, B R; Weyl, O L F; Winker, H

2012-09-01

86

Analysing codon usage bias of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and adaptation of this virus to the hosts.  

PubMed

The codon usage patterns of open reading frames (ORFs) in cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) have been investigated in this study. The high correlation between GC12 % and GC3 % suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage and base component in the CyHV-3, while mutational pressure effect results from the high correlation between GC3 % and the first principal axis of principle component analysis (Axis 1) on the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) value of the viral functional genes. However, the interaction between the absolute codon usage bias and GC3 % suggests that other selections take part in the formation of codon usage, except for the mutational pressure. It is noted that the similarity degree of codon usage between the CyHV-3 and goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), is higher than that between the virus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., suggesting that the goldfish plays a more important role than the common carp in codon usage pattern of the CyHV-3. The study of codon usage in CyHV-3 can provide some evidence about the molecular evolution of the virus. It can also enrich our understanding about the relationship between the CyHV-3 and its hosts by analysing their codon usage patterns. PMID:25491502

Ma, Y P; Liu, Z X; Hao, L; Ma, J Y; Liang, Z L; Li, Y G; Ke, H

2014-12-01

87

A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems. PMID:23723967

Chapman, Ben B.; Eriksen, Anders; Baktoft, Henrik; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P. Anders; Hulthen, Kaj; Brönmark, Christer; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Grønkjær, Peter; Skov, Christian

2013-01-01

88

Morphometric correlates of host specificity in Dactylogyrus species (Monogenea) parasites of European Cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

We test the hypothesis that living on larger fish may impose constraints, i.e. the need to develop large attachment organs, related to the necessity to remain attached on large gills. For this, we compiled data on body size and morphometric measurements of attachment organs of 44 Dactylogyrus species (ectoparasites with direct life-cycle) from 19 cyprinid species. Nineteen dactylogyrid species were considered as specialists (infecting only 1 host species) and 25 as generalists (infecting more than 1 species). The lack of phylogenetic information lead us to perform comparative analyses using raw values and independent contrasts obtained by random phylogenies. Our results show that rich parasite communities are formed by specialists and generalists whereas poor communities are composed mainly of generalist parasites. Moreover, specialists are found on larger hosts, which may reflect a specialization on a predictable resource, as larger fish live longer and offer large gills for parasite colonization. Parasite specialization is shown to be linked with adaptation of attachment organs to their fish hosts. Two morphometric variables of the attachment organ, the total length of anchor and length of base of anchor, were positively correlated with host length for specialists. PMID:11510682

Simková, A; Desdevise, Y; Gelnar, M; Morand, S

2001-08-01

89

Characterization of a highly repeated satellite DNA from the cyprinid fish Notropis lutrensis.  

PubMed

1. A highly repeated, satellite DNA family from the North American cyprinid fish, Notropis lutrensis, was identified as a fragment band following restriction endonuclease enzyme digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA; evidence of a tandem arrangement of the satellite in the genome was demonstrated by the formation of "ladders" in partial restriction endonuclease digests. 2. The satellite family was estimated densitometrically to comprise 7-8% of the N. lutrensis genome; mapping experiments using isolated and purified monomer repeat units of the satellite uncovered nine sites for seven different restriction enzymes. 3. A monomeric repeat unit of the satellite was cloned and sequenced, and found to be 174 base pairs in length and to have a base composition of 47% G + C (guanine + cytosine); computer analysis of the sequence revealed 13 new restriction sites for 12 additional enzymes. 4. Computer analysis also revealed that a large degree of internal redundancy in the monomer unit exists in the form of both direct and inverted repeating units, and that the entire sequence, starting with one base in either orientation, constitutes an open reading frame. In all but the last characteristic, the N. lutrensis satellite DNA is very similar to satellite DNAs in other eukaryotes. PMID:2852089

Moyer, S P; Ma, D P; Thomas, T L; Gold, J R

1988-01-01

90

Reprint of "Experimental infection of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae to the cyprinid fish, Barbonymus gonionotus".  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini is an important public health problem, a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma in the Greater Mekong subregion including Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. Humans acquire the infection by consumption of raw, fermented or partially cooked freshwater cyprinid fish containing infective metacercariae. This study examined the effect of cercarial infection dosage (25-200 cercariae), age (1-60 day) and size (1-24mm) of Barbonymus gonionotus fish on infection success of O. viverrini cercariae. Additionally, the site of cyst formation of O. viverrini cercariae and subsequent development to the metacercariae was examined. The result showed that cercarial infection dose (F4,95=8.52, P<0.001) age (P<0.001, ?LR(2)=954.72) and size (P<0.001, ?LR(2)=1204.84) were significantly associated with number of O. viverrini metacercariae recovery with in every additional fish age, the O. viverrini metacercarial recovery rate increased by 5.4% (P<0.001). Most metacercariae were found in the body of the fish (81.4%). We concluded that O. viverrini cercarial infection dosage, and age and size of fish were important determinants for a successful infection to fish. PMID:25446173

Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Arunsan, Patpicha; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Wongmaneeprateep, Sutee; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Tesana, Smarn

2015-01-01

91

Characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in different phases of infection: implications for disease transmission and control.  

PubMed

Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging and highly contagious viral disease of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), causing mass mortalities and huge economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry. The disease has spread rapidly to 28 countries worldwide. However, mechanisms of koi herpesvirus (species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3; CyHV-3) transmission remain unclear. A potential experimental model of CyHV-3 infection in carp was used to characterise CyHV-3 in different phases of infection and to demonstrate that CyHV-3 persists in survivor fish and has the capacity to reactivate and transmit the disease to healthy fish. During acute infection, which occurred when fish were maintained at 22°C, viral genes were abundantly expressed and infectious virus was produced in association with tissue damage, clinical disease and mortality. In fish maintained at a lower temperature (11°C), viral DNA was present but viral gene expression was absent or greatly restricted, infectious virus was not recovered and there was no evidence of disease. Productive replication was re-initiated following an increase in water temperature to 22°C, resulting in 45% mortality. Shedding of reactivated virus killed 75% of cohabitating naïve fish, suggesting a potential risk for disease transmission. PMID:24704574

Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J; Schat, Karel A; Slobedman, Barry; Barnes, Andrew C; Walker, Peter J

2014-08-01

92

Amphibian ocular malformation associated with frog virus 3.  

PubMed

During an on-going amphibian ecology study, a free-ranging American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) metamorph was captured in a pitfall trap adjacent to a constructed farm pond at the Plateau Research and Education Center (PREC) on the Cumberland Plateau near Crossville, Tennessee, USA. Grossly, the right eye was approximately 50% the size of the left. Stereo and light microscopic examination revealed two granulomas within the orbit. Electron microscopic examination revealed virus particles scattered throughout one structure but mostly aggregated toward the center. Subsequent PCR and sequencing (GenBank accession Number EF175670) confirmed frog virus 3 (FV3). This represents the first report of a malformation in an anuran associated with FV3. PMID:17604194

Burton, Elizabeth C; Miller, Debra L; Styer, Eloise L; Gray, Matthew J

2008-09-01

93

Herpes, Syphilis, and Other Ulcerogenital Conditions.  

PubMed

This well-illustrated overview of herpes simplex virus infection, syphilis, and chancroid focuses on history, biology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, natural history, signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, and diagnostic problems. Clinicians are reminded of the high correlation between genital ulcer disease and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:10359960

Braverman

1996-02-01

94

Disseminated herpes simplex in newborn infants  

PubMed Central

Six cases of disseminated herpes simplex virus infection in newborn infants have been collected. The morbid anatomical and histological findings are described for the various tissues of the body. For the first time, the typical lesions were found in the lung. This and the other findings are discussed from the aetiological point of view. Images PMID:14063326

Bird, T.; Ennis, J. E.; Wort, A. J.; Gardner, P. S.

1963-01-01

95

Oral acyclovir in acute herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral acyclovir at a dose of 800 mg five times daily for seven days was compared with placebo in a randomised double blind trial conducted at three centres in the United Kingdom. The study group comprised 205 elderly immune competent patients suffering from herpes zoster who were entered within 72 hours of the onset of rash. Acyclovir significantly reduced the

M W McKendrick; J I McGill; J E White; M J Wood

1986-01-01

96

Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

2003-01-01

97

Herpes simplex virus resistance to antiviral drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are efficiently treated with antiviral drugs such as acyclovir (ACV). However, resistance has been reported, mainly among immunocompromised patients (prevalence around 5%) and particularly allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients (prevalence reaching 30%). Resistance to ACV is associated with mutations on one of the two viral enzymes involved in the ACV mechanism of action: thymidine kinase

Florence Morfin; Danielle Thouvenot

2003-01-01

98

76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device...amending the special controls for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay...serological tests to identify antibodies to herpes simplex virus in serum, and the...

2011-08-09

99

75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device...to amend the special controls for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay...serological tests to identify antibodies to herpes simplex virus in serum, and the...

2010-09-28

100

Does interspecies hybridization affect the host specificity of parasites in cyprinid fish?  

PubMed Central

Background Host specificity varies among parasite species. Some parasites are strictly host-specific, others show a specificity for congeneric or non-congeneric phylogenetically related host species, whilst some others are non-specific (generalists). Two cyprinids, Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio, plus their respective hybrids were investigated for metazoan parasites. The aim of this study was to analyze whether interspecies hybridization affects host specificity. The different degrees of host specificity within a phylogenetic framework were taken into consideration (i.e. strict specialist, intermediate specialist, and intermediate generalist). Methods Fish were collected during harvesting the pond and identified using meristic traits and molecular markers. Metazoan parasite species were collected. Host specificity of parasites was determined using the following classification: strict specialist, intermediate specialist, intermediate generalist and generalist. Parasite species richness was compared between parental species and their hybrids. The effect of host species on abundance of parasites differing in host specificity was tested. Results Hybrids harbored more different parasite species but their total parasite abundance was lower in comparison with parental species. Interspecies hybridization affected the host specificity of ecto- and endoparasites. Parasite species exhibiting different degrees of host specificity for C. carpio and C. gibelio were also present in hybrids. The abundance of strict specialists of C. carpio was significantly higher in parental species than in hybrids. Intermediate generalists parasitizing C. carpio and C. gibelio as two phylogenetically closely related host species preferentially infected C. gibelio when compared to C. carpio, based on prevalence and maximum intensity of infection. Hybrids were less infected by intermediate generalists when compared to C. gibelio. Conclusions This finding does not support strict co-adaptation between host and parasite genotypes resulting in narrow host specificity, and showed that hybrid genotypes are susceptible to parasites exhibiting host specificity. The immune mechanisms specific to parental species might represent potential mechanisms explaining the low abundance of parasites in C. gibelio x C. carpio hybrids. PMID:23587287

2013-01-01

101

Distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in cyprinid fish in Northeastern Thailand.  

PubMed

To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats. PMID:24516277

Pinlaor, Somchai; Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

2013-12-01

102

Distribution and Abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Cyprinid Fish in Northeastern Thailand  

PubMed Central

To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats. PMID:24516277

Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

2013-01-01

103

Skin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a mortal and highly contagious disease in common and koi carp. The skin is the major portal of entry of CyHV-3 in carp after immersion in water containing the virus. In the present study, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the effect of skin mucus removal and skin epidermis lesion on CyHV-3 entry. Physical treatments inducing removal of the mucus up to complete erosion of the epidermis were applied on a defined area of carp skin just before inoculation by immersion in infectious water. CyHV-3 entry in carp was drastically enhanced on the area of the skin where the mucus was removed with or without associated epidermal lesion. To investigate whether skin mucus inhibits CyHV-3 binding to epidermal cells, tail fins with an intact mucus layer or without mucus were inoculated ex vivo. While electron microscopy examination revealed numerous viral particles bound on the fins inoculated after mucus removal, no particle could be detected after infection of mucus-covered fins. Finally, anti-CyHV-3 neutralising activity of mucus extract was tested in vitro. Incubation of CyHV-3 with mucus extract reduced its infectivity in a dose dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that skin mucus removal and epidermal lesions enhance CyHV-3 entry in carp. It highlights the role of fish skin mucus as an innate immune protection against viral epidermal entry. PMID:21816061

Raj, Victor Stalin; Fournier, Guillaume; Rakus, Krzysztof; Ronsmans, Maygane; Ouyang, Ping; Michel, Benjamin; Delforges, Cédric; Costes, Bérénice; Farnir, Frédéric; Leroy, Baptiste; Wattiez, Ruddy; Melard, Charles; Mast, Jan; Lieffrig, François; Vanderplasschen, Alain

2011-01-01

104

Biomarker responses in cyprinids of the middle stretch of the River Po, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Fish belonging to three species of cyprinids, that is, barbel (Barbus plebejus), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), and Italian nase (Chondrostoma soeetta), were collected from two sites of the River Po, located upstream and downstream from the confluence of one of its middle-reach polluted tributaries, the River Lambro. The two groups of individuals caught for each species were analyzed and compared for several microsomal and cytosolic biochemical markers. The enzymatic activities assayed in fish liver included ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine-N-demethylase (APDM), uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the contents of reduced glutathione and nonprotein thiols were measured. Despite some differences among species, all microsomal activities (EROD, APDM, UDPGT) were found to be significantly induced in fish living downstream the River Lambro. With the exception of a higher GST enzyme activity of barbel from the downstream reach, no significant modification was evident in any of the tested cytosolic biomarkers. Results showed that barbel and nase better discriminated the two reaches of the River Po. In general, the alterations observed in feral fish are consistent with the results found in previous studies conducted with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under both laboratory and field conditions in the same middle reach of the River Po. All of the data indicate that the downstream tract of the main river is exposed to the load of pollutants transported by the River Lambro, including known inducers such as polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The latter were analyzed in sediments sampled at the two sites of fish collection, and the downstream sediment showed the highest concentrations of PAHs, although their levels are comparable to those present in moderately polluted locations. Regardless of the site of exposure, barbel seem to be characterized by more efficient antioxidant defenses.

Vigano, L. [National Council of Research, Milan (Italy). Water Research Inst.; Arillo, A.; Melodia, F. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Inst. of Zoology; Arlati, P.; Monti, C. [Presidio Multizonale Igiene Prevenzione, Lecco (Italy)

1998-03-01

105

Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species. PMID:24480585

Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

2014-03-14

106

Molecular cloning of preproinsulin cDNAs from several osteoglossomorphs and a cyprinid.  

PubMed

Several preproinsulin cDNAs were isolated and characterized from four members of the Osteoglossomorpha (an ancient teleost group); Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (arawana), Pantodon buchholzi (butterfly fish), Notopterus chitala (feather fin knife fish), Hiodon alosoides (goldeye) and Gnathonemus petersii (elephantnose). In addition, we isolated and characterized the preproinsulin cDNA from Catostomus commersoni (white sucker, as a representative of a generalized teleost). The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed conservation of the cystine residues known to be involved in the formation of the disulfide bridges, as well as residues involved in the hexamer formation, except for B-17 in the butterfly fish, the arawana and the goldeye. However, the N-terminus of the B-chain was very weakly conserved among the species studied. Residues known to be significant for maintaining receptor-binding conformation and those known to comprise the receptor-binding domain were all conserved, except for a conservative substitution at B13, aspartate substituted glutamate in the arawana, goldeye, butterfly fish and white sucker, and at B16, phenylalanine substituted tyrosine in the elephantnose. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed a monophyletic grouping of the osteoglossomorphs, and showed that they were not the most basal living teleost. Comparative sequence analysis of preproinsulins among the osteoglossomorphs was useful in assessment of intergroup relationship, relating elephantnose with the feather fin knife fish and the arawana, butterfly fish, and goldeye. This arrangement of species is consistent with relationships based on other more classical parameters, except for the goldeye which was assessed as being sister to all the osteoglossomorphs. The white sucker was grouped with the common carp and both are cyprinids. PMID:11306171

Al-Mahrouki, A A; Irwin, D M; Graham, L C; Youson, J H

2001-03-28

107

A Digenean Metacercaria (Apophallus sp.) and a Myxozoan (Myxobolus sp.) Associated with Vertebral Deformities in Cyprinid Fishes from the Willamette River, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high prevalence of vertebral deformities has been observed in various fishes, especially cyprinids, from certain regions of the Willamette River for many years. One proposed source of these deformities is exposure to toxicants. Histological evaluation of affected chiselmouth Acrocheilus alutaceus revealed that all lesions associated with vertebrae were associated with metacercariae of digenean trematodes. Approximately half of the northern

M. L. Kent; V. G. Watral; C. M. Whipps; M. E. Cunningham; C. D. Criscione; J. R. Heidel; L. R. Curtis; J. Spitsbergen; D. F. Markle

2004-01-01

108

Diet spectra and resource partitioning in the larvae and juveniles of three species and six cohorts of cyprinids from a subalpine lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet composition based on gut analyses was studied in larvae and juveniles belonging to six (out of eight) age groups (cohorts) of three species of cyprinids (Rutilus rutilus L., Leuciscus cephalus L., Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) from a small meso-oligotrophic lake in Tyrol, Austria.

W. Mark; R. Hofer; W. Wieser

1987-01-01

109

Pharmacologic management of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster is an infection caused by reactivation of dormant varicella-zoster virus. The acute course of herpes zoster is generally benign; however, some patients will experience postherpetic neuralgia characterized by severe, relentless, and at times disabling pain that is often refractory to treatment. While herpes zoster responds to acyclovir, cost-benefit considerations limit the drug's usefulness to only a select group. Postherpetic neuralgia requires a holistic approach, including pharmacologic therapy using several different classes of drugs. PMID:7907508

Mamdani, F. S.

1994-01-01

110

Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2012-01-01

111

gamma-2 Herpes virus post-transcriptional gene regulation.  

PubMed

gamma-2 herpes viruses, which include Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus, are an important subfamily of herpes virus because of their oncogenic potential. Herpes virus saimiri (HVS) is the prototype gamma-2 herpes virus and is a useful model to study the basic mechanisms of lytic replication in this subfamily. Like all herpes viruses, HVS has two distinct life cycles, latent persistence and lytic replication. Analysis of herpes virus genomes has demonstrated that, in contrast to cellular genes, most virus genes that are expressed lytically do not have introns. Herpes viruses replicate in the nucleus of the host cell, and therefore require that the viral intron-lacking mRNAs are exported from the nucleus to allow virus mRNA translation. This review focuses upon the role of HVS ORF 57, a post-transcriptional regulatory protein, which is conserved in all herpes viruses. HVS ORF 57 is a multifunctional protein involved in both trans-activation and trans-repression of target mRNAs. The major role of the ORF 57 protein in mediating viral mRNA export is considered, and the ORF 57-host cell interactions that are required for this function are discussed. PMID:16441447

Boyne, J R; Whitehouse, A

2006-02-01

112

Herpes Simplex Virus 2 ICP0- Mutant Viruses Are Avirulent and Immunogenic: Implications for a Genital Herpes Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0? mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0? mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0? mutant viruses were constructed

William P. Halford; Ringo Püschel; Brandon Rakowski; Darren P. Martin

2010-01-01

113

Herpes simplex virus: treatment with antimicrobial peptides.  

PubMed

The herpes virus infection represents a significant challenge for public health. The innate immunity plays an important role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) elimination. The innate antiviral immunity has not been comprehensively studied. The recent investigations demonstrate that Toll-like receptors are actively involved in the virus recognition. The complement and natural antibodies, as well as cytokines and antimicrobial peptides, are the first molecules to bind to virions. In this chapter, some mechanisms of the innate antiviral immunity are discussed and treatment regimens are proposed. The complex of native cytokines and antimicrobial peptides (CCAP or Superlymph) proved to inhibit the virus reproduction in vitro. Protegrines, as a CCAP component, were active against the virus. Considering all the data, we conclude that the complex of native cytokines and antimicrobial peptides produces both immunomodulating and antiviral effects. PMID:17713025

Kovalchuk, Leonid V; Gankovskaya, Ludmila V; Gankovskaya, Oksana A; Lavrov, Vyacheslav F

2007-01-01

114

Frog Virus 3 DNA Replication Occurs in Two Stages  

PubMed Central

Viral DNA synthesis in frog virus 3 (FV3)-infected cells occurs both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm (Goorha et al., Virology 84:32-51, 1978). Relationships between viral DNA molecules synthesized in these two compartments and their role in the virus replication were examined. The data presented here suggest that (i) FV3 DNA replicated in two stages and (ii) nucleus and cytoplasm were the sites of stages 1 and 2 of DNA replication, respectively. Stages 1 and 2 were further distinguished by their temporal appearance during infection and by the sizes of the replicating DNA as determined by sedimentation in neutral sucrose gradients. In stage 1, replicating molecules, between the size of unit and twice the unit length, were produced early in infection (2 h postinfection). In contrast, stage 2 of DNA replication occurred only after 3 h postinfection, and replicating molecules were large concatemers. Results of pulse-chase experiments showed that the concatemeric DNA served as the precursor for the production of mature FV3 DNA. Denaturation of concatemeric DNA with alkali or digestion with S1 nuclease reduced it to less than genome size molecules, indicating the presence of extensive single-stranded regions. Analysis of replicating DNA by equilibrium centrifugation in CsCl gradients after a pulse-chase suggested that these single-stranded regions were subsequently repaired. Based on these and previous data, a scheme of FV3 replication is presented. According to this scheme, FV3 utilizes the nucleus for early transcription and stage 1 of DNA replication. The viral DNA is then transported to the cytoplasm, where it participates in stage 2 DNA replication to form a concatemeric replication complex. The processing of concatemers to produce mature viral DNA and virus assembly also occurs in the cytoplasm. This mode of replication is strikingly different from any other known DNA virus. PMID:7109033

Goorha, R.

1982-01-01

115

Induction of apoptosis in frog virus 3-infected cells.  

PubMed

The ability of frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species of the family Iridoviridae, to induce apoptosis was examined by monitoring DNA cleavage, chromatin condensation, and cell-surface expression of phosphotidylserine (PS) in fathead minnow (FHM) and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. In productively infected FHM cells, DNA fragmentation was first noted at 6-7 h postinfection and was clearly seen by 17 h postinfection, while chromatin condensation was detected at 8.5 h postinfection. As with some other viruses, FV3-induced apoptosis did not require de novo viral gene expression as both heat-inactivated and UV-inactivated virus readily triggered DNA fragmentation in FHM cells. Moreover, FV3-induced apoptosis was blocked in FHM cells by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that virus infection triggers programmed cell death through activation of the caspase cascade. FV3 infection also triggered apoptosis in BHK cells as monitored by TUNEL and annexin V binding assays. To determine whether FV3, similar to other large DNA viruses, encoded proteins that block or delay apoptosis, mock- and FV3-infected FHM cells were osmotically shocked and assayed for DNA fragmentation 3 hours later. DNA fragmentation was clearly seen whether or not shocked cells were previously infected with FV3, indicating that infection with FV3 did not block apoptosis induced by osmotic shock in FHM cells. The above results demonstrate that iridoviruses triggered apoptosis and that the induction of programmed cell death did not require viral gene expression. However, it remains to be determined if virion attachment to target cells is sufficient to induce cell death, or if apoptosis is triggered directly or indirectly by one or more virion-associated proteins. PMID:12642103

Chinchar, V G; Bryan, Locke; Wang, J; Long, Scott; Chinchar, G D

2003-02-15

116

[Cutaneous leishmaniasis and multidermatomic herpes zoster].  

PubMed

Standard treatment of leishmaniasis consists of n-metilglucamine, meglumine antimoniate, which can trigger side effects such as general malaise, renal and hepatic impairment, and cardiac arrhythmias. Infrequently, reactivations of varicella-zoster virus infections have been reported. This paper describes a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis in treatment with meglumine and herpes zoster multiplex. After ruling out other possible causes of immunosuppression, an acyclovir therapy was initiated. PMID:24522317

Arboleda, Margarita; Jaramillo, Laura; Ortiz, Diana; Díaz, Alejandro

2013-12-01

117

Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride. PMID:21747842

Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

2011-01-01

118

Long term neurological outcome of herpes encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Twenty eight children with herpes simplex encephalitis were followed up for a mean of 5.5 years. Two children died and 26survived, of whom 16 were left with no neurological sequelae and 10 had persistent neurological sequelae. Mean (SD) Glasgow coma score was significantly lower in the patients with neurological sequelae (7.7 (1.5)) and the patients who died (4.5 (0.7)), compared with the patients without neurological sequelae (11 (1.7)).?? PMID:10325763

Lahat, E; Barr, J; Barkai, G; Paret, G; Brand, N; Barzilai, A

1999-01-01

119

Does supplemental creatine prevent herpes recurrences?  

PubMed

While functioning as a general practitioner at the Camp Pendleton Marine Base, the first author treated numerous patients with recurrent genital herpes. Beginning in 1998, a number of these patients failed to return for periodic acyclovir therapy. Inquiries revealed that these patients had all commenced supplemental creatine after their last outbreak, and had experienced no further outbreaks. A literature search uncovered a report that cyclocreatine, a synthetic compound structurally and functionally homologous to creatine, inhibits the replication of cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster, and herpes simplex types 1 and 2, in low millimolar concentrations; furthermore, dietary cyclocreatine reduces morbidity and mortality in mice infected with HSV-2. The fact that both creatine and cyclocreatine exert neuroprotective and cancer-retardant effects in rodents, encourages the speculation that creatine shares the anti-viral activity of cyclocreatine. Pilot studies to assess the impact of creatine loading on recurrence of oral and genital herpes appear warranted; the impact of creatine on shingles occurrence in high-risk patients could also be explored. Although initially conceived as an aid to athletic performance, creatine loading may prove to have broad preventive and therapeutic applications. PMID:11516222

Ness, S R; McCarty, M F

2001-09-01

120

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Fulminant Hepatitis Successfully Treated with Acyclovir  

PubMed Central

Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is characterized by progressive multiple organ failure and high mortality rates up to 85% for untreated neonates. It can result from infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2. We report the first known case of disseminated neonatal herpes associated with fulminant liver failure caused by HSV-2 who survived without liver transplant. PMID:24027697

Abuhasna, Said D.; Shihab, Zuhair M.; Al Niyadi, Shaikha M.; Tatari, Hossam M.; Al Jundi, Amer H.; Atwa, Khalid H.

2012-01-01

121

Bilateral Symmetrical Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent 15-Year-Old Adolescent Boy  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent children. The bilateral symmetrical occurrence of herpes zoster lesions is extremely rare. We report a 15-year-old immunocompetent Chinese adolescent boy who developed bilateral symmetrical herpes zoster lesions. To our knowledge, the occurrence of bilateral symmetrical herpes zoster lesions in an immunocompetent individual has not been reported in the pediatric literature.

Barankin, Benjamin

2015-01-01

122

Paedocypris, a new genus of Southeast Asian cyprinid fish with a remarkable sexual dimorphism, comprises the world's smallest vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Paedocypris is a new genus of paedomorphic cyprinid fish from highly acidic blackwater peat swamps in Southeast Asia. It includes two new species, one of which (Paedocypris progenetica) appears to be the smallest fish and vertebrate known, with the smallest mature female measuring a mere 7.9?mm. Paedocypris has many ’larval’ features typically associated with paedomorphic fish (e.g. narrow frontals that leave the brain unprotected dorsally by bone and a precaudal larval-fin-fold), but, uniquely among fishes, males also possess highly modified pelvic fins with hypertrophied muscles and a keratinized pad in front of the pelvic girdle, which, we hypothesize, function together as a clasping or holding device, thereby suggesting an unusual reproductive mode. Unfortunately, habitat destruction jeopardizes the survival of these fishes and thus opportunities for further research. PMID:16627273

Kottelat, Maurice; Britz, Ralf; Hui, Tan Heok; Witte, Kai-Erik

2006-01-01

123

Genital Herpes Beliefs: Implications for Sexual Health  

PubMed Central

Study objective Genital herpes (HSV) is exceedingly common in the United States and women are disproportionally affected. This study aims to describe young women’s beliefs about HSV and examine the correlates of those beliefs. Design A 40 item Herpes Representation measure (HSV- RoSTD) and a demographic questionnaire were administered to a convenience sample of young women. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, t-tests and Pearson’s correlations. Setting Four women’s health clinics and one large state university. Participants 302 women aged 18–24. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Four dimensions of HSV representations (cause, identity, future perspective and psychosocial consequences), age and STD testing history. Results Nearly all (98%) believed that HSV would result in genital sores and 68% believed they could tell if their sexual partner had HSV. Most (89%) understood the longevity of HSV, however 30% believed that they could take a pill to get rid of the infection, and 15% indicated that it was likely they would die from HSV. Negative beliefs about the psychosocial impact of HSV were common as 95% indicated they would be depressed and 90% indicated concern about sex and partner notification. Those who were younger and those who had never been tested for STDs believed a genital herpes infection is highly symptomatic. Finally, negative beliefs about the psychosocial consequences of HSV were associated with beliefs about HSV being symptomatic, having a negative impact on future health, and being associated with sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions Young women have misconceptions about HSV, particularly regarding the symptomatology and the role of HSV medication. Noteworthy concerns about the negative psychosocial consequences of an HSV diagnosis were also raised, all of which have implications for young women’s sexual health. PMID:23337309

Falk, Elizabeth C.; Heidrich, Susan M.

2013-01-01

124

Herpes Zoster (Shingles) and Postherpetic Neuralgia  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster (HZ), commonly called shingles, is a distinctive syndrome caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). This reactivation occurs when immunity to VZV declines because of aging or immunosuppression. Herpes zoster can occur at any age but most commonly affects the elderly population. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), defined as pain persisting more than 3 months after the rash has healed, is a debilitating and difficult to manage consequence of HZ. The diagnosis of HZ is usually made clinically on the basis of the characteristic appearance of the rash. Early recognition and treatment can reduce acute symptoms and may also reduce PHN. A live, attenuated vaccine aimed at boosting immunity to VZV and reducing the risk of HZ is now available and is recommended for adults older than 60 years. The vaccine has been shown to reduce significantly the incidence of both HZ and PHN. The vaccine is well tolerated, with minor local injection site reactions being the most common adverse event. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations and treatment of HZ and PHN, as well as the appropriate use of the HZ vaccine. PMID:19252116

Sampathkumar, Priya; Drage, Lisa A.; Martin, David P.

2009-01-01

125

Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

1985-05-01

126

Management strategies for herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.  

PubMed

Evidence-based strategies for the management of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) include the use of antiviral agents in acute zoster and specific analgesics in PHN. Antiviral agents are effective in reducing the severity and duration of acute herpes zoster when given within 72 hours of rash onset, but they do not prevent PHN. Anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, opioids, and topical treatment modalities such as lidocaine-containing patches and capsaicin cream offer moderate pain relief to some patients with PHN, but they may be associated with adverse events that limit their use. Therefore, prevention of herpes zoster and PHN with prophylactic vaccination using the zoster virus vaccine is an effective strategy to reduce the morbidity of these conditions. Treatment modalities are available, however, that may shorten the duration of acute herpes zoster and alleviate the pain of PHN. PMID:17488885

Galluzzi, Katherine E

2007-03-01

127

Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: prevention and management.  

PubMed

The recognizable appearance and the dermatomal distribution of herpes zoster lesions usually enable a clinical diagnosis to be made easily. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia occur mainly in older patients. The role of the varicella vaccine in preventing herpes zoster is uncertain, but is being studied. There is evidence to support using antiviral therapy and possibly low-dose tricyclic antidepressants to prevent postherpetic neuralgia. There is good evidence that treating herpes zoster with antiviral medication is beneficial, particularly in patients older than 50 years with severe outbreaks. The use of steroids has an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. In patients who develop postherpetic neuralgia, there is good evidence to support treatment with gabapentin and tricyclic antidepressants. More evidence for treatment with capsaicin cream, lidocaine patch, and opioids is needed. Intrathecal methylprednisolone is an option for patients with persistent pain. PMID:16190505

Mounsey, Anne L; Matthew, Leah G; Slawson, David C

2005-09-15

128

AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

McCormick, Kathleen

1985-01-01

129

Management of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus are common infections and are seen frequently in clinical practice. Infection with these viruses results in cutaneous lesions that may be diagnosed clinically, but widely available laboratory testing is useful for confirmation. Asymptomatic herpes simplex virus shedding, or "subclinical reactivation," likely occurs in all persons infected with herpes simplex virus and results in the transmission of virus despite the absence of signs or symptoms that suggest active infection. Oral and intravenous acyclovir are effective in treating initial and recurrent herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections. The daily administration of oral acyclovir as suppressive therapy is effective in patients with frequently recurring genital infection with herpes simplex virus by reducing the number of symptomatic recurrences and the frequency of asymptomatic virus shedding. Two new antiviral agents, famciclovir and valacyclovir hydrochloride, have been approved for the short-term treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus and recurrent zoster in nonimmunocompromised hosts. Famciclovir and valacyclovir demonstrate superior pharmacokinetics compared with acyclovir and allow for less frequent daily dosing with higher achievable serum drug concentrations. The attenuated live varicella virus vaccine is now available in the United States and prevents primary varicella-zoster virus infection in susceptible children and adults. PMID:9143202

Erlich, K S

1997-01-01

130

Herpes Simplex Keratitis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To describe a series of 5 patients with herpes simplex virus keratitis (HSK) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) under immunosuppressive treatment. Methods: Retrospective study. Detailed data were obtained regarding symptoms and signs at the initial evaluation, treatment, microbiological diagnostic tests, evolution, and outcomes. Results: Five patients with HSK and RA were identified. Bilateral involvement occurred in 2 patients (40%). Epithelial keratitis was diagnosed in 5 eyes. Three eyes showed severe melting with eye perforation. Gram-positive bacterial co-infections were common in the group with stromal keratitis. We did not find differences in the evolution of the disease based on anti-rheumatoid treatment. Conclusions: The characteristics of HSK in patients with RA differed from HSK in immunocompetent patients. The stromal keratitis cases were very aggressive and difficult to manage, with perforation and gram-positive bacterial co-infection as frequently associated conditions. Prophylactic therapy at standard doses was unsuccessful to avoid recurrences. PMID:25140583

Larrañaga Fragoso, Paula; Boto de Los Bueis, Ana; Bravo Ljubetic, Luciano; Del Hierro Zarzuelo, Almudena; Romero Gómez, M Pilar; Mora Rillo, Marta

2014-08-20

131

Herpes Virus Genome, the Pressure is On  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) packages its microns-long double-stranded (ds) DNA genome into a nanometer-scale protein shell, termed the capsid. Upon confinement within the capsid, neighboring DNA strands experience repulsive electrostatic and hydration forces as well as bending stress associated with the tight curvature required of packaged DNA. By osmotically suppressing DNA release from HSV-1 capsids, we provide the first experimental evidence of a high internal pressure of tens of atmospheres within a eukaryotic human virus, resulting from the confined genome. Furthermore, the ejection is progressively suppressed by increasing external osmotic pressures, which reveals that internal pressure is capable of powering ejection of the entire genome from the viral capsid. Despite billions of years of evolution separating eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages, pressure-driven DNA ejection has been conserved. This suggests it is a key mechanism for viral infection and thus presents a new target for antiviral therapies. PMID:23829592

Bauer, David W.; Huffman, Jamie B.; Homa, Fred L.; Evilevitch, Alex

2013-01-01

132

Characterization, tissue distribution and regulation of agouti-related protein (AgRP) in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti).  

PubMed

Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an important neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding in both mammals and fish. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA sequence for AgRP in a cyprinid fish (Schizothorax prenanti). The AgRP gene, encoding 126-amino acids, was strongly expressed in the brain. The AgRP gene was detected in embryos at developmental stages. Further, its mRNA was detectable in unfertilized eggs. An experiment was conducted to determine the expression profile of AgRP during short-term and long-term fasting of the hypothalamus. The expression level of AgRP in unfed fish was significantly increased at 3 and 4h post-fasting than in fed fish but did not affect AgRP mRNA expression after 14 days fasting. Overall, our results suggest that AgRP is a conserved peptide that might be involved in the regulation of short-term feeding and other physiological function in Schizothorax prenanti. PMID:23774689

Wei, RongBin; Yuan, DengYue; Wang, Tao; Zhou, ChaoWei; Lin, FangJun; Chen, Hu; Wu, HongWei; Yang, ShiYong; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ju; Gao, YunDi; Li, ZhiQiong

2013-09-15

133

Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea  

PubMed Central

Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria. PMID:23144655

Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

2012-01-01

134

Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea.  

PubMed

Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria. PMID:23144655

Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

2012-11-01

135

Conflict between morphology and molecular data: a case of the genus Caryophyllaeus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic tapeworms of cyprinid fishes.  

PubMed

Molecular analysis of an extensive specimen collection of morphologically distinct tapeworms of the genus Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes in the Palaearctic Region, brought evidence of host-related plasticity in critical morphological characters widely used for species circumscription and classification of these tapeworms. The results obtained here do not support the traditionally used morphological concept of species-defining characters of the order Caryophyllidea Carus, 1863, especially due to high morphological plasticity of the scolex and the anterior end of the body. Several morphotypes within both Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) and Caryophyllaeus brachycollis Janiszewska, 1953 generally corresponding to different hosts and geographical regions, were recognised likely suggesting host- and geography-related intraspecific morphological variability. Genetic data confirmed euryxenous host specificity of both species, most profoundly C. laticeps, but did not support the existence of cryptic species. In fact, some of the fish hosts may harbour both of the congeneric species including several of their respective morphotypes. The pattern of morphological and genetic divergence observed in both cestode species studied indicates a scenario of possible host range extensions and subsequent parasite diversification. If molecular sequence variability and host-related morphological polymorphism are confirmed in other groups of monozoic cestodes, it may complicate species identification and straightforward classification of these parasites. PMID:25185405

Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Brabec, Jan; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikulás; Scholz, Tomás

2014-08-01

136

Interaction between type I interferon and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in two genetic lines of common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and its ornamental koi varieties can induce the severe systemic disease known as koi herpesvirus disease. This disease is characterised by a rapid replication and spreading of the virus through multiple organs and results in a fast onset of mortality (starting on Day 6 post infection) in up to 100% of infected fish. During the first phase of viral infections, type I interferons (IFNs) have generally been proven to be essential in inducing an innate immune response; however, very little is known about the type I IFN response to herpesviruses in fish. The aim of this work was to study the type I IFN responses during CyHV-3 infection in 2 genetically divergent lines of common carp which presented differing survival rates. Our results show that CyHV-3 induced a systemic type I IFN response in carp, and the magnitude of type I IFN expression is correlated with the virus load found in skin and head kidney. In this in vivo experimental setup, the level of type I IFN response cannot be linked with higher survival of carp during CyHV-3 infection. PMID:25266898

Adamek, Miko?aj; Rakus, Krzysztof L; Brogden, Graham; Matras, Marek; Chyb, Jaros?aw; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter

2014-09-30

137

The Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Type I Interferon Response to Frog Virus 3: New Insight into Ranavirus Pathogenicity  

E-print Network

The Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Type I Interferon Response to Frog Virus 3: New Insight in RV (frog virus 3 [FV3])-infected tadpoles and adult frogs by quantitative PCR, and a recombinant form the infectious viral burdens in both cases. Adult frogs are naturally resistant to FV3 and clear the infection

Gray, Matthew

138

Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012  

MedlinePLUS

... Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... updated. NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

139

75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FDA-2009-N-0344] Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation...The direct final rule corrects the regulation classifying herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assays by removing the...

2010-09-28

140

Pediatric herpes simplex virus infections: an evidence-based approach to treatment.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus is a common virus that causes a variety of clinical presentations ranging from mild to life-threatening. Orolabial and genital herpes are common disorders that can often be managed in an outpatient setting; however, some patients do present to the emergency department with those conditions, and emergency clinicians should be aware of possible complications in the pediatric population. Neonatal herpes is a rare disorder, but prompt recognition and initiation of antiviral therapy is imperative, as the morbidity and mortality of the disease is high. Herpes encephalitis is an emergency that also requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose. Herpes simplex virus is also responsible for a variety of other clinical presentations, including herpes gladiatorum, herpetic whitlow, eczema herpeticum, and ocular herpes. This issue reviews the common clinical presentations of the herpes simplex virus, the life-threatening infections that require expedient identification and management, and recommended treatment regimens. PMID:24649621

Sanders, Jennifer E; Garcia, Sylvia E

2014-01-01

141

P ICHAI et al HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ASSOCIATED ACUTE LIVER FAILURE: A  

E-print Network

P ICHAI et al HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ASSOCIATED ACUTE LIVER FAILURE: A DIFFICULT DIAGNOSIS Paris Sud, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Villejuif, France Key words: Acute liver failure, Herpes simplex virus, liver transplantation, real time PCR, histology, immunohistochemical Halauthormanuscriptinserm-00097518

Boyer, Edmond

142

Predictive Factors of Herpes Zoster HIV-Infected Patients: Another Adverse Effect of Crack Cocaine  

E-print Network

Predictive Factors of Herpes Zoster HIV-Infected Patients: Another Adverse Effect of Crack Cocaine.001; and in patients previously reported to use crack cocaine AHR=5.9, (95%CI=1.4-25), P=0.02. Herpes zoster incidence inhibitors on herpes zoster incidence. The present study is the first to suggest that crack cocaine

Boyer, Edmond

143

Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) cause prevalent, chronic infections that have serious outcomes in some individuals. Neonatal herpes may occur when the infant traverses the cervix during maternal genital herpes. Genital herpes is a major risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. Considerable efforts have been made to design and test vaccines for HSV, focusing on genital infection with HSV-2. Several protein subunit vaccines based on HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins have reached advanced-phase clinical trials. These antigens were chosen because they are the targets of neutralizing-antibody responses and because they elicit cellular immunity. Encouraging results have been reported in studies of treatment of HSV-seronegative women with a vaccine consisting of truncated glycoprotein D of HSV-2 and a novel adjuvant. Because most sexual HSV transmission occurs during asymptomatic shedding, it is important to evaluate the impact of vaccination on HSV-2 infection, clinically apparent genital herpes, and HSV shedding among vaccine recipients who acquire infection. There are several other attractive formats, including subunit vaccines that target cellular immune responses, live attenuated virus strains, and mutant strains that undergo incomplete lytic replication. HSV vaccines have also been evaluated for the immunotherapy of established HSV infection. PMID:12525427

Koelle, David M.; Corey, Lawrence

2003-01-01

144

Validation of a quantitative PCR diagnostic method for detection of the microsporidian Ovipleistophora ovariae in the cyprinid fish Notemigonus crysoleucas.  

PubMed

Microsporidian parasites are easily detected by light microscopy when infections are heavy and spores are present. However, early infections without spores, or light infections with low numbers of spores, are easily missed. This limitation has made it difficult to conduct investigations into microsporidian prevalence and transmission. In this study, we developed a quantitative TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay to assess the presence of Ovipleistophora ovariae in the tissues of the cyprinid fish Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner). The efficiency of the primer set was 100.8%, with a correlation coefficient of threshold position to copy number of 0.997 over 9 logs using a plasmid containing the cloned reaction product. No product was produced from other closely related microsporidian species (Nucleospora salmonis, Pseudoloma neurophila, Glugea stephani, Heterosporis sp., and O. mirandella). The coefficient of variation for replicate assays done on different days was 12.4%. The assay detects O. ovariae reliably at less than 10 genomic copies and 0.14 spores per reaction, but maximum sensitivity is only achieved when sonication is included as part of the DNA purification step. Using the assay, we found 4.44 x 10(1) to 7.91 x 10(6) copies microg(-1) host DNA in female golden shiners, with the spore density increasing during the spawning season. The parasite was also detected for the first time in the testes of male golden shiners at 2.60 x 10(1) to 8.62 x 102 copies microg(-1) host DNA. PMID:17803107

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Goodwin, Andrew E

2007-07-16

145

Acute Toxicity, Respiratory Reaction, and Sensitivity of Three Cyprinid Fish Species Caused by Exposure to Four Heavy Metals  

PubMed Central

Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg2+ to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L?1, 0.23 mg L?1, and 0.10 mg L?1, respectively; of Cu2+0.17 mg L?1, 0.09 mg L?1, and 0.12 mg L?1 respectively; of Cd2+6.5 mg L?1, 18.47 mg L?1, 5.36 mg L?1, respectively; and of Zn2+44.48 mg L?1, 31.37 mg L?1, and 12.74 mg L?1, respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg2+ and Cu2+ (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd2+. Zn2+ had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L?1, 0.046 mg L?1, 2.142 mg L?1, and 0.633 mg L?1 for Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor. PMID:23755209

Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

2013-01-01

146

Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.  

PubMed Central

The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

1997-01-01

147

Vaccination against Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia  

PubMed Central

Background. Herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) cause significant morbidity in older adults. The incidence and severity of HZ and PHN increase with age in association with an age-related decline in varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (VZV-CMI). VZV vaccines can boost VZV-CMI. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that VZV vaccination would protect older adults against HZ and PHN. Methods. We enrolled 38,546 adults ?60 years of age in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of an investigational HZ vaccine and actively followed subjects for the development of HZ. The primary end point was the burden of illness due to HZ (HZ BOI), a composite measure of the incidence, severity, and duration of pain and discomfort caused by HZ. The secondary end point was the incidence of PHN. Results. Subject retention was >95%. HZ vaccine reduced the HZ BOI by 61.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.1%–69.1%; P < .001) and reduced the incidence of PHN by 66.5% (95% CI, 47.5%–79.2%; P < .001). The incidence of HZ was also reduced by 51.3% (95% CI, 44.2%–57.6%; P < .001). HZ vaccine was well tolerated; injection site reactions were generally mild. HZ vaccine neither caused nor induced HZ. Conclusion. The Shingles Prevention Study demonstrated that HZ vaccine significantly reduced the morbidity due to HZ and PHN in older adults. PMID:18419402

Oxman, Michael N.; Levin, Myron J.

2008-01-01

148

Common questions about herpes: analysis of chat-room transcripts.  

PubMed

Patients diagnosed with genital herpes typically undergo a period of psychological adjustment. Although healthcare providers can play a key role in this adjustment, in several patient surveys patients have expressed dissatisfaction with the information and counselling offered by professionals. To address this gap, providers must first identify the common questions and myths that are not addressed, or are addressed inadequately. This article is that first step. Through a content analysis of herpes chat-room transcripts captured on their website from autumn 2001 to spring 2006, researchers from the American Social Health Association identified common herpes questions and myths. The 1968 chat passages were coded into 12 themes and 50 sub-themes. Frequently, visitors' questions concerned transmission, symptoms and diagnosis followed by natural history, psychosocial issues and treatment options. The results of this analysis will aid in the creation of tailored messages to address common factual questions and provide psychosocial support. PMID:19306604

Gilbert, Lisa K; Omisore, Folashade

2009-01-01

149

Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: An Examination of Psychological Antecedents  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster and an associated complication, postherpetic neuralgia, are both attributable to the varicella zoster virus. This virus, which lies dormant within the affected sensory ganglia after an initial infection, appears to be triggered in part by a decrease in immunity. According to available research, stress, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms are identified antecedents to outbreaks of herpes zoster. Likewise, the development of postherpetic neuralgia has been associated with the psychological antecedents of somatization, nonspecific personality psychopathology, hypochondriasis, and somatic symptoms. Also studied, the role of mood and anxiety symptoms as antecedents for postherpetic neuralgia remains controversial. In conjunction with other factors (e.g., age, nutritional status, comorbid medical diseases), stress and psychological symptoms may contribute to a lowering of immunity and thereby function as antecedents as well as consequents of both herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Few studies have examined explicit psychiatric diagnoses and their association with varicella zoster virus reactivation. PMID:25152845

Sansone, Lori A.

2014-01-01

150

Genome analysis and detection of a Chilean isolate of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete genome of the Chilean isolate Cl-766 of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) has been sequenced. This is the first genome sequence obtained from a GLRaV-3 isolate of the Southern hemisphere.\\u000a The genomic RNA of 17,919 nucleotides contains 13 open reading frames (ORFs) with 5? and 3? untranslated regions (UTR) of\\u000a 158 and 277 nucleotides, respectively. Comparison with NY1, the

Esteban A. Engel; Cristobal Girardi; Paula F. Escobar; Vania Arredondo; Calixto Domínguez; Tomás Pérez-Acle; Pablo D. T. Valenzuela

2008-01-01

151

A New Species of Raiamas (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Lower Congo River, with a Phylogenetic Assessment of the Generic Limits of the Predatory Cyprinid Genera Opsaridium, Raiamas, and Leptocypris  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of ongoing survey work in the lower Congo River, two collections of an undescribed species of the predatory cyprinid genus Raiamas have been made; one in the Congo main channel in the vicinity of Inga, and a second in the Inkisi River, a large south bank tributary of the Congo. Discovery of this new taxon has prompted

Melanie L. J. Stiassny; Robert C. Schelly; Ulrich K. Schliewen; D. Buth

2006-01-01

152

Isolated ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is a viral disease presenting with vesicular eruptions that are usually preceded by pain and erythema. Herpes zoster can be seen in any dermatome of the body but most commonly appears in the thoracic region. Herpes zoster virus is typically transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The virus remains dormant in the dorsal ganglion of the affected individual throughout his or her lifetime. Herpes zoster reactivation commonly occurs in elderly people due to normal age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication and is defined as persistent pain or dysesthesia 1 month after resolution of the herpetic rash. This article describes a healthy 51-year-old woman who experienced a burning sensation and shooting pain along the ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve. Ten days after the onset of pain, she developed cutaneous vesicular eruption and decreased light-touch sensation. Wrist and fourth and fifth finger range of motion were painful and slightly limited. Muscle strength was normal. Nerve conduction studies indicated an ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve lesion. She was treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and the use of a short-arm resting splint. At 5-month follow-up, she reported no residual pain, numbness, or weakness. Herpes zoster in the upper extremity may be mistaken for entrapment neuropathies and diseases characterized by skin eruptions; ulnar nerve zoster reactivation is rarely seen. The authors report an uncommon ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation. Clinicians should be aware of this virus during patients' initial evaluation. PMID:24025017

Kayipmaz, Murat; Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Kural, Cemal

2013-09-01

153

Identification of a novel cyprinid herpesvirus 3 genotype detected in koi from the East Asian and South-East Asian Regions.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is a highly contagious virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and considered to be one of the most important pathogens of koi and common carp worldwide. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infected consignments imported from East Asian and South-East Asian regions were identified during quarantine period in Singapore, and virus from a 2005 consignment was successfully isolated in koi fin cells. A combination of sequence analyses and duplex PCR were used to characterize 15 CyHV-3 isolates detected in koi consignments between 2005 and 2011. Sequence analyses of the enlarged 9/5, SphI-5 and TK gene regions identified both the Asian 1 (n = 11) and European 4 (n = 4) genotypes. Duplex PCR analysis of two variable marker regions between ORF29 and ORF30 (marker I) as well as ORF133 and its upstream region (marker II) revealed viruses of genotypes J (I(++) II(+) ), U/I (I(--) II(-) ), an intermediate genotype (I(++) II(-) ) and a novel genotype, I(++) II(+?) , which was identified in viruses from seven different consignments. This novel genotype has a 13-bp deletion in marker II, while maintaining the I(++) allele of marker I. The I(++) II(+?) genotype may have emerged from East Asian and South-East Asian regions in recent years. PMID:25297376

Chen, J; Chee, D; Wang, Y; Lim, G Y; Chong, S M; Lin, Y N; Huangfu, T

2014-10-01

154

Specific Detection and Identification of Herpes B Virus by a PCR-Microplate Hybridization Assay  

PubMed Central

Herpes B virus DNA was specifically amplified by PCR, targeting the regions that did not cross-react with herpes simplex virus (HSV). The amplified products, which were shown to be highly genetic polymorphisms among herpes B virus isolates, were identified by microplate hybridization with probes generated by PCR. The products immobilized in microplate wells were hybridized with the biotin-labeled probes derived from the SMHV strain of herpes B virus. The amplified products derived from the SMHV and E2490 strains of herpes B virus were identified by microplate hybridization. PCR products amplified from the trigeminal ganglia of seropositive cynomolgus macaques were identified as herpes B virus DNA. The utility of the PCR-microplate hybridization assay for genetic detection and identification of the polymorphic region of herpes B virus was determined. PMID:15131142

Oya, Chika; Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Taniuchi, Yojiro; Takano, Takashi; Ueda, Fukiko; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Hondo, Ryo

2004-01-01

155

AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS IN HUMAN CELLS.  

PubMed

Tankersley, Robert W., Jr. (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond). Amino acid requirements of herpes simplex virus in human cells. J. Bacteriol. 87:609-613. 1964.-Progressive infection of human cells minimally infected with herpes simplex virus requires 11 of the amino acids of Eagle's medium, and glutamine. Lysine is not required, but rather exerts a partially inhibitory effect upon virus multiplication. Infected cells deprived of arginine support neither cytopathogenic effects nor virus replication; when arginine is replaced, a prompt and extensive infection follows. The effect of nutritional deficiencies on virus infection is discussed. PMID:14127578

TANKERSLEY, R W

1964-03-01

156

Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks. PMID:25387508

Marques, Silvio Alencar; Hortense, Juliana

2014-12-01

157

Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

2008-01-01

158

Characterization of the 3' terminal 42 nucleotide host protein binding element of the mouse hepatitis virus 3' untranslated region  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 3' TERMINAL 42 NUCLEOTIDE HOST PROTEIN BINDING ELEMENT OF THE MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS 3' UNTRANSLATED REGION A Dissertation by REED FINDLEY JOHNSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... OF THE MOUSE HEPATITIS VIRUS 3' UNTRANSLATED REGION A Dissertation by REED FINDLEY JOHNSON Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by...

Johnson, Reed Findley

2004-09-30

159

Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.  

PubMed

In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

2014-11-01

160

Compartmentalization of Spermine and Spermidine in the Herpes Simplex Virion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enveloped particles of herpes simplex virus produced in human cells in culture contained spermidine and spermine, in a molar ratio of 1.6 ± 0.2. The spermine present within the nucleocapsid is sufficient to neutralize at least 40% of the viral DNA. Disruption of the envelope with nonionic detergent and urea resulted in the selective loss of spermidine. Exogenous ornithine can

Wade Gibson; Bernard Roizman

1971-01-01

161

Herpes simplex virus infection of the human sensory neuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 was used to infect cultures of human embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells. Infected cultured were studied by electron microscopy. Viral nucleocapsids were observed to be internalized into neuronal cells bodies and neuritic extensions by fusion of the viral envelope and the plasma membrane. No signs of internalization by endocytosis were noted. Nucleocapsids were

E. Lycke; B. Hamark; Maria Johansson; Antonina Krotochwil; J. Lycke; B. Svennerholm

1988-01-01

162

The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

McNab, Warren L.

1979-01-01

163

Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

Rodu, Brad; And Others

1992-01-01

164

Humoral response to herpes simplex virus is complement-dependent  

E-print Network

immunity. Recent studies have revealed that complement links innate and adaptive immunity via complement are the first line of defense en- countered by invading infectious agents. Cellular mechanisms include such strategies have been hypothesized (6). Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a latent infection in neuronal

Knipe, David M.

165

Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus Replication by Tobacco Extracts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with the genesis of leukoplakias, epithelial atypia, and oral cancer. Tobacco habits, such as snuff dipping, are also definitely corre lated with this type of lesion. The normal cytolytic HSV-1 infection can, after in vitro inactivation, transform cells. Extracts of snuff were prepared and assayed for their ability to inhibit HSV-1

Jan-Michael Hirsch; Bo Svennerholm; Anders Vahlne

166

Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis Secondary to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2.  

PubMed

Progressive outer retinal necrosis is an aggressive form of necrotizing herpetic retinitis that presents in immunocompromised patients. It is usually secondary to varicella zoster virus or, rarely, herpes simplex virus type 1. The authors report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 in a patient with a history of congenital herpes. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:xxx-xxx.]. PMID:24988530

Bartolini, Claudia E; Liang, Michelle C; Goldberg, Roger A; Goldman, Darin R; Witkin, Steve R; Duker, Jay S

2014-06-01

167

Diagnostic delay in a case of herpes simplex encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most frequent cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis in the Western world. Definitive diagnosis by viral PCR of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and treatment with aciclovir have improved the prognosis significantly. Nevertheless, the condition is rare and presents with non-specific symptoms that can easily be mistaken for systemic infection or non-infective encephalopathy. We report a case of HSE which was not recognised by four separate doctors, leading to substantial delay in diagnosis and treatment. Our patient presented with fever, headaches, altered behaviour and generalised bradykinesia. This was initially diagnosed as otitis interna (labyrinthitis) and, subsequently, an ischaemic stroke. There was a delay of 10 days in the initiation of aciclovir from symptom onset. MRI and CSF PCR confirmed herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection. The patient improved on aciclovir, but is disabled with word-finding difficulties and cognitive slowing. PMID:21686359

Shalchi, Zaid; Bennett, Alan; Hargroves, David; Nash, James

2009-01-01

168

Herpes simplex encephalitis presenting with normal CSF analysis.  

PubMed

A 28 years old female presented with headache, fever, altered sensorium and right side weakness for one week. She was febrile and drowsy with right sided hemiplegia and papilledema. Tuberculous or bacterial meningitis, tuberculoma and abscess were at the top of the diagnosis list followed by Herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis (HSE). MRI showed abnormal signal intensity of left temporal lobe without significant post-contrast enhancement and midline shift. CSF examination was normal, gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed no micro-organism, or acid fast bacilli. CSF for MTB PCR was negative. PCR DNA for Herpes simplex 1 on CSF was detected. Acyclovir was started and the patient was discharged after full recovery. A high index of suspicion is required for HSE diagnosis in Pakistan where other infections predominantly affect the brain and HSE may be overlooked as a potential diagnosis. PMID:24169394

Ahmed, Rizwan; Kiani, Ismaa Ghazanfar; Shah, Faridullah; Najeeb-ur-Rehman, Rao; Ehsan-ul-Haq, M

2013-11-01

169

Physical mapping of herpes simplex virus-induced polypeptides.  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the polypeptides induced by 29 herpes simplex virus type 1/type 2 intertypic recombinants and correlation of the data with the crossover points in the recombinant DNAs have enabled the map positions of many polypeptides to be deduced. These include 25 polypeptides which label with [35S]methionine, 11 which label with [32P]orthophosphate, and 4 which label with [14C]glucosamine. Together with the data of Preston et al. (J. Virol., in press) on the mapping of five immediate-early polypeptides, the results show that representatives of four groups of proteins--immediate-early, late, phosphorylated, and glycosylated--map in both long and short regions. The functional organization of the herpes simplex virus genome does not therefore restrict any of these four groups to either the long or the short region. Images PMID:214583

Marsden, H S; Stow, N D; Preston, V G; Timbury, M C; Wilkie, N M

1978-01-01

170

The floccular syndrome in herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis.  

PubMed

A woman with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encephalitis had downbeat nystagmus. The nystagmus was robust in primary gaze but attenuated during upgaze, suggestive of the flocculus involvement. FLAIR and T2-sequences of the brain MRI revealed cerebral lesions typical of HSV1, but also patchy hyperintensities in bilateral flocculi. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV1 infection. Encephalopathy and downbeat nystagmus gradually improved with acyclovir therapy. PMID:23218757

Shaikh, Aasef G; Termsarasab, Pichet; Riley, David E; Katirji, Bashar

2013-02-15

171

Treatment of recurrent genital herpes with interferon alpha-2alpha.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of parenteral administration of interferon alpha-2alpha in the treatment of recurrent herpes genitalis. A total of 97 patients (66 males, 31 females, mean age 34.86 +/-16.74 years), who had at least five recurrences of genital herpes during the previous 12 months, participated in a prospective open study on the effects of treatment with interferon alpha-2alpha (Roferon-A; Roche). The patients were treated with interferon alpha-2alpha (3 x 10(6) IU) by subcutaneous injection, three times weekly for 4 weeks, and the same schedule was repeated after 3 and 6 months. All patients were asymptomatic at the start of the study. After initiation of treatment, all patients reported to the clinic every 3 months for 2 years (the males were submitted to peoscopy and the females to Pap test and colposcopy) at the time of their recurrences. Comparison was made of the number of recurrences, duration of lesions, duration and severity of pain, and itching and burning. Prophylactic administration of interferon alpha-2alpha prevented recurrences of genital herpes virus infection in 51 patients (20 males and 31 females). Interferon administration shortened the healing time from 8.5 days before treatment to 2.5 days after treatment (p < 0.001). There was a significant reduction in the number of recurrences during the study period, from 7.46 before treatment to 2.64 after treatment (p < 0.001). On the basis of the overall efficacy and adverse effects, this regimen may be of value in the routine treatment of recurrent herpes. PMID:9692344

Cardamakis, E; Relakis, K; Kotoulas, I G; Michopoulos, J; Metallinos, K; Mantouvalos, H; Tzingounis, V

1998-01-01

172

Epigallocatechin Gallate Inactivates Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of a fully effective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine, topical microbicides represent an important strategy for preventing HSV transmission. ()-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (molecular weight, 458.4) is the primary catechin in green tea. The present study shows that EGCG has greater anti-HSV activity than other green tea catechins and inactivates multiple clinical isolates of HSV type 1 (HSV-1)

Charles E. Isaacs; Guang Y. Wen; Weimin Xu; Jun Hua Jia; Lisa Rohan; Christopher Corbo; Vincenzo Di Maggio; Edmund C. Jenkins; Sharon Hillier

2008-01-01

173

Prolonged maternal postpartum fever and neonatal herpes infection.  

PubMed

Maternal postpartum fever that is suggestive of endometritis often triggers evaluation of the mother and newborn infant for bacterial infection. Two neonates whose mothers had persistent postpartum fever despite broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy developed disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Obstetric and pediatric healthcare providers should be mindful of possible HSV infection if there is postpartum fever unresponsive to antibiotics, and both mother and neonate should be evaluated appropriately and treated promptly. PMID:25179382

Anyebuno, M; Lopez-Medina, E; Sánchez, P J

2014-09-01

174

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF HEPARIN ON HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS1  

PubMed Central

Nahmias, André J. (Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass.), and Sidney Kibrick. Inhibitory effect of heparin on herpes simplex virus. J. Bacteriol. 87:1060–1066. 1964.—A substance inhibitory to herpes simplex virus was observed during experiments with leukocyte cultures. The component in the cultures responsible for this inhibition was identified as heparin. The minimal inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 30 to 300 tcd50 of the virus in human amnion tissue culture was found to be 1 to 2 units per ml (10 to 20 ?g/ml). This effect was confirmed with other strains of herpes simplex virus, other tissue-culture systems, and other media. The inhibitory activity of the heparin was found to be related to the sulfate groupings on the molecule. The effect of heparin appears to be on the virus, rather than on the cell. The virus is not inactivated, however, and the heparin-virus “complex” is readily dissociable on dilution. Heparin was shown to affect viral infection in its earliest phase, probably at the primary electrostatic attachment of virus to cell. The import of these and related observations on common virological laboratory procedures and the possible biological significance of our findings are discussed. PMID:4289440

Nahmias, André J.; Kibrick, Sidney

1964-01-01

175

Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: prevention and management.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster (shingles) is diagnosed clinically by recognition of the distinctive, painful vesicular rash appearing in a unilateral, dermatomal distribution. An estimated 1 million cases occur in the United States each year, and increasing age is the primary risk factor. Laboratory testing, including polymerase chain reaction, can confirm atypical cases. Treatment with acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir decreases the duration of the rash. Adjunct medications, including opioid analgesics, tricyclic antidepressants, or corticosteroids, may relieve the pain associated with acute herpes zoster. There is conflicting evidence that antiviral therapy during the acute phase prevents postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia in the cutaneous nerve distribution may last from 30 days to more than six months after the lesions have healed. Evidence supports treating postherpetic neuralgia with tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, pregabalin, long-acting opioids, or tramadol; moderate evidence supports the use of capsaicin cream or a lidocaine patch as a second-line agent. Immunization to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia is recommended for most adults 60 years and older. PMID:21671543

Fashner, Julia; Bell, Amanda L

2011-06-15

176

Determinants of disclosure of genital herpes to partners  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify factors which determine whether and when patients will disclose infection with genital herpes to sexual partners. Methods: The sample was 26 women and 24 men attending a herpes clinic in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Semistructured interviews yielded quantitative data and also qualitative data which were subjected to content analysis. Results: Characteristics of partners were very important in determining whether disclosure occurred. Respondents were less likely to tell partners regarded as casual. Perception of the likely reaction of partners was important in deciding whether to tell. Many respondents assumed that they were not infectious if they were not currently having an attack or if they were taking antiviral medication. The decision whether to tell tended to be based on considerations of likely discovery and of honesty towards the partner rather than control of transmission. Of patient characteristics only self rated depressed mood was related to disclosure to the most recent partner. Conclusions: Perception of the partner and anticipated partner response is crucially important in determining whether and when disclosure of genital herpes infection occurs. PMID:12576613

Green, J; Ferrier, S; Kocsis, A; Shadrick, J; Ukoumunne, O; Murphy, S; Hetherton, J

2003-01-01

177

Defensive effects of a fucoidan from brown alga Undaria pinnatifida against herpes simplex virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from an edible brown alga Undaria pinnatifida, was previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the in vitro replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 is a member of herpes viruses that cause infections ranging from trivial mucosal ulcers to life-threatening disorders in immunocompromised hosts. In the in vivo conditions, the replication

Kyoko Hayashi; Takahisa Nakano; Minoru Hashimoto; Kenji Kanekiyo; Toshimitsu Hayashi

2008-01-01

178

Rapid Communication Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant  

E-print Network

herpes simplex virus 1 infection and prevents ocular disease Allison L. van Lint, Ernesto Torres-Lopez 1 27 August 2007 Abstract Ocular infections with herpes simplex virus 1 can lead to corneal scarring, to protect against HSV-1 corneal infection. Immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 reduced viral replication

Knipe, David M.

179

A Comparison of Herpes Zoster Incidence across the Spectrum of Chronic Kidney Disease, Dialysis and Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effect of different renal replacement therapies on the risk of developing herpes zoster in renal failure patients is unknown. We aimed to investigate the incidence of herpes zoster attack among renal failure patients who were receiving different dialysis modalities, renal transplantation (RT), or not receiving any of the above mentioned therapies yet. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of

Shih-Yi Lin; Jiung-Hsiun Liu; Cheng-Li Lin; I-Ju Tsai; Pei-Chun Chen; Chi-Jung Chung; Yao-Lung Liu; I-Kuan Wang; Hsin-Hung Lin; Chiu-Ching Huang

2012-01-01

180

Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

2008-01-01

181

Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

2000-06-01

182

Grover's disease secondarily infected with herpes simplex virus and Staphylococcus aureus: case report and review.  

PubMed

The case of a 73-year old man with herpes simplex and staphylococcus aureus infection complicating established Grover's disease is presented. This was treated successfully with valaciclovir. While reports of bacterial and herpetic infections complicating other acantholytic diseases, such as Darier's disease, have been published previously, only one publication to date shows herpes simplex infection in Grover's disease. PMID:23013197

Bunce, Penelope Am; Stanford, Duncan G

2013-11-01

183

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81),

G. Mazzanti; L. Battinelli; C. Pompeo; A. M. Serrilli; R. Rossi; I. Sauzullo; F. Mengoni; V. Vullo

2008-01-01

184

Rapid Detection of Cutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus Infection with the Polymerase Chain Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and specific method for detecting herpes simplex virus infection in routinely processed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens is described. DNA is extracted from paraffin blocks, and subjected to DNA amplification with the polymerase chain reaction. After 40 rounds, an amplified band can be detected after agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. This band is specific for herpes simplex virus,

Ming Cao; Xiao Xiao; Barbara Egbert; Teresa M. Darragh; T. S. Benedict Yen

1989-01-01

185

Herpes zoster: burden of disease in France. S. Gonzalez Chiappe a, b  

E-print Network

reports on another nine health indicators (flu, diarrhoea, male urethritis, chickenpox, Lyme disease1 Herpes zoster: burden of disease in France. Authors S. Gonzalez Chiappe a, b , M. Sarazin a, b Herpes zoster: burden of disease in France. This work provides estimates of HZ incidence and HZ

Boyer, Edmond

186

Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, c...

187

Concurrent Reactivation of Herpes Simplex and Varicella Zoster Viruses Confirmed by the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay  

PubMed Central

Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses is rare. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with herpes labialis and herpes zoster manifesting as a right-side facial eruption with vesicles and crusting. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay demonstrated the presence of both herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus in swab samples taken from the face, which was confirmed by real-time PCR, suggesting concurrent reactivation of both viruses. The use of the LAMP assay in the present case indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis of atypical herpes infections. PMID:24575004

Kobayashi, Tsukane; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2014-01-01

188

Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.  

PubMed

Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

2014-09-01

189

THE PROBLEM OF THE ETIOLOGY OF HERPES ZOSTER.  

PubMed

Attempts were made to produce lesions in. animals by the injection of material obtained from the vesicles and involved skin of nine cases of herpes zoster. All the cases, with the exception of one (Case II), were characteristic cases of idiopathic herpes zoster and the question of their being cases of so called zosteriform herpes or symptomatic herpes zoster can hardly be raised. As regards Case II, if this case occurred alone, there might be some doubt as to its nature on account of the mildness of the symptoms and the small area of skin involvement. Taken in connection with Cases III and IV, however, which occurred in the same ward and in patients who were quite closely in contact with Patient II, it seems fairly reasonable to assume that they were all of the same character. Cases of herpes zoster have been extremely rare in this hospital and the occurrence of three cases in the same ward within a very short period of time suggests very strongly a transference of infection from one case to the other. That Case II was not one of herpes simplex also seems fairly certain from the negative results obtained by inoculation of rabbits' eyes with vesicle material. In making the animal experiments we employed various methods which were suggested largely by the technique used by previous observers, especially by those who have reported results which were considered positive. In making inoculations into the corneas the technique recommended by Lipschütz was employed as far as possible. Young rabbits were used and the material was obtained from fresh vesicles early in the disease and inoculated with as little delay as possible. The material injected into rabbits' eyes was obtained from seven cases and twenty-four rabbits were used. In judging of the results obtained in this kind of experimentation great caution must be observed. Our experience convinces us that slight opacities occurring along the lines of scarification and mild conjunctivitis cannot be held to indicate the effect of a specific virus. As regards the interpretation of the microscopic changes found, we were quite familiar with the appearance of intranuclear inclusion bodies as seen in the lesions of experimental herpes simplex and the filterable virus (Virus III) indigenous to rabbits described by Rivers and Tillett (5). We also had no difficulty in imding intranuclear inclusions in the sections of skin removed from patients. It is not likely, therefore, that these structures were overlooked in our study of the sections. Briefly stated, although the material studied was satisfactory and in spite of the fact that a considerable number of animals were used for each case, we have been unable to confirm the observations of Lipschütz regarding the experimental production of specific lesions in the corneas of rabbits. We realize that this is only negative evidence and therefore not of conclusive importance in view of Lipschütz's observations. It indicates, however, that the production of specific lesions in rabbits' eyes with material from herpes zoster vesicles is extremely difficult and that successful results may be a matter of chance, depending, possibly, on peculiar susceptibility on the part of the rabbits. In view of the fact, however, that a careful analysis of the positive results reported by other observers shows that the conclusions were based on insufficient evidence, we believe that further work is necessary before the successful inoculation of the rabbits' corneas with herpes zoster virus can be accepted as fully demonstrated. To make the evidence convincing specific lesions should be obtained with a fair degree of regularity and the virus should be successfully transmitted through at least two generations. Apparently the latter was not attempted by Lipschütz. Intracerebral inoculations into three rabbits with material from two cases (Nos. I and IV) were made. Two rabbits were also inoculated intraspinally with material from one case (No. IV). None of these animals showed any reaction. In the case of one of the animals inoculated into the brain (Case I)

Cole, R; Kuttner, A G

1925-11-30

190

Psychosocial implications of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed Central

Fifty seven patients experiencing first attacks of genital herpes simplex virus infection (HSVI) were compared with 50 patients who were concerned about frequently recurring attacks despite routine counselling and reassurance. Using the general health questionnaire this latter group was found to be more psychologically distressed and more socially naive than the first attack group, as measured by socioeconomic class and the lie score of the Eysenck personality questionnaire; otherwise the two groups were similar. Patients presenting to clinics with frequently recurring genital HSVI may therefore be especially psychologically distressed, socially naive, and disadvantaged. Managing these patients needs to include understanding these problems as well as giving advice and using antiviral agents. PMID:3203933

Goldmeier, D; Johnson, A; Byrne, M; Barton, S

1988-01-01

191

Current management and recommendations for access to antiviral therapy of herpes labialis  

PubMed Central

Herpes labialis is a common skin infective condition, worldwide, which is primarily caused by HSV-1. Recurrent episodes of herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, can be frequent, painful, long-lasting and disfiguring for infected patients. At present, there are two types of antivirals for the treatment of herpes labialis, topical and oral, which are available over the counter or as prescription-only. The aim of antiviral therapy is to block viral replication to enable shortening the duration of symptoms and to accelerate healing of the lesions associated with herpes labialis. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of current topical and oral antivirals in the management of recurrent episodes of herpes labialis. In most countries, oral antivirals for herpes labialis are available as prescription-only. However, in early 2010, the oral antiviral famciclovir was reclassified from prescription-only medicine to pharmacist-controlled status in New Zealand. The benefits and risks associated with moving an antiviral therapy for herpes labialis from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled status are reviewed here, and the implications for patients, general physicians and pharmacists are considered. PMID:21889905

Cunningham, Anthony; Griffiths, Paul; Leone, Peter; Mindel, Adrian; Patel, Rajul; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard

2012-01-01

192

The Molecular Biology of Frog Virus 3 and other Iridoviruses Infecting Cold-Blooded Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the best characterized member of the family Iridoviridae. FV3 study has provided insights into the replication of other family members, and has served as a model of viral transcription, genome replication, and virus-mediated host-shutoff. Although the broad outlines of FV3 replication have been elucidated, the precise roles of most viral proteins remain unknown. Current studies using knock down (KD) mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMO) and small, interfering RNAs (siRNA), knock out (KO) following replacement of the targeted gene with a selectable marker by homologous recombination, ectopic viral gene expression, and recombinant viral proteins have enabled researchers to systematically ascertain replicative- and virulence-related gene functions. In addition, the application of molecular tools to ecological studies is providing novel ways for field biologists to identify potential pathogens, quantify infections, and trace the evolution of ecologically important viral species. In this review, we summarize current studies using not only FV3, but also other iridoviruses infecting ectotherms. As described below, general principles ascertained using FV3 served as a model for the family, and studies utilizing other ranaviruses and megalocytiviruses have confirmed and extended our understanding of iridovirus replication. Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease. PMID:22069524

Chinchar, V. Gregory; Yu, Kwang H.; Jancovich, James K.

2011-01-01

193

Inflammation-Induced Reactivation of the Ranavirus Frog Virus 3 in Asymptomatic Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Natural infections of ectothermic vertebrates by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae) are rapidly increasing, with an alarming expansion of RV tropism and resulting die-offs of numerous animal populations. Notably, infection studies of the amphibian Xenopus laevis with the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) have revealed that although the adult frog immune system is efficient at controlling RV infections, residual quiescent virus can be detected in mononuclear phagocytes of otherwise asymptomatic animals following the resolution of RV infections. It is noteworthy that macrophage-lineage cells are now believed to be a critical element in the RV infection strategy. In the present work, we report that inflammation induced by peritoneal injection of heat-killed bacteria in asymptomatic frogs one month after infection with FV3 resulted in viral reactivation including detectable viral DNA and viral gene expression in otherwise asymptomatic frogs. FV3 reactivation was most prominently detected in kidneys and in peritoneal HAM56+ mononuclear phagocytes. Notably, unlike adult frogs that typically clear primary FV3 infections, a proportion of the animals succumbed to the reactivated FV3 infection, indicating that previous exposure does not provide protection against subsequent reactivation in these animals. PMID:25390636

Robert, Jacques; Grayfer, Leon; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Ward, Brian; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

2014-01-01

194

Host specificity and colony impacts of the fire ant pathogen, Solenopsis invicta virus 3.  

PubMed

An understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed laboratory colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 genera and 4 subfamilies to this virus. Despite extreme exposure during these tests, active, replicating infections only occurred in Solenopsis invicta Buren and hybrid (S. invicta×S. richteri) fire ant colonies. The lack of infections in test Solenopsis geminata fire ants from the United States indicates that SINV-3 is restricted to the saevissima complex of South American fire ants, especially since replicating virus was also found in several field-collected samples of the black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri Forel. S. invicta colonies infected with SINV-3 declined dramatically with average brood reductions of 85% or more while colonies of other species exposed to virus remained uninfected and healthy. The combination of high virulence and high host specificity suggest that SINV-3 has the potential for use as either a biopesticide or a self-sustaining biocontrol agent. PMID:23665158

Porter, Sanford D; Valles, Steven M; Oi, David H

2013-09-01

195

Invasive cyprinid fish in Europe originate from the single introduction of an admixed source population followed by a complex pattern of spread.  

PubMed

The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential. PMID:21674031

Simon, Andrea; Britton, Robert; Gozlan, Rodolphe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hänfling, Bernd

2011-01-01

196

Non-structural protein pORF 12 of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is recognized by the immune system of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is an important pathogen and the causative agent of koi herpesvirus disease, which has been associated with mass mortalities in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Currently, the only available commercial vaccine is an attenuated version of the virus. This has led to concerns about its risk to reversion to virulence. Furthermore, the vaccine is currently only available in Israel and the United States. In order to investigate the antigenic profile of the virus, western blot was performed using infected cell culture supernatant and sera from carp that had survived exposure to the virus. Only one antigen could be detected, and mass spectrometry analysis identified the corresponding protein as ORF 12, a putative secreted tumour necrosis factor receptor homologue. In other herpesviruses, such proteins have been associated with the viral infectious process in a number of ways, including the entry into the host cell and the inhibition of apoptosis in infected cells. The reason why only one antigen could be detected during this study is unknown. PMID:25320039

Kattlun, Julia; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2014-10-16

197

Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

2014-01-01

198

Invasive Cyprinid Fish in Europe Originate from the Single Introduction of an Admixed Source Population Followed by a Complex Pattern of Spread  

PubMed Central

The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential. PMID:21674031

Simon, Andrea; Britton, Robert; Gozlan, Rodolphe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Hänfling, Bernd

2011-01-01

199

A case of diaphragmatic paralysis complicated by herpes-zoster virus infection.  

PubMed

Diaphragmatic paralysis is commonly caused by surgical and traumatic injuries, malignant neoplasm, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, in rare instances, diaphragmatic paralysis due to herpes-zoster virus infection has been reported. Here, we describe an 85-year-old woman who developed left hemidiaphragmatic paralysis within 19 days of the appearance of a typical herpes-zoster rash involving the C4-5 dermatome on the left side. Clinical and radiological findings revealed no local causes of phrenic nerve lesion. The hemidiaphragmatic paralysis was thought to be caused by herpes-zoster virus infection. PMID:22687801

Oike, Miki; Naito, Toshio; Tsukada, Mizuha; Kikuchi, Yasumi; Sakamoto, Naoharu; Otsuki, Yukiko; Ohshima, Hiroko; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Isonuma, Hiroshi; Dambara, Takashi

2012-01-01

200

THE ETIOLOGIC AGENTS OF VARICELLA AND HERPES ZOSTER  

PubMed Central

Fourteen strains of virus derived from the cutaneous lesions of cases of varicella and eight from patients with herpes zoster were propagated serially in primary explant cultures of human preputial or embryonic skin-muscle tissue. Infectious material could not be demonstrated in the fluid phase of infected cultures and inocula for passage therefore consisted of suspensions of infected tissue. Such tissue suspensions when stored in the frozen state did not regularly retain infectivity. The cytopathic process was focal and appeared to develop as the result of transfer of infectious material from cell to contiguous cell. Optimum development of the focal lesions in vitro related directly to conditions favoring optimum tissue growth and was further influenced by the spatial relationship of the tissue outgrowth. A variety of types of cells of human origin and several of monkey origin were susceptible to infection and responded with the formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies. The cellular response otherwise was variable, ranging from simple rounding with little change in size to the formation of large multinucleated cytoplasmic syncytia. Strains of virus recovered from patients with varicella and from patients with herpes zoster could not be distinguished on the basis of their cultural attributes. PMID:13598816

Weller, Thomas H.; Witton, Helen M.; Bell, E. John

1958-01-01

201

Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms. PMID:23752649

Hadigal, Satvik; Shukla, Deepak

2013-01-01

202

Mouse hepatitis virus-3 induced prothrombinase (Fgl2) maps to proximal chromosome 5  

SciTech Connect

Infection with mouse hepatitis virus-3 (MHV-3), a member of the coronavirus family, leads to a strain-dependent spectrum of liver disease. Mice of the BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA strains are fully susceptible, exhibiting 100% mortality when infected with as little as 0.1 PFU of MHV-3, while A/J mice are resistant, as defined by complete survival and normal liver histology after infection with 2 X 10{sup 4} PFU. All of these strains are permissive for viral replication, suggesting that host immune factors, rather than viral cytopathology, are responsible for the observed difference in mortality. While the pathogenesis of MHV-3-induced liver disease is not fully understood, several lines of evidence indicate that local activation of the coagulation cascade prior to detectable viral replication plays an important role in liver cell injury. First, microscopy performed early in the infection of susceptible mice has shown sinusoidal thrombosis and foci of coagulation necrosis associated with varying degrees of inflammatory cell infiltration. Second, a correlation between disease severity and the induction of macrophage procoagulant activity (PCA) has been established, with susceptible mice developing an earlier and heightened PCA response relative to resistant strains. Finally, treatment of mice with a monoclonal antibody to MHV-3-induced PCA prevents the lethality associated with infection. Genetic linkage in the form of an identical strain distribution pattern was established between susceptibility to infection with MHV-3 and inducible macrophage PCA, using the set of AXB/BXA recombinant inbred strains derived from resistant (A/J) and susceptible (C57BL/6J) progenitors. 18 refs., 1 tab.

Qureshi, S.T. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); [Montreal General Hospital (Canada); Clermont, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fung, Lai Sum [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others] [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); and others

1995-09-01

203

Structure of the Acidianus Filamentous Virus 3 and Comparative Genomics of Related Archaeal Lipothrixviruses?  

PubMed Central

Four novel filamentous viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, namely, Acidianus filamentous virus 3 (AFV3), AFV6, AFV7, and AFV8, have been characterized from the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus, and they are assigned to the Betalipothrixvirus genus of the family Lipothrixviridae. The structures of the approximately 2-?m-long virions are similar, and one of them, AFV3, was studied in detail. It consists of a cylindrical envelope containing globular subunits arranged in a helical formation that is unique for any known double-stranded DNA virus. The envelope is 3.1 nm thick and encases an inner core with two parallel rows of protein subunits arranged like a zipper. Each end of the virion is tapered and carries three short filaments. Two major structural proteins were identified as being common to all betalipothrixviruses. The viral genomes were sequenced and analyzed, and they reveal a high level of conservation in both gene content and gene order over large regions, with this similarity extending partly to the earlier described betalipothrixvirus Sulfolobus islandicus filamentous virus. A few predicted gene products of each virus, in addition to the structural proteins, could be assigned specific functions, including a putative helicase involved in Holliday junction branch migration, a nuclease, a protein phosphatase, transcriptional regulators, and glycosyltransferases. The AFV7 genome appears to have undergone intergenomic recombination with a large section of an AFV2-like viral genome, apparently resulting in phenotypic changes, as revealed by the presence of AFV2-like termini in the AFV7 virions. Shared features of the genomes include (i) large inverted terminal repeats exhibiting conserved, regularly spaced direct repeats; (ii) a highly conserved operon encoding the two major structural proteins; (iii) multiple overlapping open reading frames, which may be indicative of gene recoding; (iv) putative 12-bp genetic elements; and (v) partial gene sequences corresponding closely to spacer sequences of chromosomal repeat clusters. PMID:17942536

Vestergaard, Gisle; Aramayo, Ricardo; Basta, Tamara; Häring, Monika; Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Chen, Lanming; Rachel, Reinhard; Boisset, Nicolas; Garrett, Roger A.; Prangishvili, David

2008-01-01

204

Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

1999-06-01

205

Legal and Moral Considerations in Educating Children with Herpes in Public School Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines legal and moral implications in providing classroom education to children with herpes. Conclusions suggest the integration of the child into educationally appropriate programs during the disease's inactive stage. (CL)

Guess, Doug; And Others

1984-01-01

206

PARAMETERS DISTINGUISHING HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED TUMORIGENIC AND NONTUMORIGENIC RAT CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

A newly developed experimental model system was used to determine in vitro transformation-specific parameters which correlate with tumorigenicity. The data suggested that clonal herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syngeneic rat embryo cells with intermediate, transformed rat ...

207

Disseminated herpes simplex infection during pregnancy, rare but important to recognise  

PubMed Central

Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy is a rare, but potentially fatal condition. We present a case where prompt treatment with intravenous acyclovir resulted in a successful outcome for both mother and baby. PMID:25320695

Hussain, Nawar Younis; Uriel, Alison; Mammen, Catherine; Bonington, Alec

2014-01-01

208

Stimulation of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes by Herpes Simplex Virus in Vitro  

PubMed Central

A method for stimulating sensitized lymphocytes by inactivated herpes simplex virus was established by using cultures of washed whole blood cells. The development of the immune response of herpes simplex virus-infected guinea pigs was examined at different times in the 4-month period after infection. Humoral and cellular immune responses were compared in individual animals by measuring lymphocyte stimulation ratios and neutralizing serum antibodies. PMID:4372170

Scriba, M.

1974-01-01

209

Mapping of Genes Involved in Murine Herpes Simplex Virus Keratitis: Identification of Genes and Their Modifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is an inflammatory response to viral infection and self antigens in the cornea and is a major cause of blindness. Using two strains of mice which are susceptible (129\\/SVEV) and resistant (C57BL\\/6) to herpes simplex virus (HSV) strain KOS, (129\\/SVEV C57BL\\/6)F2 mice were generated and examined for their disease susceptibility in terms of clinical symptoms, ocular

Kazumi Norose; Akihiko Yano; Xiang-Ming Zhang; Elizabeth Blankenhorn; Ellen Heber-Katz

2002-01-01

210

Physician Attitudes toward the Herpes Zoster Vaccination in South Korea  

PubMed Central

This survey investigated Korean physician attitudes toward the herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. A total of 400 physicians answered a self-reported questionnaire. Most physicians knew that HZ poses a significant socioeconomic burden and had good knowledge about HZ and its vaccine. Physicians who did not recommend HZ vaccine were concerned about costs (90.7%, 78/86) and doubted the effectiveness of the vaccine (58.1%, 50/86). Patient demand had a profound effect on physicians decisions; 84.9% (73/86) of them who said not recommending HZ vaccine reported that they would provide the vaccine upon patient request. In conclusion, educational initiatives should be targeted toward both physicians and patients. PMID:25298909

Yang, Tae Un; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Noh, Ji Yun; Kim, Woo Joo

2014-01-01

211

Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

2015-01-01

212

Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

Sutter, Esther [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Kaech, Andres [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Lucas, Miriam S. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-08-01

213

Stability of herpes simplex virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid specimens.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction methods are becoming the standard for the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. Little is known, however, about the stability of HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Our results demonstrate that HSV DNA is extremely stable in CSF specimens containing lymphocytes and monocytes. We observed little DNA degradation in specimens stored for 30 days at room temperature (20-23 degrees C), refrigerator temperature (2-8 degrees C), or freezer temperatures (-18 to -22 degrees C and -69 to -72 degrees C). Specimen storage conditions are therefore not so critical for HSV encephalitis detection as for other viral illnesses. It is therefore not necessary to perform a second lumbar puncture to obtain a fresh specimen for the detection of HSV DNA. PMID:8955615

Wiedbrauk, D L; Cunningham, W

1996-12-01

214

Novel approaches in fighting herpes simplex virus infections  

PubMed Central

The development of novel strategies to eradicate herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a global public health priority. While acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues provide successful modalities for treatment and suppression, HSV remains highly prevalent worldwide and is a major cofactor fueling the HIV epidemic. HSV is the predominant cause of genital ulcerative disease, and neonatal and sporadic infectious encephalitis. Asymptomatic shedding, which occurs more frequently than previously appreciated, contributes to viral transmission. Acyclovir resistance may be problematic for immunocompromised patients and highlights the need for new safe and effective agents. Ideally, vaccines to prevent infection, drugs to inhibit the establishment of or reactivation from latency, or vaginal microbicides to prevent sexual and perinatal transmission are needed to control the epidemic. This review summarizes current therapeutic options and strategies in development. PMID:19485796

Wilson, Sarah S; Fakioglu, Esra; Herold, Betsy C

2009-01-01

215

Sequence structure and intragenomic variability of ribosomal ITS2 in monozoic tapeworms of the genus Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

The sequence structure of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) was determined for six species of Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish in the Holarctic Region. Homologous intragenomic ITS2 structure was found in Khawia armeniaca, Khawia baltica, and Khawia rossittensis; whereas divergent intragenomic ITS2 copies were detected in Chinese, Japanese, and Slovak isolates of Khawia sinensis and in Khawia japonensis, both parasitic in common carp, and in Khawia saurogobii, recently described from Chinese lizard gudgeon in China. Despite distinct morphological differences between K. saurogobii and K. sinensis, both species display very high level of molecular homogeneity. Variation in number of short repetitive motifs [(GCCT)(n) (GCCC)(n)], [(GTG)(n)], [(ATAC)(n)], [ACGTGT (TCGTGT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], [(GT)(n)], and [(ACCT)(n) (GCCT)(n)] resulted in assortment of ITS2 sequences in four ITS2 variants in K. saurogobii from China, three in Chinese and Japanese isolates of K. sinensis, and five ITS2 variants in K. sinensis from Slovakia. In K. japonensis, the structure and arrangement of microsatellites was different from those of K. sinensis and K. saurogobii. The heterogeneity in the number of two microsatellite regions [(TG)(n); (TTG)(n)] divided ITS2 clones into two variants-first ITS2 variant (472 bp) with (TG)(5) and (TTG)(6), and second variant with (TG)(7) and (TTG)(2) (465 bp). Sequence identity of K. saurogobii with all but one (K. sinensis) congeneric species ranged between 49.5 and 69.2%, which corresponds to the interspecific differences. In contrast, sequence identity of K. saurogobii and K. sinensis (87.6-95.0%) failed into the range of intraspecific variation determined for K. sinensis samples. This close genetic similarity indicates that recently described K. saurogobii may have undergone morphological divergence as a result of ongoing sympatric speciation by host switching. PMID:22814768

Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Oros, Mikuláš; Scholz, Tomáš

2012-10-01

216

Sensitivity and permissivity of Cyprinus carpio to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 during the early stages of its development: importance of the epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes a lethal disease in common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study investigated the ability of CyHV-3 to infect common carp during the early stages of its development (from embryos to fingerlings) after inoculation by immersion in water containing the virus. Fish were inoculated at different times after hatching with a pathogenic recombinant CyHV-3 strain expressing luciferase. The sensitivity and permissivity of carp to CyHV-3 were investigated using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The susceptibility of carp to CyHV-3 disease was investigated by measuring the survival rate. Carp were sensitive and permissive to CyHV-3 infection and susceptible to CyHV-3 disease at all stages of development, but the sensitivity of the two early developmental stages (embryo and larval stages) was limited compared to later stages. The lower sensitivity observed for the early developmental stages was due to stronger inhibition of viral entry into the host by epidermal mucus. In addition, independent of the developmental stage at which inoculation was performed, the localization of light emission suggested that the skin is the portal of CyHV-3 entry. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that carp are sensitive and permissive to CyHV-3 at all stages of development and confirm that the skin is the major portal of entry after inoculation by immersion in infectious water. The results also stress the role of epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier against pathogens even and especially at the early stages of development. PMID:25281322

Ronsmans, Maygane; Boutier, Maxime; Rakus, Krzysztof; Farnir, Frédéric; Desmecht, Daniel; Ectors, Fabien; Vandecan, Michaël; Lieffrig, François; Mélard, Charles; Vanderplasschen, Alain

2014-10-01

217

Whole-genome sequence of a novel Chinese cyprinid herpesvirus 3 isolate reveals the existence of a distinct European genotype in East Asia.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), can be subdivided primarily into European and Asian genotypes, which are represented by CyHV3-U or CyHV3-I and CyHV3-J, respectively. In this study, the whole genome sequence of a novel Chinese CyHV3 isolate (GZ11) was determined and annotated. CyHV3-GZ11 genome was found to contain 295,119 nucleotides with 52.9% G/C content, which is highly similar to those of published CyHV3-U, CyHV3-I, and CyHV3-J strains. With reference to CyHV3-U, CyHV3-I, and CyHV3-J, CyHV3-GZ11 was also classified into 164 open reading frames (ORF), which include eight repeated ORFs. On the basis of the 12 alloherpeviruses core genes, results from phylogenetic analysis showed that CyHV3-GZ11 had closer evolutionary relationships with CyHV3-U and CyHV3-I than with CyHV3/KHV-J, which were also supported by genome wide-based single nucleotide substitution analysis and the use of a series of developed molecular markers. This study was the first to reveal the presence of a distinct European CyHV3 genotype in East and Southeast Asia at a whole genome level, which will evoke new insights on exploring the origin, evolution, and epidemiology of the virus. PMID:25510475

Li, Wei; Lee, Xuezhu; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

2015-02-25

218

Characterization of a new cell line from caudal fin of koi, Cyprinus carpio koi, and first isolation of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in China.  

PubMed

A new continuous cell line (KCF-1) from caudal fin of koi, Cyprinus carpio koi, was developed and sub-cultured more than 100 passages since the present study was initiated in March 2006. KCF-1 predominantly consisted of short fibroblast-like cells and grew well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Chromosome analysis revealed that 56% of the KCF-1 cells maintained normal diploid chromosome number (2n=100) at Passage 82. Using the KCF-1 cell line, a strain of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (designated as CyHV-3-QY08) was isolated from the diseased koi. CyHV-3-QY08 continuously propagated in the KCF-1 cells, as confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). KCF-1 cells infected with CyHV-3-QY08 produced typical cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation, deformation of nuclei, and marginalization of the nuclear chromatin, which are consistent with those of previous reports. CyHV-3-QY08 was purified and subsequently analyzed by SDS-PAGE and TEM. The results showed that the purified virions contained two types of morphologies and were composed of more than 30 obvious viral polypeptides. An infectivity experiment revealed that CyHV-3-QY08 could cause 100% mortality in the infected koi. Based on the genome sequence of CyHV-3-I/U, the CyHV-3(I/U)-ORF136 homologue in CyHV-3-QY08 was cloned and sequenced. Multiple sequence alignments of CyHV-3-I/U-ORF136 homologues showed that CyHV-3-QY08 belonged to the typical Asian genotype. The CyHV-3(I/U)-ORF136 homologue seems to be a novel molecule marker, which can be used to distinguish Asia isolates from Europe-America strains. PMID:21839788

Dong, Chuanfu; Weng, Shaoping; Li, Wei; Li, Xuezhu; Yi, Yang; Liang, Qiuling; He, Jianguo

2011-11-01

219

Prevalence and characteristics of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) inhabiting three rivers in Kochi Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes lethal disease in common and koi carp. Mortality by CyHV-3 disease has not been reported since 2011 in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Here, we detected and quantified CyHV-3 in common carp inhabiting three rivers in the prefecture to examine if the carp are carriers of CyHV-3 as a source of infection. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 16.7% (12/72) of brain samples in Kagami River, 3.9% (3/76) of brain and 3.9% (3/76) of gill samples in Monobe River, and 5.1% (4/79) of brain and 1.3% (1/79) of gill samples in Wajiki River. CyHV-3 genotypes identified in the 23 samples were classified as the J genotype A1 that has been found in Japan. The CyHV-3 DNA load did not differ statistically between sampling months, indicating that CyHV-3 has been silent in common carp, unlike Lake Biwa where the annual reactivation occurs in spring. Taken together, our results represented definitive evidence that seasonal changes in water temperature do not affect CyHV-3 activity in carp. Considering that infectious virus was not isolated from CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples, it was suggested that CyHV-3 establishes a latent infection in carp populations inhabiting Kagami River, Monobe River and Wajiki River. Further, the presence of circular or concatameric CyHV-3 DNA was detected in five of 23 CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples. Common carp inhabiting Lake Biwa were reported previously to harbor linear but not circular CyHV-3 DNA. This difference suggested that the CyHV-3 genome may be circularized for long-term maintenance without active viral replication. PMID:25554244

Fujioka, Hiroya; Yamasaki, Kenichi; Furusawa, Keiki; Tamura, Kazuki; Oguro, Kazuki; Kurihara, Sumire; Seki, Shingo; Oshima, Syun-Ichirou; Imajoh, Masayuki

2015-02-25

220

Animal models of herpes simplex virus immunity and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous human pathogens represented by two distinct serotypes: herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1); and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). In the general population, adult seropositivity rates approach 90 % for HSV-1 and 20-25 % for HSV-2. These viruses cause significant morbidity, primarily as mucosal membrane lesions in the form of facial cold sores and genital ulcers, with much less common but more severe manifestations causing death from encephalitis. HSV infections in humans are difficult to study in many cases because many primary infections are asymptomatic. Moreover, the neurotropic properties of HSV make it much more difficult to study the immune mechanisms controlling reactivation of latent infection within the corresponding sensory ganglia and crossover into the central nervous system of infected humans. This is because samples from the nervous system can only be routinely obtained at the time of autopsy. Thus, animal models have been developed whose use has led to a better understanding of multiple aspects of HSV biology, molecular biology, pathogenesis, disease, and immunity. The course of HSV infection in a spectrum of animal models depends on important experimental parameters including animal species, age, and genotype; route of infection; and viral serotype, strain, and dose. This review summarizes the animal models most commonly used to study HSV pathogenesis and its establishment, maintenance, and reactivation from latency. It focuses particularly on the immune response to HSV during acute primary infection and the initial invasion of the ganglion with comparisons to the events governing maintenance of viral latency. PMID:25388226

Kollias, Christina M; Huneke, Richard B; Wigdahl, Brian; Jennings, Stephen R

2015-02-01

221

Functional inaccessibility of quiescent herpes simplex virus genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Newly delivered herpes simplex virus genomes are subject to repression during the early stages of infection of human fibroblasts. This host defence strategy can limit virus replication and lead to long-term persistence of quiescent viral genomes. The viral immediate-early protein ICP0 acts to negate this negative regulation, thereby facilitating the onset of the viral replication cycle. Although few mechanistic details are available, the host repression machinery has been proposed to assemble the viral genome into a globally inaccessible configuration analogous to heterochromatin, blocking access to most or all trans-acting factors. The strongest evidence for this hypothesis is that ICP0-deficient virus is unable to reactivate quiescent viral genomes, despite its ability to undergo productive infection given a sufficiently high multiplicity of infection. However, recent studies have shown that quiescent infection induces a potent antiviral state, and that ICP0 plays a key role in disarming such host antiviral responses. These findings raise the possibility that cells containing quiescent viral genomes may be refractory to superinfection by ICP0-deficient virus, potentially providing an alternative explanation for the inability of such viruses to trigger reactivation. We therefore asked if ICP0-deficient virus is capable of replicating in cells that contain quiescent viral genomes. Results We found that ICP0-deficient herpes simplex virus is able to infect quiescently infected cells, leading to expression and replication of the superinfecting viral genome. Despite this productive infection, the resident quiescent viral genome was neither expressed nor replicated, unless ICP0 was provided in trans. Conclusion These data document that quiescent HSV genomes fail to respond to the virally modified host transcriptional apparatus or viral DNA replication machinery provided in trans by productive HSV infection in the absence of ICP0. These results point to global repression as the basis for HSV genome quiescence, and indicate that ICP0 induces reactivation by overcoming this global barrier to the access of trans-acting factors. PMID:16300675

Minaker, Rebecca L; Mossman, Karen L; Smiley, James R

2005-01-01

222

Herpes simplex encephalitis: diagnostic problems and late relapse.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old female presented with prolonged afebrile right-sided focal seizures, right brachio-facial paralysis, and dysarthria; consciousness was not altered. Fever appeared 20 hours after onset of neurological symptoms. At admission (day 1) cerebral computerized tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses were normal including undetectable alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN) and negative herpes simplex virus (HSV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Acyclovir was started at a dosage of 60mg/kg/day for 21 days and neurological symptoms improved. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed lesions in the left thalamus and left parietal lobe. On day 8, CSF contained an elevated leukocyte count with a predominance of lymphocytes, but alpha-IFN and HSV DNA were still undetectable. Delayed intrathecal synthesis of specific anti-HSV antibodies was found on day 26 and confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) diagnosis. Twenty months after this episode, the patient presented with a febrile meningeal syndrome. PCR detected HSV DNA in CSF and cerebral imaging showed a new left temporal lesion. At relapse onset, intrathecal synthesis of specific anti-HSV antibodies had disappeared. Acyclovir was started at a dosage of 60mg/kg/day for 21 days and neurological status improved. At discharge, neurological examination showed right hemiparesis and bucco-facial dyspraxia. Diagnostic problems of HSE diagnosis in children are highlighted. It is suggested that the premature disappearance of intrathecal synthesis of a specific anti-HSV antibody might play a permissive role in the resurgence of cerebral viral replication. PMID:16359596

De Tiège, Xavier; Rozenberg, Flore; Burlot, Karine; Gaudelus, Joël; Ponsot, Gérard; Héron, Bénédicte

2006-01-01

223

The burden of disease of Herpes Zoster in Tuscany.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster (HZ) is a disease caused by the reactivation of the latent ?-herpes virus varicella zoster virus (VZV), for which, in Italy, a specific surveillance system does not exist, but around 200?000 cases are estimated each year. In older patients, who are at increased risk of developing HZ, symptoms are more severe and the chances to develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the most severe complication, are substantially higher. A vaccine against HZ with demonstrated efficacy and an acceptable safety profile is now available and is recommended in Europe for adults >50 years.   In anticipation of the possible introduction of an immunization programme for the elderly in Tuscany, the burden of disease caused by HZ and its complications was assessed through a retrospective analysis of the hospital discharge records between 2002 and 2012, using the ICD-9-CM 053 code. In the period 2002-2012, 4475 hospital admissions were registered with annual means of 368 hospitalizations and 39 day-hospital admissions. Most of the hospitalizations (68%) involved subjects > 65 years; the mean length of stay was 9.5 days. Slightly more than half (51.2%) of total hospital admissions were complicated cases. The most frequent were neurological complications (24.2% of total admissions), followed by ophthalmic complications (16.5%). Cases with neurological complications were those with the higher average length of stay and higher average costs for case. This study confirmed the epidemiological impact of HZ and its complications and the positive impact on morbidity that the introduction of the HZ vaccination could have in older age groups. PMID:25483534

Levi, Miriam; Bellini, Irene; Capecchi, Leonardo; Pieri, Luca; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Callaioli, Silvia; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Tiscione, Emilia; Bonanni, Paolo

2014-08-19

224

Most Common Dermatologic Topics Published in Five High-Impact General Medical Journals, 1970–2012: Melanoma, Psoriasis, Herpes Simplex, Herpes Zoster, and Acne  

PubMed Central

Context: General practitioners frequently encounter skin diseases and are accustomed to diagnosing the most common dermatologic conditions. Objective: We sought to determine the most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, the Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal (now The BMJ), and Annals of Internal Medicine). Design: We conducted an independent search of the Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index for common dermatologic topics, limited to the period 1970 to 2012. Main Outcome Measure: Total number of publications dealing with each dermatologic topic considered. Results: The five most common dermatologic topics published were melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne. Melanoma and psoriasis were the top two dermatologic topics published in each journal except for Annals of Internal Medicine. Conclusions: Internists frequently diagnose herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne, which are also common dermatologic topics published. Although internists infrequently diagnose melanoma and psoriasis, they are major topics for general medical journals because of their increased community awareness, major advancements in therapeutic research, and their nondermatologic manifestations.

Choi, Young M; Namavar, Aram A; Wu, Jashin J

2014-01-01

225

Evaluation of the in vitro skin permeation of antiviral drugs from penciclovir 1% cream and acyclovir 5% cream used to treat herpes simplex virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus infection (HSV) is a common and ubiquitous infection of the skin which causes mucocutaneous lesions called cold sores (herpes labialis) or fever blisters. It is estimated that approximately 80% of the population worldwide are carriers of the Herpes simplex virus, approximately 40% suffer from recurrent recurrent infections. This study evaluates the in vitro skin permeation and

Nathalie Hasler-Nguyen; Donald Shelton; Gilbert Ponard; Marlene Bader; Martina Schaffrik; Pascal Mallefet

2009-01-01

226

Nelfinavir Inhibits Maturation and Export of Herpes Simplex Virus 1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Nelfinavir (NFV) is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor with demonstrated antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and several other herpesviruses. However, the stages of HSV-1 replication inhibited by NFV have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of NFV on capsid assembly and envelopment. We confirmed the inhibitory effects of NFV on HSV-1 replication by plaque assay and found that treatment with NFV did not affect capsid assembly, activity of the HSV-1 maturational protease, or formation of DNA-containing capsids in the nucleus. Confocal and electron microscopy studies showed that these capsids were transported to the cytoplasm but failed to complete secondary envelopment and subsequent exit from the cell. Consistent with the microscopy results, a light-scattering band corresponding to enveloped virions was not evident following sucrose gradient rate-velocity separation of lysates from drug-treated cells. Evidence of a possibly related effect of NFV on viral glycoprotein maturation was also discovered. NFV also inhibited the replication of an HSV-1 thymidine kinase mutant resistant to nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir. Given that NFV is neither a nucleoside mimic nor a known inhibitor of nucleic acid synthesis, this was expected and suggests its potential as a coinhibitor or alternate antiviral therapeutic agent in cases of resistance. IMPORTANCE Nelfinavir (NFV) is a clinically important antiviral drug that inhibits production of infectious HIV. It was reported to inhibit herpesviruses in cell culture. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections are common and often associated with several diseases. The studies we describe here confirm and extend earlier findings by investigating how NFV interferes with HSV-1 replication. We show that early steps in virus formation (e.g., assembly of DNA-containing capsids in the nucleus and their movement into the cytoplasm) appear to be unaffected by NFV, whereas later steps (e.g., final envelopment in the cytoplasm and release of infectious virus from the cell) are severely restricted by the drug. Our findings provide the first insight into how NFV inhibits HSV-1 replication and suggest that this drug may have applications for studying the herpesvirus envelopment process. Additionally, NFV may have therapeutic value alone or in combination with other antivirals in treating herpesvirus infections. PMID:24574416

Kalu, Nene N.; Desai, Prashant J.; Shirley, Courtney M.; Gibson, Wade; Dennis, Phillip A.

2014-01-01

227

Insights into pediatric herpes simplex encephalitis from a cohort of 21 children from the California Encephalitis Project, 1998-2011.  

PubMed

Twenty-one children with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were identified in the California Encephalitis Project. Noteworthy features included 6 (29%) patients with an initial negative herpes simplex virus cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction test and 13 (59%) patients with extratemporal lobe involvement identified by neuroimaging. Eleven cases were <4 years of age, but all 4 fatal cases occurred in adolescents. PMID:24911898

To, Tu M; Soldatos, Ariane; Sheriff, Heather; Schmid, D Scott; Espinosa, Natasha; Cosentino, Giorgio; Preas, Christopher P; Glaser, Carol A

2014-12-01

228

To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

Farrell, Elizabeth F.

2005-01-01

229

Effect of Famciclovir on Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Corneal Disease and Establishment of Latency in Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Famciclovir (FCV) is efficacious in the treatment of acute herpes zoster and recurrent genital infections but has not been used to treat ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. We evaluated the efficacy of orally administered FCV in treating HSV-1 epithelial keratitis and determined its effects on the establishment of latency and subsequent reactivation. Rabbits were inoculated with HSV-1 strain 17

JEANNETTE M. LOUTSCH; BRUNO SAINZ; MARY E. MARQUART; XIAODONG ZHENG; PRABAKARAN KESAVAN; SHIRO HIGAKI; JAMES M. HILL; RUTH TAL-SINGER

2001-01-01

230

Predictive factors of herpes zoster HIV-infected patients: another adverse effect of crack cocaine.  

PubMed

A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1541 HIV-infected patients to determine variables associated with the incidence of herpes zoster. A single failure Cox model showed that herpes zoster incidence increased following the first 6 months of antiretroviral treatment adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=5 (95%CI=2.6-9.2), P<0.001; in the >60 years age group AHR=2 (95%CI=1-4), P=0.04; in patients in the top CD8 quartile AHR=2.1 (95%CI=1.3-3.6), P<0.001; and in patients previously reported to use crack cocaine AHR=5.9, (95%CI=1.4-25), P=0.02. Herpes zoster incidence increased in patients with CD4 counts<500 per mm(3) and gradually declined since 1992-1996, with AHR=0.3 (95%CI=0.2-0.5), P<0.001 for the 1997-2002 period and AHR=0.24 (95%CI=0.14-0.4), P<0.001 for the 2002-2008 period. Contrary to what has been described elsewhere, there was no specific effect of protease inhibitors on herpes zoster incidence. The present study is the first to suggest that crack cocaine is associated with an increased incidence of herpes zoster. The neurological or immunological effects of crack are discussed. PMID:24244647

Nacher, Mathieu; Basurko, Celia; Adenis, Antoine; Gaubert-Marechal, Emilie; Mosnier, Emilie; Edouard, Sophie; Vantilcke, Vincent; Sivapregassam, Sindou; Tressières, Benoit; Cabié, André; Couppié, Pierre

2013-01-01

231

The use of FTIR microscopy for evaluation of herpes viruses infection development kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of Herpes simplex infection development was studied using an FTIR microscopy (FTIR-M) method. The family of herpes viruses includes several members like H. simplex types I and II (HSV I, II), Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses which are involved in various human and animal infections of different parts of the body. In our previous study, we found significant spectral differences between normal uninfected cells in cultures and cells infected with herpes viruses at early stages of the infection. In the present study, cells in cultures were infected with either HSV-I or VZV and at various times post-infection they were examined either by optical microscopy or by advanced FTIR-M. Spectroscopic measurements show a consistent decrease in the intensity of the carbohydrate peak in correlation with the viral infection development, observed by optical microscopy. This decrease in cellular carbohydrate level was used as indicator for herpes viruses infection kinetics. This parameter could be used as a basis for applying a spectroscopic method for the evaluation of herpes virus infection development. Our results show also that the development kinetics of viral infection has an exponential character for these viruses.

Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mukmanov, Igor; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2004-08-01

232

Characterization of an ERAD pathway for non-glycosylated BiP substrates which requires Herp  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY To investigate the disposal of non-glycosylated BiP substrates, we used a non-secreted ? LC, which exists in a partially (ox1) and completely (ox2) oxidized state. The ox2 form is partially reduced in order to be degraded and only the ox1 form is ubiquitinated and associates with both Herp, and Derlin-1. Herp is in a complex with ubiquitinated proteins and with the 26S proteasome, suggesting that it plays a role in linking substrates with the proteasome. Over-expressed Herp also interacts with two other BiP substrates but not with two calnexin substrates. Either expression of p97 or Hrd1 mutants, which are in a complex with Herp and Derlin-1, or reducing Herp levels inhibited the degradation of the BiP substrates, whereas the latter had no effect on the degradation of the calnexin substrates. This suggests that there is some distinction in the pathways used to dispose of these two types of ERAD substrates. PMID:18042451

Okuda-Shimizu, Yuki; Hendershot, Linda M.

2007-01-01

233

Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.  

PubMed

There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

2013-10-01

234

Acute postoperative herpes zoster with a sciatic nerve distribution after total joint arthroplasty of the ipsilateral hip and contralateral knee.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of a patient with acute onset of hip pain during the postoperative recovery period after total hip arthroplasty includes sciatic nerve injury, infection, incisional pain, hardware, or simply muscular issues related to overactivity. Moreover, because the rash of herpes zoster develops after 4 or 5 days of pain, it is difficult to diagnose herpes zoster during the early period. A number of reports have been issued on herpes zoster after surgery or trauma, but no report is available on herpes zoster development with a sciatic nerve distribution after ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty. The authors report the case of 75-year-old woman with herpes zoster with a sciatic nerve distribution after 2 primary total joint arthroplasties of a hip and knee. PMID:19056216

Park, Kyung Soon; Yoon, Taek Rim; Kim, Sung Kyu; Park, Hyeoung Won; Song, Eun Kyoo

2010-04-01

235

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an otherwise healthy 7 years child.  

PubMed

A 07 years otherwise healthy child, non vaccinated for chickenpox and with a history of chickenpox infection at 02 years of age presented with red colored lesions in right upper lid, right side of forehead, vertex and right side of nose and defective vision in right eye in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, 20 days after the appearance of blister in the same region. On examination granulation tissue was present on the same area. There was no hair and skin over that area. Lesion was strictly limited to right side of midline. Eyelashes of right upper lid were absent and there was defective closure of eyelids. Best corrected visual acuity of right eye was 3/60 and of left eye was 6/6. There was ciliary congestion of right eye with haziness of cornea at interpalpebral region of right eye. Corneal sensitivity was reduced and there was uniform fluorescein staining at central part of cornea. Mild flare and cells were present in anterior chamber. Fundus examination revealed no abnormality. He was treated with systemic acyclovir, antibiotics, topical acyclovir, antibiotic and atropine. Corneal ulcer and skin lesions were healed, but the patient developed cicatricial ectropion of right upper lid and best corrected visual acuity of right eye was reduced to 6/60 due to corneal opacity. So early diagnosis and treatment of herpes zoster ophthalmicus is mandatory to prevent sight threatening complications. PMID:17703164

Akhanda, A H; Quayum, M A; Uddin, A; Ahmed, N; Uddin, T; Ahmed, T

2007-07-01

236

Human herpes virus 6B: a possible role in epilepsy?  

PubMed

Human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) infection is nearly ubiquitous in childhood and may include central nervous system invasion. There are two variants, HHV6A and HHV6B. Usually asymptomatic, it is associated with the common, self-limited childhood illness roseola infantum and rarely with more severe syndromes. In patients with immune compromise, subsequent reactivation of viral activity may lead to severe limbic encephalitis. HHV6 has been identified as a possible etiologic agent in multiple sclerosis, myocarditis, and encephalitis. A preponderance of evidence supports an association between HHV6 and febrile seizures. An ongoing multicenter study is investigating possible links between HHV6 infection, febrile status epilepticus, and development of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Investigation of temporal lobectomy specimens showed evidence of active HHV6B but not HHV6A replication in hippocampal astrocytes in about two-thirds of patients with MTS but not other causes of epilepsy. It has been suggested that HHV6B may cause "excitotoxicity" by interfering with astrocyte excitatory amino acid transport. Although conventional inflammatory changes are not found in most MTS specimens, inflammatory modulators may play a role in neuronal injury leading to MTS as well. If the link between early viral infection, complex or prolonged febrile seizures, and later development of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy is confirmed, new therapeutic approaches to a common intractable epilepsy syndrome may be possible. PMID:18627418

Theodore, William H; Epstein, Leon; Gaillard, William D; Shinnar, Shlomo; Wainwright, Mark S; Jacobson, Steven

2008-11-01

237

Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide. PMID:24227835

Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

238

Tranylcypromine Reduces Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the human population and establishes latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. Latent virus can undergo reactivation to cause recurrent infection. Both primary and recurrent infections can cause devastating diseases, including encephalitis and corneal blindness. Acyclovir is used to treat patients, but virus resistance to acyclovir is frequently reported. Recent in vitro findings reveal that pretreatment of cells with tranylcypromine (TCP), a drug widely used in the clinic to treat neurological disorders, restrains HSV-1 gene transcription by inhibiting the histone-modifying enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1. The present study was designed to examine the anti-HSV-1 efficacy of TCP in vivo because of the paucity of reports on this issue. Using the murine model, we found that TCP decreased the severity of wild-type-virus-induced encephalitis and corneal blindness, infection with the acyclovir-resistant (thymidine kinase-negative) HSV-1 mutant, and tissue viral loads. Additionally, TCP blocked in vivo viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglia. These results support the therapeutic potential of TCP for controlling HSV-1 infection. PMID:24590478

Yao, Hui-Wen; Lin, Pin-Hung; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Tung, Yuk-Ying

2014-01-01

239

Tranylcypromine reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection in mice.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the human population and establishes latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. Latent virus can undergo reactivation to cause recurrent infection. Both primary and recurrent infections can cause devastating diseases, including encephalitis and corneal blindness. Acyclovir is used to treat patients, but virus resistance to acyclovir is frequently reported. Recent in vitro findings reveal that pretreatment of cells with tranylcypromine (TCP), a drug widely used in the clinic to treat neurological disorders, restrains HSV-1 gene transcription by inhibiting the histone-modifying enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1. The present study was designed to examine the anti-HSV-1 efficacy of TCP in vivo because of the paucity of reports on this issue. Using the murine model, we found that TCP decreased the severity of wild-type-virus-induced encephalitis and corneal blindness, infection with the acyclovir-resistant (thymidine kinase-negative) HSV-1 mutant, and tissue viral loads. Additionally, TCP blocked in vivo viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglia. These results support the therapeutic potential of TCP for controlling HSV-1 infection. PMID:24590478

Yao, Hui-Wen; Lin, Pin-Hung; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Hsu, Sheng-Min; Chen, Shun-Hua

2014-05-01

240

Characterization of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus drug candidate.  

PubMed

The structural integrity and conformational stability of a genetically modified live, oncolytic herpes simplex virus (o-HSV) were investigated across a wide pH (5.5-8.0) and temperature (10°C-87.5°C) range. A combination of circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence, and static light scattering results was visualized using an empirical phase diagram approach to provide a global assessment of physical stability. Distinct phases were identified including the native state of the virus, an intermediate phase that could represent gradual swelling and/or shedding of the viral envelope, and a highly disrupted, aggregated phase. The nature of these altered forms of the virus was further evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and viral plaque assays. The effect of freeze-thaw (F/T) stress on o-HSV was also examined. After one F/T cycle, a loss of infectious virus titers was observed. In addition, the monomeric virus particle concentration decreased during F/T stress, whereas there was a concurrent increase in larger particles (2-10 ?m). The comprehensive biophysical characterization of viral stability conducted in this study identified major degradation events leading to loss of infectivity of o-HSV and represents an important step toward stabilization of the virus against thermal and F/T stresses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:485-494, 2015. PMID:25362835

Kumru, Ozan S; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Thapa, Prem; Pheasey, Nigel; Bullock, Paul S; Bashiri, Houman; Siska, Christine S; Kerwin, Bruce A; He, Feng; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

2015-02-01

241

Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

2009-03-01

242

Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection.  

PubMed

The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection.   The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden. PMID:25483704

Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

2015-01-01

243

Reducing the burden of Herpes Zoster in Italy.  

PubMed

Herpes Zoster (HZ) is a viral disease with painful neuro-dermatologic manifestations. Incidence increases with age. In Italy, the estimated incidence is 6.3 cases/1000 person/year; hospital admissions are less than 2%, 69% in patients aged over 65 years. The most frequent complication of HZ is Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) characterized by metameric pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. In Italy 20.6% and 9.2% of HZ patients experience PHN after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Available antiviral and analgesic treatments are relatively unsatisfactory in reducing pain and length of the disease. Prevention has recently become possible with the live attenuated vaccine Oka/Merck. Clinical studies show a reduction of 51% in the incidence of the disease, 61% of its burden and 67% of PHN in vaccinees. Protection seems to be long lasting and vaccine safety matches registration requirements. Available evidence suggests that the costs for QALY (less than € 20?000) and avoided cases is favorable. Due to the heavy burden of disease, it is time to offer this vaccination to elderly population. PMID:25115196

Gabutti, Giovanni; Franco, Elisabetta; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Ferro, Antonio; Lazzari, Marzia; Maggi, Stefania; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Volpi, Antonio; Greco, Donato

2014-08-01

244

Reducing the burden of Herpes Zoster in Italy.  

PubMed

Herpes Zoster (HZ) is a viral disease with painful neuro-dermatologic manifestations. Incidence increases with age. In Italy, the estimated incidence is 6.3 cases/1000 person/year; hospital admissions are less than 2%, 69% in patients aged over 65 years. The most frequent complication of HZ is Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) characterized by metameric pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. In Italy 20.6% and 9.2% of HZ patients experience PHN after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Available antiviral and analgesic treatments are relatively unsatisfactory in reducing pain and length of the disease. Prevention has recently become possible with the live attenuated vaccine Oka/Merck. Clinical studies show a reduction of 51% in the incidence of the disease, 61% of its burden and 67% of PHN in vaccinees. Protection seems to be long lasting and vaccine safety matches registration requirements. Available evidence suggests that the costs for QALY (less than € 20?000) and avoided cases is favorable. Due to the heavy burden of disease, it is time to offer this vaccination to elderly population. PMID:25483522

Gabutti, Giovanni; Franco, Elisabetta; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Ferro, Antonio; Lazzari, Marzia; Maggi, Stefania; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Volpi, Antonio; Greco, Donato

2014-08-01

245

Inhibitory effects of podophyllotoxin derivatives on herpes simplex virus replication.  

PubMed

Podophyllotoxin and its derivatives were examined for inhibitory effects on the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), including acyclovir-resistant virus and clinical isolates. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (RD4-6266) proved to be a highly potent and selective inhibitor of all HSV strains in MRC-5 cells. EC50 values of RD4-6283 (in which the methylenedioxy ring A is modified) for HSV-1 and -2 were inferior to those of deoxypodophyllotoxin. However, podorhizol (RD4-6277) and 5'-methoxy-podorhizol (RD4-6276), in which ring C is absent, did not inhibit HSV replication. Moreover, RD4-6266 also inhibited the production of infectious virus particles of HSV-1 KOS strain and HSV-2 G strain. In contrast, none of the podophyllotoxin derivatives were found to have an antiviral effect against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus or human cytomegalovirus in doses not toxic to the cells. PMID:9875405

Sudo, K; Konno, K; Shigeta, S; Yokota, T

1998-05-01

246

Seroreactive recombinant herpes simplex virus type 2-specific glycoprotein G.  

PubMed

The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genome codes for an envelope protein, glycoprotein G (gG), which contains predominantly type 2-specific epitopes. A portion of this gG gene has been expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Expression was regulated by a lambda phage pL promoter. The 60,000-molecular-weight recombinant protein was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Amino acid sequence analysis confirmed the N terminus of the purified protein. Mice immunized with recombinant gG developed antibodies reactive with native HSV-2 protein, but not with HSV-1 protein, in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The serological activity of this purified recombinant gG protein was evaluated by immunoblot assay. This protein was reactive with an HSV-2 gG monoclonal antibody. It was also reactive with HSV-2 rabbit antiserum but not with HSV-1 rabbit antiserum. Of 15 patient serum samples known to have antibody to HSV-2, 14 were reactive with this recombinant type 2-specific gG protein, and none of 15 HSV antibody-negative patient serum samples showed reactivity. In agreement with the expected prevalence of HSV-2 infection, 27.6% of 134 serum samples from random normal individuals had antibodies reactive with recombinant gG. This recombinant gG protein may be of value in detecting HSV-2-specific antibody responses in patients infected with HSV-2. PMID:1653787

Parkes, D L; Smith, C M; Rose, J M; Brandis, J; Coates, S R

1991-04-01

247

The challenges and opportunities for the development of a T-cell epitope-based herpes simplex vaccine.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) infections have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a billion individuals worldwide. HSV-1 infections are predominant than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries, their development has been difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One "common denominator" among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or a whole viral protein, which contain both "pathogenic symptomatic" and "protective asymptomatic" antigens and epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate developing "asymptomatic" epitope-based sub-unit vaccine strategies that selectively incorporate "protective asymptomatic" epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized by effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (TEM cells) from "naturally" protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models of ocular and genital herpes. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss their current status, challenges, and prospects. PMID:25446827

Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2014-11-28

248

An unusual presentation of herpes infection in the head and neck  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is among a spectrum of viruses known to affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Gingivostomatitis and pharyngitis are the most common clinical manifestations of first-episode HSV infection, whereas recurrent herpes labialis is the most common clinical manifestation of reactivation HSV infection. Herpetic viral infections seldom attack the larynx. Laryngeal disorders provoked by the herpes virus are characterised by a large spectrum of presentations and polymorphisms, and can simulate mucous lesions such as an extensive laryngeal neoplasm (supraglottic tumour). We report a case of a 69-year-old woman, smoker, who presented with a large ulcerated supraglottic mass mimicking laryngeal cancer, requiring emergency tracheostomy for worsening stridor, which turned out to be an HSV laryngitis superimposed onto an underlying Streptococcus A lower respiratory tract infection. The patient was treated for Streptococcus A infection and her symptoms resolved following treatment. Patient's tracheotomy tube was removed on follow-up appointment. PMID:23376665

Sanei-Moghaddam, Ali; Loizou, Peter; Fish, Brian M

2013-01-01

249

Electrochemical direct immobilization of DNA sequences for label-free herpes virus detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA sequences/bio-macromolecules of herpes virus (5'-AT CAC CGA CCC GGA GAG GGA C-3') were directly immobilized into polypyrrole matrix by using the cyclic voltammetry method, and grafted onto arrays of interdigitated platinum microelectrodes. The morphology surface of the obtained PPy/DNA of herpes virus composite films was investigated by a FESEM Hitachi-S 4800. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the PPy/DNA film and to study the specific interactions that may exist between DNA biomacromolecules and PPy chains. Attempts are made to use these PPy/DNA composite films for label-free herpes virus detection revealed a response time of 60 s in solutions containing as low as 2 nM DNA concentration, and self life of six months when immerged in double distilled water and kept refrigerated.

Tam, Phuong Dinh; Trung, Tran; Tuan, Mai Anh; Chien, Nguyen Duc

2009-09-01

250

Herpes esophagitis in the setting of immunosuppression from pemphigus vulgaris therapy.  

PubMed

We report a case of herpes esophagitis in a 35-year-old man with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) who was undergoing treatment with corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune intraepithelial bullous disease resulting from pathogenic IgG antibodies toward desmoglein antigens that often requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy for control of disease symptoms. Herpes esophagitis is an ulcerative eruption caused by viral reactivation in the setting of immunosuppression. Acute odynophagia in patients undergoing systemic treatment of active PV has a broad differential and warrants prompt endoscopic evaluation. PMID:25671444

Kahn, Noah H; Friedmann, Daniel P; Phillips, Charles M

2015-01-01

251

Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Although previous work identified 12 complementation groups with possible roles in virus assembly, currently only one frog virus 3 protein, the major capsid protein (MCP), has been linked with virion formation. To identify other proteins required for assembly, we used an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to target 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, and showed that treatment resulted in marked reductions in 53R levels and a 60% drop in virus titers. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed knock down and showed that 53R was found primarily within viral assembly sites, whereas transmission electron microscopy detected fewer mature virions and, in some cells, dense granular bodies that may represent unencapsidated DNA-protein complexes. Treatment with a myristoylation inhibitor (2-hydroxymyristic acid) resulted in an 80% reduction in viral titers. Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation.

Whitley, Dexter S.; Yu, Kwang; Sample, Robert C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Sinning, Allan [Department of Anatomy, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Henegar, Jeffrey [Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Norcross, Erin [Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Chinchar, V. Gregory, E-mail: vchinchar@microbio.umsmed.ed [Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States)

2010-09-30

252

Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD-nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody. PMID:24100313

Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H-J

2013-10-01

253

Oral Acyclovir Suppression and Neurodevelopment after Neonatal Herpes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Poor neurodevelopmental outcomes and recurrences of cutaneous lesions remain unacceptably frequent among survivors of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease. METHODS We enrolled neonates with HSV disease in two parallel, identical, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Neonates with central nervous system (CNS) involvement were enrolled in one study, and neonates with skin, eye, and mouth involvement only were enrolled in the other. After completing a regimen of 14 to 21 days of parenteral acyclovir, the infants were randomly assigned to immediate acyclovir suppression (300 mg per square meter of body-surface area per dose orally, three times daily for 6 months) or placebo. Cutaneous recurrences were treated with open-label episodic therapy. RESULTS A total of 74 neonates were enrolled — 45 with CNS involvement and 29 with skin, eye, and mouth disease. The Mental Development Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (in which scores range from 50 to 150, with a mean of 100 and with higher scores indicating better neurodevelopmental outcomes) was assessed in 28 of the 45 infants with CNS involvement (62%) at 12 months of age. After adjustment for covariates, infants with CNS involvement who had been randomly assigned to acyclovir suppression had significantly higher mean Bayley mental-development scores at 12 months than did infants randomly assigned to placebo (88.24 vs. 68.12, P = 0.046). Overall, there was a trend toward more neutropenia in the acyclovir group than in the placebo group (P = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS Infants surviving neonatal HSV disease with CNS involvement had improved neurodevelopmental outcomes when they received suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir for 6 months. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; CASG 103 and CASG 104 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00031460 and NCT00031447, respectively.) PMID:21991950

Kimberlin, David W.; Whitley, Richard J.; Wan, Wen; Powell, Dwight A.; Storch, Gregory; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Jacobs, Richard F.; Bradley, John S.; Robinson, Joan L.; Shelton, Mark; Dennehy, Penelope H.; Leach, Charles; Rathore, Mobeen; Abughali, Nazha; Wright, Peter; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Brady, Rebecca C.; Van Dyke, Russell; Weiner, Leonard B.; Guzman-Cottrill, Judith; McCarthy, Carol A.; Griffin, Jill; Jester, Penelope; Parker, Misty; Lakeman, Fred D.; Kuo, Huichien; Lee, Choo Hyung; Cloud, Gretchen A.

2011-01-01

254

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Latency  

PubMed Central

Primary infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can cause clinical symptoms in the peripheral and central nervous system, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Recurrent ocular shedding leads to corneal scarring that can progress to vision loss. Consequently, HSV-1 is the leading cause of corneal blindness due to an infectious agent. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) has similar biological properties to HSV-1 and is a significant health concern to the cattle industry. Latency of BHV-1 and HSV-1 is established in sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia, but latency can be interrupted periodically, leading to reactivation from latency and spread of infectious virus. The ability of HSV-1 and BHV-1 to reactivate from latency leads to virus transmission and can lead to recurrent disease in individuals latently infected with HSV-1. During latency, the only abundant HSV-1 RNA expressed is the latency-associated transcript (LAT). In latently infected cattle, the latency-related (LR) RNA is the only abundant transcript that is expressed. LAT and LR RNA are antisense to ICP0 or bICP0, viral genes that are crucial for productive infection, suggesting that LAT and LR RNA interfere with productive infection by inhibiting ICP0 or bICP0 expression. Numerous studies have concluded that LAT expression is important for the latency-reactivation cycle in animal models. The LR gene has recently been demonstrated to be required for the latency-reactivation cycle in cattle. Several recent studies have demonstrated that LAT and the LR gene inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death) in trigeminal ganglia of infected animals and transiently transfected cells. The antiapoptotic properties of LAT map to the same sequences that are necessary for promoting reactivation from latency. This review summarizes our current knowledge of factors regulating the latency-reactivation cycle of HSV-1 and BHV-1. PMID:12525426

Jones, Clinton

2003-01-01

255

Digallate dimers of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inactivate herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Topical microbicides are potentially an alternative method to vaccines for reducing the spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV). We have previously shown (S. Liu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1723:270-281, 2005) that the catechin (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inactivates HSV at neutral pH; however, to function in the female genital tract EGCG must also be effective at acidic pH. EGCG inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 at pH 8.0 by 3 log(10) to 4 log(10) but was ineffective at pH 5.7. The EGCG digallate dimers theasinensin A, P2, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF-3) inactivated both viruses by 3 log(10) to 4 log(10) at pH 5.7 and as much as 5 log(10) at pH 8.0. TF-3 inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 by 4 to 5 log(10) in the pH range of 4.0 to 5.7. Dimers with one gallate moiety had antiviral activity intermediate between the activities of EGCG and digallate dimers. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that theasinensin A did not damage Vero cells. All EGCG dimers inactivated enveloped viruses with class I, class II, and class III (HSV-1, HSV-2) fusion proteins more effectively than did monomeric EGCG. EGCG had no activity against the nonenveloped viruses tested, but TF-3 reduced the titer of 4 of 5 nonenveloped viruses by ?2 to 3.5 log(10). Results also showed that HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was aggregated more rapidly by theasinensin A than EGCG, which, when taken together with the nonenveloped virus data, suggests that dimers may inhibit the function of viral proteins required for infectivity. Digallate dimers of EGCG appear to have excellent potential as microbicidal agents against HSV at acidic and neutral pHs. PMID:21947401

Isaacs, Charles E; Xu, Weimin; Merz, George; Hillier, Sharon; Rohan, Lisa; Wen, Guang Y

2011-12-01

256

Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998–2004)  

PubMed Central

Background A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted. Methods This study was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD). Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0–053.9) during a 7-year period (1998–2004) were selected. Results A total of 23,584 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster in patients ? 30 years of age were identified during the study period. Annually there were 13.4 hospitalizations for herpes zoster per 100,000 population in patients ? 30 years of age. The rate increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ? 80 years of age (54.3 admissions per 100,000 population >80 years of age). The mean cost of a hospitalization for herpes zoster in adult patients was 3,720 €. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations for herpes zoster in patients ? 30 years of age in Spain was 12,731,954 €. Conclusion Herpes zoster imposes an important burden of hospitalizations and result in large cost expenses to the Spanish National Health System, especially in population older than 50 years of age PMID:19422687

2009-01-01

257

Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated with herpes virus infection; yet, they can also be observed in patients with skin tumors or acantholytic dermatoses. Cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection can coexist in association with other conditions such as acantholytic dermatoses, benign skin tumors, bullous disorders, hematologic malignancies, inflammatory dermatoses, and physical therapies. However, when a herpes virus infection is suspected based upon the discovery of epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis, but either the clinic presentation or lack of response to viral therapy or absence of confirmatory laboratory studies does not support the diagnosis of a viral infection, the possibility of a primary acantholytic dermatosis should be considered and additional lesional skin biopsies performed. Also, because hematoxylin and eosin staining is not the golden standard for confirmation of autoimmune bullous dermatoses, skin biopsies for direct immunofluorescence should be performed when a primary bullous dermatosis is suspected since the histopathology observed on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections can be misleading. PMID:25396080

Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

2014-01-01

258

Comparison of various macrophage-inhibitory agents on vaginal and systemic herpes simplex virus type 2 infections.  

PubMed Central

Pretreatment of mice intraperitoneally with silica, trypan blue, or dextran sulfate to inhibit macrophage function markedly increased the lethality of a systemic intravenous infection with herpes simplex virus type 2, but did not affect the lethality or local virus growth after vaginal infection of mice with herpes simplex virus type 2. Agents which inhibit macrophage function by different mechanisms decreased host resistance to herpes simplex virus type 2, but the effects of macrophage-inhibitory agents may vary according to the route of virus infection. PMID:215548

McGeorge, M B; Morahan, P S

1978-01-01

259

Virucidal activity of polysaccharide extracts from four algal species against herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2) infections are common, but can cause serious infections in neonates and the immunocompromised. Drugs currently used to treat cutaneous or genital HSV infections are effective in limiting disease, but the emergence of drug resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals can be problematic. While the prophylactic oral treatment with antiviral drugs can reduce

Emma A. Harden; Ruth Falshaw; Susan M. Carnachan; Earl R. Kern; Mark N. Prichard

2009-01-01

260

Noninvasive Bioluminescence Imaging of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection and Therapy in Living Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse models of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provide significant insights into viral and host genes that regulate disease pathogenesis, but conventional methods to determine the full extent of viral spread and replication typically require the sacrifice of infected animals. To develop a noninvasive method for detecting HSV-1 in living mice, we used a strain KOS HSV-1 recombinant

Gary D. Luker; J. Patrick Bardill; Julie L. Prior; Christina M. Pica; David Piwnica-Worms; David A. Leib

2002-01-01

261

An siRNA-based microbicide protects mice from lethal herpes simplex virus 2 infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection causes significant morbidity and is an important cofactor for the transmission of HIV infection. A microbicide to prevent sexual transmission of HSV-2 would contribute substantially to controlling the spread of HIV and other infections. Because RNA interference (RNAi) provides effective antiviral defence in plants and other organisms, several studies have focused on harnessing RNAi

Deborah Palliser; Dipanjan Chowdhury; Qing-Yin Wang; Sandra J. Lee; Roderick T. Bronson; David M. Knipe; Judy Lieberman

2006-01-01

262

Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

263

Rapid Communication Herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs expressed abundantly during latent infection are  

E-print Network

(reviewed in Roizman et al., 2007). Following inoculation at a peripheral site, the virus lytically infectsRapid Communication Herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs expressed abundantly during latent infection proteins and are hypothesized to play important roles in establishing and/or maintaining latent infections

Knipe, David M.

264

Specific cell-mediated immunity and infections with herpes viruses in cardiac transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Immune responses and infections with herpes viruses were studied prospectively in 36 cardiac transplant recipients. Specific lymphocyte transformation and interferon production in response to viral antigens, viral culture results, antibody levels, responses to phytohemagglutinin, and T-cell numbers were determined. Responses to phytohemagglutinin and T-cell numbers were depressed for six to 12 weeks. Cytomegalovirus infection occurred in 100 percent of seropositive patients and in 62 percent of seronegative patients. Primary infection was more frequently symptomatic. Heart implantation from a seropositive patient wwas significantly correlated with subsequent infection in seronegative patients. Depression of transformation in response to cytomegalovirus correlated with prolonged shedding. Herpes simplex infection occurred in 95 percent of seropositive patients but decreased after 12 weeks. Asymptomatic shedding was rare, and primary infection did not occur. Return of transformation in response to herpes simplex was associated with decreased infection. Herpes zoster occurred in 22 percent during the first year, and transformation responses to varicella-zoster returned thereafter. Depression of interferon production in response to viruses did not correlate with infection as well as did lymphocyte transformation. PMID:6291387

Pollard, R B; Arvin, A M; Gamberg, P; Rand, K H; Gallagher, J G; Merigan, T C

1982-11-01

265

Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in donor cornea culture medium by polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS\\/BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) may establish latent infection in the cornea and therefore be transmissible by corneal transplantation. Monitoring of donor cornea culture medium was evaluated for HSV infection. METHODS: HSV was sought using virus isolation in cell culture, and its DNA was amplified to detectable levels using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Virus isolation in cell culture

D. J. Morris; G. M. Cleator; P. E. Klapper; R. J. Cooper; E. O. Biney; C. Dennett; B. Marcyniuk; A. B. Tullo

1996-01-01

266

Lactoferrin inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV1) infection to mouse cornea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Lactoferrin inhibits bacterial growth in the conjunctival sac. However, its antiviral function particularly in ocular tissue has not been reported in the literature. We studied whether lactoferrin inhibits infection of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) in vitro using Vero cell monolayer. We also tested the inhibitory effect of lactoferrin on HSV-1 infection in the mouse cornea. Lactoferrin prevented HSV-1

T. Fujihara; K. Hayashi

1995-01-01

267

Herpes-Type Virus and Chromosome Marker in Normal Leukocytes after Growth with Irradiated Burkitt Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured cells derived from male patients with Burkitt's lymphoma and harboring herpes-type virus particles were lethally irradiated. These irradiated cells induced normal peripheral leukocytes of female infants to grow within 2 to 4 weeks after mixed cultivation. Cells of a line free of this agent failed to stimulate growth. If either type of cell was cultured separately, it did not

Werner Henle; Volker Diehl; Gertrude Kohn; Harald Zur Hausen; Gertrude Henle

1967-01-01

268

Temporal Morphogenesis of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1Infected and Brefeldin A-Treated Human Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Insights in the herpesvirus-cell interactions are of general cell biology interest, especially to studies of intracellular transport, and of considerable significance in the efforts to generate drugs, vaccines, and gene therapy. However, the pathway of virus particle egress and matu- ration is a contentious issue. Materials and Methods: The intracellular transport was inhibited in cultured herpes simplex virus type

Helle L. Jensen; Bodil Norrild

2002-01-01

269

Microtubule-mediated Transport of Incoming Herpes Simplex Virus 1Capsids to the Nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus 1 fuses with the plasma membrane of a host cell, and the incoming capsids are efficiently and rapidly transported across the cytosol to the nuclear pore complexes, where the viral DNA ge- nomes are released into the nucleoplasm. Using bio- chemical assays, immunofluorescence, and immuno- electron microscopy in the presence and absence of microtubule depolymerizing agents, it

Beate Sodeik; Melanie W. Ebersold; Ari Helenius

1997-01-01

270

Seroepidemiological Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV2 2) Antibody in Shiraz, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Type 2 is a widespread human infec- tious agent responsible for persistent and latent infections. Objectives: To estimate the regional seroprevalence of anti HSV-2 antibody in Shiraz, Iran and to investigate the possible correlation of seropositivity with malignant changes in subjects' Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. Methods: Data were collected in a cross-sectional study. A randomly selected

Maryam Kasraeian; Marjan Movaseghii; Alireza Fotouhi Ghiam

271

Remote Semantic Memory in Patients With Korsakoff's Syndrome and Herpes Encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and herpes encephalitis was compared on a retrograde amnesia (RA) test, asking subjects to recall and recognize the definitions of words that had come into the language at different time periods. Performance was also compared on a related test in which participants were asked to produce the words to definitions they were given in

Michael D. Kopelman; Peter Bright; Helena Fulker; Nicola Hinton; Amy Morrison; Mieke Verfaellie

2009-01-01

272

Herpes-like viruses associated with high mortality levels in larvae and spat of Pacific oysters,  

E-print Network

Herpes-like viruses associated with high mortality levels in larvae and spat of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas: a comparative study, the thermal effects on virus detection in hatchery-reared larvae, reproduction of the disease in axenic larvae T Renault RM Le Deuff, N Cochennec, B Chollet, P Maffart IFREMER

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Herpes Simplex Virus Downregulates Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor: a Novel Immune Evasion Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an anti-inflammatory mediator of mucosal immunity, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cell culture. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that higher concentrations of SLPI in mucosal secretions are associated with a reduced risk of HIV transmission. The current studies were designed to test the hypothesis that HSV triggers a loss of SLPI

Esra Fakioglu; Sarah S. Wilson; Pedro M. M. Mesquita; Ehsan Hazrati; Natalia Cheshenko; John A. Blaho; Betsy C. Herold

2008-01-01

274

Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

2010-01-01

275

THE PERSISTENCE OF CHICKEN HERPES AND RETRO VIRAL CHIMERIC MOLECULES UPON IN VIVO PASSAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek's disease virus, a herpes virus, and avian leucosis virus subgroup J, a retrovirus were used for experimental co-infection of chicks. Two consecutive trials were performed in attempt to evaluate the formation and persistence of chimeric molecules that would indicate retro-viral integration int...

276

Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

2010-01-01

277

Insulin-Induced Reactivation of an Inactive Herpes Simplex Thymidine Kinase Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A line of mouse cells transformed with ultra-violet-irradiated herpes simplex virus type 1 and containing a methylated and inactive viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene was treated with insulin in an attempt to induce expression of the inactive gene. Insulin was found to be capable of inducing the inactive TK gene in these cells. The induction of the TK+ phenotype was

David W. Clough; Brian S. Morse; Raju S. Kucherlapati; Richard L. Davidson

1984-01-01

278

The effects of vaccination in an age-dependent model for varicella and herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for the infectious diseases varicella and herpes zoster, more commonly known as chickenpox and shingles. The United States Food and Drug Administration recently approved a VZV vaccine for use in children to prevent chickenpox. The VZV vaccine was tested in Japan, Korea, and the United States, and these extensive experimental investigations led to final

Linda J. S. Allen; David B. Thrasher

1998-01-01

279

Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C.

Thaveechai Vachirayonstien; Duanthanorm Promkhatkaew; Malee Bunjob; Asawachai Chueyprom; Pranee Chavalittumrong; Pathom Sawanpanyalert

2010-01-01

280

The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of

Bernard Roizman

1996-01-01

281

The Application of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses to the Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to lack of effective therapy, primary brain tumors are the focus of intense investigation of novel experimental approaches that use vectors and recombinant viruses. Therapeutic approaches have been both indirect, whereby vectors are used, or direct to allow for direct cell killing by the introduced virus. Genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses are currently being evaluated as an experimental approach

Samita S. Andreansky; Bin He; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; James Markert; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley

1996-01-01

282

Rapid Screening Tests for Determining In Vitro Susceptibility of Herpes Simplex Virus Clinical Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of human herpes simplex virus (HSV) to acyclovir (ACV) was determined with the use of a single dose of the drug (1 and 2 mg of ACV per ml for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively) in two rapid assays: a rapid cytopathic effect inhibitory assay (Rapid CIA) and a rapid dye uptake assay (Rapid DUA). These tests allow the

PEDRO DE LA IGLESIA; SANTIAGO MELON; BEATRIZ LOPEZ; MERCEDES RODRIGUEZ; MARIA I. BLANCO; PURIFICACION MELLADO; MARIA DE ONA

1998-01-01

283

[Analysis on clinical features and treatment of herpes zoster patients hospitalized in real world].  

PubMed

From the hospital information system (HIS) of 20 national grade III-A general hospitals, 2 960 cases of herpes zoster as the research object, analyzes the relations between the general information, syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), western medicine combined diseases, the relationship between the solar term and the incidence of herpes zoster, and the combined use of Chinese and western medicine. Among the patients with 46-65 year old has the highest percentage of diseased; admission to general outpatient clinic is the most; the most common medical payment is medicare; combined disease such as hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease is more common; early treatment effect of herpes zoster is better than the sequelae; summer and autumn solar term patients is hospitalized more, TCM syndrome is damp heat of liver fire; about drugs, western medicine is the most commonly used vitamin B1 and mecobalamin, traditional Chinese medicine is the most frequently used Danhong injection, combination therapy with promoting blood circulation drugs and neurotrophic drugs. Thus, herpes zoster, more common in elderly patients, with no obvious relationship between solar term, should be early diagnosis and early treatment, often with combination of Chinese traditional and western medicine treatment. PMID:25532379

Yuan, Ling-Lian; Wang, Lian-Xin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Zhuang, Yan; Zhang, Yun-Bi

2014-09-01

284

Divergence and Recombination of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and is one of the most common sexually transmitted viruses. Here we sequenced a segment comprising 3.5% of the HSV-2 genome, including genes coding for glycoproteins G, I, and E, from 27 clinical isolates from Tanzania, 10 isolates from Norway, and 10 isolates from Sweden. The sequence variation was low

Peter Norberg; Mabula J. Kasubi; Lars Haarr; Tomas Bergstrom; Jan-Åke Liljeqvist

2007-01-01

285

Interplay Between Viral and Cellular Factors Determines the Fate of Herpes Simplex Virus type I Infection  

E-print Network

The herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is a major human pathogen that infects the majority of the world's population. The life cycle of HSV-1 is controlled by interactions with its hosts. Understanding virus-host interactions will be necessary...

Mabrouk-Mostafa, Heba

2014-05-31

286

Spontaneous Tooth Exfoliation after Trigeminal Herpes Zoster: A Case Series of an Uncommon Complication  

PubMed Central

The most significant and debilitating complication of herpes zoster (HZ) is herpetic neuralgia that accompanies and may persist in 10-15% of all zoster patients, particularly those over 60 years of age. The described 3 cases had an uncommon complication of spontaneous tooth exfoliation after trigeminal HZ that rarely finds mention in dermatology literature. PMID:23723511

Mahajan, Vikram K; Ranjan, Nitin; Sharma, Sangeet; Sharma, Nand Lal

2013-01-01

287

RESPONSE OF THE ITALIAN AGILE FROG (RANA LATASTEI) TO A RANAVIRUS, FROG VIRUS 3: A MODEL FOR VIRAL EMERGENCE IN NAIVE POPULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) is a genus of pathogens of poikilotherms, and some ranaviruses may play a role in widespread mortality of amphibians. Ecology of viral transmission in amphibians is poorly known but can be addressed through experimentation in the laboratory. In this study, we use the Ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3) as an experimental model for pathogen emergence in naive

Peter B. Pearman; Trenton W. J. Garner; Monika Straub; Urs F. Greber

288

Ultrastructure of lymphocystis disease virus (LDV) as compared to frog virus 3 (FV 3 ) and chilo iridescent virus (CIV): effects of enzymatic digestions and detergent degradations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ultrastructure of fish lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), the largest of all known icosahedral viruses, has been studied under electron microscopy using enzymatic digestions and detergent degradations. LDV structure appeared roughly the same as those of frog virus 3 (FV3) and chilo iridescent virus (CIV), two other well known viruses of the familyIridoviridae, although the great flexibility of its capsid

J. Heppell; L. Berthiaume

1992-01-01

289

Peptic ulcer as a risk factor for postherpetic neuralgia in adult patients with herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication of herpes zoster. Identifying predictors for postherpetic neuralgia may help physicians screen herpes zoster patients at risk of postherpetic neuralgia and undertake preventive strategies. Peptic ulcer has been linked to immunological dysfunctions and malnutrition, both of which are predictors of postherpetic neuralgia. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to determine whether adult herpes zoster patients with peptic ulcer were at greater risk of postherpetic neuralgia. Adult zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia patients were automatically selected from a medical center's electronic database using herpes zoster/postherpetic neuralgia ICD-9 codes supported with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Consequently, medical record review was performed to validate the diagnostic codes and all pertaining data including peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and ulcerogenic medications. Because no standard pain intensity measurement exists, opioid usage was used as a proxy measurement for moderate to severe pain. In total, 410 zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and 115 postherpetic neuralgia patients were included. Multivariate logistic regressions identified 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain as independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia. Among etiologies of peptic ulcer, H. pylori infection and usage of non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were significantly associated with the increased risk of postherpetic neuralgia; conversely, other etiologies were not significantly associated with the postherpetic neuralgia risk. In conclusion, 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain are independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia in adult herpes zoster patients. PMID:25156435

Chen, Jen-Yin; Lan, Kuo-Mao; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Tseng, Su-Feng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hu, Miao-Lin

2015-02-01

290

Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) (i.e., shingles). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tofacitinib increases the risk of HZ in patients with RA. Methods HZ cases were identified as those reported by trial investigators from the databases of the phase II, phase III, and long-term extension (LTE) clinical trials in the Tofacitinib RA Development Program. Crude incidence rates (IRs) of HZ per 100 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were calculated by exposure group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential risk factors for HZ (e.g., age, prednisone use). Results Among 4,789 participants, 239 were identified as having tofacitinib-associated HZ during the phase II, phase III, and LTE trials, of whom 208 (87%) were female and whose median age was 57 years (range 21–75 years). One HZ case (0.4%) was multidermatomal; none of the cases involved visceral dissemination or death. Twenty-four patients with HZ (10%) permanently discontinued treatment with tofacitinib, and 16 (7%) were either hospitalized or received intravenous antiviral drugs. The crude HZ IR across the development program was 4.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 3.8–4.9), but the IR was substantially higher within Asia (7.7 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 6.4–9.3). Older age was associated with HZ (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.6), and IRs for HZ were similar between patients receiving 5 mg tofacitinib twice daily (4.4 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.2–6.0) and those receiving 10 mg twice daily (4.2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.1–5.8). In the phase III trials among placebo recipients, the incidence of HZ was 1.5 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5–4.6). Conclusion In the Tofacitinib RA Development Program, increased rates of HZ were observed in patients treated with tofacitinib compared with those receiving placebo, particularly among patients within Asia. Complicated HZ among tofacitinib-treated patients was rare. PMID:24943354

Winthrop, Kevin L; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Valdez, Hernan; Mortensen, Eric; Chew, Robert; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Kawabata, Thomas; Riese, Richard

2014-01-01

291

Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex encephalitis in a patient treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-? monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of severe sporadic encephalitis. We report a case of herpes simplex type 1-encephalitis in a 50-year-old woman receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor-? monoclonal antibodies adalimumab. Although she was an acyclovir naïve patient, a mixed viral population (wild-type and acyclovir-resistant bearing a thymidine-kinase mutation) was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid. The virus in cerebrospinal fluid evolved and a second thymidine-kinase mutant virus emerged. Combined foscavir and acyclovir treatment resolved the herpes simplex encephalitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex encephalitis in a patient treated with adalimumab. PMID:24257111

Schepers, Kinda; Hernandez, Antonio; Andrei, Graciela; Gillemot, Sarah; Fiten, Pierre; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Bier, Jean-Christophe; David, Philippe; Delforge, Marie-Luce; Jacobs, Frédérique; Snoeck, Robert

2014-01-01

292

Immunohistochemical detection of human herpes virus-8 latent nuclear antigen-1 is useful in the diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kaposi sarcoma is a low-grade vascular neoplasm that has been shown by molecular analysis to uniformly express the latent nuclear antigen-1 of human herpes virus 8. Differentiating Kaposi sarcoma from other benign or malignant vascular tumors, as well as other nonvascular spindle cell soft-tissue neoplasms, can be challenging. Thus, detection of human herpes virus 8 in fixed tissues would be

Rajiv M Patel; John R Goldblum; Eric D Hsi

2004-01-01

293

Prevalence of herpes simplex type 2 and syphilis serology among young adults in a rural Gambian community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To estimate prevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex 2 (HSV2) positivity, syphilis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection among rural people aged 15–34 in the Gambia.Methods: Questionnaires and serum samples were collected from 1076 men and women aged 15–34 during a cross sectional prevalence survey in a rural area of the Gambia. Sera were screened for antibodies to herpes simplex

Matthew Shaw; Marianne van der Sande; Beryl West; Katie Paine; Seihou Ceesay; Robin Bailey; Gijs Walraven; Linda Morison; Keith McAdam

2001-01-01

294

Effect of Prior Immunization on Induction of Cervical Cancer in Mice by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cervix produces premalignant and malignant lesions. In the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and Freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. It appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of cervical carcinoma.

Budd Wentz, W.; Heggie, Alfred D.; Anthony, Donald D.; Reagan, James W.

1983-12-01

295

Mild Acidic pH Inhibition of the Major Pathway of Herpes Simplex Virus Entry into HEp2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Penetration of the KOS strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the MS and 333 strains of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) into HEp-2 cells at pH 6.3 was at least 100-fold less efficient than at pH 7-4. Penetration of two low passage clinical isolates was completely blocked at pH 6.3. The syncytium-forming HSV-1 strains GC

KEN S. ROSENTHAL; JEANETTE KILLIUS; CHERYL M. HODNICHAK; THOMAS M. VENETTA; L. Gyurgyik; K. Janiga

1989-01-01

296

New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. I. Expansion of frog virus 3 host range into Scaphirhynchus albus.  

PubMed

In 2009, juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, reared at the Blind Pony State Fish Hatchery (Missouri, USA) to replenish dwindling wild stocks, experienced mass mortality. Histological examination revealed extensive necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and a virus was isolated from affected organs in cell culture and then observed by electron microscopy. Experimental infection studies revealed that the virus is highly pathogenic to juvenile pallid sturgeon, one of several species of sturgeon currently listed as Endangered. The DNA sequence of the full length major capsid protein gene of the virus was identical to that of the species Frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species for the genus Ranavirus, originally isolated from northern leopard frog Lithobates pipiens. Although FV3 infections and epizootics in amphibians and reptiles are well documented, there is only 1 prior report of a natural infection of FV3 in fish. Our results illustrate the broad potential host range for FV3, with the known potential to cause significant mortality in poikilothermic vertebrates across 3 taxonomic classes including bony fishes, anuran and caudate amphibians, and squamate and testudine reptiles. PMID:25320034

Waltzek, Thomas B; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Drecktrah, Bruce; Briggler, Jeffrey T; MacConnell, Beth; Hudson, Crystal; Hopper, Lacey; Friary, John; Yun, Susan C; Malm, Kirsten V; Weber, E Scott; Hedrick, Ronald P

2014-10-16

297

[Herpes Zoster and its prevention in Italy. Scientific consensus statement].  

PubMed

In this paper, an Italian group of experts presents a revision of the available data about epidemiology and prevention of Herpes Zoster (HZ). HZ is an acute viral diseases caused by the reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). HZ is characterized by neurological and dermatological symptoms with a dermatomeric localization. The reactivation of the virus from the latent status in the sensitive ganglia increases with age and failing cell mediated immunity. In Europe, more than 95% of adults presents antibodies against VZV. Incidence of HZ is similar all over the world, related to the age of the population: from 2-3/1000 persons/year in the age group 20 to 50 years to 5/1000 in the 60 years old, 6-7/1000 between 70 and 80 up to >1/100 in older than 80. In Italy, about 157,000 new cases of HZ are estimated every year with an incidence of 6.3/1000 persons/year mostly in older adults. Among the hospitalized cases, 60% are over 65 years of age. The more frequent and severe complication of HZ is post herpetic neuralgia (PHN), characterized by severe localized pain lasting at least 3 month after the beginning of the acute phase. The pain is responsible for a sharp decrease in the quality of life. In Europe, PHN is described in 2.6-27% of HZ cases. In Italy, data obtained by a network of General Practitioner show PHN in 20.6% of HZ patients, while 9.2% of the patients still presents PHN at 6 months. The more frequent localization is thoracic; when the virus reactivate at the level of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve most patients develop ocular complications. The clinical and therapeutical managements of HZ patients is difficult and the results are often poor. Prevention of HZ e PHN in the population over 50 years is possible using a live attenuated vaccine containing VZV (Oka/Merck strain, not less than 19.400 plaque forming units), available since 2006. Efficacy of anti-HZ vaccine was demonstrated in two large clinical trials that showed a 51% reduction in the incidence of HZ and a 61% decrease of the burden of illness. Incidence of PHN showed a reduction of 67% in immunized subjects. Long-term follow-up showed a persistence of the protection even if a decrease was noted in older subjects and with time. Effectiveness studies confirm the data of clinical trials and numerous pharmaco-economical evaluation show a favorable profile of HZ vaccine. The vaccine is recommended in USA, Canada and some European countries for people over 60. The expert group concluded that HZ and PHN represent an important clinical and Public Health problem in Italy and that the possibility to prevent them should be carefully evaluated. PMID:24770367

Franco, Elisabetta; Gabutti, Giovanni; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Stefano Valente, Marco Ercolani; Ferro, Antonio; Icardi, Giancarlo; Antonio Volpi, Marzia Lazzari; Maggi, Stefania; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Greco, Donato

2014-01-01

298

Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

1987-08-01

299

Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in two pet marmosets in Japan.  

PubMed

An 8-month-old common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was presented with tic-like symptoms, and a 2-year-old pigmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) was presented with dyspnea and hypersalivation. Both monkeys died within a few days, and necropsies were performed. Histopathological examinations revealed ulcerative stomatitis with epithelial cell swelling and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the oral epithelium of both cases. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, neuronal cell degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies was observed. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody revealed virus antigens in both cases. Both animals had been kept as pets with limited exposure to the ambient environment except via their owners. Therefore, herpes simplex virus type-1 was probably acquired from close contact with their owners. PMID:25649955

Imura, Kei; Chambers, James Kenn; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Yasutsugu

2014-12-31

300

Amplification and cloning of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G from an Iranian isolate.  

PubMed

Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 (HSV-2) is the main cause of genital herpes infection. Its prevalence is increasing worldwide and varies widely with generally higher rate in developing than developed countries and urban than rural areas. HSV-2 Iranian isolate was propagated in HeLa cell line. The viral genome was extracted by phenol-chloroform and used as template in nested polymerase chain reactions (n-PCR) to amplify gG-2 gene. The amplified gene was cloned into a cloning vector (pTZ57R/T) and transformed into competent E. coli DH5a. The recombinant vector encoding the gene of interest was confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing. PMID:19069897

Jamalidoost, Marzieh; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Meshkat, Zahra

2007-03-15

301

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Two Pet Marmosets in Japan  

PubMed Central

An 8-month-old common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was presented with tic-like symptoms, and a 2-year-old pigmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) was presented with dyspnea and hypersalivation. Both monkeys died within a few days, and necropsies were performed. Histopathological examinations revealed ulcerative stomatitis with epithelial cell swelling and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the oral epithelium of both cases. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, neuronal cell degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies was observed. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody revealed virus antigens in both cases. Both animals had been kept as pets with limited exposure to the ambient environment except via their owners. Therefore, herpes simplex virus type-1 was probably acquired from close contact with their owners. PMID:25649955

IMURA, Kei; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; NOMURA, Shunsuke; SUZUKI, Satoshi; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki; MIWA, Yasutsugu

2014-01-01

302

Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2006-07-01

303

Social Stress and the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.

Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald

1998-06-01

304

Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with ?=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

2004-06-01

305

Pathogenesis of Herpes stromal keratitis-a focus on corneal neovascularization  

PubMed Central

The cornea is a complex sensory organ that must maintain its transparency for optimal vision. Infections such as with herpes simplex virus can result in blinding immunoinflammatory reactions referred to as herpes stromal keratitis (HSK). In this review we discuss the pathogenesis of HSK referring to work mainly done using animal model systems. We briefly discuss the role of multiple cell types and soluble mediators but focus on the critical role of corneal vascularization (CV) in contributing to corneal damage. We describe how VEGF and other angiogenic molecules are induced following infection and discuss the many ways by which CV can be controlled. Speculations are made regarding future approaches that could improve the management of HSK. PMID:22892644

Giménez, Fernanda; Suryawanshi, Amol; Rouse, Barry T

2012-01-01

306

A comparison of the Tzanck smear and viral isolation in varicella and herpes zoster.  

PubMed

We compared the usefulness of the Tzanck smear to viral culture in patients with varicella and herpes zoster. All 11 patients with early lesions of varicella had a positive Tzanck preparation, while only seven (64%) of 11 had a positive culture. Twelve (80%) of 15 patients with zoster had a positive Tzanck preparation, while only nine (60%) of 15 had a positive culture. The predominance of the Tzanck yield over the culture is probably due to the increased difficulty in isolation of the varicella zoster virus. These results suggest that the Tzanck preparation is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of patients with varicella and zoster and offers a much more immediate answer than does viral culture, which often takes one to two weeks. These results contrast with those of our previous study of the Tzanck preparation and herpes simplex, in which the viral culture was more accurate than the Tzanck preparation. PMID:3006599

Solomon, A R; Rasmussen, J E; Weiss, J S

1986-03-01

307

Mediators and mechanisms of herpes simplex virus entry into ocular cells.  

PubMed

The entry of herpes simplex virus into cells was once thought to be a general process. It is now understood that the virus is able to use multiple mechanisms for entry and spread, including the use of receptors and co-receptors that have been determined to be cell-type specific. This is certainly true for ocular cell types, which is important as the virus may use different mechanisms to gain access to multiple anatomic structures in close proximity, leading to various ocular diseases. There are some patterns that may be utilized by the virus in the eye and elsewhere, including surfing along filopodia in moving from cell to cell. There are common themes as well as intriguing differences in the entry mechanisms of herpes simplex virus into ocular cells. We discuss these issues in the context of conjunctivitis, keratitis, acute retinal necrosis, and other ocular diseases. PMID:20465436

Farooq, Asim V; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

2010-06-01

308

Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

1981-06-01

309

Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells  

SciTech Connect

The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.; Homa, F.L.; Levine, M.; Kelley, W.N.

1988-01-01

310

Herpes zoster in an immunocompetent boy following intrauterine exposure to varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and is considered to be a reactivation of latent infection. The first clinical manifestation of VZV infection during infancy typically presents as chickenpox; however, HZ can be observed in infants and children without a history of symptomatic varicella. We report the case of a 4-year-old immunocompetent boy who developed HZ after intrauterine exposure to VZV. PMID:23617082

Fabiano, Valentina; Dilillo, Dario; Mauri, Silvia; Vivaldo, Teresa; Gazzarri, Alessandra; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

2013-03-01

311

Transient decrease in cerebral white matter diffusivity on MR imaging in human herpes virus-6 encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a 16-month-old boy with human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) encephalopathy showing transient abnormalities of the cerebral white matter on magnetic resonance imaging. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) demonstrated diffuse high signal intensity in the bilateral cerebral white matter areas. The signal changes on DWI subsequently resolved, and cerebral atrophy resulted. The transient decrease in the cerebral white matter diffusivity seen in

Manami Akasaka; Makoto Sasaki; Shigeru Ehara; Atsushi Kamei; Shoichi Chida

2005-01-01

312

Lactoferrin inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 adsorption to Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ability of human and bovine lactoferrins (HLf; BLf), iron-binding proteins belonging to the non-immune defense system, to interfere with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Since lactoferrins are known to bind to heparan sulphate proteoglycans and to low density lipoprotein receptor, which in turn act as binding sites for the initial interaction of HSV-1 with

Magda Marchetti; Catia Longhi; Maria Pia Conte; Silvia Pisani; Piera Valenti; Lucilla Seganti

1996-01-01

313

Herpes simplex virus vector-mediated delivery of neurturin rescues erectile dysfunction of cavernous nerve injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurturin (NTN), a member of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, is known as an important neurotrophic factor for penis-projecting neurons. We recently demonstrated significant protection from erectile dysfunction (ED) following a replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector-mediated GDNF delivery to the injured cavernous nerve. Herein, we applied HSV vector-mediated delivery of NTN to this ED model. Rat cavernous

R Kato; D Wolfe; C H Coyle; J B Wechuck; P Tyagi; T Tsukamoto; J B Nelson; J C Glorioso; M B Chancellor; N Yoshimura

2009-01-01

314

Category-specific knowledge deficit for animals in a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of brain-damaged patients with heterogeneous category-specific deficits have been reported in literature. This has given rise to different theories concerning the processing of semantic knowledge. In this paper we report the case of K.C. who, after a bout of herpes simplex encephalitis, displayed a category-specific impairment restricted to the knowledge of animals, irrespective of input modality. K.C.'s

Carlo Blundo; Monica Ricci; Laurie Miller

2006-01-01

315

Packaging Determinants in the UL11 Tegument Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UL11 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a 96-amino-acid tegument protein that is myristylated, palmitylated, and phosphorylated and is found on the cytoplasmic faces of nuclear, Golgi apparatus-derived, and plasma membranes of infected cells. Although this protein is thought to play a role in virus budding, its specific function is unknown. Purified virions were found to contain

Joshua S. Loomis; Richard J. Courtney; John W. Wills

2006-01-01

316

Evidence for Herpes Simplex Virus Type-selective Receptors on Cellular Plasma Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) interfered with the adsorption of subse- quently added homotypic but not heterotypic HSV, suggesting that the cellular receptors involved were type-selective. Both infective and u.v.-irradiated virus could block the attachment of virions to cellular surface receptors. The adsorption rate was studied by assaying non-adsorbed infective virus remaining in the fluid medium and cell-associated

ANDERS VAHLNE; BO SVENNERHOLM; ERIK LYCKE

1979-01-01

317

Binding Partners for the UL11 Tegument Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The product of the UL11 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a 96-amino-acid tegument protein that accumulates on the cytoplasmic face of internal membranes. Although it is thought to be important for nucleocapsid envelopment and egress, the actual function of this protein is unknown. Previous studies focused on the characterization of sequence elements within the UL11 protein

Joshua S. Loomis; Richard J. Courtney; John W. Wills

2003-01-01

318

Characteristics Associated With Genital Herpes Testing Among Young Adults: Assessing Factors From Two National Data Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were analyzed: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent

Lisa K. Gilbert; Brooke A. Levandowski; Craig M. Roberts

2010-01-01

319

Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

1992-01-01

320

Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA by Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA is recognized as the reference standard assay method for the sensitive and specific diagnosis of central nervous system infections caused by HSV. In this study, a molecular assay based on real-time PCR on the LightCycler (LC) instrument was evaluated and compared with a home-brew molecular assay. The detection limit of the LC

HARALD H. KESSLER; GERHARD MUHLBAUER; BEATE RINNER; EVELYN STELZL; ANNEMARIE BERGER; HANS-WILHELM DORR; BRIGITTE SANTNER; EGON MARTH; HOLGER RABENAU; Roche Diagnostics

2000-01-01

321

Phosphorylation of Structural Components Promotes Dissociation of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Tegument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of phosphorylation in the dissociation of structural components of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) tegument was investigated, using an in vitro assay. Addition of physiological concentrations of ATP and magnesium to wild-type virions in the presence of detergent promoted the release of VP13\\/14 and VP22. VP1\\/2 and the UL13 protein kinase were not significantly solubilized. However,

EWAN E. MORRISON; YI-FEN WANG; DAVID M. MEREDITH

322

Treatment of herpes zoster related corneal neovascularisation and lipid keratopathy by photodynamic therapy.  

PubMed

Traditionally, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used to treat choroidal neovascularisation. More recently, its use in corneal neovascularisation has provided promising clinical results. The major advantage of PDT is that it is minimally invasive, resulting in closure of the neovascular network without damaging the surrounding healthy tissue. This report describes the positive results of PDT, clinically and microstructurally, as imaged by in vivo confocal microscopy, for treating corneal neovascularisation with lipid keratopathy, secondary to herpes zoster infection. PMID:24112362

Goh, Yi Wei; McGhee, Charles Nj; Patel, Dipika V; Barnes, Rachel; Misra, Stuti

2014-05-01

323

Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200?g\\/ml) of volatile oils were examined.

A. Allahverdiyev; N. Duran; M. Ozguven; S. Koltas

2004-01-01

324

Vessel wall enhancement in herpes simplex virus central nervous system vasculitis.  

PubMed

Infection is a well-known cause of cerebral vasculopathy and vasculitis. We report a 36-year-old woman with cerebral vasculitis and ischemic stroke secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV). MRI studies revealed a pontine stroke with basilar artery stenosis and vessel wall gadolinium enhancement. This case demonstrates the ability of HSV to cause a focal brainstem vasculitis and the utility of enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of stroke related to HSV central nervous system vasculitis. PMID:23517674

Guerrero, Waldo R; Dababneh, Haitham; Hedna, Shushrutha; Johnson, James A; Peters, Keith; Waters, Michael F

2013-09-01

325

Wet cupping therapy for treatment of herpes zoster: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background Wet cupping is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy commonly used in treating herpes zoster in China, and clinical studies have shown that wet cupping may have beneficial effect on herpes zoster compared with western medication. Methods We included randomized controlled trials on wet cupping for herpes zoster. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2008), China Network Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wan Fang Database. All searches ended in February 2009. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trials quality independently. RevMan 5.0.18 software was used for data analysis with effect estimate presented as relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results 8 RCTs involving 651 patients were included, and the methodological quality of trials was generally fair in terms of randomization, blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. Meta-analyses showed wet cupping was superior to medications regarding the number of cured patients (RR 2.49, 95%CI 1.91 to 3.24, p<0.00001), the number of patients with improved symptoms (RR 1.15, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.26, p=0.003), and reducing the incidence rate of postherpetic neuralgia (RR 0.06, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.25, p=0.0001). Wet cupping plus medications was significantly better than medications alone on number of cured patients (RR 1.93, 95%CI 1.23 to 3.04, p=0.005), but no difference in symptom improvement (RR 1.00, 95%CI 0.92 to 1.08, p=0.98). There were no serious adverse effects with related to wet cupping therapy in the included trials. Conclusions Wet cupping appears to be effective in treatment of herpes zoster. However, further large, rigorous designed trials are warranted. PMID:21280462

Cao, Huijuan; Zhu, Chenjun; Liu, Jianping

2011-01-01

326

Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 by aqueous extracts from shoots of Helichrysum aureonitens (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helichrysum aureonitens, a southern African medicinal plant reported to have antibacterial properties, was evaluated for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. The crude aqueous extract from shoots of H. aureonitens at a concentration of 1.35 mg\\/ml (w\\/v) showed significant antiviral activity on HSV-1 in human lung fibroblasts as demonstrated by the absence of a cytopathic

J. J. M. Meyer; A. J. Afolayan; M. B. Taylor; L. Engelbrecht

1996-01-01

327

Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from Rumex acetosa L. inhibit the attachment of herpes simplex virus type-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyphenole-enriched acetone–water extract R2 from the aerial parts of Rumex acetosa L. containing high amounts of oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins and flavonoids was tested for antiviral activity. R2 exhibited strong antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) while the replication of adenovirus 3 was not affected. By plaque reduction test and MTT assay on Vero cells, the HSV-1-specific

Kirsten Gescher; Andreas Hensel; Wali Hafezi; Andrea Derksen; Joachim Kühn

2011-01-01

328

Comparison of Four Methods for Typing Low-Passage Herpes Simplex Virus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV) were identified as HSVtype 1 or type 2 by sensitivity to (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2’-deoxyuridine (BVDU), by differential replication in chick embryo cells versus guinea pig embryo cells, by restriction endonuclease analysis, and by a direct fluorescent antibody technique using monoclonal antibodies. More than 550 isolates were typed by two or three of the systems

D. Mayo; J. Hilliard; M. Landry; S. Egbertson; R. Mirkovic

1985-01-01

329

Mechanisms of Resistance of Antiviral Drugs Active Against the Human Herpes Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiviral drugs against the human herpes viruses provided pioneering insights, which have led to the development of the\\u000a fi eld of antiviral therapy. The fi rst successful use of antiviral drugs to treat any life-threatening viral infection was\\u000a Vidarabine (adenosine arabnoside) in 1977 (1). This was followed by the development of Acyclovir as the fi rst specifi c antiviral

Clyde S. Crumpacker

330

Progesterone Increases Susceptibility and Decreases Immune Responses to Genital Herpes Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depo-provera, a long-acting progestational formulation, is widely used to facilitate infection of sexually transmitted diseases in animal models. We have previously reported that hormone treatments change suscep- tibility and immune responses to genital tract infections. In this study we compared the changes in suscepti- bility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) after Depo-provera or a saline

Charu Kaushic; Ali A. Ashkar; Lesley A. Reid; Kenneth L. Rosenthal

2003-01-01

331

Inhibition of herpes simplex virus 1 gene expression by designer zinc-finger transcription factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replicative cycle begins by binding of the viral activator, VP16, to a set of sequences in the immediate-early (IE) gene promoters. With the aim of inhibiting this cycle, we have constructed a number of synthetic zinc-finger DNA-binding peptides by using recently reported methods. Peptides containing either three or six fingers, targeted to a viral

Monika Papworth; Michael Moore; Mark Isalan; Michal Minczuk; Yen Choo; Aaron Klug

2003-01-01

332

Susceptibility of human iris stromal cells to herpes simplex virus 1 entry.  

PubMed

Ocular herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can lead to multiple complications, including iritis, an inflammation of the iris. Here, we use human iris stroma cells as a novel in vitro model to demonstrate HSV-1 entry and the inflammatory mediators that can damage the iris. The upregulated cytokines observed in this study provide a new understanding of the intrinsic immune mechanisms that can contribute to the onset of iritis. PMID:23345512

Baldwin, John; Park, Paul J; Zanotti, Brian; Maus, Erika; Volin, Michael V; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

2013-04-01

333

Susceptibility of Human Iris Stromal Cells to Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry  

PubMed Central

Ocular herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can lead to multiple complications, including iritis, an inflammation of the iris. Here, we use human iris stroma cells as a novel in vitro model to demonstrate HSV-1 entry and the inflammatory mediators that can damage the iris. The upregulated cytokines observed in this study provide a new understanding of the intrinsic immune mechanisms that can contribute to the onset of iritis. PMID:23345512

Baldwin, John; Park, Paul J.; Zanotti, Brian; Maus, Erika; Volin, Michael V.; Shukla, Deepak

2013-01-01

334

Presence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in primary salivary glands of the mealybug vector Planococcus citri suggests a circulative transmission mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is a mealybug-transmissible ampelovirus. Though the transmission mechanism has been described as semipersistent\\u000a on the basis of temporal parameters, definitive proof of this mechanism has never been provided. In the present study, we\\u000a carried out preliminary assays to establish the location of the virus in its vector, Planococcus citri. After dissecting the insects, GLRaV-3 was

Miguel Cid; Sonia Pereira; Cristina Cabaleiro; Franco Faoro; Antonio Segura

2007-01-01

335

Cyclocreatine (1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine) inhibits the replication of human herpes viruses.  

PubMed

The creatine kinase/creatine phosphate (CK/CrP) system plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. CK isoenzymes, which reversibly generate ATP from CrP, are compartmentalized at cellular sites where energy is produced or utilized. It has been noted that the expression of CK is induced in cells infected by several DNA viruses, implicating a role for cellular energy modulation as an important step for efficient viral replication. A CK substrate analog, 1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine (cyclocreatine; CCr), was tested in vitro for antiviral activity against a variety of herpes viruses and RNA viruses. Several members of the human herpes virus family were found to be sensitive to CCr, including herpes simplex types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus. When administered to mice infected vaginally with HSV-2, CCr significantly reduced mortality, reduced vaginal lesion scores, and lowered the titers of recoverable virus. This treatment combined with acyclovir appeared to enhance the antiviral effects of acyclovir. In a second model, mice infected intraperitoneally with HSV-2 and treated with CCr showed a significant increase in survival compared to placebo. We conclude that CCr is the first example of a new class of antiviral compounds that target the CK/CrP system. PMID:8042860

Lillie, J W; Smee, D F; Huffman, J H; Hansen, L J; Sidwell, R W; Kaddurah-Daouk, R

1994-04-01

336

Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23?µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro. PMID:24817544

Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

2014-10-01

337

Extreme Sensitivity of Enveloped Viruses, Including Herpes Simplex, to Long-Chain Unsaturated Monoglycerides and Alcohols  

PubMed Central

Unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols of chain lengths of 16 or 18 carbons were found to be extremely potent inactivators of two enveloped viruses, herpes simplex virus type 2 and bacteriophage ?6. The lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2 was also inactivated by some of these amphiphilic molecules. Treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 with these compounds at concentrations as low as 0.2 ?M reduced virus survival to 50% in 30 min, making these agents the most potent inactivators of herpes simplex viruses discovered that are not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Detailed characterizations of the effects of unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols on bacteriophages ?6 and PM2 showed that the inactivated ?6 virion remained nearly intact but that PM2 was almost completely disrupted by the inactivating treatment. Some of the compounds inactivate the viruses even at low temperature (0°C). Excess amounts of diglycerides and phospholipids interfere with the inactivating abilities of some of the unsaturated monoglycerides and alcohols against ?6 and PM2. Our findings suggest that the unsaturated monoglycerides and some of the unsaturated alcohols should be further studied as potential antiviral agents, particularly for application to herpesvirus-infected areas of the skin and accessible epithelium. PMID:218499

Sands, Jeffrey; Auperin, David; Snipes, Wallace

1979-01-01

338

The processivity factor complex of feline herpes virus-1 is a new drug target.  

PubMed

Feline herpes virus-1 (FHV-1) is ubiquitous in the cat population and is a major cause of blindness for which antiviral drugs, including acyclovir, are not completely effective. Recurrent infections, due to reactivation of latent FHV-1 residing in the trigeminal ganglia, can lead to epithelial keratitis and stromal keratitis and eventually loss of sight. This has prompted the medical need for an antiviral drug that will specifically inhibit FHV-1 infection. A new antiviral target is the DNA polymerase and its associated processivity factor, which forms a complex that is essential for extended DNA strand synthesis. In this study we have cloned and expressed the FHV-1 DNA polymerase (f-UL30) and processivity factor (f-UL42) and demonstrated that both proteins are required to completely synthesize the 7249 nucleotide full-length DNA from the M13 primed-DNA template in vitro. Significantly, a known inhibitor of human herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) processivity complex was shown to inhibit FHV-1 processive DNA synthesis in vitro and block infection of cells. This validates using f-UL42/f-UL30 as a new antiviral drug target to treat feline ocular herpes infection. PMID:25542973

Zhukovskaya, Natalia L; Guan, Hancheng; Saw, Yih Ling; Nuth, Manunya; Ricciardi, Robert P

2015-03-01

339

The role of oral acyclovir in the management of genital herpes simplex.  

PubMed Central

Oral acyclovir is an antiviral nucleoside analogue that has recently been released in Canada for use in selected patients with genital infections by the herpes simplex virus. First episodes of genital herpes should be treated with oral acyclovir as soon as the diagnosis is considered. Most people with recurrent genital herpes do not require systemic drug therapy. Selected patients with severe or long-lasting recurrences, recurrences associated with long prodromal periods (greater than 12 to 24 hours) or systemic complications such as erythema multiforme and eczema herpeticum may receive measurable benefit from treatment at the onset of symptoms. In most patients frequently recurrent disease can be suppressed with long-term therapy. Since long-term safety beyond 1 year has not been established, suppressive therapy should be stopped at least once per year to reassess the recurrence pattern. Acyclovir has not been adequately tested for safety in pregnancy and should not be prescribed for pregnant women unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks. Careful attention to disease severity, accurate diagnosis and exclusion of other causes of genital lesions will ensure that the drug is used only when beneficial. PMID:3548933

Sacks, S L

1987-01-01

340

Acute pancreatitis associated with herpes zoster: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a type of herpes virus known to cause varicella, mainly in young children, and herpes zoster in adults. Although generally non-lethal, VZV infection can be associated with serious complications, particularly in adults. Acute pancreatitis caused by VZV infection is a rare event, with reports primarily concerning immunocompromised individuals. Here we report a 44-year-old immunocompetent female who developed acute pancreatitis associated with VZV infection. The patient presented with vomiting and persistent pain in the upper quadrant less than one week after diagnosis and treatment for a herpes zoster-related rash with stabbing pain on the abdomen and dorsal right trunk side. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed based on abdominal pain, elevated levels of urine and serum amylase, and findings of peri-pancreatic exudation and effusions by computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. This case highlights that, though rare, acute pancreatitis should be considered in VZV patients who complain of abdominal pain, especially in the epigastric area. Early detection and proper treatment are needed to prevent the condition from deteriorating further and to minimize mortality.

Wang, Zhen; Ye, Jun; Han, Yue-Hua

2014-01-01

341

The Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Type I Interferon Response to Frog Virus 3: New Insight into Ranavirus Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The increasing prevalence of ranavirus (RV; Iridoviridae) infections of wild and commercially maintained aquatic species is raising considerable concerns. While Xenopus laevis is the leading model for studies of immunity to RV, amphibian antiviral interferon (IFN) responses remain largely uncharacterized. Accordingly, an X. laevis type I interferon was identified, the expression of the gene for this IFN was examined in RV (frog virus 3 [FV3])-infected tadpoles and adult frogs by quantitative PCR, and a recombinant form of this molecule (recombinant X. laevis interferon [rXlIFN]) was produced for the purpose of functional studies. This rXlIFN protected the kidney-derived A6 cell line and tadpoles against FV3 infection, decreasing the infectious viral burdens in both cases. Adult frogs are naturally resistant to FV3 and clear the infection within a few weeks, whereas tadpoles typically succumb to this virus. Hence, as predicted, virus-infected adult X. laevis frogs exhibited significantly more robust FV3-elicited IFN gene expression than tadpoles; nevertheless, they also tolerated substantially greater viral burdens following infection. Although tadpole stimulation with rXlIFN prior to FV3 challenge markedly impaired viral replication and viral burdens, it only transiently extended tadpole survival and did not prevent the eventual mortality of these animals. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed that despite rXlIFN treatment, infected tadpoles had considerable organ damage, including disrupted tissue architecture and extensive necrosis and apoptosis. Conjointly, these findings indicate a critical protective role for the amphibian type I IFN response during ranaviral infections and suggest that these viruses are more pathogenic to tadpole hosts than was previously believed, causing extensive and fatal damage to multiple organs, even at very low titers. IMPORTANCE Ranavirus infections are threatening wild and commercially maintained aquatic species. The amphibian Xenopus laevis is extensively utilized as an infection model for studying ranavirus-host immune interactions. However, little is known about amphibian antiviral immunity and, specifically, type I interferons (IFNs), which are central to the antiviral defenses of other vertebrates. Accordingly, we identified and characterized an X. laevis type I interferon in the context of infection with the ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3). FV3-infected adult frogs displayed more robust IFN gene expression than tadpoles, possibly explaining why they typically clear FV3 infections, whereas tadpoles succumb to them. Pretreatment with a recombinant X. laevis IFN (rXlIFN) substantially reduced viral replication and infectious viral burdens in a frog kidney cell line and in tadpoles. Despite reducing FV3 loads and extending the mean survival time, rXlIFN treatments failed to prevent tadpole tissue damage and mortality. Thus, FV3 is more pathogenic than was previously believed, even at very low titers. PMID:24623410

Grayfer, Leon; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

2014-01-01

342

Frog virus 3 prevalence in tadpole populations inhabiting cattle-access and non-access wetlands in Tennessee, USA.  

PubMed

Ranaviruses have been associated with most of the reported larval anuran die-offs in the United States. It is hypothesized that anthropogenically induced stress may increase pathogen prevalence in amphibian populations by compromising immunity. Cattle use of wetlands may stress resident tadpole populations by reducing water quality. We isolated a Ranavirus from green frog Rana clamitans (n = 80) and American bullfrog R. catesbeiana (n = 104) tadpoles collected at 5 cattle-access and 3 non-access wetlands on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA. Sequencing confirmed Frog virus 3 (FV3); therefore, we compared its prevalence between tadpole populations inhabiting cattle-access and non-access wetlands, and among 3 seasons (winter, summer, and autumn) in 2005. We found FV3 in both tadpole species and cattle land-use types; however, prevalence of FV3 was greater in green frog tadpoles residing in cattle-access wetlands compared to those in non-access wetlands. No difference in FV3 prevalence was detected between cattle land uses for American bullfrog tadpoles. A seasonal trend in FV3 prevalence also existed, with prevalence greater in autumn and winter than in summer for both species. In addition, we found that FV3 prevalence decreased significantly as Gosner stage increased in American bullfrog tadpoles. No trend was detected between FV3 prevalence and developmental stage for green frog tadpoles. Our results suggest that cattle use of wetlands may increase prevalence of FV3 in Rana tadpoles, although this effect may depend on species, season, and tadpole developmental stage. PMID:17972750

Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L; Schmutzer, A Chandler; Baldwin, Charles A

2007-09-14

343

Pathogenicity of frog virus 3-like virus in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) at two environmental temperatures.  

PubMed

Ranaviral disease has affected several species of reptiles, but disease progression and mortality in relation to environmental temperature has yet to be determined. In this study, two separate trials challenged adult female red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) with a ranavirus (frog virus 3-like virus; FV3) isolate at environmental temperatures of 22 °C (n = 4) and 28 °C (n = 4). The mortality rates in the turtles in the 22 °C and 28 °C trials were 100% and 50%, respectively. Median survival time for turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C was 24 days, while it was 30 days in the group kept at 28 °C. Consistent microscopical lesions were observed only in the group inoculated at 22 °C and included fibrinoid necrosis of vessels in the spleen, vascular and sinusoidal thrombi in the liver, necrotizing myositis and a mild heterophilic interstitial pneumonia. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, targeting a conserved portion of the major capsid protein, was able to detect virus copies in whole blood, oral and cloacal swabs, tongue, skeletal muscle, lung, heart, liver, spleen, ovary and kidney. Viral copy number in ante-mortem clinical samples was non-significantly highest in whole blood, while kidney had the highest viral copy number in post-mortem samples. All samples had higher virus copy number in turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C compared with 28 °C. This study determined that environmental temperature affects the survival and disease progression in ranavirus-infected red-eared slider turtles, which will aid in managing animals in a clinical or free-ranging setting. PMID:23582975

Allender, M C; Mitchell, M A; Torres, T; Sekowska, J; Driskell, E A

2013-01-01

344

Solenopsis invicta virus 3: Mapping of Structural Proteins, Ribosomal Frameshifting, and Similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus  

PubMed Central

Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV), an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order. PMID:24686475

Valles, Steven M.; Bell, Susanne; Firth, Andrew E.

2014-01-01

345

Blocking Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Glycoprotein E Immune Evasion as an Approach To Enhance Efficacy of a Trivalent Subunit Antigen Vaccine for Genital Herpes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) subunit antigen vaccines targeting virus entry molecules have failed to prevent genital herpes in human trials. Our approach is to include a virus entry molecule and add antigens that block HSV-2 immune evasion. HSV-2 glycoprotein C (gC2) is an immune evasion molecule that inhibits complement. We previously reported that adding gC2 to gD2 improved vaccine efficacy compared to the efficacy of either antigen alone in mice and guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that HSV-2 glycoprotein E (gE2) functions as an immune evasion molecule by binding the IgG Fc domain. HSV-2 gE2 is synergistic with gC2 in protecting the virus from antibody and complement neutralization. Antibodies produced by immunization with gE2 blocked gE2-mediated IgG Fc binding and cell-to-cell spread. Mice immunized with gE2 were only partially protected against HSV-2 vaginal challenge in mice; however, when gE2 was added to gC2/gD2 to form a trivalent vaccine, neutralizing antibody titers with and without complement were significantly higher than those produced by gD2 alone. Importantly, the trivalent vaccine protected the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of 32/33 (97%) mice between days 2 and 7 postchallenge, compared with 27/33 (82%) in the gD2 group. The HSV-2 DNA copy number was significantly lower in mice immunized with the trivalent vaccine than in those immunized with gD2 alone. The extent of DRG protection using the trivalent vaccine was better than what we previously reported for gC2/gD2 immunization. Therefore, gE2 is a candidate antigen for inclusion in a multivalent subunit vaccine that attempts to block HSV-2 immune evasion. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. Infection results in emotional distress for infected individuals and their partners, is life threatening for infants exposed to herpes during childbirth, and greatly increases the risk of individuals acquiring and transmitting HIV infection. A vaccine that prevents genital herpes infection will have major public health benefits. Our vaccine approach includes strategies to prevent the virus from evading immune attack. Mice were immunized with a trivalent vaccine containing an antigen that induces antibodies to block virus entry and two antigens that induce antibodies that block immune evasion from antibody and complement. Immunized mice demonstrated no genital disease, and 32/33 (97%) animals had no evidence of infection of dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that the vaccine may prevent the establishment of latency and recurrent infections. PMID:24829358

Awasthi, Sita; Huang, Jialing; Shaw, Carolyn

2014-01-01

346

The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days (combined odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92-6.70), and at 14 days (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.33-13.04), but pooling was limited by lack of homogeneity and low study quality. Direct comparisons at 1 week of treatment showed that trifluridine or acyclovir was significantly better than idoxuridine (OR, 3.12 and 4.56; 95% CI, 1.55-6.29 and 2.76-7.52, respectively), and indirect comparisons were also consistent with a clinically significant benefit. Vidarabine was not significantly better than idoxuridine in pooled treatment comparisons at 1 week (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.72-2.00) but was better in 2 indirect comparisons (OR, 4.22 and 4.78; 95% CI, 1.69-10.54 and 2.15-10.65, respectively). At 14 days, trifluridine (OR, 6.05; 95% CI, 2.50-14.66), acyclovir (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.39-4.78), and vidarabine (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.65-2.37) were each better than idoxuridine. Trials of geographic epithelial keratitis also suggested that trifluridine, acyclovir, and vidarabine were more effective that idoxuridine. Other topical antiviral agents, such as bromovinyldeoxuridine, ganciclovir, and foscarnet, appeared equivalent to trifluridine or acyclovir. Oral acyclovir was equivalent to topical antiviral therapy and did not hasten healing when used in combination with topical treatment. Antiviral agents did not increase the speed of healing when compared to debridement but reduced the risk of recrudescent epithelial keratitis. The combination of physicochemical treatment with an antiviral agent seemed to be better than either physicochemical or antiviral treatment alone, but the heterogeneous cauterization and curettage techniques and the various treatment combinations limited valid quantitative summary effect measures. The combination of topical interferon with an antiviral agent was significantly better than antiviral therapy at 7 days (OR, 13.49; 95% CI, 7.39-24.61) but not at 14 days (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 0.82-6.79). Finding apparent heterogeneity for some pooled estimates suggested that dissimilarities in patients, interventions, outcomes, or other logistical aspects of cli

Wilhelmus, K R

2000-01-01

347

Identification of a Divalent Metal Cation Binding Site in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8 Required for HSV Replication  

E-print Network

Identification of a Divalent Metal Cation Binding Site in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8,a and Clinical Faculty, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USAb Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8 divalent metal cations in their active sites. We investigated whether the conserved D and E residues in ICP

Knipe, David M.

348

Effect of a Zoster Vaccine on Herpes Zoster-Related Interference with Functional Status and Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the efficacy of a zoster vaccine on herpes zoster related interference with activities of daily living (ADL) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Design Randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 22 US sites. Patients 38,546 women and men ?60 years of age. Intervention Zoster vaccine or placebo. Measurements Herpes zoster Burden of Interference with ADL and HRQL using ratings from the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory and SF-12 Mental and Physical Component Scores. Vaccine efficacy was calculated for the modified-intention-to-treat trial population and solely among those subjects who developed herpes zoster. Results For the modified-intention-to-treat population, the overall zoster vaccine efficacy was 66% (95% CI: 55, 74) for Zoster Brief Pain Inventory ADL Burden of Interference Score and 55% (95% CI: 48, 61) for both the SF-12 Mental and Physical Component Scores. Among subjects who developed herpes zoster, zoster vaccine reduced the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory ADL Burden of Interference Score by 31% (95% CI: 12, 51) respectively, and did not significantly reduce the impact on HRQL. Conclusions Zoster vaccine reduced the burden of herpes zoster related interference with ADL in the population of vaccinees and among vaccinees who developed herpes zoster. Zoster vaccine reduced the impact of herpes zoster on HRQL in the population of vaccinees but not among vaccinees who developed herpes zoster. PMID:20863322

Schmader, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Gary R.; Saddier, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Maria; Wang, William W.B.; Zhang, Jane H.; Chan, Ivan S.F.; Yeh, Shing-Shing; Levin, Myron J.; Harbecke, Ruth M.; Oxman, Michael N.

2010-01-01

349

GFS, a preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida is associated with healing and inhibition of reactivation of Herpes  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to assess whether GFS, a proprietary preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida, has effects on healing or re-emergence of Herpetic infections, and additionally, to assess effects of GFS in vitro. Undaria is the most commonly eaten seaweed in Japan, and contains sulphated polyanions and other components with potential anti-viral activity. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections have lower reactivation rates and Herpes type 2 (HSV-2) infections have lower incidence in Japan than in the west. Methods Patients with active (15 subjects) or latent (6 subjects) Herpetic infections (HSV-1, 2, EBV, Zoster) were monitored for response to ingestion of GFS. GFS extract was tested in vitro for human T cell mitogenicity and anti-Herpes activity. Results Ingestion of GFS was associated with increased healing rates in patients with active infections. In addition, patients with latent infection remained asymptomatic whilst ingesting GFS. GFS extract inhibited Herpes viruses in vitro and was mitogenic to human T cells in vitro. Conclusions Ingestion of GFS has inhibitory effects on reactivation and is associated with increased rate of healing after Herpetic outbreaks. GFS extract potently inhibited Herpes virus in vitro, and had mitogenic effects on human T cells. PMID:12443533

Cooper, Russell; Dragar, Charles; Elliot, Kate; Fitton, JH; Godwin, John; Thompson, Ken

2002-01-01

350

Bitoric rigid gas permeable contact lens fitting for the management of a corneal scar caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus.  

PubMed

Empirical fitting of a bitoric rigid gas permeable contact lens for the management of a scarred irregular cornea caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus is described. Two corneal scars, which affect the pupil axis, caused an irregular cornea and produced low visual acuity and anisometropia. Two contact lenses were necessary to complete the fitting. Visual acuity improved from 0.2 to 1.0. The rigid gas permeable lenses can be a good alternative in the management of patients with irregular corneas caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus. PMID:21950957

de Juan, Victoria; Martín, Raúl; Rodríguez, Guadalupe

2012-03-01

351

RNA complementary to herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 gene demonstrated in neurons of human trigeminal ganglia.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies with mice have demonstrated abundant RNA transcripts which are complementary (antisense) to the herpes alpha gene ICP0 in latently infected ganglia. We investigated the situation in unselected human trigeminal ganglia. Strand-specific 2.7-kilobase herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 RNA probes were prepared, and their sense was determined in productively infected cells. Although in situ hybridization demonstrated ICP0 antisense RNA transcripts in the nuclei of neurons in 46% of the ganglia, ICP0 messenger RNA was not found in any of the ganglia. We conclude that HSV-1 antisense ICP0 RNA is present in humans during ganglionic latency. Images PMID:2451758

Gordon, Y J; Johnson, B; Romanowski, E; Araullo-Cruz, T

1988-01-01

352

Griffithsin Protects Mice from Genital Herpes by Preventing Cell-to-Cell Spread  

PubMed Central

Griffithsin, which binds N-linked glycans on gp120 to prevent HIV entry, has the most potent HIV-1 inhibitory activity described for any antiviral lectin and is being developed for topical preexposure prophylaxis. The current studies were designed to further assess its potential by exploring its activity against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), a cofactor for HIV acquisition, in vitro and in a murine model. Safety was evaluated by examining its impact on epithelial barrier integrity in polarized cultures and testing whether repeated intravaginal dosing potentiates the susceptibility of mice to genital herpes. Griffithsin displayed modest inhibitory activity against HSV-2 if present during viral entry but completely blocked plaque formation if present postentry, reduced plaque size, and prevented cell-to-cell spread. These in vitro findings translated to significant protection against genital herpes in mice treated with 0.1% griffithsin gel. Griffithsin, but not placebo gel, prevented viral spread (visualized with a luciferase-expressing virus), significantly reduced disease scores, and resulted in greater survival (P < 0.05, log rank test). Protection persisted when HSV-2 was introduced in seminal plasma. Although griffithsin triggered a small decline in transepithelial electrical resistance in polarized cultures, this did not translate to any significant increase in the ability of HIV to migrate from the apical to the basolateral chamber nor to an increase in susceptibility to HSV-2 in mice treated with griffithsin gel for 7 days. These findings demonstrate that griffithsin inhibits HSV-2 by a unique mechanism of blocking cell-to-cell spread and support its further development for HIV and HSV-2 prevention. PMID:23536670

Nixon, Briana; Stefanidou, Martha; Mesquita, Pedro M. M.; Fakioglu, Esra; Segarra, Theodore; Rohan, Lisa; Halford, William; Palmer, Kenneth E.

2013-01-01

353

Herpes Gestationis after Ovodonation: Is Placenta the only Target of the Immune Reaction?  

PubMed Central

Herpes Gestationis (HG) is an autoimmune disorder that rarely complicates pregnancy. Its pathogenesis has not been clarified yet, as it derives from a complex interplay between immunologic, genetic, and hormonal factors. We present a case of HG occurring in a surrogate mother whose pregnancy was achieved via egg donation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The disease appeared at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestation and subsequently worsened despite the administration of oral and topic corticosteroids. A healthy baby was delivered at 35 weeks and 2 days of gestation by elective cesarean section and the clinical manifestations resolved in the postpartum period.

Piva, Isabella; Monte, Giuseppe Lo; Graziano, Angela

2014-01-01

354

The Unusual Fold of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL21, a Multifunctional Tegument Protein.  

PubMed

UL21 is a conserved protein in the tegument of alphaherpesviruses and has multiple important albeit poorly understood functions in viral replication and pathogenesis. To provide a roadmap for exploration of the multiple roles of UL21, we determined the crystal structure of its conserved N-terminal domain from herpes simplex virus 1 to 2.0-Å resolution, which revealed a novel sail-like protein fold. Evolutionarily conserved surface patches highlight residues of potential importance for future targeting by mutagenesis. PMID:25540382

Metrick, Claire M; Chadha, Pooja; Heldwein, Ekaterina E

2015-03-01

355

Antiidiotype modulation of herpes simplex virus infection leading to increased pathogenicity.  

PubMed Central

Antiidiotype reagents that recognize idiotypic determinants associated with the combining site of monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 ( HSV2 ) were used to manipulate the immune response to HSV2 in BALB/c mice. The injection of antiidiotype antibodies into mice before challenge with a 50% lethal dose of HSV2 resulted in a shorter survival time than that of mice receiving either preimmune rabbit immunoglobulin G or antiidiotype reagents against hepatitis B surface antigen before HSV2 challenge. These findings indicate that the immune response to HSV2 in mice can be modulated through idiotype- antiidiotype networks, thereby increasing the pathogenicity of HSV2 infections. PMID:6202879

Kennedy, R C; Adler-Storthz, K; Burns, J W; Henkel, R D; Dreesman, G R

1984-01-01

356

Contributions of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Envelope Proteins to Entry by Endocytosis  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the required HSV glycoproteins, gB, gD, and gH-gL, may be sufficient for entry regardless of entry route taken. This may be distinct from entry mechanisms employed by other human herpesviruses. PMID:24109213

Komala Sari, Tri; Pritchard, Suzanne M.; Cunha, Cristina W.; Wudiri, George A.; Laws, Elizabeth I.; Aguilar, Hector C.; Taus, Naomi S.

2013-01-01

357

An unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in a child.  

PubMed

We describe an 11-year-old girl presenting with lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) and acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) following herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection as evidenced by serological data and by detection of HSV-1 DNA in the blood with the use of PCR. Based on the literature search, this case represents the first childhood case of LSC and acute bilateral CTS following HSV-1 infection. The experience with this patient emphasizes the importance of serological tests and PCR as well as the other laboratory techniques for the accurate diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23526061

Sakalli, Hale; Erinanc, Hilal; Dursun, Recep; Baskin, Esra

2013-01-01

358

DNA repair proteins affect the lifecycle of herpes simplex virus 1  

PubMed Central

We report that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can activate and exploit a cellular DNA damage response that aids viral replication in nonneuronal cells. Early in HSV-1 infection, several members of the cellular DNA damage-sensing machinery are activated and accumulate at sites of viral DNA replication. When this cellular response is abrogated, formation of HSV-1 replication centers is retarded, and viral production is compromised. In neurons, HSV-1 replication centers fail to mature, and the DNA damage response is not initiated. These data suggest that the failure of neurons to mount a DNA damage response to HSV-1 may contribute to the establishment of latency. PMID:15824307

Lilley, Caroline E.; Carson, Christian T.; Muotri, Alysson R.; Gage, Fred H.; Weitzman, Matthew D.

2005-01-01

359

Complement-mediated phagocytosis of herpes simplex virus by granulocytes. Binding or ingestion.  

PubMed Central

The role of complement receptors in phagocytosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by PMN was examined. Complement components were deposited on the surface of the virus particle in the presence or absence of specific anti-HSV antibodies. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the phagocytosis of fluorescence-labeled viruses and demonstrated that although a virion is able to associate with PMN in the presence of complement alone, the granulocyte is not triggered to mount a metabolic burst. Efficient stimulation of PMN occurs when complexes are formed consisting of virus, specific antibodies, and complement. To address the question whether the viruses were inside or outside the cell, a combined enhancement/quenching method was developed using ammonium chloride as a lysosomotropic agent and trypan blue as a quenching dye. The data indicate that Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by PMN results in the ingestion of all cell-associated herpes virions. Interactions of virions through PMN-complement receptors CR1 and CR3 results solely in binding to the PMN but not in internalization. Interactions via both complement and Fc receptors cause synergistic stimulation of the PMN and result in very efficient association of viruses, greater than 80% of which were inside the cell. PMID:2544621

Van Strijp, J A; Van Kessel, K P; van der Tol, M E; Verhoef, J

1989-01-01

360

Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.  

PubMed

Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. PMID:24559566

Basta-Juzbaši?, Aleksandra; ?eovi?, Romana

2014-01-01

361

Intracerebral propagation of Alzheimer's disease: strengthening evidence of a herpes simplex virus etiology  

PubMed Central

Background A faulty human protein, abnormally phosphorylated tau, was recently publicized to spread “like a virus” from neuron to neuron in Alzheimer patients' brains. For several decades, we have been amassing arguments showing that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), not p-tau, propagates this inter-neuronal, trans-synaptic pathological cascade. Methods We reiterate convincing data from our own (and other) laboratories, reviewing the first anatomic foothold neurofibrillary tangles gain in brainstem and/or entorhinal cortex; the chronic immunosurveillance cellularity of the trigeminal ganglia wherein HSV-1 awakens from latency to reactivate; the inabilities of p-tau protein's physical properties to promote it to jump synapses; the amino-acid homology between human p-tau and VP22, a key target for phosphorylation by HSV serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13; and the exosomic secretion of HSV-1-infected cells' L-particles, attesting to the cell-to-cell passage of microRNAs of herpes viruses. Results The now-maturing construct that reactivated HSV-1 best accounts for the intracerebral propagation of AD changes in the human brain should at last seem highly attractive. This hypothesis might even explain statins' apparent mechanism in some studies for lowering AD incidence. Conclusion Provided that funding agencies will quickly ignite a new realm of investigation, the rejuvenated enthusiasm for testing this optimistic construct holds incalculable potential for rapid, efficacious clinical application, through already available and relatively safe anti-viral therapeutics. PMID:23159044

Ball, Melvyn J.; Lukiw, Walter J.; Kammerman, Eli M.; Hill, James M.

2012-01-01

362

Rad51 and Rad52 Are Involved in Homologous Recombination of Replicating Herpes Simplex Virus DNA  

PubMed Central

Replication of herpes simplex virus 1 is coupled to recombination, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly characterized. The role of Rad51 and Rad52 recombinases in viral recombination was examined in human fibroblast cells 1BR.3.N (wild type) and in GM16097 with replication defects caused by mutations in DNA ligase I. Intermolecular recombination between viruses, tsS and tsK, harboring genetic markers gave rise to ?17% recombinants in both cell lines. Knock-down of Rad51 and Rad52 by siRNA reduced production of recombinants to 11% and 5%, respectively, in wild type cells and to 3% and 5%, respectively, in GM16097 cells. The results indicate a specific role for Rad51 and Rad52 in recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus 1 DNA. Mixed infections using clinical isolates with restriction enzyme polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes revealed recombination frequencies of 0.7%/kbp in wild type cells and 4%/kbp in GM16097 cells. Finally, tandem repeats in the US7 gene remained stable upon serial passage, indicating a high fidelity of recombination in infected cells. PMID:25365323

Tang, Ka-Wei; Norberg, Peter; Holmudden, Martin; Elias, Per; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

2014-01-01

363

Native 3D intermediates of membrane fusion in herpes simplex virus 1 entry.  

PubMed

The concerted action of four viral glycoproteins and at least one cellular receptor is required to catalyze herpes simplex virus 1 entry into host cells either by fusion at the plasma membrane or intracellularly after internalization by endocytosis. Here, we applied cryo electron tomography to capture 3D intermediates from Herpes simplex virus 1 fusion at the plasma membrane in their native environment by using two model systems: adherent cells and synaptosomes. The fusion process was delineated as a series of structurally different steps. The incoming capsid separated from the tegument and was closely surrounded by the cortical cytoskeleton. After entry, the viral membrane curvature changed concomitantly with a reorganization of the envelope glycoprotein spikes. Individual glycoprotein complexes in transitional conformations during pore formation and dilation revealed the complex viral fusion mechanism in action. Snapshots of the fusion intermediates provide unprecedented details concerning the overall structural changes occurring during herpesvirus entry. Moreover, our data suggest that there are two functional "poles" of the asymmetric herpesvirion: one related to cell entry, and the other formed during virus assembly. PMID:18653756

Maurer, Ulrike E; Sodeik, Beate; Grünewald, Kay

2008-07-29

364

Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial ?-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of ?-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase ? and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

1995-02-01

365

Salivary Varicella Zoster Virus in Astronauts and in Patients of Herpes Zoster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight is a uniquely stressful environment with astronauts experiencing a variety of stressors including: isolation and confinement, psychosocial, noise, sleep deprivation, anxiety, variable gravitational forces, and increased radiation. These stressors are manifested through the HPA and SAM axes resulting in increased stress hormones. Diminished T-lymphocyte functions lead to reactivation of latent herpes viruses in astronauts during spaceflight. Herpes simplex virus reactivated with symptoms during spaceflight whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate and are shed without symptoms. EBV and VZV are shed in saliva and CMV in the urine. The levels of EBV shed in astronauts increased 10-fold during the flight; CMV and VZV are not typically shed in low stressed individuals, but both were shed in astronauts during spaceflight. All herpesviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Culturing revealed that VZV shed in saliva was infectious virus. The PCR technology was extended to test saliva of 54 shingles patients. All shingles patients shed VZV in their saliva, and the levels followed the course of the disease. Viremia was also found to be common during shingles. The technology may be used before zoster lesions appear allowing for prevention of disease. The technology may be used for rapid detection of VZV in doctors? offices. These studies demonstrated the value of applying technologies designed for astronauts to people on Earth.

Mehta, Satish; Pierson, Duane L.

2010-01-01

366

A Cationic TAT Peptide Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection of Human Corneal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose To determine if a peptide, TAT-Cd0, inhibits Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of human corneal epithelial cells. Methods TAT-Cd0 and a control peptide, E50,51TAT-Cd0, were added at various times throughout infection with the lacz-expressing hrR3 virus, and viral replication was measured by ?-galactosidase activity. Toxicity was assessed using a dye reduction assay. Results The CC50 value for TAT-Cd0 was ?100??M. In assays with peptide present at all times, TAT-Cd0 was 150-fold more active than E50,51TAT-Cd0 (EC50 0.2 vs. 30.0??M). The EC50 values of TAT-Cd0 for entry inhibition, cell protection, virus inactivation, and inhibition of attachment were 0.1, 0.4, 9.5, and 3.0??M, respectively. TAT-Cd0 was less effective when added 1?h postinfection (EC50?=?30.0??M). Conclusions TAT-Cd0 is an effective inhibitor of Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in human corneal epithelial cells and affects multiple steps before, or very early, in infection. The peptide has potential as an antiviral and further studies are warranted. PMID:21029018

Larsen, Inna V.

2010-01-01

367

In vitro toxicological evaluation of ISIS 1082, a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide inhibitor of herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed Central

ISIS 1082, a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide targeted to a translation initiation codon of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) virion capsid protein UL13 inhibits in vitro viral replication. To better understand the pharmacological properties of ISIS 1082, we examined its effects in nonvirally infected HeLa cells by using a number of cytotoxicity assays. Our data indicate that ISIS 1082 had no effect on HeLa cell viability as measured by cellular proliferation and clonogenic assays at concentrations as high as 100 microM. Additionally, DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis were only inhibited by 25% in cells treated with 100 microM ISIS 1082. The effects of ISIS 1082 on DNA synthesis were compared with those of acyclovir and trifluorothymidine, two clinically used antiherpetic agents. Acyclovir displayed effects similar to that of ISIS 1082. However, trifluorothymidine, which has been reported to be a potential mutagen and teratogen, significantly altered DNA replication at concentrations from 1 to 100 microM. Isolated HeLa DNA polymerases were inhibited by the compound, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 2 microM. The in vitro antiviral (K. Draper and V. Brown-Driver, submitted for publication; K.G. Draper and V. Brown-Driver, Antiviral Res. Suppl. 1:106, 1991) and cytotoxicity studies suggest that ISIS 1082 is a selective, nontoxic, antiherpetic therapeutic agent. PMID:1377898

Crooke, R M; Hoke, G D; Shoemaker, J E

1992-01-01

368

Recombination during early herpes simplex virus type 1 infection is mediated by cellular proteins.  

PubMed

Homologous recombination was examined in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type I. Circular and linear DNA with directly repeated sequences was introduced as recombination substrates into cells. Recombination was measured either by origin-dependent amplification of recombination products or by recombination-dependent expression of luciferase from a disrupted gene. Homologous recombination in baby hamster kidney cells converted linear DNA to circular templates for DNA replication and luciferase expression in the complete absence of virus. The products of homologous recombination were efficiently amplified by the viral replication apparatus. The efficiency of recombination was dependent on the structure of the substrate as well as the cell type. Linear DNA with the direct repeats at internal positions failed to recombine in Balb/c 3T3 cells and induced p53-dependent apoptosis. In contrast, linear DNA with directly repeated sequences precisely at the ends recombined and replicated in 3T3 cells. Homologous recombination in baby hamster kidney cells did not depend on the position of the repeated sequences. We conclude that homologous recombination is independent of viral gene functions and that it is likely to be carried out by cellular proteins. We suggest that homologous recombination between directly repeated sequences in the linear herpes simplex virus type 1 chromosome may help to avoid p53-dependent apoptosis and to promote viral DNA replication. PMID:11069901

Yao, X D; Elias, P

2001-01-26

369

Ocular herpes: the pathophysiology, management and treatment of herpetic eye diseases.  

PubMed

Herpesviruses are a prominent cause of human viral disease, second only to the cold and influenza viruses. Most herpesvirus infections are mild or asymptomatic. However, when the virus invades the eye, a number of pathologies can develop and its associated sequelae have become a considerable source of ocular morbidity. The most common culprits of herpetic eye disease are the herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). While primary infection can produce ocular disease, the most destructive manifestations tend to arise from recurrent infection. These recurrent infections can wreck devastating effects and lead to irreversible vision loss accompanied by a decreased quality of life, increased healthcare usage, and significant cost burden. Unfortunately, no method currently exists to eradicate herpesviruses from the body after infection. Treatment and management of herpes-related eye conditions continue to revolve around antiviral drugs, although corticosteroids, interferons, and other newer therapies may also be appropriate depending on the disease presentation. Ultimately, the advent of effective vaccines will be crucial to preventing herpesvirus diseases altogether and cutting the incidence of ocular complications. PMID:25547680

Zhu, Lucy; Zhu, Hua

2014-12-01

370

Verrucous herpes of the scrotum presenting clinically as verrucous squamous cell carcinoma: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 36-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and an enlarging scrotal mass presumed to be of malignant origin but found to be a rare instance of verrucous herpes simplex type 2 infection of the scrotum. We also review the literature on this subject and discuss pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24795061

Quesada, Andres E; Galfione, Sarah; Colome, Maria; Brown, Robert E

2014-01-01

371

Identification of a Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein Gene within a Gene Cluster Dispensable for Growth in Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of herpes simplex virus 1 consists of two components, L and S, each containing unique sequences flanked by inverted repeats. Current and earlier studies have shown that 11 of the 12 open reading frames contained in the unique sequences of the S component can be deleted and are dispensable for growth in cell culture. Analyses of one recombinant

Richard Longnecker; Subhendra Chatterjee; Richard J. Whitley; Bernard Roizman

1987-01-01

372

Bioluminescence Imaging Reveals Systemic Dissemination of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in the Absence of Interferon Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can produce disseminated, systemic infection in neonates and patients with AIDS or other immunocompromising diseases, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in spite of antiviral therapy. Components of host immunity that normally limit HSV-1 to localized epithelial and neuronal infection remain incompletely defined. We used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to determine effects of type

Gary D. Luker; Julie L. Prior; Jiling Song; Christina M. Pica; David A. Leib

2003-01-01

373

The Herpes Simplex Virus Major Regulatory Protein ICP4 Blocks Apoptosis Induced by the Virus or by Hyperthermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) undergo productive or latent infection without exhibiting features characteristic of apoptosis. In this report, we show that HSV-1 induces apoptosis but has evolved a function that blocks apoptosis induced by infection as well as by other means. Specifically, (i) Vero cells infected with a HSV-1 mutant deleted in the regulatory gene alpha

Rosario Leopardi; Bernard Roizman

1996-01-01

374

Dendritic Cells Are Required for Optimal Activation of Natural Killer Functions following Primary Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the optimal clearance of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in mice. Activated NK cells function via cytokine secretion or direct cytolysis of target cells; dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to make critical contributions in the activation of both of these functions. Yet, the magnitude and physiological relevance of DC-mediated

Sadik H. Kassim; Naveen K. Rajasagi; Barry W. Ritz; Stephen B. Pruett; Elizabeth M. Gardner; Robert Chervenak; Stephen R. Jennings

2009-01-01

375

Plus and Minus-End Directed Microtubule Motors Bind Simultaneously to Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids Using Different Inner Tegument Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many viruses depend on host microtubule motors to reach their destined intracellular location. Viral particles of neurotropic alphaherpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) show bidirectional transport towards the cell center as well as the periphery, indicating that they utilize microtubule motors of opposing directionality. To understand the mechanisms of specific motor recruitment, it is necessary to characterize the

Kerstin Radtke; Daniela Kieneke; André Wolfstein; Kathrin Michael; Walter Steffen; Tim Scholz; Axel Karger; Beate Sodeik

2010-01-01

376

Characterization of herpes simplex virus type 1 recombinants with mutations in the cytoplasmic tail of glycoprotein H  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 glycoprotein H is essential for fusion of virus envelopes with cellular membranes and for the fusion of an infected cell membrane with an uninfected neighbour. Previous studies have pointed to a requirement for certain amino acid residues of the cytoplasmic tail of gH in these processes. Results from transient transfection experiments suggested that the

H. M. Browne; B. C. Bruun; A. C. Minson

1996-01-01

377

Gene transfer and in vivo promoter analysis of the rat progesterone receptor using a herpes simplex virus viral vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progesterone receptor (PR) gene is expressed in cells of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus, and PR levels are regulated by estrogen (E) in a tissue-specific fashion. To demonstrate that E induces transcription via the PR promoter, and to identify sequences within the PR promoter responsible for tissue-specific and hormonal regulation, we have utilized a defective herpes simplex virus vector

Roderick E. M. Scott; X. S. Wu-Peng; Michael G. Kaplitt; Donald W. Pfaff

2003-01-01

378

9-([2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine: a selective inhibitor of herpes group virus replication.  

PubMed Central

9-([2-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine (2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine; 2'NDG) selectively inhibits the replication of herpes group viruses. In cell culture studies 2'NDG was at least 10-fold more potent than acyclovir (ACV) in inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphocyte transformation and was about as effective as ACV in inhibition of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus. Orally administered 2'NDG was 6- to 50-fold more efficacious than ACV in treating systemic or local HSV-1 infection or HSV-2 intravaginal infection in mice. The mode of action of 2'NDG appears to involve phosphorylation by herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and subsequent phosphorylations by cellular kinases to produce 2'NDG triphosphate, which is a potent inhibitor of herpes virus DNA polymerase. Compared to ACV, 2'NDG was a more efficient substrate for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (Vmax/Km for 2'NDG 30-fold higher than that of ACV), whereas 2'NDG monophosphate is a more efficient substrate for GMP kinase (Vmax/Km for 2'NDG monophosphate 492-fold higher than that for ACV monophosphate). The combined effect is more rapid production of the inhibitory triphosphate from 2'NDG than from ACV. PMID:6306664

Field, A K; Davies, M E; DeWitt, C; Perry, H C; Liou, R; Germershausen, J; Karkas, J D; Ashton, W T; Johnston, D B; Tolman, R L

1983-01-01

379

Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 41(8):149-153, 2006 The "False Breeding Season" of the Eastern Newt, Notophthalmus viridescens  

E-print Network

149 Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 41(8):149-153, 2006 The "False Breeding Season" of the Eastern Newt adult of the eastern newt that the two were considered separate species for nearly 60 years. Some portion of an extended mating season made possible by female sperm storage. The eastern newt

Sever, David M.

380

Metagenomic analysis indicates that stressors induce production of herpes-like viruses in the coral Porites compressa  

PubMed Central

During the last several decades corals have been in decline and at least one-third of all coral species are now threatened with extinction. Coral disease has been a major contributor to this threat, but little is known about the responsible pathogens. To date most research has focused on bacterial and fungal diseases; however, viruses may also be important for coral health. Using a combination of empirical viral metagenomics and real-time PCR, we show that Porites compressa corals contain a suite of eukaryotic viruses, many related to the Herpesviridae. This coral-associated viral consortium was found to shift in response to abiotic stressors. In particular, when exposed to reduced pH, elevated nutrients, and thermal stress, the abundance of herpes-like viral sequences rapidly increased in 2 separate experiments. Herpes-like viral sequences were rarely detected in apparently healthy corals, but were abundant in a majority of stressed samples. In addition, surveys of the Nematostella and Hydra genomic projects demonstrate that even distantly related Cnidarians contain numerous herpes-like viral genes, likely as a result of latent or endogenous viral infection. These data support the hypotheses that corals experience viral infections, which are exacerbated by stress, and that herpes-like viruses are common in Cnidarians. PMID:19017800

Vega Thurber, Rebecca L.; Barott, Katie L.; Hall, Dana; Liu, Hong; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Desnues, Christelle; Edwards, Robert A.; Haynes, Matthew; Angly, Florent E.; Wegley, Linda; Rohwer, Forest L.

2008-01-01

381

Detection, quantification and genotyping of Herpes Simplex Virus in cervicovaginal secretions by real-time PCR: a cross sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD) is an important public health problem, whose interaction with HIV results in mutually enhancing epidemics. Conventional methods for detecting HSV tend to be slow and insensitive. We designed a rapid PCR-based assay to quantify and type HSV in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid of subjects attending a Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. Vaginal

Esther AN Aryee; Robin L Bailey; Angels Natividad-Sancho; Steve Kaye; Martin J Holland

2005-01-01

382

AMINOACYL FUCOSIDES AS POSSIBLE BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF TUMORIGENIC AND METASTATIC POTENTIAL IN HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED RAT CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two classes of aminoacyl fucosides termed F13 and F14 were studied as possible markers of tumorigenic and metastatic potential in herpes simplex virus type 2 transformed rat cells. In the present study, clonal cell lines of transformed highly tumorigenic and metastatic (t-REF-G-2...

383

A Case Study of the Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits of Temporal Lobe Damage in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study illustrates the highly significant language difficulties, marked memory deficits, and propensity for physical aggression following temporal lobe damage brought about by herpes encephalitis, and presents the usefulness of a new diagnostic measure in delineating such a variable cognitive pattern. (Author)

Greer, Margaret K.; And Others

1989-01-01

384

Knowledge and Attitudes of University Health Service Clients about Genital Herpes: Implications for Patient Education and Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genital herpes virus infection can cause both psychological and medical consequences. A study surveyed knowledge and attitudes of college students to assess degree of familiarity with this disease. Findings suggest misconceptions that could be dealt with in health education programs. (Author/DF)

Hillard, James R.; And Others

1984-01-01

385

A polysaccharide fraction from medicinal herb Prunella vulgaris downregulates the expression of herpes simplex virus antigen in Vero cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are pathogenic. With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of HSV, new antiviral agents, especially those with different modes of action, are urgently needed. Prunella vulgaris L. (Labiatae), a perennial plant commonly found in China and Europe, has long been used as a folk medicine to cure ailments. In this study, a polysaccharide fraction was prepared from

Lawrence Chi-Ming Chiu; Wen Zhu; Vincent Eng-Choon Ooi

2004-01-01

386

Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Male circumcision is associated with reduced risk of HIV infection. This may be partly because of a protective effect of circumcision on other sexually transmitted infections (STI), especially those causing genital ulcers, but evidence for such protection is unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of the associations between male circumcision and infection with herpes

H A Weiss; S L Thomas; S K Munabi; R J Hayes

2006-01-01

387

Type-specific identification of anogenital herpes simplex virus infections by use of a commercially available nucleic acid amplification test.  

PubMed

Herpes infections are among the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI), but diagnostic methods for genital herpes have not kept pace with the movement toward molecular testing. Here, we describe an FDA-approved molecular assay that identifies and types herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections for use in routine clinical settings. Paired samples from anogenital lesions were tested using the BD ProbeTec HSV Q(x) (HSVQ(x)) system, HSV culture and, a laboratory-developed PCR assay. Family planning, obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN), or sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the United States served as recruitment sites. Sensitivity and specificity estimates, head-to-head comparisons, measures of agreement, and latent-class analyses were performed to provide robust estimates of performance. A total of 508 participants (174 men and 334 women) with anogenital lesions were included; 260 HSV-2 and 73 HSV-1 infections were identified. No differences in test performance based on gender, clinic type, location of the lesion, or type of lesion were observed. The sensitivity of HSV-2 detection ranged from 98.4 to 100% depending on the analytical approach, while the specificity ranged from 80.6%, compared to the less sensitive culture method, to 97.0%, compared to PCR. For HSV-1, the sensitivity and specificity ranges were 96.7 to 100% and 95.1 to 99.4%, respectively. This assay may improve our ability to accurately diagnose anogenital lesions due to herpes infection. PMID:22875892

Van Der Pol, Barbara; Warren, Terri; Taylor, Stephanie N; Martens, Mark; Jerome, Keith R; Mena, Leandro; Lebed, Joel; Ginde, Savita; Fine, Paul; Hook, Edward W

2012-11-01

388

Predictors of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in young women at risk for unintended pregnancy in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Young women receiving family planning services are at risk for both unintended pregnancy and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis using data from a previously published randomized controlled trial evaluating access to emergency contraception on reproductive health outcomes. Women aged 15 to 24 years were recruited from two Planned Parenthood clinics and

Nicholas J Moss; Cynthia C Harper; Katherine Ahrens; Katherine Scott; Susan Kao; Nancy Padian; Tina Raine; Jeffrey D Klausner

2007-01-01

389

Evaluations of unformulated and formulated dendrimer-based microbicide candidates in mouse and guinea pig models of genital herpes.  

PubMed

Prevention of sexually transmitted infections is a priority in developed and developing countries. One approach to prevention is the use of topical microbicides, and one promising approach is the use of dendrimers, highly branched macromolecules synthesized from a polyfunctional core. Three new dendrimer products developed to provide stable and cost-efficient microbicides were initially evaluated in vitro for anti-herpes simplex virus activity and then in vivo by using a mouse model of genital herpes. From these experiments one product, SPL7013, was chosen for further evaluation to define the dose and duration of protection. Unformulated SPL7013 provided significant protection from genital herpes disease and infection at concentrations as low as 1 mg/ml and for at least 1 h following topical (intravaginal) administration of 10 mg/ml. This compound was then formulated into three vehicles and further evaluated in mouse and guinea pig models of genital herpes infection. In the murine evaluations each of the formulations provided significant protection at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/ml. Formulated compounds provided protection for at least 1 h at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. From these experiments formulation 2V was chosen for dose ranging experiments using the guinea pig model of genital herpes. The guinea pig evaluations suggested that doses of 30 to 50 mg/ml were required for optimal protection. From these studies a lead compound and formulation (2V of SPL7013) was chosen for ongoing evaluations in primate models of simian immunodeficiency virus and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PMID:14638483

Bernstein, D I; Stanberry, L R; Sacks, S; Ayisi, N K; Gong, Y H; Ireland, J; Mumper, R J; Holan, G; Matthews, B; McCarthy, T; Bourne, N

2003-12-01

390

The Structure of the Herpes Simplex Virus DNA-Packaging Terminase pUL15 Nuclease Domain Suggests an Evolutionary Lineage among Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Viruses  

E-print Network

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), the prototypic member of herpesviruses, employs a virally encoded molecular machine called terminase to package the viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome into a preformed protein shell. The terminase contains a...

Sigamani, Sundaresan Selvarajan; Zhao, Haiyan; Kamau, Yvonne N.; Baines, Joel D.; Tang, Liang

2013-04-17

391

Elimination of Mitochondrial DNA Is Not Required for Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Replication  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) results in the rapid elimination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from host cells. It is known that a mitochondrial isoform of the viral alkaline nuclease (UL12) called UL12.5 triggers this process. However, very little is known about the impact of mtDNA depletion on viral replication or the biology of HSV-1 infections. These questions have been difficult to address because UL12.5 and UL12 are encoded by overlapping transcripts that share the same open reading frame. As a result, mutations that alter UL12.5 also affect UL12, and UL12 null mutations severely impair viral growth by interfering with the intranuclear processing of progeny viral genomes. Therefore, to specifically assess the impact of mtDNA depletion on viral replication, it is necessary to eliminate the activity of UL12.5 while preserving the nuclear functions of UL12. Previous work has shown that the human cytomegalovirus alkaline nuclease UL98 can functionally substitute for UL12 during HSV-1 replication. We found that UL98 is unable to deplete mtDNA in transfected cells and therefore generated an HSV-1 variant in which UL98 coding sequences replace the UL12/UL12.5 open reading frame. The resulting virus was severely impaired in its ability to trigger mtDNA loss but reached titers comparable to those of wild-type HSV-1 in one-step and multistep growth experiments. Together, these observations demonstrate that the elimination of mtDNA is not required for HSV-1 replication in cell culture. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 destroy the DNA of host cell mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells. Epstein-Barr virus, a distantly related herpesvirus, has a similar effect, indicating that mitochondrial DNA destruction is under positive selection and thus confers a benefit to the virus. The present work shows that mitochondrial DNA destruction is not required for efficient replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in cultured Vero kidney epithelial cells, suggesting that this activity likely benefits the virus in other cell types or in the intact human host. PMID:24371054

Duguay, Brett A.; Saffran, Holly A.; Ponomarev, Alina; Duley, Shayla A.; Eaton, Heather E.

2014-01-01

392

Construction of Live Vaccines Using Genetically Engineered Poxviruses: Biological Activity of Vaccinia Virus Recombinants Expressing the Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen and the Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential live vaccines using recombinant vaccinia viruses have been constructed for both hepatitis B and herpes simplex. These recombinant vaccinia viruses express cloned genes of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) or the glycoprotein D from herpes simplex virus (HSV-gD). The HBsAg synthesized in vitro under the regulation of vaccinia virus is secreted from infected cells as a particle

Enzo Paoletti; Bernard R. Lipinskas; Carol Samsonoff; Susan Mercer; Dennis Panicali

1984-01-01

393

Human leukocyte interferon-? in cream for the management of genital herpes in Asian women: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the clinical efficacy and tolerance of human leukocyte interferon-a (2 × 106 IU\\/g) in hydrophilic cream to cure patients afflicted with first episodes of genital herpes. Sixty patients aged 18–40 years (mean 24.5) with culture-confirmed herpes simplex genitalis, bearing 755 lesions (mean 12.6) were randomized to active and placebo groups. Patients joined the study within

T. A. Syed; S. Lundin; K. M. Cheema; R. C. Kahlon; M. Khayyami; S. A. Ahmad; B. M. M. Kahlon; A. M. Kahlon

1995-01-01

394

Multiple Antibody Targets on Herpes B Glycoproteins B and D Identified by Screening Sera of Infected Rhesus Macaques with Peptide Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1) is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any) in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV). 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs) were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test. PMID:24497986

Beutling, Ulrike; Jentsch, Dieter; Motzkus, Dirk; Frank, Ronald; Hunsmann, Gerhard; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Fritz, Hans-Joachim

2014-01-01

395

Characterization of myeloid-specific peroxidase, keratin 8, and dual specificity phosphatase 1 as innate immune genes involved in the resistance of crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) to Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.  

PubMed

Myeloid-specific peroxidase (MPO), keratin 8 (KRT-8), and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP-1) are believed to play essential roles in innate immunity. Through suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) analysis, we previously identified MPO, KRT-8, and DUSP-1 as the three genes that were the most significantly upregulated in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) that survived Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) infection. Here, we have further characterized these three genes and their response to pathogen challenge. The open reading frames (ORF) of MPO, KRT-8, and DUSP-1 were cloned by RACE technique and sequenced. The full-length cDNAs of the three genes contained ORFs of 2289, 1575 and 1083 bp respectively. The polypeptides from each ORF were projected to contain 762 (MPO), 524 (KRT-8), and 360 (DUSP-1) amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three genes were most closely related to zebrafish. We found that MPO, KRT-8, and DUSP-1 were expressed at low levels in all of the tissues examined in healthy crucian carp. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that MPO, KRT-8, and DUSP-1 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated within 72 h of CyHV-2 infection compared to mock infected controls. Maximum expression of MPO was detected at 24 hpi (2.71-fold, P < 0.05). While, 12 hpi (3.80-fold, P < 0.01) and 6 hpi (8.70-fold, P < 0.01) were the highest expression time points for KRT-8 and DUSP-1, respectively. In contrast, after Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, the transcripts of these three genes remained unchanged or slightly down-regulated. For the fish survived from viral infection, expression levels of MPO and KRT-8 were 2.72 fold and 2.47 fold higher than those of fish died from acute infection, and similar level of DUSP-1 was observed in samples of survived fish. These data suggested MPO, KRT-8 and DUSP-1 might be involved in the antiviral, but not antibacterial innate immune response in crucian carp. These findings also support the use of MPO and KRT-8 as immunological markers for a response to viral infection in crucian carp. PMID:25312688

Podok, Patarida; Wang, Hao; Xu, Lijuan; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun

2014-12-01

396

Different expression profiles of Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Intelectin (ITLN) and Purine nucleoside phosphorylase 5a (PNP 5a) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 and Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

Interleukin 11 (IL-11), Intelectin (ITLN) and Purine nucleoside phosphorylase 5a (PNP5a) play important roles in innate immunity. In a previous study to identify differentially expressed immune-related genes, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) assay was used to characterize differentially expressed genes in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) infected with Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) in which IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a were identified to be the three most significantly up-regulated genes (Xu et al., Archives of Virology, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-014-2011-9). In this study, the complete open reading frames (ORF) of IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a genes were cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNAs of the three genes contained an ORF of 597, 945 and 882 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 198, 314 and 293 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three genes shared high homology to other bony fish species including Zebrafish. Interestingly, the ITLN gene of crucian carp lacked a 10 aa peptide that was found in the C-terminal of other fish species. A real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to quantitatively examine their tissue distribution. We found that IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a were expressed at low levels in all of the tissues examined. To monitor the response of these genes to CyHV- 2 or Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) infection, we determined the expression level of IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a at different time points after infection in kidney. Significant up-regulation of IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a was only observed 72 h post-CyHV-2 injection (P < 0.01), whereas significant up-regulation was observed as early as 6 h after infection with A. hydrophila (P < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that host innate immune response to CyHV-2, at least in which IL-11, ITLN and PNP5a were involved, was slow in comparison to that induced by A. hydrophila. It suggested that CyHV-2 might suppress host innate response during early infection. The lack of a C-terminal peptide of crucian carp ITLN gene implied a possible functional difference of this gene during evolution, which merit further investigation. PMID:24636855

Podok, Patarida; Xu, Lijuan; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun

2014-05-01

397

Ophthalmic manifestations of herpes zoster virus in patients with multiple myeloma following bone marrow transplantation  

PubMed Central

We report three patients with ophthalmic herpes zoster (HZ) manifestations on the background diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM). It seems that immunocompromised status has caused reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) producing a well-characterised neurological syndrome and subsequent postherpetic neuralgia in two patients. One patient experienced lymphocytic leptomeningitis resulting in unilateral optic neuritis. All patients received similar myeloma disease-specific treatment prior to HZ reactivation. All patients were treated with thalidomide and steroids, and they thereafter underwent autologous stem cell transplantation. Prior to HZ reactivation they received new immunomodulatory drugs in the form of thalidomide in addition to bortezomib (2 patients) and lenalidomide (1 patient). Immediate specific antiviral therapy was successfully applied with intravenous acyclovir for 10?days, followed by long-term oral famciclovir maintenance. Two patients progressed to have chronic HZ ophthalmicus and postherpetic neuralgia requiring ongoing antiviral therapy and neuroepileptic medications for the neuropathic pain. PMID:23429015

Khalafallah, Alhossain A; Woodgate, Miriam; Koshy, Kurien; Patrick, Andrew

2013-01-01

398

Preventing and managing herpes zoster: key actions to foster healthy aging.  

PubMed

Population aging is the demographic phenomenon characterizing all countries in the world, and it is challenging the national infrastructures, in particular health systems. However, aging itself is not associated with increased medical spending, but disability and comorbidity that affect older individuals are the actual drivers for health expenditures. Therefore, if people age in better health, medical spending may be significantly reduced. Preventative interventions proved to be effective in reducing/preventing disease and disability and often found to be cost effective, include diet and exercise interventions, medications, routine disease screenings, and immunizations. Vaccination can protect older citizens against life-threatening diseases, such as influenza, pneumococcal infections, tetanus, and against diseases which adversely impact their quality of life, such as herpes zoster (HZ). Including HZ vaccination in its citizens' lifetime immunization calendar can reinforce Europe's commitment toward active, healthy aging. This paper outlines the consensus statement of a group of Italian experts on HZ. PMID:25652328

Maggi, Stefania; Gabutti, Giovanni; Franco, Elisabetta; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Ferro, Antonio; Lazzari, Marzia; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Volpi, Antonio; Greco, Donato

2015-02-01

399

Persistent infection of human lymphoid and myeloid cell lines with herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 replicated and persisted in human T, B, and myeloid cell lines with different patterns of viral replication and various effects on cell growth. T cell line CEM supported the replication of HSV for over 400 days without detectable differences in cell growth as compared with uninfected cells. HSV persisted in B cell line NC37 and myeloid cell line K562 for up to 222 and 374 days, respectively, but led to a significant decrease in the number of viable cells by 7 weeks of infection. The average number of cells producing infectious virus was very low in these cell lines (range, 0.5 to 2.7+) compared with a larger proportion of cells exhibiting HSV antigens by immunofluorescence (range, 24 to 58%). In contrast, null cell line LAZ 221 failed to replicate HSV even though the viral infection led to a cessation of cell growth. PMID:226478

Rinaldo, C R; Richter, B S; Black, P H; Hirsch, M S

1979-01-01

400

Rapid detection of herpes simplex virus with fluorescein-labeled Helix pomatia lectin.  

PubMed Central

The use of fluorescein-conjugated Helix pomatia lectin was shown to be as effective as fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody reagents for the detection and differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in MRC-5 cell culture. Cells infected with HSV-1 generally displayed a pattern of nongranular or diffuse fluorescence, while cells infected with HSV-2 were identified by the production of fluorescent grains and flecks. This unique nonimmunological reagent, when used in combination with low-speed centrifugation, provides a remarkably specific, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means to detect HSV-infected MRC-5 or BHK-21 cells as early as 20 h postinoculation. In contrast to the immunofluorescence method, the serotypes of HSV can be differentiated with only one fluorescein-H. pomatia reagent in MRC-5 cell cultures. Images PMID:2545739

Slifkin, M; Cumbie, R

1989-01-01

401

Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic analysis of human antibodies against herpes simplex virus antigens.  

PubMed Central

By use of crossed immunoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel, antidbody titers against six individual herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins and two nonglycosylated proteins were determined in 100 human sera. High antibody titers were found against two different HSV type-common glycoproteins designated Ag8 and Ag11 (containing glycosylated polypeptides D and B, respectively). The anti-Ag8 and -Ag11 titers correlated with HSV neutralizing antibody titers. Most of the serological cross-reactivity between HSV type 1 and type 2 was probably caused by antibodies to Ag8 and Ag11. Human antibodies against one HSV type 1-specific glycoprotein (Ag6, containing glycosylated polypeptide C) and two HSV type 2 glycoproteins (Ag4 and Ag9) were also demonstrated, and the titers correlated better with neutralizing antibody titers of the homologous than of the heterologous virus type. The data presented can be directly applied to the further development of diagnostic reagents. Images PMID:222674

Vestergaard, B F

1979-01-01

402

Antiviral activity of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles against herpes simplex virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3  

PubMed Central

The interaction between silver nanoparticles and viruses is attracting great interest due to the potential antiviral activity of these particles, and is the subject of much research effort in the treatment of infectious diseases. In this work, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a size-dependent interaction with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and with human parainfluenza virus type 3. We show that production of silver nanoparticles from different fungi is feasible, and their antiviral activity is dependent on the production system used. Silver nanoparticles are capable of reducing viral infectivity, probably by blocking interaction of the virus with the cell, which might depend on the size and zeta potential of the silver nanoparticles. Smaller-sized nanoparticles were able to inhibit the infectivity of the viruses analyzed. PMID:24235828

Gaikwad, Swapnil; Ingle, Avinash; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra; Falanga, Annarita; Incoronato, Novella; Russo, Luigi; Galdiero, Stefania; Galdiero, Massimilano

2013-01-01

403

Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence and incidence in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection  

PubMed Central

Summary Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) HIV co-infection is common and associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. HSV-2 seroprevalence was assessed on stored samples from baseline and one year follow-up from 81 patients identified with acute HIV infection and 81 age-matched chronically infected men. HSV-2 seroprevalence at baseline was lower for those with acute rather than chronic HIV-infection, 51.9 versus 71.6% (P = 0.01); relative risk 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57–0.92). Since HSV-2 seroprevalence is lower in those newly HIV-infected, the diagnosis of early HIV infection may allow for counselling to reduce subsequent HSV-2 acquisition. PMID:21742810

Lagnese, M; Daar, E S; Christenson, P; Rieg, G

2015-01-01

404

In vitro virucidal activity of a styrylpyrone derivative against herpes simplex virus strain KOS-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) extracted from Goniothalamus umbrosus root was tested against herpes simplex virus (HSV) strain KOS-1. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of SPD on Vero cells was tested and the value of cytotoxic concentration, CC50, was 44 ?M (8.88 ?g/mL), and the 50% Effective Concentration, EC50, was 3.35 ?M (0.67 ?g/mL). Selectivity index of SPD against HSV Kos-1 was more than 13 indicating potential as antiviral agent. Three treatments were used in the antiviral test; 1) post-treatment, 2) pre-treatment, and 3) virucidal. The results revealed that the post-treatment was more effective in inhibiting viral replication compared to pre-treatment. The findings indicated that the SPD from G. umbrosus has good potential for prospective nature-based antiviral drug.

Moses, Micheal; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

2014-09-01

405

The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of viral genes. The vectors currently being developed are (i) helper free amplicons, (ii) replication defective viruses, and (iii) genetically engineered replication competent viruses with restricted host range. Whereas the former two types of vectors require stable, continuous cell lines expressing viral genes for their replication, the replication competent viruses will replicate on approved primary human cell strains.

Roizman, Bernard

1996-10-01

406

Severe acute pharyngotonsillitis due to herpes simplex virus type 2 in a young woman.  

PubMed

Whereas herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a recognized cause of acute oropharyngeal infection in young adults, HSV-2 infections are mostly associated with genital symptoms. We report a case of acute and prolonged febrile ulcerative pharyngotonsillitis with inflammatory syndrome which persisted despite antibiotic therapy for 8 days and required hospitalization in an 18-year old immune competent and sexually active female patient. HSV-2 was evidenced in tonsillar samples and blood by real time PCR, and HSV type-specific serology showed HSV-2 primary infection. Despite delayed diagnosis, acyclovir treatment led to rapid clinical improvement. This case highlights HSV-2 as an unusual cause of pharyngotonsillitis that should be reminded in sexually active patients. PMID:25600608

Rosain, Jérémie; Froissart, Antoine; Estrangin, Elisabeth; Rozenberg, Flore

2015-02-01

407

Involvement of prostaglandin-induced proteins in the inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication.  

PubMed

Cyclopentenone prostaglandin (PG), delta7-PGA1 was found to induce several polypeptides in human embryonic fibroblast (HEF) cells which were noticed to be dose-related and appeared after 1 h of treatment with a peak at around 5 h and gradual disappearance after 12 h. PG-induced proteins were almost identical in terms of molecular weights with those induced by heat-shock at 42 degrees C. Regarding the mechanism of inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication by PG in cell culture, dot blot hybridization has revealed that the level of immediate early (IE) mRNA of the virus was reduced after PG treatment with time dependence. And this delayed inhibitory effect of delta7-PGA1 on HSV was shown to be associated with the production and accumulation of the induced polypeptides. PMID:2536274

Yamamoto, N; Rahman, M M; Fukushima, M; Maeno, K; Nishiyama, Y

1989-01-16

408

Tin oxide nanowires suppress herpes simplex virus-1 entry and cell-to-cell membrane fusion.  

PubMed

The advent of nanotechnology has ushered in the use of modified nanoparticles as potential antiviral agents against diseases such as herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1) (HSV-2), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), monkeypox virus, and hepatitis B virus. Here we describe the application of tin oxide (SnO(2)) nanowires as an effective treatment against HSV-1 infection. SnO(2) nanowires work as a carrier of negatively charged structures that compete with HSV-1 attachment to cell bound heparan sulfate (HS), therefore inhibiting entry and subsequent cell-to-cell spread. This promising new approach can be developed into a novel form of broad-spectrum antiviral therapy especially since HS has been shown to serve as a cellular co-receptor for a number of other viruses as well, including the respiratory syncytial virus, adeno-associated virus type 2, and human papilloma virus. PMID:23110193

Trigilio, James; Antoine, Thessicar E; Paulowicz, Ingo; Mishra, Yogendra K; Adelung, Rainer; Shukla, Deepak

2012-01-01

409

Headaches due to giant cell arteritis following herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an elderly patient.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) are two diseases more commonly seen in the elderly population. Each has potentially serious and preventable visual complications by differing mechanisms. Treatments for the two diseases differ. Antiviral medications are used in HZO and high-dose corticosteroids in GCA. These two entities could potentially coexist in the same patient, leading to a complicated diagnostic scenario where a potentially treatable disease could be overlooked. Here, we report a patient who was suffering from PHN following zoster ophthalmicus who developed GCA within a time frame suggesting a potential pathogenic association with the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). This association could be either direct with viral vessel infiltration leading to the arteritis or by an indirect dysimmune route. A pathophysiological association with VZV leading to the development of GCA is proposed. PMID:19438922

Kosa, S C; Younge, B R; Kumar, N

2010-02-01

410

Topical tenofovir, a microbicide effective against HIV, inhibits herpes simplex virus-2 replication.  

PubMed

The HIV reverse-transcriptase inhibitor, tenofovir, was recently formulated into a vaginal gel for use as a microbicide. In human trials, a 1% tenofovir gel inhibited HIV sexual transmission by 39% and, surprisingly, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) transmission by 51%. We demonstrate that the concentration achieved intravaginally with a 1% tenofovir topical gel has direct antiherpetic activity. Tenofovir inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates in human embryonic fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and organotypic epithelial 3D rafts, decreases HSV replication in human lymphoid and cervicovaginal tissues ex vivo, and delays HSV-induced lesions and death in topically treated HSV-infected mice. The active tenofovir metabolite inhibits HSV DNA-polymerase and HIV reverse-transcriptase. To exert dual antiviral effects, tenofovir requires topical administration to achieve a drug concentration higher than systemic levels achieved by oral treatment. These findings indicate that a single topical treatment, like tenofovir, can inhibit the transmission of HIV and its copathogens. PMID:22018238

Andrei, Graciela; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Introini, Andrea; Balestra, Emanuela; van den Oord, Joost; Cihlar, Tomas; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Snoeck, Robert; Margolis, Leonid; Balzarini, Jan

2011-10-20

411

Foscarnet-resistant herpes simplex virus infection in patients with AIDS.  

PubMed

Six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients had clinical lesions of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 that showed in vitro resistance to foscarnet. In each patient, lesions were unresponsive to foscarnet therapy or developed during daily suppressive foscarnet. Five patients had a history of intermittent or chronic foscarnet use for the management of acyclovir-resistant HSV infection, and 1 was receiving daily foscarnet for suppression of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Seven of 10 foscarnet-resistant isolates from 6 patients were susceptible to acyclovir in vitro, and 1 was of borderline susceptibility. In 3 patients, the administration of acyclovir, either alone or in combination with foscarnet, resulted in healing. Clinically significant resistance to foscarnet may occur in immunosuppressed patients with prior foscarnet exposure. Addition or substitution of acyclovir to foscarnet therapy may be a useful strategy for patients in whom foscarnet resistance is suspected, pending the results of in vitro susceptibility testing. PMID:8277181

Safrin, S; Kemmerly, S; Plotkin, B; Smith, T; Weissbach, N; De Veranez, D; Phan, L D; Cohn, D

1994-01-01

412

Tin Oxide Nanowires Suppress Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Entry and Cell-to-Cell Membrane Fusion  

PubMed Central

The advent of nanotechnology has ushered in the use of modified nanoparticles as potential antiviral agents against diseases such as herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1) (HSV-2), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), monkeypox virus, and hepatitis B virus. Here we describe the application of tin oxide (SnO2) nanowires as an effective treatment against HSV-1 infection. SnO2 nanowires work as a carrier of negatively charged structures that compete with HSV-1 attachment to cell bound heparan sulfate (HS), therefore inhibiting entry and subsequent cell-to-cell spread. This promising new approach can be developed into a novel form of broad-spectrum antiviral therapy especially since HS has been shown to serve as a cellular co-receptor for a number of other viruses as well, including the respiratory syncytial virus, adeno-associated virus type 2, and human papilloma virus. PMID:23110193

Paulowicz, Ingo; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Adelung, Rainer; Shukla, Deepak

2012-01-01

413

Short-course intravenous aciclovir treatment for cutaneous herpes zoster in patients with HIV infection.  

PubMed

There are no comparative data on the treatment duration of cutaneous herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with HIV infection. We retrospectively reviewed all 51 adult patients with HIV infection presenting with cutaneous HZ in the 15-year period 1995-2009 treated with intravenous aciclovir alone. The median CD4 count was 297 (range 10-703) cells/mm(3). There were 44 episodes of localized and seven episodes of disseminated cutaneous HZ. Patients received a median of nine (range 3-17) doses of intravenous aciclovir given at a median dose of 6.5 (range 2.9-10.8) mg/kg eight hourly. One patient (2%) relapsed early and four patients (7.8%) relapsed late with further episodes of cutaneous HZ. Seven patients (13.7%) developed postherpetic neuralgia. Three days of intravenous aciclovir is effective treatment for cutaneous HZ in patients with HIV infection. PMID:22648891

Noonan, L; Gunson, T; Ellis-Pegler, R; Thomas, M; Briggs, S

2012-05-01

414

The immunopathology of herpes gestationis. Immunofluorescence studies and characterization of "HG factor".  

PubMed Central

Nine skin biopsies from seven herpes gestationis patients were studied by immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. Basement membrane zone (BMZ) deposition of C3 and properdin was present in all nine skin specimens, while IgG deposition was apparent in only one. With in vitro C3 IF staining, positive BMZ staining (HG factor activity) was noted with all seven of our patients' serum samples tested. By standard indirect IF staining, however, only one of these serum samples contained BMZ antibodies of the IgG type. Two cord serum samples, tested by these same methods, yielded positive in vitro C3 staining (HG factor activity) but negative indirect IF staining (IgG). HG factor activity was found to be stable at 56 degrees C for 30 min and in two of three specimens at 56 degrees C for 1 h. Treatment of the complement source (normal human serum) used in the in vitro C3 staining assay with Mg2-EGTA or use of C2-deficient serum as the complement source inhibited HG factor activity. HG factor blocked the specific staining of the BMZ of normal human skin by labeled bullous pemphigoid antibodies. By sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel chromatography (Sephadex G-200), HG factor activity eluted with IgG-containing fractions. The highly purified IgG fraction of two herpes gestationis sera was also positive for HG factor activity. Our studies suggest that HG factor is an IgG antibody that may not be demonstrable by conventional IF methods, but which activates the classical complement pathway. Images PMID:58871

Jordon, R E; Heine, K G; Tappeiner, G; Bushkell, L L; Provost, T T

1976-01-01

415

Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

1995-07-01

416

?-Amyloid peptides display protective activity against the human Alzheimer's disease-associated herpes simplex virus-1.  

PubMed

Amyloid plaques, the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), contain fibrillar ?-amyloid (A?) 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been implicated as a risk factor for AD and found to co-localize within amyloid plaques. A? 1-40 and A? 1-42 display anti-bacterial, anti-yeast and anti-viral activities. Here, fibroblast, epithelial and neuronal cell lines were exposed to A? 1-40 or A? 1-42 and challenged with HSV-1. Quantitative analysis revealed that A? 1-40 and A? 1-42 inhibited HSV-1 replication when added 2 h prior to or concomitantly with virus challenge, but not when added 2 or 6 h after virus addition. In contrast, A? 1-40 and A? 1-42 did not prevent replication of the non-enveloped human adenovirus. In comparison, antimicrobial peptide LL-37 prevented HSV-1 infection independently of its sequence of addition. Our findings showed also that A? 1-40 and A? 1-42 acted directly on HSV-1 in a cell-free system and prevented viral entry into cells. The sequence homology between A? and a proximal transmembrane region of HSV-1 glycoprotein B suggested that A? interference with HSV-1 replication could involve its insertion into the HSV-1 envelope. Our data suggest that A? peptides represent a novel class of antimicrobial peptides that protect against neurotropic enveloped virus infections such as HSV-1. Overproduction of A? peptide to protect against latent herpes viruses and eventually against other infections, may contribute to amyloid plaque formation, and partially explain why brain infections play a pathogenic role in the progression of the sporadic form of AD. PMID:25376108

Bourgade, Karine; Garneau, Hugo; Giroux, Geneviève; Le Page, Aurélie Y; Bocti, Christian; Dupuis, Gilles; Frost, Eric H; Fülöp, Tamàs

2015-02-01

417

Directed selection of recombinant human monoclonal antibodies to herpes simplex virus glycoproteins from phage display libraries.  

PubMed Central

Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7604009

Sanna, P P; Williamson, R A; De Logu, A; Bloom, F E; Burton, D R

1995-01-01

418

Investigations of Allerton-type herpes virus infection in East African game animals and cattle  

PubMed Central

Neutralization tests with a strain (BA) of Allerton-type herpes virus, derived from a buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were carried out on 924 sera from 17 species of E. African game animals and on cattle sera from Tanzania (2001), Kenya (792) and Uganda (410). Buffalo populations throughout E. Africa showed a very high rate of infection, with all animals over 2 years of age serologically positive. Antibody was present in some giraffe, waterbuck and hippopotamus sera and, less frequently, in impala, eland, bushbuck and oryx. Data are provided on the titres of positive samples; the mean titre of buffalo sera increased with age. Cattle in many localities of N. Tanzania and S. Kenya showed a very high rate of infection, 85-95% of sera from animals more than 2-years old containing antibody; the titres recorded were lower than those in buffaloes. Very high infection rates were also found in Karamoja and Teso (Uganda) and also in some other areas of Kenya, whilst a considerably lower incidence of infection was detected in W. Nile Province of Uganda and in central Tanzania. Differences in infection rates may have been related to herd size and husbandry practices. It was shown that a wave of infection was probably spreading through cattle in N. Tanzania at about the same time as an outbreak of disease occurred in buffaloes and it is suggested that virus transmission may have been by biting flies. No clinical signs attributable to the virus were reported in cattle but mouth lesions similar to those recorded in buffaloes, or nasal lesions, could have passed undetected. Allerton-type virus probably produces a range of clinical syndromes in cattle, closely resembling those associated with some herpes viruses in primates but infection is seldom related in the field to either pseudo-lumpy skin disease, mammillitis or stomatitis. PMID:4326248

Plowright, W.; Jessett, D. M.

1971-01-01

419

Cryo Electron Tomography of Herpes Simplex Virus during Axonal Transport and Secondary Envelopment in Primary Neurons  

PubMed Central

During herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) egress in neurons, viral particles travel from the neuronal cell body along the axon towards the synapse. Whether HSV1 particles are transported as enveloped virions as proposed by the ‘married’ model or as non-enveloped capsids suggested by the ‘separate’ model is controversial. Specific viral proteins may form a recruitment platform for microtubule motors that catalyze such transport. However, their subviral location has remained elusive. Here we established a system to analyze herpesvirus egress by cryo electron tomography. At 16 h post infection, we observed intra-axonal transport of progeny HSV1 viral particles in dissociated hippocampal neurons by live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Cryo electron tomography of frozen-hydrated neurons revealed that most egressing capsids were transported independently of the viral envelope. Unexpectedly, we found not only DNA-containing capsids (cytosolic C-capsids), but also capsids lacking DNA (cytosolic A-/B-capsids) in mid-axon regions. Subvolume averaging revealed lower amounts of tegument on cytosolic A-/B-capsids than on C-capsids. Nevertheless, all capsid types underwent active axonal transport. Therefore, even few tegument proteins on the capsid vertices seemed to suffice for transport. Secondary envelopment of capsids was observed at axon terminals. On their luminal face, the enveloping vesicles were studded with typical glycoprotein-like spikes. Furthermore, we noted an accretion of tegument density at the concave cytosolic face of the vesicle membrane in close proximity to the capsids. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that these assembly sites lacked cytoskeletal elements, but that filamentous actin surrounded them and formed an assembly compartment. Our data support the ‘separate model’ for HSV1 egress, i.e. progeny herpes viruses being transported along axons as subassemblies and not as complete virions within transport vesicles. PMID:22194682

Ibiricu, Iosune; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Döhner, Katinka; Bradke, Frank; Sodeik, Beate; Grünewald, Kay

2011-01-01

420

Disrupting seasonality to control disease outbreaks: the case of koi herpes virus.  

PubMed

Common carp accounts for a substantial proportion of global freshwater aquaculture production. Koi herpes virus (KHV), a highly virulent disease affecting carp that emerged in the late 1990s, is a serious threat to this industry. After a fish is infected with KHV, there is a temperature dependent delay before it becomes infectious, and a further delay before mortality. Consequently, KHV epidemiology is driven by seasonal changes in water temperature. Also, it has been proposed that outbreaks could be controlled by responsive management of water temperature in aquaculture setups. We use a mathematical model to analyse the effect of seasonal temperature cycles on KHV epidemiology, and the impact of attempting to control outbreaks by disrupting this cycle. We show that, although disease progression is fast in summer and slow in winter, total mortality over a 2-year period is similar for outbreaks that start in either season. However, for outbreaks that start in late autumn, mortality may be low and immunity high. A single bout of water temperature management can be an effective outbreak control strategy if it is started as soon as dead fish are detected and maintained for a long time. It can also be effective if the frequency of infectious fish is used as an indicator for the beginning of treatment. In this case, however, there is a risk that starting the treatment too soon will increase mortality relative to the case when no treatment is used. This counterproductive effect can be avoided if multiple bouts of temperature management are used. We conclude that disrupting normal seasonal patterns in water temperature can be an effective strategy for controlling koi herpes virus. Exploiting the seasonal patterns, possibly in combination with temperature management, can also induce widespread immunity to KHV in a cohort of fish. However, employing these methods successfully requires careful assessment to ensure that the treatment is started, and finished, at the correct time. PMID:21145328

Omori, Ryosuke; Adams, Ben

2011-02-21

421

Synergy of a Herpes OncolyticVirus and Paclitaxel for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Novel therapeutic regimens are needed to improve the dismal outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC). Oncolytic herpes simplex virus have shown promising activity against human ATC. We studied the application of oncolytic herpes simplex virus (G207 and NV1023) in combination with currently used chemotherapeutic drugs (paclitaxel and doxorubicin) for the treatment of ATC. Experimental Design and Results All four agents showed dose-response cytotoxicity in vitro for the human ATC cell lines KAT4 and DRO90-1. G207, combined with paclitaxel, showed synergistic cytotoxicity. Chou-Talalay combination indices ranged from 0.56 to 0.66 for KAT4, and 0.68 to 0.74 for DRO90-1at higher affected fractions. Paclitaxel did not enhance G207 viral entry and early gene expression or G207 viral replication. Paclitaxel combined with G207 compared with single-agent treatment or controls showed significantly increased microtubule acetylation, mitotic arrest, aberrant chromatid separation, inhibition of metaphase to anaphase progression, and apoptosis. A single i.t. injection of G207 combined with biweekly i.p. paclitaxel injections in athymic nude mice bearing KAT4 flank tumors showed significantly reduced mean tumor volume (74 F 38 mm3) compared with G207 alone (388 F 109 mm3), paclitaxel alone (439 F 137 mm3), and control (520 F 160 mm3) groups at 16 days. There was no morbidity in vivo attributable to therapy. Conclusions Mechanisms of paclitaxel antitumoral activity, including microtubule acetylation, mitotic block, and apoptosis, were enhanced by G207, which also has direct oncolytic effects. Combination of G207 and paclitaxel therapy is synergistic in treating ATC and holds promise for patients with this fatal disease. PMID:18316577

Lin, Shu-Fu; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Price, Daniel L.; Li, Sen; Chou, Ting-Chao; Singh, Paramjeet; Huang, Yu-Yao; Fong, Yuman; Wong, Richard J.

2009-01-01

422

Disulfide bonds of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein gB.  

PubMed Central

Glycoprotein B (gB) is the most highly conserved envelope glycoprotein of herpesviruses. The gB protein is required for virus infectivity and cell penetration. Recombinant forms of gB being used for the development of subunit vaccines are able to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies and protective efficacy in animal models. To gain structural information about the protein, we have determined the location of the disulfide bonds of a 696-amino-acid residue truncated, recombinant form of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein gB (HSV gB2t) produced by expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The purified protein, which contains virtually the entire extracellular domain of herpes simplex virus type 2 gB, was digested with trypsin under nonreducing conditions, and peptides were isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptides were characterized by using mass spectrometry and amino acid sequence analysis. The conditions of cleavage (4 M urea, pH 7) induced partial carbamylation of the N termini of the peptides, and each disulfide peptide was found with two or three different HPLC retention times (peptides with and without carbamylation of either one or both N termini). The 10 cysteines of the molecule were found to be involved in disulfide bridges. These bonds were located between Cys-89 (C1) and Cys-548 (C8), Cys-106 (C2) and Cys-504 (C7), Cys-180 (C3) and Cys-244 (C4), Cys-337 (C5) and Cys-385 (C6), and Cys-571 (C9) and Cys-608 (C10). These disulfide bonds are anticipated to be similar in the corresponding gBs from other herpesviruses because the 10 cysteines listed above are always conserved in the corresponding protein sequences. PMID:8892856

Norais, N; Tang, D; Kaur, S; Chamberlain, S H; Masiarz, F R; Burke, R L; Marcus, F

1996-01-01

423

Herpes Keratitis  

MedlinePLUS

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424

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

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425

Oral Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

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426

GFS, a preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida is associated with healing and inhibition of reactivation of Herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We sought to assess whether GFS, a proprietary preparation of Tasmanian Undaria pinnatifida, has effects on healing or re-emergence of Herpetic infections, and additionally, to assess effects of GFS in vitro. Undaria is the most commonly eaten seaweed in Japan, and contains sulphated polyanions and other components with potential anti-viral\\u000a activity. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections have lower

Russell Cooper; Charles Dragar; Kate Elliot; JH Fitton; John Godwin; Ken Thompson

2002-01-01

427

Herpes simplex encephalitis and subsequent cytomegalovirus encephalitis after chemoradiotherapy for central nervous system lymphoma: a case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological complications during the treatment of hematological malignancies have a wide range of causes. Treatment-related\\u000a leukoencephalopathy has been recognized as a major complication of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for central nervous\\u000a system (CNS) lymphoma, and can complicate the diagnosis of CNS infection. Herein, we present a patient with diffuse large\\u000a B-cell lymphoma who developed herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and subsequent

Hiroshi I. Suzuki; Akira Hangaishi; Noriko Hosoya; Takuro Watanabe; Yoshinobu Kanda; Toru Motokura; Shigeru Chiba; Mineo Kurokawa

2008-01-01

428

Entry Pathways of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 into Human Keratinocytes Are Dynamin- and Cholesterol-Dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can enter cells via endocytic pathways or direct fusion at the plasma membrane depending on the cell line and receptor(s). Most studies into virus entry have used cultured fibroblasts but since keratinocytes represent the primary entry site for HSV-1 infection in its human host, we initiated studies to characterize the entry pathway of HSV-1

Elena Rahn; Philipp Petermann; Mei-Ju Hsu; Frazer J. Rixon; Dagmar Knebel-Mörsdorf; Robert J. Geraghty

2011-01-01

429

The herpes simplex virus receptor nectin-1 is down-regulated after trans-interaction with glycoprotein D  

Microsoft Academic Search

During herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry, membrane fusion occurs either on the cell surface or after virus endocytosis. In both cases, binding of glycoprotein D (gD) to a receptor such as nectin-1 or HVEM is required. In this study, we co-cultured cells expressing gD with nectin-1 expressing cells to investigate the effects of gD on nectin-1 at cell contacts. After

Katie M. Stiles; Richard S. B. Milne; Gary H. Cohen; Roselyn J. Eisenberg; Claude Krummenacher

2008-01-01

430

Glycoprotein D Receptor-Dependent, Low-pH-Independent Endocytic Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry pathways have been described: direct fusion between the vi- rion envelope and the plasma membrane, as seen on Vero cells, and low-pH-dependent endocytosis, as seen on CHO nectin-1 and HeLa cells. In this paper, we studied HSV entry into C10 murine melanoma cells and iden- tified a third entry pathway for this

Richard S. B. Milne; Anthony V. Nicola; J. Charles Whitbeck; Roselyn J. Eisenberg; Gary H. Cohen

2005-01-01

431

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Enters Human Epidermal Keratinocytes, but Not Neurons, via a pH-Dependent Endocytic Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) enters some laboratory cell lines via a pH-dependent, endocytic mechanism. We investigated whether this entry pathway is used in human cell types relevant to pathogenesis. Three different classes of lysosomotropic agents, which raise endosomal pH, blocked HSV entry into primary and transformed human keratinocytes, but not into human neurons or neuroblastoma lines. In keratinocytes, incoming HSV

Anthony V. Nicola; Jean Hou; Eugene O. Major; Stephen E. Straus

2005-01-01

432

Possible mode of antiviral activity of acidic protein bound polysaccharide isolated from Ganoderma lucidum on herpes simplex viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two protein bound polysaccharides, a neutral protein bound polysaccharide (NPBP) and an acidic protein bound polysaccharide (APBP), were isolated from water soluble substances of Ganoderma lucidum by EtOH precipitation and DEAE–cellulose column chromatography. Their antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) were then investigated by plaque reduction assay. APBP exhibited more potent HSV-1 and

Seong-Kug Eo; Young-So Kim; Chong-Kil Lee; Seong-Sun Han

2000-01-01

433

Combination suicide\\/cytokine gene therapy as adjuvants to a defective herpes simplex virus-based cancer vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used syngeneic, established bilateral subcutaneous tumor models to examine the antitumor activity of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors, including the induction of an immune response against non-inoculated distant tumors. In such a model with CT26 murine colon adenocarcinoma, unilateral intratumoral inoculation of replication-deficient HSV-1 tsK inhibited the growth of both the inoculated and noninoculated established tumors. To enhance

M Toda; RL Martuza; SD Rabkin

2001-01-01

434

Peripheral Sympathetic Denervation Alters Both the Primary and Memory Cellular Immune Responses to Herpes simplex Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have sought to delineate the impact of neuroendocrine function on overall immune responsiveness. Using various murine models, we and others have previously shown that both adrenal-dependent and adrenal-independent mechanisms associated with psychological stress modulate components of both the primary and memory cellular immune responses to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. We have extended these studies by

Nicole A. Leo; Tracy A. Callahan; Robert H. Bonneau

1998-01-01

435

Livedoid Vasculopathy and Mononeuritis Multiplex, with a Fulminant Hepatic Failure which was caused by Herpes Simplex Hepatitis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex is a rare association. We are presenting a case of an unusual association of livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex, who developed fulminant hepatic failure which was secondary to Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis, while she was on treatment with immunosuppressants. Her skin biopsy and immunofluorescence studies showed the features of vasculitis. A biopsy from the sural nerve showed the features of chronic vasculitis. PMID:23814745

Pai B, Sathish; Pai, Kanthilatha

2013-01-01

436

Livedoid Vasculopathy and Mononeuritis Multiplex, with a Fulminant Hepatic Failure which was caused by Herpes Simplex Hepatitis: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex is a rare association. We are presenting a case of an unusual association of livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex, who developed fulminant hepatic failure which was secondary to Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis, while she was on treatment with immunosuppressants. Her skin biopsy and immunofluorescence studies showed the features of vasculitis. A biopsy from the sural nerve showed the features of chronic vasculitis. PMID:23814745

Pai B, Sathish; Pai, Kanthilatha

2013-05-01

437

Protection against Recurrent Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Disease after Therapeutic Vaccination of Latently Infected Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of therapeutic vaccination of animals latently infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to enhance protective immunity to the virus and thereby reduce the incidence and severity of recurrent ocular disease was assessed in a mouse model. Mice latently infected with HSV-1 were vaccinated intranasally with a mixture of HSV-1 glycoproteins and recombinant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin

C. M. Richards; R. Case; T. R. Hirst; T. J. Hill; N. A. Williams

2003-01-01

438

ICP34.5 deleted herpes simplex virus with enhanced oncolytic, immune stimulating, and anti-tumour properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV1) in which the neurovirulence factor ICP34.5 is inactivated has been shown to direct tumour-specific cell lysis in several tumour models. Such viruses have also been shown to be safe in Phase I clinical trials by intra-tumoral injection in glioma and melanoma patients.1,2,3 Previous work has used serially passaged laboratory isolates of HSV1 which we hypothesized

B L Liu; M Robinson; Z-Q Han; R H Branston; C English; P Reay; Y McGrath; S K Thomas; M Thornton; P Bullock; C A Love; R S Coffin

2003-01-01

439

Characterization of a Type-Common Human Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody to Herpes Simplex Virus with High Therapeutic Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the characterization of a type-common human recombinant monoclonal antibody previously isolated by antigen selection from a phage-displayed combinatorial antibody library established from a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-seropositive individual. Competition with well-characterized murine monoclonal anti- bodies and immunodetection of gD truncations revealed that this antibody recognizes the group Ib antigenic site of glycoprotein D, a highly conserved and protective

ALESSANDRO DE LOGU; R. ANTHONY WILLIAMSON; ROMAN ROZENSHTEYN; FERNANDO RAMIRO-IBANEZ; CINDY D. SIMPSON; DENNIS R. BURTON; PIETRO PAOLO SANNA

1998-01-01

440

Complete Sequence and Comparative Analysis of the Genome of Herpes B Virus (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1) from a Rhesus Monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete DNA sequence of herpes B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) strain E2490, isolated from a rhesus macaque, was determined. The total genome length is 156,789 bp, with 74.5% GC composition and overall genome organization characteristic of alphaherpesviruses. The first and last residues of the genome were defined by sequencing the cloned genomic termini. There were six origins of DNA

Ludmila Perelygina; L. Zhu; H. Zurkuhlen; R. Mills; M. Borodovsky; J. K. Hilliard

2003-01-01

441

Phylogenetic Analysis of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates Identified Three Genetic Groups and Recombinant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen which establishes lifelong infections. In the present study, we determined the sequence diversity of the complete genes coding for glycoproteins G (gG), I (gI), and E (gE), comprising 2.3% of the HSV-1 genome and located within the unique short (US) region, for 28 clinical HSV-1 isolates inducing oral lesions,

Peter Norberg; Tomas Bergstrom; Elham Rekabdar; Magnus Lindh; J.-A. Liljeqvist

2004-01-01

442

Genomic sequences of a low passage herpes simplex virus 2 clinical isolate and its plaque-purified derivative strain.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus 2 is an important human pathogen as the causative agent of genital herpes, neonatal herpes, and increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Nevertheless, the only genomic sequence that has been completed is the attenuated HSV-2 HG52 laboratory strain. In this study we defined the genomic sequence of the HSV-2 SD90e low passage clinical isolate and a plaque-purified derivative, SD90-3P. We found minimal sequence differences between SD90e and SD90-3P. However, in comparisons with the HSV-2 HG52 reference genome sequence, the SD90e genome ORFs contained numerous point mutations, 13 insertions/deletions (indels), and 9 short compensatory frameshifts. The indels were true sequence differences, but the compensatory frameshifts were likely sequence errors in the original HG52 sequence. Because HG52 virus is less virulent than other HSV-2 strains and may not be representative of wildtype HSV-2 strains, we propose that the HSV-2 SD90e genome serve as the new HSV-2 reference genome. PMID:24503076

Colgrove, Robert; Diaz, Fernando; Newman, Ruchi; Saif, Sakina; Shea, Terry; Young, Sarah; Henn, Matt; Knipe, David M

2014-02-01

443

Recent approval of xerese in Canada: 5% acyclovir and 1% hydrocortisone topical cream in the treatment of herpes labialis.  

PubMed

Herpes labialis is a frequently occurring viral infection of the lips and oral mucosa. Recurring lesions are induced by viral reactivation and replication, but the symptoms leading to morbidity, such as pain and inflammation, are immune-mediated. The introduction of 5% acyclovir/1% hydrocortisone in a topical cream (Xerese™) represents a therapeutic strategy directed at both of these pathogenic processes. Applied at the onset of prodromal symptoms, this combination treatment has a good safety profile and is more effective in reducing healing time than antiviral or anti-inflammatory agents alone. Although it was US FDA-approved for herpes labialis in 2009, Xerese™ has only recently been approved for use in Canada in October 2013. Herein, we review the basic science and clinical studies that support the efficacy of this topical combination acyclovir-hydrocortisone product in treating herpes labialis and examine its safety profile, as well as touch upon other therapies that have been shown to be effective in treating this common viral condition. PMID:25188362

Nguyen, H P; Stiegel, K R; Downing, C; Stiegel, K R

2014-01-01

444

Treatment of relapse in herpes simplex on labial and facial areas and of primary herpes simplex on genital areas and "area pudenda" with low-power He-Ne laser or Acyclovir administered orally  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixty patients (greater than 16 yrs old) suffering primary or relapse genital herpes simplex viruses (HSV) and relapse labial HSV were appointed for this study. Three or more relapses were experienced per year. Patients (under treatment) were divided into two groups (distribution areas), corresponding to either labial herpes or genital herpes. These groups were sub-divided into 3 groups. The total number of labial or facial HSV patients was 36 (10 in group 1, 12 in group 2, 14 in group 3) and 24 for genital, buttocks, or 'area pudenda' HSV patients (6 in group 1, 8 in group 2, 10 in group 3). The design was a randomized, double- blind study. The setting was hospital and outpatient. The patients diagnosed as having the HVS disease were sent to the dermatology department and were assigned to a group at random. Treatment was begun as follows: During the treatment signs and symptoms were assessed and after the treatment, the relapses were also assessed (biochemical and hematological tests before and after the treatment) and the diagnosis of the HSV type I and II. The statistical evaluation of the results was performed and carried out with the SPSS and BMDP program. The relapses of the herpes infection in the lips and the face were significantly reduced (p less than 0.026) in patients treated with laser He-Ne and laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. The interim between the relapses also increased significantly (p less than 0.005) in relation with the group treated with Acyclovir. The duration of the herpetic eruptions was clearly reduced in all locations in patients treated with laser He-Ne plus Acyclovir. No differences were noted between patients treated with laser He-Ne only or Acyclovir only. Therefore it is probable that therapeutic synergism took place. In relation with this, laser He-Ne shows the same therapeutic efficacy as Acyclovir taken orally. The association of Acyclovir and laser Ne-Ne could be an alternative method for the treatment of HSV in the face. The number of relapses of the herpes infection in the genital, buttocks or 'area pudenda' and the interim between the relapses were not substantially modified with the treatment of laser He-Ne or laser Ne-Ne plus Acyclovir. Although a little difference exists in comparison with the patients treated with Acyclovir alone, a survey or an increased number of patients should be necessary.

Velez-Gonzalez, Mariano; Urrea-Arbelaez, Alejandro; Nicolas, M.; Serra-Baldrich, E.; Perez, J. L.; Pavesi, M.; Camarasa, J. M.; Trelles, Mario A.

1996-01-01

445

Valacyclovir for the prevention of recurrent herpes simplex virus eye disease after excimer laser photokeratectomy.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: A variety of factors have been reported as inducing the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV), among them stress, trauma, and UV radiation. Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is a surgical procedure utilizing a 193 nm ultraviolet light to alter the curvature of the cornea and hence correct vision. Reactivation of ocular herpes simplex keratitis following such excimer laser PRK has been reported. All published cases of HSV reactivation following excimer laser treatment in humans are reviewed. The present study evaluates whether stress, trauma of the corneal de-epithelialization prior to the laser, or the excimer laser treatment itself to the stromal bed induces this ocular reactivation of the latent HSV, and whether a systemic antiviral agent, valacyclovir, would prevent such laser PRK-induced reactivation of the HSV. METHODS: Forty-three normal 1.5- to 2.5-kg New Zealand white rabbits were infected on the surface of the cornea with HSV-1, strain RE. The animals were monitored until resolution, and then all animals were divided into 5 treatment groups: (1) de-epithelialization only, intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline for 14 days; (2) de-epithelialization plus laser, i.p. saline for 14 days; (3) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 50 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days; (4) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 100 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days; (5) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days. Animals were evaluated in a masked fashion by clinical examination biweekly and viral cultures biweekly through day 28. RESULTS: The reactivation rates were as follows: group 1, 0%; group 2, 67%; group 3, 50%; group 4, 17%; and group 5, 0%. Viral titers were negative in animals that had no reactivation but persistently positive in those that had reactivation (day 6 through day 28). CONCLUSIONS: Excimer laser (193 nm) treatment can trigger reactivation of ocular herpes disease (67%) and viral shedding in the latently infected rabbit. De-epithelialization alone is not sufficient to cause reactivation or viral shedding. Prophylaxis with intraperitoneal valacyclovir decreases the recurrence rate in a dose-response fashion. At 150 mg/kg per day, there are no recurrences. The presence of persistent viral shedding in reactivated animals may correlate with cases of late HSV recurrence reported in humans undergoing excimer treatment. The data suggest that humans undergoing excimer laser procedures for correction of refractive errors or treatment of corneal scars with a history of herpetic keratitis are at increased risk for reactivation. Such patients, however, may appropriately be considered for prophylactic systemic antiviral medication at the time of the laser procedure in order to decrease the possibility of recurrence. Images FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:11190029

Asbell, P A

2000-01-01

446

Reversible Nerve Damage and Corneal Pathology in Murine Herpes Simplex Stromal Keratitis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) shedding from sensory neurons can trigger recurrent bouts of herpes stromal keratitis (HSK), an inflammatory response that leads to progressive corneal scarring and blindness. A mouse model of HSK is often used to delineate immunopathogenic mechanisms and bears many of the characteristics of human disease, but it tends to be more chronic and severe than human HSK. Loss of blink reflex (BR) in human HSK is common and due to a dramatic retraction of corneal sensory nerve termini in the epithelium and the nerve plexus at the epithelial/stromal interface. However, the relationship between loss of BR due to nerve damage and corneal pathology associated with HSK remains largely unexplored. Here, we show a similar retraction of corneal nerves in mice with HSK. Indeed, we show that much of the HSK-associated corneal inflammation in mice is actually attributable to damage to the corneal nerves and accompanying loss of BR and can be prevented or ameliorated by tarsorrhaphy (suturing eyelids closed), a clinical procedure commonly used to prevent corneal exposure and desiccation. In addition, we show that HSK-associated nerve retraction, loss of BR, and severe pathology all are reversible and regulated by CD4+ T cells. Thus, defining immunopathogenic mechanisms of HSK in the mouse model will necessitate distinguishing mechanisms associated with the immunopathologic response to the virus from those associated with loss of corneal sensation. Based on our findings, investigation of a possible contribution of nerve damage and BR loss to human HSK also appears warranted. IMPORTANCE HSK in humans is a potentially blinding disease characterized by recurrent inflammation and progressive scarring triggered by viral release from corneal nerves. Corneal nerve damage is a known component of HSK, but the causes and consequences of HSK-associated nerve damage remain obscure. We show that desiccation of the corneal surface due to nerve damage and associated loss of BR severely exacerbates and prolongs inflammation-induced pathology in mice. Preventing corneal desiccation results in a milder and more transient HSK with variable scarring that mirrors HSK seen in most humans. We further show that nerve damage is reversible and regulated by CD4+ T cells. Thus, we provide a mouse model that more closely resembles typical human HSK and suggest nerve damage is an important but largely overlooked factor in human disease. PMID:24789786

Yun, Hongmin; Rowe, Alexander M.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.

2014-01-01

447

A herpes simplex virus 1 US11-expressing cell line is resistant to herpes simplex virus infection at a step in viral entry mediated by glycoprotein D.  

PubMed Central

A baby hamster kidney [BHK(tk-)] cell line (US11cl19) which stably expresses the US11 and alpha 4 genes of herpes simplex virus 1 strain F [HSV-1(F)] was found to be resistant to infection with HSV-1. Although wild-type HSV-1(F) attached with normal kinetics to the surface of US11cl19 cells, most cells showed no evidence of infection and failed to accumulate detectable amounts of alpha mRNAs. The relationship between the expression of UL11 and resistance to HSV infection in US11cl19 cells has not been defined, but the block to infection with wild-type HSV-1 was overcome by exposing cells with attached virus on their surface to the fusogen polyethylene glycol, suggesting that the block to infection preceded the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. An escape mutant of HSV-1(F), designated R5000, that forms plaques on US11cl19 cells was selected. This mutant was found to contain a mutation in the glycoprotein D (gD) coding sequence that results in the substitution of the serine at position 140 in the mature protein to asparagine. A recombinant virus, designated R5001, was constructed in which the wild-type gD gene was replaced with the R5000 gD gene. The recombinant formed plaques on US11cl19 cells with an efficiency comparable to that of the escape mutant R5000, suggesting that the mutation in gD determines the ability of the mutant R5000 to grow on US11cl19 cells. The observation that the US11cl19 cells were slightly more resistant to fusion by polyethylene glycol than parental BHK(tk-) cells led to the selection and testing of clonal lines from unselected and polyethylene glycol-selected BHK(tk-) cells. The results were that 16% of unselected to as much as 36% of the clones selected for relative resistance to polyethylene glycol fusion exhibited various degrees of resistance to infection. The exact step at which the infection was blocked is not known, but the results illustrate the ease of selection of cell clones with one or more sites at which infection could be blocked. Images PMID:8151754

Roller, R J; Roizman, B

1994-01-01

448

Genetic Relatedness of Type 1 and Type 2 Herpes Simplex Viruses  

PubMed Central

The extent of homology between herpes simplex virus1 and2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was measured in two ways: (i) by determination of the relative rate of hybridization of labeled HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA to excess unlabeled HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA immobilized on filters and (ii) by determination of the rate of hybridization of labeled HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA to excess unlabeled HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA in solution. Approximately 40% of HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA is homologous at hybridization temperatures 25 C below the melting temperature (Tm) of HSV DNA (liquid-filter annealing). Lowering the temperature to 34 C below the Tm increased the extent of homology to 46% (liquid annealing). The extent of base-pairing in HSV-1-HSV-2 heteroduplex DNA was determined by thermal chromatography on hydroxyapatite. Heteroduplexes of HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA eluted in a single peak whose midpoint (Te50) was 10 C below that of the homoduplex. Conspicuously absent were heteroduplexes that eluted at more than 15 C below the Te50 of the homoduplex. The data indicate the existence of a variable region of DNA (54%) with very little, if any, homology and an invariable region (46%) with relatively good (85%) matching of base pairs. PMID:4337161

Kieff, Elliott; Hoyer, Bill; Bachenheimer, Steven; Roizman, Bernard

1972-01-01

449

Inhibitory activity and mechanism of two scorpion venom peptides against herpes simplex virus type 1.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread human pathogen that causes severe diseases, but there are not effective and safe drugs in clinical therapy besides acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogs. In this study, two new venom peptides from the scorpion Heterometrus petersii were identified with effective inhibitory effect on HSV-1 infection in vitro. Both Hp1036 and Hp1239 peptides exhibited potent virucidal activities against HSV-1 (EC50=0.43±0.09 and 0.41±0.06?M, respectively) and effective inhibitory effects when added at the viral attachment (EC50=2.87±0.16 and 5.73±0.61?M, respectively), entry (EC50=4.29±0.35 and 4.32±0.47?M, respectively) and postentry (EC50=7.86±0.80 and 8.41±0.73?M, respectively) steps. Both Hp1036 and Hp1239 peptides adopted ?-helix structure in approximate membrane environment and resulted in the destruction of the viral morphology. Moreover, Hp1036 and Hp1239 peptides entered Vero cells and reduced the intracellular viral infectivity. Taken together, Hp1036 and Hp1239 peptides are two anti-viral peptides with effective inhibitory effect on multiple steps of HSV-1 life cycle and therefore are good candidate for development as virucides. PMID:24315793

Hong, Wei; Li, Tian; Song, Yu; Zhang, Runhong; Zeng, Zhengyang; Han, Shisong; Zhang, Xianzheng; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

2014-02-01

450

Houttuynia cordata Targets the Beginning Stage of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV) results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata), a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-?B-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs) inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-?B activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-?B activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV. PMID:25643242

Hung, Pei-Yun; Ho, Bing-Ching; Lee, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Lee, Chun-Nan

2015-01-01

451

Managing aggression in global amnesia following herpes simplex virus encephalitis: The case of E.B.  

PubMed

Abstract Aim: This article describes an integrative approach to the case of EB, a 33 year old male who presented with agitation, delusional ideation and global amnesia after contracting herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) while in a state prison in 2004. Case study: Although several prior case studies have described outcome following acute onset of HSVE, this case presents a unique challenge for rehabilitation in several respects. First, EB's pre-morbid history is complicated; in contrast with prior HSVE case studies that have typically involved individuals with a relatively high level of pre-morbid functioning, EB presents with limited educational attainment and a prior history of several incarcerations for violent offenses. Post-injury, his presentation includes significant verbal aggression, threats of harm toward others, physical posturing and occasional physical aggression toward his caretakers. Third, EB presents with a fixed delusion that others are constantly taking advantage of him. These features are present in the context of global amnesia and relatively intact cognitive functioning in other domains. Following a brief review of prior HSVE case studies, this study reviews the outcomes of various pharmacological, cognitive, behavioural and integrative interventions designed for management of EB's aggression and agitation. PMID:25207991

Shannon, Tracy E; Griffin, Stefanie L

2015-01-01

452

Differing Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Pseudorabies Virus Infections on Centrosomal Function  

PubMed Central

Efficient intracellular transport of the capsid of alphaherpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), is known to be dependent upon the microtubule (MT) network. Typically, the MT network radiates from an MT-organizing center (MTOC), which is, in most cases, the centrosome. During herpesvirus egress, it has been assumed that capsids travel first from the nucleus to the centrosome and then from the centrosome to the site of envelopment. Here we report that the centrosome is no longer a primary MTOC in HSV-1-infected cells, but it retains this function in cells infected by another alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PrV). As a result, MTs formed at late times after infection with PrV grow from a major, centralized MTOC, while those formed after HSV-1 infection arise from dispersed locations in the cytoplasm, indicating the presence of alternative and minor MTOCs. Thus, loss of the principal MT nucleating center in cells following HSV-1 infection raises questions about the mechanism of HSV-1 capsid egress. It is possible that, rather than passing via the centrosome, capsids may travel directly to the site of envelopment after exiting the nucleus. We suggest that, in HSV-1-infected cells, the disruption of centrosomal functions triggers reorganization of the MT network to favor noncentrosomal MTs and promote efficient viral spread. PMID:23596303

Labetoulle, Marc; Rixon, Frazer J.

2013-01-01

453

Rapid host immune response and viral dynamics in herpes simplex virus-2 infection  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is episodically shed throughout the human genital tract. While high viral load correlates with development of genital ulcers, shedding also commonly occurs even when ulcers are not present, allowing for silent transmission during coitus and contributing to high seroprevalence of HSV-2 worldwide. Frequent viral reactivation occurs despite diverse and complementary host and viral mechanisms within ganglionic tissue that predispose towards latency, suggesting that viral replication may be constantly occurring in a small minority of neurons within the ganglia. Within genital mucosa, the in vivo expansion and clearance rates of HSV-2 are extremely rapid. Resident dendritic cells and memory HSV-specific T cells persist at prior sites of genital tract reactivation, and in conjunction with prompt innate recognition of infected cells, lead to rapid containment of infected cells. Shedding episodes vary greatly in duration and severity within a single person over time: this heterogeneity appears best explained by variation in the densities of host immunity across the genital tract. The fact that immune responses usually control viral replication in genital skin prior to development of lesions provides optimism that enhancing such responses could lead to effective vaccines and immunotherapies. PMID:23467247

Schiffer, Joshua T; Corey, Lawrence

2014-01-01

454

Genetic variation in the HLA region is associated with susceptibility to herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster, commonly referred to as shingles, is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV). VZV initially manifests as chicken pox, most commonly in childhood, can remain asymptomatically latent in nerve tissues for many years and often re-emerges as shingles. Although reactivation may be related to immune suppression, aging and female sex, most inter-individual variability in re-emergence risk has not been explained to date. We performed a genome-wide association analyses in 22?981 participants (2280 shingles cases) from the electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network. Using Cox survival and logistic regression, we identified a genomic region in the combined and European ancestry groups that has an age of onset effect reaching genome-wide significance (P>1.0 × 10(-8)). This region tags the non-coding gene HCP5 (HLA Complex P5) in the major histocompatibility complex. This gene is an endogenous retrovirus and likely influences viral activity through regulatory functions. Variants in this genetic region are known to be associated with delay in development of AIDS in people infected by HIV. Our study provides further suggestion that this region may have a critical role in viral suppression and could potentially harbor a clinically actionable variant for the shingles vaccine.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 9 October 2014; doi:10.1038/gene.2014.51. PMID:25297839

Crosslin, D R; Carrell, D S; Burt, A; Kim, D S; Underwood, J G; Hanna, D S; Comstock, B A; Baldwin, E; de Andrade, M; Kullo, I J; Tromp, G; Kuivaniemi, H; Borthwick, K M; McCarty, C A; Peissig, P L; Doheny, K F; Pugh, E; Kho, A; Pacheco, J; Hayes, M G; Ritchie, M D; Verma, S S; Armstrong, G; Stallings, S; Denny, J C; Carroll, R J; Crawford, D C; Crane, P K; Mukherjee, S; Bottinger, E; Li, R; Keating, B; Mirel, D B; Carlson, C S; Harley, J B; Larson, E B; Jarvik, G P

2014-10-01

455

Consequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 and human cell interaction at supraoptimal temperatures.  

PubMed Central

The consequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human embryonic fibroblast cell interaction at different temperatures (37, 40, and 42 degrees C) were investigated. Incubation at 37 or 40 degrees C was permissive for HSV-2 inhibition of host DNA synthesis, induction of virus-specific DNA replication, and infectious virus production. The amount of [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporated into viral DNA and the final yield of new infectious virus were significantly reduced at 40 degrees C compared to 37 degrees C. At 42 degrees C, detectable virus-specific DNA synthesis was totally blocked. Maximum stimulation of host cell DNA synthesis at 42 degrees C was measured after a multiplicity of infection of 0.5 to 1.0 PFU/cell. By autoradiography, data indicated that HSV-2 stimulates host cell chromosomal DNA synthesis. Stimulation of thymidine kinase activity with thermostability properties in common with a virus enzyme was detected during the first 24 h of infection at 42 degrees C, after 24 h the enhanced thymidine kinase activity had properties in common with host cell isozymes. The data obtained during this investigation indicated that stimulation of host cell DNA synthesis does not require viral DNA synthesis. PMID:185418

Marcon, M J; Kucera, L S

1976-01-01

456

Galectin-9 ameliorates herpes simplex virus-induced inflammation through apoptosis.  

PubMed

Galectin-9 (Gal-9) has been identified as a Tim-3 ligand (L). The Tim-3-Tim-3L interaction serves as a specific down-regulator of the Th1 immune response. It has been reported that Tim-3 expression is higher in patients with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis compared to controls. In a herpes simplex virus-induced Behcet's disease (BD) mouse model, Tim-3 was expressed in a similarly high level. The expression of Gal-9 in macrophages from BD-like mice was lower than in asymptomatic BD normal mice; therefore, we injected 100 ?g of Gal-9 into BD-like mice five times at 3 day intervals and subsequently observed changes in symptoms over 15 days. Gal-9 improved the symptoms of inflammation, decreased the severity score, and increased regulatory T cell expression in treated mice. Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were lower in the Gal-9-treated group compared to the control group. Therefore, in the present study, Tim-3-Tim-3L interaction was found to influence inflammatory symptoms in BD-like mice. PMID:22204815

Shim, Ju A; Park, Sun; Lee, Eun-So; Niki, Toshiro; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Sohn, Seonghyang

2012-06-01

457

Human herpes virus 6 encephalomyelitis after bone marrow transplantation: report of an autopsy case.  

PubMed

Human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) has attracted attention in recent years as an important causative agent for limbic encephalitis after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We report an autopsy case of HHV6-induced encephalomyelitis that developed after BMT. The patient was a 61-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia, who developed disorientation and short-term memory disturbance 35 days after allogenic BMT. MRI demonstrated T1-weighted high-signal intensity lesions in the medial temporal lobe and thalamus, and PCR of the CSF disclosed an increase in the copy numbers of the HHV6 genome. The patient died after a clinical course of 6 months, and at autopsy the brain showed remarkable atrophy of the hippocampus. Histopathologically, neuronal loss with astrocytosis and patchy necrosis with infiltration of macrophages were found predominantly in the hippocampus, amygdala, mamillary body, claustrum, and thalamus. Perivascular and intraparenchymal lymphocytic infiltration was slight. Similar lesions were also scattered in the cerebral neocortex, midbrain, pontine base, cerebellar white matter, and lumbar cord. In some of these lesions, axons were relatively preserved in comparison with myelin sheaths. Significant increase in the copy numbers of the HHV6 genome was demonstrated in the postmortem brain tissue by PCR. Neuropathological features of the present case were similar to those described in previously reported cases, but the distribution of lesions was more widespread. Demyelination was supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of some of the lesions. PMID:19422536

Shintaku, Masayuki; Kaneda, Daita; Tada, Kohei; Katano, Harutaka; Sata, Tetsutaro

2010-02-01

458

Non-Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain IIB Mediates Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry.  

PubMed

Non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMHC-IIA) has been reported to function as a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) entry co-receptor by interacting with viral envelope glycoprotein B (gB). Vertebrates have three genetically distinct isoforms of the NMHC-II, designated NMHC-IIA, NMHC-IIB and NMHC-IIC. COS cells, which are readily infected by HSV-1, do not express NMHC-IIA but do express NMHC-IIB. This observation prompted us to investigate whether NMHC-IIB might associate with HSV-1 gB and be involved in an HSV-1 entry like NMHC-IIA. In these studies, we show that: (i) NMHC-IIB co-precipitated with gB in COS-1 cells upon HSV-1 entry; (ii) a specific inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase inhibited both cell-surface expression of NMHC-IIB in COS-1 cells upon HSV-1 entry as well as HSV-1 infection as reported with NMHC-IIA; (iii) overexpression of mouse NMHC-IIB in IC21 cells significantly increased their susceptibility to HSV-1 infection; (iv) knock-down of NMHC-IIB in COS-1 cells inhibited HSV-1 infection as well as cell-cell fusion mediated by HSV-1 envelope glycoproteins. These results supported the hypothesis that, like NMHC-IIA, NMHC-IIB associated with HSV-1 gB and mediated HSV-1 entry. PMID:25428876

Arii, Jun; Hirohata, Yoshitaka; Kato, Akihisa; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

2014-11-26

459

Herpes simplex virus-associated acute liver failure: a difficult diagnosis with a poor prognosis.  

PubMed

We report 5 cases of acute liver failure related to herpes simplex (HSV) infection in 1 immunocompetent and 4 immunosuppressed patients. One patient was too ill for liver transplantation indication. Three patients, among the 4 listed, underwent liver transplantation. Three patients died 11 days to 1 year after transplantation and 2 patients died 2 to 3 days after admission. All presented with fever and none with skin lesions. The diagnosis of HSV-related hepatitis was made antemortem in only 2 patients on the basis of positive blood cultures and/or immunohistochemic findings. In the remaining patients, HSV diagnosis was made retrospectively on further histologic and virologic investigations. Primary HSV infection was certain or likely in all cases, including an HSV2 superinfection of an anti-HSV1-positive patient and two HSV superinfections of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related chronic liver disease. In these latter patients, HSV diagnosis was totally unsuspected, despite fever. HSV superinfection has significantly contributed to liver dysfunction aggravation and death. In conclusion, the diagnosis of HSV hepatitis is difficult to establish in the absence of specific clinical signs. This may suggest the need for early administration of acyclovir in patients with suspected HSV hepatitis, without waiting for virologic confirmation. Diagnosis methods providing fast results (real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) should be implemented. PMID:16315311

Ichai, Philippe; Roque Afonso, Anne Marie; Sebagh, Mylène; Gonzalez, Maria Eugenia; Codés, Liana; Azoulay, Daniel; Saliba, Faouzi; Karam, Vincent; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Guettier, Catherine; Castaing, Denis; Samuel, Didier

2005-12-01

460

Activities of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP4 genes specifying nonsense peptides.  

PubMed Central

Synthetic oligonucleotide linkers containing translational termination codons in all possible reading frames were inserted at various positions in the cloned gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early regulatory protein, ICP4. It was determined that the amino-terminal 60 percent of the ICP4 gene was sufficient for trans-induction of a thymidine kinase promoter-CAT chimera (pTKCAT) and negative regulation of an ICP4 promoter-CAT chimera (pIE3CAT); however, it was relatively inefficient in complementing an ICP4 deletion mutant. The amino-terminal ninety amino acids do not appear to be required for infectivity as reflected by the replication competence of a mutant virus containing a linker insertion at amino acid 12. The size of the ICP4 molecule expressed from the mutant virus was consistent with translational restart at the next methionine codon corresponding to amino acid 90 of the deduced ICP4 amino acid sequence. Images PMID:3035496

DeLuca, N A; Schaffer, P A

1987-01-01

461

The Immunologic Basis for Severe Neonatal Herpes Disease and Potential Strategies for Therapeutic Intervention  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect a large proportion of the world's population. Infection is life-long and can cause periodic mucocutaneous symptoms, but it only rarely causes life-threatening disease among immunocompetent children and adults. However, when HSV infection occurs during the neonatal period, viral replication is poorly controlled and a large proportion of infants die or develop disability even with optimal antiviral therapy. Increasingly, specific differences are being elucidated between the immune system of newborns and those of older children and adults, which predispose to severe infections and reflect the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Studies in healthy individuals of different ages, individuals with primary or acquired immunodeficiencies, and animal models have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that control HSV infection and how these may be impaired during the neonatal period. This paper outlines our current understanding of innate and adaptive immunity to HSV infection, immunologic differences in early infancy that may account for the manifestations of neonatal HSV infection, and the potential of interventions to augment neonatal immune protection against HSV disease. PMID:23606868

Gantt, Soren; Muller, William J.

2013-01-01

462

The immunologic basis for severe neonatal herpes disease and potential strategies for therapeutic intervention.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect a large proportion of the world's population. Infection is life-long and can cause periodic mucocutaneous symptoms, but it only rarely causes life-threatening disease among immunocompetent children and adults. However, when HSV infection occurs during the neonatal period, viral replication is poorly controlled and a large proportion of infants die or develop disability even with optimal antiviral therapy. Increasingly, specific differences are being elucidated between the immune system of newborns and those of older children and adults, which predispose to severe infections and reflect the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Studies in healthy individuals of different ages, individuals with primary or acquired immunodeficiencies, and animal models have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that control HSV infection and how these may be impaired during the neonatal period. This paper outlines our current understanding of innate and adaptive immunity to HSV infection, immunologic differences in early infancy that may account for the manifestations of neonatal HSV infection, and the potential of interventions to augment neonatal immune protection against HSV disease. PMID:23606868

Gantt, Soren; Muller, William J

2013-01-01