Sample records for cyprinid herpes virus-3

  1. Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. ... Herpes Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Herpes Culture; Herpes Simplex Viral Culture; HSV DNA; HSV by ...

  2. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease - ...

  3. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ... 9877 STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ...

  4. Sphaerothecum destruens pathology in cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Andreou, D; Gozlan, R E; Stone, D; Martin, P; Bateman, K; Feist, S W

    2011-06-16

    Sphaerothecum destruens is a significant intracellular parasite of fish which has caused disease and mortalities in cultured north American Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Several hosts for S. destruens have been identified within the Salmonidae family, and the histopathology of the infection can differ between hosts. Recently, S. destruens has been associated with the most invasive cyprinid species in Europe, topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva. Accurate disease identification based on thorough descriptions of clinical signs and histopathology in this new range of hosts is thus paramount to support further epizootiological studies. In this study, the associated histopathology of S. destruens infection is described along with its pathogenesis in the endangered cyprinid sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus. Histological examination of 100 L. delineatus in a wild population in the south of England revealed the presence of S. destruens infections, with a prevalence of 5% with S. destruens, suggesting an over-dispersed distribution within the L. delineatus sample. Clinical signs of the infection were absent, but histological examination revealed the presence of both disseminated and nodular lesions in several organs. PMID:21848122

  5. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Most people in the United States are infected ... ulcers when they first come into contact with HSV-1 virus. Others have no symptoms. Symptoms most often ...

  6. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually caused by the herpes simplex virus type ... cold sores around the mouth. In some cases, genital herpes causes blisters and pain in the genital ...

  7. Herpes Zoster Oticus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Herpes Zoster Oticus Information Page Synonym(s): Ramsay Hunt Syndrome II ... is being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Herpes Zoster Oticus? Herpes zoster oticus, also called Ramsay Hunt ...

  8. Meet the Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

  9. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... antibodies to the herpes simplex virus (HSV), including HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 usually causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 ... looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). An ...

  10. Herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Chayavichitsilp, Pamela; Buckwalter, Joseph V; Krakowski, Andrew C; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2009-04-01

    After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Characterize the epidemiology of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, including mode of transmission, incubation period, and period of communicability. 2. Recognize the difference in clinical manifestations of HSV1 and HSV2 infection. 3. Diagnose various manifestations of HSV infection. 4. Describe the difference in the clinical manifestations and outcome of HSV infection in newborns and older infants and children. 5. Discuss the management of HSV infection. 6. List the indications and limitations of oral acyclovir treatment for HSV infection. PMID:19339385

  11. Herpes Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, A.; St Leger, A.; Jeon, S.; Dhaliwal, D.K.; Knickelbein, J.E.; Hendricks, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the world’s population. These infections are often asymptomatic, but ocular HSV-1 infections cause multiple pathologies with perhaps the most destructive being Herpes Stromal Keratitis (HSK). HSK lesions, which are immunoinflammatory in nature, can recur throughout life and often cause progressive corneal scaring resulting in visual impairment. Current treatment involves broad local immunosuppression with topical steroids along with antiviral coverage. Unfortunately, the immunopathologic mechanisms defined in animal models of HSK have not yet translated into improved therapy. Herein, we review the clinical epidemiology and pathology of the disease and summarize the large amount of basic research regarding the immunopathology of HSK. We examine the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the clearance of virus and the destruction of the normal corneal architecture that is typical of HSK. Our goal is to define current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms and recurrent nature of HSK and identify areas that require further study. PMID:22944008

  12. Identification of B Cells as a Major Site for Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Aimee N.; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P.; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM+ WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM+ WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM? WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM+ WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM+ WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at ?127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. IMPORTANCE This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein-Barr virus and ICP4 from herpes simplex virus 1, which are genes important for latency. These strongly suggest that latency is evolutionally conserved across vertebrates. PMID:24899202

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of Iberian cyprinids: systematic and biogeographical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Zardoya, R; Doadrio, I

    1998-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among all Iberian endemic cyprinids were inferred using the complete nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome b gene. The inferred molecular phylogeny included representatives from Central European, Asian and North African species, and is highly congruent with previous phylogenies based on osteological characters. Iberian cyprinids were grouped into only five, very speciose lineages (with the exception of the monotypic Anaecypris): Barbus, Luciobarbus, Chondrostoma, Leuciscus and Anaecypris. The existence of such a relatively small number of Iberian cyprinid lineages can be explained by the historical isolation of the Iberian Peninsula. North African and Asian barbels are the sister group of Iberian Luciobarbus, supporting a south-eastern route of colonization of the Iberian Peninsula for this subgenus. With leuciscins, Anaecypris hispanica was considered a relict species as it could not be related to any other Iberian cyprinid. The phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of Iberian cyprinids based on cytochrome b sequence data supported the traditional division of the Cyprinidae into two subfamilies: Cyprininae and Leuciscinae. PMID:9718739

  14. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  15. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  16. Interactions of pH and Habitat on Cyprinid Distributions in Appalachian Streams of Maryland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Pinder; Raymond P. Morgan II

    1995-01-01

    Cyprinid populations in the Appalachian Plateaus Province of Maryland may be at risk from the effects of acidification because of the high proportion of acid-sensitive streams and elevated levels of acidic deposition within the region. During 1989, we related water chemistry, physical habitat, and watershed characteristics to cyprinid distributions in 56 Appalachian streams in Maryland. These streams were dominated by

  17. Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Reviewed November 30, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 509 Herpes Zoster (Shingles) WHAT IS SHINGLES? SHINGLES ... a sign of immune restoration syndrome (see Fact Sheet 483). A recent study found that A CD4 ...

  18. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Shingles Home About Shingles Overview Signs & Symptoms Transmission Complications ...

  19. An interspecific comparison between morphology and swimming performance in cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Yan, G-J; He, X-K; Cao, Z-D; Fu, S-J

    2013-08-01

    Flow regimes are believed to be of major evolutionary significance in fish. The flow regimes inhabited by cyprinids vary extensively from still flow regimes to riptide flow regimes. To test (i) whether flow-driven swimming performance and relevant morphological differentiation are present among fish species and (ii) whether evolutionary shifts between high-flow and low-flow habitats in cyprinids are associated with evolutionary trade-offs in locomotor performance, we obtained data on both steady and unsteady swimming performance and external body shape for 19 species of cyprinids that typically occur in different flow regimes (still, intermediate and riptide). We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and calculated the optimal swimming speed. Our results showed that fish species from riptide groups tend to have a higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit ), maximum linear velocity (Vmax ) and fineness ratio (FR) than fish from the other two groups. However, there was no correlation between the reconstructed changes in the steady and unsteady swimming performance of the 19 species. According to the phylogenetically independent contrast (PIC) method, the Ucrit was actively correlated with the MMR. These results indicated that selection will favour both higher steady and unsteady swimming performance and a more streamlined body shape in environments with high water velocities. The results suggested that steady swimming performance was more sensitive to the flow regime and that for this reason, changes in body shape resulted more from selective pressure on steady swimming performance than on unsteady swimming performance. No evolutionary trade-off was observed between steady and unsteady swimming performance, although Ucrit and MMR were found to have coevolved. However, a further analysis within each typically occurring habitat group suggested that the trade-off that may exist between steady and unsteady swimming performance may be concealed by the effect of habitat. PMID:23869541

  20. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HSV-1 is the most common cause of lesions that appear around the mouth and on the lips. HSV-2 is the typical cause of genital herpes. Both conditions are highly contagious and are spread by direct contact with the lesions of another infected individual such as a playmate, ...

  2. Changing Fish Biodiversity: Predicting the Loss of Cyprinid Biodiversity Due to Global Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Don

    Micropterus dolomieu are currently limited in their northern distribution by temperature-related effects of a predatory fish species, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, on native cyprinid species in northern Ontario

  3. Isolation and characterization of a highly repeated satellite DNA sequence from the cyprinid fish Notropis lutrensis

    E-print Network

    Moyer, Susan Pavlosky

    1986-01-01

    ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A HIGHLY REPEATED SATELLITE DNA SEQUENCE FROM THE CYPRINID FISH 5QIBQEl5. LUIBEU~ A Thesis by SUSAN PAVLOSKY MOYER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AS, M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Genetics ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A HIGHLY REPEATED SATELLITE DNA SEQUENCE FROM THE CYPRINID FISH 5QIBQELG LlLBKh&12 A Thesis by SUSAN PAVLOSKY MOYER Approved...

  4. CyHV-3: the third cyprinid herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, Michael; Kattlun, Julia; Bergmann, Sven M.; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Common carp (including ornamental koi carp) Cyprinus carpio L. are ecologically and economically important freshwater fish in Europe and Asia. C. carpio have recently been endangered by a third cyprinid herpesvirus, known as cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), the etiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), which causes significant morbidity and mortality in koi and common carp. Clinical and pathological signs include epidermal abrasions, excess mucus production, necrosis of gill and internal organs, and lethargy. KHVD has decimated major carp populations in Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan, Germany, Canada, and the USA, and has been listed as a notifiable disease in Germany since 2005, and by the World Organisation for Animal Health since 2007. KHVD is exacerbated in aquaculture because of the relatively high host stocking density, and CyHV-3 may be concentrated by filter-feeding aquatic organisms. CyHV-3 is taxonomically grouped within the family Alloherpesviridae, can be propagated in a number of cell lines, and is active at a temperature range of 15 to 28°C. Three isolates originating from Japan (KHV-J), USA (KHV-U), and Israel (KHV-I) have been sequenced. CyHV-3 has a 295 kb genome with 156 unique open reading frames and replicates in the cell nucleus, and mature viral particles are 170 to 200 nm in diameter. CyHV-3 can be detected by multiple PCR-based methods and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several modes of immunization have been developed for KHVD; however, fish immunized with either vaccine or wild-type virus may become carriers for CyHV-3. There is no current treatment for KHVD. PMID:23872859

  5. Are the Immunocompetence and the Presence of Metazoan Parasites in Cyprinid Fish Affected by Reproductive Efforts of Cyprinid Fish?

    PubMed Central

    Rohlenová, Karolína; Šimková, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Each organism has the limited resources of energy that is distributed among important life traits. A trade-off between immune response and other physiological demands of organism especially costly reproduction is expected. Leuciscus cephalus, the cyprinid fish, was investigated during three periods varying in reproductive investment, that is, before-breeding, breeding, and after-breeding periods. We tested whether a potentially limited investment in immunity during the breeding is associated with higher susceptibility to the metazoan parasites. Following the immunocompetence handicap and sperm protection hypotheses, males expressing more elaborated sexual ornamentation should produce better quality sperm and be more parasitized. We found that reproductive investments in fish play an important role for energy allocation into somatic condition, immunity, and reproduction. The immune parameters including respiratory burst and leukocyte count were higher in breeding; however, parasite species richness and abundance appeared low. Males investing more in spawning tubercles reached high spermatocrite and were more parasitized by digeneans. PMID:20145709

  6. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed. PMID:23858399

  7. Cyprinid phylogeny based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data: implications for Cyprinidae systematics.

    PubMed

    Wang, XuZhen; Gan, XiaoNi; Li, JunBing; Mayden, Richard L; He, ShunPing

    2012-09-01

    Cyprinidae is the biggest family of freshwater fish, but the phylogenetic relationships among its higher-level taxa are not yet fully resolved. In this study, we used the nuclear recombination activating gene 2 and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome b genes to reconstruct cyprinid phylogeny. Our aims were to (i) demonstrate the effects of partitioned phylogenetic analyses on phylogeny reconstruction of cyprinid fishes; (ii) provide new insights into the phylogeny of cyprinids. Our study indicated that unpartitioned strategy was optimal for our analyses; partitioned analyses did not provide better-resolved or -supported estimates of cyprinid phylogeny. Bayesian analyses support the following relationships among the major monophyletic groups within Cyprinidae: (Cyprininae, Labeoninae), ((Acheilognathinae, ((Leuciscinae, Tincinae), Gobioninae)), Xenocyprininae). The placement of Danioninae was poorly resolved. Estimates of divergence dates within the family showed that radiation of the major cyprinid groups occurred during the Late Oligocene through the Late Miocene. Our phylogenetic analyses improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of this important fish family. PMID:23015124

  8. Herps of Texas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Funded by the University of Texas and the Texas Memorial Museum, this Website offers useful life history information on the Herps (lizards, turtles, snakes, crocodilians, salamanders, frogs, and toads) of Texas. Each broad group is further classified into Families, and each species is identified by scientific (Latin) and common name. To access descriptive and graphical information, click on the species of choice. Each species entry includes one or more color photograph(s), diagnostic features, natural history information, and a color range map (presence:absence, by county). The concise information in this useful resource should be helpful to seasoned researchers and beginners, alike.

  9. In vitro inhibition of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 replication by RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, Michael; Soliman, Hatem; Besch, Robert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is an etiological agent of a notifiable disease that causes high mortality rates affecting both the common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio L. There is no current treatment strategy to save CyHV-3 infected fish. RNA mediated interference (RNAi) is an emerging strategy used for understanding gene function and is a promising method in developing novel therapeutics and antiviral medications. For this study, the possibility of activating the RNAi pathway by the use of small interfering (si)RNAs was tested to inhibit in vitro viral replication of CyHV-3 in common carp brain (CCB) cells. The siRNAs were designed to target either thymidine kinase (TK) or DNA polymerase (DP) genes, which both code for transcripts involved in DNA replication. The inhibition of viral replication caused by the siRNAs was measured by a reporter gene, termed ORF81. Treatment with siRNA targeting either TK or DP genes reduced the release of viral particles from infected CCB cells. However, siRNA targeting DP was most effective at reducing viral release as measured by qPCR. PMID:24893110

  10. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cherpes, Thomas L.; Matthews, Dean B.; Maryak, Samantha A.

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal herpes, seen roughly in 1 of 3,000 live births in the United States, is the most serious manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the perinatal period. Although acyclovir therapy decreases infant mortality associated with perinatal HSV transmission, development of permanent neurologic disabilities is not uncommon. Mother-to-neonate HSV transmission is most efficient when maternal genital tract HSV infection is acquired proximate to the time of delivery, signifying that neonatal herpes prevention strategies need to focus on decreasing the incidence of maternal infection during pregnancy and more precisely identifying infants most likely to benefit from prophylactic antiviral therapy. PMID:23090462

  11. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  12. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  13. Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have lesions around the anus without having had anal sex. Likelihood of recurrence — Genital herpes recurs frequently ... is most often transmitted between partners during oral, anal, or vaginal sex. It is also possible for ...

  14. HERPES ENCEPHALITIS IN CEBUS MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Zinsser, Hans

    1929-01-01

    Herpes virus which ordinarily produces in Cebus olivaceus monkeys an acutely fatal encephalitis closely resembling in time, symptoms and pathology the acute, herpetic disease of rabbits may—in more resistant individual monkeys—lead to a more prolonged malady which, while unquestionably produced with herpes virus, simulates with considerable accuracy the human disease of acute encephalitis, in symptoms, in course and in pathological changes. PMID:19869571

  15. HERPES ENCEPHALITIS IN CEBUS MONKEYS.

    PubMed

    Zinsser, H

    1929-03-31

    Herpes virus which ordinarily produces in Cebus olivaceus monkeys an acutely fatal encephalitis closely resembling in time, symptoms and pathology the acute, herpetic disease of rabbits may-in more resistant individual monkeys-lead to a more prolonged malady which, while unquestionably produced with herpes virus, simulates with considerable accuracy the human disease of acute encephalitis, in symptoms, in course and in pathological changes. PMID:19869571

  16. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  17. Effects of Streamflow and Intermittency on the Reproductive Success of Two Broadcast-spawning Cyprinid Fishes

    E-print Network

    Wilde, Gene

    conditions during the spawning season. Because most small cyprinid species are short-lived with only a two on the production of young. Both species successfully produced offspring throughout a four- to five- month period of conservation efforts, which to date have primarily concentrated on creating proper streamflow conditions

  18. Quantitative scanning electron microscopy of solitary chemoreceptor cells in cyprinids and other teleosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Kotrschal; Konrad Lorenz

    1992-01-01

    Synopsis Solitary chemosensory cells (SCC) occur in the epidermis of many lower, aquatic vertebrates. By scanning electron microscopy, SCC apices were counted and density distributions estimated along various transects at the head and body of 12 species of teleost fishes, 7 cyprinids, 2 perciforms, 2 catfish and 1 characinid. In contrast to taste buds (TB), the distribution of SCCs is

  19. Introgressive hybridization between two Iberian endemic cyprinid fish: a comparison between two independent hybrid zones

    E-print Network

    Bernatchez, Louis

    in stable hybrid zones have often revealed various kinds of hybrid unfitness, which could drive hybridsIntrogressive hybridization between two Iberian endemic cyprinid fish: a comparison between two independent hybrid zones M. A. ABOIM*1 , J. MAVA´ REZ à1 , L. BERNATCHEZà & M. M. COELHO* *Centro de Biologia

  20. Behavioural pattern in cyprinid fish below a weir as detected by radio telemetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Horky ´; O. Slavík; L. Bartoš; J. Kolá?ová; T. Randák

    2007-01-01

    Summary Changes in the behaviour of cyprinids belonging to different ecology groups were observed below a weir that was restricting their upstream migrations during the spawning period May- July. Positions of chub Leuciscus cephalus (L.), Prussian carp Carrasius auratus gibelio (Bloch 1783), bream Abramis brama (L.) and white bream Blicca bjoerkna (L.) were recorded every 12 min over a 24-h

  1. NOTROPIS VOLUCELLUS WICKLIFFI, A NEW SUB-SPECIES OF CYPRINID FISH FROM THE OHIO

    E-print Network

    Hulsey, C. Darrin

    relative, Notropis deliciosus stramineus (Cope), abounds. This condition holds for the Great LakesNOTROPIS VOLUCELLUS WICKLIFFI, A NEW SUB- SPECIES OF CYPRINID FISH FROM THE OHIO AND UPPER sub- species of the shiner Notropis volucellus (Cope) occur in various parts of its range

  2. Herpes Simplex: Who Gets and Causes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for you How to prepare for your appointment Genital warts Signs, symptoms Who gets, causes Diagnosis, treatment ... a razor. How people get herpes on their genitals You can get genital herpes after coming into ...

  3. Herpes viruses hedge their bets.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Michael P H; Laidlaw, Zoe; Jansen, Vincent A A

    2002-11-12

    Static latency is the hallmark of all herpes viruses. The varicella zoster virus, for instance, causes varicella (chickenpox), and after a latent phase of between 5 and 40 years, it can give rise to herpes zoster (shingles). This latency and the subsequent reactivation has intrigued and puzzled virologists. Although several factors have been suggested, it is unknown what triggers reactivation. However, latency can be explained with a simple evolutionary model. Here, we demonstrate that a simple, yet efficient, bet-hedging strategy might have evolved in a number of viruses, especially those belonging to the herpes virus family and most importantly in varicella zoster virus. We show that the evolution of latency can be explained by the population dynamics of infectious diseases in fluctuating host populations. PMID:12409612

  4. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus) for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids) from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies. PMID:20478030

  5. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Hans J.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Bester, Rachelle; Chooi, Kar Mun; Cohen, Daniel; Dolja, Valerian V.; Fuchs, Marc F.; Golino, Deborah A.; Jooste, Anna E. C.; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Naidu, Rayapati A.; Rowhani, Adib; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Burger, Johan T.

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is one of the most important grapevine viral diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. The impact on vine health, crop yield, and quality is difficult to assess due to a high number of variables, but significant economic losses are consistently reported over the lifespan of a vineyard if intervention strategies are not implemented. Several viruses from the family Closteroviridae are associated with GLD. However, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3), the type species for the genus Ampelovirus, is regarded as the most important causative agent. Here we provide a general overview on various aspects of GLRaV-3, with an emphasis on the latest advances in the characterization of the genome. The full genome of several isolates have recently been sequenced and annotated, revealing the existence of several genetic variants. The classification of these variants, based on their genome sequence, will be discussed and a guideline is presented to facilitate future comparative studies. The characterization of sgRNAs produced during the infection cycle of GLRaV-3 has given some insight into the replication strategy and the putative functionality of the ORFs. The latest nucleotide sequence based molecular diagnostic techniques were shown to be more sensitive than conventional serological assays and although ELISA is not as sensitive it remains valuable for high-throughput screening and complementary to molecular diagnostics. The application of next-generation sequencing is proving to be a valuable tool to study the complexity of viral infection as well as plant pathogen interaction. Next-generation sequencing data can provide information regarding disease complexes, variants of viral species, and abundance of particular viruses. This information can be used to develop more accurate diagnostic assays. Reliable virus screening in support of robust grapevine certification programs remains the cornerstone of GLD management. PMID:23596440

  6. [Bilateral, asymmetric herpes zoster (herpes zoster duplex asymmetricus)].

    PubMed

    Csontos, Z; Sebök, B; Karg, E; Schneider, I

    2001-09-01

    A 73-year-old female patient presented with asymmetric herpes zoster. She was treated successfully with systemic immunostimulants, vitamin B1 tablets and topical etheric acetyl-salicylic acid solution. No underlying malignancy, immunodeficiency or other systemic diseases could be detected. PMID:11572075

  7. Selective Herbivory by an Invasive Cyprinid, the Rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, Kevin L [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; John, Farrell M [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Stehman, Stephen V [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Boyer, Gregory L [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Fernando, Danilo D [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Teece, Mark A [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    1. Herbivory by non-native animals is a problem of growing concern globally, especially for ecosystems where significant native herbivores did not previously exist or have been replaced by non-natives. The rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) is an omnivorous cyprinid that has a nearly global longitudinal distribution due to human translocations, yet it is unknown whether the rudd feeds selectively among aquatic macrophyte species common to North American waters. 2. We tested a null hypothesis of non-selective feeding by rudds using five species of aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Najas flexilis, Stuckenia pectinata, and Vallisneria americana. Four rudds were placed in 15 different 890-L tanks and presented with known quantities of each macrophyte species (each tank serving as a block in a randomized complete block design). Each macrophyte bundle was weighed on six dates during a 13 d experiment. Differences in mean percent weight remaining among macrophyte species were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. We also quantified differences among chemical attributes of the five macrophyte species and qualitatively determined if selective feeding by rudds was related to dry matter content (DMC), percent C by dry weight (%C), percent N by dry weight (%N), and the concentrations of total soluble proteins, two organic acids (aconitic and oxalic acid), total soluble phenolic compounds (<1,000 Da), nine soluble phenolic metabolites, and total phenolic compounds. 3. Selective feeding by rudds was evident, with the order of macrophyte removal (from highest to lowest) being: N. flexilis > E. canadensis > S. pectinata > V. americana > C. demersum. Selection was positively related to %C and atomic C:N, but not DMC, %N, or concentration of total soluble proteins, contrary to the expectation that rudds would select the most nutritious plants available. The concentration of aconitic acid was greatest in N. flexilis, a preferred macrophyte, contrary to the expectation that this compound provides resistance to herbivory. The concentration of oxalic acid, which negatively affects palatability, was highest in C. demersum, the least preferred macrophyte. Selection was also positively related to the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds; however, examination of the influence of specific phenolic metabolites provided further insights. Concentrations of caffeic acid, trans-caftaric acid, and quercetin were positively related to macrophyte preference by rudds, whereas concentrations of cis-4-O- and trans-4-O-ferulic acid glucoside were negatively related. Patterns between the concentrations of p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and macrophyte preference by rudds were less obvious. 4. Our results suggest that selective feeding by rudds has the potential to alter macrophyte assemblages and jeopardize habitat restoration projects seeking to establish a diverse plant assemblage. Studies of selective herbivory by various aquatic taxa have provided evidence that selection is simultaneously influenced by multiple plant characteristics, including nutritional quality, morphology, rigidity, and chemical defenses. Future research designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which specific chemical attributes of macrophytes influence selective herbivory by rudds and other taxa will help provide an understanding of how herbivores have changed macrophyte assemblages and make predictions about how macrophyte assemblages will be altered following biological invasions.

  8. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following…

  9. Herpes encephalitis masquerading as tumor.

    PubMed

    Peeraully, Tasneem; Landolfi, Joseph C

    2011-01-01

    A 54 year old lady presented with lethargy and 15?kg weight loss over the past year. CT scan of the head revealed left temporal lobe hypodensity with a discrete area of hemorrhage within the left mesial temporal lobe. Due to concerns about impending central herniation, lumbar puncture was not performed. MRI of the brain showed a large lesion of the left temporal lobe, extending to the left frontal lobe, and very patchy meningeal enhancement. There was a noncontiguous lesion of the right insula. A differential diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and multifocal infiltrative glioma was entertained. MR spectroscopy demonstrated an increased choline peak at the level of the medial left temporal lobe and MR perfusion demonstrated patchy areas of hyperperfusion within the left anterior temporal lobe, both suggestive of neoplastic disease. Following open brain biopsy, pathology revealed herpes simplex virus (HSV) positive nuclei in the cortex and subcortical white matter. As both herpes simplex encephalitis and low-grade glioma demontrate MRI findings of hypointensity on T1 images and hyperintensity on T2 images, the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis can be clouded by confounding factors, especially when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cannot be obtained. PMID:22389820

  10. Adaptive evolution of cone opsin genes in two colorful cyprinids, Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng Yu; Chung, Wen Sung; Yan, Hong Young; Tzeng, Chyng Shyan

    2008-07-01

    Opsariichthys pachycephalus and Candidia barbatus are two phylogenetically related freshwater cyprinids that both exhibit colorful, yet quite different nuptial coloration. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that differences in nuptial coloration between two species could reflect differences in color perception ability and the opsin genes that coded for it. Genes encoding the visual pigments of these two species were cloned and sequenced, lambda(max) of cone photoreceptors and the reflectance spectra of their body coloration were measured to test the hypothesis. The 14-nm spectral shift between green-light-sensitive photoreceptors of these two cyprinids is found to correlate well with differences in their reflective spectra. The spectral shift could result from differential expression of opsin genes and the interactive effects of the amino acid replacements in various minor sites. These results support our hypothesis that nuptial coloration is tied to color perception ability and opsin genes. PMID:18571688

  11. Synthesis of theoretical and empirical experiences from nutrient and cyprinid reductions in Lake Ringsjön

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bergman; L.-A. Hansson; A. Persson; J. Strand; P. Romare; M. Enell; W. Granéli; J. M. Svensson; S. F. Hamrin; G. Cronberg; G. Andersson; E. Bergstrand

    1999-01-01

    The reduction in external phosphorus load to Lake Ringsjön during the 1980s, did not result in improved water transparency during the following ten-year period. Furthermore, a fish-kill in the Eastern Basin of the lake, in addition to a cyprinid reduction programme (biomanipulation; 1988–1992), in contrast to theory, did not lead to any increase in zooplankton biomass or size. This absence

  12. Hepatic respiratory compensation and haematological changes in the cave cyprinid, Phreatichthys andruzzii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliano Frangioni; Roberto Berti; Gianfranco Borgioli

    1997-01-01

    In several ectotherms, including all members of the Osteichthyes studied so far, the spleen is capable of storing and releasing\\u000a erythrocytes according to the animal's respiratory needs. The tropical cave cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii uses its liver rather than the spleen as the site of accumulation in the respiratory compensation process, like the amphibian\\u000a Rana esculenta. The reversible process of erythrocyte

  13. Activity of long-wavelength cones under scotopic conditions in the cyprinid fish Danio aequipinnatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. van Roessel; A. G. Palacios; T. H. Goldsmith

    1997-01-01

    In carp (Cyprinus) and goldfish (Carassius), long-wavelength cones are reported to be active under scotopic conditions. Using the electroretinogram (ERG), we tested\\u000a another cyprinid fish, Danio aequipinnatus, which contains A1-based visual pigments and for which we had previously measured the spectral sensitivities of individual cones. Dark adaptation\\u000a curves show a rod\\/cone break at about 45?min. When thoroughly dark-adapted, the spectral

  14. Interdemic variation in the foraging ecology of the African cyprinid, Barbus neumayeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Schaack; Lauren J. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    In the African cyprinid, Barbus neumayeri, populations from hypoxic waters have larger gills than populations from well-oxygenated streams. Differences in trophic\\u000a morphology and feeding performance between these populations suggest a reduction in feeding efficiency in large-gilled fish\\u000a that may reflect spatial constraints of the gills. However, this variation may also reflect interdemic variation in diets.\\u000a In this study, we describe

  15. Cyprinid assemblages, and the physical and chemical characteristics of small northern Ontario lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry E. Bendell; Donald K. McNicol

    1987-01-01

    Synopsis  The cyprinid species, and physical and chemical characteristics were recorded from 58 small lakes in the Algoma district of\\u000a northern Ontario. A group of typical stream-dwelling lithophilous species, which included common shiner, Notropis cornutus, creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus, and blacknose dace, Rhinichthys atratulus, tended to occupy lakes of larger than average drainage areas. Phoxinus spp., pearl dace, Semotilus margarita, and

  16. Aaptosyax grypus , a new genus and species of large piscivorous cyprinids from the middle Mekong River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter J. Rainboth

    1991-01-01

    A new genus and species of cyprinid fishes,Aaptosyax grypus, is described from the middle Mekong River of Laos and Thailand, This large and rarely seen species reaches a full meter\\u000a in length and lives in the main stem of the river. The species is a piscivore and the southernmost representative of the aspiin\\u000a lineage. Among the aspiins it is unique

  17. Impact of cyprinid reduction on the benthic macroinvertebrate community and implications for increased nitrogen retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas M. Svensson; Eva Bergman; Gunnar Andersson

    1999-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate community in a severely eutrophicated South Swedish lake, Lake Ringsjön, was found to re-establish after the lake was subjected to a substantial reduction of cyprinids (mainly bream and roach). Being totally dominated by chironomids and oligochaetes during the 1980s, the lake became repopulated by groups like Amphipoda, Ephemeroptera, Coleoptera and Mollusca after the fish reduction in 1988–1992.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section...Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  2. Valacyclovir in the Treatment of Herpes Simplex, Herpes Zoster, and Other Viral Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jashin J. Wu; Mathijs H. Brentjens; Gisela Torres; Patricia Lee; Stephen K. Tyring

    2003-01-01

    Background: Genital herpes and herpes labialis are prevalent, physically and pychologically painful, and often disabling. Herpes zoster is often very painful and may result in months or years of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Over the past two decades, the treatment of these conditions has been transformed by guanosine nucleoside antivirals such as valacyclovir (Valtrex ®), a highly bioavailable prodrug of acyclovir

  3. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Cremer; Michael Mackett; Charles Wohlenberg; Abner Louis Notkins; Bernard Moss

    1985-01-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of

  4. High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norihiko Itoh; Nozomi Matsumura; Akiko Ogi; Tadayuki Nishide; Yumi Imai; Hikaru Kanai; Shigeaki Ohno

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE:To determine the type of herpes simplex virus in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus.METHODS:Herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were examined by polymerase chain reaction in intraocular specimens from 16 patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Anti–herpes simplex virus type 1 and anti–herpes simplex virus type

  5. [Necrotizing herpes folliculitis. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Bello, Cristina C; Burgos, Susana C; Cárdenas, Consuelo D; González, Sergio B

    2012-12-01

    Herpes folliculitis is a rare manifestation of herpes virus infection. It usually represents a diagnostic challenge, due to the absence of characteristic skin manifestations such as vesicles or pustules. The reported cases are mainly associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and less commonly with herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 y HSV-2). We report a 51-year-old male with a relapsing non-Hodgkin Lymphoma under chemotherapy, with history of extensive follicular lesions lasting one month. The pathologic study of the lesions was consistent with necrotizing herpes folliculitis. The patient was treated with Valacyclovir, achieving remission of the lesions. The appearance of folliculitis, especially in an immunocompromised patient, should raise the suspicion of herpes virus infection. Polymerase chain reaction may help to elucidate the diagnosis when pathologic findings are non-specific. PMID:23677233

  6. Host specificity and colony impacts of Solenopsis invicta virus 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thorough understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 different g...

  7. A new cyprinid closely related to cultrins+xenocyprinins from the mid-Tertiary of South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gengjiao Chen; Fang Fang; Mee-Mann Chang

    2005-01-01

    Ecocarpia ningmingensis, gen. et sp. nov., a fossil cyprinid fish from the mid-Tertiary of the Ningming Basin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, is similar to cultrins in having a slender body, terminal or slightly superterminal mouth, comparatively long anal fin base, and reduced bifurcation of the pelvic bone. The morphology of the pharyngeal teeth in the new taxon, however, is

  8. Update on herpes zoster vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Marla; Kvern, Brent; Watson, Peter; Guenther, Lyn; McElhaney, Janet; McGeer, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To answer frequently asked questions surrounding the use of the new herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. Sources of information Published results of clinical trials and other studies, recommendations from the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization, and the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; data were also obtained from the vaccine’s Health Canada–approved product monograph. Main message Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus; postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is its most common and serious complication. The incidence of PHN after HZ is directly related to age, with 50% of affected individuals older than 60 years experiencing persistent and unrelieved pain. The live virus HZ vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ by about 50% and the occurrence of PHN by two-thirds, with vaccinated individuals experiencing attenuated or shortened symptoms. The vaccine is contraindicated in many immunocompromised patients and might not be effective in patients taking antiviral medications active against the HZ virus. Physicians should be aware of the different recommendations for these groups. Conclusion The HZ vaccine is a safe and effective preventive measure for reducing the overall burden and severity of HZ in older adults. The vaccine appears to be cost-effective when administered to adults aged 60 years and older. PMID:21998225

  9. Severe complications of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Antonio

    2007-09-01

    The usual presentation of herpes zoster is as a self-limiting vesicular rash, often accompanied by post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), its most common complication. However, herpes zoster can give rise to other complications, many of which have unusual presentations and serious sequelae. The incidence and burden of many of these less common complications are poorly understood. Ocular complications of ophthalmic zoster are relatively frequent but, with early antiviral therapy, need not be sight-threatening. Delayed contralateral hemiparesis is a rare complication of ophthalmic zoster that may present as stroke, temporally remote from the zoster episode. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) involving the facial nerve; facial paralysis, ear pain and vesicles in the ear are diagnostic. Facial paralysis in the absence of vesicles may indicate zoster sine herpete, which can be mistaken for Bell's palsy. Herpetic facial palsies may respond to combination therapy with an antiviral plus steroid, but further research is needed to determine the benefit of such treatments. PMID:17939894

  10. Mutation patterns of mitochondrial H- and L-strand DNA in closely related Cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed Central

    Bielawski, Joseph P; Gold, John R

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome replication is asymmetric. Replication starts from the origin of heavy (H)-strand replication, displacing the parental H-strand as it proceeds along the molecule. The H-strand remains single stranded until light (L)-strand replication is initiated from a second origin of replication. It has been suggested that single-stranded H-strand DNA is more sensitive to mutational damage, giving rise to substitutional rate differences between the two strands and among genes in mammalian mitochondrial DNA. In this study, we analyzed sequences of the cytochrome b, ND4, ND4L, and COI genes of cyprinid fishes to investigate rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution in the mitochondrial genome. To test for strand-asymmetric mutation pressure, a likelihood-ratio test was developed and applied to the cyprinid sequences. Patterns of substitution and levels of strand-asymmetric mutation pressure were largely consistent with a mutation gradient between the H- and L-strand origins of replication. Significant strand bias was observed among rates of transitional substitution. However, biological interpretation of the direction and strength of strand asymmetry for specific classes of substitutions is problematic. The problem occurs because the rate of any single class of substitution inferred from one strand is actually a sum of rates on two strands. The validity of the likelihood-ratio test is not affected by this problem. PMID:12583346

  11. Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing fasciitis preceding herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kelli Y.; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old white man presented with unilateral radicular pain extending across the left side of his chest and back. A diagnosis of postherpetic neuralgia, a sequela of herpes zoster, was made. Herpes zoster represents a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that lies dormant in patients with past chickenpox. Risk factors for the disease include advanced age, stress, immunodeficiency, and immunosuppression. Treatment of herpes zoster entails traditional antiviral medications, while prevention may be achieved with a new prophylactic vaccine. PMID:23382617

  12. Unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a boxer: 'Boxing glove herpes'.

    PubMed

    García-García, Begoña; Galache-Osuna, Cristina; Coto-Segura, Pablo; Suárez-Casado, Héctor; Mallo-García, Susana; Jiménez, Jorge Santos-Juanes

    2013-02-01

    Herein, we describe a patient with lesions of cutaneous herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection over the knuckles of both hands in the context of an outbreak among boxers. Interestingly, the infection had an unusually long duration (4 weeks), and was not acquired directly through skin-to-skin contact, as it usually does among athletes (herpes gladiatorum). In our case, transmission was acquired through the use of shared boxing gloves contaminated by HSV-1. To the best of our knowledge, herpes gladiatorum, or wrestler's herpes, has not been described previously in boxers and infection over the knuckles is not commonly reported. PMID:23373892

  13. DEMENTIA FOLLOWING HERPES ZOSTER ENCEPHALITIS

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Wierenga, Christina E.; Stricker, Nikki H.; Hesselink, John R.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the rare case of an older adult with dementia following herpes zoster encephalitis (HZE). This 71-year-old woman presented to us approximately 1 year following resolution of a rapid-onset episode of HZE, and subsequently underwent neuropsychological and neuroimaging examinations. Cognitive assessment revealed impairments in general cognitive functioning, verbal and nonverbal memory, executive functions, speed of information processing, attention/working memory, and motor skills. The patient’s neuroimaging data, when compared to a demographically similar healthy control sample (n = 9), demonstrated moderate central and perisylvian brain volume loss, several subcortical lesions in the white matter, and resting state whole brain and hippocampal hypoperfusion. These findings highlight neuropsychological changes evident in a dementia syndrome of this type, and they suggest that early identification and treatment of HZE has implications for the preservation of long-term cognitive functioning. PMID:20503134

  14. Herpes Zoster Vaccine Effectiveness against Incident Herpes Zoster and Post-herpetic Neuralgia in an Older

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Herpes Zoster Vaccine Effectiveness against Incident Herpes Zoster and Post-herpetic Neuralgia zoster is common and has serious consequences, notably post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Vaccine efficacy, or immune status. Our objective was to assess zoster vaccine effectiveness (VE) against incident zoster

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... first month of life), HSV infection, known as neonatal herpes, can potentially be life threatening, and symptoms ... the genital area at the time of delivery. Neonatal herpes (within the first month of life) can ...

  16. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Birth Control, Pregnancy & STDs > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  17. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3: an interesting virus for applied and fundamental research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae is the causative agent of a lethal, highly contagious and notifiable disease in common and koi carp. The economic importance of common and koi carp industries together with the rapid spread of CyHV-3 worldwide, explain why this virus became soon after its isolation in the 1990s a subject of applied research. In addition to its economic importance, an increasing number of fundamental studies demonstrated that CyHV-3 is an original and interesting subject for fundamental research. In this review, we summarized recent advances in CyHV-3 research with a special interest for studies related to host-virus interactions. PMID:24073814

  18. Development of a rapid cyprinid herpesvirus 2 detection method by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Liang, L-G; Xie, J; Luo, D

    2014-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) is a pathogen that causes severe disease and high mortality in goldfish and Prussian carp. We developed a six primer loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the intercapsomeric triplex protein gene. CyHV-2 DNA was 10-fold serially diluted (10(8)-10(0) copies ?l(-1)) and was used as the template to determine primer sensitivity. LAMP assays were performed with DNA templates from other pathogens to determine specificity. The LAMP assay had an unequivocal detection limit of 10 copies ?l(-1), which was 100 times lower than that of the polymerase chain reaction. Other pathogen strains were not amplified by the LAMP primers, indicating good specificity. SYBR Green I was added to visually detect the amplification products. Assay applicability was evaluated in 120 samples of Carassius auratus gibelio, and a positive rate of 92·5% was obtained. In conclusion, a conventional LAMP assay has high convenience, rapidity, sensitivity and specificity for detecting CyHV-2 in infected aquatic organisms. Significance and impact of the study: Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis, caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), is a severe disease of goldfish and Prussian carp associated with high mortality. We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect CyHV-2 at relatively low plasmid DNA copy levels. The results show that the LAMP assay has a number of advantages (simple, sensitive, rapid and specific) over the conventional polymerase chain reaction and can be applied in the laboratory and field. Particularly, the method is highly applicable to facilitate surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-2. PMID:24935791

  19. Dynamics of metal uptake and depuration in a parasitized cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea).

    PubMed

    Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Admiraal, Wim; Osano, Odipo; Kraak, Michiel H S; Were-Kogogo, Pamela J A; Gichuki, John; Ngure, Veronica; Makwali, Judith; Ogwai, Caleb

    2012-11-15

    Infestation of fish by endoparasites may potentially influence metal uptake and elimination by the host. We quantified the metal uptake rate constant (k(u)) and efflux rate constants (k(e)) of radiolabeled Cd and Co in the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea experimentally infected with the parasite Ligula intestinalis. During 24h, the accumulation of Cd and Co increased linearly with no evident steady state in uninfected fish, infected fish and in the parasite. Following aqueous exposures, the k(u) for Cd in parasites was about 3× higher than that of infected fish and 6× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(u) for Co was up to 15× higher in the parasites than that of infected fish and 7.5× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(e) for excretion of Cd were consistently higher for the uninfected fish than for the infected fish and also higher for uninfected fish than the parasite. The k(e) for Co for the uninfected fish was 1.4-2.0× lower than in the infected fish, but higher for parasites compared to uninfected fish (1.3-2.3×). Pulse-chase feeding experiments with radiolabeled copepods showed that Cd assimilation efficiency from food was higher in infected fish, while Co was assimilated more effectively by uninfected fish. The observed differences in metal dynamics between infected and uninfected R. argentea in the laboratory concord with differences in metal concentrations measured in natural populations in Lake Victoria. Our findings provide evidence that L. intestinalis infection enhances Cd accumulation, but depletes the essential Co in the cyprinid fish R. argentea. We conclude that the combined stress of parasites and pollution changes metal risks to fish hosts in a metal specific manner. PMID:22885798

  20. Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade. PMID:22276096

  1. Public awareness and knowledge of herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Pica, Francesca; Volpi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Between 20% and 40% of the population is estimated to suffer from episodes of recurrent herpes labialis, although few reports in the literature have addressed the public awareness of this infection in the general population. The aims of this study were to determine the existing level of awareness and knowledge of this disease and to assess the source of this knowledge, the ability of the public to recognize the characteristics of the disease and the behavior of patients with clinical cases of disease manifestation. To this end, 2,000 individuals (961 male and 1,039 female) of 14 years of age and older were surveyed using the ECOcapi system [Eurisko Consumer Omnibus-CAPI (computer-assisted personal interviewing) version]. Eighty-nine percent of those surveyed had some knowledge of herpes labialis; 92% were able to refer to at least one symptom of herpes labialis, 91% were able to identify correctly his infection from pictures, and 45% had experienced personally at least one episode of herpes labialis infection. The majority of the individuals suffering from herpes labialis self-medicated using a topical therapy. Women were found to be affected more commonly by herpes labialis than men [OR 1.42 (1.18-1.70)], and women were also more likely to recognize the disease [OR 1.65 (1.30-2.08)] and to seek medical advice for the condition [OR 1.38 (1.12-1.70)]. In conclusion, herpes labialis is a common and well-known condition, and it is often self-diagnosed correctly, as the prodromal phase and the use of self-medication are very common. PMID:22028143

  2. REVIEW Open Access Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active--an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients­could be employed, but HSV type antiviral therapy. Keywords: Herpes simplex virus, Genital herpes, Diagnosis Introduction Key structure

  3. Case study: inoculation herpes barbae.

    PubMed

    Parlette, Eric C; Polo, James M

    2005-01-01

    A 21-year-old white man in otherwise excellent general health was referred for a painful, progressive, facial eruption with associated fever, malaise, and cervicofacial lymphadenopathy. The patient reported that a vesicular eruption progressed from the left side of his face to also involve the right side of his face over the 48 hours preceding his clinic visit. He also reported some lesions in his throat and the back of his mouth causing pain and difficulty swallowing. Four to 7 days before presentation to us, the patient noted exposure to his girlfriend's cold sore. Additionally, he complained of a personal history of cold sores, but had no recent outbreaks. Physical examination revealed a somewhat ill man with numerous vesicles and donut-shaped, 2-4 mm, crusted erosions predominantly on the left side of the bearded facial skin. There were fewer, but similar-appearing lesions, on the right-bearded skin. The lesions appeared folliculocentric (Figure). Cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy was present. Oral exam showed shallow erosions on the tonsillar pillars and soft palate. Genital examination was normal. The remainder of the physical exam was unremarkable. A Tzanck smear of vesicular lesions was positive for balloon cells and many multinucleated giant cells with nuclear molding. A viral culture was performed which, in several days, came back positive for herpes simplex virus. The complete blood cell count documented a white blood cell count of 8000/mm3 with 82.6% neutrophils and 9.0% lymphocytes. Based on the clinical presentation and the positive Tzanck smear, the patient was diagnosed with herpes simplex barbae, most likely spread by shaving. The patient was started on acyclovir 200 mg p.o. five times daily for 10 days. Oxycodone 5 mg in addition to acetaminophen 325 mg (Percocet; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Chadds Ford, PA) was prescribed for pain relief. A 1:1:1 suspension of viscous lidocaine (Xylocaine; AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE), diphenhydramine (Benadryl; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY), and attapulgite (Kaopectate; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY) was given as a swish and spit to relieve the oral discomfort. Good hygiene, no skin-to-skin contact with others, and no further shaving to prevent autoinoculation were stressed. He was advised to discard his old razor. PMID:15891258

  4. THE PATHOGENESIS OF HERPES VIRUS ENCEPHALITIS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard T.

    1964-01-01

    The resistance to herpes virus encephalitis which develops with age was studied in mice using fluorescent antibody staining. Adult mice remained susceptible to intracerebral inoculation, and the infection of the central nervous system was identical with that found in immature mice. A "barrier" to the spread of virus inoculated extraneurally developed with maturation, and the limitation of spread appeared to coincide with the infection of peritoneal and tissue macrophages. In vitro, suckling and adult mouse macrophages were infected with equal ease. However, suckling mouse macrophages infected other cells in contact with them, while infected adult mouse macrophages did not. Studies failed to reveal the nature of this change in macrophages which developed with age. The role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of herpes virus encephalitis is discussed. The hypothesis is made that an alteration in the macrophages of the maturing mouse plays an important role in its development of resistance to herpes virus encephalitis. PMID:14207057

  5. New Concepts in Understanding Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T.; Corey, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is a lifelong infection that causes recurrent genital ulcers and on rare occasions, disseminated and visceral disease. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection is an increasingly important cause of genital ulcers as well. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are the most common cause of genital ulcers in adults but acquisition and chronic infection are more commonly asymptomatic than symptomatic. Both the symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of HSV are of clinical consequence for several reasons. HSV-2 infection enhances HIV-1 acquisition, as well as transmission. In addition, both sexual and perinatal transmission can occur during asymptomatic viral shedding. Perinatal transmission is of particular concern because neonatal HSV infection results in severe morbiditiy to the newborn. Antiviral medicines are effective for limiting recurrence duration and decreasing transmission likelihood, though no available intervention completely prevents transmission. This highlights the importance of laboratory diagnostics for this lifelong infection, as well as the need for an HSV vaccine. PMID:19857385

  6. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe [1]. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should provide useful phylogenetic makers for future analyses of the evolutionary relationships among species in the family Cyprinidae. PMID:20426875

  7. Herpes zoster as a marker of underlying malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Iglar, Karl; Kopp, Alexander; Glazier, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Background Both herpes zoster and malignancy are associated with immunosuppression. However, the association between herpes zoster and the subsequent diagnosis of malignancy is unclear. We undertook this study to assess whether a diagnosis of herpes zoster is a risk factor for subsequent malignancy. Methods For this matched retrospective cohort study, a physician billing database was used to identify individuals 18 years of age or older with a diagnosis of herpes zoster and no prior diagnosis of cancer or HIV infection. Individuals with a herpes zoster diagnosis were matched one-to-one to individuals without a herpes zoster diagnosis, and both groups were examined for up to 5 years for diagnosis of cancer. Results A total of 542 575 individuals with a diagnosis of herpes zoster were identified. Compared with matched controls, these patients were more likely (p < 0.001) to have a history of myocardial infarction, asthma, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. The incidence of cancer was significantly greater among individuals with herpes zoster than among those without herpes zoster, for both men and women and across all time intervals studied (up to 5 years). The greatest adjusted hazard ratio was seen 180 days after a herpes zoster diagnosis (1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.25); the hazard ratio decreased as the time from herpes zoster diagnosis increased. Lymphoma was the type of cancer with the greatest relative increase in incidence following diagnosis of herpes zoster. Interpretation There is a risk of malignancy following an episode of herpes zoster in both men and women and in all age groups 18 years and over. The risk is greatest during the first 180 days following the diagnosis of herpes zoster. PMID:24348886

  8. Herp Conservation I. Threatened & Endangered Species

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    1 Herp Conservation I. Threatened & Endangered Species II. Conservation Concerns III. Amphibian. Endangered Species Act The purposes of this Act are to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved, to provide a program for the conservation

  9. Hemagglutination by herpes simplex virus type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Tryba?a; Z. Larski; J. Wi?niewski

    1990-01-01

    Summary The McIntyre and HSZP strains as well as clinical isolate of herpes simplex virus type 1 were found to agglutinate C57B1\\/10su and CBA mouse red blood cells. The hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by antisera that neutralized the infectivity of the virus.

  10. Herpes zoster: A rash demanding careful evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise D

    2014-05-12

    This article discusses the incidence, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of herpes zoster, complications such as postherpetic neuralgia, and prevention through vaccination. Information on vaccine cost and insurance coverage is provided as well as two case studies illustrating various clinical presentations. PMID:24681697

  11. Experimental infection of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae to the cyprinid fish, Barbonymus gonionotus.

    PubMed

    Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Arunsan, Patpicha; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Wongmaneeprateep, Sutee; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Tesana, Smarn

    2014-08-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is an important public health problem, a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma in the Greater Mekong subregion including Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. Humans acquire the infection by consumption of raw, fermented or partially cooked freshwater cyprinid fish containing infective metacercariae. This study examined the effect of cercarial infection dosage (25-200 cercariae), age (1-60 day) and size (1-24mm) of Barbonymus gonionotus fish on infection success of O. viverrini cercariae. Additionally, the site of cyst formation of O. viverrini cercariae and subsequent development to the metacercariae was examined. The result showed that cercarial infection dose (F4,95=8.52, P<0.001) age (P<0.001, ?LR(2)=954.72) and size (P<0.001, ?LR(2)=1204.84) were significantly associated with number of O. viverrini metacercariae recovery with in every additional fish age, the O. viverrini metacercarial recovery rate increased by 5.4% (P<0.001). Most metacercariae were found in the body of the fish (81.4%). We concluded that O. viverrini cercarial infection dosage, and age and size of fish were important determinants for a successful infection to fish. PMID:24780189

  12. Seasonal reactivation enables Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 to persist in a wild host population.

    PubMed

    Uchii, Kimiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are of growing concern in wildlife conservation and animal health. To better understand the consequences of these diseases, a key question lies in how they persist in host populations after they emerge. Using a gene expression approach, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the persistence of an emerging virus, Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which has been spreading to wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Japan since 2003. Seasonal expression patterns of CyHV-3 genes in wild seropositive carp indicated that replication-related genes were transcribed only during the spring when water temperatures were permissive to CyHV-3 replication. In contrast, possible latency-related genes, which are expressed when CyHV-3 do not multiply, were also transcribed under nonpermissive conditions. These observations suggest that CyHV-3 may persist in carriers by establishing latent infection and then reactivating periodically coincident with the spring temperature increase when carp aggregate for mating, allowing successive virus transmissions between hosts during mating every year. Our results revealed that the life cycle of CyHV-3 may fit perfectly into the ecology of its host, resulting in the long-term persistence of this emerging virus in wild common carp populations. PMID:24256414

  13. Age and growth and maturity of southern Africa's largest cyprinid fish, the largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis.

    PubMed

    Ellender, B R; Weyl, O L F; Winker, H

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to use specimens of the largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis, southern Africa's largest cyprinid [IUCN red-listed as Near Threatened (NT)], obtained from gillnet by-catch to describe aspects of its biology in order to assist future conservation and management decisions. Ninety three L. kimberleyensis were collected between March 2007 and May 2008 from Lake Gariep, South Africa. Labeobarbus kimberleyensis was present in 38% of all gillnet catches, but in low numbers (2% of the catch) and it contributed 8% to the catch by mass. Age was estimated using astericus otoliths. Growth increment formation on these otoliths was validated as annual using edge analysis and the mark-recapture of chemically tagged captive fish. Resultant analysis showed that the species is slow growing and the oldest aged fish was a 17 year, 690 mm fork length (L(F)) male. The smallest ripe female fish measured 394 mm L(F) and was 7+ years old and the smallest mature male was 337 mm L(F) and 5+ years old. Slow growth and late maturity make this species vulnerable to exploitation emphasizing the need for continued high conservation priority. PMID:22957869

  14. Analysing codon usage bias of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and adaptation of this virus to the hosts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y P; Liu, Z X; Hao, L; Ma, J Y; Liang, Z L; Li, Y G; Ke, H

    2014-12-01

    The codon usage patterns of open reading frames (ORFs) in cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) have been investigated in this study. The high correlation between GC12 % and GC3 % suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage and base component in the CyHV-3, while mutational pressure effect results from the high correlation between GC3 % and the first principal axis of principle component analysis (Axis 1) on the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) value of the viral functional genes. However, the interaction between the absolute codon usage bias and GC3 % suggests that other selections take part in the formation of codon usage, except for the mutational pressure. It is noted that the similarity degree of codon usage between the CyHV-3 and goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.), is higher than that between the virus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., suggesting that the goldfish plays a more important role than the common carp in codon usage pattern of the CyHV-3. The study of codon usage in CyHV-3 can provide some evidence about the molecular evolution of the virus. It can also enrich our understanding about the relationship between the CyHV-3 and its hosts by analysing their codon usage patterns. PMID:25491502

  15. Heavy metal accumulations in water, sediment, and some cyprinid species in Porsuk Stream (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Köse, Esengül; Çiçek, Arzu; Uysal, Kazim; Tokatl?, Cem; Emiro?lu, Özgür; Arslan, Naime

    2015-03-01

    Porsuk Stream is one of Turkey's most important river systems and also one of the most important branches of the Sakarya River. It provides drinking and utility water for two Turkish cities (Kütahya and Eski?ehir) with a total population of one million. In this study, water, sediment, and some tissues (liver, gill, and muscle) of five cyprinid fish species were collected seasonally (2010-2011) from eight stations on the Porsuk Stream, and the zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) levels of collected samples were determined. The data observed were evaluated with national and international quality criteria. Based on the data observed, it was determined that the Porsuk Stream is affected by significant inorganic pollution from the Kütahya and Eski?ehir Provinces. It was also determined that the Porsuk Dam Lake has an important cleaning capacity and that the water and sediment quality of the Porsuk Stream improves after the output of the dam lake. PMID:25842529

  16. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  17. Clinical Diagnosis of Herpes Zoster in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Wim; van Loon, Anton M.; Schuller, Margje; van Wijck, Albert J. M.; van Essen, Gerrit A.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Verheij, Theo J. M.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE Family physicians usually diagnose herpes zoster on clinical grounds only, possibly resulting in false-positive diagnoses and unnecessary treatment. We wanted to determine the positive predictive value of the physicians’ judgment in diagnosing herpes zoster and to assess the applicability of dried blood spot analysis for diagnosis of herpes zoster in family practice. METHODS Our study population consisted of 272 patients older than 50 years with herpes zoster (rash for less than 7 days). Dried blood spot samples were collected from all patients and sent by mail to the laboratory. Baseline measurements included clinical signs (localization, severity, and duration of rash) and symptoms (duration and severity of pain). Varicella-zoster virus antibodies were determined at baseline and 5 to 10 days later. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between clinical variables and serological confirmation of herpes zoster. RESULTS Dried blood spot analysis was possible in 260 patients (96%). In 236 the diagnosis of herpes zoster was confirmed serologically (positive predictive value of clinical judgment 90.8%; 95% confidence interval, 87.3%–94.3%). Independent clinical variables for serologically confirmed herpes zoster were severity and duration of rash at first examination. CONCLUSION Family physicians have good clinical judgment when diagnosing herpes zoster in older patients. Dried blood spot analysis is a logistically convenient method for serological investigation of patients in family practice, but it is rarely needed for diagnosing herpes zoster. PMID:17664496

  18. Psychological factors in recurrent genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Kocsis, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review recent research into psychological aspects of genital herpes and assess possible implications for clinical practice. METHODS: Review of all papers in the field on Medline 1985-96. RESULTS: Much attention has been paid to possible links between stress and recurrent genital herpes. There is no convincing evidence that stress in itself causes recurrences. It may be that recurrences are preceded by a prodromal period of altered mood. Patients with recurrences show considerable stress as a result of the disease, although most individuals eventually adjust psychologically. The impact of social support on adjustment remains unclear. The little evidence available suggests that antiviral treatments can help adjustment and the effects may perhaps outlast the period of active treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Existing research gives some clues to optimal patient management but there is a need for future research to focus much more clearly on clinical issues, particularly on means of alleviating psychological distress and on the impact of antivirals. PMID:9389944

  19. [Verrucous herpes zoster in AIDS patients].

    PubMed

    Agusto, V; Franca, I; Mansinho, K; Araújo, C; Borges, F; Champalimaud, J L; Poiares-Baptista, A; Martins, C; Ricardo, J L

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe a case of disseminated Herpes-Zoster (VZV) in an HIV 1 positive patient with AIDS. Hyperkeratotic characteristics, acyclovir resistance and sensitivity to foscarnet of cutaneous lesions are the most important features of this example. From the casuistics of the department, the authors describe two similar cases and review the medical literature with emphasis on etiopathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic factors of lesions caused by DNA Virus in immunocompromised hosts. PMID:9341044

  20. Neuromorphological aspects of experimental herpes infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Mikhailenko; B. S. Glushkov; L. N. Adel'son; T. Ya. Milovanova

    1991-01-01

    electron microscopic investigations in different variants of animal infection. Materials and Methods. The investigations were carded out in 233 white mongrel mice, 8-12 weeks of age, weighing 8-15 g, and 15 chinchilla rabbits, weighing 2.5-3 kg. The intracerebral and intradermal methods were used to infect the mice; the corneal and intraneural methods were used for the rabbits. Herpes simplex virus

  1. Herpes Virus and Ménière’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gärtner; W. Bossart; T. Linder

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The main goal of this study was to examine the vestibular ganglia from patients with intractable classic Ménière’s disease (MD) for the presence or absence of DNA from three neurotropic viruses herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1, HSV2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) and to investigate the hypothesis that MD is associated with virus reactivation within Scarpa’s ganglion.

  2. Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride. PMID:21747842

  3. Herpes zoster oticus: A rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Gondivkar, Shailesh; Parikh, Viren; Parikh, Rima

    2010-01-01

    Herpes zoster oticus also known as Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare complication of herpes zoster in which reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection in the geniculate ganglion causes otalgia, auricular vesicles, and peripheral facial paralysis. Ramsay Hunt syndrome is rare in children and affects both sexes equally. Incidence and clinical severity increases when host immunity is compromised. Because these symptoms do not always present at the onset, this syndrome can be misdiagnosed. Although secondary to Bell's palsy in terms of the cause of acute atraumatic peripheral facial paralysis, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, with incidence ranged from 0.3 to 18%, has a worse prognosis. Herpes zoster oticus accounts for about 12% cases of facial palsy, which is usually unilateral and complete and full recovery occurs in only about 20% of untreated patients. The most advisable method to treat Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the combination therapy with acyclovir and prednisone but still not promising, and several prerequisites are required for better results. We present a case of 32-year-old man suffering from Ramsay Hunt syndrome with grade V facial palsy treated effectively with rehabilitation program, after the termination of the combination therapy of acyclovir and prednisone. PMID:22114399

  4. Population differentiation of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri across dissolved oxygen regimes

    PubMed Central

    Harniman, Robert; Merritt, Thomas J S; Chapman, Lauren J; Lesbarrères, David; Martinez, Mery L

    2013-01-01

    Population level response to hypoxia has become an issue of global significance because of increased frequency and intensity of hypoxic events worldwide, and the potential for global warming to exacerbate hypoxic stress. In this study, we sequenced two nuclear intronic regions and a single mitochondrial region across seven populations of the African cyprinid, Barbus neumayeri from two river drainages in Uganda: the Rwembaita Swamp-Njuguta River System and the Dura River. We then examined two indices of population structure, GST and Jost's D, to detect links between oxygen availability and genetic variation and to determine if population genetic structure was associated with (i) dissolved oxygen regime (hypoxia or normoxia), (ii) geographical distance, or (iii) a combination of dissolved oxygen regime and geographical distance. Our results indicate that over a large scale (between drainages), geographical distance significantly affects the genetic structure of populations. However, within a single drainage, dissolved oxygen regime plays a key role in determining the genetic structure of populations. Within the Rwembaita-Njuguta system, gene flow was high between locations of similar oxygen regimes, but low between areas characterized by divergent oxygen regimes. Interestingly, GST analyses appear to yield less realistic measures of population structure than Jost's D, suggesting that caution must be taken when interpreting and comparing the results from different studies. These results support the idea that aquatic dissolved oxygen can act as a selective force limiting gene flow among populations of aquatic species and therefore should be considered when implementing conservation plans and assessing environmental impact of human activities. PMID:23789062

  5. Molecular cloning of preproinsulin cDNAs from several osteoglossomorphs and a cyprinid.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahrouki, A A; Irwin, D M; Graham, L C; Youson, J H

    2001-03-28

    Several preproinsulin cDNAs were isolated and characterized from four members of the Osteoglossomorpha (an ancient teleost group); Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (arawana), Pantodon buchholzi (butterfly fish), Notopterus chitala (feather fin knife fish), Hiodon alosoides (goldeye) and Gnathonemus petersii (elephantnose). In addition, we isolated and characterized the preproinsulin cDNA from Catostomus commersoni (white sucker, as a representative of a generalized teleost). The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed conservation of the cystine residues known to be involved in the formation of the disulfide bridges, as well as residues involved in the hexamer formation, except for B-17 in the butterfly fish, the arawana and the goldeye. However, the N-terminus of the B-chain was very weakly conserved among the species studied. Residues known to be significant for maintaining receptor-binding conformation and those known to comprise the receptor-binding domain were all conserved, except for a conservative substitution at B13, aspartate substituted glutamate in the arawana, goldeye, butterfly fish and white sucker, and at B16, phenylalanine substituted tyrosine in the elephantnose. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed a monophyletic grouping of the osteoglossomorphs, and showed that they were not the most basal living teleost. Comparative sequence analysis of preproinsulins among the osteoglossomorphs was useful in assessment of intergroup relationship, relating elephantnose with the feather fin knife fish and the arawana, butterfly fish, and goldeye. This arrangement of species is consistent with relationships based on other more classical parameters, except for the goldeye which was assessed as being sister to all the osteoglossomorphs. The white sucker was grouped with the common carp and both are cyprinids. PMID:11306171

  6. Biomarker responses in cyprinids of the middle stretch of the River Po, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Vigano, L. [National Council of Research, Milan (Italy). Water Research Inst.; Arillo, A.; Melodia, F. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Inst. of Zoology; Arlati, P.; Monti, C. [Presidio Multizonale Igiene Prevenzione, Lecco (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    Fish belonging to three species of cyprinids, that is, barbel (Barbus plebejus), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), and Italian nase (Chondrostoma soeetta), were collected from two sites of the River Po, located upstream and downstream from the confluence of one of its middle-reach polluted tributaries, the River Lambro. The two groups of individuals caught for each species were analyzed and compared for several microsomal and cytosolic biochemical markers. The enzymatic activities assayed in fish liver included ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine-N-demethylase (APDM), uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the contents of reduced glutathione and nonprotein thiols were measured. Despite some differences among species, all microsomal activities (EROD, APDM, UDPGT) were found to be significantly induced in fish living downstream the River Lambro. With the exception of a higher GST enzyme activity of barbel from the downstream reach, no significant modification was evident in any of the tested cytosolic biomarkers. Results showed that barbel and nase better discriminated the two reaches of the River Po. In general, the alterations observed in feral fish are consistent with the results found in previous studies conducted with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under both laboratory and field conditions in the same middle reach of the River Po. All of the data indicate that the downstream tract of the main river is exposed to the load of pollutants transported by the River Lambro, including known inducers such as polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The latter were analyzed in sediments sampled at the two sites of fish collection, and the downstream sediment showed the highest concentrations of PAHs, although their levels are comparable to those present in moderately polluted locations. Regardless of the site of exposure, barbel seem to be characterized by more efficient antioxidant defenses.

  7. Does interspecies hybridization affect the host specificity of parasites in cyprinid fish?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Host specificity varies among parasite species. Some parasites are strictly host-specific, others show a specificity for congeneric or non-congeneric phylogenetically related host species, whilst some others are non-specific (generalists). Two cyprinids, Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio, plus their respective hybrids were investigated for metazoan parasites. The aim of this study was to analyze whether interspecies hybridization affects host specificity. The different degrees of host specificity within a phylogenetic framework were taken into consideration (i.e. strict specialist, intermediate specialist, and intermediate generalist). Methods Fish were collected during harvesting the pond and identified using meristic traits and molecular markers. Metazoan parasite species were collected. Host specificity of parasites was determined using the following classification: strict specialist, intermediate specialist, intermediate generalist and generalist. Parasite species richness was compared between parental species and their hybrids. The effect of host species on abundance of parasites differing in host specificity was tested. Results Hybrids harbored more different parasite species but their total parasite abundance was lower in comparison with parental species. Interspecies hybridization affected the host specificity of ecto- and endoparasites. Parasite species exhibiting different degrees of host specificity for C. carpio and C. gibelio were also present in hybrids. The abundance of strict specialists of C. carpio was significantly higher in parental species than in hybrids. Intermediate generalists parasitizing C. carpio and C. gibelio as two phylogenetically closely related host species preferentially infected C. gibelio when compared to C. carpio, based on prevalence and maximum intensity of infection. Hybrids were less infected by intermediate generalists when compared to C. gibelio. Conclusions This finding does not support strict co-adaptation between host and parasite genotypes resulting in narrow host specificity, and showed that hybrid genotypes are susceptible to parasites exhibiting host specificity. The immune mechanisms specific to parental species might represent potential mechanisms explaining the low abundance of parasites in C. gibelio x C. carpio hybrids. PMID:23587287

  8. Distribution and Abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Cyprinid Fish in Northeastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-01-01

    To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats. PMID:24516277

  9. Interspecific variation in hypoxia tolerance, swimming performance and plasticity in cyprinids that prefer different habitats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Fu, Cheng; Yan, Guan-Jie; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Zhang, An-Jie; Pang, Xu

    2014-02-15

    This study quantified and compared hypoxia tolerance and swim performance among cyprinid fish species from rapid-, slow- and intermediate-flow habitats (four species per habitat) in China. In addition, we explored the effects of short-term acclimation on swim performance, maximum metabolic rate (M(O2,max)) and gill remodelling to detect habitat-associated patterns of plastic response to hypoxia. Indices of hypoxia tolerance included oxygen threshold for loss of equilibrium (LOE50) and aquatic surface respiration (ASR50), and critical oxygen tension for routine metabolic rate (Pcrit). Critical swimming speed (Ucrit) and M(O2,max) were measured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions after 48 h acclimation to normoxia and hypoxia, and gill remodelling was estimated after 48 h of hypoxia exposure. Both traditional ANCOVA and phylogenetically independent contrast (PDANOVA) analyses showed that fish species from rapid-flow habitats exhibited lower LOE50 compared with fish from intermediate- and slow-flow habitats. Habitat-specific differences in Pcrit and Ucrit were detected using PDANOVA but not traditional ANCOVA analyses, with fish species from rapid-flow habitats exhibiting lower Pcrit but higher Ucrit values compared with fish from intermediate- and slow-flow habitats. Fish species from rapid-flow habitats were also characterized by less plasticity in swim performance and gill morphology in response to hypoxia acclimation compared with species from slow-flow habitats, but a greater drop in swim performance in response to acute hypoxia exposure. The study detected a habitat-specific difference in hypoxia tolerance, swimming performance and its plasticity among fish from habitats with different flow conditions, possibly because of the long-term adaptation to the habitat caused by selection stress. The PDANOVA analyses were more powerful than traditional statistical analyses according to the habitat effects in both hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance in this study. PMID:24198253

  10. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species. PMID:24480585

  11. A Digenean Metacercaria (Apophallus sp.) and a Myxozoan (Myxobolus sp.) Associated with Vertebral Deformities in Cyprinid Fishes from the Willamette River, Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Kent; V. G. Watral; C. M. Whipps; M. E. Cunningham; C. D. Criscione; J. R. Heidel; L. R. Curtis; J. Spitsbergen; D. F. Markle

    2004-01-01

    A high prevalence of vertebral deformities has been observed in various fishes, especially cyprinids, from certain regions of the Willamette River for many years. One proposed source of these deformities is exposure to toxicants. Histological evaluation of affected chiselmouth Acrocheilus alutaceus revealed that all lesions associated with vertebrae were associated with metacercariae of digenean trematodes. Approximately half of the northern

  12. Rapid detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) using a gold nanoparticle-based hybridization assay.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio L. CyHV-3 detection is usually based on virus propagation or amplification of the viral DNA using the PCR or LAMP techniques. However, due to the limited susceptibility of cells used for propagation, it is not always possible to successfully isolate CyHV-3 even from tissue samples that have high virus titres. All previously described detection methods including PCR-based assays are time consuming, laborious and require specialized equipment. To overcome these limitations, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been explored for direct and sensitive detection of DNA. In this study, a label-free colorimetric nanodiagnostic method for direct detection of unamplified CyHV-3 DNA using gold nanoparticles is introduced. Under appropriate conditions, DNA probes hybridize with their complementary target sequences in the sample DNA, which results in aggregation of the gold nanoparticles and a concomitant colour change from red to blue, whereas test samples with non complementary DNA sequences remain red. In this study, gold nanoparticles were used to develop and evaluate a specific and sensitive hybridization assay for direct and rapid detection of the highly infectious pathogen termed Cyprinid herpesvirus-3. PMID:25738211

  13. Hiccups, eructation, and other uncommon prodromal manifestations of herpes zoster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander L. Berlin; Channy Y. Muhn; Robin C. Billick

    2003-01-01

    Although the most frequent presentation of herpes zoster involves sensory neurons, motor and autonomic symptomatology is also known to occur in this disease. An unusual symptom of hiccups is described here. Other infrequent manifestations of this common illness, including the Ramsay Hunt syndrome, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, urinary and fecal retention, sexual dysfunction, and zoster sine herpete, are reviewed. Greater awareness

  14. GUINEA PIG MODEL FOR CUTANEOUS HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy D. Felber; Douglas Troll; Michael Jarratt

    1974-01-01

    Previous animal models for cutaneous herpes simplex infections have been unsatisfactory because of atypical zosteriform progression of lesions and high animal mortality rates. By using a vaccination technique we have been able to produce lesions in guinea pigs which closely mimic human herpes simplex infection.

  15. Bilateral Symmetrical Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent 15-Year-Old Adolescent Boy

    PubMed Central

    Barankin, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster is uncommon in immunocompetent children. The bilateral symmetrical occurrence of herpes zoster lesions is extremely rare. We report a 15-year-old immunocompetent Chinese adolescent boy who developed bilateral symmetrical herpes zoster lesions. To our knowledge, the occurrence of bilateral symmetrical herpes zoster lesions in an immunocompetent individual has not been reported in the pediatric literature. PMID:25692062

  16. Topical immunoglobulins for epithelial herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kläger, A J; Büchi, E R; Osusky, R; Burek-Kozlowska, A; Morell, A

    1993-01-01

    A new immunoglobulin preparation for topical administration in the eye has been developed. The tolerance to this preparation was tested in a phase I/II study, in combination with the antiviral drug trifluorothymidine, in 5 patients with untreated episodes of herpes simplex epithelial keratitis. The clinical course of these patients was within usual limits, with a mean healing time of 6.6 days (range 2-15 days). No undesirable effects were observed. Our findings suggest that this new treatment modality is safe and offers a new perspective, but additional studies are required to determine its efficacy. PMID:8272344

  17. Herpes Zoster (Shingles) and Postherpetic Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Priya; Drage, Lisa A.; Martin, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ), commonly called shingles, is a distinctive syndrome caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV). This reactivation occurs when immunity to VZV declines because of aging or immunosuppression. Herpes zoster can occur at any age but most commonly affects the elderly population. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), defined as pain persisting more than 3 months after the rash has healed, is a debilitating and difficult to manage consequence of HZ. The diagnosis of HZ is usually made clinically on the basis of the characteristic appearance of the rash. Early recognition and treatment can reduce acute symptoms and may also reduce PHN. A live, attenuated vaccine aimed at boosting immunity to VZV and reducing the risk of HZ is now available and is recommended for adults older than 60 years. The vaccine has been shown to reduce significantly the incidence of both HZ and PHN. The vaccine is well tolerated, with minor local injection site reactions being the most common adverse event. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations and treatment of HZ and PHN, as well as the appropriate use of the HZ vaccine. PMID:19252116

  18. Antiviral agents for herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony; Field, Hugh J

    2013-01-01

    This review starts with a brief description of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the clinical diseases they cause, and the continuing clinical need for antiviral chemotherapy. A historical overview describes the progress from the early, rather toxic antivirals to acyclovir (ACV) which led the way for its prodrug, valacyclovir, to penciclovir and its prodrug, famciclovir (FCV). These compounds have been the mainstay of HSV therapy for two decades and have established a remarkable safety record. This review focuses on these compounds, the preclinical studies which reveal potentially important differences, the clinical trials, and the clinical experience through two decades. Some possible areas for further investigation are suggested. The focus shifts to new approaches and novel compounds, in particular, the combination of ACV with hydrocortisone, known as ME609 or zovirax duo, an HSV helicase-primase inhibitor, pritelivir (AIC316), and CMX001, the cidofovir prodrug for treating resistant HSV infection in immunocompromised patients. Letermovir has established that the human cytomegalovirus terminase enzyme is a valid target and that similar compounds could be sought for HSV. We discuss the difficulties facing the progression of new compounds. In our concluding remarks, we summarize the present situation including a discussion on the reclassification of FCV from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled for herpes labialis in New Zealand in 2010; should this be repeated more widely? We conclude that HSV research is emerging from a quiescent phase. PMID:23885997

  19. Most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals, 1970-2012: melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young M; Namavar, Aram A; Wu, Jashin J

    2014-01-01

    Internists frequently diagnose herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne, which are also common dermatologic topics published. The authors conducted an independent search of the Thomson Reuters' Science Citation Index for common dermatologic topics, limited to the period 1970 to 2012. The five most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals were melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne. PMID:25662523

  20. Hiccups, eructation, and other uncommon prodromal manifestations of herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Alexander L; Muhn, Channy Y; Billick, Robin C

    2003-12-01

    Although the most frequent presentation of herpes zoster involves sensory neurons, motor and autonomic symptomatology is also known to occur in this disease. An unusual symptom of hiccups is described here. Other infrequent manifestations of this common illness, including the Ramsay Hunt syndrome, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, urinary and fecal retention, sexual dysfunction, and zoster sine herpete, are reviewed. Greater awareness of unusual presentations of herpes zoster is necessary for proper diagnosis and timely management of complications that may otherwise lead to disability and serious long-term sequelae. PMID:14639397

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 as a Cause of Genital Herpes: Impact on Surveillance and Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois Downey; Connie Celum; Anna Wald

    2000-01-01

    This study compared characteristics of patients who had herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 with characteristics of patients who had HSV-2, by use of data from a cross-sectional analysis. Data were collected in an urban sexually transmitted diseases clinic from patients who had positive genital HSV cultures. Overall, 17.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9%-19.3%) of 1145 genital HSV isolates obtained

  2. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  3. Herpes zoster vaccine for the elderly: boosting immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Joel V; Chen, Wilbur H

    2010-01-01

    Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a disease that results from the reactivation of a latent infection of the varicella zoster virus, which is usually encountered during early childhood. Aging is associated with an increased risk for herpes zoster and its complications. Boosting immunological memory is the key strategy for keeping the latent varicella zoster virus infection under control. A live attenuated virus vaccine is safe, effective and approved for use among healthy elderly adults aged 60 years or older. However, significant problems remain in the prevention of herpes zoster with the current vaccine. Future studies for improved vaccines and studies into the epidemiology of herpes zoster are required in order to address this significant public health burden. PMID:20607105

  4. Herpes Drug Might Help Control Spread of HIV, Too

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Control Spread of HIV, Too Researchers found that Valtrex appeared to reduce viral levels (*this news item ... said their findings challenge the belief that drug Valtrex (valacyclovir) requires the presence of herpes to benefit ...

  5. Experimental Herpes neonatalis in SA 8-infected baboons (Papio cynocephalus).

    PubMed

    Brack, M; Eichberg, J W; Heberling, R L; Kalter, S S

    1985-04-01

    13 newborn baboons were experimentally infected with a baboon-derived herpesvirus SA 8-strain. Intratracheal infection produced herpetic tracheobronchopneumonia, intravenous inoculation resulted in adrenal necrosis similar to that in human neonatal herpes infection. PMID:2987612

  6. Identification and typing of herpes simplex viruses with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, N; Frame, B; Chernesky, M; Kraiselburd, E; Kouri, Y; Garcia, D; Lavery, C; Rawls, W E

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies which reacted with type-specific antigens of herpes simplex virus type 2 or with antigens shared by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 were used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to type virus isolates and to detect viral antigens in cells obtained from herpetic lesions. Complete concordance was obtained for 42 isolates typed by endonuclease restriction analysis of viral DNA and by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. Examination of a limited number of ulcerative lesions revealed that indirect immunofluorescence and virus isolation were comparable in detecting herpes simplex virus. The results indicate that monoclonal antibodies can be used to accurately identify and type isolates of herpes simplex virus. PMID:6286719

  7. Disseminated Cutaneous Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Eric; Chernev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster is a clinical syndrome which usually presents with a localized, vesicular rash in a dermatomal distribution. Cutaneous dissemination rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients, therefore little is known about the baseline demographic, clinical characteristics, management and outcome of these patients. Herein, we report a case of disseminated cutaneous herpes zoster in an immunocompetent patient along with a review and analysis of 28 cases previously reported in the literature. PMID:25276332

  8. Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gieri Cathomas

    2000-01-01

    The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposi’s sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been

  9. Suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes: acyclovir v inosine pranobex.

    PubMed Central

    Mindel, A; Carney, O; Sonnex, C; Freris, M; Patou, G; Williams, P

    1989-01-01

    The suppressive action of acyclovir and inosine pranobex was compared in a randomised double blind controlled trial in patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. Fourteen patients received acyclovir and 17 inosine pranobex. Treatment continued for 12 weeks. The time to the first recurrence was significantly longer and the frequency of recurrences significantly less in the recipients of acyclovir. No important side effects were noted. It is concluded that acyclovir is the treatment of choice to suppress often recurring genital herpes. PMID:2473952

  10. The relationship between herpes zoster and stroke.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2015-04-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infects >95 % of the world population. Typically, varicella (chickenpox) results from primary infection. The virus then becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. In immunocompromised individuals, VZV reactivates and causes herpes zoster (shingles), pain, and rash in 1-2 dermatomes. Multiple case reports showed a link between stroke and zoster, and recent studies have emerged which reveal that VZV infection of the cerebral arteries directly causes pathological vascular remodeling and stroke (VZV vasculopathy). In the past few years, several large epidemiological studies in Taiwan, Denmark, and the U.K. demonstrated that zoster is a risk factor for stroke and that antiviral therapy may reduce this risk. Herein, the history, clinical features, and putative mechanisms of VZV vasculopathy, as well as recent epidemiological studies demonstrating that zoster increases the risk of stroke, are discussed. PMID:25712420

  11. [Cause of Bell's palsy: herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Mulkens, P S; Schirm, J

    1998-02-28

    At present Bell's palsy (BP) is still defined as idiopathic unilateral facial paralysis of sudden onset. More than 20 years ago an aetiological link between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and BP was proposed. Numerous experiments in animals and in humans have been performed to test this hypothesis. However, the human facial nerve tissue itself was investigated in only a few of these studies. Two research lines were followed: (a) search for presence of latent HSV in the facial nerve of asymptomatic individuals (as shown earlier in the trigeminal nerve); (b) find 'active' HSV in tissues from BP patients with recent onset of disease. The application of new molecular biological techniques, notably polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to facial nerve tissues has provided ample evidence for a causal relationship between BP and HSV. Therefore it might now be the time to change the name 'Bell's palsy' into 'herpetic facial paralysis'. PMID:9562755

  12. Herpes zoster: diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approaches.

    PubMed

    Bader, Mazen S

    2013-09-01

    Herpes zoster (Hz), which generally presents as a localized, painful cutaneous eruption, is a common clinical problem, particularly among adults ? 50 years of age and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of Hz is mainly made clinically, except in patients with atypical manifestations or certain complications, such as central nervous system involvement, in which laboratory virologic testing is required. In addition to having a higher mortality rate, immunocompromised individuals have atypical and severe clinical findings and are at greater risk for complications and recurrence of Hz. Treatment of Hz includes the use of antiviral agents, analgesics for control of acute zoster pain, good skin care for healing, and prevention of secondary bacterial infection. Antiviral agents, preferably valacyclovir or famciclovir, should be started within 72 hours of onset to reduce the severity of the infection, the duration of the eruptive phase, and the intensity of acute pain. Herpes zoster has been associated with several complications, of which post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common and debilitating. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine and early treatment with either famciclovir or valacyclovir are the only measures proven to prevent PHN. The options for treating PHN include topical agents, such as lidocaine patches, and systemic agents, such as the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin. Measures for preventing Hz include infection control through routine hand hygiene and appropriate use of isolation precautions and personal protective equipment; immunoglobulins, such as the varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin and vaccine; and antiviral agents. The zoster vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of Hz and PHN. The vaccine is recommended for all individuals aged ? 60 years who have no contraindications, including individuals who report a previous episode of Hz. PMID:24113666

  13. The equine herpes virus 4 thymidine kinase is a better suicide gene than the human herpes virus 1 thymidine kinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Loubière; M Tiraby; C Cazaux; E Brisson; M Grisoni; J C Zhao-Emonet; G Tiraby; D Klatzmann

    1999-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase suicide gene (HSV1tk) together with ganciclovir (GCV) have been successfully used for in vivo treatment of various experimental tumors, and many clinical trials using this system have been launched. With the aim to improve this therapeutic system, we compared the potential efficacy of different herpes virus derived thymidine kinases (HSV1, varicella-zoster virus,

  14. Sucessful transmission of Solenopsis invicta Virus 3 to field colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive sense, single stranded virus that exhibits host specificity toward saevissima complex fire ants. The virus is being considered for release as a biological control agent in areas in which the virus is absent. This study demonstrates that field trans...

  15. Complete genome sequence of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3ArgSF) obtained from the Santa Fe region of Argentina was sequenced in entirety. Assembly of 9 overlapping fragments yielded a consensus genome sequence 10,386 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail present on the 3' en...

  16. Comparative genomic analyses of frog virus 3, type species of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy G. H Tan; Todd J Barkman; V Gregory Chinchar; Karim Essani

    2004-01-01

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species member of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae). To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the replication of FV3, including transcription of its highly methylated DNA genome, we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the FV3 genome. The FV3 genome is 105903 bp long excluding the terminal redundancy. The G +

  17. Architecture of the Herpes Simplex Virus Major Capsid Protein Derived from Structural Bioinformatics

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Wen

    1(A)) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), the proto- typical member of the Herpesviridae. Visual reserved E-mail address of the corresponding author: wah@bcm.tmc.edu Abbreviations used: HSV-1, herpes

  18. P ICHAI et al HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ASSOCIATED ACUTE LIVER FAILURE: A

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    P ICHAI et al HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ASSOCIATED ACUTE LIVER FAILURE: A DIFFICULT DIAGNOSIS Paris Sud, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Villejuif, France Key words: Acute liver failure, Herpes simplex virus, liver transplantation, real time PCR, histology, immunohistochemical Halauthormanuscriptinserm-00097518

  19. Predictive Factors of Herpes Zoster HIV-Infected Patients: Another Adverse Effect of Crack Cocaine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Predictive Factors of Herpes Zoster HIV-Infected Patients: Another Adverse Effect of Crack Cocaine.001; and in patients previously reported to use crack cocaine AHR=5.9, (95%CI=1.4-25), P=0.02. Herpes zoster incidence inhibitors on herpes zoster incidence. The present study is the first to suggest that crack cocaine

  20. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth's magnetosphere is particularly worrisome because it includes ionizing radiation from cosmic galactic radiation. Increased stress levels appear even before flight, presumably from the rigors of preflight training and the anticipation of the mission (12, 32, 38, 39). Space flight causes significant changes in human immune function (32), but the means by which these changes come about have been difficult to discern. Consistent indicators of stress associated with space flight include increased production of stress hormones, and changes in cells of the immune system. These changes include elevated white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts at landing (15, 16, 35, 37). Activation of generalized stress responses before, during, and after space flight probably affects the function of the immune system. Space flight has been shown to decrease many aspects of immune function, including natural killer (NK) cell activity, interferon production, the blastogenic response of leukocytes to mitogens, cell-mediated immunity, neutrophil function and monocyte function (5, 16, 18, 21, 35-37).

  1. Cellular proteins expressed in herpes simplex virus transformed cells also accumulate on herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Macnab, J C; Orr, A; La Thangue, N B

    1985-01-01

    The cell proteins expressed in rat embryo cells transformed by herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been analysed by immunoprecipitation assays to determine those polypeptides which can be identified by immunoprecipitation with the sera of tumour-bearing animals and also with antisera to herpes simplex infected cells. Cell polypeptides commonly recognised by both these sera have been further characterised using a monoclonal antibody directed against a cellular polypeptide which accumulates on HSV-2 lytic infection. This monoclonal antibody recognises in HSV-transformed cells polypeptides of mol. wts. 90 000, 40 000 and 32 000. Further studies show that the accumulation of these polypeptides in HSV-transformed cells is not HSV specific but is a common feature of transformation or of cells which have been immortalised. We suggest that cellular polypeptides accumulating as a result of HSV infection may be of importance in the initiation of transformation by HSV, i.e., at the level of immortalisation of cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3004943

  2. Conflict between morphology and molecular data: a case of the genus Caryophyllaeus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic tapeworms of cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed

    Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Brabec, Jan; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikulás; Scholz, Tomás

    2014-08-01

    Molecular analysis of an extensive specimen collection of morphologically distinct tapeworms of the genus Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes in the Palaearctic Region, brought evidence of host-related plasticity in critical morphological characters widely used for species circumscription and classification of these tapeworms. The results obtained here do not support the traditionally used morphological concept of species-defining characters of the order Caryophyllidea Carus, 1863, especially due to high morphological plasticity of the scolex and the anterior end of the body. Several morphotypes within both Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) and Caryophyllaeus brachycollis Janiszewska, 1953 generally corresponding to different hosts and geographical regions, were recognised likely suggesting host- and geography-related intraspecific morphological variability. Genetic data confirmed euryxenous host specificity of both species, most profoundly C. laticeps, but did not support the existence of cryptic species. In fact, some of the fish hosts may harbour both of the congeneric species including several of their respective morphotypes. The pattern of morphological and genetic divergence observed in both cestode species studied indicates a scenario of possible host range extensions and subsequent parasite diversification. If molecular sequence variability and host-related morphological polymorphism are confirmed in other groups of monozoic cestodes, it may complicate species identification and straightforward classification of these parasites. PMID:25185405

  3. Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Kamchoo, Kanda

    2013-04-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Rhabdochonidae), is described from the intestine of the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. It is mainly characterized by medium-sized, bifurcate deirids, the presence of 14 anterior prostomal teeth and distinct basal teeth, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of esophagus (1:6-9), length of the left spicule (669-774 ?m), absence of a dorsal barb on the right spicule, length ratio of spicules (1:4.9-6.0), arrangement of genital papillae, and smooth eggs without filaments or swellings. In addition, specifically unidentified fourth-stage larvae of Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) sp., morphologically similar to R. hypsibarbi, were recorded from the red-tailed tinfoil Barbonymus altus (Günther) (Cyprinidae) in the Mekong River, Nakhon Phanom Province, northeast Thailand. Rhabdochona hypsibarbi is the fourth nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 reported from fishes in Thailand and the second species of the nominotypical subgenus found in this country. PMID:23045998

  4. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zeng, Lingbing; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Ma, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) detection in gibel carp was developed. Following cloning and sequencing of the putative DNA helicase gene of CyHV-2 isolate from China, a set of four specific primers was designed based on the sequence. The MgCl2 concentration and the reaction temperature were optimized to 6?mM, 64°C, respectively. LAMP products were detected by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of SYBR Green I stain. The specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay were determined. No cross-reaction was observed with other fish DNA viruses including eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, and Chinese giant salamander iridovirus. The LAMP assay was found to be equally sensitive as nested PCR. A comparative evaluation of 10 fish samples using LAMP and nested PCR assays showed an overall correlation in positive and negative results for CyHV-2. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, and specific and has a great potential use for CyHV-2 detection in the laboratory and field. PMID:24574914

  5. Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

    2012-11-01

    Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria. PMID:23144655

  6. Chromosomes of European cyprinid fishes: comparative cytogenetics and chromosomal characteristics of ribosomal DNAs in nine Iberian chondrostomine species (Leuciscinae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla Sofia A; Ráb, Petr; Collares-Pereira, Maria João

    2012-12-01

    Karyotypes and chromosomal features of both minor and major ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) were investigated in nine Iberian chondrostomine species by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. All species presented invariably diploid values of 2n = 50 and the characteristic leuciscin karyotype pattern with 6-7 metacentric (m), 15-16 submetacentric (sm) and 3-4 subtelo- to acrocentric (st/a) chromosome pairs. The largest chromosome pair of the set was st/a as typical of Leuciscinae and no heteromorphic chromosomes could be unequivocally associated to sex determination. Achondrostoma occidentale and Pseudochondrostoma willkommii were cytogenetically characterized for the first time while Achondrostoma arcasii and Iberochondrostoma lemmingii were revisited regarding previous karyotype descriptions. Remarkable variability in number and location was observed for both molecular chromosome markers, especially within Achondrostoma and Iberochondrostoma genera. Clusters of 5S rDNA were mostly terminally associated to st/a chromosomes varying from four to eight positive signals, whilst NOR sites directly detected by the 45S rDNA probe were identified in sm chromosomes varying from three to six independent clusters. Frequent population bottlenecks in Mediterranean-type semiarid habitats were hypothesized to explain not only such extensive polymorphism which seems unique among leuciscin cyprinids but also the increased probability of fixation of rDNA translocation events. PMID:23329299

  7. Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

    2012-01-01

    Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria. PMID:23144655

  8. Sensory evoked potentials in herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Aguglia, U; Farnarier, G; Gambardella, A; Quattrone, A

    1991-10-01

    Flash visual potentials (FEPs), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were recorded in a 66-year-old patient presenting with clinical, EEG and CT brain scan features of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). At the time of evoked potential study (10 days after onset of the disease) the patient was treated with iv barbiturate on controlled respiration (lidocaine and phenytoin were not utilized); core temperature was 37 degrees C and pupils were dilated and nonreactive. Cortical FEPs were not recognizable on 02 lead, whereas they were clearly evident on 01 with normal latency of early N1, P1, N2 waves and delayed P2 component. SEPs showed normal peripheral and central conduction times, but N20 peak was bilaterally absent with unrecognizable (on P3) or delayed (on P4) N33 wave. No ABR (including wave I) were found on stimulation of the right ear, whereas delayed wave V with prolonged interpeak I-V latency was found on stimulation of the left ear. In conclusion, changes in sensory evoked potentials in HSE seem to be caused either by necrotic-hemorrhagic damage (with the disappearance of some cortical responses), by coma (with alterations in middle-latency cortical responses) and by increased intracranial pressure (with subsequent ABR abnormalities). PMID:1795696

  9. Herpes simplex virus-induced plasmacytic atypia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alan S; Zwerner, Jeffrey P; Miller, Jami L

    2012-02-01

    The clinical and histopathological features of cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection have been well described. Genital herpetic infections are largely induced by HSV type 2, but 30% of cases can be caused by HSV type 1. Immunocompromised patients are known to exhibit atypical patterns of clinical presentation with variable lesion morphology and anatomic location. A subset of patients may show morphology such as nodules or verrucous lesions. Analogously, some biopsy specimens may show unusual microscopical features, such as a lack of keratinocyte cytopathology, lymphocyte infiltration or vasculopathic changes that are expected irrespective of the patient's immune status. We present the case of a patient carrying a previous diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris, status posttreatment with methotrexate and prednisone, who developed a perineal ulcer exhibiting significant numbers of plasma cells, many of which were cytologically atypical. This morphology was suggestive of a hematopoietic malignancy. Immunoperoxidase staining for HSV decorated a focal collection of keratinocytes that lacked appreciable viral changes expected of HSV infection. PMID:22077666

  10. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  11. Incidence of herpes zoster, 1997-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Mullooly, J. P.; Riedlinger, K.; Chun, C.; Weinmann, S.; Houston, H.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated age-specific herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Health Plan (KPNW) during 1997-2002 and tested for secular trends and differences between residents of two states with different varicella vaccine coverage rates. The cumulative proportions of 2-year-olds vaccinated increased from 35% in 1997 to 85% in 2002 in Oregon, and from 25% in 1997 to 82% in 2002 in Washington. Age-specific HZ incidence rates in KPNW during 1997-2002 were compared with published rates in the Harvard Community Health Plan (HCHP) during 1990-1992. The overall HZ incidence rate in KPNW during 1997-2002 (369/100,000 person-years) was slightly higher than HCHP's 1990-1992 rate when adjusted for age differences. For children 6-14 years old, KPNW's rates (182 for females, 123 for males) were more than three times HCHP's rates (54 for females, 39 for males). This increase appears to be associated with increased exposure of children to oral corticosteroids. The percentage of KPNW children exposed to oral corticosteroids increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 3.6% in 2002. Oregon residents had slightly higher steroid exposure rates during 1997-2002 than Washington residents. There were significant increases in HZ incidence rates in Oregon and Washington during 1997-2002 among children aged 10-17 years, associated with increased exposure to oral steroids. PMID:15816149

  12. Chronic ulcerative herpes simplex virus infection of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Griffith-Bauer, Kelly; O'Hearn, Mary; Ehst, Benjamin D

    2012-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections in HIV-infected individuals can be clinically unusual and difficult to treat due to underlying problems with cell-mediated immunity and the occurrence of antiviral resistance. Additionally, partial or incomplete restoration of immune function may result in chronic ulcerations that require rotational treatments. In this report, we describe the case of a 38-year-old HIV-positive woman who developed the ulcerative form of chronic herpes simplex infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy and valacyclovir prophylaxis. Repeated intravenous courses of foscarnet and topical cidofovir finally controlled her erosions as her cell-mediated immunity was slowly restored. This case highlights the challenges that still exist in diagnosing and managing this rare presentation of herpes simplex virus. PMID:23271993

  13. Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: An Examination of Psychological Antecedents

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster and an associated complication, postherpetic neuralgia, are both attributable to the varicella zoster virus. This virus, which lies dormant within the affected sensory ganglia after an initial infection, appears to be triggered in part by a decrease in immunity. According to available research, stress, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms are identified antecedents to outbreaks of herpes zoster. Likewise, the development of postherpetic neuralgia has been associated with the psychological antecedents of somatization, nonspecific personality psychopathology, hypochondriasis, and somatic symptoms. Also studied, the role of mood and anxiety symptoms as antecedents for postherpetic neuralgia remains controversial. In conjunction with other factors (e.g., age, nutritional status, comorbid medical diseases), stress and psychological symptoms may contribute to a lowering of immunity and thereby function as antecedents as well as consequents of both herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Few studies have examined explicit psychiatric diagnoses and their association with varicella zoster virus reactivation. PMID:25152845

  14. Isolated ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation.

    PubMed

    Kayipmaz, Murat; Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Kural, Cemal

    2013-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a viral disease presenting with vesicular eruptions that are usually preceded by pain and erythema. Herpes zoster can be seen in any dermatome of the body but most commonly appears in the thoracic region. Herpes zoster virus is typically transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The virus remains dormant in the dorsal ganglion of the affected individual throughout his or her lifetime. Herpes zoster reactivation commonly occurs in elderly people due to normal age-related decline in cell-mediated immunity. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication and is defined as persistent pain or dysesthesia 1 month after resolution of the herpetic rash. This article describes a healthy 51-year-old woman who experienced a burning sensation and shooting pain along the ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve. Ten days after the onset of pain, she developed cutaneous vesicular eruption and decreased light-touch sensation. Wrist and fourth and fifth finger range of motion were painful and slightly limited. Muscle strength was normal. Nerve conduction studies indicated an ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve lesion. She was treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic drugs and the use of a short-arm resting splint. At 5-month follow-up, she reported no residual pain, numbness, or weakness. Herpes zoster in the upper extremity may be mistaken for entrapment neuropathies and diseases characterized by skin eruptions; ulnar nerve zoster reactivation is rarely seen. The authors report an uncommon ulnar dorsal cutaneous nerve herpes zoster reactivation. Clinicians should be aware of this virus during patients' initial evaluation. PMID:24025017

  15. Mapping of the 5? terminal nucleotides of Grapevine leafroll- associated virus 3 sgRNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans J. Maree; Helena F. J. Gardner; Michael-John Freeborough; Johan T. Burger

    2010-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus that has a detrimental effect on wine and table grapes worldwide. Previous studies have shown that GLRaV-3, like other closteroviruses produces subgenomic (sg) RNAs during replication and that these sgRNAs are deployed for the expression of the ORFs on the 3? half of the genome. In this

  16. Compartment-specific immunolocalization of conserved epitopes of the glycoprotein gB of herpes simplex virus type 1 and bovine herpes virus type 2 in infected cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia M. Pietschmann; H. R. Gelderblom; G. Pauli

    1989-01-01

    Summary Monoclonal antibodies directed against a surface glycoprotein of the bovine herpes virus type 2 (BHV-2, bovine herpes mammillitis virus) recognize also determinants of the major glycoprotein gB of the human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Cross-reacting antigens of the virions and in infected cells were localized with immunocytochemical methods, immunofluorescence as well as pre-embedding and cryoultramicrotomy immune electron

  17. Herpes simplex virus infections of women and their offspring: implications for a developed society.

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, R J

    1994-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections of humans have been known since ancient times. Contemporary society has witnessed a series of devastating manifestations of herpes simplex virus infections--namely, genital herpes simplex virus infection and neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. With the evolution of society, particularly advances in birth control and increasing promiscuity, the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections has increased worldwide, however, more so in developed societies. As a consequence, individuals of child-bearing age are at risk for either reactivation of herpes simplex virus at termination of gestation or acquisition of a new primary infection at that time. The consequences of vertical transmission of herpes simplex virus from mother to child, resulting in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection, can be devastating. Current efforts, which are directed toward the treatment of neonatal herpes, have established the value of drugs such as vidarabine and acyclovir. However, the real emphasis for future programs is the prevention of herpes simplex virus infections to avoid person-to-person transmission either horizontally or vertically. The development of vaccines directed against herpes simplex virus may be of value toward this end. PMID:8146137

  18. Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Hortense, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks. PMID:25387508

  19. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  20. Zebrafish: Modeling for Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S.; Dale, Rodney M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure–function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits. PMID:24266790

  1. Gene delivery using herpes simplex virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Burton, Edward A; Fink, David J; Glorioso, Joseph C

    2002-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a neurotropic DNA virus with many favorable properties as a gene delivery vector. HSV is highly infectious, so HSV vectors are efficient vehicles for the delivery of exogenous genetic material to cells. Viral replication is readily disrupted by null mutations in immediate early genes that in vitro can be complemented in trans, enabling straightforward production of high-titre pure preparations of non-pathogenic vector. The genome is large (152 Kb) and many of the viral genes are dispensable for replication in vitro, allowing their replacement with large or multiple transgenes. Latent infection with wild-type virus results in episomal viral persistence in sensory neuronal nuclei for the duration of the host lifetime. Transduction with replication-defective vectors causes a latent-like infection in both neural and non-neural tissue; the vectors are non-pathogenic, unable to reactivate and persist long-term. The latency active promoter complex can be exploited in vector design to achieve long-term stable transgene expression in the nervous system. HSV vectors transduce a broad range of tissues because of the wide expression pattern of the cellular receptors recognized by the virus. Increasing understanding of the processes involved in cellular entry has allowed preliminary steps to be taken towards targeting the tropism of HSV vectors. Using replication-defective HSV vectors, highly encouraging results have emerged from recent pre-clinical studies on models of neurological disease, including glioma, peripheral neuropathy, chronic pain and neurodegeneration. Consequently, HSV vectors encoding appropriate transgenes to tackle these pathogenic processes are poised to enter clinical trials. PMID:12573050

  2. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  3. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  4. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  5. The Genome Sequence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AIDAN DOLAN; FIONA E. JAMIESON; CHARLES CUNNINGHAM; BARBARA C. BARNETT; DUNCAN J. MCGEOCH

    2010-01-01

    The complete 152-kbp genomic DNA sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was published in 1988 (56) and since then has been very widely employed in a great range of research on HSV-1. Additionally, results from this most stud- ied member of the family Herpesviridae have fed powerfully into research on other herpesviruses. In contrast, although a substantial number

  6. Bilateral disseminated herpes zoster in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Yumiko; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Yoshikawa, Yoshiaki; Tanioka, Miki; Fujisawa, Akihiro; Endo, Yuichiro

    2013-02-01

    Herein we report a rare case of disseminated herpes zoster(HZ) infection involving two widely separated bilateral dermatomes in an immunocompetent host. HZ involving two widely separated areas simultaneously is referred to as HZ duplex bilateralis. It is very rare, with an incidence of less than 0.1 percent of all HZ cases, and usually develops in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23473283

  7. Experimental Herpes neonatalis in SA 8-infected baboons ( Papio cynocephalus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brack; J. W. Eichberg; R. L. Heberling; S. S. Kalter

    1985-01-01

    Summary 13 newborn baboons were experimentally infected with a baboon-derived herpesvirus SA 8-strain. Intratracheal infection produced herpetic tracheo- bronchopneumonia, intravenous inoculation resulted in adrenal necrosis similar to that in human neonatal herpes infection. Naturally occurring neonatal herpesvirus infections are of importance in the perinatal pathology of several mammalian species. Herpesvirus equi causes intrauterine infections and abortions in equine species, H.

  8. Multiple Applications For Replication-Defective Herpes Simplex Virus Vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Burton; James B. Wechuck; Steven K. Wendell; William F. Goins; David J. Fink; JOSEPH C. GLORIOSOa

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a neurotropic DNA virus. The viral genome is large (152 kb), and many genes are dispensable for viral function, allowing insertion of multiple or large transgene expression cassettes. The virus life cycle includes a latent phase, during which the viral genome remains as a stable episomal element within neu- ronal nuclei for the lifetime of

  9. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  10. 801. RNA Gene Therapy Targeting Herpes Simplex Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Liu; Sonal S. Tuli; David C. Bloom; Gregory S. Schultz; Steve C. Ghivizzani; Alfred S. Lewin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Herpes Simplex Keratitis (HSK) is the leading cause of corneal blindness in developed nations. Despite active antiviral drugs (nucleoside analogues), there is no effective method preventing recurrent HSK. We tested the ability of ribozymes targeting the mRNAs of essential HSV genes to inhibit viral infection in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Hammerhead ribozymes were designed against mRNAs of four

  11. Histopathological characterization and fluorescence in situ hybridization of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in cultured Prussian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio in China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhengfeng; Xia, Siyao; Zhao, Ziming; Xia, Aijun; Shen, Meifang; Tang, Jianqing; Xue, Hui; Geng, Xuebing; Yuan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is an emerging pathogen in the commercially exploited fish, Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), which has caused huge economic loss in China and appears to be spreading worldwide. In this article, CyHV-2 infection of Prussian carp was confirmed for the first time by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which gave positive results from the tissue samples dissected from moribund fish including kidney, spleen, liver, and gill. Histological examination showed systemic inflammatory reactions in the infected tissues, with infiltration of hemocytes, hypertrophied nuclei, marginal chromatin and karyorrhexis, epithelial cell shedding, vacuolar degeneration and focal necrosis. Tissue alterations were also evaluated semi-quantitatively by the degree of tissue change. The values of degree of tissue change determined for kidney, spleen, liver, and gill were significantly greater than respective controls and kidney was the most severely damaged organ, with highest degree of tissue change value. In addition, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based on oligonucleotide probes to detect the pathogen directly in the tissue, allowing pathogen-lesion correlation, was established. With the advantages of better tissue penetration, potentially more specific and stable, three oligonucleotide probes were designed. Positive reactions to the probes with intense green fluorescence were observed within the infected tissues where PCR and H&E analysis had suggested previously the presence of the virus within these lesions. The probes did not hybridize with host tissues of uninfected fish, nor did they cross-react with 3 other virus samples tested. The current research could facilitate the study of CyHV-2 infection mechanism in Prussian carp, and enhance the early diagnosis of the novel virus. PMID:24877901

  12. Rational Development of an Attenuated Recombinant Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Vaccine Using Prokaryotic Mutagenesis and In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Ouyang, Ping; Fournier, Guillaume; Reschner, Anca; Rakus, Krzysztof; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Farnir, Frédéric; Bayrou, Calixte; Lieffrig, François; Li, Hong; Desmecht, Daniel; Davison, Andrew J.; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV 3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in common and koi carp industries, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open reading frame 134 (ORF134), we unexpectedly obtained a clone with additional deletion of ORF56 and ORF57. This triple deleted recombinant replicated efficiently in vitro and expressed an in vivo safety/efficacy profile compatible with use as an attenuated vaccine. To determine the role of the double ORF56-57 deletion in the phenotype and to improve further the quality of the vaccine candidate, a series of deleted recombinants was produced and tested in vivo. These experiments led to the selection of a double deleted recombinant lacking ORF56 and ORF57 as a vaccine candidate. The safety and efficacy of this strain were studied using an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system (IVIS), qPCR, and histopathological examination, which demonstrated that it enters fish via skin infection similar to the wild type strain. However, compared to the parental wild type strain, the vaccine candidate replicated at lower levels and spread less efficiently to secondary sites of infection. Transmission experiments allowing water contamination with or without additional physical contact between fish demonstrated that the vaccine candidate has a reduced ability to spread from vaccinated fish to naïve sentinel cohabitants. Finally, IVIS analyses demonstrated that the vaccine candidate induces a protective mucosal immune response at the portal of entry. Thus, the present study is the first to report the rational development of a recombinant attenuated vaccine against CyHV 3 for mass vaccination of carp. We also demonstrated the relevance of the CyHV 3 carp model for studying alloherpesvirus transmission and mucosal immunity in teleost skin. PMID:25700279

  13. Acute Toxicity, Respiratory Reaction, and Sensitivity of Three Cyprinid Fish Species Caused by Exposure to Four Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg2+ to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L?1, 0.23 mg L?1, and 0.10 mg L?1, respectively; of Cu2+0.17 mg L?1, 0.09 mg L?1, and 0.12 mg L?1 respectively; of Cd2+6.5 mg L?1, 18.47 mg L?1, 5.36 mg L?1, respectively; and of Zn2+44.48 mg L?1, 31.37 mg L?1, and 12.74 mg L?1, respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg2+ and Cu2+ (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd2+. Zn2+ had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L?1, 0.046 mg L?1, 2.142 mg L?1, and 0.633 mg L?1 for Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor. PMID:23755209

  14. Incidence of herpes zoster infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Nimmrich, S; Horneff, G

    2015-03-01

    The risk of herpes zoster among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) exposed to biologics has not been evaluated. We determined incidence rates of herpes zoster among children with JIA in correlation with medication at time of occurrence and total drug exposure. The German biologics register database was used to identify patients with herpes zoster. Crude infection rates and incidence ratios (IRR) were compared to published rates. Demographics and overall exposure and particular exposure time to corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and biologics were analyzed. The JIA cohort included 3,042 patients with 5,557.9 person-years of follow-up; 1,628 have used corticosteroids, 2,930 methotrexate and 1,685 etanercept. In total, 17 herpes zoster events have been documented [6/1,000 patients (3.5-9.0); 3.1/1,000 patient-years (1.9-4.9)]. Thus, the incidence rate in JIA patients was higher than expected [IRR 2.9 (1.8-4.5), p < 0.001]. In all patients, the event resolved completely. There were two complications, one patient developed intercostal neuralgia, and one had a recurrent herpes zoster. Compared to the healthy population, a significant higher IRR is observed in JIA patients who received a monotherapy with etanercept or in combination with steroids and methotrexate, but not in JIA patients exposed to methotrexate without biologics. In comparison with our control group of patients treated with methotrexate, the IRR was higher for exposure to etanercept monotherapy and combination of etanercept and corticosteroids irrespective of methotrexate use. A generally higher incidence rate in JIA patients treated with etanercept was observed. No serious or refractory manifestations occurred. PMID:25583050

  15. Protective effect of an oral infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 against subsequent genital infection with Herpes simplex virus type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Sturn; Karl-Eduard Schneweis

    1978-01-01

    The problem of whether oral Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provides protection against subsequent genital infection by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was investigated. Mice were used as models. Following conditions in man, both the oral and genital infections applied were noninjurious. Mice infected orally with HSV-1 were weakly protected against virus ‘take’ following vaginal challenge with

  16. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish Squalius lucumonis and three other Italian leuciscines using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA probes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anna Rita; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish, Toscana stream chub Squalius lucumonis, were analysed using conventional banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) and karyotype characteristics including pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks and GC-rich CMA(3)-positive sites corresponding to both positive Ag-NORs and 45S rDNA loci on the short arms of a single medium-sized submetacentric chromosome pair were consistent with those found in most European leuciscine cyprinids. On other hand, 5S rDNA FISH in the Toscana stream chub and three other Italian leuciscines, S. squalus, Rutilus rubilio and Telestes muticellus, revealed a species-specific hybridization pattern, i.e. signals on four (S. lucumonis), three (S. squalus and R. rubilio) and two (T. muticellus) chromosome pairs. Whereas all the species shared the 5S rDNA loci on the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair, a "leuciscine" cytotaxonomic marker, S. lucumonis showed both classes of rDNA loci tandem aligned on the short arms of chromosome pair No. 12. The present findings suggest that the observed high variability of 5S rDNA loci provides a powerful tool for investigation of karyotype differentiation in karyologically conservative leuciscine fishes. PMID:23238894

  17. [Battle with herpes for 37 years].

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) remains latent in the human trigeminal ganglion after primarily infecting the cornea and conjunctiva. Mental stress, heat stimulation, ultraviolet ray and immunosuppression are among the reactivating factors of HSV-1, which can lead to epithelial herpetic keratitis, stromal herpetic keratitis, and other complications. I have been working with HSV-1 for a long time, concentrating especially on its latency and reactivation. I would like to introduce some of the recent research results. 1. Herpetic keratitis cases at the Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University. There were 129 eyes of 128 patients who visited the Cornea Service in our university hospitals at Osayasayama, Sakai and Nara over 13 years and were diagnosed with herpetic keratitis and followed up for at least one year. They were investigated as to the type of herpetic keratitis at the initial visit and its recurrence. Initial types of herpetic keratitis and number of eyes of each type were: Epithelial type, 65 eyes (50%); Stromal type, 30 eyes (23%); Combined epithelial and stromal types, 18 eyes (14%). Recurrence was seen in 47% of the total 129 eyes. Recurrent cases of the epithelial type were mostly epithelial type. Frequently recurrent cases of the stromal type presented with repeated epithelial, stromal, and combined types. 2. Effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Acyclovir (ACV) eye ointment is usually prescribed for several weeks to treat human epithelial herpetic keratitis. Our question is: Is this long administration really necessary? To find the answer to this question, we investigated time-dependent effects of antiherpetics on mouse epithelial herpetic keratitis. Mouse corneas were infected with HSV-1 and either ACV eye ointment, oral valaciclovir (VACV) or oral famciclovir (FCV) was administered. No virus was detected in the tear fluid examined by viral culture 4 days after start of ACV eye ointment or oral VACV and 6 days after start of oral FCV. Real-time PCR revealed significant decrease of HSV DNA copy number in the eyeball or trigeminal ganglion compared to saline instillation 4 and 6 days after start. These results suggest that antivirals for 5 days could sufficiently decrease the HSV amount in the ocular surface and eyeball. 3. Corneal latency. In order to prove latency of HSV in the human cornea, virological and molecular biological techniques were used to ensure the following 3 prerequisites. 1) Positive HSV DNA in the human cornea. 2) Negative homogenate, positive explant. 3) Only latency-associated transcript (LAT) detected and transcriptional products of other virus genes (?, ?, ?) not detected in the cornea. As a result, all the 3 prerequisites have been satisfied in the 3 corneas that had a past history of herpetic keratitis. This result suggests that HSV could remain latent in the human cornea. 4. Detection of HSV-1, HHV-6, and HHV-7 DNA in the anterior segment and aqueous humor using multiplex real-time PCR. Multiplex real-time PCR was applied for the first time ever in opththalmology to human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) and 7(HHV-7). Samples taken from tear fluid before and 3 days after phacoemulsification and aspiration (PEA) or penetrating keratoplasty (PKP), and aqueous humor aspirated during PEA were used. The results of multiplex real-time PCR showed HSV-1, HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA present in tear fluid both before and after PEA or PKP. 5. Gene expression when reactivation is suppressed. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) has recently been reported to be involved in reactivation of HSV-1. IkappaB kinase-? (IKK2) inhibitors, which inhibit the activity of NF-?B, were used to examine gene expression during HSV reactivation in a mouse model. Significant decrease of HSV DNA copy number was observed at the trigeminal ganglion with real-time PCR in a group which was given IKK2 inhibitors intraperitoneally. Microarray method demonstrated 2-fold or more increased expression of 1812 probe. By Pathway analysis, eased immunosuppressive effects were observed in the group which was given I

  18. Follow-up report on 50 subjects vaccinated against herpes genitalis with Skinner vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. B. Skinner; C. G. Fink; M. Cowan; A. Buchan; A. Fuller; C. E. Hartley; J. Durham; C. Wiblin; J. Melling

    1987-01-01

    Fifty subjects at risk of herpes genitalis received 109 immunizations with Skinner herpes vaccine and were assessed after a follow-up period of 4–48 months, respresenting a total follow-up period of 694 patient months. There was no evidence of contraction of herpes genitalis in 49 subjects. The risk of virus transmission and rate of contraction of disease was quantified by construction

  19. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis Secondary to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Claudia E; Liang, Michelle C; Goldberg, Roger A; Goldman, Darin R; Witkin, Steve R; Duker, Jay S

    2014-06-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis is an aggressive form of necrotizing herpetic retinitis that presents in immunocompromised patients. It is usually secondary to varicella zoster virus or, rarely, herpes simplex virus type 1. The authors report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 in a patient with a history of congenital herpes. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:xxx-xxx.]. PMID:24988530

  20. Management and prevention of herpes zoster: A Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Guy; Jovey, Roman; Elliott, Catherine T; Patrick, David M

    2010-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus reactivation leads to herpes zoster – the main complication of which is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Rapid antiviral therapy initiated within 72 h of rash onset has been shown to accelerate rash healing, reduce the duration of acute pain and, to some extent, attenuate the development and duration of PHN. Other adjunctive therapies such as analgesics, antidepressants and some anticonvulsants are frequently required in the management of severe PHN. A live, attenuated zoster vaccine has been recently shown to significantly decrease herpes zoster incidence, PHN and the overall burden of illness when administered to adults older than 60 years of age. This new prophylactic modality has been reported to be cost-effective in the Canadian context, especially in the 60- to 75-year-old age group. PMID:21358885

  1. Salivary defense factors in herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, H; Waris, M; Hukkanen, V; Blankenvoorde, M F J; Nieuw Amerongen, A V; Tenovuo, J

    2002-06-01

    Saliva may contribute to a lowering of the infectious herpes simplex virus (HSV) dose during transmission and consequently abrogate infection or lead to decreased reactivation. To test this hypothesis, we assayed saliva for innate defense factors, immunoglobulin content, and the capacity to interfere with HSV infection. Serum or salivary anti-HSV IgG levels did not correlate with control of recurrent labial herpes (RLH) and were significantly higher in subjects with RLH compared with asymptomatic seropositive subjects. Although no differences in levels or output rate of innate defense factors between the groups were observed, the salivary neutralizing activity correlated with lactoferrin and hypothiocyanite concentrations in the asymptomatic seropositive group. Our results suggest that saliva contains factors, in addition to anti-HSV immunoglobulins, that neutralize HSV and may indirectly contribute to the control of RLH. PMID:12097435

  2. Herpes simplex encephalitis presenting with normal CSF analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Kiani, Ismaa Ghazanfar; Shah, Faridullah; Najeeb-ur-Rehman, Rao; Ehsan-ul-Haq, M

    2013-11-01

    A 28 years old female presented with headache, fever, altered sensorium and right side weakness for one week. She was febrile and drowsy with right sided hemiplegia and papilledema. Tuberculous or bacterial meningitis, tuberculoma and abscess were at the top of the diagnosis list followed by Herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis (HSE). MRI showed abnormal signal intensity of left temporal lobe without significant post-contrast enhancement and midline shift. CSF examination was normal, gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen stain showed no micro-organism, or acid fast bacilli. CSF for MTB PCR was negative. PCR DNA for Herpes simplex 1 on CSF was detected. Acyclovir was started and the patient was discharged after full recovery. A high index of suspicion is required for HSE diagnosis in Pakistan where other infections predominantly affect the brain and HSE may be overlooked as a potential diagnosis. PMID:24169394

  3. Survival of herpes simplex virus during cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Burke, W A; Baden, T J; Wheeler, C E; Bowdre, J H

    1986-10-01

    Because many viruses can survive extremely cold temperatures for extended periods of time, transmission of viral diseases from person to person using improper cryosurgical techniques might conceivably occur. To investigate the survivability of herpes simplex virus during cryotherapy, virus was first inoculated onto cotton-tipped applicators from either tissue cultures or from active lesions on patients, and then frozen for variable times in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). After thawing, the applicators were cultured for the virus. The virus survived 12 hours of freezing (the maximum time of freezing in the study), which suggests that herpes simplex could be transmitted between cryosurgical patients if care is not taken to use separate cotton-tipped applicators and liquid nitrogen containers for each case. PMID:3020105

  4. Trigeminal herpes zoster: early recognition and treatment are crucial.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) is not uncommon in older patients, particularly in cases of chronic autoimmune disorders and in patients taking immunosuppressant drugs. We present a case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with severe herpes zoster infection, involving the maxillary and ophthalmic branches of the trigeminal nerve. Despite an initial delay in instigating crucial antiviral treatment, the patient achieved an excellent recovery, with only some mild scarring at 2?months postinfection. Trigeminal herpes zoster is a potentially devastating clinical occurrence, and is associated with severe long-term neurological sequelae, including encephalitis, vision loss and postherpetic neuralgia. Physicians must be aware of risk factors and treatment modalities. PMID:25795749

  5. Antigenic relatedness of equine herpes virus types 1 and 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Gutekunst; W. A. Malmquist; C. S. Becvar

    1978-01-01

    Summary Antiserums prepared in specific pathogen free (SPF) ponies were used in direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion, complement fixation and serum neutralization procedures to study the interrelationships of the three types of equine herpes viruses (EHV-1, EHV-2, and EHV-3). Equine cell cultures infected with each type virus fluoresced when stained with homologous conjugated anti-serum. In reciprocal tests EHV-1 and EHV-3

  6. The cancer patient with chronic pain due to herpes zoster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanu Modi; Jose Pereira; John R. Mackey

    2000-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster, and as such has been an area of extensive medical\\u000a research for the past three decades. The patients at highest risk for PHN include those older than 50 years, those with severe\\u000a acute cases of zoster, and those with shingles in a trigeminal distribution. As persons with malignancy are

  7. Fifteen minute consultation: Managing neonatal and childhood herpes encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, K; Menson, Esse; Patel, Deepak; Lim, Ming; Lyall, Hermione; Herberg, Jethro

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common single cause of viral encephalitis in infants and children. Treated or untreated, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presentation is usually insidious and non-specific. Prompt and careful investigation is important in order to establish the diagnosis so that treatment can be optimised. We address some common questions arising when diagnosing and treating presumed HSE throughout childhood. PMID:25112286

  8. TLR3 Deficiency in Patients with Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shen-Ying Zhang; Emmanuelle Jouanguy; Sophie Ugolini; Asma Smahi; Gaëlle Elain; Pedro Romero; David Segal; Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu; Lazaro Lorenzo; Anne Puel; Capucine Picard; Ariane Chapgier; Sabine Plancoulaine; Matthias Titeux; Céline Cognet; Horst von Bernuth; Cheng-Lung Ku; Armanda Casrouge; Xin-Xin Zhang; Luis Barreiro; Joshua Leonard; Claire Hamilton; Pierre Lebon; Bénédicte Héron; Louis Vallée; Lluis Quintana-Murci; Alain Hovnanian; Flore Rozenberg; Eric Vivier; Frédéric Geissmann; Marc Tardieu; Laurent Abel; Jean-Laurent Casanova

    2007-01-01

    Some Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide immunity to experimental infections in animal models, but their contribution to host defense in natural ecosystems is unknown. We report a dominant-negative TLR3 allele in otherwise healthy children with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. TLR3 is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where it is required to control HSV-1, which spreads

  9. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus vectors for cancer virotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Varghese; Samuel D Rabkin

    2002-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vectors are emerging as an effective and powerful therapeutic approach for cancer. Replication-competent HSV-1 vectors with mutations in genes that affect viral replication, neuropathogenicity, and immune evasiveness have been developed and tested for their safety and efficacy in a variety of mouse models. Evidence to-date following administration into the brain attests to their

  10. Fifteen minute consultation: Managing neonatal and childhood herpes encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Le Doare, K; Menson, Esse; Patel, Deepak; Lim, Ming; Lyall, Hermione; Herberg, Jethro

    2015-04-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common single cause of viral encephalitis in infants and children. Treated or untreated, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presentation is usually insidious and non-specific. Prompt and careful investigation is important in order to establish the diagnosis so that treatment can be optimised. We address some common questions arising when diagnosing and treating presumed HSE throughout childhood. PMID:25112286

  11. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6?months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4?weeks and 6?months later. PMID:25833911

  12. Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Cândido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood. PMID:24937819

  13. [Preventing papillomavirus infectious and herpes zoster: new vaccines].

    PubMed

    Silbermann, Benjamin; Launay, Odile

    2007-04-01

    Two new vaccines have been recently licensed : a quadrivalent vaccine against Human papillomavirus infections (HPV) 6, 11, 16 and 18, recommended to children from 9 years old and to young adults under the age of 26 years, and a vaccine against herpes zoster for adults from 60 years old onwards. A bivalent vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 will be shortly available. HPV vaccines are composed of the L1 structural proteins of 2 or 4 HPV genotypes, produced by genetic engineering and self-assembled. These inert vaccines are devoid of genetic materials and mimic the viral particle (virus-like particle, VLP). They allow, as suggested by the 4.5 to 5 years follow-up, to prevent HPV infections and the onset of pre-cancerous lesions associated with genotypes contained within the vaccine. They represent a major overhang in the vaccinology field, and, as anti-hepatitis B vaccine, will probably be effective in cancer prevention. Their use must be associated with the continued detection of cervix cancer by smears and also with the prevention of other sexually transmitted diseases. The herpes zoster vaccine is a living attenuated vaccine produced from the OKA/Merck strain already used in the vaccine against varicella. Its safety is good among persons 50 years old and over and its efficiency on lowering herpes zoster incidence, on the burden of illness and on post-herpetic neuralgia has been demonstrated in persons over 60 years old. PMID:17433234

  14. Passive Transfer of Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies Protect Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1Induced but Not Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2Induced Stromal Keratitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary H. Ritchie; John E. Oakes; Robert N. Lausch

    Purpose. To investigate whether passive transfer of antibodies to viral glycoproteins would protect against herpes simplex virus type 2-induced stromal keratitis. Methods. Balb\\/c mice were infected on the scarified cornea with herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively), and monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies were adminis- tered intraperitoneally 24 hr later. Eyes were monitored for corneal opacity.

  15. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/?L, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following the first episode was 10 days (range 3 to 14 days, n?=?13). The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following a subsequent meningitic episode was 9 days (range 7 days to indefinite period, n?=?9). No patient was reported to have seizures, neurological disability, or death in extended follow-up (mean follow-up 3.4 years). Recurrence of meningitic symptoms was not universal. PMID:23494382

  16. The equine herpes virus 4 thymidine kinase is a better suicide gene than the human herpes virus 1 thymidine kinase.

    PubMed

    Loubière, L; Tiraby, M; Cazaux, C; Brisson, E; Grisoni, M; Zhao-Emonet, J; Tiraby, G; Klatzmann, D

    1999-09-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase suicide gene (HSV1tk) together with ganciclovir (GCV) have been successfully used for in vivo treatment of various experimental tumors, and many clinical trials using this system have been launched. With the aim to improve this therapeutic system, we compared the potential efficacy of different herpes virus derived thymidine kinases (HSV1, varicella-zoster virus, equine herpes virus type-4 and Epstein-Barr virus) as suicide genes in association with the nucleoside analogs acyclovir, ganciclovir and bromovinyldeoxyur- idine. Using various murine and human cell lines expressing these viral tk, we show that HSV1- and EHV4tk are the more efficient suicide genes for the different nucleoside analogs tested. Moreover, EHV4tk expressing murine and human cells were three- to 12-fold more sensitive to GCV than HSV1tk expressing cells. This was correlated with the presence of five-fold higher amounts of the toxic triphosphated-GCV in EHV4- versus HSV1tk expressing cells. Altogether, these experiments underline the potential advantages of the EHV4tk as a suicide gene. PMID:10490775

  17. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital herpes lesions to ASP2151, a novel helicase-primase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Weinberg, Adriana; Chono, Koji; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus. To evaluate the anti-HSV activity of ASP2151, susceptibility testing was performed on viruses isolated from patients participating in a placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled proof-of-concept phase II study for recurrent genital herpes. A total of 156 HSV strains were isolated prior to the dosing of patients, and no preexisting variants with less susceptibility to ASP2151 or acyclovir (ACV) were detected. ASP2151 inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication with mean 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 0.043 and 0.069 ?M, whereas ACV exhibited mean EC(50)s of 2.1 and 3.2 ?M, respectively. Notably, the susceptibilities of HSV isolates to ASP2151 and ACV were not altered after dosing with the antiviral agents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASP2151 inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates more potently than ACV, and HSV resistant to this novel helicase-primase inhibitor as well as ACV may not easily emerge in short-term treatment for recurrent genital herpes patients. PMID:22526302

  18. Acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in children: reactivation of an undiagnosed latent neonatal herpes infection

    PubMed Central

    Grose, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is known to cause acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The availability of HSV-2 specific PCR tests for diagnostic analysis has greatly increased our ability to discriminate ARN caused by HSV-2 from ARN caused by either HSV-1 or VZV. Of great interest, HSV-2 appears to be the most common cause of viral ARN in children and adolescents. Although a few children with ARN are known to have had neonatally acquired herpes infection, most children lack a history of known herpes disease. Thus, the origin of the HSV-2 infection is a mystery. The hypothesis of this review is that HSV-2 ARN in children and adolescents may be the first sign of a previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic neonatal HSV-2 infection, which has reactivated several years later from latency in a cranial nerve and entered the retina. The review brings together 7 previously published ARN cases, plus one new case is added. Thus this review also expands the spectrum of complications from neonatal HSV-2 infection. PMID:22889540

  19. Assessment of metal concentrations in two Cyprinid fish species (Leuciscus cephalus and Tinca tinca) captured from Yeniça?a Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sayg?, Yasemin; Yi?it, Sibel Atasagun

    2012-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate certain major and toxic metal concentrations in muscle, gill and liver tissues of two Cyprinid species (Leuciscus cephalus, Tinca tinca). Generally liver and gill tissue exhibited higher metal concentrations than did muscle. The highest metal concentrations found in tench and chub muscle tissues were determined to be Al (59.01-108 mg kg(-1)), Zn (45.23-57.81 mg kg(-1)), Fe (9.23-16.03 mg kg(-1)) and Ba (3.50-2.69 mg kg(-1)) respectively. The level of metal accumulation is evaluated for potential risk to human health based on international standards. Zinc, lead and arsenic values of muscle tissues of the fishes were found to be above the allowed limits for human consumption. PMID:22526998

  20. Comparative genomic analyses of frog virus 3, type species of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Wendy G H; Barkman, Todd J; Gregory Chinchar, V; Essani, Karim

    2004-05-20

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species member of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae). To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the replication of FV3, including transcription of its highly methylated DNA genome, we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the FV3 genome. The FV3 genome is 105903 bp long excluding the terminal redundancy. The G + C content of FV3 genome is 55% and it encodes 98 nonoverlapping potential open reading frames (ORFs) containing 50-1293 amino acids. Eighty-four ORFs have significant homology to known proteins of other iridoviruses, whereas twelve of these unique FV3 proteins do not share homology to any known protein. A microsatellite containing a stretch of 34 tandemly repeated CA dinucleotide in a noncoding region was detected. To date, no such sequence has been reported in any animal virus. PMID:15165820

  1. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  2. Rapid Communication Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    , to protect against HSV-1 corneal infection. Immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 reduced viral replication in the cornea, prevented ocular disease and reduced latent infection by the HSV-1 strain. Therefore, this HSV-2 herpes due to HSV-1 infection. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Herpes simplex virus

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein B sorting in hippocampal neurons

    E-print Network

    Danglot, Lydia - Institut Jacques Monod, Université Paris 7

    ´rieure, 75005 Paris, France Received 8 April 2003 Accepted 2 July 2003 Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 how HSV-1 components are sorted in neurons is critical to elucidate the mechanisms of virus neurons. INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic and neuroinvasive human

  4. Defensive effects of a fucoidan from brown alga Undaria pinnatifida against herpes simplex virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoko Hayashi; Takahisa Nakano; Minoru Hashimoto; Kenji Kanekiyo; Toshimitsu Hayashi

    2008-01-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from an edible brown alga Undaria pinnatifida, was previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the in vitro replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 is a member of herpes viruses that cause infections ranging from trivial mucosal ulcers to life-threatening disorders in immunocompromised hosts. In the in vivo conditions, the replication

  5. Rapid Detection of Cutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus Infection with the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Cao; Xiao Xiao; Barbara Egbert; Teresa M. Darragh; T. S. Benedict Yen

    1989-01-01

    A simple and specific method for detecting herpes simplex virus infection in routinely processed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens is described. DNA is extracted from paraffin blocks, and subjected to DNA amplification with the polymerase chain reaction. After 40 rounds, an amplified band can be detected after agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. This band is specific for herpes simplex virus,

  6. Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in dried blood spots making a retrospective diagnosis possible

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewensohn-Fuchs Ilona; Österwall Pia; Forsgren Marianne; Malm Gunilla

    2003-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in neonates are associated with life-threatening disease. Early diagnosis and treatment with antiviral therapy has decreased the morbidity, mortality and long-term sequelae in surviving children. The aim of the study was to investigate if herpes simplex virus DNA detection in dried blood spots on filter papers (Guthrie cards) sampled for screening of metabolic diseases

  7. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Koch; J. Reichling; J. Schneele; P. Schnitzler

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus

  8. Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

    2000-06-01

    Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

  9. Herpes zoster involving penis and scrotum: an unusual occurrence.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Abdul Rehman; Alvi, Kamran Yousaf; Chaudhary, Ammad Akram

    2015-03-01

    Herpes zoster is an infectious vesicular skin rash in a dermatomal distribution caused by Varicella zoster virus. It occurs very uncommonly in sacral dermatomes. We describe a case with rash on penis and scrotum due to involvement of S2 dermatome in a young male. The disease followed an uneventful course and the patient recovered completely without any sequelae or complications. This case is being presented to highlight its unusual location and to discuss differentiation from another viral infection commonly seen at this site. PMID:25772966

  10. Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation.

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-01-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population. PMID:19367259

  12. First episodes of genital herpes in a Swedish STD population: a study of epidemiology and transmission by the use of herpes simplex virus (HSV) typing and specific serology

    PubMed Central

    Lowhagen, G; Tunback, P; Andersson, K; Bergstrom, T; Johannisson, G

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV type 2 (HSV-2) in first episodes of genital herpes. To evaluate the use of HSV specific serology for classifying first episodes of genital herpes and for defining HSV serostatus in the patients' sexual partners. Methods: 108 consecutive patients with first episodes of genital herpes seen at three STD clinics in Sweden from 1995 to 1999 were included in the study. HSV culture and typing were performed and serum was tested for antibodies against a type common HSV antigen and a type specific HSV-2 antigen, glycoprotein G2 (gG2). A structured interview including questions about sexual behaviour and sexual partners was taken. "Steady" partners were offered a blood test for HSV serology and counselling. Results: Of 108 patients, 11 had a negative HSV culture. Of the 97 who were HSV culture positive, 44% (43/97) were typed as HSV-1 and 56% (54/97) as HSV-2. For 86 of these 97 patients, HSV serology from the initial visit was available. Of 52 primary infections, thus initially seronegative, 64% were HSV-1 infections and of 19 female primary infections 16 (84%) were HSV-1. In 17% the first episode of genital herpes corresponded to the first clinical recurrence of an infection acquired earlier in life. There was a significant correlation between having orogenital sex and being infected with HSV-1 and also a history of labial herpes in the partner. Only 20% of partners of patients with an HSV-2 infection had a history of genital herpes. Conclusions: Almost half of first episodes of genital herpes are caused by HSV-1. In young women with a primary genital infection, HSV-1 is much more frequent than HSV-2. Besides HSV typing, we found specific HSV serology of value for classifying first episodes and for diagnosing a subclinical HSV-2 infection in partners. Anamnestic data supported the suggestion that the orogenital route of transmission was common in genital HSV-1 infections. Key Words: genital herpes; herpes simplex virus PMID:10961194

  13. Ictal asystole secondary to suspected herpes simplex encephalitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a leading cause of sporadic encephalitis. While seizures are a common feature of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis, and periods of asystole have been reported in Herpes simplex virus patients, there have been no prior reports of ictal asystole secondary to such an infection. This case report describes a 33 year old, previously healthy, gentleman of Malaysian descent, with new onset seizures resulting in a twenty-one second period of ictal asystole. In hospital the patient developed focal neurological symptoms. A diagnosis of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis was made, although this diagnosis was not confirmed by lumbar puncture, magnetic resonance imaging or biopsy. Literature is reviewed regarding ictal asystole as well as clinical features and cardiac complications of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Given the link between ictal asystole and Herpes simplex virus encephalitis, cardiac monitoring would be recommended for Herpes simplex virus encephalitis patients having seizures. The use of anticonvulsants with cardiac side effects should be carefully considered. PMID:20069069

  14. Risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster infection: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2012-01-01

    Background: Whether the risk of cancer is increased among patients with herpes zoster is unclear. We investigated the risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster using a nationwide health registry in Taiwan. Methods: We identified 35 871 patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster during 2000–2008 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We analyzed the standardized incidence ratios for various types of cancer. Results: Among patients with herpes zoster, 895 cases of cancer were reported. Patients with herpes zoster were not at increased risk of cancer (standardized incidence ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.06). Among the subgroups stratified by sex, age and years of follow-up, there was also no increased risk of overall cancer. Interpretation: Herpes zoster is not associated with increased risk of cancer in the general population. These findings do not support extensive investigations for occult cancer or enhanced surveillance for cancer in patients with herpes zoster. PMID:22988158

  15. A divergent variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 is present in California

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses are a problem for grape production globally. Symptoms are caused by a number of distinct viral species. During a survey of Napa Valley vineyards (California, USA), we found evidence of a new variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3). We isolated its genome from a symptomatic greenhouse-raised plant and fully sequenced it. Findings In a maximum likelihood analysis of representative GLRaV-3 gene sequences, the isolate grouped most closely with a recently sequenced variant from South Africa and a partial sequence from New Zealand. These highly divergent GLRaV-3 variants have predicted proteins that are more than 10% divergent from other GLRaV-3 variants, and appear to be missing an open reading frame for the p6 protein. Conclusions This divergent GLRaV-3 phylogroup is already present in grape-growing regions worldwide and is capable of causing symptoms of leafroll disease without the p6 protein. PMID:23062082

  16. Inflammation-Induced Reactivation of the Ranavirus Frog Virus 3 in Asymptomatic Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jacques; Grayfer, Leon; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Ward, Brian; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Natural infections of ectothermic vertebrates by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae) are rapidly increasing, with an alarming expansion of RV tropism and resulting die-offs of numerous animal populations. Notably, infection studies of the amphibian Xenopus laevis with the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) have revealed that although the adult frog immune system is efficient at controlling RV infections, residual quiescent virus can be detected in mononuclear phagocytes of otherwise asymptomatic animals following the resolution of RV infections. It is noteworthy that macrophage-lineage cells are now believed to be a critical element in the RV infection strategy. In the present work, we report that inflammation induced by peritoneal injection of heat-killed bacteria in asymptomatic frogs one month after infection with FV3 resulted in viral reactivation including detectable viral DNA and viral gene expression in otherwise asymptomatic frogs. FV3 reactivation was most prominently detected in kidneys and in peritoneal HAM56+ mononuclear phagocytes. Notably, unlike adult frogs that typically clear primary FV3 infections, a proportion of the animals succumbed to the reactivated FV3 infection, indicating that previous exposure does not provide protection against subsequent reactivation in these animals. PMID:25390636

  17. Mapping of the 5' terminal nucleotides of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 sgRNAs.

    PubMed

    Maree, Hans J; Gardner, Helena F J; Freeborough, Michael-John; Burger, Johan T

    2010-08-01

    Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is a positive sense, single stranded RNA virus that has a detrimental effect on wine and table grapes worldwide. Previous studies have shown that GLRaV-3, like other closteroviruses produces subgenomic (sg) RNAs during replication and that these sgRNAs are deployed for the expression of the ORFs on the 3' half of the genome. In this study a dsRNA blot confirmed the presence of three, 3' co-terminal sgRNAs species [sgRNA(ORF3/4), sgRNA(ORF5) and sgRNA(ORF6)] in GLRaV-3-infected plant material when using a probe directed at the coat protein. The specific 5' terminal nucleotides for these sgRNAs as well as four additional sgRNAs [sgRNA(ORF7), sgRNA(ORF8), sgRNA(ORF9) and sgRNA(ORF10-12)] were determined by RLM-RACE for GLRaV-3 isolate GP18. PMID:20561952

  18. trans activation of an immediate-early frog virus 3 promoter by a virion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, D B; Granoff, A

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the protein and DNA sequence requirements for the expression of an immediate-early frog virus 3 (FV3) gene, infected-cell RNA (ICR) 169. We used a plasmid containing the 78 nucleotides 5' to the transcription start site of ICR-169 placed upstream from the coding sequence for the bacterial enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). This construction, when introduced by CaPO4-mediated transfection into various eucaryotic cell lines, promoted CAT synthesis only if the transfected cells were subsequently infected with FV3. Dot-blot hybridization of RNA extracted from transfected, FV3-infected cells with a radioactive CAT probe showed that the induction of CAT synthesis by FV3 was at the level of transcription. When transfected cells were infected with FV3 in the presence of cycloheximide, induction of CAT-specific RNA still occurred, demonstrating that a virion protein was responsible for the trans activation. FV3-induced CAT synthesis was inhibited by alpha-amanitin in wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells but not in CHO cells with an alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase II. The results suggest that a virion protein alters either the DNA template or the host polymerase to allow transcription from immediate-early FV3 promoters. Images PMID:3863966

  19. Cellular LITAF interacts with frog virus 3 75L protein and alters its subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Heather E; Ferreira Lacerda, Andressa; Desrochers, Guillaume; Metcalf, Julie; Angers, Annie; Brunetti, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Iridoviruses are a family of large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that are composed of 5 genera, including the Lymphocystivirus, Ranavirus, Megalocytivirus, Iridovirus, and Chloriridovirus genera. The frog virus 3 (FV3) 75L gene is a nonessential gene that is highly conserved throughout the members of the Ranavirus genus but is not found in other iridoviruses. FV3 75L shows high sequence similarity to a conserved domain found in the C terminus of LITAF, a small cellular protein with unknown function. Here we show that FV3 75L localizes to early endosomes, while LITAF localizes to late endosomes/lysosomes. Interestingly, when FV3 75L and LITAF are cotransfected into cells, LITAF can alter the subcellular localization of FV3 75L to late endosomes/lysosomes, where FV3 75L then colocalizes with LITAF. In addition, we demonstrated that virally produced 75L colocalizes with LITAF. We confirmed a physical interaction between LITAF and FV3 75L but found that this interaction was not mediated by two PPXY motifs in the N terminus of LITAF. Mutation of two PPXY motifs in LITAF did not affect the colocalization of LITAF and FV3 75L but did change the location of the two proteins from late endosomes/lysosomes to early endosomes. PMID:23097445

  20. Rapid Detection of Herpes Viruses for Clinical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish

    2013-01-01

    There are eight herpes viruses that infect humans, causing a wide range of diseases resulting in considerable morbidity and associated costs. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpes virus that causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. Approximately 1,000,000 new cases of shingles occur each year; post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) follows shingles in 100,000 to 200,000 people annually. PHN is characterized by debilitating, nearly unbearable pain for weeks, months, and even years. The onset of shingles is characterized by pain, followed by the zoster rash, leading to blisters and severe pain. The problem is that in the early stages, shingles can be difficult to diagnose; chickenpox in adults can be equally difficult to diagnose. As a result, both diseases can be misdiagnosed (false positive/negative). A molecular assay has been adapted for use in diagnosing VZV diseases. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is a non-invasive, rapid, sensitive, and highly specific method for VZV DNA detection. It provides unequivocal results and can effectively end misdiagnoses. This is an approximately two-hour assay that allows unequivocal diagnosis and rapid antiviral drug intervention. It has been demonstrated that rapid intervention can prevent full development of the disease, resulting in reduced likelihood of PHN. The technology was extended to shingles patients and demonstrated that VZV is shed in saliva and blood of all shingles patients. The amount of VZV in saliva parallels the medical outcome.

  1. Spectroscopic detection and identification of infected cells with herpes viruses.

    PubMed

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Karpasasa, Mark; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy were previously applied for the identification of various biological samples. In the present study, normal cells in culture and cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and FTIR microscopy. Specific spectral biomarkers for rapid and reliable monitoring and identification of infected cells and probably for the discrimination between these viruses were searched. The results show consistent spectral peaks in all examined normal uninfected human fibroblast cells both in MALDI-T0F and FTIR microscopy. In HSV-2- or VZV-infected cells, two unique peaks for each appeared at m/z 5397 and 5813 or at m/z 3501 and 4951, respectively, in MALDI-TOF spectra. In addition, several peaks that appeared in control uninfected cells at the region m/z 13,000-20,000 disappeared completely in all examined infected samples. When these infected cells were examined by FTIR microscopy, a band at 859 cm(-1) in control uninfected cells was significantly shifted to 854 cm(-1) in both HSV2- and VZV-infected cells. In addition, phosphate levels were considerably increased in all infected cells compared to normal uninfected cells. These parameters could be used as a basis for developing a spectral method for the detection and identification of cells infected with herpes viruses. PMID:18932269

  2. Unusual Initial Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus as Inguinal Lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Sarah A.; Strickler, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy.

  3. The molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, Michael P; Proença, João T; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurotropic herpesvirus that establishes latency within sensory neurones. Following primary infection, the virus replicates productively within mucosal epithelial cells and enters sensory neurones via nerve termini. The virus is then transported to neuronal cell bodies where latency can be established. Periodically, the virus can reactivate to resume its normal lytic cycle gene expression programme and result in the generation of new virus progeny that are transported axonally back to the periphery. The ability to establish lifelong latency within the host and to periodically reactivate to facilitate dissemination is central to the survival strategy of this virus. Although incompletely understood, this review will focus on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of latency that centre on the functions of the virus-encoded latency-associated transcripts (LATs), epigenetic regulation of the latent virus genome and the molecular events that precipitate reactivation. This review considers current knowledge and hypotheses relating to the mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and reactivation herpes simplex virus latency. PMID:22150699

  4. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hadigal, Satvik; Shukla, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms. PMID:23752649

  5. Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

  6. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  7. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  8. PARAMETERS DISTINGUISHING HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED TUMORIGENIC AND NONTUMORIGENIC RAT CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newly developed experimental model system was used to determine in vitro transformation-specific parameters which correlate with tumorigenicity. The data suggested that clonal herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syngeneic rat embryo cells with intermediate, transformed rat ...

  9. Disseminated herpes simplex infection during pregnancy, rare but important to recognise

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nawar Younis; Uriel, Alison; Mammen, Catherine; Bonington, Alec

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy is a rare, but potentially fatal condition. We present a case where prompt treatment with intravenous acyclovir resulted in a successful outcome for both mother and baby. PMID:25320695

  10. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  11. Effect of host plant tissue on the vector transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Wei; Bosco, Domenico; Daane, Kent M; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2011-10-01

    Many biotic and abiotic factors affect the transmission efficiency of vector-borne plant pathogens. Insect vector within-plant distribution and host tissue preference are known to affect pathogen acquisition and inoculation rates. In this study, we first investigated whether feeding tissue affects the transmission of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the effect of mealybug within-plant distribution on virus transmission under greenhouse conditions. Results showed no significant effect on transmission efficiency after insect confinement on leaf blades, petioles or stems of virus source or healthy test plants for either acquisition or inoculation trials. Transmission efficiency of a single mealybug varied from 4 to 25% in those trials. Second, we tested whether leaf position affected transmission efficiency due to potentially variable virus populations within acquisition plant tissues. No significant differences of transmission rate among acquisition leaf position were observed, probably because there were no differences in the virus population within source tissues. Finally, we examined the seasonality of the virus in field-collected samples and found that GLRaV-3 prevalence varied along a growing season, such that GLRaV-3 translocated along expanding shoots to leaves. Similarly, mealybug populations are known to increase in spring, and then mealybugs spread to cordons and leaves. This coordination of spatial and temporal dynamics of the virus and its vector may increase the risk of GLRaV-3 transmission during late spring and early summer. Further integration of information about pathogen populations in plants, vector feeding behavior and vector population seasonality could lead to more effective management practices. PMID:22066175

  12. Mouse hepatitis virus-3 induced prothrombinase (Fgl2) maps to proximal chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, S.T. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); [Montreal General Hospital (Canada); Clermont, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fung, Lai Sum [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others] [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); and others

    1995-09-01

    Infection with mouse hepatitis virus-3 (MHV-3), a member of the coronavirus family, leads to a strain-dependent spectrum of liver disease. Mice of the BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA strains are fully susceptible, exhibiting 100% mortality when infected with as little as 0.1 PFU of MHV-3, while A/J mice are resistant, as defined by complete survival and normal liver histology after infection with 2 X 10{sup 4} PFU. All of these strains are permissive for viral replication, suggesting that host immune factors, rather than viral cytopathology, are responsible for the observed difference in mortality. While the pathogenesis of MHV-3-induced liver disease is not fully understood, several lines of evidence indicate that local activation of the coagulation cascade prior to detectable viral replication plays an important role in liver cell injury. First, microscopy performed early in the infection of susceptible mice has shown sinusoidal thrombosis and foci of coagulation necrosis associated with varying degrees of inflammatory cell infiltration. Second, a correlation between disease severity and the induction of macrophage procoagulant activity (PCA) has been established, with susceptible mice developing an earlier and heightened PCA response relative to resistant strains. Finally, treatment of mice with a monoclonal antibody to MHV-3-induced PCA prevents the lethality associated with infection. Genetic linkage in the form of an identical strain distribution pattern was established between susceptibility to infection with MHV-3 and inducible macrophage PCA, using the set of AXB/BXA recombinant inbred strains derived from resistant (A/J) and susceptible (C57BL/6J) progenitors. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Prevalence of human herpes virus type 1 in epithelial skin cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Ypiranga; Aparecida Machado de Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: FUNDAMENTOS - O DNA viral pode atuar como oncogene, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de neo- plasias, como as linfoides e da pele. Entre esses vírus, encontram-se alguns herpes-vírus humanos. OBJETIVO - Identificar a presença de DNA do herpes-vírus humano tipo 1 em neoplasias epiteliais pré-malig- nas, malignas e pele normal de indivíduos controle, avaliando seu papel na carcinogênese. MÉTODOS -

  14. Invasive cyprinid fish in Europe originate from the single introduction of an admixed source population followed by a complex pattern of spread.

    PubMed

    Simon, Andrea; Britton, Robert; Gozlan, Rodolphe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hänfling, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential. PMID:21674031

  15. Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: interspecific homology of leuciscine cytotaxonomic marker-the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair as revealed by cross-species painting.

    PubMed

    Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Pereira, Carla Sofia; Collares-Pereira, Maria João; Pelikánová, Sárka

    2008-01-01

    Leuciscine cyprinids possess a nearly invariant diploid number (2n = 50) with an extremely uniform karyotype comprising of 8 pairs of metacentric, 13-15 pairs of submetacentric and 2-4 pairs of subtelocentric (st) to acrocentric (a) chromosomes. The largest pair is characteristically an st/a element-the 'leuciscine' cytotaxonomic marker. Previously, the interspecific homology of this chromosome pair could not be assessed owing to the inability to produce euchromatic or serial banding patterns. In the present study, we used laser-microdissection (15-20 copies of the marker chromosome) to construct a whole chromosome probe (WCP) from the marker chromosome of the roach Rutilus rutilus to ascertain the interspecific homology of marker chromosomes by cross-species in-situ hybridization. WCP was hybridized to chromosomes of widely distributed (Abramis brama, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Alburnus alburnus, Aspius aspius, Ballerus ballerus, B. sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Chondrostoma nasus, Leucaspius delineatus, Leuciscus leuciscus, L. idus, R. rutilus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Squalius cephalus, and Vimba vimba) and Iberian endemic species (Achondrostoma oligolepis, Iberochondrostoma almacai, I. lusitanicum, Pseudochondrostoma duriense, S. alburnoides and S. pyrenaicus). Cross-species in-situ hybridization to chromosomes of Phoxinus phoxinus, a representative of leuciscine sister lineage, showed the same pattern as in all of the leuciscins. The probe consistently hybridized to the distal part of the short arm of the marker chromosome, indicating sequence homology. PMID:18709543

  16. Effects of water quality and trophic status on helminth infections in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from three lakes in the Kashmir Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Zargar, U R; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmed, F; Bashir, H; Ahmed, F

    2012-03-01

    Water quality greatly influences the population density of aquatic biota, including parasites. In order to evaluate the relationship between fish parasites and water quality in Kashmir Himalayas, we assessed helminth parasite densities in Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 (an endemic cyprinid fish of Kashmir) from three lakes, namely Anchar, Manasbal and Dal, which reflected the varied stages of eutrophication. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was higher in the hypertrophic Anchar Lake (prevalence = 18.6%) compared to Manasbal Lake, which was the least eutrophied (prevalence = 6.4%). Furthermore, mean prevalence of monoxenous and heteroxenous parasites was higher in lakes containing higher levels of water degradation (Anchar and Dal). The mean number of helminth species per fish host was the highest in the hypertrophic lake (1.3 ± 0.3) in comparison to the least eutrophic lake (0.2 ± 1.5). Variability of calculated infection indices (prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance) revealed that helminth parasite composition in the fish was affected by the lakes' environmental stress (degraded water quality). Therefore, data on the density of helminth parasites in fish can provide supplementary information on the pollution status of a water body. PMID:21375793

  17. Low prevalence of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Found in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) collected from nine locations in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emily R; Anderson, Gregory B; Wooster, Gregory A; Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Casey, James W; Bain, Mark B; Bowser, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) is a viral disease of fish first detected in the United States in 1998. Since that time, mortality events in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) have occurred in several locations within the Great Lakes basin, but not within the Great Lakes themselves. We sampled 675 carp from 20 sites across the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, between 19 July and 26 September 2010. We tested the gill and a pooled internal organ sample from each fish for CyHV3 with the use of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Virus was detected in 18 fish from nine sites in four lakes (Lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Ontario). Tissues from these 18 fish were also tested for CyHV3 with the use of the PCR assay recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health; amplification was achieved from two fish and confirmation by sequencing of CyHV3 from one fish collected in Lake St. Clair. The results of this study suggest that CyHV3 is present in the Great Lakes. PMID:23060516

  18. Comparative analysis of differential gene expression in kidney tissues of moribund and surviving crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijuan; Podok, Patarida; Xie, Jun; Lu, Liqun

    2014-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) has recently been associated with high mortality of cultured crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in eastern China. In this study, we established a real-time PCR method to confirm viral infection of crucian carp and to quantify CyHV-2 particles obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation from diseased fish. Virus-free crucian carp were artificially infected with CyHV-2 using an injection method, which resulted in a dose-dependent death rate. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that there was extensive viral replication and lysis in the kidneys of moribund fish, in contrast to very limited replication in surviving fish. To probe the host immune response to viral infection at the level of gene expression, we identified virus-responsive genes using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in head kidney tissues, the principal immune organ of fish, from moribund and surviving crucian carps after viral challenge. From the moribund SSH library, 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 234 unigenes (including 15 singletons and 45 contigs). From the survivor SSH library, 599 ESTs was clustered to 549 unigenes (including 107 singletons and 105 contigs). We further analyzed the transcriptional levels of all immune-related genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which confirmed the upregulation of 90.48 % of these genes. The significantly upregulated immune-related genes identified in this study can serve as candidate marker genes for acute CyHV-2 infection. PMID:24585042

  19. Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

  20. Garra waensis, a new cyprinid fish (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Nan River Basin of the Chao Phraya River system, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lothongkham, Amornchai; Arbsuwan, Sakda; Musikasinthorn, Prachya

    2014-01-01

    A new cyprinid fish, Garra waensis, is described from the Wa River, a tributary of the Nan River of the Chao Phraya River system in northern Thailand. The species is distinguishable from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: the absence of barbels; 7 branched dorsal fin rays; 31-37 lateral-line scales; 10-12 circumpeduncular scales; a small and broad head (head length [HL] 22.7-26.1% in standard length, head depth 56.1-64.9% HL, head width 74.0-85.0 % HL); a weakly developed proboscis in front of nostrils; the presence of reddish-orange spots (white or dull yellowish white in preserved specimens) on the side of the body; and a dark mid-lateral stripe running from the upper edge of the gill opening to the caudal peduncle and expanding into a large anteriorly-pointed triangular blotch at the end of the body (in preserved condition). A vomero-palatine organ of the species is also described in detail for the first time for Asian species of Garra. The genus Placocheilus is treated as a junior synonym of Garra.  PMID:24869886

  1. Invasive Cyprinid Fish in Europe Originate from the Single Introduction of an Admixed Source Population Followed by a Complex Pattern of Spread

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Andrea; Britton, Robert; Gozlan, Rodolphe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Hänfling, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential. PMID:21674031

  2. Herpes Simplex Epithelial and Stromal Keratitis: An Epidemiologic Update

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Asim V.; Shukla, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of ocular diseases, including epithelial and stromal keratitis. HSV can cause stromal opacification and is believed to be the leading cause of infectious blindness in the developed world. An improved understanding of the global burden of HSV keratitis, including the incidence of severe vision loss, could have a significant effect on prevention and treatment and place it in perspective among causes of corneal ulceration. We found that the global incidence of HSV keratitis is roughly 1.5 million, including 40,000 new cases of severe monocular visual impairment or blindness each year. We also discuss relevant epidemiologic issues regarding HSV epithelial and stromal disease. PMID:22542912

  3. Recombination promoted by DNA viruses: phage ? to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Weller, Sandra K; Sawitzke, James A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  4. Herpes simplex virus and HIV-1: deciphering viral synergy.

    PubMed

    Van de Perre, Philippe; Segondy, Michel; Foulongne, Vincent; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Konate, Issouf; Huraux, Jean-Marie; Mayaud, Philippe; Nagot, Nicolas

    2008-08-01

    Recent proof-of-concept randomised controlled trials have shown a causal relation between herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 infection and HIV-1 replication in co-infected individuals. We explore the mechanisms that may operate to enhance reciprocal viral replication. Direct interactions could involve HIV-1-related immune deficiency, disruption of mucosal barrier by HSV infection/reactivation, HSV-induced mucosal cell recruitment, transactivation of HIV-1 replication by HSV proteins, and immune modulation by HSV decoys. Indirect interactions might coexist through disturbances of the vaginal flora during HSV shedding and systemic immune activation. In co-infected individuals, suppressive HSV treatment reduces HIV-1 genital and systemic excretion. This finding is a likely result of efficacious prevention of HSV2 reactivations, and perhaps of other herpesviruses. Strategies to control HSV2 and other herpesviruses deserve urgent attention and should become part of the HIV-1 prevention and care package. PMID:18652995

  5. New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus Mimicking Herpes Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Puoti, Gianfranco; Elefante, Andrea; Saracino, Dario; Capasso, Antonella; Cotrufo, Roberto; Anello, Clara Belluomo

    2013-01-01

    New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently defined clinical entity that describes patients who present with status epilepticus of unclear etiology that is highly refractory to therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NORSE usually discloses no specific abnormalities except for an occasional mild T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal of the mesial temporal lobe. Here, we report a peculiar case of NORSE in which brain MRI showed massive alteration of both temporal lobes, with features strongly supporting the diagnosis of herpes virus encephalitis, but lacking any laboratory evidence of viral infection in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. It showed also striking signal alterations in the thalamus, which got worse in the course of the disease. This report emphasizes the possibility that seizure activity alone plays a critical role in both determining the disease and whether it will be self-sustaining. PMID:24163672

  6. Disseminated herpesvirus infection. Association with primary genital herpes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Young, E J; Killam, A P; Greene, J F

    1976-06-21

    A patient with primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 genital infection had dissemination in the 37th week of her first pregnancy. This was manifested by severe hepatitis, pancreatitis, and genital lesions. Temporary improvement followed the delivery of a healthy infant by cesarean section. Encephalitis became evident on the third postpartum day, and recovery was complicated by profound bradycardia, possibly due to viral myocarditis. Vidarabine was administered for seven days, and the patient survived with only mild neurologic sequellae. To our knowledge, this the fourth reported case of disseminated herpesvirus infection in pregnancy and the first due to HSV type 2. Pregnancy must be considered as a possible predisposing factor in dissemination of primary HSV infection. PMID:178938

  7. Herpes simplex virus suppresses necroptosis in human cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyan; Omoto, Shinya; Harris, Philip A; Finger, Joshua N; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J; Kaiser, William J; Mocarski, Edward S

    2015-02-11

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 are significant human pathogens causing recurrent disease. During infection, HSV modulates cell death pathways using the large subunit (R1) of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) to suppress apoptosis by binding to and blocking caspase-8. Here, we demonstrate that HSV-1 and HSV-2 R1 proteins (ICP6 and ICP10, respectively) also prevent necroptosis in human cells by inhibiting the interaction between receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3, a key step in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis. We show that suppression of this cell death pathway requires an N-terminal RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) within R1, acting in concert with the caspase-8-binding domain, which unleashes necroptosis independent of RHIM function. Thus, necroptosis is a human host defense pathway against two important viral pathogens that naturally subvert multiple death pathways via a single evolutionarily conserved gene product. PMID:25674983

  8. In vitro activity of ketoconazole against herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Pottage, J C; Kessler, H A; Goodrich, J M; Chase, R; Benson, C A; Kapell, K; Levin, S

    1986-01-01

    The effects of ketoconazole alone and in combination with acyclovir and adenine arabinoside upon the replication of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) were investigated by using a yield reduction assay. Ketoconazole demonstrated antiviral activity against HSV-1 and -2 and synergistic antiviral activity when it was combined with acyclovir. Combinations of ketoconazole with adenine arabinoside resulted in either interference or indifference. The effects of ketoconazole upon the protein synthesis of HSV-2-infected cells were also determined in an effort to define the mechanism of action for the antiviral activity of ketoconazole. There was no reduction of HSV proteins when compared with acyclovir. These findings suggest that further investigations of the use of ketoconazole for the treatment of HSV infections are warranted. Images PMID:3021048

  9. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  10. Novel approaches in fighting herpes simplex virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah S; Fakioglu, Esra; Herold, Betsy C

    2009-01-01

    The development of novel strategies to eradicate herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a global public health priority. While acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues provide successful modalities for treatment and suppression, HSV remains highly prevalent worldwide and is a major cofactor fueling the HIV epidemic. HSV is the predominant cause of genital ulcerative disease, and neonatal and sporadic infectious encephalitis. Asymptomatic shedding, which occurs more frequently than previously appreciated, contributes to viral transmission. Acyclovir resistance may be problematic for immunocompromised patients and highlights the need for new safe and effective agents. Ideally, vaccines to prevent infection, drugs to inhibit the establishment of or reactivation from latency, or vaginal microbicides to prevent sexual and perinatal transmission are needed to control the epidemic. This review summarizes current therapeutic options and strategies in development. PMID:19485796

  11. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Kaech, Andres [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Lucas, Miriam S. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  12. Anti-HLA antibodies in pemphigoid gestationis (herpes gestationis).

    PubMed

    Shornick, J K; Jenkins, R E; Briggs, D C; Welsh, K I; Kelly, S E; Garvey, M P; Black, M M

    1993-09-01

    Pemphigoid gestationis (PG; herpes gestationis) is a rare autoimmune disease associated with pregnancy, currently defined by the presence of complement deposition along the cutaneous basement membrane zone. It is known to be associated with HLA-DR3 and DR4, and an increase in anti-HLA antibodies in those with a history of PG has been reported. We have studied 39 patients with an immunofluorescence-confirmed diagnosis of PG for the presence and specificity of anti-HLA antibodies. Anti-HLA antibodies were found in all 39 patients. Specificity was against class I antigens in 98% (controls 10%; P < 0.001) and class II antigens in 25% (controls 8.5%; P < 0.001). Almost all anti-HLA antibodies were cytotoxic. The universal presence of anti-HLA antibodies in PG suggests that they may develop coincidently with antibasement membrane antibodies, and may reflect a common immunological event. PMID:8286221

  13. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One “common denominator” among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic “symptomatic” and protective “asymptomatic” antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an “asymptomatic” epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from “naturally” protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine development. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss its current status, challenges, and prospects. PMID:25446827

  14. A case of herpes zoster uveitis with severe hyphema

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Uveitis sometimes causes hyphema, but severe hyphema as a complication following herpes zoster uveitis has rarely been reported. We report a rare case of zoster sine herpete with unusually severe hyphema. Case presentation A 41-year-old Japanese female developed hyphema filling almost one-half of the depth of the anterior chamber after a two-week history of unilateral anterior uveitis. Hyphema persisted for four weeks while sectorial iris atrophy became gradually apparent. Systemic prednisolone and valaciclovir resulted in prompt resolution of uveitis and hyphema. Serum anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG measured by enzyme immunoassay was 116 at presentation and decreased to 20.3 four month later. In addition, the antibody level in aqueous humor was almost 10-fold higher than that in serum examined 9 months after presentation. Because there was no skin lesion, this case was diagnosed as zoster sine herpete. The patient underwent cataract operation due to secondary cataract. The final visual acuity in decimal notation was 1.0, but complications such as severe iris atrophy, wide anterior synechiae, corneal opacity, and decrease in corneal endothelial cell count remained. Conclusion Zoster sine herpete is an important differential diagnosis in a case of acute anterior uveitis with severe hyphema, although such cases are quite rare. Measurement of anti-VZV IgG levels by enzyme immunoassay in aqueous humor and serum would be useful in the diagnosis of VZV reactivation. Prompt diagnosis and administration of corticosteroids and anti-herpes virus medication may improve the outcome. PMID:24885484

  15. The burden of disease of Herpes Zoster in Tuscany.

    PubMed

    Levi, Miriam; Bellini, Irene; Capecchi, Leonardo; Pieri, Luca; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Callaioli, Silvia; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Tiscione, Emilia; Bonanni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a disease caused by the reactivation of the latent ?-herpes virus varicella zoster virus (VZV), for which, in Italy, a specific surveillance system does not exist, but around 200?000 cases are estimated each year. In older patients, who are at increased risk of developing HZ, symptoms are more severe and the chances to develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the most severe complication, are substantially higher. A vaccine against HZ with demonstrated efficacy and an acceptable safety profile is now available and is recommended in Europe for adults >50 years.   In anticipation of the possible introduction of an immunization programme for the elderly in Tuscany, the burden of disease caused by HZ and its complications was assessed through a retrospective analysis of the hospital discharge records between 2002 and 2012, using the ICD-9-CM 053 code. In the period 2002-2012, 4475 hospital admissions were registered with annual means of 368 hospitalizations and 39 day-hospital admissions. Most of the hospitalizations (68%) involved subjects > 65 years; the mean length of stay was 9.5 days. Slightly more than half (51.2%) of total hospital admissions were complicated cases. The most frequent were neurological complications (24.2% of total admissions), followed by ophthalmic complications (16.5%). Cases with neurological complications were those with the higher average length of stay and higher average costs for case. This study confirmed the epidemiological impact of HZ and its complications and the positive impact on morbidity that the introduction of the HZ vaccination could have in older age groups. PMID:25483534

  16. Animal models of herpes simplex virus immunity and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Christina M; Huneke, Richard B; Wigdahl, Brian; Jennings, Stephen R

    2015-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous human pathogens represented by two distinct serotypes: herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1); and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). In the general population, adult seropositivity rates approach 90 % for HSV-1 and 20-25 % for HSV-2. These viruses cause significant morbidity, primarily as mucosal membrane lesions in the form of facial cold sores and genital ulcers, with much less common but more severe manifestations causing death from encephalitis. HSV infections in humans are difficult to study in many cases because many primary infections are asymptomatic. Moreover, the neurotropic properties of HSV make it much more difficult to study the immune mechanisms controlling reactivation of latent infection within the corresponding sensory ganglia and crossover into the central nervous system of infected humans. This is because samples from the nervous system can only be routinely obtained at the time of autopsy. Thus, animal models have been developed whose use has led to a better understanding of multiple aspects of HSV biology, molecular biology, pathogenesis, disease, and immunity. The course of HSV infection in a spectrum of animal models depends on important experimental parameters including animal species, age, and genotype; route of infection; and viral serotype, strain, and dose. This review summarizes the animal models most commonly used to study HSV pathogenesis and its establishment, maintenance, and reactivation from latency. It focuses particularly on the immune response to HSV during acute primary infection and the initial invasion of the ganglion with comparisons to the events governing maintenance of viral latency. PMID:25388226

  17. Detection of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus infections after vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, R; Mertz, G J; Corey, L

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-two volunteers seronegative for antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) were enrolled in a trial to determine tolerance and immunogenicity of an HSV-2 glycoprotein subunit vaccine. Vaccine was administered at days 0, 28, and 140, and sera were obtained on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 56, 140, 147, and 365 for determination of HSV neutralizing antibody activity and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Sera were also tested by immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled HSV-2-infected cell proteins and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to identify the viral proteins which elicited antibody responses in vaccine recipients. After vaccination two male volunteers presented with atypical first-episode genital herpes: patient 1 with a culture-negative genital lesion at day 53 and patient 3 with urethritis at day 68. Seroconversion to wild-type viral proteins not present in the vaccine was detectable by radioimmunoprecipitation-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis within 10 days in both patients. Two additional volunteers, one a sex contact of patient 1, seroconverted asymptomatically to nonvaccine proteins during the trial. All four vaccine breakthrough patients were indistinguishable from the other volunteers in the time required to develop neutralizing and ADCC antibodies, in the titer of these antibodies, and the time to seroconversion to gB and gD vaccine proteins. However, only one of the four breakthrough patients had antibodies to g80 (a complex of gC-2 and gE) after vaccination as compared with 15 of the other 18 volunteers (P = 0.05). Neither neutralizing antibody nor ADCC titers consistently identified acquisition of wild-type viral infection; therefore, protein-specific serologies were required to detect wild-type antibodies in these four patients. These data underscore the importance of using serologic assays which will distinguish naturally acquired infection from the immune response to vaccination. Images PMID:3806788

  18. Unilateral Inferior Altitudinal Hemianopsia, Argyll Robertson Pupil and Dendritic Keratitis in a Young Patient with Herpes Zoster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sammartino; R. Fusco; G. de Crecchio; A. Magli

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a young patient with herpes zoster and discuss the etiopathogenesis of the complications which included unilateral inferior altitudinal hemianopsia, Argyll Robertson pupil and dendritic keratitis.

  19. Evaluation of the in vitro skin permeation of antiviral drugs from penciclovir 1% cream and acyclovir 5% cream used to treat herpes simplex virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Hasler-Nguyen; Donald Shelton; Gilbert Ponard; Marlene Bader; Martina Schaffrik; Pascal Mallefet

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus infection (HSV) is a common and ubiquitous infection of the skin which causes mucocutaneous lesions called cold sores (herpes labialis) or fever blisters. It is estimated that approximately 80% of the population worldwide are carriers of the Herpes simplex virus, approximately 40% suffer from recurrent recurrent infections. This study evaluates the in vitro skin permeation and

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Antibody Detection Performance in Kisumu, Kenya, using the HerpeSelect ELISA, Kalon ELISA, Western Blot and Inhibition Testing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J.S.; Bailey, R.C.; Westreich, D.J.; Maclean, I.; Agot, K.; Ndinya-Achola, J.O.; Hogrefe, W.; AshleyMorrow, R.; Moses, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background In certain parts of Africa, type-specific HSV type-2 ELISAs may have limited specificity. To date, no study has been conducted to validate HerpeSelect and Kalon type-specific HSV-2 ELISAs using both the Western blot (WB) and Recombinant gG ELISA inhibition testing as reference standards. Methods A total of 120 HIV-seronegative men (aged 18-24 years) provided blood samples. HSV-2 IgG serum antibodies were detected using four different methods: i. HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA (n=120), ii. Kalon HSV-2 ELISA (n=120), iii. University of Washington WB (n=101), and iv. a recombinant inhibition test (n=93). Results HSV-2 seroprevalence differed significantly by HSV-2 detection method, ranging from 24.8% with the WB to 69.8% with the HerpeSelect ELISA. Using the WB as the reference standard, the HerpesSelect had the highest sensitivity for HSV-2 antibody detection (100%), yet lowest specificity (40%). Similar results were obtained using the inhibition test as the reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity of the Kalon test were 92% and 79%, respectively, versus the WB; and 80% and 82% versus the inhibition test. Using the inhibition test as the reference standard, the sensitivity of the WB appeared low (49%). Conclusions In HIV-seronegative men in western Kenya, the HerpeSelect and Kalon type-specific ELISAs had high sensitivities yet limited specificities using the WB as reference standard. Overall, the Kalon ELISA performed better than the HerpeSelect ELISA in these young men from Kisumu. Further understanding is needed for the interpretation of HSV-2 inhibition or ELISA test positive/WB seronegative results. Before HSV-2 seropositivity may be reliably reported in selected areas of Africa, performance studies of HSV-2 serological assays in individual geographical areas are recommended. Summary Using Western-blot as the reference standard, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 40%, respectively for HSV-2 HerpeSelect, and 92% and 79% for HSV-2 Kalon ELISA among men from Kisumu, Kenya. PMID:18955387

  1. Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile

    PubMed Central

    Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA on serum. PMID:25031577

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) inhabiting three rivers in Kochi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Hiroya; Yamasaki, Kenichi; Furusawa, Keiki; Tamura, Kazuki; Oguro, Kazuki; Kurihara, Sumire; Seki, Shingo; Oshima, Syun-ichirou; Imajoh, Masayuki

    2015-02-25

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes lethal disease in common and koi carp. Mortality by CyHV-3 disease has not been reported since 2011 in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Here, we detected and quantified CyHV-3 in common carp inhabiting three rivers in the prefecture to examine if the carp are carriers of CyHV-3 as a source of infection. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 16.7% (12/72) of brain samples in Kagami River, 3.9% (3/76) of brain and 3.9% (3/76) of gill samples in Monobe River, and 5.1% (4/79) of brain and 1.3% (1/79) of gill samples in Wajiki River. CyHV-3 genotypes identified in the 23 samples were classified as the J genotype A1 that has been found in Japan. The CyHV-3 DNA load did not differ statistically between sampling months, indicating that CyHV-3 has been silent in common carp, unlike Lake Biwa where the annual reactivation occurs in spring. Taken together, our results represented definitive evidence that seasonal changes in water temperature do not affect CyHV-3 activity in carp. Considering that infectious virus was not isolated from CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples, it was suggested that CyHV-3 establishes a latent infection in carp populations inhabiting Kagami River, Monobe River and Wajiki River. Further, the presence of circular or concatameric CyHV-3 DNA was detected in five of 23 CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples. Common carp inhabiting Lake Biwa were reported previously to harbor linear but not circular CyHV-3 DNA. This difference suggested that the CyHV-3 genome may be circularized for long-term maintenance without active viral replication. PMID:25554244

  3. Performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 EIA for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in seven African countries

    PubMed Central

    Mujugira, Andrew; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Celum, Connie; Lingappa, Jairam; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Fife, Kenneth H.; Heffron, Renee; De Bruyn, Guy; Homawoo, Brigitte; Karita, Etienne; Mugo, Nelly; Vwalika, Bellington; Baeten, Jared M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to the gold standard HSV-2 Western blot, among HIV-1 uninfected men and women in East and Southern Africa. Methods 3399 HIV-1 uninfected women and men from 7 countries in East and Southern Africa were tested for HSV-2 antibody using Focus HerpeSelect-2 EIA. The performance of the HerpesSelect-2 EIA was compared with the gold standard HSV-2 specific Western blot. Results Two-thirds (2294/3399) of participants were male and two-thirds (2242/3399) were from East Africa. By Western blot testing, HSV-2 prevalence was 68%, 59% in men and 85% in women. At the manufacturer’s recommended cut-off value of greater than 1.1, the HerpeSelect-2 EIA had a sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity 80.3%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot analysis indicated that the optimum cut-off was 2.1 or greater with sensitivity 93.9% and specificity 90.5%. Diagnostic accuracy was modestly higher for Southern Africa (AUC=0.979, 95% CI: 0.970-0.988) compared with East Africa (AUC=0.954, 95% CI: 0.942-0.965; p<0.001 for Southern vs. East Africa). Conclusions The Focus HerpeSelect-2 EIA has acceptable diagnostic accuracy for determination of HSV-2 serostatus in African HIV-1 uninfected adults. An assay cut-off value of 2.1 or greater results in approximately 90% sensitivity and specificity, against a gold standard HSV-2 Western blot. Diagnostic accuracy differed slightly by geographical region. PMID:21307152

  4. Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

  5. Penile herpes simplex virus type 1 infection presenting two and a half years after Jewish ritual circumcision of an infant.

    PubMed

    Yossepowitch, Orit; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz, Orna; Stein, Michal; Serour, Francis; Dan, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The association between Jewish ritual circumcision and genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection has been well described. We report a case of genital herpes that first presented at the age of 2½ years. We believe that the infection was acquired asymptomatically through direct orogenital suction performed during circumcision in the newborn period. PMID:23680909

  6. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  7. Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Anzivino; Daniela Fioriti; Monica Mischitelli; Anna Bellizzi; Valentina Barucca; Fernanda Chiarini; Valeria Pietropaolo

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus\\/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex

  8. Insights into pediatric herpes simplex encephalitis from a cohort of 21 children from the California Encephalitis Project, 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    To, Tu M; Soldatos, Ariane; Sheriff, Heather; Schmid, D Scott; Espinosa, Natasha; Cosentino, Giorgio; Preas, Christopher P; Glaser, Carol A

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-one children with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were identified in the California Encephalitis Project. Noteworthy features included 6 (29%) patients with an initial negative herpes simplex virus cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction test and 13 (59%) patients with extratemporal lobe involvement identified by neuroimaging. Eleven cases were <4 years of age, but all 4 fatal cases occurred in adolescents. PMID:24911898

  9. Intravenous Infusion of Cereport Increases Uptake and Efficacy of Acyclovir in Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Rat Brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORAH J. BIDANSET; LAURENT PLACIDI; RACHEL RYBAK; JOYCE PALMER; JEAN-PIERRE SOMMADOSSI; EARL R. KERN

    2001-01-01

    The outcome of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections manifesting as encephalitis in healthy or immuno- compromised individuals is generally very poor with mortality rates of about 8 to 28% with treatment. The long-term prognosis of survivors is often problematic, posing the need for alternative treatments that may decrease the mortality and morbidity associated with herpes encephalitis. This study addresses one

  10. No Increased Risk of Herpes Zoster Found in Cirrhotic Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between liver cirrhosis (LC) and herpes zoster has rarely been studied. We investigated the hypothesis that LC, known as an immunodeficiency disease, may increase the risk of herpes zoster using a national health insurance database in Taiwan. Materials and Methods The study cohort included cirrhotic patients between 1998 and 2005 (n?=?4667), and a ratio of 1?5 randomly sampled age- and gender-matched control patients (n?=?23,335). All subjects were followed up for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether or not they had developed herpes zoster. Cox proportional-hazard regressions were performed to evaluate 5-year herpes zoster-free survival rates. Results Of all patients, 523 patients developed herpes zoster during the 5-year follow-up period, among whom 82 were LC patients and 441 were in the comparison cohort. The adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of herpes zoster in patients with LC was not higher (AHR: 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.59–1.01, p?=?0.06) than that of the controls during the 5-year follow-up. No increased risk of herpes zoster was found in LC patients after stratification by age, gender, urbanization level, income, geographic region, and all comorbidities. Conclusions This large nationwide population-based cohort study suggests that there is no increased risk for herpes zoster among people who have LC compared to a matching population. PMID:24699628

  11. Herpes Simplex Testing in Neonates in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Jennifer L; Zorc, Joseph; Licht, Daniel; Hodinka, Richard L.; Shah, Samir S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of central nervous system (CNS) herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates evaluated in the emergency department (ED) and to identify factors associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. An existing testing paradigm was then applied to determine its potential impact on testing frequency. Methods This nested case-control study included infants 0-28 days of age that had lumbar puncture in the ED. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with CSF HSV PCR testing. Results CSF HSV PCR testing was performed in 266 (47%) of 570 neonates. The prevalence of CNS HSV infection was 0.5% compared with 1.6% for bacterial meningitis. Performance of CSF HSV PCR testing was not associated with known HSV risk factors. Application of a known HSV testing paradigm would have reduced the proportion of infants tested by 21% without missing any of the cases of CNS HSV infection. Conclusions HSV testing remains common despite the low prevalence of HSV infection. CSF HSV PCR testing is not well aligned with known risk factors. Future testing strategies should incorporate community HSV prevalence, known neonatal risk factors, and clinical judgment. PMID:23023459

  12. Testing of herpes simplex virus for resistance to antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas; Deinhardt, Stefanie; Zell, Roland; Wutzler, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral compounds. Several drugs on the basis of acyclovir (ACV), penciclovir (PCV) and foscarnet (FOS) have been approved. Resistant viral isolates can be observed especially in immunocompromised patients, who are treated with antivirals for long time intervals. That is why methods for analysis of HSV resistance to antiviral drugs have to be available in virological laboratories. We analyzed HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) isolates resistant to ACV for correlation between phenotypic and genotypic drug resistance using tetrazolium reduction assay as well as sequencing of thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (pol) genes. All strains were characterized as cross-resistant to PCV, brivudin and susceptible to cidofovir. In addition, three sequential isolates were resistant to FOS. Genotypic analysis revealed high polymorphism of TK among HSV-1 isolates and high polymorphism of DNA pol among both HSV-1- and 2 isolates. In nearly half of ACV-resistant strains, nucleotide insertions and deletions, responsible for a frameshift and the synthesis of a non-functional TK could be related to resistance. In the remaining strains, there were non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions which were not known as part of gene polymorphism. In conclusion, for reliable interpretation of genotypic resistance, a database of non-synonymous mutations has to be established. PMID:21178503

  13. Drug-resistant herpes simplex virus in HIV infected patients.

    PubMed

    Lolis, Margarita S; González, Lenis; Cohen, Philip J; Schwartz, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) infection is a major source of morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, since reactivations - whether symptomatic or asymptomatic - are associated with increased HIV viral load and viral shedding. Acyclovir, valacyclovir and famcyclovir are indicated for the treatment of HSV2 in HIV patients. This class of drugs has been shown to enhance survival in HIV-infected individuals. However, with the emergence of drug-resistant strains of HSV2, the rates of resistance among HIV patients are almost ten-fold those in immunocompetent individuals, comparing 0.6% to 6%. These HSV2 infections tend to be more severe and to recur. More ominously, disease progression of HIV is promoted by concurrent infection with HSV2. Intravenous foscarnet and cidofovir may be used for acyclovir-resistant HSV; however, resistance to these drugs has been documented. Newer therapies such as the toll-like receptor agonist imiquimod and immunomodulating dipeptides offer promise for the treatment of HSV2 in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:19111144

  14. Chronic mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus infections.

    PubMed

    Wauters, Odile; Lebas, Eglantine; Nikkels, Arjen F

    2012-06-01

    Chronic herpes simplex virus (CHSV) and chronic varicella zoster virus (CVZV) are defined as atypical mucocutaneous wart-like and/or ulcerative HSV or VZV infections, persisting for at least 1 month. Both are commonly associated with HIV infection and may occasionally present with other types of immunosuppression. CHSV and CVZV occur despite the immune restoration effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV. The clinical polymorphism of CHSV and CVZV makes recognition difficult. Histology, immunohistology, PCR and viral culture all help to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment is frequently complicated by resistance to thymidine kinase (TK)-dependent antivirals, including acyclovir, valacyclovir and famciclovir. Viral culture remains an essential tool for antiviral drug susceptibility testing. Therapeutic alternatives include non-TK-dependent antivirals, such as foscarnet or cidofovir, which directly target viral DNA polymerase. With few exceptions, CHSV and CVZV infections do not constitute significant risk factors for disseminated cutaneous or systemic infection. This review compares the similarities of and differences between CHSV and CVZV infections. PMID:21056516

  15. Radioimmunoassay for herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    McGuirt, P.V.; Keller, P.M.; Elion, G.B.

    1982-01-30

    A sensitive RIA for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) has been developed. This assay is based on competition for the binding site of a rabbit antibody against purified HSV-1 TK, between a purified /sup 3/H-labeled HSV-1 TK and a sample containing an unknown amount of viral TK. The assay is capable of detecting 8 ng or more of the HSV enzyme. Purified HSV-1 TK denatured to <1% of its original kinase activity is as effective in binding to the antibody as is native HSV-1 TK. Viral TK is detectable at ranges of 150-460 ng/mg protein of cell extract from infected cells or cells transformed by HSV or HSV genetic material. HSV-2 TK appears highly cross-reactive, VZV TK is slightly less so, and the vaccinia TK shows little or no cross-reactivity. This RIA may serve as a tool for monitoring the expression of the HSV TK during an active herpes virus infection, a latent ganglionic infection, or in neoplastic cells which may have arisen by viral transformation.

  16. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  17. Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Danovich, R.M.; Frenkel, N.

    1988-08-01

    Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions. HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed.

  18. A mucosal vaccination approach for herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Tirabassi, Rebecca S; Ace, Christopher I; Levchenko, Tatyana; Torchilin, Vladimir P; Selin, Liisa K; Nie, Siwei; Guberski, Dennis L; Yang, Kejian

    2011-01-29

    An estimated 1 out of every 5 Americans is infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Efforts in developing a potent vaccine for HSV-2 have shown limited success. Here we describe a heterologous vaccination strategy for HSV-2 based on an intramuscular DNA prime followed by a liposome-encapsulated antigen boost delivered intranasally. Both portions of the vaccine express the immunogenic HSV-2 glycoprotein D. In female Balb/c mice, this heterologous immunisation regimen stimulated high titers of serum neutralising antibodies, a DNA priming dose dependent T helper type response, enhanced mucosal immune responses and potent protective immunity at the portal of entry for the virus: the vaginal cavity. A clear synergistic effect on immune responses and protection from infection was seen using this heterologous immunisation approach. Suboptimal DNA prime (0.5 ?g) followed by the liposome boost resulted in an 80% survival rate when mice were infected 2 weeks after immunisation. A higher dose of DNA priming (5 ?g) followed by the liposome boost resulted in sterilising immunity in 80% of mice. The vaccine induced durable protection in mice, demonstrated by a 60% survival rate when lethal infections were performed 20 weeks after the immunisation primed with 0.5 ?g of DNA vaccine. PMID:21134447

  19. A Mucosal Vaccination Approach for Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Rebecca S.; Ace, Christopher I.; Levchenko, Tatyana; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Selin, Liisa K.; Nie, Siwei; Guberski, Dennis L.; Yang, Kejian

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 1 out of every 5 Americans is infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Efforts in developing a potent vaccine for HSV-2 have shown limited success. Here we describe a heterologous vaccination strategy for HSV-2 based on an intramuscular DNA prime followed by a liposome-encapsulated antigen boost delivered intranasally. Both portions of the vaccine express the immunogenic HSV-2 glycoprotein D. In female Balb/c mice, this heterologous immunisation regimen stimulated high titers of serum neutralising antibodies, a DNA priming dose dependent T helper type response, enhanced mucosal immune responses and potent protective immunity at the portal of entry for the virus: the vaginal cavity. A clear synergistic effect on immune responses and protection from infection was seen using this heterologous immunisation approach. Suboptimal DNA prime (0.5 ?g) followed by the liposome boost resulted in an 80% survival rate when mice were infected 2 weeks after immunisation. A higher dose of DNA priming (5 ?g) followed by the liposome boost resulted in sterilising immunity in 80% of mice. The vaccine induced durable protection in mice, demonstrated by a 60% survival rate when lethal infections were performed 20 weeks after the immunization primed with 0.5?g of DNA vaccine. PMID:21134447

  20. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  1. Herpes simplex virus type 2: epidemiology and management options in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Paz-Bailey, G; Ramaswamy, M; Hawkes, S J; Geretti, A M

    2008-06-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) is highly prevalent worldwide and an increasingly important cause of genital ulcer disease (GUD). Continued HSV2 transmission is facilitated by the large number of undiagnosed cases, the frequency of atypical disease and the occurrence of asymptomatic shedding. The lack of easy, affordable diagnostic methods and specific antiviral treatment in countries with low and middle income is of great concern, given the ability of GUD to enhance HIV transmission and acquisition. With rising HSV2 prevalence contributing to an increase in the proportion of GUD attributed to genital herpes in high-HIV prevalence settings, a safe and effective HSV vaccine is urgently needed. Meanwhile, multifaceted interventions are required to improve recognition of genital herpes, to prevent its spread and also to prevent its potential to promote HIV transmission in developing countries. PMID:18644920

  2. Effect of progesterone on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sulovi?, V; Bujko, M

    1988-01-01

    This project involved an investigation into the effect of progesterone on the replication of Herpes simplex virus Type 2 in a Vero-cell culture. The first part of the experiment relates to preincubation of the cells with progesterone in the duration of 48 hours. After innoculation, replication of the virus was continued in the presence of progesterone. Samples for titration were taken 10, 21 and 32 hours after innoculation for the purpose of determining the single-cycle replication curve of Herpes simplex virus Type 2 in the presence of this hormone. An identical procedure was followed in the control part of the experiment though without using progesterone. The results thus obtained show that there is no significant difference in the production of infectious particles of Herpes simplex virus Type 2 in one cycle on making a comparison between different experimental conditions (presence and absence of progesterone). PMID:2834117

  3. Comparison between famciclovir and valacyclovir for acute pain in adult Japanese immunocompetent patients with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Ono, Fumitake; Yasumoto, Shinichiro; Furumura, Minao; Hamada, Takahiro; Ishii, Norito; Gyotoku, Takashi; Higuchi, Mitsunari; Inokuchi, Kenichiro; Jyo, Kazuo; Koga, Hideaki; Komai, Ayako; Maruta, Koji; Mashiko, Tami; Mihara, Tsukasa; Miyahara, Hiroko; Miyasato, Minoru; Muto, Koichiro; Nagase, Koichi; Nagata, Masakazu; Sakihama, Hideki; Tanahashi, Tomoko; Ueda, Atsuto; Yamakawa, Kyoko; Ohata, Chika; Dainichi, Teruki; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Famciclovir is a guanine analog antiviral drug used commonly for herpes zoster. Efficacy of famciclovir treatment has been reported to be comparable to valacyclovir treatment. Both of these medications reduce the time to complete cessation of zoster-associated pain including post-herpetic neuralgia, as compared to acyclovir. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open clinical trial in order to evaluate the extent of pain relief afforded by these two antiviral drugs during the acute disease phase of herpes zoster. The study group comprised 86 immunocompetent adult patients suffering from herpes zoster, who were treated with either famciclovir or valacyclovir for 7 days. Of these, 55 patients enrolled in this study within 72 h of the onset of the rash and 31 patients after 72 h of the onset. There was a significant reduction in acute herpes zoster pain with famciclovir on day 7 and at 2-3 weeks in both of these patient groups, while with valacyclovir, there was not significant reduction in pain on day 7. Of patients aged 50 years or older, there was a significantly earlier reduction in pain with famciclovir than with valacyclovir. In addition, a significant reduction in the number of patients with pain was observed as early as days 3-4 with famciclovir treatment as compared with valacyclovir treatment. We conclude that famciclovir was superior to valacyclovir in the relief of acute pain of herpes zoster. Accordingly, famciclovir is recommended for herpes zoster patients with moderate symptoms and a visual analog scale score of under 50 mm. PMID:22670895

  4. Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections in mothers and newborns in a havana maternity hospital.

    PubMed

    Festary, Aimée; Kourí, Vivian; Correa, Consuelo B; Verdasquera, Denis; Roig, Tania; Couret, Martha P

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus are associated with congenital or perinatal infection, causing potential damage to the newborn. OBJECTIVES Determine the prevalence of active or latent infection by cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus in a population of mothers, congenital infection by these agents in their infants, and association between prevalence of virus infection in mothers and in their newborns. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 in a population of 95 pregnant women admitted to the Dr Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital during the third trimester of pregnancy, and their infants (98). Patients were tested for antibodies specific to these viruses; vaginal swabs and urine from the women and serum and urine from the newborns were tested for viral genome. The Fisher exact test with 95% confidence interval was used for comparisons. RESULTS Of the women studied, 89.5% tested positive for cytomegalovirus and 83.2% for herpes simplex. Active infection from cytomegalovirus was detected in 16.7%, and from herpes simplex in 3.2%. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection was detected in 4.1% of newborns; no herpes simplex virus infection was found in this group. Two newborns of women with active cytomegalovirus infection were congenitally infected. CONCLUSIONS Serology demonstrated that most of the women were immune to both viruses. Active cytomegalovirus infections are common in this population, and newborns of women with active cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy are at increased risk of congenital infection. KEYWORDS Congenital infection, perinatal infection, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, pregnant women, newborns, Cuba. PMID:25725766

  5. Specific antibody production in herpes keratitis: intraocular inflammation and corneal neovascularisation as predicting factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Yves Robert; Anja Liekfeld; Sylvia Metzner; Sylvie Ranger-Rogez; Jean-Paul Adenis; François Denis; Christian Hartmann; Uwe Pleyer

    2006-01-01

    Purpose  The purpose of the study is to investigate whether analysis of specific antibody synthesis can aid the diagnosis of herpes\\u000a keratitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Aqueous humor was collected from 39 patients with presumed recurrent herpes keratitis, including 23 consulting for keratitis\\u000a and 16 patients scheduled for penetrating keratoplasty. Local antibody production was ascertained by analysis of paired aqueous\\u000a humor\\/serum samples, using a modified

  6. Comparison of ELISA with virus isolation for the diagnosis of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, I; Ashley, C R; Smith, K J; Harbour, J; Roome, A P; Darville, J M

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system which detects and simultaneously types herpes simplex virus antigens in clinical specimens from patients with genital herpes has been compared with standard tissue culture isolation. Although more sensitive than a similar method previously described and also more sensitive than electron microscopy and immunofluorescence, ELISA did not detect all the viruses isolated in tissue culture. Costs were comparable. The speed of obtaining the result together with knowledge of the type causing infection are useful when antiviral chemotherapy is envisaged and when considering the likelihood of recurrences. PMID:2987313

  7. Amitriptyline/Ketamine as therapy for neuropathic pruritus and pain secondary to herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John R; Davis, Mark D P

    2015-02-01

    Frequent causes of morbidity secondary to herpes zoster include acute pain, secondary infection, and postherpetic neuralgia. A less documented complication is pruritus, which can be either acute or postinfectious when it persists more than 3 months after the rash has healed. We discuss a case of severe, acute neuropathic pruritus and pain secondary to active herpes zoster that was unresponsive to standard medical therapy, including oral antihistamines, topical lidocaine, oral gabapentin, and local wound care. Modest control of the pruritus and pain was achieved with continued multimodal therapy and the addition of topical 2% amitriptyline/0.5% ketamine gel. PMID:25689805

  8. Preparation and immunogenicity of vaccine Ac NFU1 (S-) MRC towards the prevention of herpes genitalis.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, G R; Woodman, C B; Hartley, C E; Buchan, A; Fuller, A; Durham, J; Synnott, M; Clay, J C; Melling, J; Wiblin, C; Wilkins, J

    1982-01-01

    A subunit antigenoid vaccine, Ac NFU1 (S-) MRC, was used to prevent primary herpes genitalis in 60 subjects considered to be at risk of this infection. There was no evidence of serious local or general side effects. Neutralising antibody responses were detected in 59% and 90% of subjects receiving the low and high doses of vaccine respectively; immunoprecipitating antibody was detected at a lower frequency, namely in 23% and 43% of subjects receiving the low and high doses respectively. After a mean follow-up period of 18 months none of the vaccinated subjects contracted herpes genitalis after completing the vaccination course. Images PMID:6293640

  9. Herpes Genitalis in Patients Attending a Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David; Gutman, Mory; Hrytzay, Millie; McLachlin, Jeanette

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study of 210 patients attending a hospital-based sexually transmitted disease clinic, we documented the prevalence of genital herpes infection (GHI) and its association with gonococcal infection (GI). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from 58% of symptomatic patients and 0.5% of asymptomatic patients. The ratio of GI to GHI was 41:31 by clinical criteria. The laboratory-confirmed ratio was 41:18. These ratios are much higher than those normally used to estimate the caseload of GHI. PMID:21283317

  10. Herpes Zoster--Eye Complications: Rates and Trends

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter M.; St Sauver, Jennifer L.; Butterfield, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To provide population based data on the risk, types and outcomes of eye involvement in herpes zoster (HZ). Methods A cohort study based on medical record review of patients diagnosed with HZ between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2007. HZ was confirmed by typical rash and symptoms or laboratory testing and eye involvement was confirmed by ophthalmologists’ evaluation. Information was collected on all eye diagnoses, all HZ eye related visits, treatments, procedures and outcomes. Results Of the 2035 individuals with HZ in any dermatome, 184 patients (9.0%) had eye involvement. Mean age of the 184 was 62.6 with 5 cases in patients <21. Overall, 6.5% were immune suppressed at the time of the eye complications. The rate of increase of HZ eye involvement was 23% by decade from 1980 to 2007. Common eye complications were keratitis (76.2%), uveitis/iritis (46.6%) and conjunctivitis (35.4%). Recurrent keratitis and recurrent iritis/uveitis occurred in 6.9% and 7.4% respectively. Outcomes included six (3.3%) patients with new vision decrements to 20/200 or worse. Two individuals had successful corneal transplants. Another six (3.3%) individuals had lid ptosis that affected vision including one elderly woman with a permanent unilateral tarsorrhaphy. Severe HZ eye pain was reported to be directly responsible for one unsuccessful suicide attempt. No one developed ARN. A mean of 10.8 HZ eye visits per HZ patient with eye involvement were reported over a mean of 308 days. Conclusion Eye complications are common, result in significant health care utilization and in permanent vision decrement in about 6.6% of individuals with HZ eye involvement. Most health care utilization and long term adverse outcomes were in patients in whom administration of HZ prevention with the zoster vaccine would be possible. PMID:23664666

  11. Human herpes simplex viruses in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirk; Patel, Aneeta; Larin, Alexander; Hoperia, Victoria; Saji, Motoyasu; Bauer, Andrew; Yim, Kevin; Hemming, Val; Vasko, Vasyl

    2010-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that herpes viruses may have a role in thyroid neoplasia, we analysed thyroid tissues from patients with benign (44) and malignant (65) lesions for HSV1 and HSV2 DNA. Confirmatory studies included direct sequencing, analysis of viral gene expression, and activation of viral-inducible signalling pathways. Expression of viral entry receptor nectin-1 was examined in human samples and in cancer cell lines. In vitro experiments were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV. HSV DNA was detected in 43/109 (39.4%) examined samples. HSV capsid protein expression correlated with HSV DNA status. HSV-positive tumours were characterized by activation of virus-inducible signalling such as interferon-beta expression and nuclear NFkappaB expression. Lymphocyte infiltration and oncocytic cellular features were common in HSV-positive tumours. HSV1 was detected with the same frequency in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. HSV2 was significantly associated with papillary thyroid cancer and the presence of lymph node metastases. The expression of HSV entry receptor nectin-1 was increased in thyroid tumours compared to normal thyroid tissue and further increased in papillary thyroid cancer. Nectin-1 expression was detected in all examined thyroid cancer cell lines. Nectin-1 expression in cancer cells correlated with their susceptibility to HSV. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT or MAPK/ERK signalling did not affect the level of nectin-1 expression but decreased thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV. These findings showed that HSV is frequently detected in thyroid cancer. During tumour progression, thyroid cells acquire increased susceptibility to HSV due to increased expression of viral entry mediator nectin-1 and activation of mitogenic signalling in cancer cells. PMID:20455254

  12. Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

  13. Hypoxia Enhances the Replication of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Aghi, Manish K; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Rabkin, Samuel; Martuza, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia contributes to the resistance of tumors to conventional therapies. We hypothesized that their replication in hypoxic environments like brain or oral mucosa would make oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) such as G207 (which has undergone clinical trials) replicate to a greater extent in hypoxic tumors like glioblastoma. Hypoxic cultured U87 cells yielded 4% more wild-type HSV (P = 0.04) and 3.6-fold more G207 (P = 0.001) after 48 hours of infection when compared with normoxic cells. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed a fivefold hypoxia-induced U87 upregulation of GADD34 mRNA, a factor complementing the ?34.5 gene deletion in G207. The viral yield under conditions of hypoxia, as against normoxia, in GADD34 siRNA-treated U87 cells was 65% of that in control siRNA-treated cells. Treating subcutaneous U87 tumors in athymic mice with erythropoietin lowered the tumoral hypoxic fraction from 57.5 to 24.5%. Tumoral hypoxia dropped to 2.5% during 4 hours/day of hyperbaric chamber treatment. Each tumor-oxygenating maneuver reduced the G207 yield fourfold (P = 0.0001). Oncolytic HSV G207 exhibited enhanced replication in hypoxic environments, partly on account of increased GADD34 expression in hypoxic cells. The unique tropism of oncolytic HSVs for hypoxic environments contrasts with the hypoxia-mediated impairment of standard (radiation, chemotherapy) and other experimental therapies, and enhances HSV's appeal and efficacy in treating tumors like glioblastoma. PMID:18957963

  14. Comparative analysis of salivary zinc level in recurrent herpes labialis

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Jafari, Nasim; Attar, Ahmad Movahedian; Jafari, Shahram; Ataie, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recurrent Herpes Labialis (RHL) is one of most common infective vesiculoulcerative lesions. According to some studies administration of topical and/or systemic zinc compositions has been effective in treatment and prevention. This article aims to comparison of zinc level in healthy subjects and RHL patients in acute and convalescent phases. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective case – control study, carried on 80 individuals (40 normal and 40 RHL patients) mean age=34.5 and 34.4, respectively. Saliva samples were taken in patients in acute phase once and after healing of lesions in convalescent phase (averagely 21 days later) and in normal individuals. Salivary zinc level concentration was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer by dry digestion method. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS software by t-test (?=0.05). Results: Results showed that salivary zinc level in case group in acute and convalescent phases were 160.8 ngr/mland 205.7 ngr/ml respectivly and significant differences between them were existed (P <0.05). Also significant differences were existed between zinc concentration in healthy subjects and patient groups (in both phases) (P=.001 and .002 for acute and convalescent phases respectively). Conclusion: According to the results, zinc level is significantly lower in acute phase than in convalescent phase and significantly lower in both phases compared to healthy individuals,so determination of serum zinc level and prescribing zinc complement in low serum status has both treatmental and preventive effects in RHL patients. PMID:22363358

  15. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody. PMID:24100313

  16. Oral shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Wald, A; Ericsson, M; Krantz, E; Selke, S; Corey, L

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 reactivate preferentially in the oral and genital area, respectively. We aimed to define frequency and characteristics associated with oral shedding of HSV-2. Methods: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data of patients with documented HSV-2 infection and at least one oral viral culture obtained were selected from the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic database. Results: Of 1388 people meeting the entry criteria, 44 (3.2%) had HSV-2 isolated at least once from their mouths. In comparison with the 1344 people who did not have HSV-2 isolated from their mouth, participants with oral HSV-2 were more likely to be male (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.7), HIV positive (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.0), and homosexual (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2), and to have collected a larger number of oral specimens (median 32 v 4, p<0.001). Of the 58 days with oral HSV-2 isolation, 15 (25%) occurred during newly acquired HSV-2 infection, 12 (21%) during a recurrence with genital lesions, three (5%) during a recurrence with oral lesions, and three (5%) during a recurrence with oral and genital lesions; 25 (43%) occurred during asymptomatic shedding. Oral HSV-2 was found less frequently than oral HSV-1 (0.06% v 1%, p<0.001) in people with HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibody, and less frequently than genital HSV-2 (0.09% v 7%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Oral reactivation of HSV-2 as defined by viral isolation is uncommon and usually occurs in the setting of first episode of genital HSV-2 or during genital recurrence of HSV-2. PMID:15295123

  17. Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998–2004)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted. Methods This study was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD). Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0–053.9) during a 7-year period (1998–2004) were selected. Results A total of 23,584 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster in patients ? 30 years of age were identified during the study period. Annually there were 13.4 hospitalizations for herpes zoster per 100,000 population in patients ? 30 years of age. The rate increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ? 80 years of age (54.3 admissions per 100,000 population >80 years of age). The mean cost of a hospitalization for herpes zoster in adult patients was 3,720 €. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations for herpes zoster in patients ? 30 years of age in Spain was 12,731,954 €. Conclusion Herpes zoster imposes an important burden of hospitalizations and result in large cost expenses to the Spanish National Health System, especially in population older than 50 years of age PMID:19422687

  18. Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated with herpes virus infection; yet, they can also be observed in patients with skin tumors or acantholytic dermatoses. Cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection can coexist in association with other conditions such as acantholytic dermatoses, benign skin tumors, bullous disorders, hematologic malignancies, inflammatory dermatoses, and physical therapies. However, when a herpes virus infection is suspected based upon the discovery of epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis, but either the clinic presentation or lack of response to viral therapy or absence of confirmatory laboratory studies does not support the diagnosis of a viral infection, the possibility of a primary acantholytic dermatosis should be considered and additional lesional skin biopsies performed. Also, because hematoxylin and eosin staining is not the golden standard for confirmation of autoimmune bullous dermatoses, skin biopsies for direct immunofluorescence should be performed when a primary bullous dermatosis is suspected since the histopathology observed on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections can be misleading. PMID:25396080

  19. Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Dexter S.; Yu, Kwang; Sample, Robert C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Sinning, Allan [Department of Anatomy, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Henegar, Jeffrey [Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Norcross, Erin [Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Chinchar, V. Gregory, E-mail: vchinchar@microbio.umsmed.ed [Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Although previous work identified 12 complementation groups with possible roles in virus assembly, currently only one frog virus 3 protein, the major capsid protein (MCP), has been linked with virion formation. To identify other proteins required for assembly, we used an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to target 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, and showed that treatment resulted in marked reductions in 53R levels and a 60% drop in virus titers. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed knock down and showed that 53R was found primarily within viral assembly sites, whereas transmission electron microscopy detected fewer mature virions and, in some cells, dense granular bodies that may represent unencapsidated DNA-protein complexes. Treatment with a myristoylation inhibitor (2-hydroxymyristic acid) resulted in an 80% reduction in viral titers. Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation.

  20. The effects of caudal fin loss and regeneration on the swimming performance of three cyprinid fish species with different swimming capacities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2013-08-15

    In nature, the caudal fins of fish species are frequently lost to some extent by aggressive behaviour, predation and diseases. To test whether the swimming performance of fish with different swimming capacities would be differentially affected due to caudal fin loss and regeneration, we investigated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), swimming metabolic rate (M(O2)), tail beat frequency (f(TB)) and tail beat amplitude (A(TB)) after caudal fin loss and regeneration (20 days) in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species: the qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis; strong swimmer), the common carp (Cyprinus carpio; intermediate swimmer) and the goldfish (Carassius auratus; poor swimmer). The Ucrit values of the caudal-fin-lost qingbo, common carp and goldfish were 49, 32 and 35% significantly lower than those of the control groups, respectively. The maximum tail beat amplitude (A(TBmax)) (all three fishes), the maximum tail beat frequency (f(TBmax)) (only the common carp and the goldfish) and/or the active metabolic rate (M(O2active)) (only the common carp) of the caudal-fin-lost fish were significantly higher than those of the control groups. After 20 days of recovery, the caudal fins recovered to 41, 47 and 24% of those of the control groups for the qingbo, the common carp and the goldfish, respectively. However, the Ucrit values of the fin-regenerated qingbo, common carp and goldfish recovered to 86, 91 and 95% of those of the control group, respectively. The caudal-fin-regenerated qingbo and common carp showed a significantly higher A(TBmax) and f(TBmax), respectively, compared with those of the control groups. The qingbo had a higher f(TBmax) but a lower A(TBmax) than the common carp and the goldfish, which suggested that a strong swimmer may maintain swimming speed primarily by maintaining a greater f(TBmax), for which the caudal fin plays a more important role during swimming, than a poor swimmer. The M(O2active) of fish (common carp) with a redundant respiratory capacity could increase due to caudal fin loss to meet the increase in energy expenditure required by an increase in f(TBmax). In addition, the sustained swimming performance may not be the only selective pressure acting on caudal fin size in these three species, and the present caudal fin size may be a trade-off between sustain swimming performance and other factors (e.g. sexual selection, escape responses). PMID:23661776

  1. Effects of experimentally induced infections of goldfish Carassius auratus with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) at various water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-08-11

    In this study, we examined the influence of water temperature on the development of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus after experimentally induced infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2). In Expt 1, Ryukin goldfish were infected with CyHV-2 by intraperitoneal injection and maintained at 4 different water temperatures. Cumulative mortalities of the 15, 20, 25 and 30°C groups were 10, 90, 90 and 60%, respectively. Therefore, the temperature range of 20-25°C is considered highly permissive for HVHN. One of 6 surviving fish of the 15°C group died after a rapid temperature increase to 25°C at 30 d post infection. All 3 Edonishiki goldfish, co-reared with the surviving Ryukin in tanks where the water temperature was increased from 15 to 25°C, died. In Expt 2, Edonishiki goldfish were exposed to CyHV-2 by bath immersion at 13 or 24°C, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 0 and 87%, respectively, at 28 d post-exposure. No mortality of the surviving Edonishiki in the 13°C treatment was observed when the water temperature was increased to 24°C. In addition, in Expt 2, no mortality was observed in any Ranchu co-reared with CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki in the group where water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C, even after re-immersion challenge with CyHV-2. It is interesting to note that CyHV-2 DNA was detected in the kidneys of 4 of the 5 surviving Ranchu co-reared with the CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki group where the water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C. Therefore, it is likely that the surviving Edonishiki of the 13°C group were virus carriers. This study indicates that most fish infected with CyHV-2 at 13-15°C acquire resistance to HVHN, but as carriers they are able to infect naïve fish. PMID:25114043

  2. Implications for herpes simplex virus vaccine strategies based on antibodies produced to herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC immune evasion domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueh J. Chang; Ming Jiang; John M. Lubinski; Ryan D. King; Harvey M. Friedman

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) glycoprotein gC (gC-1) is an immune evasion molecule that inhibits complement activation by binding C3b. Three assays were used to assess whether IgG antibodies produced by HSV-1 infection in humans block the interaction between C3b and gC-1. In two assays human IgG had no effect, while in one assay IgG partially inhibited C3b binding,

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 That Exhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Sensitivity to (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)-2?Deoxyuridine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Docherty; Anthony T. Dobson; John J. Trimble; Beth Ann Jennings

    1991-01-01

    Summary A clinical isolate, designated 145, of herpes simplex virus (HSV) had type 1 characteristics as determined by monoclonal antibody immunofluorescence, heat stability of viral thymidine kinase (TK), BamHl restriction endonuclease pattern, and absence of the HSV-2-specifïc 38-kD protein. However, instead of being sensitive to E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2’-deoxyuridine (BVDU) like HSV-1, isolate 145 displayed a resistance pattern like HSV-2 to the drug

  4. Characterization of T cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) using a TNF-? ELISpot cytokine assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Schmid; M. L. Thieme; H. E. Gary Jr.; W. C. Reeves

    1997-01-01

    Summary.   We examined the suitability of a TNF-? cytokine ELISpot assay for assessing various aspects of the T cell response to herpes\\u000a simplex viruses. The number of T cells responding to HSV-1 or HSV-2 was measured by TNF-? ELISpot assay. The number of T cells\\u000a producing TNF-? in response to HSV-1 was high, ranging from 76 to 222 per 105.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins: Participation of Individual Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein Antigens in Immunocytolysis and Their Correlation with Previously Identified Glycopolypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Norrild, B.; Shore, S. L.; Nahmias, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    Tissue culture cells infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus express virus-specified glycoprotein antigens on the plasma membrane. Three of these have been previously identified and have been designated as Ag-11, Ag-8, and Ag-6. In the present study, immunoglobulins to each of the antigens were shown to be capable of mediating immunocytolysis in the presence of either complement (antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity [ADCC]). Two herpes simplex virus type 1 strains, VR-3 and F, reacted similarly in the ADCC test in the presence of immunoglobulins to Ag-11, Ag-8, and Ag-6 in both infected Chang liver cells and HEp-2 cells. Anti-Ag-6, however, produced a lower ADCC reaction in HEp-2 cells than in Chang liver cells, suggesting differences in the Ag-6 surface expression in, or release from, these cells. Chang liver and HEp-2 cells infected with the MP mutant strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 showed reduced ADCC in the presence of anti-Ag-11 and anti-Ag-8, but no reactivity at all with anti-Ag-6. Crossed immunoelectrophoretic analysis showed that MP-infected cell extracts contain Ag-11 and Ag-8, but lack Ag-6. Polypeptide analysis of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains F, VR-3, and MP showed that Ag-11 consists of the glycoproteins gA and gB, that Ag-8 consists of gD, and that Ag-6 consists of gC. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that either one of the glycoproteins (gC, gD, and a mixture of gA and gB) can function as a target for immunocytolysis and that the antibody preparation to gC (Ag-6) does not cross-react with any of the other glycoproteins. Images PMID:229263

  6. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Mañanes-González, Sara; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Cervilla, Jorge A; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2) there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3) herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention. PMID:25848282

  7. In vitro antiviral activity of a saponin from Anagallis arvensis, Primulaceae, against herpes simplex virus and poliovirus.

    PubMed

    Amoros, M; Fauconnier, B; Girre, R L

    1987-08-01

    The antiviral activity of a triterpene saponin isolated from Anagallis arvensis, Primulaceae, was studied in vitro against several viruses including herpes simplex type 1, adenovirus type 6, vaccinia, vesicular stomatitis and poliovirus. The drug was found to inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and poliovirus type 2 as shown by inhibition of cytopathic effect and reduction of virus production. The action was not due to a virucidal effect but might involve inhibition of virus-host cell attachment. Single cycle experiments indicated that saponin interfered with both early and late events of herpes virus replication. PMID:2825589

  8. Role for Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in the Immune Control of Recurrent Human Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Donaghy; Lidija Bosnjak; Andrew N. Harman; Valerie Marsden; Stephen K. Tyring; Tze-Chiang Meng; Anthony L. Cunningham

    2009-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are an important component of the innate immune response, producing large amounts of alpha interferon in response to viral stimulation in vitro. Under noninflammatory conditions, pDC are not found in the skin and are restricted in location to the blood and lymph nodes. Therefore, their role in mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  10. The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Roizman

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of

  11. The Application of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses to the Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samita S. Andreansky; Bin He; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; James Markert; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley

    1996-01-01

    Due to lack of effective therapy, primary brain tumors are the focus of intense investigation of novel experimental approaches that use vectors and recombinant viruses. Therapeutic approaches have been both indirect, whereby vectors are used, or direct to allow for direct cell killing by the introduced virus. Genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses are currently being evaluated as an experimental approach

  12. 1072. Delivery of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus to Infiltrative Brain Tumor Sites Via Neuronal Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler T. Voss; Kevin R. Bobbitt; Chaya Brodie; Evan Synder; Cathie G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Primary brain tumors, or Glioblastomas (GBMs), are devastating to each patient diagnosed due to the inability of current therapy to prolong survival. Thus, GBMs are prime candidates for trials of novel therapeutic modalities. One such novel therapy is oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (OHV). Oncolytic viral therapy (OV) has been explored as a potential therapy for many tumor types for many

  13. Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in atypical epithelial keratitis using polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriko Koizumi; Kohji Nishida; Wakako Adachi; Mamoru Tei; Yoichi Honma; Atsuyoshi Dota; Chie Sotozono; Norihiko Yokoi; Shuji Yamamoto; Shigeru Kinoshita

    1999-01-01

    AIMTo study herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in tears from patients with atypical epithelial keratitis of unknown aetiology.METHODSTear samples were collected from 17 affected eyes of 17 consecutive patients suffering from epithelial keratitis in whom HSV keratitis was suspected but whose diagnosis was difficult on the basis of clinical manifestations alone. Using reduced sensitivity polymerase chain reaction (PCR), tear samples

  14. Herpes simplex virus type 1 reactivation and antiviral therapy in patients with acute peripheral facial palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasushi Furuta; Fumio Ohtani; Eiji Chida; Yasushi Mesuda; Satoshi Fukuda; Yukio Inuyama

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies provide compelling data for the hypothesis that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic peripheral facial palsy (Bell's palsy). The present study analyzed the severity of facial palsy in patients with HSV-1 reactivation and sought to determine the efficacy of acyclovir–prednisone therapy for these patients. Materials and methods: In total, 176

  15. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: molecular association with HIV and novel microbicides to prevent disease.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-04-01

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses is one of the most ancient diseases described to affect humans. Infection with these viruses produces vexing effects to the host, which frequently recur. Infection with herpes simplex viruses is lifelong, and currently there is no vaccine or drug to prevent or cure infection. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection varies significantly depending on the geographical region and nears 20 % worldwide. Importantly, HSV-2 is the first cause of genital ulcers in the planet. HSV-2 affects approximately 500 million people around the globe and significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as its shedding. Thus, controlling HSV-2 infection and spread is of public health concern. Here, we review the diseases produced by herpes simplex viruses, the factors that modulate HSV-2 infection, the relationship between HSV-2 and HIV and novel therapeutic and prophylactic microbicides/antivirals under development to prevent infection and pathological outcomes produced by this virus. We also review mutations associated with HSV-2 resistance to common antivirals. PMID:25209142

  16. Herpes Zoster Induced Osteomyelitis in the Immunocompromised Patients: A 10-year Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Reza; Dehghani Nazhvani, Ali; Vahedi, Amir; Gholami, Mehdi; Zare, Raziyeh; Etemadi Parsa, Raha

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Alveolar bone necrosis induced by Herpes zoster infection is considered as a rare manifestation of osteomyelitis and few case reports are presented in the literature. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate mandibular osteomyelitis caused by herpes zoster in the immunocompromised patients with histopathologically documented osteomyelitis in the mandible and herpes zoster infection. Materials and Method: 30 patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. 19 patients were completely edentulous, 4 patients were partially edentulous and 7 with complete dentition. In all cases, specimens were analyzed using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for varicella zoster virus.  Results: 16 patients underwent dialysis, 9 patients received chemotherapy treatments and 5 patients had transplantation (four kidneys and one liver). Histopathological assessment demonstrated a nonspecific bone necrosis exhibiting an eosinophilic, homogeneous non-vital bone tissue with peripheral resorption surrounded by reactive connective tissue. PCR test was positive in 21 cases. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the frequency of osteomyelitis induced by herpes zoster could be more than the records provided by previous studies. Histopathological findings might be nonspecific in such patients. PCR test was not positive for all HZ induced osteomyelitis patients. PMID:25191659

  17. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Paolo Sanna; R. Anthony Williamson; Alessandro de Logu; Floyd E. Bloom; Dennis R. Burton

    1995-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus Dances with Amyloid Precursor Protein while Exiting the Cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Bin Cheng; Paulette Ferland; Paul Webster; Elaine L. Bearer; Thomas Schulz

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1) replicates in epithelial cells and secondarily enters local sensory neuronal processes, traveling retrograde to the neuronal nucleus to enter latency. Upon reawakening newly synthesized viral particles travel anterograde back to the epithelial cells of the lip, causing the recurrent cold sore. HSV1 co-purifies with amyloid precursor protein (APP), a cellular transmembrane glycoprotein and receptor for

  19. Tromantadine: inhibitor of early and late events in herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, K S; Sokol, M S; Ingram, R L; Subramanian, R; Fort, R C

    1982-01-01

    Unlike amantadine (1-adamantanamine), tromantadine (N-1-adamantyl-N-[2-(dimethyl amino)ethoxy]acetamide hydrochloride) inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 (KOS strain)-induced cytopathic effect and virus replication with limited toxicity to the cells. Vero and HEp-2 cells tolerated up to 2 mg of tromantadine per 2 X 10(6) cells for 24-, 48-, or 96-h incubation periods with little change in cell morphology. Treatment of the cells with 10 to 50 micrograms of tromantadine reduced herpes simplex virus-induced cytopathic effect. Treatment with 100 to 500 micrograms of tromantadine inhibited herpes simplex virus-induced cytopathic effect and reduced virus production. Complete inhibition of virus production was observed with treatments of 500 micrograms to 1 mg. The antiherpetic activity of tromantadine was dependent upon the viral inoculum size and the time of addition of the compound with respect to infection. Virion synthesis and viral polypeptide synthesis were inhibited by addition of tromantadine at the time of infection or 4 h postinfection. The results are consistent with tromantadine inhibition of an early event in herpes simplex virus infection, before macromolecular synthesis, and a late event, such as assembly or release of virus. Images PMID:6297383

  20. Herpes simplex virus 2 : a boon to develop other sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shimpi; Devi, Pushpa; Devi, Bimla

    2013-04-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Though, mostly asymptomatic, it acts as a potential risk factor for acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study was undertaken to know sero-prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), syphilis and HIV among STI clinic attendees and to detect the diagnostic utility of HSV2 IgM antibodies. The study group included 170 individuals attending STI clinic irrespective of their presenting complaints. Their sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of HSV2 IgM antibodies. The samples were also screened for HIV and syphilis. Twenty-seven (15.88%) out of 170 persons were found to be seropositive for HSV2 IgM antibodies. Syphilis was detected in 13 individuals (7.65%). Twelve individuals (7.06%) were found to be reactive for anti HIV I antibodies. Ten of the genital herpes patients (37.04%), did not have any complaint of genital ulcer. Eight HSV2 patients (29.63%) had coinfection with HIV I, 6 (22.22%) with syphilis and 2 (07.41%) had co-infection with both HIV and syphilis. A significant proportion of the patients with genital herpes presented without the history of genital ulcers. Thus, its detection and treatment among asymptomatic patients is significant so as to reduce its transmission and other STIs. PMID:24475553

  1. Genetic and Molecular In Vivo Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus Assembly in Murine Visual System Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer H. LaVail; Andrew N. Tauscher; James W. Hicks; Ons Harrabi; Gregory T. Melroe; David M. Knipe

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infects both epithelial cells and neuronal cells of the human host. Although HSV assembly has been studied extensively for cultured epithelial and neuronal cells, cultured neurons are bio- chemically, physiologically, and anatomically significantly different than mature neurons in vivo. Therefore, it is imperative that viral maturation and assembly be studied in vivo. To study viral assembly

  2. Intraoral herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandro; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-10-01

    We report a challenging case of an atypical presentation of recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Oral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present with unusual clinical features that can mimic non-infectious diseases. This report discusses the diagnostic steps necessary for definitive diagnosis and to guide appropriate and effective management. PMID:23933299

  3. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  4. Clinical Inquiry: How well do antivirals shorten genital herpes pain duration?

    PubMed

    Yip, Stephen T; Liu, Robyn; Warrington, Thomas; Webb, Charles W; Hamilton, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Oral and intravenous (IV) acyclovir each shorten the duration of pain for a first primary outbreak of herpes by about 50%; topical acyclovir shortens it by about 25%. Oral valacyclovir and famcyclovir are equivalent to oral acyclovir. Adding topical acyclovir to oral acyclovir doesn't produce additional benefit. PMID:25789347

  5. Microscopic Examination of the Intracellular Fate of Infectious Herpes Simplex Virus DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine Marciano-Cabral; Guy A. Cabral; Martha Miller Taylor; Morris Patterson; Florence E. Farber

    1981-01-01

    Summary The intracellular fate of 3H-labeled exogenous herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA following the exposure of recipient cells to selected DNA facilitators and the ultrastructural changes which ensued in transfected cultures were examined. In most cases, electron microscopic radioautography demonstrated that exogenous DNA reached the nucleus within 1 h postinoculation. At later time periods, enlargement of nuclei and margination

  6. The Role of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase in Pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Efstathiou; S. Kemp; G. Darby; A. C. Minson

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY A genetically engineered herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinase (TK) deletion mutant has been constructed and used to investigate the role of this gene in pathogenesis. Inoculation of mice with the HSV TK deletion mutant resulted in the establishment of latent ganglionic infection as demonstrated by superinfection of explanted ganglia with wild-type (wt) virus bat not by

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus Nucleocapsids Mature to Progeny Virions by an Envelopment   Deenvelopment   Reenvelopment Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Skepper; A. Whiteley; H. Browne; A. Minson

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) nucleocapsids acquire an envelope by budding through the inner nuclear membrane, but it is uncertain whether this envelope is retained during virus maturation and egress or whether mature progeny virions are derived by deenvelopment at the outer nuclear membrane followed by reenvelop- ment in a cytoplasmic compartment. To resolve this issue, we used immunogold electron microscopy

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus Type1 Infection of Corneal Epithelial Cells Induces Apoptosis of the Underlying Keratocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN E. WILSON; LIA PEDROZA; ROGER BEUERMAN; JAMES M. HILL

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether primary corneal infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 induces keratocyte apoptosis in the rabbit. New Zealand white rabbit eyes were inoculated with HSV-1 strain 17 Syn+. Rabbits that developed slit lamp signs of epithelial infection were killed between 12 and 120 hr post infection. One cornea of each animal was fresh-frozen

  9. Enhanced Thrombin Generation and Platelet Binding on Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Endothelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten R. Visser; Paula B. Tracy; Gregory M. Vercellotti; Jesse L. Goodman; James G. White; Harry S. Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions have been reported to contain herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genomic material. This, and other previous evidence, suggests that latent viral infection may be an atherogenic trigger. Moreover, active HSV-1 lesions manifest marked fibrin deposition in microvessels. In this report we show that very early infection of human endothelial cells with HSV-1 appears to alter surface conformation as

  10. The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency-Associated Transcript Gene Regulates the Establishment of Latency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD L. THOMPSON; N. M. SAWTELL

    1997-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 establishes latent infections in sensory neurons. During latency only one locus, the latency-associated transcript (LAT), is abundantly transcribed. Several lines of evidence suggest that this locus is required for the efficient reactivation from latency in experimental models. However, it is not yet clear whether this is a direct effect on the reactivation process per se

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Is a Portal of Cellular Entry for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Kaner; Andrew Baird; Alka Mansukhani; Claudio Basilico; Barbara D. Summers; Robert Z. Florkiewicz; David P. Hajjar

    1990-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous pathogen responsible for considerable morbidity in the general population. The results presented herein establish the basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor as a means of entry of HSVI into vertebrate ceils. Inhibitors of basic FGF binding to its receptor and competitive polypeptide antagonists of basic FGF prevented HSV-1 uptake. Chinese hamster

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Inhibits Apoptosis through the Action of Two Genes, Us5 and Us3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KEITH R. JEROME; RICHARD FOX; ZHENG CHEN; AMY E. SEARS; HYUNG-YUL LEE; LAWRENCE COREY

    1999-01-01

    Apoptosis of virus-infected cells occurs either as a direct response to viral infection or upon recognition of infection by the host immune response. Apoptosis reduces production of new virus from these cells, and therefore viruses have evolved inhibitory mechanisms. We previously showed that laboratory strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) protect infected cells from apoptosis induced by cytotoxic

  13. Lactoferrin inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV1) infection to mouse cornea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Fujihara; K. Hayashi

    1995-01-01

    Summary Lactoferrin inhibits bacterial growth in the conjunctival sac. However, its antiviral function particularly in ocular tissue has not been reported in the literature. We studied whether lactoferrin inhibits infection of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) in vitro using Vero cell monolayer. We also tested the inhibitory effect of lactoferrin on HSV-1 infection in the mouse cornea. Lactoferrin prevented HSV-1

  14. Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

  15. Herpes simplex virus 1 interaction with Toll-like receptor 2 contributes to lethal encephalitis

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) develop one of three distinct patterns of infection: (i) infection limited sepsis. This spectrum of symptoms in HSV-1-infected neonates suggests that inflammatory cytokines play to HSV-1 by using both transfected cell lines and knock- out mice. Studies of infected mice revealed

  16. Identification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Kinase as the Product of Viral Gene US3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGARET C. FRAME; FRANCES C. PURVES; DUNCAN J. McGEOCH; HOWARD S. MARSDEN; DAVID P. LEADER

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Previous work has shown that a novel protein kinase is induced after infection of cultured cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Separately, it has been reported that the protein encoded by HSV-1 gene US3 shows similarity in its amino acid sequence to members of the protein kinase family of eukaryotes. We have investigated the possibility that these

  17. Influence of herpes simplex virus infection on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, J.H.; Whitcomb, B.; Hall, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Current research in our laboratory is designed to investigate the intracellular interactions of BP with oncogenic DNA viruses of animals and humans. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether BP is metabolized in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected cells and whether HSV-2 infection affects intracellular levels of the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system necessary for BP metabolism.

  18. Noninvasive Bioluminescence Imaging of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection and Therapy in Living Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Luker; J. Patrick Bardill; Julie L. Prior; Christina M. Pica; David Piwnica-Worms; David A. Leib

    2002-01-01

    Mouse models of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provide significant insights into viral and host genes that regulate disease pathogenesis, but conventional methods to determine the full extent of viral spread and replication typically require the sacrifice of infected animals. To develop a noninvasive method for detecting HSV-1 in living mice, we used a strain KOS HSV-1 recombinant

  19. Induction and Prevention of Apoptosis in Human HEp2 Cells by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTINE AUBERT; JOHN A. BLAHO; Mount Sinai

    1999-01-01

    Cultured human epithelial cells infected with an ICP27 deletion strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) show characteristic features of apoptotic cells including cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation. These cells do not show such apoptotic features when infected with a wild-type virus unless the infections are performed in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor. Thus, both

  20. Safety and Effectiveness of a Lysine based ointment for facial and circum oral Herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betsy B. Singh; Jay Udani; Sivarama Prasad Vinjamury; Sonal Gandhi; Raheleh Khorsan; Dinesh Nanjegowda; Vijay Singh

    Lysine, a six carbon essential amino acid acts on the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) by inhibiting the replication of the virus and thereby shortening the duration of the disease. The SCU Research Division conducted an outcome study using a L-Lysine based cream along with sixteen other herbal ingredients. Thirty patients meeting the inclusion\\/exclusion criteria were recruited. The various outcome measures

  1. Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thaveechai Vachirayonstien; Duanthanorm Promkhatkaew; Malee Bunjob; Asawachai Chueyprom; Pranee Chavalittumrong; Pathom Sawanpanyalert

    2010-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C.

  2. Multimutated Herpes Simplex Virus G207 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Angiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jindrich Cinatl Jr; Martin Michaelis; Pablo Hernáiz Driever; Jaroslav Cinatl; Jan Hrabeta; Tatyana Suhan; Hans Wilhelm Doerr; Jens-Uwe Vogel

    2004-01-01

    The mode of the antitumoral activity of multimutated oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 G207 has not been fully elucidated yet. Because the antitumoral activity of many drugs involves the inhibition of tumor blood vessel formation, we determined if G207 had an influence on angiogenesis. Monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, but not

  3. Effectiveness of a procedure for disinfecting the vaginal photoplethysmograph contaminated with herpes simplex virus type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia J. Morokoff; Lin S. Myers; John Hay; Michael N. Flora

    1988-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of a disinfecting procedure involving 2% glutaraldehyde, a vaginal photoplethysmograph was contaminated with a known amount of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). The vaginal photoplethysmograph was then put through the disinfection procedure. Two virus solutions were tested, one designed to approximate the concentration found in a naturally occurring infection (low inoculum), the other with 100 times

  4. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Herpes Zoster: Results of a Global Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Paek; Robert Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ), the reactivation of varicella zoster virus, occurs in 1 in 5 people worldwide and may result in a variety of complications, including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Treatment of patients with HZ represents a considerable challenge, especially among the elderly who are prone to get a more severe form of the disease and its complications. Since May 2006,

  5. THE PERSISTENCE OF CHICKEN HERPES AND RETRO VIRAL CHIMERIC MOLECULES UPON IN VIVO PASSAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease virus, a herpes virus, and avian leucosis virus subgroup J, a retrovirus were used for experimental co-infection of chicks. Two consecutive trials were performed in attempt to evaluate the formation and persistence of chimeric molecules that would indicate retro-viral integration int...

  6. Immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine against herpes B virus in mice and rhesus macaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer E Loomis-Huff; R Eberle; Kristen M Lockridge; Gary Rhodes; Peter A Barry

    2001-01-01

    Herpes B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) is endemic in captive macaque populations and poses a serious threat to humans who work with macaques or their tissues. A vaccine that could prevent or limit B virus infection in macaques would lessen occupational risk. To that end, a DNA vaccine plasmid expressing the B virus glycoprotein B (gB) was constructed and tested

  7. Imbalanced Oxidative Stress Causes Chlamydial Persistence during Non-Productive Human Herpes Virus Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Bhupesh K.; Böhme, Linda; Bergmann, Birgit; Siegl, Christine; Krause, Eva; Mehlitz, Adrian; Rudel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Both human herpes viruses and Chlamydia are highly prevalent in the human population and are detected together in different human disorders. Here, we demonstrate that co-infection with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) interferes with the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and induces persistence. Induction of chlamydial persistence by HHV6 is independent of productive virus infection, but requires the interaction and uptake of the virus by the host cell. On the other hand, viral uptake is strongly promoted under co-infection conditions. Host cell glutathione reductase activity was suppressed by HHV6 causing NADPH accumulation, decreased formation of reduced glutathione and increased oxidative stress. Prevention of oxidative stress restored infectivity of Chlamydia after HHV6-induced persistence. We show that co-infection with Herpes simplex virus 1 or human Cytomegalovirus also induces chlamydial persistence by a similar mechanism suggesting that Chlamydia -human herpes virus co-infections are evolutionary shaped interactions with a thus far unrecognized broad significance. PMID:23077614

  8. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  9. Effect of Chemotherapy-Induced DNA Repair on Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viral Replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Aghi; Samuel Rabkin; Robert L. Martuza

    Background: Gliomas treated with the alkylating agent temo- zolomide have incomplete responses in part because of tumoral repair of chemotherapy-induced DNA damage. Data from phase I trials suggest that G207, an oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) with mutated ribonucleotide reductase (RR) and ? 34.5 genes, is safe but needs greater viral oncolysis to be effec- tive. We hypothesized that temozolomide

  10. Blood Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients Tom Van Herpe, Ph.D.,1,2

    E-print Network

    and scientific interest in the dysregulation of the normal glucose homeostasis has emerged only recently. Before22 Blood Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients Tom Van Herpe, Ph.D.,1,2 and Dieter) blood glucose, (Hct) hematocrit, (ICU) intensive care unit, (ISO) International Organization

  11. [Analysis on clinical features and treatment of herpes zoster patients hospitalized in real world].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling-Lian; Wang, Lian-Xin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhi-Xin; Zhuang, Yan; Zhang, Yun-Bi

    2014-09-01

    From the hospital information system (HIS) of 20 national grade III-A general hospitals, 2 960 cases of herpes zoster as the research object, analyzes the relations between the general information, syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), western medicine combined diseases, the relationship between the solar term and the incidence of herpes zoster, and the combined use of Chinese and western medicine. Among the patients with 46-65 year old has the highest percentage of diseased; admission to general outpatient clinic is the most; the most common medical payment is medicare; combined disease such as hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease is more common; early treatment effect of herpes zoster is better than the sequelae; summer and autumn solar term patients is hospitalized more, TCM syndrome is damp heat of liver fire; about drugs, western medicine is the most commonly used vitamin B1 and mecobalamin, traditional Chinese medicine is the most frequently used Danhong injection, combination therapy with promoting blood circulation drugs and neurotrophic drugs. Thus, herpes zoster, more common in elderly patients, with no obvious relationship between solar term, should be early diagnosis and early treatment, often with combination of Chinese traditional and western medicine treatment. PMID:25532379

  12. Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Induce Mucosal Immunity and Protection against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing He; Alaina Mitchell; Tulin Morcol; Steve J. D. Bell

    2002-01-01

    Previously we reported that calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CAP) represented a superior alternative to alum adjuvants in mice immunized with viral protein. Additionally, we showed that CAP was safe and elicited no detectable immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. In this study, we demonstrated that following mucosal delivery of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antigen with CAP, CAP adjuvant enhanced protective systemic

  13. Optimizing PCR Positivity Criterion for Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA on Skin and Mucosa?

    PubMed Central

    Magaret, Amalia S.; Wald, Anna; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Corey, Larry

    2007-01-01

    In 1997, we developed a PCR assay for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA. Recently, we determined an optimal positivity criterion based on research specimens and a dilution study. We found that a cutoff of 50 HSV DNA copies/ml of swab specimen, a level 10-fold lower than our previous cutoff, minimizes misclassification. PMID:17329447

  14. Inosiplex for Localized Herpes Zoster in Childhood Cancer Patients: Preliminary Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, S.; Hayes, F. A.; Chaudhary, S.; Ossi, M.

    1978-01-01

    By multiple criteria, inosiplex—a reputed stimulator of virus-sensitized lymphocytes—had no demonstrable therapeutic effects in a preliminary controlled study of patients with localized herpes zoster and cancer. Lymphocytes from the six drug-treated patients were no more responsive to varicella-zoster antigen and phytohemagglutinin than were lymphocytes from seven patients who received a placebo. PMID:81655

  15. Treatment of Spontaneously Arising Retinoblastoma Tumors in Transgenic Mice with an Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus Mutant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtis R Brandt; Pascal D Imesch; Nancy L Robinson; Nasreen A Syed; Seema Untawale; Soesiawati R Darjatmoko; Richard J Chappell; Paul Heinzelman; Daniel M Albert

    1997-01-01

    The use of viruses to treat tumors has received renewed interest with the availability of genetically defined attenuated mutants. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 in particular has been shown to be effective for tumors of neuronal origin. However, the model systems used for these studies rely on the use of explanted tumor cells in immunodeficient animals. We have used

  16. Journal of Virological Methods 90 (2000) 205212 Rapid diagnosis and quantification of herpes simplex virus

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chi-Hung

    Journal of Virological Methods 90 (2000) 205­212 Rapid diagnosis and quantification of herpes of Clinical Virology, Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Shih-Pai, 112 Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Received 10 May 2000 for HSV has thus become one of the most frequent tests conducted in clinical virology laboratories

  17. Herpes zoster and controlateral hemiplegia in an African patient infected with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A V; Ferro, J; Figueiredo, C; Costa, L; Campos, J; de Pádua, F

    1991-01-01

    One of the neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection are cerebrovascular accidents. In HIV infected patients, ischemic strokes have been reported secondary to nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis and cerebral arteritis. We describe an unusual cause of stroke in HIV-1 infection: Herpes Zoster ophtalmicus with contralateral hemiplegia. PMID:1867123

  18. Varicella and Herpes Zoster in Madrid, based on the Sentinel General Practitioner Network: 1997–2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Napoleón Pérez-Farinós; María Ordobás; Cristina García-Fernández; Luis García-Comas; Soledad Cañellas; Inmaculada Rodero; Ángeles Gutiérrez-Rodríguez; Juan García-Gutiérrez; Rosa Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Varicella (chickenpox) is the primary disease caused by varicella-zoster virus. It is extremely contagious and is frequent in children. Indeed, in the absence of vaccination, a high proportion of the population is liable to contract it. Herpes zoster -more frequent among adults- is caused by reactivation of the latent virus. The objective of this study is to describe the

  19. Disseminated Herpes Zoster Mimicking Rheumatoid Vasculitis in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient on Etanercept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tresch; R. M. Trüeb; J. Kamarachev; L. E. French; G. F. L. Hofbauer

    2009-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?)-blocking agents are immunomodulating agents introduced for treatment of a variety of chronic inflammatory disease conditions. Adverse effects include an increased incidence of infections. Clinically, these infections often have atypical presentations that may hamper prompt diagnosis. In our report of a patient on etanercept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, the correct diagnosis was delayed because disseminated herpes zoster

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency-Associated Transcript Gene Promotes Neuronal Survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Thompson; N. M. Sawtell

    2001-01-01

    A complex interaction has evolved between the host's peripheral nervous system (PNS) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Sensory neurons are permissive for viral replication, yet the virus can also enter a latent state in these cells. The interplay of viral and neuronal signals that regulate the switch between the viral lytic and latent states is not understood. The

  1. Bystander Killing of Cancer Cells by Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene is Mediated by Connexins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Mesnil; Colette Piccoli; Gerard Tiraby; Klaus Willecke; Hiroshi Yamasaki

    1996-01-01

    In gene therapy to treat cancer, typically only a fraction of the tumor cells can be successfully transfected with a gene. However, in the case of brain tumor therapy with the thymidine kinase gene from herpes simplex virus (HSV-tk), not only the cells transfected with the gene but also neighboring others can be killed in the presence of ganciclovir. Such

  2. Epidemiology of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in Germany: what has changed?

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, S; Geers, M; Gross, G; Schöfer, H; Rabenau, H F; Doerr, H W

    2003-08-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are widespread in all human populations and result in persistent and latent infections. HSV-1 is commonly responsible for orofacial, HSV-2 more likely causes genital lesions. Herpes genitalis is one of the most important sexually transmitted diseases; furthermore, there are severe diseases associated with HSV (e.g., encephalitis). Over the last years an increase in clinical manifestations of HSV has been reported, and HSV-1 has been increasingly discussed as causative agent of herpes genitalis. We retrospectively evaluated the laboratory results of our routine diagnostic service for HSV infections, looking for changes of HSV epidemiology in recent years. Specimens from 2,678 herpes patients were obtained between 1 January 1996 and 31 March 2002. Using cell culture, the presence of HSV was investigated in swabs taken from different body sites, and clinical data on HSV localization and type were evaluated. We found 345 patients positive for HSV-1 and 212 positive for HSV-2. Clinical data were available from 72.1% of the patients with HSV-1, and 61.3% of those with HSV-2 infection. In genital herpes HSV-1 was the causative agent in 20% of men and in 25% of women. In patients suffering from orofacial herpes HSV-2 was detected in 7% of men and in 4% of women. To evaluate the frequency of neurological HSV diseases, 2,406 cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) from 2,121 patients suspected of meningitis or encephalitis were tested for HSV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. Among those patients, 120 showed CSF positive for HSV DNA. Serum surveys of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection recently established in our region were compared to similar studies performed in Germany 25 years ago. We found that seroprevalences have not changed over the last 25 years and that neurological HSV diseases are rare. However, as in the USA, a significant percentage of herpes genitalis is caused by HSV-1 in Germany. PMID:12761673

  3. Exposure to herpes simplex virus type 1 and cognitive impairments in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Konasale M; Watson, Annie M M; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2012-11-01

    Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes-specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations. PMID:22490995

  4. Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Valdez, Hernan; Mortensen, Eric; Chew, Robert; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Kawabata, Thomas; Riese, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) (i.e., shingles). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tofacitinib increases the risk of HZ in patients with RA. Methods HZ cases were identified as those reported by trial investigators from the databases of the phase II, phase III, and long-term extension (LTE) clinical trials in the Tofacitinib RA Development Program. Crude incidence rates (IRs) of HZ per 100 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were calculated by exposure group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential risk factors for HZ (e.g., age, prednisone use). Results Among 4,789 participants, 239 were identified as having tofacitinib-associated HZ during the phase II, phase III, and LTE trials, of whom 208 (87%) were female and whose median age was 57 years (range 21–75 years). One HZ case (0.4%) was multidermatomal; none of the cases involved visceral dissemination or death. Twenty-four patients with HZ (10%) permanently discontinued treatment with tofacitinib, and 16 (7%) were either hospitalized or received intravenous antiviral drugs. The crude HZ IR across the development program was 4.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 3.8–4.9), but the IR was substantially higher within Asia (7.7 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 6.4–9.3). Older age was associated with HZ (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.6), and IRs for HZ were similar between patients receiving 5 mg tofacitinib twice daily (4.4 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.2–6.0) and those receiving 10 mg twice daily (4.2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.1–5.8). In the phase III trials among placebo recipients, the incidence of HZ was 1.5 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5–4.6). Conclusion In the Tofacitinib RA Development Program, increased rates of HZ were observed in patients treated with tofacitinib compared with those receiving placebo, particularly among patients within Asia. Complicated HZ among tofacitinib-treated patients was rare. PMID:24943354

  5. Glycoprotein D Homologs in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, Pseudorabies Virus, and Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 Bind Directly to Human HveC (Nectin-1) with Different Affinities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Connolly; J. Charles Whitbeck; Ann H. Rux; Claude Krummenacher; Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk; Gary H. Cohen; Roselyn J. Eisenberg

    2001-01-01

    Distinct subsets of human receptors for alphaherpesviruses mediate the entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV), pseudorabies virus (PrV), or bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) into cells. Glycoprotein D (gD) is essential for receptor-mediated entry of all three viruses into cells. However, the gD homologs of these viruses share only 22–33% amino acid identity. Several entry receptors for HSV have

  6. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and varicella-zoster virus in skin lesions. Comparison of real-time PCR, nested PCR and virus isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Schmutzhard; Hilde Merete Riedel; Benita Zweygberg Wirgart; Lena Grillner

    2004-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) cause a wide range of signs and symptoms, varying from trivial mucocutaneous lesions to life-threatening infections, especially in immuno-suppressed patients. Since antiviral drugs are available, rapid and sensitive laboratory diagnosis of these virus infections is important. Objective: To set up and evaluate HSV-1,

  7. Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex encephalitis in a patient treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-? monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Kinda; Hernandez, Antonio; Andrei, Graciela; Gillemot, Sarah; Fiten, Pierre; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Bier, Jean-Christophe; David, Philippe; Delforge, Marie-Luce; Jacobs, Frédérique; Snoeck, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of severe sporadic encephalitis. We report a case of herpes simplex type 1-encephalitis in a 50-year-old woman receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor-? monoclonal antibodies adalimumab. Although she was an acyclovir naïve patient, a mixed viral population (wild-type and acyclovir-resistant bearing a thymidine-kinase mutation) was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid. The virus in cerebrospinal fluid evolved and a second thymidine-kinase mutant virus emerged. Combined foscavir and acyclovir treatment resolved the herpes simplex encephalitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex encephalitis in a patient treated with adalimumab. PMID:24257111

  8. Effect of Conjugation with Polypeptide Carrier on the Enzymatic Degradation of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Derived Epitope

    E-print Network

    Pompeu Fabra, Universitat

    Glycoprotein D Derived Epitope Peptide Regina Tugyi, Ga´bor Mezõ, Schlosser Gitta,, Erzse´bet Fellinger,§ David glycoprotein D (gD-1) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) were synthesized for analysis of the effect of conjugation

  9. N-Terminal Phosphorylation Sites of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 Differentially Regulate Its Activities and Enhance Viral Replication

    E-print Network

    Mostafa, Heba H.; Thompson, Thornton W.; Davido, David J.

    2013-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) is an immediate-early phosphoprotein that transactivates viral gene expression. Evidence suggests that phosphorylation regulates the functions of ICP0, and three regions (termed...

  10. Unilateral inferior altitudinal hemianopsia, Argyll Robertson pupil and dendritic keratitis in a young patient with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Sammartino, A; Fusco, R; de Crecchio, G; Magli, A

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a young patient with herpes zoster and discuss the etiopathogenesis of the complications which included unilateral inferior altitudinal hemianopsia, Argyll Robertson pupil and dendritic keratitis. PMID:6975913

  11. Prevalence of human papilloma virus and human herpes virus types 1-7 in human nasal polyposis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolos Zaravinos; John Bizakis; Demetrios A. Spandidos

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes sim- plex virus-1\\/-2 (HSV-1\\/-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalo- virus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6\\/-7 (HHV- 6\\/-7) in 23 human nasal polyps by applying PCR. Two types of control tissues were used: adjacent inferior\\/middle turbinates from the patients and inferior\\/middle turbinates from 13 patients undergoing

  12. Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus DNA by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisatoshi Kaneko; Tomohiro Iida; Koki Aoki; Shigeaki Ohno; Tatsuo Suzutani; Fukushima Hikarigaoka

    2005-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel nucleic acid amplification method in which reagents react rapidly and efficiently, with a high specificity, under isothermal conditions. We used a LAMP assay for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus specificities of primers were confirmed by using 50

  13. Host strain-dependent difference in susceptibility in a rat model of herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biborka Bereczky-Veress; Olle Lidman; Farideh Sabri; Ivan Bednar; Fredrik Granath; Tomas Bergström; Christian Spenger; Alf Grandien; Tomas Olsson; Fredrik Piehl; Margarita Diez; Birgit Sköldenberg

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is characterized by severe focal brain inflammation leading to substantial loss of nervous\\u000a tissue. The authors established a model of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV)-1-induced acute encephalitis in the rat by injecting into the whiskers’ area a virus strain isolated from\\u000a a fatal human HSE case. The model might resemble natural propagation of HSV-1 in

  14. Towards a Rational Design of an Asymptomatic Clinical Herpes Vaccine: The Old, the New, and the Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Alami Chentoufi, Aziz; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Yu, David M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and molecular immunology have stimulated creative efforts in controlling herpes infection and disease. However, before moving towards new vaccine strategy, it is necessary to answer two fundamental questions: (i) why past herpes vaccines have failed? (ii) Why the majority of HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., asymptomatic individuals) are naturally “protected” exhibiting few or no recurrent clinical disease, while other HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., symptomatic individuals) have frequent ocular, orofacial, and/or genital herpes clinical episodes? We recently discovered several discrete sets of HSV-1 symptomatic and asymptomatic epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from seropositive symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. These asymptomatic epitopes will provide a solid foundation for the development of novel herpes epitope-based vaccine strategy. Here we provide a brief overview of past clinical vaccine trials, outline current progress towards developing a new generation “asymptomatic” clinical herpes vaccines, and discuss future mucosal “asymptomatic” prime-boost vaccines that could optimize local protective immunity. PMID:22548113

  15. The effects of caudal fin amputation on metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species with different metabolic modes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic competitive modes between digestion and locomotion are classified into three categories, termed the additive, digestion- and locomotion-priority modes. In nature, the caudal fin is frequently observed to sustain damage as a result of social rank, predation or disease. To test whether the metabolic mode changed differently for fish with different metabolic mode after caudal fin amputation as a consequence of intensified energy competition, we investigated the swimming performance of fasting and fed fish with and without the caudal fin in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species: qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis, locomotion-priority mode), common carp (Cyprinus carpio, additive mode) and goldfish (Carassius auratus, digestion-priority mode). The critical swimming speed (U(crit)) of fasting qingbo, common carp and goldfish decreased significantly by 49%, 32% and 35% after caudal fin amputation. The maximum tail beat amplitude (TBA(max)) (all three fishes), maximum tail beat frequency (TBF(max)) (only common carp and goldfish) and (or) active metabolic rate (M?O(2active)) (only common carp) increased significantly after caudal fin amputation. In the control fish, digestion let to a significantly lower U(crit) in goldfish but not in qingbo and common carp, and the M?O(2active) of digesting common carp was higher than that of fasting fish, suggesting locomotion-priority, additive and digestion-priority metabolic modes in qingbo, common carp and goldfish, respectively. However, after fin amputation, digestion showed no effect on U(crit) in any of the three fishes, and only the digesting common carp showed a higher M?O(2active) than their fasting counterparts. This result suggested that the metabolic mode of the goldfish changed from the digestion- to the locomotion-priority mode, whereas the metabolic mode of the other two fishes remained the same after fin amputation. The metabolic mode of the common carp showed no change after fin amputation likely due to the high flexibility of the cardio-respiratory capacity of this fish, as indicated by the increased M?O(2active). Although the metabolic mode remained the same, the feeding metabolism in the fin-amputated qingbo was down-regulated at a lower swimming speed than that of the control group due to the intensified competition between digestion and locomotion. The underlying mechanism for the metabolic mode change in the goldfish is not clear and needs further investigation. However, we speculated that in caudal-fin-intact goldfish, the decreased swimming efficiency, rather than irreducible digestive loading, caused a decreased U(crit) in digesting fish (i.e. false digestion-priority mode), and the metabolic mode should not be judged simply by the relative magnitude of the metabolic rates of fasting and digesting fish. PMID:23269108

  16. New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. I. Expansion of frog virus 3 host range into Scaphirhynchus albus.

    PubMed

    Waltzek, Thomas B; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Drecktrah, Bruce; Briggler, Jeffrey T; MacConnell, Beth; Hudson, Crystal; Hopper, Lacey; Friary, John; Yun, Susan C; Malm, Kirsten V; Weber, E Scott; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2014-10-16

    In 2009, juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, reared at the Blind Pony State Fish Hatchery (Missouri, USA) to replenish dwindling wild stocks, experienced mass mortality. Histological examination revealed extensive necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and a virus was isolated from affected organs in cell culture and then observed by electron microscopy. Experimental infection studies revealed that the virus is highly pathogenic to juvenile pallid sturgeon, one of several species of sturgeon currently listed as Endangered. The DNA sequence of the full length major capsid protein gene of the virus was identical to that of the species Frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species for the genus Ranavirus, originally isolated from northern leopard frog Lithobates pipiens. Although FV3 infections and epizootics in amphibians and reptiles are well documented, there is only 1 prior report of a natural infection of FV3 in fish. Our results illustrate the broad potential host range for FV3, with the known potential to cause significant mortality in poikilothermic vertebrates across 3 taxonomic classes including bony fishes, anuran and caudate amphibians, and squamate and testudine reptiles. PMID:25320034

  17. Comparison of European systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus and frog virus 3.

    PubMed

    Ahne, W; Bearzotti, M; Bremont, M; Essbauer, S

    1998-08-01

    Iridovirus-like agents isolated from systemic infected fish (Silurus glanis, SFIR; Ictalurus melas, CFIR I, CFIR II, CFIR III) and from frogs (Rana esculenta, REIR) in Europe, Epizootic Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus (EHNV) isolated in Australia from redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis), and Frog Virus 3 (FV 3) isolated from frogs (Rana pipiens) in the USA were investigated by electron microscopy, polypeptide composition, immunofluorescence, restriction endonuclease digestion, Southern-blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. All virus isolates proved to be similar in morphology and in size and reacted with EHNV polyclonal antiserum in the immunofluorescence. Whilst DNA restriction profiles of the European piscine isolates cleaved by BamH I were similar, they differed clearly from those of EHNV, REIR and FV 3. Southern-blot analysis of viral BamH I digested DNA using an EHNV DNA probe revealed cross-hybridization with DNA of the investigated iridoviruses. Using a set of primers designed for an open reading frame of the EHNV genome, PCR products of about 250 bp were obtained with the DNA of systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses. The data suggest that the systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses should be regarded as members of the the genus Ranavirus within the family Iridoviridae. PMID:9719770

  18. Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations.

    PubMed

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Choi, Man-Yeon; Oi, David H

    2013-07-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, cricket paste, and soybean oil adsorbed to defatted corn grit) effectively transmitted SINV-3 infections to S. invicta colonies. Correspondingly, viral infection was shown to be detrimental to colony health and productivity. By day 32, all ant colonies exposed to a single 24h pulse treatment of SINV-3 became infected with the virus regardless of the bait formulation. However, the SINV-3 sugar and cricket bait-treated colonies became infected more rapidly than the oil-treated colonies. Sugar and cricket-treated colonies exhibited significant declines in their brood ratings compared with the untreated control and oil bait-treated colonies. Measures of colony health and productivity evaluated at the end of the study (day 47) showed a number of differences among the bait treatments and the control group. Statistically significant and similar patterns were exhibited among treatments for the quantity of live workers (lower), live brood (lower), total colony weight (lower), worker mortality (higher), proportion larvae (lower), and queen weight (lower). Significant changes were also observed in the number of eggs laid by queens (lower) and the corresponding ovary rating in SINV-3-treated colonies. The study provides the first successful demonstration of SINV-3 as a potential biopesticide against fire ants. PMID:23602901

  19. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  20. Gene expression of herpes simplex virus. II. Uv radiological analysis of viral transcription units

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, R. L.; Klaiber, R.

    1980-06-01

    The transcriptional organization of the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 was analyzed by measuring the sensitivity of viral polypeptide synthesis to uv irradiation of the infecting virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was irradiated with various doses of uv light and used to infect xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. Immediate early transcription units were analyzed by having cycloheximide present throughout the period of infection, removing the drug at 8 h postinfection, and pulse-labeling proteins with (355)methionine. Delayed early transcription units were analyzed in similar studies by having 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine present during the experiment to block replication of the input irradiated genome. The results indicate that none of the immediate early genes analyzed can be cotranscribed, whereas some of the delayed early genes might be cotranscribed. No evidence was found for the existence of large, multigene transcription units.

  1. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

  2. Social Stress and the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald

    1998-06-01

    Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.

  3. Mode of protection of mice against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by Propionibacterium.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, M; Amagai, T; Ushijima, T; Imanishi, J; Kishida, T; Ozaki, Y

    1983-01-01

    We compared various strains of Propionibacterium with regard to protection of young adult mice against lethal infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Propionibacterium acnes, P. granulosum, and P. avidum were protective, while P. acidi-propionici and P. lymphophilum were ineffective. The protective effect proved to be in the cell wall fraction. Attempts were made to elucidate possible mechanisms of the protection using both effective and ineffective strains. The results strongly suggest that induction of interferon rather than activation of macrophages and natural killer cells by Propionibacterium pretreatment plays a crucial role, directly or indirectly, in protection against infection by herpes simplex virus. Propionibacterium only moderately protected newborn mice against HSV-2 infection. PMID:6195512

  4. Herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis in an elderly immunocompetent male.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Matthew D; Manian, Farrin A; Kershaw, Melissa A; Alpert, Martin A

    2007-11-01

    An 85-year-old immunocompetent man was hospitalized following the development of increasing confusion and intermittent disorientation over a 48-hour period. Within 48 hours of hospitalization, he was oriented to person only and was unable to follow commands. There were no focal neurologic deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed extensive perivascular demyelination. Lumbar puncture was performed and showed normal opening pressure. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed 8 leukocytes (7 lymphocytes), as well as normal glucose and protein levels. Polymerase chain reaction evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2. He was diagnosed with herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis and is to the authors' knowledge the first elderly immunocompetent patient to be reported with this disorder. PMID:17984749

  5. Recurrent Labial Herpes Simplex in Pediatric Dentistry: Low-level Laser Therapy as a Treatment Option

    PubMed Central

    Stona, Priscila; da Silva Viana, Elizabete; dos Santos Pires, Leandro; Blessmann Weber, João Batista

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recurrent labial herpes simplex is a pathology of viral origin that is frequently observed in children. The signs and symptoms are uncomfortable and, in many cases, the efficacy of treatment is unproven. However, several studies have demonstrated good results from the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), primarily due to acceleration of the healing process and pain relief, which make it a promising resource for use with this pathology. This paper describes a clinical case of a 7-year-old patient affected by this pathology and the therapeutic resolution proposed. How to cite this article: Stona P, da Silva Viana E, dos Santos Pires L, Weber JBB, Kramer PF. Recurrent Labial Herpes Simplex in Pediatric Dentistry: Low-level Laser Therapy as a Treatment Option. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):140-143. PMID:25356015

  6. Retrovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene therapy approach for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding Cheng GAO; Wei AN; Jie DAI

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase\\/ganciclovir (HSV-tk\\/GCV) system on hepatocellular carcinoma was studied in this experiment. The tk-containing retroviral recombinants were used to infect hepatoma cells (BEL-7402) and the cells were treated with ganciclovir (0-1000 ?g\\/ml). The results showed that HSV-tk gene could be efficiently transferred in vitro into hepatoma cells and stably expressed. The growth potential

  7. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  8. Cellular Transcription Factors Enhance Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 oriS-Dependent DNA Replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANH TUAN NGUYEN-HUYNH; PRISCILLA A. SCHAFFER

    1998-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) origin of DNA replication, oriS, contains three binding sites for the viral origin binding protein (OBP) flanked by transcriptional regulatory elements of the immediate-early genes encoding ICP4 and ICP22\\/47. To assess the role of flanking sequences in oriS function, plasmids containing oriS and either wild-type or mutant flanking sequences were tested in transient

  9. Transactivation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 by herpes simplex virus type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoshana Israel; Michal Mendelovitz; Alik Honigman

    1995-01-01

    HTLV-1 transcription depends upon activation by the HTLV-1tax gene product. In addition, various substances and cellular transcription factors are also known to activate the HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated transcription in the absence of Tax. In this work we demonstrate that infection of either Jurkat or 293 cell lines with herpes simplex I (HSV-1), a widespread infectious virus of humans,

  10. Immune Evasion Properties of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein gC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARVEY M. FRIEDMAN; LIYANG WANG; NEIL O. FISHMAN; JOHN D. LAMBRIS; ROSELYN J. EISENBERG; GARY H. COHEN; ANDJOHN LUBINSKI

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein gC binds complement component C3b, and purified gC inhibits complement activation. Two HSV strains carrying mutations in the gC gene which rendered them unable to bind C3b were compared with wild-type and marker-rescued viruses to evaluate the role of gC on the virion in protecting HSV-1 from complement-mediated neutralization. The gC mutant viruses

  11. Analysis of the Role of Autophagy in Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus in Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane E. Alexander; Stephen L. Ward; Noboru Mizushima; Beth Levine; David A. Leib

    2007-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) neurovirulence gene encoding ICP34.5 controls the autophagy pathway. HSV-1 strains lacking ICP34.5 are attenuated in growth and pathogenesis in animal models and in primary cultured cells. While this growth defect has been attributed to the inability of an ICP34.5-null virus to counteract the induction of translational arrest through the PKR antiviral pathway, the

  12. Phosphorylation of Structural Components Promotes Dissociation of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Tegument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EWAN E. MORRISON; YI-FEN WANG; DAVID M. MEREDITH

    The role of phosphorylation in the dissociation of structural components of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) tegument was investigated, using an in vitro assay. Addition of physiological concentrations of ATP and magnesium to wild-type virions in the presence of detergent promoted the release of VP13\\/14 and VP22. VP1\\/2 and the UL13 protein kinase were not significantly solubilized. However,

  13. Complementary intrastrand base pairing during initiation of Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alireza Aslani; Stina Simonsson; Per Elias

    2001-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 origin of DNA replication, oriS, contains three copies of the recognition sequence for the viral initiator protein, origin binding protein (OBP), arranged in two palindromes. The central box I forms a short palindrome with box III and a long palindrome with box II. Single-stranded oriS adopts a conformation, oriS*, that is tightly bound by

  14. Characterization of the protein encoded by gene UL49A of herpes simplex virus type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Adams; C. Cunningham; M. D. Davison; C. A. MacLean; A. J. Davison

    1998-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene UL49A potentially encodes a primary translation product of 91 residues with a signal sequence at the N terminus and a membrane anchor domain near the C ter- minus. Mutants were generated in this gene and utilized to characterize the encoded protein on SDS-PAGE as a 6-7 kDa species which fractionated with infected cell

  15. Characterization of the UL4 gene product of herpes simplex virus type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamada; Y.-M. Jiang; S. Oshima; K. Wada; F. Goshima; T. Daikoku; Y. Nishiyama

    1998-01-01

    Summary.  ?We have identified the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) UL4 gene product using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against\\u000a a recombinant 6xHis-UL4 fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli. The antiserum reacted specifically with a 27-kDa protein in HSV-2 186-infected cell lysates. The protein was not detectable\\u000a in the presence of the viral DNA synthesis inhibitor, suggesting that the UL4

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Penetrates the Basement Membrane in Human Nasal Respiratory Mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Glorieux; Claus Bachert; Herman W. Favoreel; Annelies P. Vandekerckhove; Lennert Steukers; Anamaria Rekecki; Wim Van den Broeck; Joline Goossens; Siska Croubels; Reginald F. Clayton; Hans J. Nauwynck

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundHerpes simplex virus infections are highly prevalent in humans. However, the current therapeutics suffer important drawbacks such as limited results in neonates, increasing occurrence of resistance and impeded treatment of stromal infections. Remarkably, interactions of herpesviruses with human mucosa, the locus of infection, remain poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms in stromal infection remain controversial.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA human model consisting of

  17. Zehn Jahre therapieresistente Interkostalneuralgie—Verdacht auf Postzosterneuralgie nach Herpes zoster sine herpete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Zwölfer; T. Hartmann; A. Spacek; G. Grubhofer; P. Porges

    1993-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Wir berichten von einem 65jährigen Patienten mit einer 10 Jahre langen radikulären Schmerzanamnese. Eine Diagnosestellung\\u000a “postzosterische Neuralgie nach Herpes zoster sine herpete” erfolgte erst 9 Jahre nach Schmerzbeginn. Alle bis dahin durchgeführten\\u000a Schmerztherapieversuche, Operationen und Eingriffe der verschiedenen Spezialdisziplinen schlugen fehl. Bemerkenswerterweise\\u000a führte der Einsatz von 2 Komplexhomöopathica nach vorangegangener Akupunkturtherapie zum Erfolg.

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 DNA Is Immunostimulatory In Vitro and In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patric Lundberg; Paula Welander; Xiao Han; Edouard Cantin

    2003-01-01

    Recently, prokaryotic DNAs containing unmethylated CpG motifs have been shown to be intrinsically im- munostimulatory both in vitro and in vivo, tending to promote Th1-like responses. In contrast, CpG dinucle- otides in mammalian DNAs are extensively methylated on cytosines and hence immunologically inert. Since the herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome is unmethylated and GC rich, we predicted that CpG motifs

  19. Capsaicin-induced reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 in sensory neurons in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Hunsperger; Christine L. Wilcox

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) produces a life-long latent infection in neurons of the peripheral nervous system, primarily in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Neurons of these ganglia express high levels of the capsaicin receptor, also known as the vanilloid receptor-1 (VR-1). VR-1 is a non-selective ion channel, found on sensory neurons, that primarily fluxes Ca2+ ions in

  20. Ca ++ , Histidin und Zn ++ als Faktoren bei der Riesenzellbildung durch das HerpesVirus hominis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Falke

    1967-01-01

    Summary In addition to NaCl, KCl and glucose, calcium ions are necessary to support the viability of rabbit kidney cells. These substances are also sufficient for the formation of giant cells after infection with giant cell forming Herpes-virus-strains, not, however, for the synthesis of infectious viria. Relative lack of calcium can be compensated for by histidin or EDTA. Zinc ions

  1. Human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) serology in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Rosenzwajg; N Fery; V Bons; G Damaj; E Gluckman; JC Gluckman

    1999-01-01

    Human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) may be sexually transmitted, but transmission via blood cells has not yet been excluded. We used a modified immunofluorescence assay to detect Ab to HHV8 latency-associated nuclear Ag in sera of 200 allogeneic BMT recipients and their related donors. In control subjects, Ab were found in 85% of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma (n =

  2. Antiviral Activity of 1Docosanol, an Inhibitor of Lipid-Enveloped Viruses Including Herpes Simplex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Katz; John F. Marcelletti; Mohammed H. Khalil; Laura E. Pope; Lee R. Katz

    1991-01-01

    This article reports that 1-docosanol, a 22-carbon-long saturated alcohol, exerts a substantial inhibitory effect on replication of certain viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus) within primary target cells in vitro. To study the basis for its viral inhibitory activity, a suspension of 1-docosanol was formulated in an inert and nontoxic surfactant, Pluronic F-68; this suspension exerted potent

  3. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  4. Topical and systemic therapies for oral and perioral herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2013-04-01

    Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in healthy individuals often present with signs and symptoms that are clearly recognized by oral health care providers (OHCPs). Management of these infections is dependent upon a variety of factors and several agents may be used for treatment to accelerate healing and decrease symptoms associated with lesions. This article will review the pertinent aspects of topical and systemic therapies of HSV infections for the OHCP. PMID:23705241

  5. Gamma Interferon Expression during Acute and Latent Nervous System Infection by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDOUARD M. CANTIN; DAVID R. HINTON; JIAN CHEN; ANDHARRY OPENSHAW

    1995-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate a role for gamma interferon (IFN-g) in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. At the acute stage of infection in mice, HSV-1 replication in trigeminal ganglia and brain stem tissue was modestly but consistently enhanced in mice from which IFN-g was by ablated monoclonal antibody treatment and in mice genetically lacking the IFN-greceptor

  6. Interleukin18 Protects Mice against Acute Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NOBORU FUJIOKA; RIEKO AKAZAWA; KUNIHIRO OHASHI; MITSUKIYO FUJII; MASAO IKEDA; MASASHI KURIMOTO

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effects of interleukin-18 (IL-18) in a mouse model of acute intraperitoneal infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Four days of treatment with IL-18 (from 2 days before infection to 1 day after infection) improved the survival rate of BALB\\/c, BALB\\/c nude, and BALB\\/c SCID mice, suggesting innate immunity. One day after infection, HSV-1 titers were

  7. Modified VP22 Localizes to the Cell Nucleus during Synchronized Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LISA E. POMERANZ; JOHN A. BLAHO

    1999-01-01

    The UL49 gene product (VP22) of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) is a virion phosphoprotein which accumulates inside infected cells at late stages of infection. We previously (J. A. Blaho, C. Mitchell, and B. Roizman, J. Biol. Chem. 269:17401-17410, 1994) discovered that the form of VP22 packaged into infectious virions differed from VP22 extracted from

  8. Helper Virus-Free Transfer of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Plasmid Vectors into Neural Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CORNEL FRAEFEL; SONG SONG; FILIP LIM; PHUNG LANG; Y Wang; P Wild; Ai Geller

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) plasmid vectors have promise for genetic intervention in the brain, but several problems caused by the helper virus have compromised their utility. To develop a helper virus-free packagingsystemforthesevectors,theDNAcleavage\\/packagingsignalsweredeletedfromasetofcosmidsthat represents the HSV-1 genome. Following cotransfection into cells, this modified cosmid set supported repli- cation and packaging of vector DNA. However, in the absence of the

  9. Lactoferrin inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 adsorption to Vero cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magda Marchetti; Catia Longhi; Maria Pia Conte; Silvia Pisani; Piera Valenti; Lucilla Seganti

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the ability of human and bovine lactoferrins (HLf; BLf), iron-binding proteins belonging to the non-immune defense system, to interfere with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Since lactoferrins are known to bind to heparan sulphate proteoglycans and to low density lipoprotein receptor, which in turn act as binding sites for the initial interaction of HSV-1 with

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Mutants Defective in the UL6 Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARVIND H. PATEL; FRAZER J. RIXON; CHARLES CUNNINGHAM; ANDREW J. DAVISON

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the protein encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene UL6 is required for processing and packaging of replicated viral DNA and is a minor component of virions and capsids. In this report, we describe the construction of UL6?HSV-1 mutants with a disrupted UL6 gene using complementing cells and show that they fail to

  11. Nuclear Domain 10 as Preexisting Potential Replication Start Sites of Herpes Simplex Virus Type1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERD G. MAUL; ALEXANDER M. ISHOV; ROGER D. EVERETT

    1996-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear replication cycle begins at localized sites, but it has remained unclear whether these sites are associated with any defined nuclear structure. We have previously shown that during infection, the HSV-1 immediate-early protein ICP0 dispersed proteins associated with ND10, nuclear sites that contain high concentrations of PML and other potentially regulatory proteins and

  12. Structure-Function Analysis of Soluble Forms of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY V. NICOLA; SHARON H. WILLIS; NIRINJINI N. NAIDOO; ROSELYN J. EISENBERG; ANDGARY H. COHEN

    1996-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is essential for virus entry. Truncated forms of gD lacking the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail regions have been shown to bind to cells and block plaque formation. Using complementation analysis and a panel of gD mutants, we previously identified four regions of gD (regions I to IV) which are important for virus

  13. Interaction of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein gC with Mammalian Cell Surface Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH TAL-SINGER; CHARLINE PENG; MANUEL PONCE DELEON; WILLIAM R. ABRAMS; BRUCE W. BANFIELD; FRANK TUFARO; GARY H. COHEN; ANDROSELYN J. EISENBERG

    1995-01-01

    The entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into mammalian cells is a multistep process beginning with an attachment step involving glycoproteins gC and gB. A second step requires the interaction of glycoprotein gD with a cell surface molecule. We explored the interaction between gC and the cell surface by using purified proteins in the absence of detergent. Truncated forms of

  14. Quantitation of Latent Varicella-Zoster Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHANIE R. PEVENSTEIN; RICHARD K. WILLIAMS; DANIEL MCCHESNEY; ERIK K. MONT; JOHN E. SMIALEK; STEPHEN E. STRAUS

    1999-01-01

    Using real-time fluorescence PCR, we quantitated the numbers of copies of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) genomes in 15 human trigeminal ganglia. Eight (53%) and 1 (7%) of 15 ganglia were PCR positive for HSV-1 or -2 glycoprotein G genes, with means of 2,902 6 1,082 (standard error of the

  15. A Novel Role for 3- O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Shukla; Jian Liu; Peter Blaiklock; Nicholas W. Shworak; Xiaomei Bai; Jeffrey D. Esko; Gary H. Cohen; Roselyn J. Eisenberg; Robert D. Rosenberg; Patricia G. Spear

    1999-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to cells through interactions of viral glycoproteins gB and gC with heparan sulfate chains on cell surface proteoglycans. This binding is not sufficient for viral entry, which requires fusion between the viral envelope and cell membrane. Here, we show that heparan sulfate modified by a subset of the multiple D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms provides

  16. Parameters Distinguishing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2-transformed Tumorigenic and Nontumorigenic Rat Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur H. Hale; Louis S. Kucera; Larry W. Daniel; Moseley Waite

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed experimental model system was used to determine in vitro transformation-specific parameters which correlate with tumorigenicity. The data suggested that clonal herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syngeneic rat embryo cells with intermediate, transformed rat embryo fibroblasts (t- REF-G-1) or high, rat fibrosarcoma tumorigenic potential in syngeneic rats could be differentiated from clonal transformed nontumorigenic (t-REF-G-2) and nontransformed rat

  17. Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Surfaces of Hamster Embryo Cells Transformed by Herpes Simplex Virus1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Glaser; Virgil Mumaw; Ross Farrugia; Bryce Munger

    1977-01-01

    SUMMARY The surfaces of normal hamster embryo fibroblast (HEF) cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Surface characteristics of HEF cells were compared to those of cells derived from a primary tumor induced in hamsters following s.c. inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 1-transformed HEF cells (14-012-8-1) and to the sur faces of cells derived from a metastatic tumor to

  18. Sequence analysis of herpes simplex virus gB gene homologs of two platyrrhine monkey ?-herpesviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Eberle; Darla Black

    1993-01-01

    Summary Homologs of the herpes simplex virusgB gene were identified in two a-herpesviruses of platyrrhine monkeys, Herpesvirus saimiri 1 (HVS 1) and H. ateles 1 (HVA 1). These genes were cloned and sequenced in their entirety. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicated that the gB glycoproteins of these two viruses are of similar size, have 10 Cys residues

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein E Domains Involved in Virus Spread and Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES E. SALDANHA; JOHN LUBINSKI; CLAUDIA MARTIN; THANDAVARAYAN NAGASHUNMUGAM; LIYANG WANG; HARJEET VAN DER KEYL; RUTH TAL-SINGER; HARVEY M. FRIEDMAN

    2000-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein E (gE) functions as an immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc bind- ing protein and is involved in virus spread. Previously we studied a gE mutant virus that was impaired for IgG Fc binding but intact for spread and another that was normal for both activities. To further evaluate the role of gE in spread,

  20. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus 1 gene expression by designer zinc-finger transcription factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Papworth; Michael Moore; Mark Isalan; Michal Minczuk; Yen Choo; Aaron Klug

    2003-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replicative cycle begins by binding of the viral activator, VP16, to a set of sequences in the immediate-early (IE) gene promoters. With the aim of inhibiting this cycle, we have constructed a number of synthetic zinc-finger DNA-binding peptides by using recently reported methods. Peptides containing either three or six fingers, targeted to a viral

  1. Herpes simplex virus type-1 amplicon vectors for vaccine generation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Zibert; A Thomassen; L Müller; L Nguyen; L Glouchkova; C Fraefel; M Roskrow; R Meisel; D Dilloo

    2005-01-01

    For leukemia vaccine generation, high-efficiency gene transfer is required to express immunomodulatory molecules that stimulate potent antileukemic immune responses. In this context, herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1)-derived vectors have proven to be a promising tool for genetic modification of lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Yet, vector-associated viral protein expression might inadvertently modulate vaccine efficacy facilitating both immune evasion and immune stimulation. To

  2. Equine Abortion (Herpes) Virus: Strain Differences in Susceptibility to Inactivation by Dithiothreitol

    PubMed Central

    Klingeborn, B.; Dinter, Z.

    1972-01-01

    The infectivity of equine abortion (herpes) virus (EAV) was inactivated by treatment with reduced dithiothreitol (DTT). According to their susceptibility to DTT, the EAV strains could be divided into three groups. The vaccine strain RAC-H (419) proved to be more resistant to DTT than all of the other 14 strains tested. The hemagglutinin of EAV was also inactivated by DTT; no strain differences were observed in this respect. PMID:4339509

  3. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Padma; N. P Pramod; S. P Thyagarajan; R. L Khosa

    1998-01-01

    Annona muricata (Annonaceae) and Petunia nyctaginiflora (Solanaceae) were screened for their activity against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and clinical isolate (obtained from the human keratitis lesion). We have looked at the ability of extract(s) to inhibit the cytopathic effect of HSV-1 on vero cells as indicative of anti-HSV-1 potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extract of A. muricata and

  4. Valaciclovir compared with acyclovir for improved therapy for herpes zoster in immunocompetent adults.

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, K R; Friedman, D J; Forszpaniak, C; Andersen, P L; Wood, M J

    1995-01-01

    Acyclovir treatment of acute herpes zoster speeds rash healing and decreases pain and ocular complications. The limited oral bioavailability of acyclovir necessitates frequent dosing. Valaciclovir, the l-valyl ester of acyclovir, is rapidly and almost completely converted to acyclovir in vivo and gives three- to fivefold increases in acyclovir bioavailability. In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study, the safety and efficacy of oral valaciclovir given at a dosage of 1,000 mg three times daily for 7 or 14 days and oral acyclovir given at a dosage of 800 mg five times daily for 7 days were compared in immunocompetent adults aged > or = 50 years with herpes zoster. Patients were evaluated for 6 months. The intent-to-treat analysis (1,141 patients) showed that valaciclovir for 7 or 14 days significantly accelerated the resolution of herpes zoster-associated pain (P = 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively) compared with acyclovir; median pain durations were 38 and 44 days, respectively, versus 51 days for acyclovir. Treatment with valaciclovir also significantly reduced the duration of postherpetic neuralgia and decreased the proportion of patients with pain persisting for 6 months (19.3 versus 25.7%). However, there were no differences between treatments in pain intensity or quality-of-life measures. Cutaneous manifestations resolved at similar rates in all groups. Adverse events were similar in nature and prevalence among groups, and no clinically important changes occurred in hematology or clinical chemistry parameters. Thus, in the management of immunocompetent patients > or = 50 years of age with localized herpes zoster, valaciclovir given at 1,000 mg three times daily for 7 days accelerates the resolution of pain and offers simpler dosing, while it maintains the favorable safety profile of acyclovir. PMID:7492102

  5. Perinatal Herpes Virus Infection: Report of a Case Indicating the Paternal Role

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Morteza; Alrenga, Dharam P.; Freese, Uwe

    1980-01-01

    A case of perinatal Herpes simplex hominis infection with fatal neonatal outcome is reported. The significance of the paternal role is emphasized. It is important to educate sexual partners and stress the serious nature of herpetic infections, especially during the perinatal period. In the presence of active infection, sexual contact should either be totally avoided or a condom should be used. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:6273598

  6. Wet cupping therapy for treatment of herpes zoster: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huijuan; Zhu, Chenjun; Liu, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Background Wet cupping is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy commonly used in treating herpes zoster in China, and clinical studies have shown that wet cupping may have beneficial effect on herpes zoster compared with western medication. Methods We included randomized controlled trials on wet cupping for herpes zoster. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2008), China Network Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wan Fang Database. All searches ended in February 2009. Two authors extracted data and assessed the trials quality independently. RevMan 5.0.18 software was used for data analysis with effect estimate presented as relative risk (RR) and mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results 8 RCTs involving 651 patients were included, and the methodological quality of trials was generally fair in terms of randomization, blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. Meta-analyses showed wet cupping was superior to medications regarding the number of cured patients (RR 2.49, 95%CI 1.91 to 3.24, p<0.00001), the number of patients with improved symptoms (RR 1.15, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.26, p=0.003), and reducing the incidence rate of postherpetic neuralgia (RR 0.06, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.25, p=0.0001). Wet cupping plus medications was significantly better than medications alone on number of cured patients (RR 1.93, 95%CI 1.23 to 3.04, p=0.005), but no difference in symptom improvement (RR 1.00, 95%CI 0.92 to 1.08, p=0.98). There were no serious adverse effects with related to wet cupping therapy in the included trials. Conclusions Wet cupping appears to be effective in treatment of herpes zoster. However, further large, rigorous designed trials are warranted. PMID:21280462

  7. Gene transfer into neurones for the molecular analysis of behaviour: focus on herpes simplex vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Simonato; Roberto Manservigi; Peggy Marconi; Joseph Glorioso

    2000-01-01

    The use of viral vectors to transfect genes into specific brain-cell populations is a novel approach that can be used to investigate the molecular and cellular basis of brain function. Ideal vectors should be targetable and capable of regulated transgene expression. From the viral vectors developed so far, this article focuses on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-based vectors. HSV-1 vectors

  8. Genome Sequence of the Anterograde-Spread-Defective Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain MacIntyre

    PubMed Central

    Tafuri, Yolanda R.; Parsons, Lance; Shreve, Jacob T.; Engel, Esteban A.; Enquist, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    We used paired-end Illumina deep sequencing and de novo assembly to determine the genome sequence of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain MacIntyre (aka McIntyre). The MacIntyre strain originated from the brain of a patient with lethal HSV encephalitis and has a unique limitation in its neuronal spread, moving solely in the retrograde direction. PMID:25395637

  9. The processivity factor complex of feline herpes virus-1 is a new drug target.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskaya, Natalia L; Guan, Hancheng; Saw, Yih Ling; Nuth, Manunya; Ricciardi, Robert P

    2015-03-01

    Feline herpes virus-1 (FHV-1) is ubiquitous in the cat population and is a major cause of blindness for which antiviral drugs, including acyclovir, are not completely effective. Recurrent infections, due to reactivation of latent FHV-1 residing in the trigeminal ganglia, can lead to epithelial keratitis and stromal keratitis and eventually loss of sight. This has prompted the medical need for an antiviral drug that will specifically inhibit FHV-1 infection. A new antiviral target is the DNA polymerase and its associated processivity factor, which forms a complex that is essential for extended DNA strand synthesis. In this study we have cloned and expressed the FHV-1 DNA polymerase (f-UL30) and processivity factor (f-UL42) and demonstrated that both proteins are required to completely synthesize the 7249 nucleotide full-length DNA from the M13 primed-DNA template in vitro. Significantly, a known inhibitor of human herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) processivity complex was shown to inhibit FHV-1 processive DNA synthesis in vitro and block infection of cells. This validates using f-UL42/f-UL30 as a new antiviral drug target to treat feline ocular herpes infection. PMID:25542973

  10. Increased density of cutaneous nerve fibres in the affected dermatomes after herpes zoster therapy.

    PubMed

    Zografakis, Charalampos; Tiniakos, Dina G; Palaiologou, Marina; Kouloukoussa, Mirsini; Kittas, Christos; Staurianeas, Nikos

    2014-03-01

    Herpes zoster neural injury was assessed by determining cutaneous nerve density in skin biopsies from the affected dermatomes of 35 adult patients with herpes zoster in the acute phase and 3 months post-treatment, using protein gene product 9.5 immunohistochemistry. In contrast to the significant increase in subepidermal nerve fibre density (11.77?±?4.88/mm vs. 13.29?±?5.74/mm, p?=?0.045) after 3 months, no differences were found in epidermal free nerve endings (2.43?±?2.35/mm and 2.8?±?2.86/mm, p?=?0.168). Patients with post-herpetic neuralgia had significantly lower subepidermal nerve fibre densities (9.7?±?2.05/mm vs. 14.72?±?6.13/mm, p?=?0.011) compared with non-post-herpetic neuralgia patients. No differences in cutaneous nerve density were found in relation to antiviral therapy. In conclusion, 3 months after acute infection, no sign of epidermal innervation recovery is observed, while the increased subepidermal nerve fibre density in the affected dermatomes probably reflects nerve regeneration that is not affected by antiviral agent type. Subepidermal nerve fibre density is decreased in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia 3-months post-acute herpes zoster infection. PMID:23995395

  11. Update on emerging antivirals for the management of herpes simplex virus infections: a patenting perspective.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D; Vadlapatla, Ramya K; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  12. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  13. Improved DNA hybridization method for detection of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Swierkosz, E M; Scholl, D R; Brown, J L; Jollick, J D; Gleaves, C A

    1987-01-01

    A simplified DNA hybridization method was developed to detect acyclovir-resistant isolates of herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus-infected cell cultures in microtiter plates were treated with concentrations of acyclovir ranging from 8 to 0.015 micrograms/ml. At 48 h postinfection, infected cells were lysed by a one-step procedure and lysates were absorbed to membranes. Without further treatment, membranes were hybridized by using a herpes simplex virus-specific radioiodinated probe. The membranes were then washed and counted in a gamma counter. The elapsed time for assay performance was 4 h. Parallel plaque reduction assays were performed for comparison. The mean 50% inhibitory dose of in vivo- and in vitro-derived acyclovir-resistant, thymidine kinase-negative isolates was greater than 2 micrograms/ml by DNA hybridization. The 50% inhibitory dose of acyclovir-susceptible, thymidine kinase-positive isolates ranged from 0.01 to 1.1 micrograms/ml. This assay is simple and objective and should facilitate antiviral susceptibility testing in diagnostic laboratories. PMID:2829708

  14. Potential role of tenofovir vaginal gel for reduction of risk of herpes simplex virus in females

    PubMed Central

    Tan, DHS

    2012-01-01

    A surprising result of the groundbreaking CAPRISA-004 trial, which demonstrated the efficacy of vaginal tenofovir 1% gel in reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection by 39% in heterosexual women, was the added benefit of this microbicide in reducing acquisition of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) by 51%. HSV-2 is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide, and is responsible for considerable morbidity among women and neonates. The virus is further implicated in increasing the risk of both HIV acquisition and transmission, and may have additional adverse consequences in HIV-coinfected persons, making HSV-2 prevention an important clinical and public health objective. While tenofovir had not previously been widely considered to be an anti-herpes drug, in vitro activity against HSV is well documented, raising interest in potential future applications of tenofovir and its prodrugs in HSV-2 control. This article reviews the currently available data for tenofovir as an anti-herpes agent, as well as unanswered questions about delivery systems, drug formulation, rectal administration, drug resistance, and clinical applications. PMID:22927765

  15. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  16. Herpes simplex virus type 1 in peptic ulcer disease: An inverse association with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tsamakidis, Klisthenis; Panotopoulou, Efstathia; Dimitroulopoulos, Dimitrios; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Christodoulou, Maria; Papadokostopoulou, Alexandra; Karagiannis, Ioannis; Kouroumalis, Elias; Paraskevas, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the frequency of herpes simplex virus type I in upper gastrointestinal tract ulcers and normal mucosa with the modern and better assays and also with a larger number of well characterized patients and controls and its relationship to Helicobacter pylori(H pylori). METHODS: Biopsy specimens from 90 patients (34 with gastric ulcer of the prepyloric area and 56 with duodenal ulcer) were evaluated. Biopsies from 50 patients with endoscopically healthy mucosa were considered as the control group. The method used to identify herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) was polymerase chain reaction. H pylori was detected by the CLO-test and by histological method. RESULTS: Herpes simplex virus-1 was detected in 28 of 90 patients with peptic ulcer (31%) [11 of 34 patients with gastric ulcer (32.4%) and 17 of 56 with duodenal ulcer (30.4%)] exclusively close to the ulcerous lesion. All control group samples were negative for HSV-1. The likelihood of H pylori negativity among peptic ulcer patients was significantly higher in HSV-1 positive cases than in HSV-1 negative cases (P = 0.009). Gastric ulcer patients with HSV-1 positivity were strongly associated with an increased possibility of Helicobacter pylori negativity compared to duodenal ulcer patients (P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: HSV-1 is frequent in upper gastro-intestinal tract ulcers but not in normal gastric and duodenal mucosa. There is an inverse association between HSV-1 and H pylori infection. PMID:16425358

  17. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Koch, C; Reichling, J; Schneele, J; Schnitzler, P

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.016%, 0.0075%, 0.007%, 0.004%, 0.003% and 0.0015% for anise oil, hyssop oil, thyme oil, ginger oil, camomile oil and sandalwood oil, respectively. A clearly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-2 could be demonstrated for all essential oils tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 90% when HSV-2 was preincubated with hyssop oil, thyme oil or ginger oil. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the essential oils were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-2 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that essential oils affected HSV-2 mainly before adsorption probably by interacting with the viral envelope. Camomile oil exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as virucidal agents for treatment of herpes genitalis. PMID:17976968

  18. The Short- and Long-Term Risk of Stroke after Herpes Zoster - A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Nandini; Basit, Saima; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Pasternak, Björn; Munch, Tina N.; Nielsen, Lars P.; Melbye, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is known to cause VZV vasculopathy, which may be associated with stroke. A recent study found an increased risk of stroke within one year of herpes zoster. We aimed to investigate the short and long-term effects of herpes zoster on the risk of stroke. Methods Using Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort consisting of all Danish adults ?18 years old between 1995 and 2008 (n?=?4.6 million; person-years of follow-up?=?52.9 million). Individual-level information on prescriptions for herpes zoster antiviral treatment and diagnoses of stroke was obtained from national registers. We compared the risk of stroke in persons who had received the specific dosage of acyclovir for herpes zoster with persons who had never received antiviral treatment by Poisson regression. Results During follow-up, 2.5% received treatment for herpes zoster and 5.0% were diagnosed with stroke. Individuals who had received medication had a 127% (95% CI 83–182%) increased risk the first two weeks, 17% (CI 9–24%) between two weeks and one year, and 5% (2–9%) after the first year. The increased risk was greatest in the youngest age group (<40). To control for healthcare-seeking behaviour, we conducted parallel analyses investigating the risk of selected fractures after herpes zoster and found no similar increased risks. Conclusions This large nationwide cohort study found an increased risk of stroke after treatment for herpes zoster. Although the short-term risk was particularly high, we cannot rule out the possibility of a small but important long-term risk. PMID:23874897

  19. Five phylogenetic groups identified in the coat protein gene of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 obtained from Portuguese grapevine varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Gouveia; Margarida Teixeira Santos; José Eduardo Eiras-Dias; Gustavo Nolasco

    2011-01-01

    The genetic variability and population structure of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) variants were updated\\u000a by examining the diversity within the viral coat protein (CP) gene among 174 isolates belonging to a collection of Vitis vinifera representing most of the Portuguese varieties. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of five well-defined clusters.\\u000a Three of these correspond to previously defined groups, another

  20. The Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Type I Interferon Response to Frog Virus 3: New Insight into Ranavirus Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Grayfer, Leon; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increasing prevalence of ranavirus (RV; Iridoviridae) infections of wild and commercially maintained aquatic species is raising considerable concerns. While Xenopus laevis is the leading model for studies of immunity to RV, amphibian antiviral interferon (IFN) responses remain largely uncharacterized. Accordingly, an X. laevis type I interferon was identified, the expression of the gene for this IFN was examined in RV (frog virus 3 [FV3])-infected tadpoles and adult frogs by quantitative PCR, and a recombinant form of this molecule (recombinant X. laevis interferon [rXlIFN]) was produced for the purpose of functional studies. This rXlIFN protected the kidney-derived A6 cell line and tadpoles against FV3 infection, decreasing the infectious viral burdens in both cases. Adult frogs are naturally resistant to FV3 and clear the infection within a few weeks, whereas tadpoles typically succumb to this virus. Hence, as predicted, virus-infected adult X. laevis frogs exhibited significantly more robust FV3-elicited IFN gene expression than tadpoles; nevertheless, they also tolerated substantially greater viral burdens following infection. Although tadpole stimulation with rXlIFN prior to FV3 challenge markedly impaired viral replication and viral burdens, it only transiently extended tadpole survival and did not prevent the eventual mortality of these animals. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed that despite rXlIFN treatment, infected tadpoles had considerable organ damage, including disrupted tissue architecture and extensive necrosis and apoptosis. Conjointly, these findings indicate a critical protective role for the amphibian type I IFN response during ranaviral infections and suggest that these viruses are more pathogenic to tadpole hosts than was previously believed, causing extensive and fatal damage to multiple organs, even at very low titers. IMPORTANCE Ranavirus infections are threatening wild and commercially maintained aquatic species. The amphibian Xenopus laevis is extensively utilized as an infection model for studying ranavirus-host immune interactions. However, little is known about amphibian antiviral immunity and, specifically, type I interferons (IFNs), which are central to the antiviral defenses of other vertebrates. Accordingly, we identified and characterized an X. laevis type I interferon in the context of infection with the ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3). FV3-infected adult frogs displayed more robust IFN gene expression than tadpoles, possibly explaining why they typically clear FV3 infections, whereas tadpoles succumb to them. Pretreatment with a recombinant X. laevis IFN (rXlIFN) substantially reduced viral replication and infectious viral burdens in a frog kidney cell line and in tadpoles. Despite reducing FV3 loads and extending the mean survival time, rXlIFN treatments failed to prevent tadpole tissue damage and mortality. Thus, FV3 is more pathogenic than was previously believed, even at very low titers. PMID:24623410

  1. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days (combined odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92-6.70), and at 14 days (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.33-13.04), but pooling was limited by lack of homogeneity and low study quality. Direct comparisons at 1 week of treatment showed that trifluridine or acyclovir was significantly better than idoxuridine (OR, 3.12 and 4.56; 95% CI, 1.55-6.29 and 2.76-7.52, respectively), and indirect comparisons were also consistent with a clinically significant benefit. Vidarabine was not significantly better than idoxuridine in pooled treatment comparisons at 1 week (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.72-2.00) but was better in 2 indirect comparisons (OR, 4.22 and 4.78; 95% CI, 1.69-10.54 and 2.15-10.65, respectively). At 14 days, trifluridine (OR, 6.05; 95% CI, 2.50-14.66), acyclovir (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.39-4.78), and vidarabine (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.65-2.37) were each better than idoxuridine. Trials of geographic epithelial keratitis also suggested that trifluridine, acyclovir, and vidarabine were more effective that idoxuridine. Other topical antiviral agents, such as bromovinyldeoxuridine, ganciclovir, and foscarnet, appeared equivalent to trifluridine or acyclovir. Oral acyclovir was equivalent to topical antiviral therapy and did not hasten healing when used in combination with topical treatment. Antiviral agents did not increase the speed of healing when compared to debridement but reduced the risk of recrudescent epithelial keratitis. The combination of physicochemical treatment with an antiviral agent seemed to be better than either physicochemical or antiviral treatment alone, but the heterogeneous cauterization and curettage techniques and the various treatment combinations limited valid quantitative summary effect measures. The combination of topical interferon with an antiviral agent was significantly better than antiviral therapy at 7 days (OR, 13.49; 95% CI, 7.39-24.61) but not at 14 days (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 0.82-6.79). Finding apparent heterogeneity for some pooled estimates suggested that dissimilarities in patients, interventions, outcomes, or other logistical aspects of cli

  2. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: Mapping of Structural Proteins, Ribosomal Frameshifting, and Similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Steven M.; Bell, Susanne; Firth, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV), an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order. PMID:24686475

  3. Blocking Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Glycoprotein E Immune Evasion as an Approach To Enhance Efficacy of a Trivalent Subunit Antigen Vaccine for Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Sita; Huang, Jialing; Shaw, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) subunit antigen vaccines targeting virus entry molecules have failed to prevent genital herpes in human trials. Our approach is to include a virus entry molecule and add antigens that block HSV-2 immune evasion. HSV-2 glycoprotein C (gC2) is an immune evasion molecule that inhibits complement. We previously reported that adding gC2 to gD2 improved vaccine efficacy compared to the efficacy of either antigen alone in mice and guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that HSV-2 glycoprotein E (gE2) functions as an immune evasion molecule by binding the IgG Fc domain. HSV-2 gE2 is synergistic with gC2 in protecting the virus from antibody and complement neutralization. Antibodies produced by immunization with gE2 blocked gE2-mediated IgG Fc binding and cell-to-cell spread. Mice immunized with gE2 were only partially protected against HSV-2 vaginal challenge in mice; however, when gE2 was added to gC2/gD2 to form a trivalent vaccine, neutralizing antibody titers with and without complement were significantly higher than those produced by gD2 alone. Importantly, the trivalent vaccine protected the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of 32/33 (97%) mice between days 2 and 7 postchallenge, compared with 27/33 (82%) in the gD2 group. The HSV-2 DNA copy number was significantly lower in mice immunized with the trivalent vaccine than in those immunized with gD2 alone. The extent of DRG protection using the trivalent vaccine was better than what we previously reported for gC2/gD2 immunization. Therefore, gE2 is a candidate antigen for inclusion in a multivalent subunit vaccine that attempts to block HSV-2 immune evasion. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. Infection results in emotional distress for infected individuals and their partners, is life threatening for infants exposed to herpes during childbirth, and greatly increases the risk of individuals acquiring and transmitting HIV infection. A vaccine that prevents genital herpes infection will have major public health benefits. Our vaccine approach includes strategies to prevent the virus from evading immune attack. Mice were immunized with a trivalent vaccine containing an antigen that induces antibodies to block virus entry and two antigens that induce antibodies that block immune evasion from antibody and complement. Immunized mice demonstrated no genital disease, and 32/33 (97%) animals had no evidence of infection of dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that the vaccine may prevent the establishment of latency and recurrent infections. PMID:24829358

  4. Modulation of HLA-G and HLA-E expression in human neuronal cells after rabies virus or herpes virus simplex type -1 infections

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    @pasteur.fr Key words : HLA-G, HLA-E, rabies virus, HSV-1, neurons, Ntera-2-D/1 Abbreviations : RABV (rabies virus), HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1), mAb monoclonal antibody, HCMV ( Human cytomegalovirus) #12 to virus and tumour immune escape. We recently described that the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1

  5. Contributions of Antibody and T Cell Subsets to Protection Elicited by Immunization with a Replication-Defective Mutant of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    Replication-defective mutants of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) elicit immune responses in mice that reduce parental HSV-1 strain, or uninfected cell lysate was used to examine the role of antibody. Despite virus is the etiologic agent of a variety of significant human diseases. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1

  6. Identification of a Divalent Metal Cation Binding Site in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8 Required for HSV Replication

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    Identification of a Divalent Metal Cation Binding Site in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8,a and Clinical Faculty, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USAb Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8 activity in vitro. Alignment of the HSV-1 ICP8 amino acid sequence with ICP8 homologs from other her

  7. The Role of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses against Alpha Herpes Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Philipp; Boscheinen, Jan Bernardin; Tennert, Karin; Schmidt, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, two independent groups identified plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) as major type I interferon- (IFN-) producing cells in the blood. Since then, evidence is accumulating that PDC are a multifunctional cell population effectively coordinating innate and adaptive immune responses. This paper focuses on the role of different immune cells and their interactions in the surveillance of alpha herpes virus infections, summarizes current knowledge on PDC surface receptors and their role in direct cell-cell contacts, and develops a risk factor model for the clinical implications of herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus reactivation. Data from studies involving knockout mice and cell-depletion experiments as well as human studies converge into a “spider web”, in which the direct and indirect crosstalk between many cell populations tightly controls acute, latent, and recurrent alpha herpes virus infections. Notably, cells involved in innate immune regulations appear to shape adaptive immune responses more extensively than previously thought. PMID:22312349

  8. Superficial cervical plexus block for management of herpes zoster neuralgia in the C3 dermatome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Herpes zoster is a well-known reactivating viral disease that gives rise to painful skin lesions. Although this vesicular rash heals up within a few weeks, pain sometimes continues, becoming postherpetic neuralgia. In the case of those at high risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia, early interventional pain management is generally recommended as a preventive measure. Pain specialists usually do not see patients face-to-face for chronic refractory pain until the stage of postherpetic neuralgia. However, active and aggressive management, including antiviral treatment, of herpetic neuralgia during the acute stage of herpes zoster promises better results. In this respect, superficial cervical plexus block can help patients, such as the case reported here, by relieving the pain of herpes zoster involving the C3 dermatome. Case presentation A 65-year-old Korean man with severe pain in his left C3 dermatome due to herpes zoster was admitted to our hospital. His pain was so refractory to medication that he consulted our pain clinic for pain control. Due to the medication limitations imposed by his underlying diseases (hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis, atrial fibrillation, and asthma), early interventional therapy including stellate ganglion block was planned. In addition, because his painful C3 dermatome overlapped significantly with the superficial cervical plexus dermatome, ultrasound-guided superficial cervical plexus block was utilized for pain control of the intractable herpes zoster neuritis in his C3 dermatome. The result with respect to his sporadic neuralgia was satisfactory. Conclusions We found superficial cervical plexus block to be an effective interventional procedure for pain management of herpes zoster, particularly at the C3-dermatomal level. PMID:24548417

  9. Neurosyphilis versus Herpes Encephalitis in a Patient with Confusion, Memory Loss, and T2-Weighted Mesiotemporal Hyperintensity

    PubMed Central

    Vedes, Elisa; Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Rodrigues, Rita; Reimão, Sofia; Ribeiro, Alice; Antunes, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Acute confusion and memory loss associated with asymmetrical mesiotemporal hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI are characteristic of herpes encephalitis. The authors report the case of a patient with these symptoms and MRI presentation who had neurosyphilis. Recently clinical and imaging patterns usually associated with herpes simplex encephalitis have been seen in patients with neurosyphilis. Because syphilis is “The Great Pretender” not only clinically but also in imaging and because its numbers are rising, it must be sought as a differential diagnosis. PMID:22567486

  10. Characterization of heterosubunit complexes formed by the R1 and R2 subunits of herpes simplex virus 1 and equine herpes virus 4 ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Conner, J

    2000-04-01

    We report on the separate PCR cloning and subsequent expression and purification of the large (R1) and small (R2) subunits from equine herpes virus type 4 (EHV-4) ribonucleotide reductase. The EHV-4 R1 and R2 subunits reconstituted an active enzyme and their abilities to complement the R1 and R2 subunits from the closely related herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ribonucleotide reductase, with the use of subunit interaction and enzyme activity assays, were analysed. Both EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 were able to assemble heterosubunit complexes but, surprisingly, neither of these complexes was fully active in enzyme activity assays; the EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 enzymes had 50% and 5% of their respective wild-type activities. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to alter two non-conserved residues located within the highly conserved and functionally important C-termini of the EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 proteins. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys and Lys-1084 to Pro in EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 respectively had no effects on subunit assembly. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys in EHV-4 R1 decreased enzyme activity by 50%; replacement of Lys-1084 by Pro in HSV-1 R1 had no effect on enzyme activity. Both alterations failed to restore full enzyme activities to the heterosubunit enzymes. Therefore probably neither of these amino acids has a direct role in catalysis. However, mutation of the highly conserved Tyr-1111 to Phe in HSV-1 R1 inactivated enzyme activity without affecting subunit interaction. PMID:10727407

  11. Characterization of heterosubunit complexes formed by the R1 and R2 subunits of herpes simplex virus 1 and equine herpes virus 4 ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y; Conner, J

    2000-01-01

    We report on the separate PCR cloning and subsequent expression and purification of the large (R1) and small (R2) subunits from equine herpes virus type 4 (EHV-4) ribonucleotide reductase. The EHV-4 R1 and R2 subunits reconstituted an active enzyme and their abilities to complement the R1 and R2 subunits from the closely related herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ribonucleotide reductase, with the use of subunit interaction and enzyme activity assays, were analysed. Both EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 were able to assemble heterosubunit complexes but, surprisingly, neither of these complexes was fully active in enzyme activity assays; the EHV-4 R1/HSV-1 R2 and HSV-1 R1/EHV-4 R2 enzymes had 50% and 5% of their respective wild-type activities. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to alter two non-conserved residues located within the highly conserved and functionally important C-termini of the EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 proteins. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys and Lys-1084 to Pro in EHV-4 and HSV-1 R1 respectively had no effects on subunit assembly. Mutation of Pro-737 to Lys in EHV-4 R1 decreased enzyme activity by 50%; replacement of Lys-1084 by Pro in HSV-1 R1 had no effect on enzyme activity. Both alterations failed to restore full enzyme activities to the heterosubunit enzymes. Therefore probably neither of these amino acids has a direct role in catalysis. However, mutation of the highly conserved Tyr-1111 to Phe in HSV-1 R1 inactivated enzyme activity without affecting subunit interaction. PMID:10727407

  12. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of infants with human parechovirus or human herpes virus-6 detected in cerebrospinal fluid tested for enterovirus or herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Messacar, Kevin; Breazeale, Garrett; Wei, Qi; Robinson, Christine C; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2015-05-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) are acquired commonly in infancy and associated with central nervous system infection. The prevalence of HPeV and HHV-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infants tested for enterovirus (EV) and herpes-simplex virus (HSV) is unknown. All stored CSF samples from EV or HSV testing in infants less than 6 months of age at Children's Hospital Colorado between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were tested for HPeV, HHV-6, EV, and HSV by PCR. Clinical characteristics and epidemiological data were collected using retrospective electronic chart review. Of 239 infants tested, 29 cases of EV (12.1%), 7 cases of HPeV (2.9%), 5 cases of HHV-6 (2.1%), and 5 cases of HSV (2.1%) were identified with no bacterial co-infections. HPeV cases occurred between July and October in infants with median age of 24 days. Infants with HPeV had a median maximum temperature of 39?°C, median fever duration of 3 days and median peripheral white blood cell count of 5.2?×?10(3) /?L. HHV-6 cases occurred in infants with median age of 61 days without seasonality. Five percent of infants less than 6 months of age undergoing testing for EV or HSV have HPeV or HHV-6 in the CSF. Targeting testing of HPeV towards febrile infants less than 2 months of age with leukopenia in the late summer to early fall, and HHV-6 towards older infants may increase diagnostic yield. The clinical and fiscal impact of testing infants for HPeV and HHV-6 needs to be determined. J. Med. Virol. 87:829-835, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25650069

  13. Establishment of a new cell line susceptible to Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) and possible latency of CyHV-3 by temperature shift in the cells.

    PubMed

    Imajoh, M; Fujioka, H; Furusawa, K; Tamura, K; Yamasaki, K; Kurihara, S; Yamane, J; Kawai, K; Oshima, S

    2015-06-01

    A new cell line named CCF-K104 predominantly consisting of fibroblastic cells showed optimal growth at temperatures from 25 °C to 30 °C. Serial morphological changes in the cells induced by Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) included cytoplasmic vacuolar formation, cell rounding and detachment. Mature virions were purified from CyHV-3-infected CCF-K104 cells by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and had a typical herpesvirus structure on electron microscopy. Infectious CyHV-3 was produced stably in CCF-K104 cells over 30 viral passages. Our findings showed that CCF-K104 is a useful cell line for isolation and productive replication of CyHV-3. A temperature shift from 25 °C to 15 °C or 35 °C did not allow serial morphological changes as observed at 25 °C for 14 days. Under the same conditions, real-time PCR showed that CyHV-3 was present with low viral DNA loads, suggesting that CyHV-3 may establish latent infection in CCF-K104 cells. Amplification of the left and right terminal repeat sequences of the CyHV-3 genome arranged in a head-to-tail manner was detected by nested PCR following an upshift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C. The PCR results suggested that the circular genome may represent a latent form of CyHV-3. PMID:24820532

  14. Antiviral activity of salivary microRNAs for ophthalmic herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Irmak, M Kemal; Erdem, Uzeyir; Kubar, Ayhan

    2012-01-01

    Ophthalmic herpes zoster is a common ocular infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Viral mRNA transcripts play a major role in the replicative cycle of the virus and current antiviral agents have little effect in preventing and treating the complications. Therapeutic use of saliva for certain painful ocular diseases such as ophthalmic herpes zoster is a well-known public practice in our region. We thought that antiviral activity of saliva may stem from salivary microvesicles and we aimed to look for molecules with antiviral activity in these vesicles. As a possible candidate for antiviral activity, salivary microvesicles contain at least 20 microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, which suppress the translation of target mRNAs. miRNAs not only participate in maintenance of normal cell functions, but are also involved in host-virus interactions and limit the replication of certain virus types. Thus, miRNA gene therapy by targeting mRNAs required for VZV survival may find a niche in the treatment of ophthalmic herpes zoster. But, how could salivary microvesicles reach into the corneal cells to demonstrate their antiviral activity. We suggest that human salivary microvesicles can be effective carriers of miRNA for corneal cells, because they contain a molecular machinery for vesicle trafficking and fusion allowing them to be endocytosed by target cells. After binding to the plasma membrane, microvesicles seem to enter into the corneal cells through the clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In the cytosol, human salivary miRNAs base-pair with specific viral mRNAs and inhibit their translation, thus limiting the replication of the virus. PMID:22676898

  15. Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, G R; Woolley, P D; Thin, R N; De Maubeuge, J; Foidart, J M; Engst, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. DESIGN--Double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial. SETTING--13 centres in UK, Belgium and Germany. SUBJECTS--127 immunocompetent patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of patients reporting recurrences, recurrence frequency, and mean duration of lesions during breakthrough recurrences in each treatment group during a 6 month treatment period; time to first recurrence during treatment and follow-up after treatment cessation. RESULTS--During treatment, acyclovir recipients showed significant differences (p < 0.05) when compared with isoprinosine recipients in terms of a lower proportion reporting recurrences (31% vs 96%), a reduced mean number of reported recurrences per patient (0.6 vs 3.6), a shorter mean duration of breakthrough lesions (6.4 days vs 8.2 days), and a longer mean time (standard error) to first recurrence (143.7 (9.1) days vs 40.5 (5.4) days. The mean time to first recurrence after treatment cessation did not differ between the two groups. As compared with placebo recipients, isoprinosine treated patients had an increased recurrence frequency (3.6 vs 2.5) during treatment, and a shorter time to first recurrence after treatment cessation. All treatments were well tolerated without serious adverse events or toxicity. CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. PMID:1385295

  16. A Complex Role of Herpes Viruses in the Disease Process of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Simone C.; Mexhitaj, Ina; Chai, Noo Ri; Romm, Elena; Scheffel, Joerg; Xu, Biying; Lane, Kelly; Wu, Tianxia; Bielekova, Bibiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Neither the antigenic target(s) nor the cell population(s) responsible for CNS tissue destruction in MS have been fully defined. The objective of this study was to simultaneously determine the antigen (Ag)-specificity and phenotype of un-manipulated intrathecal CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of patients with relapsing-remitting and progressive MS compared to subjects with other inflammatory neurological diseases. We applied a novel Ag-recognition assay based on co-cultures of freshly obtained cerebrospinal fluid T cells and autologous dendritic cells pre-loaded with complex candidate Ag's. We observed comparably low T cell responses to complex auto-Ag's including human myelin, brain homogenate, and cell lysates of apoptotically modified oligodendroglial and neuronal cells in all cohorts and both compartments. Conversely, we detected a strong intrathecal enrichment of Epstein-Barr virus- and human herpes virus 6-specific (but not cytomegalovirus-specific) reactivities of the Th1-phenotype throughout all patients. Qualitatively, the intrathecal enrichment of herpes virus reactivities was more pronounced in MS patients. This enrichment was completely reversed by long-term treatment with the IL-2 modulating antibody daclizumab, which strongly inhibits MS disease activity. Finally, we observed a striking discrepancy between diminished intrathecal T cell proliferation and enhanced cytokine production of herpes virus-specific T cells among progressive MS patients, consistent with the phenotype of terminally differentiated cells. The data suggest that intrathecal administration of novel therapeutic agents targeting immune cells outside of the proliferation cycle may be necessary to effectively eliminate intrathecal inflammation in progressive MS. PMID:25148387

  17. A Single gD Glycoprotein Can Mediate Infection by Herpes simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses display hundreds of gD glycoproteins, and yet their neutralization requires tens of thousands of antibodies per virion, leading us to ask whether a wild-type virion with just a single free gD is still infective. By quantitative analysis of fluorescently labeled virus particles and virus neutralization assays, we show that entry of a wild-type HSV virion to a cell does indeed require just one or two of the approximately 300 gD glycoproteins to be left unbound by monoclonal antibody. This indicates that HSV entry is an extraordinarily efficient process, functioning at the level of single molecular complexes. PMID:23837576

  18. Therapeutic Approaches Using Host Defence Peptides to Tackle Herpes Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2009-01-01

    One of the most common viral infections in humans is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can easily be treated with nucleoside analogues (e.g., acyclovir), but resistant strains are on the rise. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides have been demonstrated to possess antiviral activity against HSV. New evidence has also indicated that these host defence peptides are able to selectively stimulate the innate immune system to fight of infections. This review will focus on the anti-HSV activity of such peptides (both natural and synthetic), describe their mode of action and their clinical potential. PMID:21994576

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Cytoplasmic Envelopment Requires Functional Vps4?

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Colin M.; Yates, Catherine; Minson, Tony

    2007-01-01

    The assembly and egress of herpesviruses are complex processes that require the budding of viral nucleocapsids into the lumen of cytoplasmic compartments to form mature infectious virus. This envelopment stage shares many characteristics with the formation of luminal vesicles in multivesicular endosomes. Through expression of dominant-negative Vps4, an enzyme that is essential for the formation of luminal vesicles in multivesicular endosomes, we now show that Vps4 function is required for the cytoplasmic envelopment of herpes simplex virus type 1. This is the first example of a large enveloped DNA virus engaging the multivesicular endosome sorting machinery to enable infectious virus production. PMID:17507493

  20. (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-Deoxyuridine in the treatment of experimental herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Maudgal, P C; De Clercq, E; Descamps, J; Missotten, L; De Somer, P; Busson, R; Vanderhaeghe, H; Verhelst, G; Walker, R T; Jones, A S

    1980-01-01

    IDU (5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine), BVDU [(E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine] and placebo ointments were studied for their effects on experimental herpes simplex (type 1) keratoconjuncitivitis in rabbits. When treatment was begun 65 h after virus inoculation, both BVDU and IDU prevented development of keratitis. Both BVDU and IDU were also effective in suppressing the severity of conjunctivitis, and in this respect, BVDU proved significantly better than IDU. When treatment was started 110 h after virus inoculation, BVDU proved significantly better than IDU in promoting healing of established keratitis. PMID:7352751

  1. Herpes Gestationis after Ovodonation: Is Placenta the only Target of the Immune Reaction?

    PubMed

    Piva, Isabella; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Marci, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    Herpes Gestationis (HG) is an autoimmune disorder that rarely complicates pregnancy. Its pathogenesis has not been clarified yet, as it derives from a complex interplay between immunologic, genetic, and hormonal factors. We present a case of HG occurring in a surrogate mother whose pregnancy was achieved via egg donation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The disease appeared at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestation and subsequently worsened despite the administration of oral and topic corticosteroids. A healthy baby was delivered at 35 weeks and 2 days of gestation by elective cesarean section and the clinical manifestations resolved in the postpartum period. PMID:25584273

  2. Herpes Gestationis after Ovodonation: Is Placenta the only Target of the Immune Reaction?

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Isabella; Monte, Giuseppe Lo; Graziano, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Gestationis (HG) is an autoimmune disorder that rarely complicates pregnancy. Its pathogenesis has not been clarified yet, as it derives from a complex interplay between immunologic, genetic, and hormonal factors. We present a case of HG occurring in a surrogate mother whose pregnancy was achieved via egg donation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The disease appeared at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestation and subsequently worsened despite the administration of oral and topic corticosteroids. A healthy baby was delivered at 35 weeks and 2 days of gestation by elective cesarean section and the clinical manifestations resolved in the postpartum period. PMID:25584273

  3. Incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases the risk of subsequent episodes of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Masese, Linnet; Baeten, Jared M; Richardson, Barbra A; Bukusi, Elizabeth; John-Stewart, Grace; Jaoko, Walter; Shafi, Juma; Kiarie, James; McClelland, R Scott

    2014-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected women have a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) compared to HSV-2-seronegative women. To explore the temporal association between these conditions, we evaluated the frequency of BV episodes before and after HSV-2 acquisition in a prospective study of 406 HSV-2/HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan women, of whom 164 acquired HSV-2. Incident HSV-2 was associated with increased likelihood of BV (adjusted OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56; P = .01). Our findings strengthen the evidence for a causal link between genital HSV-2 infection and disruption of the vaginal microbiota. PMID:24273042

  4. Latent herpes simplex virus 1 infection does not induce apoptosis in human trigeminal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Himmelein, Susanne; Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-05-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8(+) T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  5. Three genetic grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 variants identified from South African vineyards show high variability in their 5?UTR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. C. Jooste; H. J. Maree; D. U. Bellstedt; D. E. Goszczynski; G. Pietersen; J. T. Burger

    2010-01-01

    Three genetic variants of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) were identified in vineyards of the Western Cape,\\u000a South Africa. The GLRaV-3 variants were identified by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) profiles generated from\\u000a a region amplified in ORF5. ORF5 sequence data confirmed the three genetic variant groups, and a specific SSCP profile was\\u000a assigned to each variant group. The results of

  6. Completely assembled virus particles detected by transmission electron microscopy in proximal and mid-axons of neurons infected with herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and pseudorabies virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jialing Huang; Helen M. Lazear; Harvey M. Friedman

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of alphaherpesviruses during anterograde axonal transport from the neuron cell body towards the axon terminus is controversial. Reports suggest that transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) nucleocapsids and envelope proteins occurs in separate compartments and that complete virions form at varicosities or axon termini (subassembly transport model), while transport of a related alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV)

  7. Relay of Herpes Simplex Virus between Langerhans Cells and Dermal Dendritic Cells in Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min; Truong, Naomi R; James, Virginia; Bosnjak, Lidija; Sandgren, Kerrie J; Harman, Andrew N; Nasr, Najla; Bertram, Kirstie M; Olbourne, Norman; Sawleshwarkar, Shailandra; McKinnon, Kaylene; Cohen, Ralph C; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism by which immunity to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is initiated is not completely defined. HSV initially infects mucosal epidermis prior to entering nerve endings. In mice, epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first dendritic cells (DCs) to encounter HSV, but it is CD103+ dermal DCs that carry viral antigen to lymph nodes for antigen presentation, suggesting DC cross-talk in skin. In this study, we compared topically HSV-1 infected human foreskin explants with biopsies of initial human genital herpes lesions to show LCs are initially infected then emigrate into the dermis. Here, LCs bearing markers of maturation and apoptosis formed large cell clusters with BDCA3+ dermal DCs (thought to be equivalent to murine CD103+ dermal DCs) and DC-SIGN+ DCs/macrophages. HSV-expressing LC fragments were observed inside the dermal DCs/macrophages and the BDCA3+ dermal DCs had up-regulated a damaged cell uptake receptor CLEC9A. No other infected epidermal cells interacted with dermal DCs. Correspondingly, LCs isolated from human skin and infected with HSV-1 in vitro also underwent apoptosis and were taken up by similarly isolated BDCA3+ dermal DCs and DC-SIGN+ cells. Thus, we conclude a viral antigen relay takes place where HSV infected LCs undergo apoptosis and are taken up by dermal DCs for subsequent antigen presentation. This provides a rationale for targeting these cells with mucosal or perhaps intradermal HSV immunization. PMID:25875649

  8. Relationship of herpes simplex encephalitis and transcranial direct current stimulation-a case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanbin; Xiao, Juan; Song, Haiqing; Wang, Ralph; Hussain, Mohammed; Song, Weiqun

    2015-04-01

    We report a rare case of relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis in a-37-year-old patient which was previously confirmed by positive polymerase chain reaction, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type1 IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and characterized on MRI. During the first admission, he was treated with continuous acyclovir treatment for one month with clinical improvement except for residual aphasia, for which he received a course of outpatient transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A constant current of 1.2mA was applied for 20min twice daily. After the 4th day the patient was found to be irritable and uncooperative by staff and family members. A subsequent MRI showed significant deterioration of the lesion on comparison to the first MRI which led to discontinuation of tDCS.The relatively rapid exacerbation of HSV in only a few days is unusual. Our aim is to discuss if tDCS is related to HSV relapse and in doing so highlight possible mechanisms. PMID:25766987

  9. Complementary intrastrand base pairing during initiation of Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Aslani, A; Macao, B; Simonsson, S; Elias, P

    2001-06-19

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 origin of DNA replication, oriS, contains three copies of the recognition sequence for the viral initiator protein, origin binding protein (OBP), arranged in two palindromes. The central box I forms a short palindrome with box III and a long palindrome with box II. Single-stranded oriS adopts a conformation, oriS*, that is tightly bound by OBP. Here we demonstrate that OBP binds to a box III-box I hairpin with a 3' single-stranded tail in oriS*. Mutations designed to destabilize the hairpin abolish the binding of OBP to oriS*. The same mutations also inhibit DNA replication. Second site complementary mutations restore binding of OBP to oriS* as well as the ability of mutated oriS to support DNA replication. OriS* is also an efficient activator of the hydrolysis of ATP by OBP. Sequence analyses show that a box III-box I palindrome is an evolutionarily conserved feature of origins of DNA replication from human, equine, bovine, and gallid alpha herpes viruses. We propose that oriS facilitates initiation of DNA synthesis in two steps and that OBP exhibits exquisite specificity for the different conformations oriS adopts at these stages. Our model suggests that distance-dependent cooperative binding of OBP to boxes I and II in duplex DNA is succeeded by specific recognition of a box III-box I hairpin in partially unwound DNA. PMID:11416203

  10. Diagnosing of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Suspected Patients Using Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadi, Nasrin; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Asaei, Sadaf; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus infections are very common worldwide. The virus can cause infection in various body parts, especially eyes and the nervous system. Therefore, an early diagnosis and highly sensitive method is very helpful. Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the efficiency of Real-time TaqMan probe PCR in the diagnosis of HSV infection in suspected patients. Patients and Methods: In this study, 1566 patients with suspected HSV infections were enrolled. They aged 17 days to 96 years. The collected specimens were classified into four groups; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from HSE suspected individuals, samples from eye epithelial scraping, tear fluid or aqueous humor from herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) suspected patients, plasma of immune compromised patients and mucocutaneous collected samples from different body parts. The samples were analyzed by Real-time PCR assays. Results: In total, 44 (5.6%), 118 (26.8%), 23 (11.7%), 13 (44.8%) and 65 (45.5%) of 791 HSE, 407 HSK, 29 skin HSV, 143 oropharyngeal suspected patients and 196 patients with systemic HSV infection HSV had positive results by Real-time PCR assays, respectively. Conclusions: Real-time PCR assay, due to its high sensitivity and specificity, can help in early diagnosis and more effective treatment for patients. Also, it requires shorter hospital stay and promotes patients' survival.

  11. Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Basta-Juzbaši?, Aleksandra; ?eovi?, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. PMID:24559566

  12. Relay of Herpes Simplex Virus between Langerhans Cells and Dermal Dendritic Cells in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min; Truong, Naomi R.; James, Virginia; Bosnjak, Lidija; Sandgren, Kerrie J.; Harman, Andrew N.; Nasr, Najla; Bertram, Kirstie M.; Olbourne, Norman; Sawleshwarkar, Shailandra; McKinnon, Kaylene; Cohen, Ralph C.; Cunningham, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism by which immunity to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is initiated is not completely defined. HSV initially infects mucosal epidermis prior to entering nerve endings. In mice, epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first dendritic cells (DCs) to encounter HSV, but it is CD103+ dermal DCs that carry viral antigen to lymph nodes for antigen presentation, suggesting DC cross-talk in skin. In this study, we compared topically HSV-1 infected human foreskin explants with biopsies of initial human genital herpes lesions to show LCs are initially infected then emigrate into the dermis. Here, LCs bearing markers of maturation and apoptosis formed large cell clusters with BDCA3+ dermal DCs (thought to be equivalent to murine CD103+ dermal DCs) and DC-SIGN+ DCs/macrophages. HSV-expressing LC fragments were observed inside the dermal DCs/macrophages and the BDCA3+ dermal DCs had up-regulated a damaged cell uptake receptor CLEC9A. No other infected epidermal cells interacted with dermal DCs. Correspondingly, LCs isolated from human skin and infected with HSV-1 in vitro also underwent apoptosis and were taken up by similarly isolated BDCA3+ dermal DCs and DC-SIGN+ cells. Thus, we conclude a viral antigen relay takes place where HSV infected LCs undergo apoptosis and are taken up by dermal DCs for subsequent antigen presentation. This provides a rationale for targeting these cells with mucosal or perhaps intradermal HSV immunization. PMID:25875649

  13. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of ({sup 3}H)-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells.

  14. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of herpes simplex virus encephalitis with a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y.; Price, R.W.; Rottenberg, D.A.; Fox, J.J.; Su, T.L.; Watanabe, K.A.; Philips, F.S.

    1982-09-17

    2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-..beta..-D-arabinosyluracil (FMAU) labeled with carbon-14 was used to image herpes simplex virus type 1-infected regions of rat brain by quantitative autoradiography. FMAU is a potent antiviral pyrimidine nucleoside which is selectively phosphorylated by virus-coded thymidine kinase. When the labeled FMAU was administered 6 hours before the rats were killed, the selective uptake and concentration of the drug and its metabolites by infected cells (defined by immunoperoxidase staining of viral antigens) allowed quantitative definition and mapping of HSV-1-infected structures in autoradiograms of brain sections. These results shown that quantitative autoradiography can be used to characterize the local metabolism of antiviral drugs by infected cells in vivo. They also suggest that the selective uptake of drugs that exploit viral thymidine kinase for their antiviral effect can, by appropriate labeling, be used in conjunction with clinical neuroimaging techniques to define infected regions of human brain, thereby providing a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis in man.

  15. Rad51 and Rad52 Are Involved in Homologous Recombination of Replicating Herpes Simplex Virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ka-Wei; Norberg, Peter; Holmudden, Martin; Elias, Per; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Replication of herpes simplex virus 1 is coupled to recombination, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly characterized. The role of Rad51 and Rad52 recombinases in viral recombination was examined in human fibroblast cells 1BR.3.N (wild type) and in GM16097 with replication defects caused by mutations in DNA ligase I. Intermolecular recombination between viruses, tsS and tsK, harboring genetic markers gave rise to ?17% recombinants in both cell lines. Knock-down of Rad51 and Rad52 by siRNA reduced production of recombinants to 11% and 5%, respectively, in wild type cells and to 3% and 5%, respectively, in GM16097 cells. The results indicate a specific role for Rad51 and Rad52 in recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus 1 DNA. Mixed infections using clinical isolates with restriction enzyme polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes revealed recombination frequencies of 0.7%/kbp in wild type cells and 4%/kbp in GM16097 cells. Finally, tandem repeats in the US7 gene remained stable upon serial passage, indicating a high fidelity of recombination in infected cells. PMID:25365323

  16. Salivary Varicella Zoster Virus in Astronauts and in Patients of Herpes Zoster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight is a uniquely stressful environment with astronauts experiencing a variety of stressors including: isolation and confinement, psychosocial, noise, sleep deprivation, anxiety, variable gravitational forces, and increased radiation. These stressors are manifested through the HPA and SAM axes resulting in increased stress hormones. Diminished T-lymphocyte functions lead to reactivation of latent herpes viruses in astronauts during spaceflight. Herpes simplex virus reactivated with symptoms during spaceflight whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate and are shed without symptoms. EBV and VZV are shed in saliva and CMV in the urine. The levels of EBV shed in astronauts increased 10-fold during the flight; CMV and VZV are not typically shed in low stressed individuals, but both were shed in astronauts during spaceflight. All herpesviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Culturing revealed that VZV shed in saliva was infectious virus. The PCR technology was extended to test saliva of 54 shingles patients. All shingles patients shed VZV in their saliva, and the levels followed the course of the disease. Viremia was also found to be common during shingles. The technology may be used before zoster lesions appear allowing for prevention of disease. The technology may be used for rapid detection of VZV in doctors? offices. These studies demonstrated the value of applying technologies designed for astronauts to people on Earth.

  17. Specific inhibition of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase by helical peptides corresponding to the subunit interface.

    PubMed Central

    Digard, P; Williams, K P; Hensley, P; Brooks, I S; Dahl, C E; Coen, D M

    1995-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits--a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial alpha-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of alpha-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase delta and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7878000

  18. Yeast gene CDC8 encodes thymidylate kinase and is complemented by herpes thymidine kinase gene TK.

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, R A; Fangman, W L

    1984-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene TK complements the defect in five temperature-sensitive mutants and in vitro constructed insertion and deletion mutants of the CDC8 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The herpes thymidine kinase enzyme acts as both a thymidine kinase and a thymidylate kinase (dTMP kinase). The latter activity is responsible for the cdc8 complementation since all thermosensitive cdc8 mutants are deficient in dTMP kinase activity at all temperatures. However, an intragenic revertant, cdc8-320, which was selected by demanding mitotic growth at the restrictive temperature, exhibits thermolabile dTMP kinase activity. We conclude that CDC8 is the structural gene for dTMP kinase, which catalyzes an essential step in DNA precursor biosynthesis. Previously, it has been shown that the DNA replication defect of cdc8 mutants could not be bypassed by the addition of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates to permeabilized cells. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by hypothesizing a multiprotein yeast DNA replication complex containing the CDC8 protein. PMID:6091111

  19. Combinatorial strategies for oncolytic herpes simplex virus therapy of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryuichi; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Oncolytic viruses, such as the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV), are an exciting new therapeutic strategy for cancer as they are replication competent in tumor cells but not normal cells. In order to engender herpes simplex virus with oncolytic activity and make it safe for clinical application, mutations are engineered into the virus. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadly primary brain tumor in adults. Despite many advances in therapy, overall survival has not been substantially improved over the last several decades. A number of different oHSVs have been tested as monotherapy in early-phase clinical trials for GBM and have demonstrated safety and anecdotal evidence of efficacy. However, strategies to improve efficacy are likely to be necessary to successfully treat GBM. Cancer treatment usually involves multimodal approaches, so the standard of care for GBM includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In preclinical GBM models, combinations of oHSV with other types of therapy have exhibited markedly improved activity over individual treatments alone. In this review, we will discuss the various combination strategies that have been employed with oHSV, including chemotherapy, small-molecule inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents, radiotherapy and expression of therapeutic transgenes. Effective combinations, especially synergistic ones, are clinically important not just for improved efficacy but also to permit lower and less-toxic doses and potentially overcome resistance. PMID:23687568

  20. Phenotype of the herpes simplex virus type 1 protease substrate ICP35 mutant virus.

    PubMed Central

    Matusick-Kumar, L; Hurlburt, W; Weinheimer, S P; Newcomb, W W; Brown, J C; Gao, M

    1994-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP35 assembly protein is involved in the formation of viral capsids. ICP35 is encoded by the UL26.5 gene and is specifically processed by the herpes simplex virus type 1 protease encoded by the UL26 gene. To better understand the functions of ICP35 in infected cells, we have isolated and characterized an ICP35 mutant virus, delta ICP35. The mutant virus was propagated in complementing 35J cells, which express wild-type ICP35. Phenotypic analysis of delta ICP35 shows that (i) mutant virus growth in Vero cells was severely restricted, although small amounts of progeny virus was produced; (ii) full-length ICP35 protein was not produced, although autoproteolysis of the protease still occurred in mutant-infected nonpermissive cells; (iii) viral DNA replication of the mutant proceeded at wild-type levels, but only a very small portion of the replicated DNA was processed to unit length and encapsidated; (iv) capsid structures were observed in delta ICP35-infected Vero cells by electron microscopy and by sucrose sedimentation analysis; (v) assembly of VP5 into hexons of the capsids was conformationally altered; and (vi) ICP35 has a novel function which is involved in the nuclear transport of VP5. Images PMID:8057422

  1. Effect of tunicamycin on herpes simplex virus glycoproteins and infectious virus production.

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, L I; Cohen, G H; Eisenberg, R J

    1980-01-01

    The antibiotic tunicamycin, which blocks the synthesis of glycoproteins, inhibited the production of infectious herpes simplex virus. In the presence of this drug, [14C]glucosamine and [3H]mannose incorporation was reduced in infected cells, whereas total protein synthesis was not affected. Gel electrophoresis of [2-3H]mannose-labeled polypeptides failed to detect glycoprotein D or any of the other herpes simplex virus glycoproteins. By use of specific antisera we demonstrated that in the presence of tunicamycin the normal precursors to viral glycoproteins failed to appear. Instead, lower-molecular-weight polypeptides were found which were antigenically and structurally related to the glycosylated proteins. Evidence is presented to show that blocking the addition of carbohydrate to glycoprotein precursors with tunicamycin results in the disappearance of molecules, possibly due to degradation of the unglycosylated polypeptides. We infer that the added carbohydrate either stabilizes the envelope proteins or provides the proper structure for correct processing of the molecules needed for infectivity. Images PMID:6246250

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Neonates and Young Infants with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Amel Jamehdar, Saeid; Mammouri, Gholamali; Sharifi Hoseini, Mohammad Reza; Nomani, Hosein; Afzalaghaee, Monavvar; Boskabadi, Hassan; Aelami, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neonatal herpes infection is the most serious complication of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy and perinatal period. Few studies have reported neonatal HSV infection in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the HSV infection among neonates and infants with sepsis. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all infants aged less than 3 months, admitted to neonatal intensive care unit and pediatric emergency ward of Ghaem Hospital (a university hospital with 900 beds) in Mashhad (Northeast of Iran) with clinical diagnosis of sepsis and at least one inclusion criteria during one year from November 2009 to October 2010, were enrolled in the study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on clinical samples obtained from patients. Results: Among 150 neonates and infants younger than 3 months old with sepsis, the PCR results for detecting the HSV DNA, were positive in 6 samples of 5 patients (3.3 %). None of the mothers had symptomatic HSV infection during delivery. The mean age of the patients was 18 days. Two of them died due to shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Conclusions: In neonates and infants with primary diagnosis of sepsis, HSV infection should be considered especially if the clinical condition does not improve after 48 hours of antibiotic therapy, and sepsis still exists with elevated liver enzymes. PMID:24719742

  3. Recombination in vitro between herpes simplex virus type 1 a sequences.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, R C; Dutch, R E; Zemelman, B V; Mocarski, E S; Lehman, I R

    1992-11-15

    We have partially purified an activity from extracts of cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 that mediates recombination between repeated copies of the 317-base-pair a sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1. Recombination leads to deletion of a lacZ indicator gene situated between two directly repeated copies of the a sequence and is scored by transformation of lacZ- Escherichia coli. The two products of the reaction can be observed directly by restriction enzyme digestion and Southern blot analysis. The recombinase activity is also detectable, but at a lower level, in uninfected cell extracts. The DNA substrate must contain the two a sequences arranged in direct orientation to generate the lacZ deletion. However, when the a sequences are arranged in inverted orientation, an inversion results. A substrate with two homologous sequences of size and G + C content similar to the a sequence undergoes recombination at a much lower frequency. The reaction requires a divalent cation (Mg2+ or Mn2+) but not ATP or any other nucleoside triphosphate. The simple requirements and specificity for the a sequence suggest that the recombination may proceed by a site-specific mechanism. PMID:1332062

  4. Sampling of herpes zoster skin lesion types and the impact on viral DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Mols, Johann F; Ledent, Edouard; Heineman, Thomas C

    2013-03-01

    This was a multicenter, non-therapeutic study to determine the optimal type of lesion sample for quantitative PCR detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA in herpes zoster patients. Up to three crusts, three crust swabs, three vesicle swabs, and three papule swabs were collected from 41 adults with clinically diagnosed herpes zoster. 83% of subjects had at least one valid crust swab (detectable VZV or ?-actin DNA), 78% had at least one valid crust, 78% had at least one valid vesicle swab, and 32% had at least one valid papule swab. Of valid samples, 97% of crusts, 94% of vesicle swabs, 90% of crust swabs, and 84% of papule swabs were VZV-DNA-positive (?10 DNA copies/sample). 37 (90%) subjects had at least one VZV DNA-positive sample. VZV DNA copy numbers were highest for vesicle swabs and crusts. The probability of a false-negative result was 5% for crusts, 6% for vesicle swabs, 14% for papule swabs, and 24% for crust swabs. Overall, vesicle swabs and crusts were the most specific and sensitive samples for detecting VZV. PMID:23275023

  5. Herpes virus in Alzheimer's disease: relation to progression of the disease.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Ilaria; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Ianni, Manuela; Porcellini, Elisa; Forti, Paola; Masliah, Eliezer; Gabrielli, Liliana; Licastro, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Studies regarding different viruses of the herpes family, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are scarce. DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and brain samples were analyzed for the presence of CMV, EBV, or HHV-6. All samples were negative for CMV. EBV positivity was 6% in AD brains, whereas 45% of PBL samples from AD patients and 31% from controls were positive for EBV (p = 0.05). HHV-6 showed a 23% positivity in PBL samples from AD and 4% from controls (p = 0.002). 17% of AD brains were HHV-6 positive. Within a group of elderly individuals, followed up for 5 years, EBV-positive or HHV-6-positive PBL increased in those who developed clinical AD. Virus serological positivity was also investigated, and IgG levels for CMV and EBV antigens were also increased in those subjects who developed AD during the follow-up. Our findings suggest that EBV and HHV-6 may be environmental risk factors for cognitive deterioration and progression to AD in elderly persons. PMID:23916950

  6. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against a number of other viral antigens, including a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 62,000. Patients who developed a wide variety of antibodies to viral polypeptides shortly after resolution of their initial episode seemed to experience more severe initial infections and more recurrences than did those who reacted poorly with these virus-specific antigens. This was most apparent with respect to antibodies to virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights between 30,000 and 43,000. Antibody specificity did not change during the course of follow-up regardless of whether serum samples were taken shortly before, during, or after recurrent episodes. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were quantitated with the purified 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein material. No significant fluctuations in these antibody titers were observed before or after recurrences of the disease. Images PMID:7118244

  7. Isolation and characterization of two new herpes-like viruses from capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, M A; Frye, L D; Gibbs, C J; Chou, S M; Cutchins, E C; Gajdusek, D C; Ward, G

    1976-01-01

    Two herpes-like viruses were isolated from capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) brain and (Cebus albifrons) spleen cell cultures, respectively. Both isolates induced similar cytopathic effects consisting of rounded and ballooned cells in the original monkey cell cultures and in a wide range of permissive cell types. Neutralizing antibody to each virus was present in serum from the capuchin monkey from which it was isolated, but the two viruses did not cross-react by neutralization. Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugates of hyperimmune rabbit serum to one of the isolates showed an antigenic cross relationship between the two isolates. By electron microscopy, herpes-like virus particles were observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected human diploid fibroblast cell cultures. Virus-infected cell cultures stained with acridine orange revealed small deoxyribonucleic acid-containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. Both viruses were inhibited by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine and inactivated by chloroform or exposure to 56 degrees C for 30 min. Antisera prepared against 16 prototype herpesviruses and cytomegaloviruses did not neutralize approximately 100 50% tissue culture infective doses of either capuchin isolate. Neutralizing antibody to the capuchin isolates was detected in sera from 8 of 17 capuchin monkeys but not in sera from 16 humans, 15 chimpanzees, and 10 spider, 6 rhesus, and 5 squirrel monkeys. Images PMID:823119

  8. The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Joshua C.; Nanau, Radu M.; Neuman, Manuela G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. There are challenges in the clinical diagnosis of drug-induced injury and in obtaining information on the reactivation of human herpes viruses (HHV) during idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Objectives. (i) To develop a unified list of drugs incriminated in drug-induced hepatotoxicity and severe cutaneous reactions, in which drug hypersensitivity leads to HHV-6 reactivation and further complication of therapy and recovery and (ii) to supplement the already available data on reporting frequencies of liver- or skin-induced cases with knowledge of individual case reports, including HHV-6 reactivation and briefly introducing chromosomally integrated HHV-6. Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i) idiosyncratic reactions, (ii) drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii) human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy. PMID:22666603

  9. Preservation of the bystander cytocidal effect of irradiated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) modified tumor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fotios D. Vrionis; Julian K. Wu; Peimin Qi; William G. Cano; Van Cherington

    1996-01-01

    In vitro and animal experiments have demonstrated the potential efficacy of using the bystander effect alone in the treatment of brain tumors. A known problem in some in vitro and in vivo experiments is that a fraction of cells engineered to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene survive ganciclovir (GCV) treatment and undergo cell division. To prevent

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection Facilitates Invasion of Staphylococcus aureus into the Nasal Mucosa and Nasal Polyp Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XiangDong Wang; Nan Zhang; Sarah Glorieux; Gabriele Holtappels; Mario Vaneechoutte; Olga Krysko; Luo Zhang; Demin Han; Hans J. Nauwynck; Claus Bachert

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of severe chronic airway disease, such as nasal polyps. However the mechanisms underlying the initiation of damage and\\/or invasion of the nasal mucosa by S. aureus are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between S. aureus and herpes simplex virus type 1

  11. Treatment of experimental herpes simplex virus encephalitis with (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in mice.

    PubMed Central

    de Clercq, E; Zhang, Z X; Sim, I S

    1982-01-01

    (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) was examined for its ability to increase the survival rate of mice infected intracerebrally with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain KOS). BVDU was administered orally (through the drinking water), intraperitoneally, or subcutaneously at doses ranging from 40 to 400 mg/kg per day, starting 0, 2, 4, or 6 days postinfection. Regardless of the route of administration, BVDU effected a significant reduction in the mortality rate of mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 if treatment was initiated shortly after virus infection, i.e., day 0 or 2 (or day 4, if BVDU was administered subcutaneously) postinfection, at a dosage of 80 mg/kg per day or higher. Similar beneficial effects were noted with orally administered BVDU in mice inoculated intraperitoneally or intranasally with herpes simplex virus type 1. These findings establish the therapeutic efficacy of BVDU in the systemic treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in mice. PMID:7137983

  12. Plus and Minus-End Directed Microtubule Motors Bind Simultaneously to Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids Using Different Inner Tegument Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerstin Radtke; Daniela Kieneke; André Wolfstein; Kathrin Michael; Walter Steffen; Tim Scholz; Axel Karger; Beate Sodeik

    2010-01-01

    Many viruses depend on host microtubule motors to reach their destined intracellular location. Viral particles of neurotropic alphaherpesviruses such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) show bidirectional transport towards the cell center as well as the periphery, indicating that they utilize microtubule motors of opposing directionality. To understand the mechanisms of specific motor recruitment, it is necessary to characterize the

  13. In situ DNA PCR and RNA hybridization detection of herpes simplex virus sequences in trigeminal gangliaof latently infected mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand Mehta; John Maggioncalda; Omar Bagasra; Seshamma Thikkavarapu; Pamujula Saikumari; Tibor Valyi-Nagy; Nigel W. Fraser; Timothy M. Block

    1995-01-01

    The presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) DNA in the trigeminal ganglia of latently infected mice was detected byan in situ DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which includes a DNA:DNA hybridization step (indirect in situ PCR). These results were compared to the number of neurons possessing the HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT), as detected by in situ RNA hybridization with

  14. The Herpes Simplex Virus Major Regulatory Protein ICP4 Blocks Apoptosis Induced by the Virus or by Hyperthermia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosario Leopardi; Bernard Roizman

    1996-01-01

    Cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) undergo productive or latent infection without exhibiting features characteristic of apoptosis. In this report, we show that HSV-1 induces apoptosis but has evolved a function that blocks apoptosis induced by infection as well as by other means. Specifically, (i) Vero cells infected with a HSV-1 mutant deleted in the regulatory gene alpha

  15. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS Travis J Taylor, Mark A. Brockman, Elizabeth E. McNamee, and David M. Knipe

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    in the orofacial region (HSV-1) and in the genital region (HSV-2). Productive viral infection in mucosal epithelial of orofacial mucosal surfaces (HSV-1) and genital mucosal surfaces (HSV-2). Productive infection results by HSV-1 and the genital herpes lesions caused by HSV-2 are not life-threatening conditions, but serious

  16. Quantification of Transcripts from the ICP4 and Thymidine Kinase Genes in Mouse Ganglia Latently Infected with Herpes Simplex Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTHA F. KRAMER; ANDDONALD M. COEN

    1995-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus establishes latency in nervous tissue in which it is maintained for the life of the mammalian host, with occasional reactivation leading to subsequent spread. Latency-associated transcripts are abundant during latency, but viral proteins and productive cycle RNAs have not been detected. Using sensitive, quantitative PCR assays, we have quantified certain viral RNAs specific to productive-cycle genes in

  17. The Latency-Associated Transcript Gene Enhances Establishment of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency in Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUEY-CHUEN PERNG; SUSAN M. SLANINA; ADA YUKHT; HOMAYON GHIASI; ANTHONY B. NESBURN; STEVEN L. WECHSLER

    2000-01-01

    The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene the only herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene abundantly transcribed during neuronal latency, is essential for efficient in vivo reactivation. Whether LAT increases reactivation by a direct effect on the reactivation process or whether it does so by increasing the establishment of latency, thereby making more latently infected neurons available for reactivation, is unclear.

  18. CD8 1 T Cells Can Block Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV1) Reactivation from Latency in Sensory Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting Liu; Kamal M. Khanna; XiaoPing Chen; David J. Fink; Robert L. Hendricks

    Recurrent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) disease usually results from reactivation of la- tent virus in sensory neurons and transmission to peripheral sites. Therefore, defining the mechanisms that maintain HSV-1 in a latent state in sensory neurons may provide new ap- proaches to reducing susceptibility to recurrent herpetic disease. After primary HSV-1 corneal infection, CD8 1 T cells infiltrate

  19. Herpes virus proteins ICP0 and BICP0 can activate NF-nB by catalyzing InBa ubiquitination

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    diseases [1]. HSV-1 has developed a successful strategy to establish a life-long latent infection on the early and late genes [3]. Remarkably, HSV-1 functional counterpart in bovine has been characterized as bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) that shares a number of biological properties with HSV-1 in terms of life

  20. T Cell Receptor g \\/ d Cells Protect Mice from Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-induced Lethal Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Sciammas; P. Kodukula; Q. Tang; R. L. Hendricks; J. A. Bluestone

    Summary Increased numbers of T cell receptor (TCR)- g \\/ d cells have been observed in animal models of influenza and sendai virus infections, as well as in patients infected with human immunodefi- ciency virus and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). However, a direct role for TCR- g \\/ d cells in protective immunity for pathogenic viral infection has