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1

Loop mediated isothermal amplification combined with nucleic acid lateral flow strip for diagnosis of cyprinid herpes virus-3.  

PubMed

An improved loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of cyprinid herpes virus-3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpes virus (KHV), was developed. The lower detection limit of the CyHV-3-LAMP assay is 10 fg DNA which equivalent to 30 copies of CyHV-3 genome. Nucleic acid lateral flow assay was used for visual detection of the LAMP products. The LAMP- nucleic acid lateral flow assay relies on DNA hybridization technology and antigen-antibody reactions in combination with LAMP. For application of this assay, the biotinylated LAMP product was hybridized with a FITC-labelled specific probe for 5 min. The resulting DNA complex could be visualised as purple band at the strip test line within 5 min of sample exposure. The nucleic acid lateral flow analysis of the LAMP product was equivalent in sensitivity but more rapid than the conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. The combination of LAMP assay with the nucleic acid lateral flow analysis can simplify the diagnosis and screening of CyHV-3 as it is simple, requires very little training, does not require specialized equipment such as a thermal cycler, the results are read visually with no need to run a gel and has a high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19781627

Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2010-02-01

2

Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3  

PubMed Central

The recently designated cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is an emerging agent that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp. Since its emergence in the late 1990s, this highly contagious pathogen has caused severe financial losses in common and koi carp culture industries worldwide. In addition to its economic role, recent studies suggest that CyHV-3 may have a role in fundamental research. CyHV-3 has the largest genome among viruses in the order Herpesvirales and serves as a model for mutagenesis of large DNA viruses. Other studies suggest that the skin of teleost fish represents an efficient portal of entry for certain viruses. The effect of temperature on viral replication suggests that the body temperature of its poikilotherm host could regulate the outcome of the infection (replicative vs. nonreplicative). Recent advances with regard to CyHV-3 provide a role for this virus in fundamental and applied research. PMID:21122210

Michel, Benjamin; Fournier, Guillaume; Lieffrig, Francois; Costes, Berenice

2010-01-01

3

! Cyprinid Fishes Systematics, biology and  

E-print Network

#12;Chapter two The fossil record of the Cyprinidae T. M. Cavender 2.1 INTRODUCTION Because be overlooked or. if found. not recognized as :i Cyprinidae. However. it is not difficult to recognize cyprinid. and even single teeth. also form exccllent material for the study of fossil Cyprinidae. Probably no other

Kubatko, Laura S.

4

Herpes - oral  

MedlinePLUS

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

5

Sacral Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... This image displays grouped lesions typical of sacral herpes simplex. Overview Herpes simplex infection of the lower back and buttocks—also called sacral herpes simplex or genital herpes—is a common recurrent skin ...

6

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that any sexually active person can get. ... plain language for individuals with general questions about sexually transmitted diseases. What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is an ...

7

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... two types of viruses. The viruses are called herpes simplex type 1 and herpes simplex type 2. How common is genital herpes? Genital ... herpes). It is important that you avoid getting herpes during pregnancy. If you are pregnant and have genital herpes, ...

8

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... herpes? Herpes is caused by a virus called herpes simplex virus (HSV). Once you have herpes, the virus is present in your body for ... a partner who you know or think has herpes during your third trimester (last 3 months) of pregnancy. Your provider might recommend that you take medicine ...

9

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . Genital herpes is probably best known for ... Symptoms that precede the onset of a disease. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD): A disease that is spread by sexual ...

10

Sphaerothecum destruens pathology in cyprinids.  

PubMed

Sphaerothecum destruens is a significant intracellular parasite of fish which has caused disease and mortalities in cultured north American Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Several hosts for S. destruens have been identified within the Salmonidae family, and the histopathology of the infection can differ between hosts. Recently, S. destruens has been associated with the most invasive cyprinid species in Europe, topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva. Accurate disease identification based on thorough descriptions of clinical signs and histopathology in this new range of hosts is thus paramount to support further epizootiological studies. In this study, the associated histopathology of S. destruens infection is described along with its pathogenesis in the endangered cyprinid sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus. Histological examination of 100 L. delineatus in a wild population in the south of England revealed the presence of S. destruens infections, with a prevalence of 5% with S. destruens, suggesting an over-dispersed distribution within the L. delineatus sample. Clinical signs of the infection were absent, but histological examination revealed the presence of both disseminated and nodular lesions in several organs. PMID:21848122

Andreou, D; Gozlan, R E; Stone, D; Martin, P; Bateman, K; Feist, S W

2011-06-16

11

Genital herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... spread from the mouth to the genitals during oral sex. HSV-2 most often causes genital herpes. HSV- ... herpes is to avoid all sexual contact, including oral sex. Being in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship ...

12

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding Genital Herpes Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control and ...

13

Herpes Keratitis  

MedlinePLUS

... viral infection of the eye caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two major types of the virus. Type I is the most common and primarily infects the face, causing the familiar "cold sore" or "fever blister." Type II is ... What Is Herpes Keratitis? Herpes ...

14

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on your genital or rectal area, buttocks, and thighs. You can get it from having sex, even oral sex. ... of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

15

Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)  

MedlinePLUS

... on the lips and chin are typical of herpes simplex infection. Overview Herpes simplex infection of the mouth and face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is ...

16

Genital Herpes Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... ocular herpes. Ocular herpes is usually caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 but sometimes by HSV-2. It can occasionally result in serious eye disease, including blindness. Pregnancy and Babies A woman who has genital herpes ...

17

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... around the mouth) can transmit the virus through oral sex to another person's genitals. Genital herpes is a ... intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their partners use dental dams as ...

18

Genital Herpes  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment. PMID:21263803

Scappatura, F. Philip

1987-01-01

19

Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Genital herpes and pregnancy Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... been added to your dashboard . Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (also ...

20

Herpes Zoster Oticus  

MedlinePLUS

... neurotropic viruses and development of neurological diseases including herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses. NIH Patient Recruitment for Herpes Zoster Oticus Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center ...

21

Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.  

PubMed

Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

2014-02-01

22

Meet the Herps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

Naturescope, 1987

1987-01-01

23

Herpes simplex.  

PubMed

After completing this article, readers should be able to: 1. Characterize the epidemiology of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, including mode of transmission, incubation period, and period of communicability. 2. Recognize the difference in clinical manifestations of HSV1 and HSV2 infection. 3. Diagnose various manifestations of HSV infection. 4. Describe the difference in the clinical manifestations and outcome of HSV infection in newborns and older infants and children. 5. Discuss the management of HSV infection. 6. List the indications and limitations of oral acyclovir treatment for HSV infection. PMID:19339385

Chayavichitsilp, Pamela; Buckwalter, Joseph V; Krakowski, Andrew C; Friedlander, Sheila F

2009-04-01

24

Herpes Keratitis  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the world’s population. These infections are often asymptomatic, but ocular HSV-1 infections cause multiple pathologies with perhaps the most destructive being Herpes Stromal Keratitis (HSK). HSK lesions, which are immunoinflammatory in nature, can recur throughout life and often cause progressive corneal scaring resulting in visual impairment. Current treatment involves broad local immunosuppression with topical steroids along with antiviral coverage. Unfortunately, the immunopathologic mechanisms defined in animal models of HSK have not yet translated into improved therapy. Herein, we review the clinical epidemiology and pathology of the disease and summarize the large amount of basic research regarding the immunopathology of HSK. We examine the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the clearance of virus and the destruction of the normal corneal architecture that is typical of HSK. Our goal is to define current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms and recurrent nature of HSK and identify areas that require further study. PMID:22944008

Rowe, A.; St Leger, A.; Jeon, S.; Dhaliwal, D.K.; Knickelbein, J.E.; Hendricks, R.L.

2012-01-01

25

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Though more common near the lips, ... eruption of skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may ...

26

Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus-3 DNA in lake plankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) severely impacts the natural freshwater ecosystem and damages carp and koi farming, however, the pathway of CyHV-3 transmission remains unclear. It is possible that the virus adheres to plankton, which then facilitate viral movement and transmission, and therefore, it is hypothesised that plankton are involved in the disease dynamics. In this study, plankton

Toshifumi Minamoto; Mie N. Honjo; Hiroki Yamanaka; Nobuyuki Tanaka; Tomoaki Itayama; Zen’ichiro Kawabata

2011-01-01

27

Herpes zoster (shingles), disseminated (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. Herpes ...

28

Fish humps in two Colorado River fishes: a morphological response to cyprinid predation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extant fishes endemic to the upper Colorado River of the American southwest include only cyprinids and catostomids. A curious attribute in species of both groups is the presence of a large nuchal hump. Largest cyprinid humps occur in humpback chub, Gila cypha, and largest catostomid humps occur in razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus. Several authors have suggested the humps confer a

Donald E. Portz; Harold M. Tyus

2004-01-01

29

Seasonal Distribution of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Lake Biwa, Japan? †  

PubMed Central

The seasonal distribution of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) in Lake Biwa, Japan, was investigated. CyHV-3 was distributed all over the lake 5 years after the first outbreak. The mean concentration of CyHV-3 in water showed annual oscillation, with a peak in the summer and a trough in winter. Our results suggested that CyHV-3 is present at high density in reductive environments, such as reed zones and turbid or eutrophic water. PMID:19734343

Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N.; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2009-01-01

30

Population differentiation of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri across dissolved oxygen regimes  

E-print Network

Population differentiation of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri across dissolved oxygen regimes structure was associated with (i) dissolved oxygen regime (hypoxia or normoxia), (ii) geographical distance, or (iii) a combination of dissolved oxygen regime and geographical distance. Our results indicate

Chapman, Lauren J.

31

Shingles (Herpes Zoster)  

MedlinePLUS

... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Shingles Home About Shingles Overview Signs & Symptoms Transmission Complications ...

32

Pregnancy and herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... C, Gallina K, Brodell RT. The treatment of herpes simplex infections: An evidence-based review. Arch Intern Med . ... Third trimester antiviral prophylaxis for preventing maternal genital ... (HSV) recurrences and neonatal infection. Cochrane Database ...

33

Polyneuritis and herpes zoster  

PubMed Central

Widespread neurological disorders following herpes zoster are exceptional. They include encephalitis and myelitis, and a type of polyneuropathy. The latter is particularly rare as only 16 cases have been described since the first account by Wohlwill in 1924. We present two clinical cases of polyneuropathy following herpes zoster with neuropathological studies on one of them, and discuss its possible aetiology and pathogenesis in the light of previous reports and recent experimental studies. Images PMID:5037030

Dayan, A. D.; Ogul, E.; Graveson, G. S.

1972-01-01

34

Herpes Simplex Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are two of the eight known viruses that make up\\u000a the human herpesvirus family. As with all herpesviruses, they are large, enveloped virions with an icosahedral nucleocapsid\\u000a consisting of 162 capsomeres arranged around a linear, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) core. The DNAs of HSV-1\\u000a and HSV-2 are

David W. Kimberlin

35

Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus-3 DNA in lake plankton.  

PubMed

The disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) severely impacts the natural freshwater ecosystem and damages carp and koi farming, however, the pathway of CyHV-3 transmission remains unclear. It is possible that the virus adheres to plankton, which then facilitate viral movement and transmission, and therefore, it is hypothesised that plankton are involved in the disease dynamics. In this study, plankton were collected at eight sites in the Iba-naiko lagoon; we detected and quantified CyHV-3 DNA from plankton samples. The results of the correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between CyHV-3 copies and the number of Rotifera, suggesting that CyHV-3 binds to and/or is concentrated by Rotifera. Our results suggest that plankton affect viral ecology in the natural environment. PMID:20692005

Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Itayama, Tomoaki; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2011-06-01

36

In utero herpes simplex encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTransplacental intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus is an extremely rare complication of primary herpes simplex in pregnancy. Overwhelming fetal sepsis might result in multiorgan failure, including fetal brain death.

Anna Lee; Naor Bar-Zeev; Susan P Walker; Michael Permezel

2003-01-01

37

Genital herpes complicating pregnancy.  

PubMed

Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2, and 2% of women will acquire HSV during pregnancy. Remarkably, up to 90% of these women are undiagnosed because they are asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms attributed to other vulvovaginal disorders. Diagnosis of genital herpes relies on laboratory confirmation with culture or polymerase chain reaction assay of genital lesions and type-specific glycoprotein G-based serologic testing. Neonatal herpes is the most severe complication of genital HSV infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of HSV in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of neonatal herpes, little change in the incidence or serious sequelae from this infection has occurred. As such, prevention of the initial neonatal infection is critically important. Obstetricians are in a unique position to prevent vertical HSV transmission by identifying women with genital lesions at the time of labor for cesarean delivery, prescribing antiviral suppressive therapy as appropriate, and avoiding unnecessary invasive intrapartum procedures in women with genital herpes. Enhanced prevention strategies include identification of women at risk for HSV acquisition during pregnancy by testing women and possibly their partners for HSV antibodies and providing counseling to prevent transmission to women in late pregnancy. PMID:16199646

Brown, Zane A; Gardella, Carolyn; Wald, Anna; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Corey, Lawrence

2005-10-01

38

Validation of Daily Growth Increment Formation in the Otoliths of Juvenile Cyprinid Fishes from the Brazos River, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age data are commonly used by fisheries biologists to assess a number of important population characteristics. For cyprinid fishes, there have been few attempts to assess the validity of age estimates, particularly those based on otolith microstructure. We assessed the periodicity of growth increment formation in the otoliths of three species of cyprinid from the Brazos River, Texas, two of

Bart W. Durham; Gene R. Wilde

2008-01-01

39

Phylogenetic Relationships of Greek Cyprinidae: Molecular Evidence for at Least Two Origins of the Greek Cyprinid Fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phylogeny of the main cyprinid species that live in Greece was based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). The great diversity of the Greek cyprinid fauna, with at least 4 different lineages of barbins, 1 of gobionins, and 10 of leuciscinids, was confirmed. The validity and composition of the genera Tropidophoxinellus and Pachychilon were demonstrated. Likewise,

Rafael Zardoya; Panos S. Economidis; Ignacio Doadrio

1999-01-01

40

Relations among Habitat Characteristics, Exotic Species, and Turbid-River Cyprinids in the Missouri River Drainage of Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from 91 stream reaches in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming to determine whether abiotic and biotic factors were related to the abundance of four cyprinid species associated with turbid-river environments: flathead chub Platygobio gracilis, sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, plains minnow Hybognathus placitus, and western silvery minnow H. argyritis. The abundance of these cyprinids was positively related

Michael C. Quist; Wayne A. Hubert; Frank J. Rahel

2004-01-01

41

In vitro inhibition of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 replication by RNAi  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is an etiological agent of a notifiable disease that causes high mortality rates affecting both the common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio L. There is no current treatment strategy to save CyHV-3 infected fish. RNA mediated interference (RNAi) is an emerging strategy used for understanding gene function and is a promising method in developing novel therapeutics and antiviral medications. For this study, the possibility of activating the RNAi pathway by the use of small interfering (si)RNAs was tested to inhibit in vitro viral replication of CyHV-3 in common carp brain (CCB) cells. The siRNAs were designed to target either thymidine kinase (TK) or DNA polymerase (DP) genes, which both code for transcripts involved in DNA replication. The inhibition of viral replication caused by the siRNAs was measured by a reporter gene, termed ORF81. Treatment with siRNA targeting either TK or DP genes reduced the release of viral particles from infected CCB cells. However, siRNA targeting DP was most effective at reducing viral release as measured by qPCR. PMID:24893110

Gotesman, Michael; Soliman, Hatem; Besch, Robert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2014-01-01

42

The lateral line receptor array of cyprinids from different habitats.  

PubMed

The lateral line system of teleost fishes consists of an array of superficial and canal neuromasts (CN). Number and distribution of neuromasts and the morphology of the lateral line canals vary across species. We investigated the morphology of the lateral line system in four diurnal European cyprinids, the limnophilic bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus), the indifferent gudgeon (Gobio gobio), and ide (Leuciscus idus), and the rheophilic minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). All fish had lateral line canals on head and trunk. The total number of both, CN and superficial neuromasts (SN), was comparable in minnow and ide but was greater than in gudgeon and bitterling. The ratio of SNs to CNs for the head was comparable in minnow and bitterling but was greater in gudgeon and ide. The SN-to-CN ratio for the trunk was greatest in bitterling. Polarization of hair cells in CNs was in the direction of the canal. Polarization of hair cells in SNs depended on body area. In cephalic SNs, hair cell polarization was dorso-ventral or rostro-caudal. In trunk SNs, it was rostro-caudal on lateral line scales and dorso-ventral on other trunk scales. On the caudal fin, hair cell polarization was rostro-caudal. The data show that, in the four species studied here, number, distribution, and orientation of CNs and SNs cannot be unequivocally related to habitat. PMID:24142903

Schmitz, Anke; Bleckmann, Horst; Mogdans, Joachim

2014-04-01

43

In vitro inhibition of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 replication by RNAi.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is an etiological agent of a notifiable disease that causes high mortality rates affecting both the common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio L. There is no current treatment strategy to save CyHV-3 infected fish. RNA mediated interference (RNAi) is an emerging strategy used for understanding gene function and is a promising method in developing novel therapeutics and antiviral medications. For this study, the possibility of activating the RNAi pathway by the use of small interfering (si)RNAs was tested to inhibit in vitro viral replication of CyHV-3 in common carp brain (CCB) cells. The siRNAs were designed to target either thymidine kinase (TK) or DNA polymerase (DP) genes, which both code for transcripts involved in DNA replication. The inhibition of viral replication caused by the siRNAs was measured by a reporter gene, termed ORF81. Treatment with siRNA targeting either TK or DP genes reduced the release of viral particles from infected CCB cells. However, siRNA targeting DP was most effective at reducing viral release as measured by qPCR. PMID:24893110

Gotesman, Michael; Soliman, Hatem; Besch, Robert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2014-09-01

44

Nationwide Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 contamination in natural rivers of Japan.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease is a significant threat for common and koi carp cultivators and for freshwater ecosystems. To determine the prevalence of CyHV-3 in Japanese rivers, a nationwide survey of all national class-A rivers was undertaken in the Summer of 2008. The virus was concentrated from river water samples using the cation-coated filter method. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 90 rivers, representing 90% of 103 successfully analysed rivers. More than 100,000 copies of CyHV-3 DNA per litre of sample were detected in four rivers, higher than that reported during the Yura River outbreak in 2007. For CyHV-3-positive rivers, the log CyHV-3 density was negatively correlated with the water temperature on the sampling date and positively correlated with the suspended solids and dissolved oxygen, which are annually averaged for each river. Our results demonstrate that virus detection using molecular biology techniques is a powerful tool for monitoring the presence of CyHV-3 in natural environments. PMID:21723573

Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Uchii, Kimiko; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2012-08-01

45

Hands-on Herps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

Science Activities, 1987

1987-01-01

46

Prey Detectability Mediates Selectivity in a Zooplanktivorous Cyprinid (Alburnus alburnus (L.))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To examine if prey choice in the bleak Alburnus alburnus, a planktivorous cyprinid of lake Neusiedler See, is affected by prey detectability, the foraging behaviour and selectivity in response to two cladoceran prey, L eptodora kindti and Diaphanosoma mongolianum, was investigated. In the field, bleak Alburnus showed negative selectivities for the smaller size- classes and a positive selectivity for

Z. Liu; F. Uiblein

1996-01-01

47

A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish  

E-print Network

A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish Ben B. Chapman1 *, Anders, Switzerland, 4 Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Abstract Migration has evolved conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues

48

The Common Bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758), is a cyprinid fish native to most of Europe  

E-print Network

The Common Bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758), is a cyprinid fish native to most of Europe bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758), introduced into the Iberian Peninsula. Eight individuals reservoir, Muga River. RESUMEN Se da la primera cita de la brema, Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758

García-Berthou, Emili

49

Effects of Black Spot Disease on Thermal Tolerances and Condition Factors of Three Cyprinid Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of black spot disease, a metacercarial infestation, on thermal tolerances (critical thermal maximum, CTMax, and critical thermal minimum, CTMin) and fish condition factor (KTL) was examined in three cyprinid fish species: spotfin shiner Notropis spilopterus, bluntnose minnow Pimephales notatus, and striped shiner Notropis chrysocephalus. Metacercarial counts of 2 to 535 per fish had little or no effect on

Christopher T. Hockett; Neal D. Mundahl

1989-01-01

50

Phylogenetic relationships of the North American cyprinid subgenus Hydrophlox Mollie F. Cashner a,b,  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic relationships of the North American cyprinid subgenus Hydrophlox Mollie F. Cashner a spe- cies that engage in the symbiotic reproductive behavior of nest association. Although they have little is known about the relationships of species within Hydrophlox. We tested the monophyly

Piller, Kyle R.

51

NOTROPIS VOLUCELLUS WICKLIFFI, A NEW SUB-SPECIES OF CYPRINID FISH FROM THE OHIO  

E-print Network

relative, Notropis deliciosus stramineus (Cope), abounds. This condition holds for the Great LakesNOTROPIS VOLUCELLUS WICKLIFFI, A NEW SUB- SPECIES OF CYPRINID FISH FROM THE OHIO AND UPPER sub- species of the shiner Notropis volucellus (Cope) occur in various parts of its range

Hulsey, C. Darrin

52

The energetics of starvation and growth after refeeding in juveniles of three cyprinid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Experiments were conducted to monitor changes in body mass and metabolic energy expenditure before, during, and after periods of starvation in juveniles of three species of cyprinids: Leuciscus cephalus, Chalcalburnus chalcoides mento, and Scardinius erythrophthalmus. During the starvation period all fish lost weight at about the same rate and the total amount of oxygen consumed during an experimental period

Wolfgang Wieser; Gerhard Krumschnabel; Julius P. Ojwang-Okwor

1992-01-01

53

Migratory mega-cyprinids need attention: Aspiorhynchus laticeps of the Xinjiang China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater fish family Cyprinidae has the most diversity in species, morphological and behavioral properties, and habitat use around the world. A very small portion of these fish (30) reach great size (> 1 m length) and most of these are migratory. A large majority of migratory mega-cyprinids have not received conservation attention and those that have been assessed for

MARK B. BAIN

54

Mammary herpes: a little known mode of neonatal herpes contamination.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes is a severe disease. We report a case with a fatal outcome, whose transmission was linked to mammary herpes. The lack of early diagnosis delayed appropriate therapeutic management. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to this potential mode of transmission. PMID:23986091

Parra, J; Cneude, F; Huin, N; Bru, C B; Debillon, T

2013-09-01

55

Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies  

PubMed Central

Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus) for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids) from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies. PMID:20478030

2010-01-01

56

Herps of Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Funded by the University of Texas and the Texas Memorial Museum, this Website offers useful life history information on the Herps (lizards, turtles, snakes, crocodilians, salamanders, frogs, and toads) of Texas. Each broad group is further classified into Families, and each species is identified by scientific (Latin) and common name. To access descriptive and graphical information, click on the species of choice. Each species entry includes one or more color photograph(s), diagnostic features, natural history information, and a color range map (presence:absence, by county). The concise information in this useful resource should be helpful to seasoned researchers and beginners, alike.

57

Herpes Virus Amplicon Vectors  

PubMed Central

Since its emergence onto the gene therapy scene nearly 25 years ago, the replication-defective Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon has gained significance as a versatile gene transfer platform due to its extensive transgene capacity, widespread cellular tropism, minimal immunogenicity, and its amenability to genetic manipulation. Herein, we detail the recent advances made with respect to the design of the HSV amplicon, its numerous in vitro and in vivo applications, and the current impediments this virus-based gene transfer platform faces as it navigates a challenging path towards future clinical testing. PMID:19956558

de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J.

2009-01-01

58

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A This image displays grouped blisters within an inflamed area of skin typical of herpes simplex. Overview Herpes infections are caused by both herpes ...

59

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection  

PubMed Central

Neonatal herpes, seen roughly in 1 of 3,000 live births in the United States, is the most serious manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the perinatal period. Although acyclovir therapy decreases infant mortality associated with perinatal HSV transmission, development of permanent neurologic disabilities is not uncommon. Mother-to-neonate HSV transmission is most efficient when maternal genital tract HSV infection is acquired proximate to the time of delivery, signifying that neonatal herpes prevention strategies need to focus on decreasing the incidence of maternal infection during pregnancy and more precisely identifying infants most likely to benefit from prophylactic antiviral therapy. PMID:23090462

Cherpes, Thomas L.; Matthews, Dean B.; Maryak, Samantha A.

2012-01-01

60

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes, seen roughly in 1 of 3000 live births in the United States, is the most serious manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the perinatal period. Although acyclovir therapy decreases infant mortality associated with perinatal HSV transmission, development of permanent neurological disabilities is not uncommon. Mother-to-neonate HSV transmission is most efficient when maternal genital tract HSV infection is acquired proximate to the time of delivery, signifying that neonatal herpes prevention strategies need to focus on decreasing the incidence of maternal infection during pregnancy and more precisely identifying infants most likely to benefit from prophylactic antiviral therapy. PMID:23090462

Cherpes, Thomas L; Matthews, Dean B; Maryak, Samantha A

2012-12-01

61

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease. PMID:23481105

Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

2013-04-01

62

Selective Herbivory by an Invasive Cyprinid, the Rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus  

SciTech Connect

1. Herbivory by non-native animals is a problem of growing concern globally, especially for ecosystems where significant native herbivores did not previously exist or have been replaced by non-natives. The rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) is an omnivorous cyprinid that has a nearly global longitudinal distribution due to human translocations, yet it is unknown whether the rudd feeds selectively among aquatic macrophyte species common to North American waters. 2. We tested a null hypothesis of non-selective feeding by rudds using five species of aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Najas flexilis, Stuckenia pectinata, and Vallisneria americana. Four rudds were placed in 15 different 890-L tanks and presented with known quantities of each macrophyte species (each tank serving as a block in a randomized complete block design). Each macrophyte bundle was weighed on six dates during a 13 d experiment. Differences in mean percent weight remaining among macrophyte species were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. We also quantified differences among chemical attributes of the five macrophyte species and qualitatively determined if selective feeding by rudds was related to dry matter content (DMC), percent C by dry weight (%C), percent N by dry weight (%N), and the concentrations of total soluble proteins, two organic acids (aconitic and oxalic acid), total soluble phenolic compounds (<1,000 Da), nine soluble phenolic metabolites, and total phenolic compounds. 3. Selective feeding by rudds was evident, with the order of macrophyte removal (from highest to lowest) being: N. flexilis > E. canadensis > S. pectinata > V. americana > C. demersum. Selection was positively related to %C and atomic C:N, but not DMC, %N, or concentration of total soluble proteins, contrary to the expectation that rudds would select the most nutritious plants available. The concentration of aconitic acid was greatest in N. flexilis, a preferred macrophyte, contrary to the expectation that this compound provides resistance to herbivory. The concentration of oxalic acid, which negatively affects palatability, was highest in C. demersum, the least preferred macrophyte. Selection was also positively related to the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds; however, examination of the influence of specific phenolic metabolites provided further insights. Concentrations of caffeic acid, trans-caftaric acid, and quercetin were positively related to macrophyte preference by rudds, whereas concentrations of cis-4-O- and trans-4-O-ferulic acid glucoside were negatively related. Patterns between the concentrations of p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and macrophyte preference by rudds were less obvious. 4. Our results suggest that selective feeding by rudds has the potential to alter macrophyte assemblages and jeopardize habitat restoration projects seeking to establish a diverse plant assemblage. Studies of selective herbivory by various aquatic taxa have provided evidence that selection is simultaneously influenced by multiple plant characteristics, including nutritional quality, morphology, rigidity, and chemical defenses. Future research designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which specific chemical attributes of macrophytes influence selective herbivory by rudds and other taxa will help provide an understanding of how herbivores have changed macrophyte assemblages and make predictions about how macrophyte assemblages will be altered following biological invasions.

Kapuscinski, Kevin L [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; John, Farrell M [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Stehman, Stephen V [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Boyer, Gregory L [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Fernando, Danilo D [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Teece, Mark A [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL

2014-01-01

63

The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

Ensor, Deirdre

2005-01-01

64

Hepatic respiratory compensation and haematological changes in the cave cyprinid, Phreatichthys andruzzii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several ectotherms, including all members of the Osteichthyes studied so far, the spleen is capable of storing and releasing\\u000a erythrocytes according to the animal's respiratory needs. The tropical cave cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii uses its liver rather than the spleen as the site of accumulation in the respiratory compensation process, like the amphibian\\u000a Rana esculenta. The reversible process of erythrocyte

Giuliano Frangioni; Roberto Berti; Gianfranco Borgioli

1997-01-01

65

Daily Survival Rates for Juveniles of Six Great Plains Cyprinid Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collected age-0 fish from the Canadian and Brazos rivers, Texas, and used otolith microstructure to estimate daily survival rates for juveniles of six cyprinid species during their first summer. Across all samples, daily survival rates averaged 0.944 and ranged from 0.920 to 0.964. Daily survival differed between fish from the Canadian River (mean = 0.948) and those from the

Gene R. Wilde; Bart W. Durham

2008-01-01

66

Comparative microhabitat use of cyprinid larvae and juveniles in a lotic floodplain channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The microhabitat of six cyprinids in a braided side-channel of the Upper Rhône River, France, was studied June to September 1985, using ‘point abundance sampling’ by electrofishing. Correspondence analysis of the samples-by-species data and Jacob&s electivity index (calculated from the availability and exploitation of eight environmental variables) revealed three groups of species: (1) Leuciscus cephalus and Alburnus alburnus, which

Gordon H. Copp

1992-01-01

67

Distinct Evolutionary Patterns Between Two Duplicated Color Vision Genes Within Cyprinid Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the molecular evolution of duplicated color vision genes (LWS-1 and SWS2) within cyprinid fish, focusing on the most cavefish-rich genus—Sinocyclocheilus. Maximum likelihood-based codon substitution approaches were used to analyze the evolution of vision genes. We found that\\u000a the duplicated color vision genes had unequal evolutionary rates, which may lead to a related function divergence. Divergence\\u000a of LWS-1 was

Zhiqiang Li; Xiaoni Gan; Shunping He

2009-01-01

68

Trichodinid ectoparasites of cichlid and cyprinid fishes in South Africa and Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Three new and seven known species of trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritricha) were identified from cichlid and cyprinid fishes collected from fish ponds, natural and man-made lakes, rivers and streams in South Africa and Israel. The new species described are: Trichodina centrostrigata n.sp., T. minuta n.sp. and Tripartiella cichlidarum n.sp. The known species, of which comparative descriptions are given and intraspecific

Linda Basson; J. G. Van As; I. Paperna

1983-01-01

69

Synthesis of theoretical and empirical experiences from nutrient and cyprinid reductions in Lake Ringsjön  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction in external phosphorus load to Lake Ringsjön during the 1980s, did not result in improved water transparency during the following ten-year period. Furthermore, a fish-kill in the Eastern Basin of the lake, in addition to a cyprinid reduction programme (biomanipulation; 1988–1992), in contrast to theory, did not lead to any increase in zooplankton biomass or size. This absence

E. Bergman; L.-A. Hansson; A. Persson; J. Strand; P. Romare; M. Enell; W. Granéli; J. M. Svensson; S. F. Hamrin; G. Cronberg; G. Andersson; E. Bergstrand

1999-01-01

70

Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... cold sore on an infected person's lip during oral sex; in this case, genital herpes may be due ... be avoided any time genital ulcers are present. Oral sex should be avoided if there are ulcers or ...

71

Herpes Simplex - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Herpes Simplex - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Herpes English amarunya (Amharic) Minnesota Department of Health Oromo ( ...

72

Maternal and neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed

Genital herpes infections are extremely common worldwide and ~22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus. Eighty percent of those affected with genital herpes are unaware of being infected. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is neonatal herpes disease. Fortunately, neonatal herpes simplex infections are uncommon but due to the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Most recently, the initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This review will summarize the epidemiology of maternal and neonatal herpes infections and discuss clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of infants with neonatal herpes disease. PMID:23303485

Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

2013-02-01

73

Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes

Longo, David J.; And Others

1988-01-01

74

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection  

PubMed Central

Tremendous advances have occurred over the past 30 years in the diagnosis and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease. Mortality in patients with disseminated disease has decreased from 85 to 29%, and that in patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease has decreased from 50 to 4%. Morbidity has been improved more modestly: the proportion of patients with disseminated disease who are developing normally at 1 year has increased from 50 to 83%. While the proportion of patients with neurologic morbidity following CNS disease has remained essentially unchanged over the past three decades, the total number of patients who are developing normally following HSV CNS disease has increased due to the improved survival. Although additional therapeutic advances in the future are possible, more immediate methods for further improvements in outcome for patients with this potentially devastating disease lie in an enhanced awareness of neonatal HSV infection and disease. A thorough understanding of the biology and natural history of HSV in the gravid woman and the neonate provides the basis for such an index of suspicion and is provided in this article. PMID:14726453

Kimberlin, David W.

2004-01-01

75

[Bilateral, asymmetric herpes zoster (herpes zoster duplex asymmetricus)].  

PubMed

A 73-year-old female patient presented with asymmetric herpes zoster. She was treated successfully with systemic immunostimulants, vitamin B1 tablets and topical etheric acetyl-salicylic acid solution. No underlying malignancy, immunodeficiency or other systemic diseases could be detected. PMID:11572075

Csontos, Z; Sebök, B; Karg, E; Schneider, I

2001-09-01

76

Let's Hear It for Herps!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following…

Braus, Judy, Ed.

1987-01-01

77

Herpes Simplex Virus: Dry Mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dry mass of herpes simplex virus particles was measured by quantitative electron microscopy after isolation by surface spreading and critical-point drying of infected cells. The core weighed about 2 x 10 to the minus 16th power gram, the empty naked capsi...

F. Lampert, G. F. Bahr, A. S. Rabson

1969-01-01

78

Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?  

MedlinePLUS

... it is possible to get genital herpes from oral sex. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes simplex ... use a dental dam every time they receive oral sex to help protect against STDs. And if either ...

79

Diagnosis and Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention maps a herpes simplex labialis (HSL) susceptibility gene associated with HSL to the q11 region of chromosome 21. The invention provides methods of screening for susceptibility or resistance to herpes simplex virus, particularly herpes simple...

J. D. Kriesel, M. F. Leppert, S. L. Spruance, B. E. Otterud, M. R. Hobbs

2005-01-01

80

Mutation patterns of mitochondrial H- and L-strand DNA in closely related Cyprinid fishes.  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial genome replication is asymmetric. Replication starts from the origin of heavy (H)-strand replication, displacing the parental H-strand as it proceeds along the molecule. The H-strand remains single stranded until light (L)-strand replication is initiated from a second origin of replication. It has been suggested that single-stranded H-strand DNA is more sensitive to mutational damage, giving rise to substitutional rate differences between the two strands and among genes in mammalian mitochondrial DNA. In this study, we analyzed sequences of the cytochrome b, ND4, ND4L, and COI genes of cyprinid fishes to investigate rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution in the mitochondrial genome. To test for strand-asymmetric mutation pressure, a likelihood-ratio test was developed and applied to the cyprinid sequences. Patterns of substitution and levels of strand-asymmetric mutation pressure were largely consistent with a mutation gradient between the H- and L-strand origins of replication. Significant strand bias was observed among rates of transitional substitution. However, biological interpretation of the direction and strength of strand asymmetry for specific classes of substitutions is problematic. The problem occurs because the rate of any single class of substitution inferred from one strand is actually a sum of rates on two strands. The validity of the likelihood-ratio test is not affected by this problem. PMID:12583346

Bielawski, Joseph P; Gold, John R

2002-01-01

81

Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of

Kenneth J. Cremer; Michael Mackett; Charles Wohlenberg; Abner Louis Notkins; Bernard Moss

1985-01-01

82

Herpes simplex type 1 versus Herpes simplex type 2 in anogenital herpes; a 10 year study from the Waikato region of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To determine the proportion of Herpes simplex type 1 vs Herpes simplex type 2, as a cause of anogenital herpes in the Waikato region. We specifically looked for changes in the proportions over time, and for gender or age group associations. Method We undertook a retrospective data-analysis of all anogenital isolates positive for Herpes simplex types 1 or 2

Erana Gray; Jane Morgan; Jennifer Lindeman

83

High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To determine the type of herpes simplex virus in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus.METHODS:Herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were examined by polymerase chain reaction in intraocular specimens from 16 patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Anti–herpes simplex virus type 1 and anti–herpes simplex virus type

Norihiko Itoh; Nozomi Matsumura; Akiko Ogi; Tadayuki Nishide; Yumi Imai; Hikaru Kanai; Shigeaki Ohno

2000-01-01

84

Therapy of Herpes Virus Infections in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid advances have been achieved in the therapy of herpes virus infections of children over the past 25 years. Following\\u000a the demonstration that vidarabine was an efficacious treatment for neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, herpes\\u000a simplex encephalitis, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections of children, significant advances were achieved with the\\u000a development of second generation anti-viral drugs. The second

Richard J. Whitley

85

Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.  

PubMed

Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. PMID:24012144

Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

2013-10-01

86

Generating protective immunity against genital herpes  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be critical in limiting the spread of disease. In this review, we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. PMID:24012144

Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

2013-01-01

87

Proteins solubilized from frog virus 3 particles: effect on transcription.  

PubMed Central

The treatment of KB cells with viral proteins solubilized from frog virus 3 particles (SVE) induced a rapid shutoff of host RNA synthesis. The RNA polymerase activities of SVE-treated cells were drastically depressed, corresonding, at least for RNA polymerase B, to a decrease in the number of enzyme molecules. In vitro, SVE had no direct effect on RNA polymerases but was capable of binding with calf thymus DNA to form an SVE-DNA complex modifying the template capacity. The effect of SVE on a transcription system consisting of cell lysates would suggest that cytoplasmic factors are necessary for expression of the inhibitory capacity of SVE. PMID:1255875

Aubertin, A M; Travo, C; Kirn, A

1976-01-01

88

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3: an interesting virus for applied and fundamental research  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae is the causative agent of a lethal, highly contagious and notifiable disease in common and koi carp. The economic importance of common and koi carp industries together with the rapid spread of CyHV-3 worldwide, explain why this virus became soon after its isolation in the 1990s a subject of applied research. In addition to its economic importance, an increasing number of fundamental studies demonstrated that CyHV-3 is an original and interesting subject for fundamental research. In this review, we summarized recent advances in CyHV-3 research with a special interest for studies related to host-virus interactions. PMID:24073814

2013-01-01

89

Parasitism, life history traits and immune defence in cyprinid fish from Central Europe  

PubMed Central

Background The main prediction of life-history theory is that optimal energy allocated among the traits is related to the growth, maintenance and survival. It is hypothesized that the optimal resource allocated to immune function, which generates resistance towards parasites and reduce the fitness losses caused by parasitism, is depending on other requirements for energetic resource and the benefits associated with them. The aims of this study are to investigate in a comparative way (1) how parasitism is related to fish life history traits (fecundity, longevity, mortality), (2) whether there is a trade-off between reproduction and immune investments in fish females (i.e. energetic hypothesis) and in males (i.e. immunohandicap hypothesis), (3) whether parasitism influences host immunity (spleen size) and reproduction (gonad size) in females and males. Results Data on metazoan parasites of 23 cyprinid fish species from Central Europe were used for the analyses as well as new data collected from a field study. Ectoparasite species richness was negatively correlated with the fish mortality estimated by the k-value and positively correlated with fish body size, suggesting that parasite diversity increases with fish longevity. A negative relationship between spleen size and gonad size, controlling for fish body size, was found in females but not in males. Moreover, parasite abundance was positively correlated with fish spleen size and negatively with fish gonad size in females. Conclusion The comparative analyses using cyprinid fish species demonstrated that natural mortality could be considered as a factor contributing to the variability of parasite species richness and moreover, parasite species benefit from long-lived fish. The results obtained from the analyses investigating the potential trade-off between reproduction and immunity could be interpreted as an energetic trade-off between female reproduction and immune function. The lack of negative relationship between gonad size and spleen size in males did not support our prediction based on the immunohandicap hypothesis. PMID:18226212

2008-01-01

90

Development of a rapid cyprinid herpesvirus 2 detection method by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) is a pathogen that causes severe disease and high mortality in goldfish and Prussian carp. We developed a six primer loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the intercapsomeric triplex protein gene. CyHV-2 DNA was 10-fold serially diluted (10(8)-10(0) copies ?l(-1)) and was used as the template to determine primer sensitivity. LAMP assays were performed with DNA templates from other pathogens to determine specificity. The LAMP assay had an unequivocal detection limit of 10 copies ?l(-1), which was 100 times lower than that of the polymerase chain reaction. Other pathogen strains were not amplified by the LAMP primers, indicating good specificity. SYBR Green I was added to visually detect the amplification products. Assay applicability was evaluated in 120 samples of Carassius auratus gibelio, and a positive rate of 92·5% was obtained. In conclusion, a conventional LAMP assay has high convenience, rapidity, sensitivity and specificity for detecting CyHV-2 in infected aquatic organisms. Significance and impact of the study: Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis, caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), is a severe disease of goldfish and Prussian carp associated with high mortality. We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect CyHV-2 at relatively low plasmid DNA copy levels. The results show that the LAMP assay has a number of advantages (simple, sensitive, rapid and specific) over the conventional polymerase chain reaction and can be applied in the laboratory and field. Particularly, the method is highly applicable to facilitate surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-2. PMID:24935791

Liang, L-G; Xie, J; Luo, D

2014-10-01

91

Growth and development of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on salmonid and cyprinid hosts.  

PubMed

The obligate fish ectoparasite Argulus coregoni is strictly specific to salmonids and is very rarely found on other fish species. The ability of the parasite to grow and complete its life cycle on a cyprinid host, Rutilus rutilus, was compared with that on a typical salmonid host, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rearing experiments were run for 42 d with newly hatched metanauplii in flow-through tanks. Body length and sex of the parasites were recorded every 5 d. Growth rates on O. mykiss exceeded those on R. rutilus from the age of 2 wk, at which time the parasites reached a length of about 3.5 mm. Males grew faster than females at the beginning of the experiment up to a length of 2.5 to 3.0 mm; thereafter, a faster growth rate was observed in females. In another experiment, association of parasites with the hosts was monitored and residence time defined as the period between attachment and first detachment from the host. Longer residence time was observed on O. mykiss than on R. rutilus; female parasites stayed on both fish species longer than did males. Faster growth of parasites could be associated with longer uninterrupted periods of attachment to hosts, since frequent detachment means higher energy losses and less time available for feeding. Despite its slower growth on R. rutilus, A. coregoni matured and laid egg clutches, but took 5 d longer than on O. mykiss. The potential of A. coregoni to complete its life cycle on cyprinids could have important ecological consequences, creating an infection reservoir when the main salmonid hosts are rare or temporarily missing. PMID:15109143

Pasternak, A; Mikheev, V; Valtonen, E T

2004-03-10

92

Dynamics of metal uptake and depuration in a parasitized cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea).  

PubMed

Infestation of fish by endoparasites may potentially influence metal uptake and elimination by the host. We quantified the metal uptake rate constant (k(u)) and efflux rate constants (k(e)) of radiolabeled Cd and Co in the cyprinid fish Rastrineobola argentea experimentally infected with the parasite Ligula intestinalis. During 24h, the accumulation of Cd and Co increased linearly with no evident steady state in uninfected fish, infected fish and in the parasite. Following aqueous exposures, the k(u) for Cd in parasites was about 3× higher than that of infected fish and 6× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(u) for Co was up to 15× higher in the parasites than that of infected fish and 7.5× higher than for the uninfected fish. The k(e) for excretion of Cd were consistently higher for the uninfected fish than for the infected fish and also higher for uninfected fish than the parasite. The k(e) for Co for the uninfected fish was 1.4-2.0× lower than in the infected fish, but higher for parasites compared to uninfected fish (1.3-2.3×). Pulse-chase feeding experiments with radiolabeled copepods showed that Cd assimilation efficiency from food was higher in infected fish, while Co was assimilated more effectively by uninfected fish. The observed differences in metal dynamics between infected and uninfected R. argentea in the laboratory concord with differences in metal concentrations measured in natural populations in Lake Victoria. Our findings provide evidence that L. intestinalis infection enhances Cd accumulation, but depletes the essential Co in the cyprinid fish R. argentea. We conclude that the combined stress of parasites and pollution changes metal risks to fish hosts in a metal specific manner. PMID:22885798

Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Admiraal, Wim; Osano, Odipo; Kraak, Michiel H S; Were-Kogogo, Pamela J A; Gichuki, John; Ngure, Veronica; Makwali, Judith; Ogwai, Caleb

2012-11-15

93

Barcoding and Border Biosecurity: Identifying Cyprinid Fishes in the Aquarium Trade  

PubMed Central

Background Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1) expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2) assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method); and (3) providing supplementary information to identify difficult species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold). DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90–99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold). Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp.) resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to offer an identification, we improve on previous studies by consolidating supplementary information from multiple data sources, and empower biosecurity agencies to confidently identify high-risk fishes in the aquarium trade. PMID:22276096

Collins, Rupert A.; Armstrong, Karen F.; Meier, Rudolf; Yi, Youguang; Brown, Samuel D. J.; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Keeling, Suzanne; Johnston, Colin

2012-01-01

94

Herpes Simplex Type 1 Orofacial Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In its various forms and unpredictable recurrence around the oral cavity, recurrent herpes labialis and intra-oral recurrent herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) infection can be confused with diseases such as aphthous stomatitis, herpetiform aphthous ulcers, erythema multiforme, and others. Misdiagnosis may result in ineffective or inappropriate treatment, thereby worsening the lesion. This article explores the aetiology of the primary

G Wayne Raborn; Michael Grace

95

Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

1992-01-01

96

REVIEW Open Access Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus  

E-print Network

REVIEW Open Access Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory Jérôme LeGoff1* , Hélène Péré2,3 and Laurent Bélec2,3 Abstract Since the type of herpes simplex virus antiviral therapy. Keywords: Herpes simplex virus, Genital herpes, Diagnosis Introduction Key structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections. PMID:23007251

Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

2012-10-01

98

Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE  

PubMed Central

Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe [1]. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should provide useful phylogenetic makers for future analyses of the evolutionary relationships among species in the family Cyprinidae. PMID:20426875

2010-01-01

99

Jennifer - A Revealing Story About Genital Herpes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Explains that genital herpes, a sexually transmitted disease is reaching near epidemic proportions within this nation. Health and human services estimates 5-10 million people with this incurable disease, and 300 to 500 thousand new cases annually. Explain...

1994-01-01

100

Frog virus 3-like infections in aquatic amphibian communities.  

PubMed

Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses, are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae), and they have been associated with infectious diseases that may be contributing to amphibian population declines. We examined the mode of transmission of an FV3-like virus, and potential hosts and reservoirs of the virus in a local amphibian community. Using the polymerase chain reaction to detect infected animals, we found an FV3-like virus in south-central Ontario, Canada, amphibian communities, where it infects sympatric amphibian species, including ranid and hylid tadpoles (Rana sylvatica, Hyla versicolor, and Pseudacris spp.), larval salamanders (Ambystoma spp.), and adult eastern-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). The high prevalence of FV3-like infections in caudate larvae suggests that salamanders are likely to be both hosts and reservoirs. In laboratory FV3 challenges of R. sylvatica, the rate of infection was dependent on the amount of virus to which the animals were exposed. In addition, although vertical transmission was suspected, horizontal transmission through exposure to infected pond water is the most likely route of infection in tadpoles. Based on our observations, a simple model of FV3/FV3-like virus transmission postulates that, in aquatic amphibian communities, transmission of the virus occurs between anuran and urodele species, with ambystomatid salamanders the most likely reservoir for the ranavirus in our study. PMID:18263826

Duffus, A L J; Pauli, B D; Wozney, K; Brunetti, C R; Berrill, M

2008-01-01

101

Antibody dependent enhancement of frog virus 3 infection  

PubMed Central

Background Viruses included in the family Iridoviridae are large, icosahedral, dsDNA viruses that are subdivided into 5 genera. Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species of the genus Ranavirus and the best studied iridovirus at the molecular level. Typically, antibodies directed against a virus act to neutralize the virus and limit infection. Antibody dependent enhancement occurs when viral antibodies enhance infectivity of the virus rather than neutralize it. Results Here we show that anti-FV3 serum present at the time of FV3 infection enhances infectivity of the virus in two non-immune teleost cell lines. We found that antibody dependent enhancement of FV3 was dependent on the Fc portion of anti-FV3 antibodies but not related to complement. Furthermore, the presence of anti-FV3 serum during an FV3 infection in a non-immune mammalian cell line resulted in neutralization of the virus. Our results suggest that a cell surface receptor specific to teleost cell lines is responsible for the enhancement. Conclusions This report represents the first evidence of antibody dependent enhancement in iridoviruses. The data suggests that anti-FV3 serum can either neutralize or enhance viral infection and that enhancement is related to a novel antibody dependent enhancement pathway found in teleosts that is Fc dependent. PMID:20167100

2010-01-01

102

Management of Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many as 2,500 infants develop neonatal herpes each year, most of whom are born to women with no history or physical findings\\u000a suggestive of genital herpes. Infection usually takes one of three forms: 1) disease localized to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes,\\u000a 2) localized central nervous system infection, or 3) disseminated infection. Exposure to the virus occurs during passage

Bishara J. Freij

2004-01-01

103

A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish  

PubMed Central

Migration has evolved as a strategy to maximise individual fitness in response to seasonally changing ecological and environmental conditions. However, migration can also incur costs, and quantifying these costs can provide important clues to the ultimate ecological forces that underpin migratory behaviour. A key emerging model to explain migration in many systems posits that migration is driven by seasonal changes to a predation/growth potential (p/g) trade-off that a wide range of animals face. In this study we assess a key assumption of this model for a common cyprinid partial migrant, the roach Rutilus rutilus, which migrates from shallow lakes to streams during winter. By sampling fish from stream and lake habitats in the autumn and spring and measuring their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging when migrating. Resident fish had fuller stomachs containing more high quality prey items than migrant fish. Hence, we document a feeding cost to migration in roach, which adds additional support for the validity of the p/g model of migration in freshwater systems. PMID:23723967

Chapman, Ben B.; Eriksen, Anders; Baktoft, Henrik; Brodersen, Jakob; Nilsson, P. Anders; Hulthen, Kaj; Bronmark, Christer; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Gr?nkjaer, Peter; Skov, Christian

2013-01-01

104

Seasonal reactivation enables Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 to persist in a wild host population.  

PubMed

Emerging infectious diseases are of growing concern in wildlife conservation and animal health. To better understand the consequences of these diseases, a key question lies in how they persist in host populations after they emerge. Using a gene expression approach, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the persistence of an emerging virus, Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), which has been spreading to wild populations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Japan since 2003. Seasonal expression patterns of CyHV-3 genes in wild seropositive carp indicated that replication-related genes were transcribed only during the spring when water temperatures were permissive to CyHV-3 replication. In contrast, possible latency-related genes, which are expressed when CyHV-3 do not multiply, were also transcribed under nonpermissive conditions. These observations suggest that CyHV-3 may persist in carriers by establishing latent infection and then reactivating periodically coincident with the spring temperature increase when carp aggregate for mating, allowing successive virus transmissions between hosts during mating every year. Our results revealed that the life cycle of CyHV-3 may fit perfectly into the ecology of its host, resulting in the long-term persistence of this emerging virus in wild common carp populations. PMID:24256414

Uchii, Kimiko; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2014-02-01

105

Spectacular morphological novelty in a miniature cyprinid fish, Danionella dracula n. sp.  

PubMed Central

Danionella dracula is a new species of sexually dimorphic, miniature and highly developmentally truncated cyprinid fish. Compared with its close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, it lacks 44 bones or parts thereof and represents one of the most developmentally truncated vertebrates. Absence of the majority of bones appears to be due to developmental truncation via terminal deletion. In contrast to these larval-like features, D. dracula also shows several hyperossifications. Uniquely, among carp-like fishes, male D. dracula have a series of long, pointed odontoid processes on the jaws greatly resembling the jaw dentition of teleosts with true teeth. The anterior-most process in each jaw is extended as a canine-like fang projecting through the epithelium. True jaw teeth are absent from all 3700 species of cypriniforms and were lost at least in the Upper Eocene. It remains to be investigated, however, whether the conserved pathways to regulate tooth development in cypriniforms have been used in D. dracula to form and pattern the odontoid processes. This new species represents a remarkable example linking progenetic paedomorphosis via heterochronic change in developmental timing to the evolution of morphological novelties. PMID:19324738

Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W.; Ruber, Lukas

2009-01-01

106

Spectacular morphological novelty in a miniature cyprinid fish, Danionella dracula n. sp.  

PubMed

Danionella dracula is a new species of sexually dimorphic, miniature and highly developmentally truncated cyprinid fish. Compared with its close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, it lacks 44 bones or parts thereof and represents one of the most developmentally truncated vertebrates. Absence of the majority of bones appears to be due to developmental truncation via terminal deletion. In contrast to these larval-like features, D. dracula also shows several hyperossifications. Uniquely, among carp-like fishes, male D. dracula have a series of long, pointed odontoid processes on the jaws greatly resembling the jaw dentition of teleosts with true teeth. The anterior-most process in each jaw is extended as a canine-like fang projecting through the epithelium. True jaw teeth are absent from all 3700 species of cypriniforms and were lost at least in the Upper Eocene. It remains to be investigated, however, whether the conserved pathways to regulate tooth development in cypriniforms have been used in D. dracula to form and pattern the odontoid processes. This new species represents a remarkable example linking progenetic paedomorphosis via heterochronic change in developmental timing to the evolution of morphological novelties. PMID:19324738

Britz, Ralf; Conway, Kevin W; Rüber, Lukas

2009-06-22

107

Characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in different phases of infection: implications for disease transmission and control.  

PubMed

Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging and highly contagious viral disease of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), causing mass mortalities and huge economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry. The disease has spread rapidly to 28 countries worldwide. However, mechanisms of koi herpesvirus (species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3; CyHV-3) transmission remain unclear. A potential experimental model of CyHV-3 infection in carp was used to characterise CyHV-3 in different phases of infection and to demonstrate that CyHV-3 persists in survivor fish and has the capacity to reactivate and transmit the disease to healthy fish. During acute infection, which occurred when fish were maintained at 22°C, viral genes were abundantly expressed and infectious virus was produced in association with tissue damage, clinical disease and mortality. In fish maintained at a lower temperature (11°C), viral DNA was present but viral gene expression was absent or greatly restricted, infectious virus was not recovered and there was no evidence of disease. Productive replication was re-initiated following an increase in water temperature to 22°C, resulting in 45% mortality. Shedding of reactivated virus killed 75% of cohabitating naïve fish, suggesting a potential risk for disease transmission. PMID:24704574

Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J; Schat, Karel A; Slobedman, Barry; Barnes, Andrew C; Walker, Peter J

2014-08-01

108

Herpes Zoster Vaccine Effectiveness against Incident Herpes Zoster and Post-herpetic Neuralgia in an Older  

E-print Network

Herpes Zoster Vaccine Effectiveness against Incident Herpes Zoster and Post-herpetic Neuralgia zoster is common and has serious consequences, notably post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Vaccine efficacy, or immune status. Our objective was to assess zoster vaccine effectiveness (VE) against incident zoster

Jones, Peter JS

109

Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... no visible sores. HSV-2 is frequently a sexually transmitted disease , but HSV-1 also may be acquired during ... as possible. Related Pages On This Site Conditions: Sexually Transmitted Diseases Features: The Universe of Genetic Testing: Infectious Disease ...

110

Nestedness in assemblages of gyrodactylids (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidea) parasitising two species of cyprinid--with reference to generalists and specialists.  

PubMed

The structure of gyrodactylid assemblages in individual fishes of two species of cyprinid was determined. A total of 100 specimens of minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus, and 137 specimens of roach, Rutilus rutilus, were investigated for presence of gyrodactylids. Host specificity, specialists vs. generalists, was noted in each host fish. A nested pattern was recorded in parasite assemblages of minnow, the host with a dominant number of specialist gyrodactylids. A non-nested pattern was observed in parasite assemblages of roach, the host with a dominant number of generalist gyrodactylids. The host specificity appears to be a meaningful factor that determines the pattern of gyrodactylid assemblages of both fish hosts. PMID:11027780

Mat?jusová, I; Morand, S; Gelnar, M

2000-10-01

111

The Epidemiology of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and -2) infections are common among adolescents. HSV-1 can cause either oral or genital infections, whereas HSV-2 causes predominantly genital herpes. Therefore, HSV-2 seroprevalence can be used as a marker of genital herpes. As in adults, genital infections in adolescents are often unrecognized; consequently the magnitude of the problem of

Susan L Rosenthal

1999-01-01

112

Cell Host & Microbe Durable Protection from Herpes Simplex Virus-2  

E-print Network

Cell Host & Microbe Article Durable Protection from Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Transmission Following is a problem. Intravaginal administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) lipoplexes targeting Herpes Simplex protection against viral transmission. INTRODUCTION Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) infection causes

Lieberman, Judy

113

Herpes viruses hedge their bets Michael P. H. Stumpf*  

E-print Network

herpes simplex 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus (VZV) stay latent in cells of the nervous system herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV2] can, however, reacti- vate even in the presence of cellularHerpes viruses hedge their bets Michael P. H. Stumpf* , Zoe¨ Laidlaw§ , and Vincent A. A. Jansen

114

Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species. PMID:24480585

Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

2014-03-14

115

Does interspecies hybridization affect the host specificity of parasites in cyprinid fish?  

PubMed Central

Background Host specificity varies among parasite species. Some parasites are strictly host-specific, others show a specificity for congeneric or non-congeneric phylogenetically related host species, whilst some others are non-specific (generalists). Two cyprinids, Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio, plus their respective hybrids were investigated for metazoan parasites. The aim of this study was to analyze whether interspecies hybridization affects host specificity. The different degrees of host specificity within a phylogenetic framework were taken into consideration (i.e. strict specialist, intermediate specialist, and intermediate generalist). Methods Fish were collected during harvesting the pond and identified using meristic traits and molecular markers. Metazoan parasite species were collected. Host specificity of parasites was determined using the following classification: strict specialist, intermediate specialist, intermediate generalist and generalist. Parasite species richness was compared between parental species and their hybrids. The effect of host species on abundance of parasites differing in host specificity was tested. Results Hybrids harbored more different parasite species but their total parasite abundance was lower in comparison with parental species. Interspecies hybridization affected the host specificity of ecto- and endoparasites. Parasite species exhibiting different degrees of host specificity for C. carpio and C. gibelio were also present in hybrids. The abundance of strict specialists of C. carpio was significantly higher in parental species than in hybrids. Intermediate generalists parasitizing C. carpio and C. gibelio as two phylogenetically closely related host species preferentially infected C. gibelio when compared to C. carpio, based on prevalence and maximum intensity of infection. Hybrids were less infected by intermediate generalists when compared to C. gibelio. Conclusions This finding does not support strict co-adaptation between host and parasite genotypes resulting in narrow host specificity, and showed that hybrid genotypes are susceptible to parasites exhibiting host specificity. The immune mechanisms specific to parental species might represent potential mechanisms explaining the low abundance of parasites in C. gibelio x C. carpio hybrids. PMID:23587287

2013-01-01

116

Distribution and Abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Cyprinid Fish in Northeastern Thailand  

PubMed Central

To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats. PMID:24516277

Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

2013-01-01

117

Skin mucus of Cyprinus carpio inhibits cyprinid herpesvirus 3 binding to epidermal cells  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a mortal and highly contagious disease in common and koi carp. The skin is the major portal of entry of CyHV-3 in carp after immersion in water containing the virus. In the present study, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to investigate the effect of skin mucus removal and skin epidermis lesion on CyHV-3 entry. Physical treatments inducing removal of the mucus up to complete erosion of the epidermis were applied on a defined area of carp skin just before inoculation by immersion in infectious water. CyHV-3 entry in carp was drastically enhanced on the area of the skin where the mucus was removed with or without associated epidermal lesion. To investigate whether skin mucus inhibits CyHV-3 binding to epidermal cells, tail fins with an intact mucus layer or without mucus were inoculated ex vivo. While electron microscopy examination revealed numerous viral particles bound on the fins inoculated after mucus removal, no particle could be detected after infection of mucus-covered fins. Finally, anti-CyHV-3 neutralising activity of mucus extract was tested in vitro. Incubation of CyHV-3 with mucus extract reduced its infectivity in a dose dependent manner. The present study demonstrates that skin mucus removal and epidermal lesions enhance CyHV-3 entry in carp. It highlights the role of fish skin mucus as an innate immune protection against viral epidermal entry. PMID:21816061

2011-01-01

118

Biomarker responses in cyprinids of the middle stretch of the River Po, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Fish belonging to three species of cyprinids, that is, barbel (Barbus plebejus), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), and Italian nase (Chondrostoma soeetta), were collected from two sites of the River Po, located upstream and downstream from the confluence of one of its middle-reach polluted tributaries, the River Lambro. The two groups of individuals caught for each species were analyzed and compared for several microsomal and cytosolic biochemical markers. The enzymatic activities assayed in fish liver included ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine-N-demethylase (APDM), uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the contents of reduced glutathione and nonprotein thiols were measured. Despite some differences among species, all microsomal activities (EROD, APDM, UDPGT) were found to be significantly induced in fish living downstream the River Lambro. With the exception of a higher GST enzyme activity of barbel from the downstream reach, no significant modification was evident in any of the tested cytosolic biomarkers. Results showed that barbel and nase better discriminated the two reaches of the River Po. In general, the alterations observed in feral fish are consistent with the results found in previous studies conducted with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under both laboratory and field conditions in the same middle reach of the River Po. All of the data indicate that the downstream tract of the main river is exposed to the load of pollutants transported by the River Lambro, including known inducers such as polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The latter were analyzed in sediments sampled at the two sites of fish collection, and the downstream sediment showed the highest concentrations of PAHs, although their levels are comparable to those present in moderately polluted locations. Regardless of the site of exposure, barbel seem to be characterized by more efficient antioxidant defenses.

Vigano, L. [National Council of Research, Milan (Italy). Water Research Inst.; Arillo, A.; Melodia, F. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Inst. of Zoology; Arlati, P.; Monti, C. [Presidio Multizonale Igiene Prevenzione, Lecco (Italy)

1998-03-01

119

Quantification of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 in Environmental Water by Using an External Standard Virus?  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a lethal DNA virus that spreads in natural lakes and rivers, infects common carp and koi. We established a quantification method for CyHV-3 that includes a viral concentration method and quantitative PCR combined with an external standard virus. Viral concentration methods were compared using the cation-coated filter and ultrafiltration methods. The recovery of virus-like particles was similar for the two methods (cation-coated filter method, 44% ± 19%, n = 3; ultrafiltration method, 50% ± 3%, n = 3); however, the former method was faster and more suitable for routine determinations. The recovery of seeded CyHV-3 based on the cation-coated filter method varied by more than 3 orders of magnitude among the water samples. The recovery yield of CyHV-3 was significantly correlated with that of the seeded ? phage, and the average ratio of ? to the CyHV-3 recovery yield was 1.4, indicating that ? is useful as an external standard virus for determining the recovery yield of CyHV-3. Therefore, to quantify CyHV-3 in environmental water, a known amount of ? was added as an external standard virus to each water sample. Using this method, CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 6 of the 10 (60%) types of environmental water tested; the highest concentration of CyHV-3 DNA was 2 × 105 copies liter?1. The lowest recovery limit of CyHV-3 DNA was 60 copies liter?1. This method is practical for monitoring CyHV-3 abundance in environmental water. PMID:19915032

Honjo, Mie N.; Minamoto, Toshifumi; Matsui, Kazuaki; Uchii, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Alata A.; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Iida, Takaji; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2010-01-01

120

Detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 DNA in river water during and after an outbreak.  

PubMed

The disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) brings catastrophic damages to cultivated carp and koi and to natural carp populations; however, the dynamics of the virus in environmental waters are unclear. In July 2007, CyHV-3 DNA was detected in a dead common carp collected from the Yura River in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, and this was followed by mass mortality. We collected water samples at eight sites along the Yura River for 3 months immediately after confirmation of the disease outbreak and attempted to detect and quantify CyHV-3 DNA in the water samples using molecular biological methods. The virus concentration was carried out by the cation-coated filter method, while the purification of DNA from the samples was achieved using phenol-chloroform extraction and a commercial DNA extraction kit. CyHV-3 was detected by PCR using six sets of conditions, three sets of primers (SphI-5, AP, and B22Rh exon 1), and two volumes of template DNA, and was quantified using real-time PCR. Our results indicate broader distribution of CyHV-3, even though dead fish were found only in a limited area; moreover, the virus was present at high levels in the river not only during the mass mortality caused by the disease but also for at least 3 months after the end of mass mortality. Our results suggest the possibility of infection by CyHV-3 via environmental water. The sequences of CyHV-3 collected from the Yura River matched perfectly with that of the CyHV-3 Japanese strain, suggesting that they share the same origin. PMID:19013729

Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Uchii, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Alata A; Kohmatsu, Yukihiro; Iida, Takaji; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

2009-03-30

121

Molecular cloning of preproinsulin cDNAs from several osteoglossomorphs and a cyprinid.  

PubMed

Several preproinsulin cDNAs were isolated and characterized from four members of the Osteoglossomorpha (an ancient teleost group); Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (arawana), Pantodon buchholzi (butterfly fish), Notopterus chitala (feather fin knife fish), Hiodon alosoides (goldeye) and Gnathonemus petersii (elephantnose). In addition, we isolated and characterized the preproinsulin cDNA from Catostomus commersoni (white sucker, as a representative of a generalized teleost). The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed conservation of the cystine residues known to be involved in the formation of the disulfide bridges, as well as residues involved in the hexamer formation, except for B-17 in the butterfly fish, the arawana and the goldeye. However, the N-terminus of the B-chain was very weakly conserved among the species studied. Residues known to be significant for maintaining receptor-binding conformation and those known to comprise the receptor-binding domain were all conserved, except for a conservative substitution at B13, aspartate substituted glutamate in the arawana, goldeye, butterfly fish and white sucker, and at B16, phenylalanine substituted tyrosine in the elephantnose. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed a monophyletic grouping of the osteoglossomorphs, and showed that they were not the most basal living teleost. Comparative sequence analysis of preproinsulins among the osteoglossomorphs was useful in assessment of intergroup relationship, relating elephantnose with the feather fin knife fish and the arawana, butterfly fish, and goldeye. This arrangement of species is consistent with relationships based on other more classical parameters, except for the goldeye which was assessed as being sister to all the osteoglossomorphs. The white sucker was grouped with the common carp and both are cyprinids. PMID:11306171

Al-Mahrouki, A A; Irwin, D M; Graham, L C; Youson, J H

2001-03-28

122

An appraisal of screening for maternal type-specific herpes simplex virus antibodies to prevent neonatal herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all neonatal herpes simplex virus infections occur as a result of first-episode maternal infection during late pregnancy when delivery occurs before the development of protective maternal antibodies. Screening of pregnant women for the presence of type-specific herpes simplex virus antibodies has therefore been suggested as a means of identifying women vulnerable to herpes simplex virus acquisition and subsequent transmission

Dwight J. Rouse; Jeffrey S. A. Stringer

2000-01-01

123

A Digenean Metacercaria (Apophallus sp.) and a Myxozoan (Myxobolus sp.) Associated with Vertebral Deformities in Cyprinid Fishes from the Willamette River, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high prevalence of vertebral deformities has been observed in various fishes, especially cyprinids, from certain regions of the Willamette River for many years. One proposed source of these deformities is exposure to toxicants. Histological evaluation of affected chiselmouth Acrocheilus alutaceus revealed that all lesions associated with vertebrae were associated with metacercariae of digenean trematodes. Approximately half of the northern

M. L. Kent; V. G. Watral; C. M. Whipps; M. E. Cunningham; C. D. Criscione; J. R. Heidel; L. R. Curtis; J. Spitsbergen; D. F. Markle

2004-01-01

124

On the Use of Cyprinid Scales in the Diet Analysis of Piscivorous Species: How Much Information Is Hidden in a Fish Scale?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scales of eight common European cyprinid species were studied. Six scales were extracted from each specimen from three predetermined body areas. The main differences among the species' scales were described. Maximum and minimum lateral radius and maximum length were measured, and the number of radii noted. The relationships between standard length and scale measurements were best described by power functions,

Rafael Miranda; M. Carmen Escala

2007-01-01

125

Herpes genitalis and the philosopher's stance.  

PubMed

For many people, living with genital herpes generates not just episodic physical discomfort but recurrent emotional distress, centred on concerns about how to live and love safely without passing infection to others. This article considers the evidence on herpes transmission, levels of sexual risk, when the law has intervened and to what extent health professionals should advise with respect to these issues. It proposes a mechanism by which moral philosophy might provide a rational basis on which to counsel concerning sexual behaviour. PMID:24429670

Dunphy, Kilian

2014-12-01

126

Herpes zoster and chronic active hepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients with chronic active hepatitis who developed herpes zoster involving multiple dermatomes are presented. This association has not been noted previously in the literature. It is suggested that chronic active hepatitis may be another of the disorders associated with deficient or altered immune response, and that this may account for the simultaneous occurrence of these two entities.

Arthur T. Rosenfield; Donald R. Schermer; J. Michael Gospe; Robert A. Hartley

1971-01-01

127

Orbital Apex Syndrome in Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus  

PubMed Central

Orbital apex syndrome is a rare manifestation of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Herein we report on a case of orbital apex syndrome secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. A 75 year-old male complained of vision loss, conjunctival hyperemia and proptosis on the left eye, was referred to our clinic. Visual acuity was 5/10 Snellen lines and he had conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, minimal nuclear cataract and proptosis on the left eye. A diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was demonstrated firstly. The patient received oral and topical corticosteroids, antiinflammatory and antibiotic agents. On day 2, vesiculopustular lesions were observed, Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus was diagnosed and corticosteroid treatment stopped, oral acyclovir treatment initiated. Two days later, total ophthalmoplegia, ptosis and significant visual loss were observed on the left. The diagnosis of orbital apex syndrome was considered and the patient commenced on an intravenous acyclovir treatment. After the improvement of acute symptoms, a tapering dose of oral cortisone treatment initiated to accelarate the recovery of ophthalmoplegia. At 5-month follow-up, ptosis and ocular motility showed improvement. VA did not significantly improve because of cataract and choroidal detachment on the left. We conclude that ophthalmoplegia secondary to Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus responds favourably to intravenous acyclovir and steroids. PMID:22830066

Arda, Hatice; Mirza, Ertugrul; Gumus, Koray; Oner, Ayse; Karakucuk, Sarper; S?rakaya, Ender

2012-01-01

128

Rabies and Herpes simplex virus encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study on the frequency, site and distribution of rabies and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 antigens by means of immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoperoxidase (IP) techniques was performed on routinely processed (formol-fixed, paraffin-embedded) brain autopsy material stored for up to 25 years. In 2 animal and 2 human rabies cases, inclusion bodies in neuronal cytoplasm and processes were

Herbert Budka; Therese Popow-Kraupp

1981-01-01

129

Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

2003-01-01

130

Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Herpes simplex Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been associated with a significant number of neonatal HSV infections. When these infections begin in utero, the associated morbidity is more severe, and treatment regimens may be less effective. Case: A 24-year-old nullipara with an abnormal triple screen and multiple ultrasound abnormalities at 19 weeks’ gestation underwent amniocentesis and cordocentesis. Laboratory

Jan M. Lanouette; Debra A. Duquette; Suzanne M. Jacques; Faisal Qureshi; Mark P. Johnson; Stanley M. Berry

1996-01-01

131

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), HSV encephalitis remains a significant cause of neurologic impairment in pregnant women. Assessment of fetal contamination also remains a problem.Cases: We report two cases in which HSV encephalitis initially was not suspected and led to significant maternal neurologic impairment. In both cases, HSV

Olivier Dupuis; Francois Audibert; Hervé Fernandez; René Frydman

1999-01-01

132

Herpes simplex virus replication compartments can form by coalescence of smaller compartments  

E-print Network

Herpes simplex virus replication compartments can form by coalescence of smaller compartments February 2003 Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) uses intranuclear compartmentalization to concentrate Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved. Introduction Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a large double

Knipe, David M.

133

Incidence of herpes genitalis in Northern Ireland in 1973-83 and herpes simplex types 1 and 2 isolated in 1982-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1973 - 83 there was a pronounced rise in the number of new cases of herpes genitalis in Northern Ireland. This study of 127 patients with herpes genitalis shows that 30% had herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) and 70% had herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV 2) infections. Of 41 sexual contacts who attended, only seven had

H A Lavery; J H Connolly; J D Russell

1986-01-01

134

Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.  

PubMed

No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines. PMID:25138572

Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

2014-12-01

135

Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2012-01-01

136

Evidence for herpes simplex viral latency in the human cornea.  

PubMed Central

Patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for prior herpes simplex keratitis (group A) and corneal disease unrelated to herpes simplex (group B) were investigated to assess whether the cornea is a site for herpes simplex viral latency. All patients were seropositive for herpes simplex viral antibody. Virus was isolated from the tear film postoperatively in one patient and on cocultivation from the cornea of another patient. Herpes simplex viral DNA, however, was detected in the corneas of all patients from group A and half of those from group B by means of the polymerase chain reaction and primers to three well separated regions of the viral genome. Three donor corneas had no evidence of herpes simplex viral DNA. Using RNA polymerase chain reaction, we found evidence of a latency associated transcript and also that of a glycoprotein C coding transcript in two corneas, indicating viral replication. Nine corneas had evidence of a latency associated transcript but no glycoprotein C transcript, which suggests that herpes simplex virus may be maintained in a latent state in the corneas of patients with prior herpes simplex keratitis and in some patients with corneal disease unrelated to the herpes simplex virus. PMID:1850616

Kaye, S B; Lynas, C; Patterson, A; Risk, J M; McCarthy, K; Hart, C A

1991-01-01

137

Herpes Simplex Virus 2 ICP0- Mutant Viruses Are Avirulent and Immunogenic: Implications for a Genital Herpes Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0? mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0? mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0? mutant viruses were constructed

William P. Halford; Ringo Püschel; Brandon Rakowski; Darren P. Martin

2010-01-01

138

Phylogenetic Relationships of the Creek Chubs and the Spine-Fins: an Enigmatic Group of North American Cyprinid Fishes (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene were performed for representatives of major North American cyprinid clades. These analyses resolved four monophyletic groups: (1) Western Clade, represented byAcrocheilusandGila, (2) Creek Chub Clade, represented byCouesius,Hemitremia,Semotilus, andMargariscus, (3) Open Posterior Myodome Clade, represented byCampostoma,Phenacobius,Cyprinella,Notropis,Platygobio, andRhinichthys, and (4) Plagopterin Clade, represented bySnyderichthys,Lepidomeda, andMeda. The overall

Andrew M. Simons; Richard Mayden

1997-01-01

139

Discovery of Herpes B Virus-Encoded MicroRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes B virus (BV) naturally infects macaque monkeys and is a close relative of herpes simplex virus. BV can zoonotically infect humans to cause a rapidly ascending encephalitis with 80% mortality. Therefore, BV is a serious danger to those who come into contact with these monkeys or their tissues and cells. MicroRNAs are regulators of gene expression, and there have

Michael I. Besecker; Mallory E. Harden; Guanglin Li; Xiu-Jie Wang; Anthony Griffiths

2009-01-01

140

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis during Treatment with Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

We report 3 cases of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors for rheumatologic disorders. Although TNF-? inhibitors have been reported to increase the risk of other infectious diseases, to our knowledge, an association between anti–TNF-? drugs and herpes simplex virus encephalitis has not been previously described. PMID:19681709

Bradford, Russell D.; Pettit, April C.; Wright, Patty W.; Mulligan, Mark J.; Moreland, Larry W.; McLain, David A.; Gnann, John W.; Bloch, Karen C.

2012-01-01

141

Composition for the treatment of herpes and cold sores  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A composition for treating herpes and cold sores. The composition may be topically applied, ingested into the body, or injected into the body. The composition may be applied quickly and discretely in order to sooth and treat herpes and cold sores. The composition utilizes a highly effective combination of compounds, including olea europaea leaf extract and olea europaea fruit oil, to achieve this end.

2014-09-30

142

The co-chaperone BAG3 regulates Herpes Simplex Virus replication  

E-print Network

The co-chaperone BAG3 regulates Herpes Simplex Virus replication Christos A. Kyratsous and Saul J-chaperone, as a regulator of herpes virus immediate early gene expression. We report that a herpes simplex virus lacking of promyelocytic leukemia to increase herpes simplex virus replication. Hsc70 HSV ICP0 VZV Productive infection

Symington, Lorraine S.

143

Genital herpes testing among persons living with HIV.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional survey explored the frequency of genital herpes testing among 110 people living with HIV (PLWH) and reported barriers and facilitators related to testing. Forty-four percent of the respondents had not been tested for genital herpes since receiving an HIV diagnosis, 34% had been tested, and 22% preferred not to say. Respondents' most frequently cited factors affecting a decision to not be tested were: (a) testing not being recommended by a provider, (b) not having herpes symptoms, and (c) not thinking they had herpes. Data from this study indicated that PLWH were not frequently tested for genital herpes; there was a limited understanding of the frequently subclinical nature of infection; and provider recommendations for testing, or lack thereof, affected testing decisions. PMID:21459624

Mark, Hayley D; Lucea, Marguerite; Nanda, Joy P; Farley, Jason E; Gilbert, Lisa

2011-01-01

144

Neonatal herpes encephalitis caused by a virologically confirmed acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 1 strain.  

PubMed

A neonate with herpes simplex virus 1 encephalitis was treated with intravenous acyclovir. During the course of therapy, the infection became intractable to the treatment and a mutation in the viral thymidine kinase gene (nucleotide G375T, amino acid Q125H) developed. This mutation was demonstrated in vitro to confer acyclovir resistance. PMID:23100343

Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Wakamatsu, Hajime; Kogawa, Kazuhiro; Wang, Lixin; Kinoshita-Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Inoue, Naoki; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Igarashi, Takashi; Saijo, Masayuki

2013-01-01

145

Genital Herpes Beliefs: Implications for Sexual Health  

PubMed Central

Study objective Genital herpes (HSV) is exceedingly common in the United States and women are disproportionally affected. This study aims to describe young women’s beliefs about HSV and examine the correlates of those beliefs. Design A 40 item Herpes Representation measure (HSV- RoSTD) and a demographic questionnaire were administered to a convenience sample of young women. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, t-tests and Pearson’s correlations. Setting Four women’s health clinics and one large state university. Participants 302 women aged 18–24. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Four dimensions of HSV representations (cause, identity, future perspective and psychosocial consequences), age and STD testing history. Results Nearly all (98%) believed that HSV would result in genital sores and 68% believed they could tell if their sexual partner had HSV. Most (89%) understood the longevity of HSV, however 30% believed that they could take a pill to get rid of the infection, and 15% indicated that it was likely they would die from HSV. Negative beliefs about the psychosocial impact of HSV were common as 95% indicated they would be depressed and 90% indicated concern about sex and partner notification. Those who were younger and those who had never been tested for STDs believed a genital herpes infection is highly symptomatic. Finally, negative beliefs about the psychosocial consequences of HSV were associated with beliefs about HSV being symptomatic, having a negative impact on future health, and being associated with sexual risk behaviors. Conclusions Young women have misconceptions about HSV, particularly regarding the symptomatology and the role of HSV medication. Noteworthy concerns about the negative psychosocial consequences of an HSV diagnosis were also raised, all of which have implications for young women’s sexual health. PMID:23337309

Falk, Elizabeth C.; Heidrich, Susan M.

2013-01-01

146

RNA Synthesis in Cells Infected with an Icosahedral Cytoplasmic Deoxyvirus (Frog Virus 3)  

PubMed Central

In cells infected with frog virus 3 there was extensive but not complete inhibition of host RNA synthesis. Host RNA processing was not impaired. The electrophoretic pattern of frog virus 3 specific RNA transcripts in infected FHM cells has been determined. When analyzed by gel electrophoresis, the transcripts separated in a size range of 6 to 16S with the bulk migrating around 16S. These RNA's contain polyadenylic acid stretches of approximately 150 to 200 nucleotides. In the absence of viral DNA replication, the rate of transcription is reduced, but the molecular size species correspond to those produced in normal infection. No evidence of distinct “early” RNA transcripts could be found. PMID:4824712

Armentrout, R. W.; McAuslan, B. R.

1974-01-01

147

The epidemiology of herpes simplex types 1 and 2 infection of the genital tract in Edinburgh 1978-1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION--The changing epidemiology of genital herpes in Edinburgh is described in relation to herpes simplex virus (HSV) Type 1 and herpes simplex virus Type 2 infection over a period of 14 years. METHODS--2018 episodes of genital herpes in 1794 patients over a 14 year period were assessed. Data on age, sex, sexual orientation, geographical origin and herpes antibodies were also

J D Ross; I W Smith; R A Elton

1993-01-01

148

Inhibition of Human Parainfluenza Virus3 Replication by Interferon and Human MxA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the IFN-mediated inhibition of human parainfluenza virus-3 (HPIV-3) replication in cultured human A549 cells. IFN-? inhibited the virus yield significantly with concomitant reduction of viral RNA accumulation by more than 90%. Further studies indicated that the inhibitory action of IFN was at the level of primary transcription of HPIV3 replication. Since the IFN-inducible protein, MxA, has been

HONG ZHAO; BISHNU P. DE; TAPAS DAS; AMIYA K. BANERJEE

1996-01-01

149

A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 2 in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)  

PubMed Central

A rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) detection in gibel carp was developed. Following cloning and sequencing of the putative DNA helicase gene of CyHV-2 isolate from China, a set of four specific primers was designed based on the sequence. The MgCl2 concentration and the reaction temperature were optimized to 6?mM, 64°C, respectively. LAMP products were detected by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of SYBR Green I stain. The specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP assay were determined. No cross-reaction was observed with other fish DNA viruses including eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus, and Chinese giant salamander iridovirus. The LAMP assay was found to be equally sensitive as nested PCR. A comparative evaluation of 10 fish samples using LAMP and nested PCR assays showed an overall correlation in positive and negative results for CyHV-2. These results indicate that the LAMP assay is simple, sensitive, and specific and has a great potential use for CyHV-2 detection in the laboratory and field. PMID:24574914

Zhang, Hui; Zeng, Lingbing; Fan, Yuding; Zhou, Yong; Xu, Jin; Ma, Jie

2014-01-01

150

Protective immunity of a modified-live cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine in koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) 13 months after vaccination.  

PubMed

Objective-To evaluate the long-term protective immunity of a cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) vaccine in naïve koi (Cyprinus carpio koi). Animals-72 koi. Procedures-Vaccinated koi (n = 36) and unvaccinated control koi (36) were challenge exposed to a wild-type CyHV3 strain (KHVp8 F98-50) 13 months after vaccination. Results-The CyHV3 vaccine provided substantial protective immunity against challenge exposure. The proportional mortality rate was less in vaccinated koi (13/36 [36%]) than in unvaccinated koi (36/36 [100%]). For koi that died during the experiment, mean survival time was significantly greater in vaccinated than in unvaccinated fish (17 vs 10 days). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The CyHV3 vaccine provided substantial protective immunity against challenge exposure with CyHV3 13 months after vaccination. This provided evidence that koi can be vaccinated annually with the CyHV3 vaccine to significantly reduce mortality and morbidity rates associated with CyHV3 infection. PMID:25255180

O'Connor, Matthew R; Farver, Thomas B; Malm, Kirsten V; Yun, Susan C; Marty, Gary D; Salonius, Kira; Dishon, Arnon; Weber, E P Scott

2014-10-01

151

Interaction between type I interferon and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in two genetic lines of common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and its ornamental koi varieties can induce the severe systemic disease known as koi herpesvirus disease. This disease is characterised by a rapid replication and spreading of the virus through multiple organs and results in a fast onset of mortality (starting on Day 6 post infection) in up to 100% of infected fish. During the first phase of viral infections, type I interferons (IFNs) have generally been proven to be essential in inducing an innate immune response; however, very little is known about the type I IFN response to herpesviruses in fish. The aim of this work was to study the type I IFN responses during CyHV-3 infection in 2 genetically divergent lines of common carp which presented differing survival rates. Our results show that CyHV-3 induced a systemic type I IFN response in carp, and the magnitude of type I IFN expression is correlated with the virus load found in skin and head kidney. In this in vivo experimental setup, the level of type I IFN response cannot be linked with higher survival of carp during CyHV-3 infection. PMID:25266898

Adamek, Miko?aj; Rakus, Krzysztof L; Brogden, Graham; Matras, Marek; Chyb, Jaros?aw; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter

2014-09-30

152

Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea  

PubMed Central

Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria. PMID:23144655

Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

2012-01-01

153

Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea.  

PubMed

Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters and can also be strong selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between life history phenotypes and the presence/absence of stressors both spatially (across 10 Ugandan lakes) and temporally (over four decades in Lake Victoria). Overall, introduced Nile perch and fishing tended to be associated with a suite of life history responses in R. argentea, including: decreased body size, maturation at smaller sizes, and increased reproductive effort (larger eggs; and higher relative fecundity, clutch volume, and ovary weight). This is one of the first well-documented examples of fisheries-induced phenotypic change in a tropical, freshwater stock; the magnitude of which raises some concerns for the long-term sustainability of this fishery, now the most important (by mass) in Lake Victoria. PMID:23144655

Sharpe, Diana M T; Wandera, Silvester B; Chapman, Lauren J

2012-11-01

154

Type-specific testing for herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

The prevalence of genital herpes is increasing worldwide. Type-specific antibody tests for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are widely available, however, only those based on glycoprotein G have acceptable accuracy. When diagnosing genital herpes, it is important to use type-specific tests in order to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 since the type of HSV infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling. Populations appropriate for type-specific serologic testing for HSV include people with an uncertain clinical diagnosis, high-risk patients, partners of an HSV-infected individual, HIV-infected individuals and pregnant women. PMID:15225092

Strick, Lara; Wald, Anna

2004-07-01

155

Type-specific Serologic Testing for Herpes Simplex Virus-2.  

PubMed

Genital herpes due to infection with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) affects an estimated 60 million adults in the United States. Over 90% are unaware of their infection but are at risk of transmitting HSV to partners. This ongoing "silent" disease is responsible for the continued increase in HSV prevalence. The recent advent of type-specific serologic tests has allowed accurate differentiation of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. Screening of at-risk populations will allow identification of individuals with genital herpes and provide an opportunity for risk reduction counseling and interventions to reduce transmission. PMID:12642003

Leone, Peter

2003-04-01

156

Filgrastim helps to heal herpes zoster faster: two case reports.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is an infectious disease caused by varicella-zoster virus that may occur sporadically at any age. We report on two patients with herpes zoster who received chemotherapy for breast cancer. Both patients were immunocompromised and received filgrastim therapy for the management of neutropenia. Zoster occurred during filgrastim therapy but the symptoms were alleviated rapidly in the course of therapy. We conclude that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy helped symptom alleviation and accelerated the recovery from herpes zoster in our chemotherapy-treated patients. PMID:21528676

Sayin, Meral; Bakkal, Bekir H

2011-01-01

157

A case report of abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal complications caused by herpes zoster are extremely rare. Here, we described a case of abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster. The patient was a 59-year-old female who suffered from unexplained paroxysmal and a burning pain on the right part of her waist and abdomen, accompanied by abdominal distention. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed by abdominal radiography. Distention of the right abdominal wall was still apparent after one month. In this report, we found that recovery from abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster is difficult and may require surgical intervention. PMID:22969239

Zhou, Su-Rong; Liu, Chuan-Yu

2012-09-01

158

Clinical Trials on Efficacy of Antivirals for the Treatment of Severe Herpes Virus Infections. Annual Report July 1981-June 1982,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The programs study four severe and life-threatening human herpesvirus diseases: herpes simplex encephalitis, neonatal herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster and progressive mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus infections of immunocompromised hosts. The s...

R. J. Whitley, C. A. Alford

1982-01-01

159

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 as a Cause of Genital Herpes: Impact on Surveillance and Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared characteristics of patients who had herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 with characteristics of patients who had HSV-2, by use of data from a cross-sectional analysis. Data were collected in an urban sexually transmitted diseases clinic from patients who had positive genital HSV cultures. Overall, 17.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9%-19.3%) of 1145 genital HSV isolates obtained

Lois Downey; Connie Celum; Anna Wald

2000-01-01

160

Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

1985-05-01

161

Succession of Herpes Zoster Cases in Patients under Corticosteroid Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four out of six patients affected by the outbreak of a 'house epidemy' of herpes zoster had received corticosteroid treatment, one had arsenic poisoning. The patient who was the source of the infection had never received steroids. Two corticosteroid patie...

J. Rado, J. Tako, L. Geder, E. Jeney, I. Goschl

1966-01-01

162

Herpes zoster on the face in the elderly.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is a localised disease caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that enters the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox, travels to the dorsal root ganglia, and remains in latent form. The condition is characterised by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration, and shows a typical single dermatome innervated by single dorsal root or cranial sensory ganglion. Involvement of three or more dermatomes is known as disseminated zoster and seen in immunocompromised individuals. Complications of herpes zoster include ocular sequelae, bacterial superinfection of the lesions, meningoencephalitis and postherpetic neuralgia. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age and immunosuppression, therefore prompt management is necessary to avoid morbidity and mortality in these individuals. We present two case reports of herpes zoster, one involving the maxillary and mandibular branches of the trigeminal nerve while the other involves all branches of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:25331144

Nair, Preeti; Gharote, Harshkant; Singh, Pooja; Jain-Choudhary, Palak

2014-01-01

163

AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

McCormick, Kathleen

1985-01-01

164

Common use of inaccurate antibody assays to identify infection status with herpes simplex virus type 2.  

PubMed

In recent proficiency testing of herpes simplex virus type-specific serologic evidence by the College of American Pathologists, commercially available herpes simplex virus antibody assays that were not glycoprotein-G based demonstrated high false-positive rates (14%-88%) for herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies in sera that were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 antibodies but negative for herpes simplex virus type-2 antibodies. Herpes simplex virus serologic testing should be performed with only glycoprotein-G-based tests. PMID:16098855

Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Brown, Zane A

2005-08-01

165

Suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes: acyclovir v inosine pranobex.  

PubMed Central

The suppressive action of acyclovir and inosine pranobex was compared in a randomised double blind controlled trial in patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. Fourteen patients received acyclovir and 17 inosine pranobex. Treatment continued for 12 weeks. The time to the first recurrence was significantly longer and the frequency of recurrences significantly less in the recipients of acyclovir. No important side effects were noted. It is concluded that acyclovir is the treatment of choice to suppress often recurring genital herpes. PMID:2473952

Mindel, A; Carney, O; Sonnex, C; Freris, M; Patou, G; Williams, P

1989-01-01

166

The diagnosis and management of oral herpes simplex infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis and recurrent herpes labialis are the most common manifestations of infection with herpes\\u000a simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In primary and recrudescent HSV-associated disease, the symptoms may range from subclinical\\u000a to debilitating and life-threatening, depending on the host’s immune responses or competence level. In this paper, the typical\\u000a and atypical manifestations, and the current diagnostic and treatment

Catalena Birek; Giuseppe Ficarra

2006-01-01

167

Type-specific serologic testing for herpes simplex virus-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes due to infection with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) affects an estimated 60 million adults in the United States.\\u000a Over 90% are unaware of their infection but are at risk of transmitting HSV to partners. This ongoing “silent” disease is\\u000a responsible for the continued increase in HSV prevalence. The recent advent of type-specific serologic tests has allowed accurate\\u000a differentiation

Peter Leone

2003-01-01

168

Antiviral-resistant fulminant herpes hepatitis in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Fulminant herpes hepatitis with disseminated extrahepatic involvement in pregnancy is rare and carries a high mortality risk. Although acyclovir remains standard first-line therapy, effective management of acyclovir-resistant disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) in pregnancy remains elusive. We present a case of disseminated HSV resistant to both acyclovir and foscarnet, the first double-agent resistant case in pregnancy reported in the literature to date. In this case, therapeutic delivery was the ultimate treatment resulting in full recovery. PMID:24147242

Herrera, Christina A; Eichelberger, Kacey Y; Chescheir, Nancy C

2013-10-01

169

Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.  

PubMed

To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (?35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. PMID:25392064

Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

2014-12-01

170

Disseminated Cutaneous Herpes Zoster in an Immunocompetent Elderly Patient  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster is a clinical syndrome which usually presents with a localized, vesicular rash in a dermatomal distribution. Cutaneous dissemination rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients, therefore little is known about the baseline demographic, clinical characteristics, management and outcome of these patients. Herein, we report a case of disseminated cutaneous herpes zoster in an immunocompetent patient along with a review and analysis of 28 cases previously reported in the literature. PMID:25276332

Gomez, Eric; Chernev, Ivan

2014-01-01

171

Herpes Infections in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: There is little information on Herpes zoster infection in breast cancer patients as a complication during adjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of Herpes zoster and simplex infections in this patients setting. Methods: We analyzed 623 early-stage breast cancer patients in our Institute over a period of 7 years (1998–2005). Four-hundred and sixty-onepatients

Giovanna Masci; Massimo Magagnoli; Giuseppe Gullo; Emanuela Morenghi; Isabella Garassino; Matteo Simonelli; Armando Santoro

2006-01-01

172

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus associated with abducens palsy  

PubMed Central

The extraocular muscle palsies associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are transient, self-limiting conditions, usually seen in elderly patients. There are different treatment recommendations for paralytic complications, but prognosis has generally reported to be favorable. A 75-year-old male patient presented with diplopia. Clinical history revealed left facial vesicular eruptions and pain treated by oral aciclovir 1 week following symptom onset. On examination, we observed cicatricial lesions with crusts involving left hemiface, a limitation in abduction of the left eye, and a superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) with decreased visual acuity (4/10). Examination of the right eye was unremarkable. Hess screen test confirmed left six nerve palsy. PMID:24966563

Chaker, Nibrass; Bouladi, Mejda; Chebil, Ahmed; Jemmeli, Mehdi; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

2014-01-01

173

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus associated with abducens palsy.  

PubMed

The extraocular muscle palsies associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are transient, self-limiting conditions, usually seen in elderly patients. There are different treatment recommendations for paralytic complications, but prognosis has generally reported to be favorable. A 75-year-old male patient presented with diplopia. Clinical history revealed left facial vesicular eruptions and pain treated by oral aciclovir 1 week following symptom onset. On examination, we observed cicatricial lesions with crusts involving left hemiface, a limitation in abduction of the left eye, and a superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) with decreased visual acuity (4/10). Examination of the right eye was unremarkable. Hess screen test confirmed left six nerve palsy. PMID:24966563

Chaker, Nibrass; Bouladi, Mejda; Chebil, Ahmed; Jemmeli, Mehdi; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

2014-04-01

174

Cyprinid herpesvirus-2 causing mass mortality in goldfish: applying electron microscopy to histological samples for diagnostic virology.  

PubMed

In June 2013, a major fish kill of adult goldfish Carassius auratus occurred in Runnemede Lake, New Jersey, USA: an estimated 3000 to 5000 fish died within ~5 d. Necropsy of 4 moribund fish revealed severely pale gills, and histopathology showed type I and II fusion of the gills, diffuse necrosis of hematopoietic tissue in anterior and posterior kidney, and multifocal necrosis of the spleen. Within necrotic areas, pyknosis and enlarged nuclei with marginalized chromatin were observed. Cyprinid herpesvirus-2, the etiological agent for herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis disease, was confirmed in all 4 fish using PCR. We assessed the efficacy of identifying herpesviral infections (viral morphogenesis and cellular ultrastructure) using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) when applied to tissues fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF) and tissue that was removed from paraffin blocks. Both sample types could be used to detect the virus within cells at similar concentrations. Tissues reprocessed from 10% NBF contained all the known stages of viral morphogenesis including empty capsids, capsids with an inner linear concentric density, capsids with an electron-dense core, and in the cytoplasm, mature capsids containing an envelope. Paraffin-embedded tissues showed similar stages, but viral capsids with an inner linear concentric density were rare and mature enveloped virions were not observed. In previously paraffin-embedded tissues, cellular membranes were not preserved, making identification of cell types and organelles difficult, whereas membrane preservation was good in tissues processed from 10% NBF. The results demonstrated that routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded samples can be successfully utilized to diagnose herpesviruses, and formalin-fixed tissue could be used to describe viral morphogenesis by TEM, making this a useful and reliable method for diagnostic virology when other samples are not available. PMID:24492049

Lovy, J; Friend, S E

2014-02-01

175

Acute Toxicity, Respiratory Reaction, and Sensitivity of Three Cyprinid Fish Species Caused by Exposure to Four Heavy Metals  

PubMed Central

Using 3 cyprinid fish species zebra fish, rare minnow, and juvenile grass carp, we conducted assays of lethal reaction and ventilatory response to analyze sensitivity of the fish to 4 heavy metals. Our results showed that the 96 h LC50 of Hg2+ to zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnow were 0.14 mg L?1, 0.23 mg L?1, and 0.10 mg L?1, respectively; of Cu2+0.17 mg L?1, 0.09 mg L?1, and 0.12 mg L?1 respectively; of Cd2+6.5 mg L?1, 18.47 mg L?1, 5.36 mg L?1, respectively; and of Zn2+44.48 mg L?1, 31.37 mg L?1, and 12.74 mg L?1, respectively. Under a 1-h exposure, the ventilatory response to the different heavy metals varied. Ventilatory frequency (Vf) and amplitude (Va) increased in zebra fish, juvenile grass carp, and rare minnows exposed to Hg2+ and Cu2+ (P<0.05), and the Vf and Va of the 3 species rose initially and then declined when exposed to Cd2+. Zn2+ had markedly different toxic effects than the other heavy metals, whose Vf and Va gradually decreased with increasing exposure concentration (P<0.05). The rare minnow was the most highly susceptible of the 3 fish species to the heavy metals, with threshold effect concentrations (TEC) of 0.019 mg L?1, 0.046 mg L?1, 2.142 mg L?1, and 0.633 mg L?1 for Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to use ventilatory parameters as a biomarker for evaluating the pollution toxicity of metals and to recognize early warning signs by using rare minnows as a sensor. PMID:23755209

Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Youguang; Li, Sixin; Chang, Jianbo

2013-01-01

176

Validation of a quantitative PCR diagnostic method for detection of the microsporidian Ovipleistophora ovariae in the cyprinid fish Notemigonus crysoleucas.  

PubMed

Microsporidian parasites are easily detected by light microscopy when infections are heavy and spores are present. However, early infections without spores, or light infections with low numbers of spores, are easily missed. This limitation has made it difficult to conduct investigations into microsporidian prevalence and transmission. In this study, we developed a quantitative TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay to assess the presence of Ovipleistophora ovariae in the tissues of the cyprinid fish Notemigonus crysoleucas (golden shiner). The efficiency of the primer set was 100.8%, with a correlation coefficient of threshold position to copy number of 0.997 over 9 logs using a plasmid containing the cloned reaction product. No product was produced from other closely related microsporidian species (Nucleospora salmonis, Pseudoloma neurophila, Glugea stephani, Heterosporis sp., and O. mirandella). The coefficient of variation for replicate assays done on different days was 12.4%. The assay detects O. ovariae reliably at less than 10 genomic copies and 0.14 spores per reaction, but maximum sensitivity is only achieved when sonication is included as part of the DNA purification step. Using the assay, we found 4.44 x 10(1) to 7.91 x 10(6) copies microg(-1) host DNA in female golden shiners, with the spore density increasing during the spawning season. The parasite was also detected for the first time in the testes of male golden shiners at 2.60 x 10(1) to 8.62 x 102 copies microg(-1) host DNA. PMID:17803107

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Goodwin, Andrew E

2007-07-16

177

The equine herpes virus 4 thymidine kinase is a better suicide gene than the human herpes virus 1 thymidine kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase suicide gene (HSV1tk) together with ganciclovir (GCV) have been successfully used for in vivo treatment of various experimental tumors, and many clinical trials using this system have been launched. With the aim to improve this therapeutic system, we compared the potential efficacy of different herpes virus derived thymidine kinases (HSV1, varicella-zoster virus,

L Loubière; M Tiraby; C Cazaux; E Brisson; M Grisoni; J C Zhao-Emonet; G Tiraby; D Klatzmann

1999-01-01

178

A Review of Photodynamic Therapy for Herpes Simplex: Benefits and Potential Risks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recently developed photodynamic therapy for herpes simplex consists of exposing viral lesions to visible light following application of a photosensitizing dye. Animal and human clinical trials show reduction of oral and genital herpes virus infectivity....

L. E. Bockstahler, C. D. Lytle, K. B. Hellman

1974-01-01

179

Multiplex Sequencing of Seven Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Genomes: Phylogeny, Sequence Variability,  

E-print Network

Multiplex Sequencing of Seven Ocular Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Genomes: Phylogeny, Sequence-7812 Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 is a significant human patho- gen causing diseases such as mucocutaneous

Craven, Mark

180

Pediatric herpes simplex virus infections: an evidence-based approach to treatment.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus is a common virus that causes a variety of clinical presentations ranging from mild to life-threatening. Orolabial and genital herpes are common disorders that can often be managed in an outpatient setting; however, some patients do present to the emergency department with those conditions, and emergency clinicians should be aware of possible complications in the pediatric population. Neonatal herpes is a rare disorder, but prompt recognition and initiation of antiviral therapy is imperative, as the morbidity and mortality of the disease is high. Herpes encephalitis is an emergency that also requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose. Herpes simplex virus is also responsible for a variety of other clinical presentations, including herpes gladiatorum, herpetic whitlow, eczema herpeticum, and ocular herpes. This issue reviews the common clinical presentations of the herpes simplex virus, the life-threatening infections that require expedient identification and management, and recommended treatment regimens. PMID:24649621

Sanders, Jennifer E; Garcia, Sylvia E

2014-01-01

181

Diagnosis of genital herpes: the role and place of HSV testing in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2. It is an underdiagnosed and undertreated sexually transmitted\\u000a infection characterised by latency followed by reactivation. The seroprevalence of both types of HSV varies throughout Europe,\\u000a and HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital herpes. Transmission is through skin-to-skin contact, and neonatal herpes resulting\\u000a from transmission during delivery is a

Anders Strand

2006-01-01

182

Predictive Factors of Herpes Zoster HIV-Infected Patients: Another Adverse Effect of Crack Cocaine  

E-print Network

Predictive Factors of Herpes Zoster HIV-Infected Patients: Another Adverse Effect of Crack Cocaine.001; and in patients previously reported to use crack cocaine AHR=5.9, (95%CI=1.4-25), P=0.02. Herpes zoster incidence inhibitors on herpes zoster incidence. The present study is the first to suggest that crack cocaine

Boyer, Edmond

183

Journal of Virological Methods 90 (2000) 205212 Rapid diagnosis and quantification of herpes simplex virus  

E-print Network

(Vero­ICP10-EGFP) was constructed for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by a simple, rapid Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (collectively, HSV) infections are the significant causes of morJournal of Virological Methods 90 (2000) 205­212 Rapid diagnosis and quantification of herpes

Lin, Chi-Hung

184

Scaffold expulsion and genome packaging trigger stabilization of herpes simplex virus capsids  

E-print Network

Scaffold expulsion and genome packaging trigger stabilization of herpes simplex virus capsids, IL, and approved April 28, 2009 (received for review February 10, 2009) Herpes simplex virus type 1 presence of DNA. atomic force microscopy nanoindentation penton viral structure virus mechanics Herpes

Perkins, Thomas

185

Kinetics of Facultative Heterochromatin and Polycomb Group Protein Association with the Herpes Simplex Viral Genome during  

E-print Network

Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus during latent infection of neurons. IMPORTANCE The human pathogen herpes simplex virus (HSV) hides protein association with the herpes simplex viral genome during establishment of latent infection. mBio 4

Knipe, David M.

186

Rapid Communication Herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs expressed abundantly during latent infection are  

E-print Network

Rapid Communication Herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs expressed abundantly during latent infection Available online 23 July 2011 Keywords: Herpes simplex virus MicroRNAs Latency Gene regulation Several herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs are encoded within or near the latency associated transcript (LAT) locus

Knipe, David M.

187

Effects of innate immunity on herpes simplex virus and its ability to kill tumor cells  

E-print Network

REVIEW Effects of innate immunity on herpes simplex virus and its ability to kill tumor cells H been derived from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). Tumor oncolysis depends on the processes of initial OV selective replicative and lytic abilities for tumor cells. 1 Several OVs have been derived from herpes

Knipe, David M.

188

AIDS . Author manuscript Transmission probabilities of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2, effect  

E-print Network

AIDS . Author manuscript Page /1 7 Transmission probabilities of HIV and herpes simplex virus type an association between HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) . However our[1 ­4 ] knowledge is limited ; epidemiology ; prevention & control ; transmission ; Herpes Genitalis ; epidemiology ; prevention & control

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Architecture of the Herpes Simplex Virus Major Capsid Protein Derived from Structural Bioinformatics  

E-print Network

Architecture of the Herpes Simplex Virus Major Capsid Protein Derived from Structural b sheets in the major capsid protein (VP5, 149 kDa) of herpes simplex virus type 1 were identified 1(A)) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), the proto- typical member of the Herpesviridae. Visual

Jiang, Wen

190

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Impact of Herpes simplex virus load and red blood  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Impact of Herpes simplex virus load and red blood cells in cerebrospinal fluid upon herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis outcome Julien Poissy1* , Karen Champenois2 , Anny Background: Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) often leads to severe disability or death. Factors usually

Boyer, Edmond

191

Herpes simplex virus 1 interaction with Toll-like receptor 2 contributes to lethal encephalitis  

E-print Network

Herpes simplex virus 1 interaction with Toll-like receptor 2 contributes to lethal encephalitis with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) develop one of three distinct patterns of infection: (i) infection limited of reactivation to cause disease in both immunocompetent and incompetent individuals. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV

Knipe, David M.

192

Association between IgM Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus and Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels  

E-print Network

Association between IgM Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus and Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels Catherine Fe´art1, University of Lille 2, Lille, France, 8 INSERM, U837, Lille, France Abstract Objective: Herpes simplex virus, et al. (2011) Association between IgM Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus and Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels. PLo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

VIROLOGY 163, 319-329 (1988) Genetic identification of a Portion of the Herpes Simplex Virus  

E-print Network

VIROLOGY 163, 319-329 (1988) Genetic identification of a Portion of the Herpes Simplex Virus ICP8 cell protein 8 (ICP8) encoded by herpes simplex virus exhibits multiple interactions with the cell; Voelkerding and Klessig, 1986). The intranuclear location of the herpes simplex virus major DNA

Knipe, David M.

194

Seropositivity to Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Cohort  

E-print Network

Seropositivity to Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population for Studies in Aging, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Abstract Background: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection has) Seropositivity to Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Cohort

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY 40, 313-325 (1986) Genetic Studies on Murine Susceptibility to Herpes  

E-print Network

to Herpes Simplex Keratitis C. STEPHEN FosTm,*~t YVONNE TSAI,* JOHN G. MONROE,+ ROBIN CAMPBELL,* MATTHEW cornea1 inoculation with herpes simplex virus (HSV).Using congenic strains of mice, we found that the lgh Pres. Inc. INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex keratitis is a major cause of cornea1 blindness in the world

Knipe, David M.

196

P ICHAI et al HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ASSOCIATED ACUTE LIVER FAILURE: A  

E-print Network

P ICHAI et al HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS ASSOCIATED ACUTE LIVER FAILURE: A DIFFICULT DIAGNOSIS Paris Sud, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Villejuif, France Key words: Acute liver failure, Herpes simplex virus:philippe.ichai@pbr.ap-hop-paris.fr Abbreviations: HSV : herpes simplex virus; LT: Liver transplantation; ICU : Intensive Care Unit; APOLT

Boyer, Edmond

197

Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth's magnetosphere is particularly worrisome because it includes ionizing radiation from cosmic galactic radiation. Increased stress levels appear even before flight, presumably from the rigors of preflight training and the anticipation of the mission (12, 32, 38, 39). Space flight causes significant changes in human immune function (32), but the means by which these changes come about have been difficult to discern. Consistent indicators of stress associated with space flight include increased production of stress hormones, and changes in cells of the immune system. These changes include elevated white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts at landing (15, 16, 35, 37). Activation of generalized stress responses before, during, and after space flight probably affects the function of the immune system. Space flight has been shown to decrease many aspects of immune function, including natural killer (NK) cell activity, interferon production, the blastogenic response of leukocytes to mitogens, cell-mediated immunity, neutrophil function and monocyte function (5, 16, 18, 21, 35-37).

Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

2008-01-01

198

Herpes simplex virus specific antibody determined by immunoblotting in cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with the Guillain-Barr? syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The Guillain-Barré syndrome is often preceded by a herpes virus infection. Herpes simplex virus, however, has rarely been observed as the causative agent. A patient is described with a herpes simplex virus infection followed by a Guillain-Barré syndrome. Immunoblotting was used to detect herpes simplex virus-specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Images PMID:2545828

Bernsen, H J; Van Loon, A M; Poels, R F; Verhagen, W I; Frenken, C W

1989-01-01

199

Peptide inhibitors against herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a significant human pathogen causing mucocutaneous lesions primarily in the oral or genital mucosa. Although acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogs provide successful treatment, HSV remains highly prevalent worldwide and is a major cofactor for the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. Encephalitis, meningitis, and blinding keratitis are among the most severe diseases caused by HSV. ACV resistance poses an important problem for immunocompromised patients and highlights the need for new safe and effective agents; therefore, the development of novel strategies to eradicate HSV is a global public health priority. Despite the continued global epidemic of HSV and extensive research, there have been few major breakthroughs in the treatment or prevention of the virus since the introduction of ACV in the 1980s. A therapeutic strategy at the moment not fully addressed is the use of small peptide molecules. These can be either modeled on viral proteins or derived from antimicrobial peptides. Any peptide that interrupts protein-protein or viral protein-host cell membrane interactions is potentially a novel antiviral drug and may be a useful tool for elucidating the mechanisms of viral entry. This review summarizes current knowledge and strategies in the development of synthetic and natural peptides to inhibit HSV infectivity. PMID:23389903

Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Tarallo, Rossella; Russo, Luigi; Galdiero, Emilia; Cantisani, Marco; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

2013-03-01

200

Herpes encephalitis during natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

In this case report we describe the first non-fatal herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) case with natalizumab for multiple sclerosis (MS). A 36-year-old woman, previously treated with immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive drugs for MS, developed acute encephalitis after 6 monthly natalizumab perfusions. Brain imaging demonstrated suggestive bi-temporal lesions. Herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid. The patient improved gradually after a 21-day course of intravenous acyclovir, but neuropsychiatric changes remained 5 months later. Our non-fatal case of HSE and other reported cases of herpes infections provide evidence of an increased risk with natalizumab and point to the need for clinicians to maintain awareness. PMID:22048950

Kwiatkowski, A; Gallois, J; Bilbault, N; Calais, G; Mackowiak, A; Hautecoeur, P

2012-06-01

201

Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus by Thiosemicarbazones and Certain Cations  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated that herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, including a type 2 strain which transforms hamster cells in vitro, and Herpesvirus saimiri are inactivated by exposure to thiosemicarbazones. Because thiosemicarbazones are thought to interact with heavy metals in this inactivation process (9), we tested and found some of these herpesviruses to be susceptible to exposure to certain heavy metals. A virion polymerase was sought because the ribonucleic acid (RNA)-dependent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase of Rous sarcoma virus and the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of vaccinia virus are inhibited. However, neither DNA nor RNA polymerase activity could be demonstrated in herpes simplex virions. The ability of thiosemicarbazone to ameliorate the course of herpes simplex virus infection in rabbit eyes was observed, but was considered insufficient to be of clinical importance. PMID:15825395

Levinson, Warren; Coleman, Virginia; Woodson, Bruce; Rabson, Alan; Lanier, Jeff; Whitcher, Jack; Dawson, Chandler

1974-01-01

202

Multicystic cerebral degeneration in neonatal herpes simplex virus encephalitis.  

PubMed

Typical herpetic papulovesicular skin lesions developed in an apparently normal infant at 12 days of age and were followed within 48 hours by signs and symptoms of acute encephalitis. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was cultured from the intact skin vesicles, and a fourfold increase in complement fixation titer to herpes simplex virus type 2 was found over the ensuing 24 days. The infant survived her acute illness, but was left with severe neurologic sequelae manifested as microcephaly with multicystic cerebral degeneration. The short-term and convalescent course is documented by serial, clinical, and EEG examinations, and the nature of the cerebral damage is demonstrated by computerized transaxial tomography. PMID:193394

Smith, J B; Groover, R V; Klass, D W; Houser, O W

1977-05-01

203

Herpes simplex encephalitis: treatment with surgical decompression and cytosine arabinoside.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex encephalitis in a 21-year-old man presented as a flu-like illness, followed by inappropriate behaviour, drowsiness and focal neurologic signs. Investigations indicated a lesion in the right temporal lobe. The diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of the virus from a cerebral biopsy. Pronounced clinical improvement was noted when cytosine arabinoside therapy was started in the postoperative period. This report supports the observation by some authors that cytosine arabinoside may be of value in the treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:953885

Laha, R. K.; Saunders, F. W.; Huestis, W. S.

1976-01-01

204

Herpes zoster-associated acute urinary retention in immunocompetent patient*  

PubMed Central

Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome. The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks. PMID:25387508

Marques, Silvio Alencar; Hortense, Juliana

2014-01-01

205

Estradiol Improves Genital Herpes Vaccine Efficacy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 causes genital herpes but is frequently transmitted asymptomatically; therefore, a prophylactic vaccine is desirable. A candidate vaccine in clinical trials has only shown efficacy in preventing disease in women. Using this subunit vaccine candidate, we were able to demonstrate infection prophylaxis, improved disease prevention and modulated antibody production by complimenting vaccination with estradiol in our murine model. Findings of estradiol-enhanced vaccine efficacy are the first of their kind using a vaccine of this type and have potential clinical relevance to the development of other vaccines and our understanding of gender differences in vaccine efficacy. PMID:19660586

Pennock, Jeffry W.; Stegall, Rachael; Bell, Brent; Vargas, Gracie; Motamedi, Massoud; Milligan, Gregg; Bourne, Nigel

2009-01-01

206

[Herpes gestationis acquired during oral contraceptive use].  

PubMed

In 1985 a 19-year old patient developed small, reddish exudative boils on the on the torso and proximate extremities that healed leaving a brownish hyperpigmentation. A 5-week stay in a dermatological clinic showed only an epicutaneous nickel sensitivity: multiform exudative erythema ID-reaction under epicutaneous nickel sensitivity. After release following antibiotic and combined steroid therapy the alterations soon receded while on nickel-free diet. She had taken a 3-phase preparation containing norethisterone and ethinylestradiol. After discontinuation of the pill in 1987 no new pustule formation occurred and both lower leg erosions healed. She was a nullipara who smoked 20 cigarettes a day and drank lightly. Increased glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) of 24 U/1 and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) of 44 U/1, border values of serum iron of 175 mg/dl and cholesterol of 272 mg/dl, and massive thrombocytosis of 384.000/mcg and massive leukocytosis of 11.000/mcl were found. After 1 week all these values returned to normal except for a slightly higher GPT value of 24 U/1. After complete abstinence from allergens and fasting for 5 days, an iodine provocation test to prove the suspicion of dermatitis herpetiformis proved negative. After release she agreed to take a few tablets which again resulted in vesicular eruptions mostly on the abdomen and back that promptly healed after quitting the pills. Herpes gestations could not be shown in the blood. The use of the pill has become so prevalent that it is often forgotten that it is an agent that can contribute to unclear clinical symptoms. PMID:12284189

Kemper, T; Kingreen, J C

1989-04-01

207

Herpes Simplex Type 1 DNA in Human Brain Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is known to reside latently in the trigeminal ganglia of man. Reactivation of this virus causes skin lesions and may occasionally infect other tissues, including the brain. To determine whether the brain tissue of humans free of clinical signs of HSV-1 infection contains any trace of HSV-1, we examined the DNA from brain tissue

Nigel W. Fraser; William C. Lawrence; Zofia Wroblewska; Donald H. Gilden; Hilary Koprowski

1981-01-01

208

Deoxyribonucleoside Triphosphate Pools in Herpes Simplex Type 1 Infected Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools were analysed in both exponentially growing and serum starved wild type BHK CI3 cells and in a derivative of this cell line which lacks both thymidine kinase and deoxycytidine kinase activities, before and after infection with herpes simplex virus. Serum starved BHK cells had low levels of all four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. In exponentially growing cells all

A. T. Jamieson; G. Bjursell

1976-01-01

209

Complex regional pain syndrome-like symptoms during herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) associated with herpes zoster (HZ) was first reported by Sudeck in 1901 (Sudeck, 1901) and is recognized clinically. However, only 13 cases have been published in the literature, and nothing is known about the incidence, prevalence, or natural history (Chester, 1992; Foster et al., 1989; Grosslight et al., 1986; Ketz and Schliack,1968; Kishimoto et al.,

James D Berry; Michael C Rowbotham; Karin Lottrup Petersen

2004-01-01

210

European guideline for the management of genital herpes, 2010.  

PubMed

This is the guideline for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) management for the IUSTI/WHO Europe, 2010. They describe the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical features, treatment and prevention of genital HSV infection. They include details on the management of HSV in pregnancy, those who are immunocompromised and the clinical investigation and management of suspected HSV-resistant disease. PMID:21364059

Patel, R; Alderson, S; Geretti, A; Nilsen, A; Foley, E; Lautenschlager, S; Green, J; van der Meijden, W; Gomberg, M; Moi, H

2011-01-01

211

The epidemiology and clinical presentation of herpes virus infections.  

PubMed

The chief characters of infection by the human herpes viruses are considered with particular reference to herpes simplex viruses, types 1 and 2. Infection with type 1 virus is acquired very early in life though infrequently as a true congenital transmission of virus. Primary infections result from direct contact usually with infected saliva or skin vesicles. Kerato-conjunctivitis, when primary, may be severe yet superficial in extent. Vulvo-vaginitis, often acquired in adults as a result of type 2 infection by sexual transmission, can give extensive but superficial ulceration and discharge. Recurrent infections located on the dermatome with the same nerve supply as that of the organ affected primarily occur throughout life and at relatively short intervals. Sensory nerve ganglia harbour the virus particles as latent infection and when reactivation occurs virus spreads along nerve fibres to the skin. The most serious infections occur as disseminated disease with liver involvement in the neonatal period, in infants suffering from malnutrition or those undergoing immunosuppression for malignancies. Eczematous children are then at particular risk from spreading haemorrhagic skin lesions (Kaposi's eruption). Herpes encephalitis, commoner in adults than children, is an insidious severe disease with mortality related to the depth of coma. Antiviral therapy though successful may lead to chronic neurological sequelae. The success of antiviral therapy in herpes partly turns on the ability to bring the drug into close contact with the infected tissues. Latent virus is relatively unaffected by acyclovir and thus far recurrences have continued to occur. PMID:6355045

Stuart-Harris, C

1983-09-01

212

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) for cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer remains a serious threat to human health, causing over 500 000 deaths each year in US alone, exceeded only by heart diseases. Many new technologies are being developed to fight cancer, among which are gene therapies and oncolytic virotherapies. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic DNA virus with many favorable properties both as a delivery vector

Y Shen; J Nemunaitis

2006-01-01

213

Compartmentalization of Spermine and Spermidine in the Herpes Simplex Virion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enveloped particles of herpes simplex virus produced in human cells in culture contained spermidine and spermine, in a molar ratio of 1.6 ± 0.2. The spermine present within the nucleocapsid is sufficient to neutralize at least 40% of the viral DNA. Disruption of the envelope with nonionic detergent and urea resulted in the selective loss of spermidine. Exogenous ornithine can

Wade Gibson; Bernard Roizman

1971-01-01

214

Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla  

PubMed Central

In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

2014-01-01

215

Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.  

PubMed

In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

2014-11-01

216

Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

Rodu, Brad; And Others

1992-01-01

217

The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

McNab, Warren L.

1979-01-01

218

The Genome Sequence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete 152-kbp genomic DNA sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was published in 1988 (56) and since then has been very widely employed in a great range of research on HSV-1. Additionally, results from this most stud- ied member of the family Herpesviridae have fed powerfully into research on other herpesviruses. In contrast, although a substantial number

AIDAN DOLAN; FIONA E. JAMIESON; CHARLES CUNNINGHAM; BARBARA C. BARNETT; DUNCAN J. MCGEOCH

2010-01-01

219

Cystic encephalomalacia and intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystic encephalomalacia occurred in two preterm infants who had proven intrauterine herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Calcification was evident in the basal ganglia. Follow-up scans indicated that the cysts had resolved over a period of two months in one infant, while in the case of the other, the cysts became progressively larger with significant ventricular dilatation developing. While cystic

P. H. Gray; D. I. Tudehope; J. Masel

1992-01-01

220

Herpes simplex Virus Infection in Pregnancy: Diagnosis and Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryHerpes simplex viruses (HSV) cause genital infections, and HSV infection during pregnancy can result in infection of the neonate. Here HSV structure and replication,viral pathogenesis, human immune responses to HSV, the epidemiology, details of HSV diagnosis with emphasis on typing, clinical features and antiviral treatment are reviewed. The importance of appropriate diagnostic procedures in relation to correct risk assessment of

Ulrich Desselberger

1998-01-01

221

Host specificity and colony impacts of the fire ant pathogen, Solenopsis invicta virus 3.  

PubMed

An understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed laboratory colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 genera and 4 subfamilies to this virus. Despite extreme exposure during these tests, active, replicating infections only occurred in Solenopsis invicta Buren and hybrid (S. invicta×S. richteri) fire ant colonies. The lack of infections in test Solenopsis geminata fire ants from the United States indicates that SINV-3 is restricted to the saevissima complex of South American fire ants, especially since replicating virus was also found in several field-collected samples of the black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri Forel. S. invicta colonies infected with SINV-3 declined dramatically with average brood reductions of 85% or more while colonies of other species exposed to virus remained uninfected and healthy. The combination of high virulence and high host specificity suggest that SINV-3 has the potential for use as either a biopesticide or a self-sustaining biocontrol agent. PMID:23665158

Porter, Sanford D; Valles, Steven M; Oi, David H

2013-09-01

222

The Molecular Biology of Frog Virus 3 and other Iridoviruses Infecting Cold-Blooded Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the best characterized member of the family Iridoviridae. FV3 study has provided insights into the replication of other family members, and has served as a model of viral transcription, genome replication, and virus-mediated host-shutoff. Although the broad outlines of FV3 replication have been elucidated, the precise roles of most viral proteins remain unknown. Current studies using knock down (KD) mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMO) and small, interfering RNAs (siRNA), knock out (KO) following replacement of the targeted gene with a selectable marker by homologous recombination, ectopic viral gene expression, and recombinant viral proteins have enabled researchers to systematically ascertain replicative- and virulence-related gene functions. In addition, the application of molecular tools to ecological studies is providing novel ways for field biologists to identify potential pathogens, quantify infections, and trace the evolution of ecologically important viral species. In this review, we summarize current studies using not only FV3, but also other iridoviruses infecting ectotherms. As described below, general principles ascertained using FV3 served as a model for the family, and studies utilizing other ranaviruses and megalocytiviruses have confirmed and extended our understanding of iridovirus replication. Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease. PMID:22069524

Chinchar, V. Gregory; Yu, Kwang H.; Jancovich, James K.

2011-01-01

223

Solenopsis invicta virus 3: pathogenesis and stage specificity in red imported fire ants.  

PubMed

Solenopsis invicta colonies were exposed to purified preparations of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) to investigate virus pathogenesis at the colony level. Time course experiments revealed an infection exhibiting specificity for the adult stage (workers). SINV-3 genome and a capsid protein were increasingly present in worker ants with time. Northern blot analysis revealed two bands in RNA preparations from worker ants infected with SINV-3 corresponding to the genomic and sub-genomic species. Conversely, larval RNA preparations from SINV-3-infected colonies showed a near-complete absence of SINV-3 genome or sub-genome. The data confirm that SINV-3 is the etiological agent causing mortality among S. invicta colonies in the laboratory. We propose that SINV-3 infection somehow alters worker ant behavior, which may prevent them from acquiring and/or distributing solid food to the larvae. Consequently, larval mortality and impaired queen health occur as a result of starvation or neglect by the worker caste. PMID:25010271

Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Firth, Andrew E

2014-07-01

224

Inflammation-Induced Reactivation of the Ranavirus Frog Virus 3 in Asymptomatic Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

Natural infections of ectothermic vertebrates by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae) are rapidly increasing, with an alarming expansion of RV tropism and resulting die-offs of numerous animal populations. Notably, infection studies of the amphibian Xenopus laevis with the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) have revealed that although the adult frog immune system is efficient at controlling RV infections, residual quiescent virus can be detected in mononuclear phagocytes of otherwise asymptomatic animals following the resolution of RV infections. It is noteworthy that macrophage-lineage cells are now believed to be a critical element in the RV infection strategy. In the present work, we report that inflammation induced by peritoneal injection of heat-killed bacteria in asymptomatic frogs one month after infection with FV3 resulted in viral reactivation including detectable viral DNA and viral gene expression in otherwise asymptomatic frogs. FV3 reactivation was most prominently detected in kidneys and in peritoneal HAM56+ mononuclear phagocytes. Notably, unlike adult frogs that typically clear primary FV3 infections, a proportion of the animals succumbed to the reactivated FV3 infection, indicating that previous exposure does not provide protection against subsequent reactivation in these animals. PMID:25390636

Robert, Jacques; Grayfer, Leon; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Ward, Brian; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

2014-01-01

225

trans activation of an immediate-early frog virus 3 promoter by a virion protein.  

PubMed

We investigated the protein and DNA sequence requirements for the expression of an immediate-early frog virus 3 (FV3) gene, infected-cell RNA (ICR) 169. We used a plasmid containing the 78 nucleotides 5' to the transcription start site of ICR-169 placed upstream from the coding sequence for the bacterial enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). This construction, when introduced by CaPO4-mediated transfection into various eucaryotic cell lines, promoted CAT synthesis only if the transfected cells were subsequently infected with FV3. Dot-blot hybridization of RNA extracted from transfected, FV3-infected cells with a radioactive CAT probe showed that the induction of CAT synthesis by FV3 was at the level of transcription. When transfected cells were infected with FV3 in the presence of cycloheximide, induction of CAT-specific RNA still occurred, demonstrating that a virion protein was responsible for the trans activation. FV3-induced CAT synthesis was inhibited by alpha-amanitin in wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells but not in CHO cells with an alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase II. The results suggest that a virion protein alters either the DNA template or the host polymerase to allow transcription from immediate-early FV3 promoters. PMID:3863966

Willis, D B; Granoff, A

1985-11-01

226

Mapping of the herpes simplex virus DNA sequences present in herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase-transformed cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA sequences which are present in three HSV thymidine kinase-transformed (HSVtk+)mouse cell lines have revealed that these cells contain relatively large and variable portions of the viral genome. Two of these cell lines do not contain the viral DNA sequences known to encode the early viral genes normally responsible for regulating tkgene expression

Jeffrey M. Leiden; Niza Frenkel; Dennis Sabourin; Richard L. Davidson

1980-01-01

227

Protective effect of an oral infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 against subsequent genital infection with Herpes simplex virus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of whether oral Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provides protection against subsequent genital infection by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was investigated. Mice were used as models. Following conditions in man, both the oral and genital infections applied were noninjurious. Mice infected orally with HSV-1 were weakly protected against virus ‘take’ following vaginal challenge with

Bernhard Sturn; Karl-Eduard Schneweis

1978-01-01

228

Governing the contagious body: genital herpes, contagion and technologies of the self.  

PubMed

Genital herpes is a prevalent sexually transmitted viral infection. While genital herpes is not life-threatening, it can cause physical discomfort and psychosocial difficulties, and may increase the risk of contracting HIV. Given that genital herpes cannot be cured, both the condition itself, and the possibility of passing it on to others, becomes a part of the everyday reality of those individuals diagnosed with genital herpes. In this article we explore the ways in which people with genital herpes attending the Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) clinic govern their 'contagious bodies'. The discussion draws on the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, and uses Foucault's idea of ethics as a framework to identify the technologies of the self by which individuals with genital herpes govern their own thoughts and behaviours in relation to the contagiousness of the condition. Implications for practice and other ways of thinking about what happens in the STI clinic context are suggested. PMID:18400830

Oster, Candice; Cheek, Julianne

2008-04-01

229

The epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster in The Netherlands: Implications for varicella zoster virus vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the epidemiology of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) in The Netherlands to assess the desirability to implement routine varicella zoster virus vaccination in The Netherlands. Data on seroprevalence of varicella zoster virus in the general population (1995–1996), consultations of general practitioners for varicella (2000–2002) and herpes zoster (1998–2001) and hospital admissions due to varicella (1994–2001) and herpes

Hester E de Melker; Guy A M Berbers; Susan J M Hahné; Hans Rümke; Susan van den Hof; Ardine de Wit; Hein J Boot

2006-01-01

230

Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia  

SciTech Connect

Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA)); Murray, R.S. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO (USA))

1988-04-01

231

Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D mediates interference with herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed

We showed that the expression of a single protein, glycoprotein D (gD-1), specified by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) renders cells resistant to infection by HSV but not to infection by other viruses. Mouse (LMtk-) and human (HEp-2) cell lines containing the gene for gD-1 under control of the human metallothionein promoter II expressed various levels of gD-1 constitutively and could be induced to express higher levels with heavy metal ions. Radiolabeled viruses bound equally well to gD-1-expressing and control cell lines. Adsorbed viruses were unable to penetrate cells expressing sufficient levels of gD-1, based on lack of any cytopathic effects of the challenge virus and on failure to detect either the induction of viral protein synthesis or the shutoff of host protein synthesis normally mediated by a virion-associated factor. The resistance to HSV infection conferred by gD-1 expression was not absolute and depended on several variables, including the amount of gD-1 expressed, the dosage of the challenge virus, the serotype of the challenge virus, and the properties of the cells themselves. The interference activity of gD-1 is discussed in relation to the role of gD-1 in virion infectivity and its possible role in permitting escape of progeny HSV from infected cells. PMID:2536105

Johnson, R M; Spear, P G

1989-02-01

232

Management and prevention of herpes zoster: A Canadian perspective  

PubMed Central

Varicella-zoster virus reactivation leads to herpes zoster – the main complication of which is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Rapid antiviral therapy initiated within 72 h of rash onset has been shown to accelerate rash healing, reduce the duration of acute pain and, to some extent, attenuate the development and duration of PHN. Other adjunctive therapies such as analgesics, antidepressants and some anticonvulsants are frequently required in the management of severe PHN. A live, attenuated zoster vaccine has been recently shown to significantly decrease herpes zoster incidence, PHN and the overall burden of illness when administered to adults older than 60 years of age. This new prophylactic modality has been reported to be cost-effective in the Canadian context, especially in the 60- to 75-year-old age group. PMID:21358885

Boivin, Guy; Jovey, Roman; Elliott, Catherine T; Patrick, David M

2010-01-01

233

[Low-symptom herpes simplex encephalitis (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A 39-year-old man had acoustic hallucinations for about one year due to chronic alcoholism. He suddenly lost consciousness after suffering from headaches for about four weeks. EEG and CT scan were indicative of a brain tumour but lumbar puncture revealed slight pleocytosis and an immunoglobulin G fraction synthesized within the central nervous system. This secretory fraction contained major portions of locally produced herpes simplex antibodies detectable with a complement fixation test and a recently developed enzyme immunoassay. The patient remained in hospital for only a few days and went back to work after six weeks. To our knowledge this is the first case reported surviving herpes simplex encephalitis outside hospital without impairment of consciousness, confusion or substantial neurologic symptoms. The question remains open, whether the generally severe course of this disease had been modified by the chronic alcoholism. It is obvious that the correct diagnosis would have been missed without lumbar puncture. PMID:6282560

Finke, E; Ackermann, R; Felgenhauer, K

1982-07-01

234

Successful treatment of herpes labialis with topical acyclovir.  

PubMed Central

A double blind, placebo controlled trial of 5% acyclovir cream, applied topically five times a day for five days, was carried out in 49 patients with recurrent herpes labialis. These patients had a total of 74 episodes, 34 of which were treated with the 5% acyclovir cream and 40 with matching placebo. First episodes and all episodes treated with acyclovir cream had significantly shorter times to formation of ulcer or crust and to complete healing (p less than 0.05 for all variables). The duration of all symptoms and proportion of patients developing itching was also reduced by acyclovir cream in first episodes, though the difference was not significant. When the patient started treatment early in the course of a first episode acyclovir cream significantly reduced the percentage of lesions progressing beyond the papular stage (p less than 0.05). Acyclovir cream is well tolerated and effective for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. PMID:6405939

Fiddian, A P; Yeo, J M; Stubbings, R; Dean, D

1983-01-01

235

A rare cause of dysphagia: Herpes simplex esophagitis  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is well documented in immunosuppressed patients. However, it is rare in the immunocompetent host. We present a case of HSE in a 21 year-old healthy lady who was admitted to our unit with dysphagia, odynophagia and chest pain. Clinical examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness and admission bloods including full blood picture, electrolytes and inflammatory markers were normal. She underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) which revealed severe exudative, well-circumscribed ulcerations in her distal esophagus. Biopsies confirmed severe esophagitis with acute ulceration and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1. Subsequent assessment failed to identify an immune disorder. HSE should be suspected when faced with characteristic endoscopic findings, even if the patient is immunocompetent. When the diagnosis of HSE is confirmed, an immune deficiency should be sought. PMID:17569149

Lee, Bee; Caddy, Grant

2007-01-01

236

Salivary defense factors in herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed

Saliva may contribute to a lowering of the infectious herpes simplex virus (HSV) dose during transmission and consequently abrogate infection or lead to decreased reactivation. To test this hypothesis, we assayed saliva for innate defense factors, immunoglobulin content, and the capacity to interfere with HSV infection. Serum or salivary anti-HSV IgG levels did not correlate with control of recurrent labial herpes (RLH) and were significantly higher in subjects with RLH compared with asymptomatic seropositive subjects. Although no differences in levels or output rate of innate defense factors between the groups were observed, the salivary neutralizing activity correlated with lactoferrin and hypothiocyanite concentrations in the asymptomatic seropositive group. Our results suggest that saliva contains factors, in addition to anti-HSV immunoglobulins, that neutralize HSV and may indirectly contribute to the control of RLH. PMID:12097435

Välimaa, H; Waris, M; Hukkanen, V; Blankenvoorde, M F J; Nieuw Amerongen, A V; Tenovuo, J

2002-06-01

237

Diagnostic delay in a case of herpes simplex encephalitis  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most frequent cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis in the Western world. Definitive diagnosis by viral PCR of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and treatment with aciclovir have improved the prognosis significantly. Nevertheless, the condition is rare and presents with non-specific symptoms that can easily be mistaken for systemic infection or non-infective encephalopathy. We report a case of HSE which was not recognised by four separate doctors, leading to substantial delay in diagnosis and treatment. Our patient presented with fever, headaches, altered behaviour and generalised bradykinesia. This was initially diagnosed as otitis interna (labyrinthitis) and, subsequently, an ischaemic stroke. There was a delay of 10 days in the initiation of aciclovir from symptom onset. MRI and CSF PCR confirmed herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection. The patient improved on aciclovir, but is disabled with word-finding difficulties and cognitive slowing. PMID:21686359

Shalchi, Zaid; Bennett, Alan; Hargroves, David; Nash, James

2009-01-01

238

Effect of Conjugation with Polypeptide Carrier on the Enzymatic Degradation of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Derived Epitope  

E-print Network

Effect of Conjugation with Polypeptide Carrier on the Enzymatic Degradation of Herpes Simplex Virus glycoprotein D (gD-1) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) were synthesized for analysis of the effect of conjugation

Pompeu Fabra, Universitat

239

Herpes simplex type 1 infection of nonpermissive rat XC cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of non permissive XC cells (a rat cell line transformed by Rous sarcoma virus) was studied. Using virus labeled with3H-thymidine it was shown that adsorption is similar to that in a permissive system. By electron microscopy enveloped particles were observed in cytoplasmic vesicles in XC cells but not in the permissive system.

A. Epstein; B. Jacquemont; J. Huppert

1980-01-01

240

Post herpes-zoster scar sarcoidosis with pulmonary involvement  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous sarcoidosis presents with a wide range of clinical presentations. An uncommon cutaneous manifestation is infiltration of old cutaneous scars with non-caseating granulomas known as scar sarcoidosis. Most of the patients with this clinical entity have other systemic manifestations, particularly pulmonary changes. We report a case of a 50 years old man, presenting with cutaneous sarcoidosis overlying scars of healed herpes zoster. PMID:24616865

Singal, Archana; Vij, Amit; Pandhi, Deepika

2014-01-01

241

Laser treatment of recurrent herpes labialis: a literature review.  

PubMed

Recurrent herpes labialis is a worldwide life-long oral health problem that remains unsolved. It affects approximately one third of the world population and causes frequent pain and discomfort episodes, as well as social restriction due to its compromise of esthetic features. In addition, the available antiviral drugs have not been successful in completely eliminating the virus and its recurrence. Currently, different kinds of laser treatment and different protocols have been proposed for the management of recurrent herpes labialis. Therefore, the aim of the present article was to review the literature regarding the effects of laser irradiation on recurrent herpes labialis and to identify the indications and most successful clinical protocols. The literature was searched with the aim of identifying the effects on healing time, pain relief, duration of viral shedding, viral inactivation, and interval of recurrence. According to the literature, none of the laser treatment modalities is able to completely eliminate the virus and its recurrence. However, laser phototherapy appears to strongly decrease pain and the interval of recurrences without causing any side effects. Photodynamic therapy can be helpful in reducing viral titer in the vesicle phase, and high-power lasers may be useful to drain vesicles. The main advantages of the laser treatment appear to be the absence of side effects and drug interactions, which are especially helpful for older and immunocompromised patients. Although these results indicate a potential beneficial use for lasers in the management of recurrent herpes labialis, they are based on limited published clinical trials and case reports. The literature still lacks double-blind controlled clinical trials verifying these effects and such trials should be the focus of future research. PMID:23584730

de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; Simões, Alyne; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Ramalho, Karen Muller; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; de Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Marotti, Juliana; Tunér, Jan

2014-07-01

242

The cancer patient with chronic pain due to herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster, and as such has been an area of extensive medical\\u000a research for the past three decades. The patients at highest risk for PHN include those older than 50 years, those with severe\\u000a acute cases of zoster, and those with shingles in a trigeminal distribution. As persons with malignancy are

Shanu Modi; Jose Pereira; John R. Mackey

2000-01-01

243

Atypical herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as operculum syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report demonstrates the course of herpes simplex virus cerebritis in a patient aged 7 years 2 months who presented\\u000a with non-specific symptoms followed by an epileptic attack. Subcortical, bilateral opercular and bilateral thalamic lesions\\u000a were detected, but the temporal and inferior frontal lobes were spared. The patient developed anarthria, impairment of mastication\\u000a and swallowing consistent with operculum syndrome.

Rainer W. Wolf; Detlev Schultze; Christian Fretz; Markus Weissert; Peter Waibel

1999-01-01

244

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: Where Are We Now?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in diagnosis\\u000a and treatment. Prior to antiviral therapy, 85% of patients with disseminated HSV disease and 50% of patients with central\\u000a nervous system disease died within 1 year. The advent of antiviral therapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of neonatal\\u000a HSV with initially vidarabine and

Clara Thompson; Richard Whitley

245

Maternal Herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis following Cesarean section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis is rare especially during pregnancy. In immunocompetent patients, HSV-2 meningitis (contrary to HSV-1 meningitis) is usually mild, without encephalitis.We report a rare case of maternal HSV-2 encephalitis following Cesarean section. The woman had no symptomatic genital lesion, and the infant was not infected. The route of meningeal infection (neuronal or hematogenous) is discussed.

C. Godet; A. Beby-Defaux; G. Agius; O. Pourrat; R. Robert

2003-01-01

246

Management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection and exposure.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are rare but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Advances in diagnostic modalities to identify these infants, as well as the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy, have revolutionised the management of affected infants. This review will summarise the epidemiology of neonatal HSV infections and discuss the management of infants with HSV exposure and infection. PMID:24589428

Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

2014-05-01

247

[Neuropathic pain due to herpes zoster infection with atypical localization].  

PubMed

Acute herpes zoster infection appears in the situation of depression of immune system and reactivation of varicella zoster virus which causes small pox. Pain and maculopapular lesion accompany clinical symptoms. Various pharmacological and invasive methods can be used for treatment. Efficient therapy is important for prevention of postherpetic neuralgia and cure of acute pain and dermatological lesions. A 55 years old, 160 cm height and 65 kg weight female patient with complaints of severe pain, sensation of burning, tingling at the right hand and forearm was admitted to our pain department. The patient who was diagnosed as cervical hernia at an other medical center had a normal physical servical spine examination. Patient history and physical examination findings with acute herpes zoster infection was considered. Right stellate ganglion blockade for diagnosis and treatment was performed because of regressed and atypically located lesions and a visual analog scale score of 10. VAS score decreased 50% at 9th min after block, VAS score at 2nd hour was 2. Antiviral, gabapentin, and tricyclic antidepressant treatment was started after stellat ganglion blockade and patient was discharged. After 3 months complaints dissapeared and drug doses were discreased and stopped. In conclusion we think that stellate ganglion blockade can be useful in diagnosis, acute pain control, improving patient comfort and compatibility to drug therapy in atypically located herpes zoster. PMID:24264553

Sa??r, Özlem; Özaslan, Sabri; Meriç, Yücel; Arslan, ?smail; Köro?lu, Ahmet

2013-01-01

248

Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood. PMID:24937819

Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Cândido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

2014-01-01

249

Herpes gestationis. Immunopathology and characterization of the HG factor.  

PubMed Central

Five patients with herpes gestationis, a blistering disease of pregnancy, were studied immunologically. All had in vivo deposition of C3 in a linear band along the basement membrane zone of lesional and normal-appearing skin, the location of early blister formation. Immunoglobulin deposition was more variable, though four patients had evidence of in vivo bound IgG at the same site. A circulating, complement binding herpes gestationis factor was demonstrated in the sera of four of the patients, its concentration unrelated to the activity of clinical disease. Characterization of this factor by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, specific absorption studies, and papain digestion indicates that it is an IgG. Evidence exists for involvement of both the classical and alternate complement pathways in vivo, though in vitro studies implicate the classical pathway as the primary route of complement activation. Three offspring were studied, none with clinical involvement; one showed in vivo deposition of C3 at the basement membrane zone of normal skin and a second showed the herpes gestationis factor in cord blood. Images PMID:819458

Katz, S I; Hertz, K C; Yaoita, H

1976-01-01

250

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein C Protects Mice against Herpes Simplex Virus Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) glycoprotein C (gC) was isolated and cloned into a vaccinia virus insertion vector, and the resulting vaccinia-gC vector was used to construct a recombinant vaccinia virus that expressed gC (VVgC5). Infection of cells with VVgC5 resulted in cell surface expression of authentic HSV-1 gC. HSV-1 gC-specific neutralizing antibodies were

JERRY P. WEIR; MALCOLM BENNETT; ELIZABETH M. ALLEN; KAREN L. ELKINS; STEPHEN MARTIN; BARRY T. ROUSE

1989-01-01

251

Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Blocks Events in the G1 Phase of the Cell Cycle Byeongwoon Song,1  

E-print Network

Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Blocks Events in the G1 Phase of the Cell Cycle Byeongwoon Song,1 J phase with herpes simplex virus (HSV) prevents their progression into S phase (de Bruyn Kops, A, 1996). In contrast, herpes simplex virus replicates equally well in all phases of the cell cycle (Cohen

Knipe, David M.

252

Properties of a herpes simplex virus multiple immediate-early gene-deleted recombinant as a vaccine vector  

E-print Network

Properties of a herpes simplex virus multiple immediate-early gene-deleted recombinant as a vaccine 2006 Available online 23 September 2006 Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) recombinants induce durable and test novel vaccine approaches as candidate AIDS vaccines. We have previously used herpes simplex virus

Knipe, David M.

253

HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS Travis J Taylor, Mark A. Brockman, Elizabeth E. McNamee, and David M. Knipe  

E-print Network

D752 HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS Travis J Taylor, Mark A. Brockman, Elizabeth E. McNamee, and David M 12. References 1. ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) commonly causes human infections of the infection cycle. 2. INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen, causing infections

Knipe, David M.

254

Modulation of reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus 1 in ganglionic organ cultures by p300/CBP  

E-print Network

Modulation of reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus 1 in ganglionic organ cultures by p300 for review May 9, 2013) A key property of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) is their ability to establish latent factor Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are com- mon human pathogens that are transmitted

255

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP27 Is Required for Transcription of Two Viral Late ( 2) Genes in Infected Cells  

E-print Network

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP27 Is Required for Transcription of Two Viral Late ( 2) Genes in Infected January 18, 2001; accepted March 1, 2001 The herpes simplex virus infected cell protein 27 (ICP27 expression during productive infection by herpes simplex virus 1 is well doc- umented (Clements et al., 1977

Knipe, David M.

256

Biological Properties of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Replication-Defective Mutant Strains in a Murine Nasal Infection Model  

E-print Network

Biological Properties of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Replication-Defective Mutant Strains in a Murine; accepted August 22, 2000 We used a mouse nasal model of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection to examine with human genital infection with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and the uncommon but devastating

Knipe, David M.

257

Inhibitors of the sodium potassium ATPase that impair herpes simplex virus replication identified via a chemical screening approach  

E-print Network

Inhibitors of the sodium potassium ATPase that impair herpes simplex virus replication identified to identify small molecule inhibitors of poorly understood, pre-early gene expression steps in herpes simplex gene expression. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Herpes simplex virus; Chemical

Knipe, David M.

258

Previous Immunization of Mice with Herpes Simplex Virus Type-l Strain MP Protects against Secondary Cornea1 Infection'  

E-print Network

Previous Immunization of Mice with Herpes Simplex Virus Type-l Strain MP Protects against Secondary Cornea1 Infection' Herpes simplex virus tHSV)-induced ocular disease i\\ occurring in epidemic propor countries. We have found. in a mouar model of herpes simplex keratitih (HSK). that products encoded

Knipe, David M.

259

Passive Transfer of Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies Protect Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1Induced but Not Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2Induced Stromal Keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To investigate whether passive transfer of antibodies to viral glycoproteins would protect against herpes simplex virus type 2-induced stromal keratitis. Methods. Balb\\/c mice were infected on the scarified cornea with herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively), and monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies were adminis- tered intraperitoneally 24 hr later. Eyes were monitored for corneal opacity.

Mary H. Ritchie; John E. Oakes; Robert N. Lausch

260

Low prevalence of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Found in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) collected from nine locations in the Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) is a viral disease of fish first detected in the United States in 1998. Since that time, mortality events in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) have occurred in several locations within the Great Lakes basin, but not within the Great Lakes themselves. We sampled 675 carp from 20 sites across the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA, between 19 July and 26 September 2010. We tested the gill and a pooled internal organ sample from each fish for CyHV3 with the use of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Virus was detected in 18 fish from nine sites in four lakes (Lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair, and Ontario). Tissues from these 18 fish were also tested for CyHV3 with the use of the PCR assay recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health; amplification was achieved from two fish and confirmation by sequencing of CyHV3 from one fish collected in Lake St. Clair. The results of this study suggest that CyHV3 is present in the Great Lakes. PMID:23060516

Cornwell, Emily R; Anderson, Gregory B; Wooster, Gregory A; Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Casey, James W; Bain, Mark B; Bowser, Paul R

2012-10-01

261

Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

2013-08-01

262

Non-structural protein pORF 12 of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is recognized by the immune system of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is an important pathogen and the causative agent of koi herpesvirus disease, which has been associated with mass mortalities in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Currently, the only available commercial vaccine is an attenuated version of the virus. This has led to concerns about its risk to reversion to virulence. Furthermore, the vaccine is currently only available in Israel and the United States. In order to investigate the antigenic profile of the virus, western blot was performed using infected cell culture supernatant and sera from carp that had survived exposure to the virus. Only one antigen could be detected, and mass spectrometry analysis identified the corresponding protein as ORF 12, a putative secreted tumour necrosis factor receptor homologue. In other herpesviruses, such proteins have been associated with the viral infectious process in a number of ways, including the entry into the host cell and the inhibition of apoptosis in infected cells. The reason why only one antigen could be detected during this study is unknown. PMID:25320039

Kattlun, Julia; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2014-10-16

263

Chromosome studies of European cyprinid fishes: interspecific homology of leuciscine cytotaxonomic marker-the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair as revealed by cross-species painting.  

PubMed

Leuciscine cyprinids possess a nearly invariant diploid number (2n = 50) with an extremely uniform karyotype comprising of 8 pairs of metacentric, 13-15 pairs of submetacentric and 2-4 pairs of subtelocentric (st) to acrocentric (a) chromosomes. The largest pair is characteristically an st/a element-the 'leuciscine' cytotaxonomic marker. Previously, the interspecific homology of this chromosome pair could not be assessed owing to the inability to produce euchromatic or serial banding patterns. In the present study, we used laser-microdissection (15-20 copies of the marker chromosome) to construct a whole chromosome probe (WCP) from the marker chromosome of the roach Rutilus rutilus to ascertain the interspecific homology of marker chromosomes by cross-species in-situ hybridization. WCP was hybridized to chromosomes of widely distributed (Abramis brama, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Alburnus alburnus, Aspius aspius, Ballerus ballerus, B. sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Chondrostoma nasus, Leucaspius delineatus, Leuciscus leuciscus, L. idus, R. rutilus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Squalius cephalus, and Vimba vimba) and Iberian endemic species (Achondrostoma oligolepis, Iberochondrostoma almacai, I. lusitanicum, Pseudochondrostoma duriense, S. alburnoides and S. pyrenaicus). Cross-species in-situ hybridization to chromosomes of Phoxinus phoxinus, a representative of leuciscine sister lineage, showed the same pattern as in all of the leuciscins. The probe consistently hybridized to the distal part of the short arm of the marker chromosome, indicating sequence homology. PMID:18709543

Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Pereira, Carla Sofia; Collares-Pereira, Maria João; Pelikánová, Sárka

2008-01-01

264

Effects of water quality and trophic status on helminth infections in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from three lakes in the Kashmir Himalayas.  

PubMed

Water quality greatly influences the population density of aquatic biota, including parasites. In order to evaluate the relationship between fish parasites and water quality in Kashmir Himalayas, we assessed helminth parasite densities in Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 (an endemic cyprinid fish of Kashmir) from three lakes, namely Anchar, Manasbal and Dal, which reflected the varied stages of eutrophication. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was higher in the hypertrophic Anchar Lake (prevalence = 18.6%) compared to Manasbal Lake, which was the least eutrophied (prevalence = 6.4%). Furthermore, mean prevalence of monoxenous and heteroxenous parasites was higher in lakes containing higher levels of water degradation (Anchar and Dal). The mean number of helminth species per fish host was the highest in the hypertrophic lake (1.3 ± 0.3) in comparison to the least eutrophic lake (0.2 ± 1.5). Variability of calculated infection indices (prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance) revealed that helminth parasite composition in the fish was affected by the lakes' environmental stress (degraded water quality). Therefore, data on the density of helminth parasites in fish can provide supplementary information on the pollution status of a water body. PMID:21375793

Zargar, U R; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmed, F; Bashir, H; Ahmed, F

2012-03-01

265

Comparative analysis of differential gene expression in kidney tissues of moribund and surviving crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) has recently been associated with high mortality of cultured crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in eastern China. In this study, we established a real-time PCR method to confirm viral infection of crucian carp and to quantify CyHV-2 particles obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation from diseased fish. Virus-free crucian carp were artificially infected with CyHV-2 using an injection method, which resulted in a dose-dependent death rate. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that there was extensive viral replication and lysis in the kidneys of moribund fish, in contrast to very limited replication in surviving fish. To probe the host immune response to viral infection at the level of gene expression, we identified virus-responsive genes using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in head kidney tissues, the principal immune organ of fish, from moribund and surviving crucian carps after viral challenge. From the moribund SSH library, 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 234 unigenes (including 15 singletons and 45 contigs). From the survivor SSH library, 599 ESTs was clustered to 549 unigenes (including 107 singletons and 105 contigs). We further analyzed the transcriptional levels of all immune-related genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which confirmed the upregulation of 90.48 % of these genes. The significantly upregulated immune-related genes identified in this study can serve as candidate marker genes for acute CyHV-2 infection. PMID:24585042

Xu, Lijuan; Podok, Patarida; Xie, Jun; Lu, Liqun

2014-08-01

266

Nd:YAG laser treatment of herpes and aphthous ulcers: a preliminary study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously herpes labialis and recurrent aphthous ulcers have not been successfully treated. A preliminary study with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser evaluated the results with a protocol of four minute non-contact exposures for both types of lesions. Most patients experienced relief of symptoms. The progress of herpes lesion was halted and aphthous lesions became desensitized.

Parkins, Frederick M.; O'Toole, Thomas J.; Yancey, John M.

2000-06-01

267

Management of women with recurrent genital herpes in pregnancy in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To document clinical practice for the management of recurrent genital herpes in pregnant women in Australia. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A questionnaire to all doctors associated with the Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Policies for antenatal herpes screening, circumstances in which delivery by caesarean section was considered appropriate, and the use of aciclovir during pregnancy.

C. Marks; K. Fethers; A. Mindel

1999-01-01

268

Brachial neuritis with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis following herpes zoster: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of supine respiratory failure due to a bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis associated with brachial neuritis secondary to thoracic herpes zoster. Fluoroscopy in both the standing and supine positions revealed bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis accentuated in the supine position. To our knowledge, this is the first case of thoracic herpes zoster associated with brachial neuritis and bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. PMID:18525424

Hoque, Romy; Schwendimann, Robert N; Liendo, Cesar; Chesson, Andrew L

2008-06-01

269

Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

2008-01-01

270

Rapid Detection of Cutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus Infection with the Polymerase Chain Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and specific method for detecting herpes simplex virus infection in routinely processed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens is described. DNA is extracted from paraffin blocks, and subjected to DNA amplification with the polymerase chain reaction. After 40 rounds, an amplified band can be detected after agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. This band is specific for herpes simplex virus,

Ming Cao; Xiao Xiao; Barbara Egbert; Teresa M. Darragh; T. S. Benedict Yen

1989-01-01

271

Avirulent Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Strains Engineered to Counter the Innate Host Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to an avirulent, oncolytic herpes simplex virus modified from a wild-type herpes simplex virus so that both (gamma)(sub 1)34.5 genes of the virus have been deleted and each replaced with an interferon-resistance gene that is ...

I. Mohr, M. Mulvey

2005-01-01

272

Monoclonal Antibodies Against Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Nucleocapsids and Kit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of producing clinical assays for use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the differentiation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 as a diagnostic kit for differentiating HSV-1 and HSV-2 utiliz...

B. Hampar, M. Zweig, H. Rabin

1980-01-01

273

Longitudinal study of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection using viral dynamic modelling  

E-print Network

HSV Longitudinal study of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection using viral dynamic modelling of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) change over time and these changes affect transmission and clinical infection that cannot be obtained by other methods. H erpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the primary cause

Blower, Sally

274

Oral Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Pregnancy: What Are the Concerns?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although epidemiologic data and the potentially serious effects of transmission of genital herpes from mother to infant during birth have been widely reported, published reports on oral herpes disease in pregnancy remain scarce and no clear management guidelines exist. Thus, questions remain about acquisition, transmission and outcome of infection, especially with respect to acute gingivostomatitis in pregnancy. In response to

Dre Birek; Catalena Birek

275

Population-based incidence of herpes zoster after introduction of a publicly funded varicella vaccination program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPast varicella infection (chicken pox) may reactivate into herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella vaccination leads to a reduction in cases of varicella that may in turn increase herpes zoster rates due to reduction in the immune boosting effect of exposure to varicella zoster virus against varicella reactivation. We assessed the impact of childhood varicella vaccination in Ontario, Canada on zoster incidence

Peter Tanuseputro; Brandon Zagorski; Kevin J. Chan; Jeffrey C. Kwong

2011-01-01

276

Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis in a patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe a case of bilateral herpes simplex keratitis accompanying chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Design Observational case report. Case report An 11-year-old boy with myelocytic leukemia underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. He developed symptoms of the skin, eyes, and mouth, and lip biopsy indicated chronic GVHD. Persistent keratitis with corneal filaments and neovascularization was noted in both eyes. Sodium hyaluronate, autoserum, and 0.1% fluorometholone eyedrops were instilled for approximately 2 years to treat this keratitis, and there were no other ocular changes. Bilateral herpes simplex keratitis developed with geographic ulcers after topical betamethasone therapy, but responded to acyclovir ointment. Conclusions Herpes keratitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral keratitis in patients with reduced immunocompetence. During the course of chronic GVHD, corneal herpes may occur, so ocular treatment with topical corticosteroids should be managed by an ophthalmologist to monitor sight-threatening conditions such as corneal herpes. PMID:19668737

Hayashi, Takahiko; Ishioka, Misaki; Ito, Norihiko; Kato, Yoko; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Hatano, Hiroshi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

2008-01-01

277

A difficult case to swallow: herpes esophagitis after epidural steroid injection.  

PubMed

Herpes esophagitis due to infection with herpes simplex virus typically occurs in immunocompromised patients such as those with human immunodeficiency virus, malignancy, and those undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Albeit rare, herpes esophagitis can occur in immunocompetent patients as a primary infection. We present a case of herpes esophagitis after corticosteroid treatment for back pain including epidural steroid injections. Corticosteroids, especially local injections, are a common treatment for chronic back pain, but they are not without risk. Epidural steroid injections can have systemic effects, which may go unrecognized and underappreciated. Although local infections have been reported after administering these injections, systemic immune suppression may allow for unexpected infections such as herpes esophagitis. Given the widespread use of epidural steroid injections, physicians should reevaluate the potential for harm when considering this treatment. PMID:21768868

Davis, Kelli; Prater, Adam; Fluker, Shelly-Ann; Klein, Robin

2014-01-01

278

RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative. PMID:24835621

Silva, Amanda Perse da; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

2014-01-01

279

Anti-herpes simplex type 1 activity in IgG subclasses produced systemically and intrathecally in patients with herpes encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the humoral immune response in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is largely unknown. The finding that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) induced IgG Fc receptor binds to all IgG subclasses except IgG 3 prompted an investigation of anti-HSV activity in IgG subclasses from serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in ten patients with proven or highly probable

P. J. H. Johansson; J. Blomberg

1986-01-01

280

Herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections during pregnancy: current concepts of prevention, diagnosis and therapy. Part 1: Herpes simplex virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with transplacental\\u000a virus transmission and fetal infection. The consequences may be abortion, stillbirth and congenital malformations. In neonates,\\u000a the clinical findings after intrauterine HSV infection are characterized by skin lesions, diseases of the eye and neurologic\\u000a damage. Herpes genitalis of pregnant women at

A. Sauerbrei; P. Wutzler

2007-01-01

281

Concurrent Reactivation of Herpes Simplex and Varicella Zoster Viruses Confirmed by the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay  

PubMed Central

Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses is rare. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with herpes labialis and herpes zoster manifesting as a right-side facial eruption with vesicles and crusting. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay demonstrated the presence of both herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus in swab samples taken from the face, which was confirmed by real-time PCR, suggesting concurrent reactivation of both viruses. The use of the LAMP assay in the present case indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis of atypical herpes infections. PMID:24575004

Kobayashi, Tsukane; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2014-01-01

282

Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 ?g of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (?8%; 95% CI, ?59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

2012-01-01

283

Heat shock and herpes virus: enhanced reactivation without untargeted mutagenesis  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced reactivation of Ultraviolet-irradiated virus has been reported to occur in heat-shocked host cells. Since enhanced virus reactivation is often accompanied by untargeted mutagenesis, we investigated whether such mutagenesis would occur for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in CV-1 monkey kidney cells subjected to heat shock. In addition to expressing enhanced reactivation, the treated cells were transiently more susceptible to infection by unirradiated HSV. No mutagenesis of unirradiated HSV was found whether infection occurred at the time of increased susceptibility to infection or during expression of enhanced viral reactivation.

Lytle, C.D.; Carney, P.G.

1988-01-01

284

Neonatal herpes simplex 2 infection presenting with supraglottitis.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a double stranded DNA virus capable of causing primary and recurrent infection. We describe an unusual case of neonatal HSV-2 infection presenting with supraglottitis. Despite a 2 month course of intravenous aciclovir followed by 2 months of oral valaciclovir, the infant subsequently developed HSV-2 encephalitis which responded to further antiviral treatment. The subsequent diagnosis of encephalitis highlights the importance of testing CSF for HSV to establish the presence of CNS infection in neonates and thus the potential benefit of longer term suppressive antiviral therapy. PMID:23709315

Machin, Nicholas W; Morgan, David; Turner, Andrew J; Lipshen, Gabrielle; Arkwright, Peter D

2013-08-01

285

SEROLOGIC SCREENING FOR HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 IN PERSONS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS  

PubMed Central

Screening for subclinical HSV-2 may be a useful adjunct in HIV care. However, HSV-2 serologic tests have been suggested to perform less well in HIV-infected populations. We compared HerpeSelect® HSV-2 ELISA to the Sure-Vue® Rapid HSV-2 Test for HSV-2 screening of sera from 310 HIV-infected persons receiving care at an HIV-dedicated clinic in the Southeastern United States. We determined assay agreement and whether performance of both tests, rather than 1 test alone, would improve screening accuracy. Overall percent test agreement was 96%. Negative percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect® index value < 0.90 and positive percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect® index value ? 3.0 (97% and 100%, respectively). Using the manufacturer’s established cutoffs for a HerpeSelect® positive versus negative test result discordant results between assays occurred in 4% of cases and the majority of these occurred when the HerpeSelect® index value was between 0.9 and 2.9. These data suggest good correlation between HerpeSelect® and the Sure-Vue® HSV-2 Rapid Test in a U.S. HIV-infected population and suggest that confirmatory testing may not help in HSV-2 diagnosis except in cases where HerpeSelect® index values are between 0.9–3.0. PMID:23154653

VAN WAGONER, NICHOLAS J; MORROW, RHODA; LEE, JEANNETTE; DIXON, PAULA; HOOK, EDWARD W.

2013-01-01

286

Angioplasmacellular hyperplasia-a new histopathologic clue for anogenital herpes simplex recidivans in immunocompromised patients?  

PubMed

: Chronic herpes infections in immunocompromised patients exhibit uncommon features both on clinical and histopathologic levels, which can make correct diagnosis challenging. Better defining histopathologic criteria to identify chronic herpes infection in immunocompromised patients would be of great diagnostic value. In a single-center study, clinical and pathological data of herpes infections confirmed by biopsy was collected. We identified 42 cases overall, of which 21 were from immunocompromised patients and performed a detailed histopathologic pattern analysis of all lesions. In immunocompromised patients, vasculitis was seen in 2/21 cases (9.5%). Involvement of the sweat duct epithelium and/or sebaceous glands was observed in none of the HIV-infected patients but in 5/11 (45.4%) transplant patients with herpes infection. This feature was solely found in patients with acute herpetic lesions (5/5). In the process of histopathologic review, we identified a previously unrecognized morphological pattern of herpes simplex virus infection in immunocompromised patients. The individual clinical history and morphological pattern identified is described for multiple affected patients. In summary, in immunocompromised patients, histopathologic diagnosis of herpes infection can be challenging, in particular in chronic lesions, which lack the presentation of typical herpetic keratinocytes. In our study, we identify angioplasmacellular hyperplasia as a new histopathologic clue, which may be helpful in recognizing chronic herpes infection in immunocompromised patients. Further studies are warranted to implement this clue into routine diagnostics. PMID:25243397

Schimming, Tobias T; Griewank, Klaus G; Esser, Stefan; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

2014-10-01

287

Risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster infection: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background: Whether the risk of cancer is increased among patients with herpes zoster is unclear. We investigated the risk of cancer among patients with herpes zoster using a nationwide health registry in Taiwan. Methods: We identified 35 871 patients with newly diagnosed herpes zoster during 2000–2008 from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We analyzed the standardized incidence ratios for various types of cancer. Results: Among patients with herpes zoster, 895 cases of cancer were reported. Patients with herpes zoster were not at increased risk of cancer (standardized incidence ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.06). Among the subgroups stratified by sex, age and years of follow-up, there was also no increased risk of overall cancer. Interpretation: Herpes zoster is not associated with increased risk of cancer in the general population. These findings do not support extensive investigations for occult cancer or enhanced surveillance for cancer in patients with herpes zoster. PMID:22988158

Wang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chia-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Fung, Chang-Phone

2012-01-01

288

Efficacy and safety of a modified-live cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine in koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) for prevention of koi herpesvirus disease.  

PubMed

Objective-To investigate safety and efficacy of a cyprinid herpesvirus type 3 (CyHV3) modified-live virus vaccine for the prevention of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVd). Animals-420 healthy koi (Cyprinus carpio koi). Procedures-Fish were vaccinated with a 1× dose or 10× overdose of CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine or a placebo through bath exposure in tanks at 22°C. Horizontal transmission of vaccine virus was evaluated by commingling unvaccinated and vaccinated fish. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge exposure of vaccinated and naïve fish to a wild-type virus. Fish that died were submitted for quantitative PCR assay for CyHV3 and histologic evaluation. Results-The CyHV3 vaccine was safe and efficacious, even at a 10× overdose. Vaccine-associated mortality rate was inversely associated with body weight, with a cumulative mortality rate of 9.4% (18/192) in fish weighing ? 87 g and no deaths in fish weighing > 87 g (0/48). Horizontal transfer of vaccine virus from vaccinates to naïve fish was negligible. For efficacy, the vaccine provided a significant reduction in mortality rate after challenge exposure to a wild-type virus, with a prevented fraction of 0.83 versus the placebo control fish. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-KHVd is highly contagious and commonly leads to deaths in 80% to 100% of exposed fish, representing a major threat to koi and common carp populations throughout the world. The CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine had a favorable safety profile and was an effective vaccine for the control of KHVd in koi weighing > 87 g. PMID:25255179

Weber, E P Scott; Malm, Kirsten V; Yun, Susan C; Campbell, Lori A; Kass, Philip H; Marty, Gary D; Salonius, Kira; Dishon, Arnon

2014-10-01

289

The IL-10 homologue encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in vivo  

PubMed Central

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. CyHV-3 ORF134 encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homologue. The present study was devoted to this ORF. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that ORF134 is expressed as a spliced gene belonging to the early-late class. Proteomic analyses of CyHV-3 infected cell supernatant demonstrated that the ORF134 expression product is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome. To investigate the role of ORF134 in viral replication in vitro and in virulence in vivo, a deleted strain and a derived revertant strain were produced using BAC cloning technologies. The recombinant ORF134 deleted strain replicated in vitro comparably to the parental and the revertant strains. Infection of fish by immersion in water containing the virus induced comparable CyHV-3 disease for the three virus genotypes tested (wild type, deleted and revertant). Quantification of viral DNA by real time TaqMan PCR (in the gills and the kidney) and analysis of carp cytokine expression (in the spleen) by RT-qPCR at different times post-infection did not revealed any significant difference between the groups of fish infected with the three virus genotypes. Similarly, histological examination of the gills and the kidney of infected fish revealed no significant differences between fish infected with ORF134 deleted virus versus fish infected with the control parental or revertant strains. All together, the results of the present study demonstrate that the IL-10 homologue encoded by CyHV-3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in common carp. PMID:23865540

2013-01-01

290

Diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infection by immunofluorescence.  

PubMed

The utility of the indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) technique for diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was examined by testing specimens for this agent from 31 patients with encephalitis or meningitis, 17 with conjunctivitis, 19 with genital disease, and 1 with genital disease and meningitis. Brain biopsy tissue from four patients with encephalitis was positive by IFA and virus culture for HSV. Leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid from these four patients and one with HSV meningitis were also positive by IFA, but virus isolation attempts on the fluid were all negative. Conjunctival scrapings from two patients with conjunctivitis were positive for HSV by both IFA and virus culture. Eleven of 12 culture-positive lesions of herpes progenitalis were positive by IFA, and 1 dark field-positive syphilitic chancre was also positive for HSV by both IFA and culture. Evidence for specificity of the results was provided by internal controls in each test and negative results from patients with other diagnoses. Thus, the IFA technique constituted a rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic method for the diagnosis of HSV infections. PMID:178689

Taber, L H; Brasier, F; Couch, R B; Greenberg, S B; Jones, D; Knight, V

1976-03-01

291

Spectroscopic detection and identification of infected cells with herpes viruses.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy were previously applied for the identification of various biological samples. In the present study, normal cells in culture and cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and FTIR microscopy. Specific spectral biomarkers for rapid and reliable monitoring and identification of infected cells and probably for the discrimination between these viruses were searched. The results show consistent spectral peaks in all examined normal uninfected human fibroblast cells both in MALDI-T0F and FTIR microscopy. In HSV-2- or VZV-infected cells, two unique peaks for each appeared at m/z 5397 and 5813 or at m/z 3501 and 4951, respectively, in MALDI-TOF spectra. In addition, several peaks that appeared in control uninfected cells at the region m/z 13,000-20,000 disappeared completely in all examined infected samples. When these infected cells were examined by FTIR microscopy, a band at 859 cm(-1) in control uninfected cells was significantly shifted to 854 cm(-1) in both HSV2- and VZV-infected cells. In addition, phosphate levels were considerably increased in all infected cells compared to normal uninfected cells. These parameters could be used as a basis for developing a spectral method for the detection and identification of cells infected with herpes viruses. PMID:18932269

Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Karpasasa, Mark; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2009-01-01

292

Herpes virus fusion and entry: a story with many characters.  

PubMed

Herpesviridae comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses all of whom employ orthologs of the same three glycoproteins, gB, gH and gL. Additionally, herpesviruses often employ accessory proteins to bind receptors and/or bind the heterodimer gH/gL or even to determine cell tropism. Sorting out how these proteins function has been resolved to a large extent by structural biology coupled with supporting biochemical and biologic evidence. Together with the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, gB is a charter member of the Class III fusion proteins. Unlike VSV G, gB only functions when partnered with gH/gL. However, gH/gL does not resemble any known viral fusion protein and there is evidence that its function is to upregulate the fusogenic activity of gB. In the case of herpes simplex virus, gH/gL itself is upregulated into an active state by the conformational change that occurs when gD, the receptor binding protein, binds one of its receptors. In this review we focus primarily on prototypes of the three subfamilies of herpesviruses. We will present our model for how herpes simplex virus (HSV) regulates fusion in series of highly regulated steps. Our model highlights what is known and also provides a framework to address mechanistic questions about fusion by HSV and herpesviruses in general. PMID:22754650

Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Atanasiu, Doina; Cairns, Tina M; Gallagher, John R; Krummenacher, Claude; Cohen, Gary H

2012-05-01

293

Rapid Detection of Herpes Viruses for Clinical Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are eight herpes viruses that infect humans, causing a wide range of diseases resulting in considerable morbidity and associated costs. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human herpes virus that causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. Approximately 1,000,000 new cases of shingles occur each year; post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) follows shingles in 100,000 to 200,000 people annually. PHN is characterized by debilitating, nearly unbearable pain for weeks, months, and even years. The onset of shingles is characterized by pain, followed by the zoster rash, leading to blisters and severe pain. The problem is that in the early stages, shingles can be difficult to diagnose; chickenpox in adults can be equally difficult to diagnose. As a result, both diseases can be misdiagnosed (false positive/negative). A molecular assay has been adapted for use in diagnosing VZV diseases. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is a non-invasive, rapid, sensitive, and highly specific method for VZV DNA detection. It provides unequivocal results and can effectively end misdiagnoses. This is an approximately two-hour assay that allows unequivocal diagnosis and rapid antiviral drug intervention. It has been demonstrated that rapid intervention can prevent full development of the disease, resulting in reduced likelihood of PHN. The technology was extended to shingles patients and demonstrated that VZV is shed in saliva and blood of all shingles patients. The amount of VZV in saliva parallels the medical outcome.

Pierson, Duane; Mehta, Satish

2013-01-01

294

Cellular immune response in genital herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed

We studied the relations between the cellular immune response, pre-existing complement-fixing antibody and virus type with duration of virus excretion in genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Thirty-six patients (seven with HSV-1 and 29 with HSV-2) with genital herpes underwent serologic testing, sequential viral cultures and weekly determination of lymphocyte-transformation stimulation index with inactivated HSV antic n. The duration of virus excretion was shortest in those with pre-existing complement-fixing antibody, was unrelated to virus type, and was inversely correlated with the magnitude of the mean peak stimulation index (r = -0.69, P less than 0.001). Prolonged virus excretion occurred in patients with a delayed and diminished peak index. Recurrent episodes had a higher peak index (29.4 compared to 14.5) (P less than 0.02), an earlier development of the peak during recurrences (9.1 vs. 25.8 days) (P less than 0.01) and a briefer duration of viral shedding than initial episodes. Thus, the temporal course and magnitude of the stimulation index correlate with and may determine the duration of genital HSV infection. PMID:211414

Corey, L; Reeves, W C; Holmes, K K

1978-11-01

295

Exploiting herpes simplex virus entry for novel therapeutics.  

PubMed

Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms. PMID:23752649

Hadigal, Satvik; Shukla, Deepak

2013-06-01

296

Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms. PMID:23752649

Hadigal, Satvik; Shukla, Deepak

2013-01-01

297

Guillain-Barre syndrome presenting with sensory disturbance following a herpes virus infection: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We present a case of an unusual clinical manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome following a pre-existing herpes virus infection. Although there have been several reports describing the co-existence of herpes virus infection and Guillain-Barre syndrome, we undertook a more in-depth study of the cross-reactivity between herpes viruses and recommend a follow-up study based on serology tests. Case presentation A 39-year-old healthy Caucasian man with Guillain-Barre syndrome presented to our facility initially with sensory disturbance, followed by an atypical descending pattern of clinical progression. On physical examination, our patient showed hot and cold temperature sensory disturbance under the T4 vertebrae level, symmetrically diminished muscle power mainly to his lower limbs, blurred vision, a loss of taste and paresis and diminished reflexes of his lower limbs. Serology test results for common viruses on hospital admission were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M, and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and negative for varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At one month after hospital admission his test results were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G, varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G, borderline for herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M and negative for Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. At his six month follow-up, tests were positive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin M, herpes simplex virus immunoglobulin G, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin G and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin G and negative for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M, Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M and varicella zoster virus immunoglobulin M. Conclusions The clinical manifestation of Guillain-Barre syndrome in our patient followed a combined herpes virus infection. The cross-reactivity between these human herpes viruses may have a pathogenic as well as evolutionary significance. Our patient showed seroconversion at an early stage of Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin M to immunoglobulin G antibodies, suggesting that Epstein-Barr virus might have been the cause of this syndrome. Even if this case is not the first of its kind to be reported, it may contribute to a better understanding of the disease and the cross-reaction mechanisms of herpes virus infections. This case report may have a broader clinical impact across more than one area of medicine, suggesting that cooperation between different specialties is always in the patient's best interest. PMID:22136568

2011-01-01

298

Update on herpes zoster vaccine: licensure for persons aged 50 through 59 years.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck & Co., Inc.) was licensed and recommended in 2006 for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older. In March 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in adults aged 50 through 59 years. In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) declined to recommend the vaccine for adults aged 50 through 59 years and reaffirmed its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged 60 years and older. PMID:22071592

2011-11-11

299

Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

1981-04-01

300

Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections  

SciTech Connect

The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

Straus, S.E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-12-01

301

A 70-year-old woman with shingles: review of herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Herpes zoster is a common late complication of varicella-zoster virus exposure and can be further complicated by postherpetic neuralgia. Ms A is a 70-year-old woman with shingles and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome who presented to the emergency department with a few days of earache followed by pain in the back of her head. Using her case as a springboard, the diagnosis, natural history, and treatment of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in immunocompetent older adults are reviewed, in addition to the effectiveness of the herpes zoster vaccine. PMID:19491172

Whitley, Richard J

2009-07-01

302

Herpes zoster meningoencephalitis complicated with peripheral vascular disease: An uncommon presentation of a common disease.  

PubMed

Abstract Herpes zoster is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that has remained dormant in the dorsal root ganglia since an earlier episode of chickenpox. Herpes zoster has variable clinical presentations, but meningo-encephalitis is not frequently encountered. There is growing evidence of both large and small vessel involvement in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, in contrast with the previous opinion that immunocompetent patients have vasculopathy in the large vessels while immunosuppressed patients have vasculopathy in the small vessels. We present the case of a patient in whom herpes zoster meningoencephalitis was complicated with multifocal vasculopathy with peripheral vascular disease; this is an unusual co-occurrence. PMID:25019184

Srivastava, Trilochan; Nagpal, Kadam

2014-10-01

303

Frog virus 3 ORF 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, is essential for virus replication in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Although previous work identified 12 complementation groups with possible roles in virus assembly, currently only one frog virus 3 protein, the major capsid protein (MCP), has been linked with virion formation. To identify other proteins required for assembly, we used an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to target 53R, a putative myristoylated membrane protein, and showed that treatment resulted in marked reductions in 53R levels and a 60% drop in virus titers. Immunofluorescence assays confirmed knock down and showed that 53R was found primarily within viral assembly sites, whereas transmission electron microscopy detected fewer mature virions and, in some cells, dense granular bodies that may represent unencapsidated DNA-protein complexes. Treatment with a myristoylation inhibitor (2-hydroxymyristic acid) resulted in an 80% reduction in viral titers. Collectively, these data indicate that 53R is an essential viral protein that is required for replication in vitro and suggest it plays a critical role in virion formation.

Whitley, Dexter S.; Yu, Kwang; Sample, Robert C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Sinning, Allan [Department of Anatomy, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Henegar, Jeffrey [Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Norcross, Erin [Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States); Chinchar, V. Gregory, E-mail: vchinchar@microbio.umsmed.ed [Department of Microbiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 (United States)

2010-09-30

304

[Prevalence of Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnant women in Yopougon (Côte d'Ivoire)].  

PubMed

A transversal survey on 150 pregnant women was carried out at the P.M.I. center in Yopougon, in order to determine the prevalence of genital herpes and to estimate the frequency of asymptomatic excreting of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) in pregnant women. The viral isolation and the direct immuno-fluorescence (IF) assay of the genital secretions were found to have a prevalence of 12.7% Among the women who tested positive (the majority of whom were from modest socio-economic origin and young), 10% had antecedents of genital herpes, 2.7% showed an asymptomatic excretion and 36.8% had an acute episode during their pregnancy including a primary infection in the 20th week. In these women an unexpected recurrence will constitute the major risk for maternal transmission and an emergence of neonatal herpes. PMID:10214509

Akoua-Koffi, G C; Bakayoko, S; Tanoh, G; Tiéoulou, L; Angui, H; Kéita, D; Faye-Ketté, H; Dosso, M

1999-02-01

305

Disseminated herpes simplex infection during pregnancy, rare but important to recognise  

PubMed Central

Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy is a rare, but potentially fatal condition. We present a case where prompt treatment with intravenous acyclovir resulted in a successful outcome for both mother and baby. PMID:25320695

Hussain, Nawar Younis; Uriel, Alison; Mammen, Catherine; Bonington, Alec

2014-01-01

306

Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model  

SciTech Connect

Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

1987-09-01

307

PARAMETERS DISTINGUISHING HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED TUMORIGENIC AND NONTUMORIGENIC RAT CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

A newly developed experimental model system was used to determine in vitro transformation-specific parameters which correlate with tumorigenicity. The data suggested that clonal herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syngeneic rat embryo cells with intermediate, transformed rat ...

308

Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in the Clinical Laboratory by LightCycler PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes several clinical manifestations in both normal and immunocompromised hosts; this agent is the most frequently detected virus in diagnostic laboratories. Recovery of the virus in cell culture is considered the \\

MARK J. ESPY; JAMES R. UHL; P. SHAWN MITCHELL; JILL N. THORVILSON; KATHLEEN A. SVIEN; ARLO D. WOLD; THOMAS F. SMITH

2000-01-01

309

Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

1999-06-01

310

Treatment of Herpes Simplex Type 1 Infections with the Amino Acid L-lysine is Overlooked  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To recognize the need to educate health professionals and the public regarding the usefulness of the amino acid L-lysine for treatment of herpes simplex type 1 infectionsOver the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the amino acid L-lysine for treatment of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) infections. Volunteers were recruited through The Saturday Evening Post,

C. E. Ferroli; C. SerVaas; C. Kagan

1996-01-01

311

New helicase-primase inhibitors as drug candidates for the treatment of herpes simplex disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of the world population is infected with at least one member of the human herpesvirus family. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are the cause of cold sores and genital herpes as well as life-threatening or sight-impairing disease mainly in immunocompromized patients, pregnant women and newborns. Since the milestone development in the late 1970s of acyclovir (Zovirax), a

Rüdiger Fischer; Ulrich A. K. Betz; Martin Hendrix; Wolfgang Bender; Udo Schneider; Gabriele Handke; Peter Eckenberg; Guy Hewlett; Veniamin Pevzner; Judith Baumeister; Olaf Weber; Kerstin Henninger; Jörg Keldenich; Axel Jensen; Jörg Kolb; Ute Bach; Andreas Popp; Jutta Mäben; Isabelle Frappa; Dieter Haebich; Oswald Lockhoff; Helga Rübsamen-Waigmann; Gerald Kleymann

2002-01-01

312

Local therapy of herpes simplex with dried extract from Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

An overt multicentric study involving 115 patients and another subsequent placebo-controlled double-blind study involving 116 patients contributed significantly to the corroborative evidence of the antiviral activity in vitro of a specially prepared dried extract from Melissa leaves (Melissa officinalis L.) against herpes simplex infections. The studies provided the proof that the ingredient gave protection against herpes simplex infections. The initiation of the treatment in the very early stages of the infection revealed itself as most effective. PMID:23195812

Wölbling, R H; Leonhardt, K

1994-06-01

313

The Possible Link Between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection and Neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are ubiquitous, neurotropic, and the most common pathogenic cause\\u000a of sporadic acute encephalitis in humans. Herpes simplex encephalitis is associated with a high mortality rate and significant\\u000a neurological sequelae, which afflict patients for life. HSV-1 has been suggested as an environmental risk factor for Alzheimer’s\\u000a disease. However, the link

Angara Zambrano; Margarita Concha

314

Serologic screening for herpes simplex virus type 2 in persons with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Screening for subclinical herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) may be a useful adjunct in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care. However, HSV-2 serological tests have been suggested to perform less well in HIV-infected populations. In this study, HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA was compared with the Sure-Vue Rapid HSV-2 Test for HSV-2 screening of sera from 310 HIV-infected persons receiving care at an HIV-dedicated clinic in the Southeastern United States. In the study, assay agreement and whether the performance of both tests, rather than 1 test alone, would improve screening accuracy were determined. Overall percent test agreement was 96%. Negative percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect index value <0.90 and positive percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect index value ?3.0 (97% and 100%, respectively). Using the manufacturer's established cutoffs for a HerpeSelect positive test result versus negative test result, discordant results between assays occurred in 4% of the cases, and the majority of these cases occurred when the HerpeSelect index value was between 0.9 and 2.9. These data suggest a good correlation between the HerpeSelect and the Sure-Vue HSV-2 Rapid Test in a U.S. HIV-infected population and suggest that confirmatory testing may not help in HSV-2 diagnosis except in cases where HerpeSelect index values are between 0.9 and 3.0. PMID:23154653

Van Wagoner, Nicholas J; Morrow, Rhoda; Lee, Jeannette; Dixon, Paula; Hook, Edward W

2013-08-01

315

Polymorphisms in MICB are associated with human herpes virus seropositivity and schizophrenia risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral infection may be a risk factor for schizophrenia and has been associated with decreased cognitive functioning in patients. We report associations of SNPs at MICB (MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B, chromosome 6p21) with cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 seropositivity. We previously found associations with schizophrenia on chromosome 6p21 among patients seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex

Brian H. Shirts; Jung Jin Kim; Shani Reich; Faith B. Dickerson; Robert H. Yolken; Bernie Devlin; Vishwajit L. Nimgaonkar

2007-01-01

316

Lymphadenitis and lymphoproliferative lesions associated with the human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A newly described herpes virus, human herpes virus 6, (HHV-6), has been linked to exanthema subitum but beyond this its pathogenetic\\u000a impact remains to be determined. A large body of evidence links it to various lymphoproliferative disorders and this study\\u000a was conducted to identify forms of lymphoproliferation linked to HHV-6. We studied biopsy samples from 32 patients with disorders\\u000a of

Bettina Borisch; Klaus Ellinger; Frank Neipel; Bernhard Fleckenstein; Thomas Kirchner; Maria Michaela Ott; Hans Konrad Miiller-Hermelink

1992-01-01

317

[Proliferation of hamster embryo fibroblast cultures infected with the herpes simplex virus].  

PubMed

In the HEF system in logarythmic and stationary phases of the culture growth the type-2 herpes simplex virus serves as a stimulator of proliferative processes in the cell (there is an increase of the labelled cells index, mitotic index and the intensity of labelling). The capacity of herpes virus not to suppress the cell DNA synthesis, as infestious viruses do, but to stimulate poliferative abilities of the cell indicates a presumable potential oncogenicity of this virus. PMID:218363

Ageenko, A I; Kogan, I Ia

1979-01-01

318

Ras Signaling Influences Permissiveness of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells to Oncolytic Herpes  

PubMed Central

Lack of expression of neurofibromin in neurofibromatosis 1 and its lethal derivative, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), is thought to result in the overactivation of the Ras signaling pathway. Our previous studies have shown that cells with overactivation in the Ras pathway are more permissive to infection with herpes simplex virus 1 and its mutant version R3616. In this study, we show that among five different mouse MPNST cell lines, only the ones with elevated levels of Ras signaling are highly permissive to infection with oncolytic herpes G207. Specific inhibitors of the Ras, ERK, and JNK pathways all reduced the synthesis of viral proteins in MPNST cells. The cell lines that contained lower levels of Ras and decreased activation of downstream signaling components underwent an enhancement in apoptosis upon exposure to G207. Additionally, mouse SW10 Schwann cells were able to become infected by parental herpes but were found to be resistant to G207. The immortalization of these cell lines with the expression of SV40 large T antigen increased the levels of Ras activation and permissiveness to oncolytic herpes. A Ras/Raf kinase inhibitor reduced the synthesis of both herpes simplex virus-1 and G207 proteins in SW10 cells. The results of this study, therefore, introduce Ras signaling as a divergent turning point for the response of MPNST cells to an assault by oncolytic herpes. PMID:18988803

Farassati, Faris; Pan, Weihong; Yamoutpour, Farnaz; Henke, Susann; Piedra, Mark; Frahm, Silke; Al-Tawil, Said; Mangrum, Wells I.; Parada, Luis F.; Rabkin, Samuel D.; Martuza, Robert L.; Kurtz, Andreas

2008-01-01

319

Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4 sup + T cells  

SciTech Connect

A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4{sup +} T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date.

Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.; Katsafanas, G.; Roffman, E.; Danovich, R.M. (National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (USA)); June, C.H. (Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

320

Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study  

PubMed Central

Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

2013-01-01

321

New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus Mimicking Herpes Virus Encephalitis  

PubMed Central

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently defined clinical entity that describes patients who present with status epilepticus of unclear etiology that is highly refractory to therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of NORSE usually discloses no specific abnormalities except for an occasional mild T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal of the mesial temporal lobe. Here, we report a peculiar case of NORSE in which brain MRI showed massive alteration of both temporal lobes, with features strongly supporting the diagnosis of herpes virus encephalitis, but lacking any laboratory evidence of viral infection in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. It showed also striking signal alterations in the thalamus, which got worse in the course of the disease. This report emphasizes the possibility that seizure activity alone plays a critical role in both determining the disease and whether it will be self-sustaining. PMID:24163672

Puoti, Gianfranco; Elefante, Andrea; Saracino, Dario; Capasso, Antonella; Cotrufo, Roberto; Anello, Clara Belluomo

2013-01-01

322

Prevention and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections  

PubMed Central

Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates can result in devastating outcomes, including mortality and significant morbidity. All infants are potentially at risk for neonatal HSV infection. This position statement reviews epidemiology, transmission and risk factors, with a focus on intrapartum infection. It considers diagnosis and prognosis according to infection category, along with testing modalities and limitations. Recommendations for managing newborns known to have been exposed intrapartum to HSV are based on expert opinion because a randomized trial to compare management options is not feasible. Guidance is provided for the empirical management of infants with suspected clinical sepsis, including those who do not respond to antibacterial therapy. The present statement replaces a 2006 position statement by the Canadian Paediatric Society. PMID:24855418

Allen, Upton D; Robinson, Joan L

2014-01-01

323

Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

Sutter, Esther [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Kaech, Andres [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Lucas, Miriam S. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

2012-08-01

324

Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

Hus, Iwona

2014-01-01

325

Herpes genitalis without frontiers: from clinical aspects to viral identification.  

PubMed

Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent, lifelong disease with no cure. The strongest predictor for infection is a person's number of lifetime sex partners. HSV-2 is the commonest responsible, although infections caused by HSV-1 are rapidly increasing, particularly in adolescents, women and men who have sex with men. The natural history includes first-episode of mucocutaneous infection, establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglion, and subsequent reactivation. Most infections are transmitted via asymptomatic viral shedding. Atypical manifestations are common. Genital HSV-2 recurs six times more frequently than type 1. Laboratory confirmation of the clinical diagnosis is recommended in all patients in order to guide a correct counselling and management. Real-time PCR and viral culture represent the gold standard for diagnosis. Serologic testing can be useful in persons with a questionable history. Counselling patients about the risk of transmission is crucial and helps prevent the spread of disease and neonatal complications. PMID:23007253

Papini, M

2012-10-01

326

Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K; Sawitzke, James A

2014-09-01

327

Physician Attitudes toward the Herpes Zoster Vaccination in South Korea.  

PubMed

This survey investigated Korean physician attitudes toward the herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. A total of 400 physicians answered a self-reported questionnaire. Most physicians knew that HZ poses a significant socioeconomic burden and had good knowledge about HZ and its vaccine. Physicians who did not recommend HZ vaccine were concerned about costs (90.7%, 78/86) and doubted the effectiveness of the vaccine (58.1%, 50/86). Patient demand had a profound effect on physicians decisions; 84.9% (73/86) of them who said not recommending HZ vaccine reported that they would provide the vaccine upon patient request. In conclusion, educational initiatives should be targeted toward both physicians and patients. PMID:25298909

Yang, Tae Un; Cheong, Hee Jin; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Noh, Ji Yun; Kim, Woo Joo

2014-09-01

328

Antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin on herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Using tissue culture technique the present study for the first time indicated the antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin against type I herpes simplex virus (HSV-I). 4 methods were used for evaluating drug effectiveness (i.e., in vitro drug-on-virus direct action, simultaneous addition of drug-virus-inoculum to cell bottle, virus inoculation preceding drug addition, and drug addition followed by virus inoculation), it was readily found by log determination of HSV-I inhibition that isomangiferin somewhat exceeded such control drugs as acyclovir, idoxuridine, and cyclocytidine in log by 0.27-0.50, and that mangiferin was lower than isomangiferin in log by 0.53. The average plaque reduction rates of mangiferin and isomangiferin were 56.8% and 69.5% respectively. The antiviral effect of mangiferin and isomangiferin was presumably due to their capability of inhibiting virus replication within cells. PMID:2167819

Zheng, M S; Lu, Z Y

1990-02-01

329

Physician Attitudes toward the Herpes Zoster Vaccination in South Korea  

PubMed Central

This survey investigated Korean physician attitudes toward the herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. A total of 400 physicians answered a self-reported questionnaire. Most physicians knew that HZ poses a significant socioeconomic burden and had good knowledge about HZ and its vaccine. Physicians who did not recommend HZ vaccine were concerned about costs (90.7%, 78/86) and doubted the effectiveness of the vaccine (58.1%, 50/86). Patient demand had a profound effect on physicians decisions; 84.9% (73/86) of them who said not recommending HZ vaccine reported that they would provide the vaccine upon patient request. In conclusion, educational initiatives should be targeted toward both physicians and patients. PMID:25298909

Yang, Tae Un; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Noh, Ji Yun; Kim, Woo Joo

2014-01-01

330

A case of herpes zoster uveitis with severe hyphema  

PubMed Central

Background Uveitis sometimes causes hyphema, but severe hyphema as a complication following herpes zoster uveitis has rarely been reported. We report a rare case of zoster sine herpete with unusually severe hyphema. Case presentation A 41-year-old Japanese female developed hyphema filling almost one-half of the depth of the anterior chamber after a two-week history of unilateral anterior uveitis. Hyphema persisted for four weeks while sectorial iris atrophy became gradually apparent. Systemic prednisolone and valaciclovir resulted in prompt resolution of uveitis and hyphema. Serum anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG measured by enzyme immunoassay was 116 at presentation and decreased to 20.3 four month later. In addition, the antibody level in aqueous humor was almost 10-fold higher than that in serum examined 9 months after presentation. Because there was no skin lesion, this case was diagnosed as zoster sine herpete. The patient underwent cataract operation due to secondary cataract. The final visual acuity in decimal notation was 1.0, but complications such as severe iris atrophy, wide anterior synechiae, corneal opacity, and decrease in corneal endothelial cell count remained. Conclusion Zoster sine herpete is an important differential diagnosis in a case of acute anterior uveitis with severe hyphema, although such cases are quite rare. Measurement of anti-VZV IgG levels by enzyme immunoassay in aqueous humor and serum would be useful in the diagnosis of VZV reactivation. Prompt diagnosis and administration of corticosteroids and anti-herpes virus medication may improve the outcome. PMID:24885484

2014-01-01

331

Effects of herpes simplex virus on mRNA stability.  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus virions contain one or more functions which mediate shutoff of host protein synthesis, disaggregation of host polyribosomes, and degradation of host mRNA. We studied aspects of the host shutoff mechanism by using herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants deficient in virion-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis (G. S. Read and N. Frenkel, J. Virol. 46:498-512, 1983). Shutoff of host protein synthesis by the wild-type virus was associated with degradation of host mRNAs, including beta-actin, alpha-tubulin, and heat shock protein 70. In contrast, the virion host shutoff (vhs) mutants were deficient to various degrees in their ability to induce host mRNA degradation; the extent of mRNA degradation correlated well with the extent of inhibition of host protein synthesis. This finding suggests that inhibition of host protein synthesis and degradation of host mRNA were mediated by the same virion-associated function. Virion-induced degradation of host mRNA was not prevented by inhibitors of ribosome translocation, nor could it be augmented, for mutant vhs-1, by drugs which disaggregate polyribosomes. This suggests that mRNA in polyribosomes, as well as nonpolyribosomal mRNA, is susceptible to virion-induced degradation. Finally, the half-life of viral transcripts was also prolonged in cells infected with the vhs-1 mutant virus, suggesting that the vhs function indiscriminately decreased the half-lives of both host and viral mRNAs. The vhs function may thus play a dual role in virus infection. (i) It inhibits host gene expression, and (ii) it enables rapid transitions in the expression of viral genes which are sequentially transcribed as infection progresses. Images PMID:3035220

Strom, T; Frenkel, N

1987-01-01

332

Effects of experimentally induced infections of goldfish Carassius auratus with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) at various water temperatures.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the influence of water temperature on the development of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus after experimentally induced infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2). In Expt 1, Ryukin goldfish were infected with CyHV-2 by intraperitoneal injection and maintained at 4 different water temperatures. Cumulative mortalities of the 15, 20, 25 and 30°C groups were 10, 90, 90 and 60%, respectively. Therefore, the temperature range of 20-25°C is considered highly permissive for HVHN. One of 6 surviving fish of the 15°C group died after a rapid temperature increase to 25°C at 30 d post infection. All 3 Edonishiki goldfish, co-reared with the surviving Ryukin in tanks where the water temperature was increased from 15 to 25°C, died. In Expt 2, Edonishiki goldfish were exposed to CyHV-2 by bath immersion at 13 or 24°C, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 0 and 87%, respectively, at 28 d post-exposure. No mortality of the surviving Edonishiki in the 13°C treatment was observed when the water temperature was increased to 24°C. In addition, in Expt 2, no mortality was observed in any Ranchu co-reared with CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki in the group where water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C, even after re-immersion challenge with CyHV-2. It is interesting to note that CyHV-2 DNA was detected in the kidneys of 4 of the 5 surviving Ranchu co-reared with the CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki group where the water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C. Therefore, it is likely that the surviving Edonishiki of the 13°C group were virus carriers. This study indicates that most fish infected with CyHV-2 at 13-15°C acquire resistance to HVHN, but as carriers they are able to infect naïve fish. PMID:25114043

Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

2014-08-11

333

Neonatal herpes prevention: a minor public health problem in some communities  

PubMed Central

Background: Neonatal herpes is a condition with high morbidity and mortality. The greatest risk occurs when the mother acquires herpes simplex virus (HSV) towards the end of pregnancy. A study from Seattle has suggested that the risk of acquisition of HSV during pregnancy was 3.7%. In Australia, HSV-2 infection is less common in pregnant women than in the United States. Consequently we conducted a study to establish HSV seroprevalence and the rate of HSV seroconversion in this population. Methods: The study was conducted at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, between June 1995 and April 1998. Women completed a questionnaire covering risk factors for the acquisition of genital herpes. A serum sample during pregnancy and a specimen of cord blood were obtained and tested for antibodies to HSV-2 using a type specific indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Equivocal results were resolved by western blot. A subset of the paired sera was tested for antibodies to HSV-1. The data were analysed using SPSS. Results: 326 of the 2616 (12.5%) women were HSV-2 seropositive. Three women (0.15%) acquired HSV-2 infection during pregnancy. None of the three babies of these mothers developed neonatal herpes. 416 maternal cord pairs were tested for HSV-1 antibodies and 330 (79.3%) were positive. No HSV-1 seroconversions occurred. Conclusions: In this population, HSV acquisition was uncommon (0.34% per year) and neonatal herpes was rare. A cost effective analysis suggested that type specific serology to screen pregnant women and their partners in low prevalence communities was not cost effective. Key Words: type specific serology; herpes simplex virus; neonatal herpes PMID:11026885

Mindel, A; Taylor, J; Tideman, R; Seifert, C; Berry, G; Wagner, K; Page, J; Marks, C; Trudinger, B; Cunningham, A

2000-01-01

334

Balm mint extract (Lo-701) for topical treatment of recurring herpes labialis.  

PubMed

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was carried out with the aim of proving efficacy of standardized balm mint cream [active ingredient: 1% Lo-701--dried extract from Melissa officinalis L. leaves (70:1)] for the therapy of herpes simplex labialis. Sixty six patients with a history of recurrent herpes labialis (at least four episodes per year) in one center were treated topically; 34 of them with verum and 32 with placebo. The cream had to be smeared on the affected area four times daily over five days. A combined symptom score of the values for complaints, size of affected area and blisters at day 2 of therapy was formed as the primary target parameter. There was a significant difference in the values of the primary target parameter between both treatment groups: verum 4.03 +/- 0.33 (3.0); placebo 4.94 +/- 0.40 (5.0); values given are mean +/- SEM (median) of the symptoms score on day 2 of therapy. The tested formulation is effective for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. The significant difference in the combined symptom score on the second day of treatment is of particular importance having in mind that the complaints in patients suffering from herpes labialis are usually most intensive at that time. In addition to the shortening of the healing period, the prevention of a spreading of the infection and the rapid effect on typical symptoms of herpes like itching, tingling, burning, stabbing, swelling, tautness and erythema, the balm mint cream has a further advantage. The different mechanism of action of the balm mint extract rules out the development of resistance of the herpes virus. Some indication exists that the intervals between the periods with herpes might be prolonged with balm mint cream treatment. PMID:10589440

Koytchev, R; Alken, R G; Dundarov, S

1999-10-01

335

Zoster vaccine (Zostavax): a review of its use in preventing herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults.  

PubMed

Individuals who have been infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) are at risk for developing herpes zoster and this risk appears to be related to a decline in VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Zostavax (zoster vaccine) is a one-dose, high-potency, live, attenuated VZV vaccine that boosts VZV-specific CMI and this is its presumed mechanism of action. Zoster vaccine is registered in the EU for use in adults aged >or=50 years for the prevention of herpes zoster and herpes zoster-related postherpetic neuralgia. In the Shingles Prevention Study, a placebo-controlled trial in adults aged >or=60 years (n = 38 546), zoster vaccine led to a sustained boost of VZV-specific CMI. Over a mean herpes zoster surveillance period of 3.1 years, zoster vaccine reduced the herpes zoster-related burden of illness by 61%, reduced the incidence of herpes zoster by 51% and reduced the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia by 67%. Zoster vaccine recipients who developed herpes zoster had a shorter illness duration and severity than placebo recipients who developed herpes zoster. Zoster vaccine had continuing efficacy in a Shingles Prevention Study subpopulation followed for 7 years post-vaccination. Zoster vaccine was generally well tolerated in older adults. While cost-effectiveness estimates in pharmacoeconomic analyses varied widely according to vaccine and herpes zoster parameter cost/benefit estimates, an analysis from a UK perspective found a zoster vaccine immunization programme in adults aged 65 years to be cost effective. In older adults, the zoster vaccine has the potential to significantly reduce the herpes zoster burden of illness by decreasing the incidence of herpes zoster or reducing its severity. PMID:20104941

Sanford, Mark; Keating, Gillian M

2010-02-01

336

Identification of Two Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-induced Proteins (21K and 22K) which Interact Specifically with the a Sequence of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We have used a DNA competition binding assay to search for herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins which are able to bind to specific sequences of the genome of HSV. Cloned DNAs from different regions of the virus genome were tested. Two late poly- peptides, one major of apparent molecular weight 21000 and one minor of 22 000, were preferentially

R. G. Dalziel; H. S. Marsden

1984-01-01

337

Most Common Dermatologic Topics Published in Five High-Impact General Medical Journals, 1970-2012: Melanoma, Psoriasis, Herpes Simplex, Herpes Zoster, and Acne  

PubMed Central

Context: General practitioners frequently encounter skin diseases and are accustomed to diagnosing the most common dermatologic conditions. Objective: We sought to determine the most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, the Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal (now The BMJ), and Annals of Internal Medicine). Design: We conducted an independent search of the Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index for common dermatologic topics, limited to the period 1970 to 2012. Main Outcome Measure: Total number of publications dealing with each dermatologic topic considered. Results: The five most common dermatologic topics published were melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne. Melanoma and psoriasis were the top two dermatologic topics published in each journal except for Annals of Internal Medicine. Conclusions: Internists frequently diagnose herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne, which are also common dermatologic topics published. Although internists infrequently diagnose melanoma and psoriasis, they are major topics for general medical journals because of their increased community awareness, major advancements in therapeutic research, and their nondermatologic manifestations.

Choi, Young M; Namavar, Aram A; Wu, Jashin J

2014-01-01

338

Modulation of HLA-G and HLA-E expression in human neuronal cells after rabies virus or herpes virus simplex type -1 infections  

E-print Network

), HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1), mAb monoclonal antibody, HCMV ( Human cytomegalovirus) #12 to virus and tumour immune escape. We recently described that the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-11 Modulation of HLA-G and HLA-E expression in human neuronal cells after rabies virus or herpes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

Contributions of Antibody and T Cell Subsets to Protection Elicited by Immunization with a Replication-Defective Mutant of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

E-print Network

with a Replication-Defective Mutant of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Lynda A. Morrison1 and David M. Knipe Department Replication-defective mutants of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) elicit immune responses in mice that reduce in regulating the immunopathologic activity of CD4 T cells. © 1997 Academic Press INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex

Knipe, David M.

340

Identification of a Divalent Metal Cation Binding Site in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8 Required for HSV Replication  

E-print Network

Identification of a Divalent Metal Cation Binding Site in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8,a and Clinical Faculty, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USAb Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8 replication. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a double-stranded DNA virus that replicates its genome

Knipe, David M.

341

Comparison of Different Forms of Herpes Simplex Replication-Defective Mutant Viruses as Vaccines in a Mouse Model of HSV-2 Genital Infection  

E-print Network

Comparison of Different Forms of Herpes Simplex Replication-Defective Mutant Viruses as Vaccines for revision June 6, 2001; accepted July 11, 2001 Some subunit vaccines composed of herpes simplex virus (HSV against HSV-2. © 2001 Academic Press INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is the principal etio

Knipe, David M.

342

Herpes simplex virus type 2 detection by culture and polymerase chain reaction and relationship to genital symptoms and cervical antibody status during the third trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to define the frequency of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding by culture and polymerase chain reaction and to correlate our findings with cervical anti–herpes simplex virus type 2 immunoglobulin A production.STUDY DESIGN: Women who were seropositive for herpes simplex virus type 2 collected daily genital tract samples during the third trimester for culture and

Kim A. Boggess; D. Heather Watts; Ann C. Hobson; Rhoda L. Ashley; Zane A. Brown; Lawrence Corey

1997-01-01

343

New disease records for hatchery-reared sturgeon. I. Expansion of frog virus 3 host range into Scaphirhynchus albus.  

PubMed

In 2009, juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus, reared at the Blind Pony State Fish Hatchery (Missouri, USA) to replenish dwindling wild stocks, experienced mass mortality. Histological examination revealed extensive necrosis of the haematopoietic tissues, and a virus was isolated from affected organs in cell culture and then observed by electron microscopy. Experimental infection studies revealed that the virus is highly pathogenic to juvenile pallid sturgeon, one of several species of sturgeon currently listed as Endangered. The DNA sequence of the full length major capsid protein gene of the virus was identical to that of the species Frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species for the genus Ranavirus, originally isolated from northern leopard frog Lithobates pipiens. Although FV3 infections and epizootics in amphibians and reptiles are well documented, there is only 1 prior report of a natural infection of FV3 in fish. Our results illustrate the broad potential host range for FV3, with the known potential to cause significant mortality in poikilothermic vertebrates across 3 taxonomic classes including bony fishes, anuran and caudate amphibians, and squamate and testudine reptiles. PMID:25320034

Waltzek, Thomas B; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J; Drecktrah, Bruce; Briggler, Jeffrey T; MacConnell, Beth; Hudson, Crystal; Hopper, Lacey; Friary, John; Yun, Susan C; Malm, Kirsten V; Weber, E Scott; Hedrick, Ronald P

2014-10-16

344

Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations.  

PubMed

Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, cricket paste, and soybean oil adsorbed to defatted corn grit) effectively transmitted SINV-3 infections to S. invicta colonies. Correspondingly, viral infection was shown to be detrimental to colony health and productivity. By day 32, all ant colonies exposed to a single 24h pulse treatment of SINV-3 became infected with the virus regardless of the bait formulation. However, the SINV-3 sugar and cricket bait-treated colonies became infected more rapidly than the oil-treated colonies. Sugar and cricket-treated colonies exhibited significant declines in their brood ratings compared with the untreated control and oil bait-treated colonies. Measures of colony health and productivity evaluated at the end of the study (day 47) showed a number of differences among the bait treatments and the control group. Statistically significant and similar patterns were exhibited among treatments for the quantity of live workers (lower), live brood (lower), total colony weight (lower), worker mortality (higher), proportion larvae (lower), and queen weight (lower). Significant changes were also observed in the number of eggs laid by queens (lower) and the corresponding ovary rating in SINV-3-treated colonies. The study provides the first successful demonstration of SINV-3 as a potential biopesticide against fire ants. PMID:23602901

Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Choi, Man-Yeon; Oi, David H

2013-07-01

345

Comparison of European systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus and frog virus 3.  

PubMed

Iridovirus-like agents isolated from systemic infected fish (Silurus glanis, SFIR; Ictalurus melas, CFIR I, CFIR II, CFIR III) and from frogs (Rana esculenta, REIR) in Europe, Epizootic Haematopoietic Necrosis Virus (EHNV) isolated in Australia from redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis), and Frog Virus 3 (FV 3) isolated from frogs (Rana pipiens) in the USA were investigated by electron microscopy, polypeptide composition, immunofluorescence, restriction endonuclease digestion, Southern-blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. All virus isolates proved to be similar in morphology and in size and reacted with EHNV polyclonal antiserum in the immunofluorescence. Whilst DNA restriction profiles of the European piscine isolates cleaved by BamH I were similar, they differed clearly from those of EHNV, REIR and FV 3. Southern-blot analysis of viral BamH I digested DNA using an EHNV DNA probe revealed cross-hybridization with DNA of the investigated iridoviruses. Using a set of primers designed for an open reading frame of the EHNV genome, PCR products of about 250 bp were obtained with the DNA of systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses. The data suggest that the systemic piscine and amphibian iridoviruses should be regarded as members of the the genus Ranavirus within the family Iridoviridae. PMID:9719770

Ahne, W; Bearzotti, M; Bremont, M; Essbauer, S

1998-08-01

346

Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile  

PubMed Central

Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA on serum. PMID:25031577

Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

2014-01-01

347

Nelfinavir Inhibits Maturation and Export of Herpes Simplex Virus 1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Nelfinavir (NFV) is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor with demonstrated antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and several other herpesviruses. However, the stages of HSV-1 replication inhibited by NFV have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of NFV on capsid assembly and envelopment. We confirmed the inhibitory effects of NFV on HSV-1 replication by plaque assay and found that treatment with NFV did not affect capsid assembly, activity of the HSV-1 maturational protease, or formation of DNA-containing capsids in the nucleus. Confocal and electron microscopy studies showed that these capsids were transported to the cytoplasm but failed to complete secondary envelopment and subsequent exit from the cell. Consistent with the microscopy results, a light-scattering band corresponding to enveloped virions was not evident following sucrose gradient rate-velocity separation of lysates from drug-treated cells. Evidence of a possibly related effect of NFV on viral glycoprotein maturation was also discovered. NFV also inhibited the replication of an HSV-1 thymidine kinase mutant resistant to nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir. Given that NFV is neither a nucleoside mimic nor a known inhibitor of nucleic acid synthesis, this was expected and suggests its potential as a coinhibitor or alternate antiviral therapeutic agent in cases of resistance. IMPORTANCE Nelfinavir (NFV) is a clinically important antiviral drug that inhibits production of infectious HIV. It was reported to inhibit herpesviruses in cell culture. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections are common and often associated with several diseases. The studies we describe here confirm and extend earlier findings by investigating how NFV interferes with HSV-1 replication. We show that early steps in virus formation (e.g., assembly of DNA-containing capsids in the nucleus and their movement into the cytoplasm) appear to be unaffected by NFV, whereas later steps (e.g., final envelopment in the cytoplasm and release of infectious virus from the cell) are severely restricted by the drug. Our findings provide the first insight into how NFV inhibits HSV-1 replication and suggest that this drug may have applications for studying the herpesvirus envelopment process. Additionally, NFV may have therapeutic value alone or in combination with other antivirals in treating herpesvirus infections. PMID:24574416

Kalu, Nene N.; Desai, Prashant J.; Shirley, Courtney M.; Gibson, Wade; Dennis, Phillip A.

2014-01-01

348

[Herpes simplex virus type 1-induced rising dbl quote, left (low)tumor" in the nasal vestibule. The problem of resistance development of herpes simplex in a patient with chronic lymphatic B-cell leukemia].  

PubMed

Herpes simplex viruses are known to be among the most common disease-causing microorganisms. Their prevalence can exceed 90% depending on the socioeconomic status of the population. Since the number of immunocompromised patients has increased because of the increased incidence in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and an increase in organ transplantation, herpes virus infection may have a greater clinical significance. While treatment of otherwise healthy individuals will not usually cause any clinical problems herpes infection in an immunocompromised patient can have severe consequences. Additionally, development of viral resistance can be observed that may require alternative drugs in treatment. We present a case history of a man with a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia that was associated with a very unusual herpes simplex virus infection in the nasal vestibule. Possible causes for the development of resistance in herpes infections and the use of famciclovir and forscarnet as two therapeutic alternatives to aciclovir are discussed. PMID:10663064

Althof, F; Mechtersheimer, M; Richter, M; Dietz, A

2000-02-01

349

Jun Blockade of Erythropoiesis: Role for Repression of GATA-1 by HERP2  

PubMed Central

Although Jun upregulation and activation have been established as critical to oncogenesis, the relevant downstream pathways remain incompletely characterized. In this study, we found that c-Jun blocks erythroid differentiation in primary human hematopoietic progenitors and, correspondingly, that Jun factors block transcriptional activation by GATA-1, the central regulator of erythroid differentiation. Mutagenesis of c-Jun suggested that its repression of GATA-1 occurs through a transcriptional mechanism involving activation of downstream genes. We identified the hairy-enhancer-of-split-related factor HERP2 as a novel gene upregulated by c-Jun. HERP2 showed physical interaction with GATA-1 and repressed GATA-1 transcriptional activation. Furthermore, transduction of HERP2 into primary human hematopoietic progenitors inhibited erythroid differentiation. These results thus define a novel regulatory pathway linking the transcription factors c-Jun, HERP2, and GATA-1. Furthermore, these results establish a connection between the Notch signaling pathway, of which the HERP factors are a critical component, and the GATA family, which participates in programming of cellular differentiation. PMID:15314183

Elagib, Kamaleldin E.; Xiao, Mang; Hussaini, Isa M.; Delehanty, Lorrie L.; Palmer, Lisa A.; Racke, Frederick K.; Birrer, Michael J.; Shanmugasundaram, Ganapath; McDevitt, Michael A.; Goldfarb, Adam N.

2004-01-01

350

Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.  

PubMed

There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

2013-10-01

351

Serological testing for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 infection.  

PubMed

Serological tests for herpes simplex virus (HSV) that can accurately distinguish between HSV-1 and HSV-2 are now commercially available. These tests detect antibodies to HSV glycoproteins G-1 and G-2, which evoke a type-specific antibody response. Focus Technologies produces the HerpeSelect-1 and HerpeSelect-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests and the HSV-1 and HSV-2 HerpeSelect1/2 Immunoblot. Diagnology has marketed POCkit-HSV-2, a point-of-care test for HSV-2 that allows blood from a finger stick to be tested in a clinic. These tests can be used to confirm a genital herpes diagnosis, establish diagnosis of HSV infection in patients with atypical complaints, identify asymptomatic carriers, and identify persons at risk for acquiring HSV. Potential settings for use of these tests include sexually transmitted disease clinics, prenatal clinics, and clinics that care for patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Patient interest in HSV serological tests appears high. PMID:12353203

Wald, Anna; Ashley-Morrow, Rhoda

2002-10-15

352

The use of FTIR microscopy for evaluation of herpes viruses infection development kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of Herpes simplex infection development was studied using an FTIR microscopy (FTIR-M) method. The family of herpes viruses includes several members like H. simplex types I and II (HSV I, II), Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses which are involved in various human and animal infections of different parts of the body. In our previous study, we found significant spectral differences between normal uninfected cells in cultures and cells infected with herpes viruses at early stages of the infection. In the present study, cells in cultures were infected with either HSV-I or VZV and at various times post-infection they were examined either by optical microscopy or by advanced FTIR-M. Spectroscopic measurements show a consistent decrease in the intensity of the carbohydrate peak in correlation with the viral infection development, observed by optical microscopy. This decrease in cellular carbohydrate level was used as indicator for herpes viruses infection kinetics. This parameter could be used as a basis for applying a spectroscopic method for the evaluation of herpes virus infection development. Our results show also that the development kinetics of viral infection has an exponential character for these viruses.

Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mukmanov, Igor; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2004-08-01

353

The use of FTIR microscopy for evaluation of herpes viruses infection development kinetics.  

PubMed

The kinetics of Herpes simplex infection development was studied using an FTIR microscopy (FTIR-M) method. The family of herpes viruses includes several members like H. simplex types I and II (HSV I, II), Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses which are involved in various human and animal infections of different parts of the body. In our previous study, we found significant spectral differences between normal uninfected cells in cultures and cells infected with herpes viruses at early stages of the infection. In the present study, cells in cultures were infected with either HSV-I or VZV and at various times post-infection they were examined either by optical microscopy or by advanced FTIR-M. Spectroscopic measurements show a consistent decrease in the intensity of the carbohydrate peak in correlation with the viral infection development, observed by optical microscopy. This decrease in cellular carbohydrate level was used as indicator for herpes viruses infection kinetics. This parameter could be used as a basis for applying a spectroscopic method for the evaluation of herpes virus infection development. Our results show also that the development kinetics of viral infection has an exponential character for these viruses. PMID:15249025

Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mukmanov, Igor; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

2004-08-01

354

Emergence of herpes simplex type 1 as the main cause of recurrent genital ulcerative disease in women in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Genital herpes is a common infection affecting some 20% of sexually active people. Although herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 can both establish genital latency, reactivation from the sacral ganglia favours HSV-2. Over the past decade the incidence of type 1 genital infection in women has greatly increased. Objectives: To determine whether the increased prevalence of HSV-1

P. V Coyle; H. J O'Neill; D. E Wyatt; C McCaughey; S Quah; M. O McBride

2003-01-01

355

Famciclovir and Valaciclovir Differ in the Prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency in Mice: a Quantitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Famciclovir (FCV) and valaciclovir (VACV) have previously been shown to be potent inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in a murine cutaneous model. In the present study, mice were inoculated in the skin of the left ear pinna with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1. Antiviral therapy was started on different days postinoculation (p.i.), terminating at the end

ALANA M. THACKRAY; HUGH J. FIELD

1998-01-01

356

Prevalence of antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in pregnant women, and estimated rates of infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent increase in notifications of genital herpes but it is not known whether this has been reflected in the pregnant population. We have therefore carried out a study to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex antibodies in pregnant women and to estimate the incidence of primary infection. Sera were collected from 3533 women at antenatal clinics

A E Ades; C S Peckham; G E Dale; J M Best; S Jeansson

1989-01-01

357

Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus\\/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex

Elena Anzivino; Daniela Fioriti; Monica Mischitelli; Anna Bellizzi; Valentina Barucca; Fernanda Chiarini; Valeria Pietropaolo

2009-01-01

358

Herpes simplex virus hepatitis in macrophage-depleted mice: the role of massive, apoptotic cell death in pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with herpes simplex virus or hepatitis viruses can lead to fulminant hepatitis, but there is controversy about the underlying conditions needed for such disease. To investigate how the impairment of host defences might be involved, macrophages were depleted by administration of silica to mice before intravenous injection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Such mice died rapidly and

Hiroshi Irie; Hajime Koyama; Hideyuki Kubo; Akio Fukuda; Kiyoshi Ait; Tsuneaki Koike; Ashio Yoshimura; Takeshi Yoshida; Junji Shiga; Terry Hill

359

To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

Farrell, Elizabeth F.

2005-01-01

360

The effects of caudal fin amputation on metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species with different metabolic modes.  

PubMed

Metabolic competitive modes between digestion and locomotion are classified into three categories, termed the additive, digestion- and locomotion-priority modes. In nature, the caudal fin is frequently observed to sustain damage as a result of social rank, predation or disease. To test whether the metabolic mode changed differently for fish with different metabolic mode after caudal fin amputation as a consequence of intensified energy competition, we investigated the swimming performance of fasting and fed fish with and without the caudal fin in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species: qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis, locomotion-priority mode), common carp (Cyprinus carpio, additive mode) and goldfish (Carassius auratus, digestion-priority mode). The critical swimming speed (U(crit)) of fasting qingbo, common carp and goldfish decreased significantly by 49%, 32% and 35% after caudal fin amputation. The maximum tail beat amplitude (TBA(max)) (all three fishes), maximum tail beat frequency (TBF(max)) (only common carp and goldfish) and (or) active metabolic rate (M?O(2active)) (only common carp) increased significantly after caudal fin amputation. In the control fish, digestion let to a significantly lower U(crit) in goldfish but not in qingbo and common carp, and the M?O(2active) of digesting common carp was higher than that of fasting fish, suggesting locomotion-priority, additive and digestion-priority metabolic modes in qingbo, common carp and goldfish, respectively. However, after fin amputation, digestion showed no effect on U(crit) in any of the three fishes, and only the digesting common carp showed a higher M?O(2active) than their fasting counterparts. This result suggested that the metabolic mode of the goldfish changed from the digestion- to the locomotion-priority mode, whereas the metabolic mode of the other two fishes remained the same after fin amputation. The metabolic mode of the common carp showed no change after fin amputation likely due to the high flexibility of the cardio-respiratory capacity of this fish, as indicated by the increased M?O(2active). Although the metabolic mode remained the same, the feeding metabolism in the fin-amputated qingbo was down-regulated at a lower swimming speed than that of the control group due to the intensified competition between digestion and locomotion. The underlying mechanism for the metabolic mode change in the goldfish is not clear and needs further investigation. However, we speculated that in caudal-fin-intact goldfish, the decreased swimming efficiency, rather than irreducible digestive loading, caused a decreased U(crit) in digesting fish (i.e. false digestion-priority mode), and the metabolic mode should not be judged simply by the relative magnitude of the metabolic rates of fasting and digesting fish. PMID:23269108

Fu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

2013-03-01

361

Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide. PMID:24227835

Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

362

Clinical Correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus Viremia Among Hospitalized Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The quantification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA from the peripheral blood is often used to evaluate patients suspected of having disseminated HSV infection. Few studies have examined the clinical correlates of HSV viremia among adults. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of blood samples sent to a reference molecular virology diagnostic facility at a university hospital for quantification of HSV DNA between October 2001 and June 2006. Medical records of patients with detectable HSV DNA were reviewed to abstract relevant clinical characteristics. Results HSV DNA was detected in 37 (4.0%) of 951 samples from 29 individual patients. 19 (65.5%) were >16 years of age, and detailed medical records were available for review from 13 (68.4%) of 19 adults patients. Of the 10 patients whose HSV infection was typed, 6 (60%) had HSV-2, 3 (30%) had HSV-1, and one had evidence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. All viremic patients were treated with antiviral medications. The most common clinical findings were hepatitis (62%), fever (54%), CNS alterations (46%), skin lesions (38%), abdominal pain (31%), and sepsis (31%). Respiratory failure (23%) was uncommon. Patients with HSV viremia were observed to have a high mortality rate (6 of 10 immunocompromised and 1 of 3 immunocompetent individuals). Conclusions HSV viremia may be associated with a variety of morbid signs and symptoms in hospitalized immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, and is associated with high rates of mortality, though causality can only be determined by additional studies. PMID:19807272

Berrington, William R.; Jerome, Keith R.; Cook, Linda; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Casper, Corey

2009-01-01

363

Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

2009-03-01

364

Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA  

SciTech Connect

Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions. HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed.

Danovich, R.M.; Frenkel, N.

1988-08-01

365

Radioimmunoassay for herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive RIA for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) has been developed. This assay is based on competition for the binding site of a rabbit antibody against purified HSV-1 TK, between a purified /sup 3/H-labeled HSV-1 TK and a sample containing an unknown amount of viral TK. The assay is capable of detecting 8 ng or more of the HSV enzyme. Purified HSV-1 TK denatured to <1% of its original kinase activity is as effective in binding to the antibody as is native HSV-1 TK. Viral TK is detectable at ranges of 150-460 ng/mg protein of cell extract from infected cells or cells transformed by HSV or HSV genetic material. HSV-2 TK appears highly cross-reactive, VZV TK is slightly less so, and the vaccinia TK shows little or no cross-reactivity. This RIA may serve as a tool for monitoring the expression of the HSV TK during an active herpes virus infection, a latent ganglionic infection, or in neoplastic cells which may have arisen by viral transformation.

McGuirt, P.V.; Keller, P.M.; Elion, G.B.

1982-01-30

366

Tranylcypromine Reduces Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the human population and establishes latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. Latent virus can undergo reactivation to cause recurrent infection. Both primary and recurrent infections can cause devastating diseases, including encephalitis and corneal blindness. Acyclovir is used to treat patients, but virus resistance to acyclovir is frequently reported. Recent in vitro findings reveal that pretreatment of cells with tranylcypromine (TCP), a drug widely used in the clinic to treat neurological disorders, restrains HSV-1 gene transcription by inhibiting the histone-modifying enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1. The present study was designed to examine the anti-HSV-1 efficacy of TCP in vivo because of the paucity of reports on this issue. Using the murine model, we found that TCP decreased the severity of wild-type-virus-induced encephalitis and corneal blindness, infection with the acyclovir-resistant (thymidine kinase-negative) HSV-1 mutant, and tissue viral loads. Additionally, TCP blocked in vivo viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglia. These results support the therapeutic potential of TCP for controlling HSV-1 infection. PMID:24590478

Yao, Hui-Wen; Lin, Pin-Hung; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Tung, Yuk-Ying

2014-01-01

367

Inhibitors of nucleotidyltransferase superfamily enzymes suppress herpes simplex virus replication.  

PubMed

Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 ?M, with suppression at 50 ?M reaching ?1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 ?M with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family. PMID:25267681

Tavis, John E; Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L; Wold, William S M; Morrison, Lynda A

2014-12-01

368

Inhibition effect of silver nanoparticles on herpes simplex virus 2.  

PubMed

The herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is one of the most important sexually transmitted pathogens, and can facilitate the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. The currently available antiviral drugs have certain limitations. Nanosilver has received increasing attention recently with respect to its antibacterial and antiviral properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibiting effect and mechanism of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on HSV-2. The cytotoxicity of Vero cells induced by different Ag-NP concentrations was investigated by using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The inhibiting effect of Ag-NPs on HSV-2 at various times was also evaluated by using a plaque assay. The toxicity of 100 ?g/mL Ag-NPs on Vero cells was very low. The mixture of Ag-NP suspension and HSV-2 prior to infecting cells could significantly inhibit the production of progeny viruses. Ag-NPs also inhibited the replication of HSV-2 for 24 h before infecting cells with HSV-2. Therefore, 100 ?g/mL Ag-NPs could completely inhibit HSV-2 replication. Ag-NPs at nontoxic concentrations were capable of inhibiting HSV-2 replication when administered prior to viral infection or soon after initial virus exposure. This suggests that the mode of action of Ag-Nps occurs during the early phases of viral replication. PMID:24682984

Hu, R L; Li, S R; Kong, F J; Hou, R J; Guan, X L; Guo, F

2014-01-01

369

Structure and origin of defective genomes contained in serially passaged herpes simplex virus type 1 (Justin).  

PubMed Central

Restriction enzyme and hybridization analyses have revealed that high-density DNA prepared from passage 15 of serially passaged herpes simplex virus type 1 (Justin) contains three major classes of modified viral DNA molecules, each composed of distinct but closely related types of repeate units. The DNA sequences within the three types of repeat units are colinear with the DNA sequences located at the right end (between coordinates 0.94 and 1.0) of the parental herpes simplex virus type 1 genome. Thus, the three types of repeat units each contain the entire repeat sequence (ac) (which brackets the unique sequences of the small [S] component of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA) and differ only with respect to the amount of unique S sequences which they contain. The three classes of high-density DNA molecules were found to be stably propagated between passages 6 and 15 of this series. Images PMID:221666

Locker, H; Frenkel, N

1979-01-01

370

Latency of Herpes Simplex Virus in Absence of Neutralizing Antibody: Model for Reactivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mice inoculated with herpes simplex virus (type 1) by the lip or corneal route and then passively immunized with rabbit antibody to herpes simplex virus developed a latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia within 96 hours. Neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus was cleared from the circulation and could not be detected in most of these mice after 2 months. Examination of ganglia from the antibody-negative mice revealed latent virus in over 90 percent of the animals, indicating that serum neutralizing antibody is not necessary to maintain the latent state. When the lips or corneas of these mice were traumatized, viral reactivation occurred in up to 90 percent of the mice, as demonstrated by the appearance of neutralizing antibody. This study provides a model for identifying factors that trigger viral reactivation.

Sekizawa, Tsuyoshi; Openshaw, Harry; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis

1980-11-01

371

The Amphibian (Xenopus laevis) Type I Interferon Response to Frog Virus 3: New Insight into Ranavirus Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The increasing prevalence of ranavirus (RV; Iridoviridae) infections of wild and commercially maintained aquatic species is raising considerable concerns. While Xenopus laevis is the leading model for studies of immunity to RV, amphibian antiviral interferon (IFN) responses remain largely uncharacterized. Accordingly, an X. laevis type I interferon was identified, the expression of the gene for this IFN was examined in RV (frog virus 3 [FV3])-infected tadpoles and adult frogs by quantitative PCR, and a recombinant form of this molecule (recombinant X. laevis interferon [rXlIFN]) was produced for the purpose of functional studies. This rXlIFN protected the kidney-derived A6 cell line and tadpoles against FV3 infection, decreasing the infectious viral burdens in both cases. Adult frogs are naturally resistant to FV3 and clear the infection within a few weeks, whereas tadpoles typically succumb to this virus. Hence, as predicted, virus-infected adult X. laevis frogs exhibited significantly more robust FV3-elicited IFN gene expression than tadpoles; nevertheless, they also tolerated substantially greater viral burdens following infection. Although tadpole stimulation with rXlIFN prior to FV3 challenge markedly impaired viral replication and viral burdens, it only transiently extended tadpole survival and did not prevent the eventual mortality of these animals. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed that despite rXlIFN treatment, infected tadpoles had considerable organ damage, including disrupted tissue architecture and extensive necrosis and apoptosis. Conjointly, these findings indicate a critical protective role for the amphibian type I IFN response during ranaviral infections and suggest that these viruses are more pathogenic to tadpole hosts than was previously believed, causing extensive and fatal damage to multiple organs, even at very low titers. IMPORTANCE Ranavirus infections are threatening wild and commercially maintained aquatic species. The amphibian Xenopus laevis is extensively utilized as an infection model for studying ranavirus-host immune interactions. However, little is known about amphibian antiviral immunity and, specifically, type I interferons (IFNs), which are central to the antiviral defenses of other vertebrates. Accordingly, we identified and characterized an X. laevis type I interferon in the context of infection with the ranavirus frog virus 3 (FV3). FV3-infected adult frogs displayed more robust IFN gene expression than tadpoles, possibly explaining why they typically clear FV3 infections, whereas tadpoles succumb to them. Pretreatment with a recombinant X. laevis IFN (rXlIFN) substantially reduced viral replication and infectious viral burdens in a frog kidney cell line and in tadpoles. Despite reducing FV3 loads and extending the mean survival time, rXlIFN treatments failed to prevent tadpole tissue damage and mortality. Thus, FV3 is more pathogenic than was previously believed, even at very low titers. PMID:24623410

Grayfer, Leon; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

2014-01-01

372

Solenopsis invicta virus 3: Mapping of Structural Proteins, Ribosomal Frameshifting, and Similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus  

PubMed Central

Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV), an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order. PMID:24686475

Valles, Steven M.; Bell, Susanne; Firth, Andrew E.

2014-01-01

373

Electronic infrared thermography as a method of assessing herpes labialis infection.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the applicability of infrared thermography to study the natural history of herpes labialis lesions. Since thermography is capable of detecting changes not visible to the naked eye, then it may be of value in complementing clinical examination of the various stages of herpes labialis. In addition, thermographic imaging is quantitative and therefore allows for an accurate assessment of temperature changes accompanying the disease process, both within patients and between patients. Ten female patients suffering from herpes labialis were studies (mean age 25 +/- 5 years). In all cases herpes simplex virus Type 1 was isolated by the HEP-2 technique. No treatment was instituted and patients were clinically assessed and thermographically imaged daily from the prodromal phase through to resolution. A marked temperature increase (1 degree C minimum) was observed within hours of the prodromal phase and maintained until day 4. As the lesions progressed to vesicle formation, the central area of the vesicle was noted to be cooler due to the insulating effect of the fluid. Even by day 6 a significant 0.5 degree C temperature increase over background was present at the involved site and this returned to normal within 8 to 10 days. The area of thermographic involvement was three to four times larger than the clinical area of involvement (60-100 mm2 versus 20-25 mm2). To assess reproducibility, we also studied patients through two additional untreated herpes labialis episodes. The prodromal phase was reproducible thermographically and characterized by a temperature increase of 1.42 degrees C +/- 0.2 degrees C. Thermographic imaging may represent a new approach to quantifying disease activity in herpes labialis, particularly in the subclinical prodromal stage. PMID:8578944

Biagioni, P A; Lamey, P J

1995-07-01

374

Isolation and characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3, a new positive-strand RNA virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the discovery of a new virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) represents the third virus discovered from this ant species using the metagenomics approach. The single (positive)-strand RNA, monopartite, bicistronic genome of SINV-3 was sequenced in entirety (GenBank accession number FJ528584), comprised of 10,386 nucleotides, and polyadenylated at the 3?

Steven M. Valles; Yoshifumi Hashimoto

2009-01-01

375

Depressed specific cell-mediated immunity to Herpes simplex virus type 1 in patients with recurrent herpes labialis.  

PubMed Central

Cell-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was assessed by a lymphocytotoxicity 51-Cr-release microassay procedure, using the MA-160 human prostatic adenoma cell line chronically infected with HSV-1 and its parent cell line as control. The specific immune release mean plus or minus standard deviation for nine asymptomatic patients with recurrent HSV-1 infections was 13.7 plus or minus 8.1%, compared to 28.9 plus or minus 8.4% in seven normal seropositive controls (P is less than 0.01). In four additional patients studied serially, the cell-mediated immunity was significantly increased during the recrudescence of herpetic infection, with a mean specific immune release value of 51.7 plus or minus 27.8%, compared to 8.7 plus or minus 1.5% during the convalescent period 2 to 10 weeks later (P is less than 0.05). These findings suggest that patients with recurrent HSV-1 infections have vigorous cellular immune responses during the acute phase but a specific impairment of cell-mediated immunity during the quiescent period, which may in part account for their susceptibility to recurrent herpetic infections. PMID:166930

Thong, Y H; Vincent, M M; Hensen, S A; Fuccillo, D A; Rola-Pleszczynski, M; Bellanti, J A

1975-01-01

376

Providers' lack of knowledge about herpes zoster in HIV-infected patients is among barriers to herpes zoster vaccination.  

PubMed

Identification of perceptions about herpes zoster (HZ) disease, vaccine effectiveness and safety, and vaccine recommendations may impact immunization practices of physicians for HIV-infected patients. A survey was used to quantify knowledge of HZ as well as determine physician immunization perceptions and practices. There were 272/1700 respondents (16%). Correct answers for the incidence of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in adults and incidence of HZ in HIV-infected patients were recorded by 14% and 10% of providers, respectively. Providers reported poor knowledge of the incidence of disease recurrence in HIV-infected patients (41% correct), potency of HZ vaccine (47.5% correct) and mechanism of protection against reactivation of VZV (66% correct). Most (88%) agreed that HZ was a serious disease, and 73% believed that the burden of disease made vaccination important. A majority (75%) did not vaccinate HIV patients with HZ vaccine regardless of antiretroviral therapy status. Barriers to administration included safety concerns, concern that vaccine would not prevent HZ, risk of HZ dissemination, reimbursement issues and lack of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines. Only 38% of providers agreed that CDC guidelines were clear and 50% believed that clinical trials were needed prior to use of HZ vaccine in HIV-infected patients. Education about HZ is needed among HIV providers. Providers perceived vaccination as important, but data on vaccine safety and clear guidance from the CDC on this issue are lacking. PMID:23970744

Aziz, M; Kessler, H; Huhn, G

2013-06-01

377

Role of débridement and trifluridine (trifluorothymidine) in herpes simplex dendritic keratitis.  

PubMed

Thirty-four patients with herpes simplex dendritic keratitis were randomized into three treatment categories: Group A had débridement alone; group B, trifluridine (trifluorothymidine) alone; and group C, débridement and trifluridine. Patients treated with débridement alone had a statistically higher failure rate than did the other two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed between trifluridine treatment alone and débridement combined with trifluridine treatment, with regard to healing time. Our results suggest that débridement alone is suboptimal therapy for herpes simplex dendritic keratitis and that débridement combined with trifluridine appears to offer no advantage over trifluridine alone. PMID:3922338

Parlato, C J; Cohen, E J; Sakauye, C M; Dreizen, N G; Galentine, P G; Laibson, P R

1985-05-01

378

Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus  

PubMed Central

Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody. PMID:24100313

Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

2013-01-01

379

The interaction between herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Many studies indicate that herpes simplex virus (HSV) seropositivity increases the risk of acquiring HIV, with fewer studies also indicating that HSV-2 infection increases the risk of transmitting HIV. In a recent meta-analysis, HSV-2 infection increased the risk of HIV-acquisition two-fold. This increased risk may occur by HSV-2 reactivation disrupting the epithelial barrier and recruiting activated CD4 cells, which are target cells for HIV infection, into the lesion. In vivo and in vitro studies assessing the effect of HSV-2 on HIV transmission demonstrate that HIV-infected CD4 cells are recruited to HSV-infected lesions and that HSV regulatory proteins (ICP0, ICP4, VP16) may upregulate HIV replication, thus increasing the frequency and titre of mucosal HIV shedding. This may occur during both clinical and asymptomatic HSV reactivation. Plausibly, antiherpetic therapy could reduce HIV transmission by decreasing HIV plasma load and/or mucosal HIV shedding, but a proof-of-concept trial is needed to demonstrate this. It also appears that individuals co-infected with HIV and HSV-2 have more frequent HSV recurrences than individuals infected with HSV-2 alone. There is a strong correlation between decreasing CD4 count and increasing rates of HSV reactivation, suggesting that reactivation is linked to immunosuppression. The IHMF recommends that individuals with HIV should be serologically tested for HSV-2. HSV-2 infection should be targeted as a modifiable risk factor for HIV acquisition by testing, counselling and preventing acquisition through behavioural interventions, treatment and antiviral suppression. PMID:15115628

Celum, Connie L

2004-04-01

380

Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C  

SciTech Connect

Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

1987-01-27

381

Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus  

SciTech Connect

Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

1988-01-01

382

Herpes Zoster--Eye Complications: Rates and Trends  

PubMed Central

Purpose To provide population based data on the risk, types and outcomes of eye involvement in herpes zoster (HZ). Methods A cohort study based on medical record review of patients diagnosed with HZ between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 2007. HZ was confirmed by typical rash and symptoms or laboratory testing and eye involvement was confirmed by ophthalmologists’ evaluation. Information was collected on all eye diagnoses, all HZ eye related visits, treatments, procedures and outcomes. Results Of the 2035 individuals with HZ in any dermatome, 184 patients (9.0%) had eye involvement. Mean age of the 184 was 62.6 with 5 cases in patients <21. Overall, 6.5% were immune suppressed at the time of the eye complications. The rate of increase of HZ eye involvement was 23% by decade from 1980 to 2007. Common eye complications were keratitis (76.2%), uveitis/iritis (46.6%) and conjunctivitis (35.4%). Recurrent keratitis and recurrent iritis/uveitis occurred in 6.9% and 7.4% respectively. Outcomes included six (3.3%) patients with new vision decrements to 20/200 or worse. Two individuals had successful corneal transplants. Another six (3.3%) individuals had lid ptosis that affected vision including one elderly woman with a permanent unilateral tarsorrhaphy. Severe HZ eye pain was reported to be directly responsible for one unsuccessful suicide attempt. No one developed ARN. A mean of 10.8 HZ eye visits per HZ patient with eye involvement were reported over a mean of 308 days. Conclusion Eye complications are common, result in significant health care utilization and in permanent vision decrement in about 6.6% of individuals with HZ eye involvement. Most health care utilization and long term adverse outcomes were in patients in whom administration of HZ prevention with the zoster vaccine would be possible. PMID:23664666

Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter M.; St Sauver, Jennifer L.; Butterfield, Linda C.

2013-01-01

383

Herpes Zoster Recurrences More Frequent Than Previously Reported  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To present population-based estimates of herpes zoster (HZ) recurrence rates among adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To identify recurrent cases of HZ, we reviewed the medical records (through December 31, 2007) of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents aged 22 years or older who had an incident case of HZ between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2001. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to describe recurrences by age, immune status, and presence of prolonged pain at the time of the incident HZ episode. RESULTS: Of the 1669 persons with a medically documented episode of HZ, 95 had 105 recurrences (8 persons with >1 recurrence) by December 31, 2007, an average follow-up of 7.3 years. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the recurrence rate at 8 years was 6.2%. With a maximum follow-up of 12 years, the time between HZ episodes in the same person varied from 96 days to 10 years. Recurrences were significantly more likely in persons with zoster-associated pain of 30 days or longer at the initial episode (hazard ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-4.27; P<.001) and in immunocompromised individuals (hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-4.08; P=.006). Women and anyone aged 50 years or older at the index episode also had a greater likelihood of recurrence. CONCLUSION: Rates of HZ recurrence appear to be comparable to rates of first HZ occurrence in immunocompetent individuals, suggesting that recurrence is sufficiently common to warrant investigation of vaccine prevention in this group. PMID:21220354

Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter C.; Kurland, Marge J.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Saddier, Patricia

2011-01-01

384

Digallate Dimers of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Inactivate Herpes Simplex Virus ?  

PubMed Central

Topical microbicides are potentially an alternative method to vaccines for reducing the spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV). We have previously shown (S. Liu et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1723:270–281, 2005) that the catechin (?)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inactivates HSV at neutral pH; however, to function in the female genital tract EGCG must also be effective at acidic pH. EGCG inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 at pH 8.0 by 3 log10 to 4 log10 but was ineffective at pH 5.7. The EGCG digallate dimers theasinensin A, P2, and theaflavin-3,3?-digallate (TF-3) inactivated both viruses by 3 log10 to 4 log10 at pH 5.7 and as much as 5 log10 at pH 8.0. TF-3 inactivated HSV-1 and HSV-2 by 4 to 5 log10 in the pH range of 4.0 to 5.7. Dimers with one gallate moiety had antiviral activity intermediate between the activities of EGCG and digallate dimers. Confocal and electron microscopy showed that theasinensin A did not damage Vero cells. All EGCG dimers inactivated enveloped viruses with class I, class II, and class III (HSV-1, HSV-2) fusion proteins more effectively than did monomeric EGCG. EGCG had no activity against the nonenveloped viruses tested, but TF-3 reduced the titer of 4 of 5 nonenveloped viruses by ?2 to 3.5 log10. Results also showed that HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was aggregated more rapidly by theasinensin A than EGCG, which, when taken together with the nonenveloped virus data, suggests that dimers may inhibit the function of viral proteins required for infectivity. Digallate dimers of EGCG appear to have excellent potential as microbicidal agents against HSV at acidic and neutral pHs. PMID:21947401

Isaacs, Charles E.; Xu, Weimin; Merz, George; Hillier, Sharon; Rohan, Lisa; Wen, Guang Y.

2011-01-01

385

Oral shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 reactivate preferentially in the oral and genital area, respectively. We aimed to define frequency and characteristics associated with oral shedding of HSV-2. Methods: Demographic, clinical and laboratory data of patients with documented HSV-2 infection and at least one oral viral culture obtained were selected from the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic database. Results: Of 1388 people meeting the entry criteria, 44 (3.2%) had HSV-2 isolated at least once from their mouths. In comparison with the 1344 people who did not have HSV-2 isolated from their mouth, participants with oral HSV-2 were more likely to be male (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.7), HIV positive (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.0), and homosexual (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.2), and to have collected a larger number of oral specimens (median 32 v 4, p<0.001). Of the 58 days with oral HSV-2 isolation, 15 (25%) occurred during newly acquired HSV-2 infection, 12 (21%) during a recurrence with genital lesions, three (5%) during a recurrence with oral lesions, and three (5%) during a recurrence with oral and genital lesions; 25 (43%) occurred during asymptomatic shedding. Oral HSV-2 was found less frequently than oral HSV-1 (0.06% v 1%, p<0.001) in people with HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibody, and less frequently than genital HSV-2 (0.09% v 7%, p<0.001). Conclusions: Oral reactivation of HSV-2 as defined by viral isolation is uncommon and usually occurs in the setting of first episode of genital HSV-2 or during genital recurrence of HSV-2. PMID:15295123

Wald, A; Ericsson, M; Krantz, E; Selke, S; Corey, L

2004-01-01

386

Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection  

PubMed Central

Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated with herpes virus infection; yet, they can also be observed in patients with skin tumors or acantholytic dermatoses. Cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection can coexist in association with other conditions such as acantholytic dermatoses, benign skin tumors, bullous disorders, hematologic malignancies, inflammatory dermatoses, and physical therapies. However, when a herpes virus infection is suspected based upon the discovery of epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis, but either the clinic presentation or lack of response to viral therapy or absence of confirmatory laboratory studies does not support the diagnosis of a viral infection, the possibility of a primary acantholytic dermatosis should be considered and additional lesional skin biopsies performed. Also, because hematoxylin and eosin staining is not the golden standard for confirmation of autoimmune bullous dermatoses, skin biopsies for direct immunofluorescence should be performed when a primary bullous dermatosis is suspected since the histopathology observed on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections can be misleading. PMID:25396080

Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

2014-01-01

387

Implications for herpes simplex virus vaccine strategies based on antibodies produced to herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC immune evasion domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) glycoprotein gC (gC-1) is an immune evasion molecule that inhibits complement activation by binding C3b. Three assays were used to assess whether IgG antibodies produced by HSV-1 infection in humans block the interaction between C3b and gC-1. In two assays human IgG had no effect, while in one assay IgG partially inhibited C3b binding,

Yueh J. Chang; Ming Jiang; John M. Lubinski; Ryan D. King; Harvey M. Friedman

2005-01-01

388

Characterization of T cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) using a TNF-? ELISpot cytokine assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   We examined the suitability of a TNF-? cytokine ELISpot assay for assessing various aspects of the T cell response to herpes\\u000a simplex viruses. The number of T cells responding to HSV-1 or HSV-2 was measured by TNF-? ELISpot assay. The number of T cells\\u000a producing TNF-? in response to HSV-1 was high, ranging from 76 to 222 per 105.

D. S. Schmid; M. L. Thieme; H. E. Gary Jr.; W. C. Reeves

1997-01-01

389

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 That Exhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Sensitivity to (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)-2?Deoxyuridine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A clinical isolate, designated 145, of herpes simplex virus (HSV) had type 1 characteristics as determined by monoclonal antibody immunofluorescence, heat stability of viral thymidine kinase (TK), BamHl restriction endonuclease pattern, and absence of the HSV-2-specifïc 38-kD protein. However, instead of being sensitive to E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2’-deoxyuridine (BVDU) like HSV-1, isolate 145 displayed a resistance pattern like HSV-2 to the drug

John J. Docherty; Anthony T. Dobson; John J. Trimble; Beth Ann Jennings

1991-01-01

390

Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins: Participation of Individual Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein Antigens in Immunocytolysis and Their Correlation with Previously Identified Glycopolypeptides  

PubMed Central

Tissue culture cells infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus express virus-specified glycoprotein antigens on the plasma membrane. Three of these have been previously identified and have been designated as Ag-11, Ag-8, and Ag-6. In the present study, immunoglobulins to each of the antigens were shown to be capable of mediating immunocytolysis in the presence of either complement (antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity [ADCC]). Two herpes simplex virus type 1 strains, VR-3 and F, reacted similarly in the ADCC test in the presence of immunoglobulins to Ag-11, Ag-8, and Ag-6 in both infected Chang liver cells and HEp-2 cells. Anti-Ag-6, however, produced a lower ADCC reaction in HEp-2 cells than in Chang liver cells, suggesting differences in the Ag-6 surface expression in, or release from, these cells. Chang liver and HEp-2 cells infected with the MP mutant strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 showed reduced ADCC in the presence of anti-Ag-11 and anti-Ag-8, but no reactivity at all with anti-Ag-6. Crossed immunoelectrophoretic analysis showed that MP-infected cell extracts contain Ag-11 and Ag-8, but lack Ag-6. Polypeptide analysis of herpes simplex virus type 1 strains F, VR-3, and MP showed that Ag-11 consists of the glycoproteins gA and gB, that Ag-8 consists of gD, and that Ag-6 consists of gC. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that either one of the glycoproteins (gC, gD, and a mixture of gA and gB) can function as a target for immunocytolysis and that the antibody preparation to gC (Ag-6) does not cross-react with any of the other glycoproteins. Images PMID:229263

Norrild, B.; Shore, S. L.; Nahmias, A. J.

1979-01-01

391

Macromolecular Synthesis in Cells Infected by Frog Virus 3. VII. Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Virus Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

We have used improved techniques for separating individual species of RNA and protein to study the mechanisms that control gene expression by frog virus 3, a eucaryotic DNA virus. Forty-seven species of viral RNA and 35 viral polypeptide species were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative molar ratios of virus-specific polypeptides synthesized at various times after infection were determined by computer planimetry and were compared with the molar ratios of appropriate-sized viral RNAs to code for each polypeptide. Viral polypeptides were classified according to the time during the growth cycle at which their maximal rate of synthesis occurred - early, 2 to 2.5 h; intermediate, 4 to 4.5 h; and late, 6 to 6.5 h. The viral RNAs, which were assumed to be mRNA's, could not be classified according to time of maximum synthesis; once their synthesis had begun, most of the RNAs continued to be synthesized at the same or higher rates. However, only 10 of the 47 viral RNA bands were plainly visible after electrophoresis of extracts from cells labeled from 1 to 1.5 h after infection; these 10 RNAs were designated “early” RNA. The early pattern of both RNA and polypeptide synthesis was maintained for at least 6 h in the presence of the amino acid analog fluorophenylalanine, which indicates that a functional viral polypeptide was required for “late” transcription and translation. The presumptive mRNA's for late polypeptides did not appear until 2 h after infection, but two of these “late” RNAs became the major products of transcription by 4 h into the infectious cycle. In contrast to the declining rate of synthesis of the early proteins, corresponding early RNA species continued to be synthesized at the same or higher rates throughout the replicative cycle. Although the synthesis of late virus-specific proteins appeared to be regulated at the level of transcription, our results suggest that the synthesis of both early and intermediate proteins was regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Images PMID:561861

Willis, D. B.; Goorha, R.; Miles, M.; Granoff, A.

1977-01-01

392

In vitro antiviral activity of a saponin from Anagallis arvensis, Primulaceae, against herpes simplex virus and poliovirus.  

PubMed

The antiviral activity of a triterpene saponin isolated from Anagallis arvensis, Primulaceae, was studied in vitro against several viruses including herpes simplex type 1, adenovirus type 6, vaccinia, vesicular stomatitis and poliovirus. The drug was found to inhibit the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and poliovirus type 2 as shown by inhibition of cytopathic effect and reduction of virus production. The action was not due to a virucidal effect but might involve inhibition of virus-host cell attachment. Single cycle experiments indicated that saponin interfered with both early and late events of herpes virus replication. PMID:2825589

Amoros, M; Fauconnier, B; Girre, R L

1987-08-01

393

Prevalence and determinants of genital shedding of herpes simplex virus among women attending Italian colposcopy clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding among women attending Italian colposcopy clinics and describe their lifestyle, demographic characteristics, genital symptoms and signs. Study design: A cross-sectional study was performed to assess shedding of HSV among 4565 women requiring a gynecological consultation. An amplified enzyme immunoassay that detects an HSV type-common glycoprotein D was used to

Fausto Boselli; Giuseppe Chiossi; Marisa Bortolamasi; Andrea Gallinelli

2005-01-01

394

Herpes zoster: burden of disease in France. S. Gonzalez Chiappe a, b  

E-print Network

reports on another nine health indicators (flu, diarrhoea, male urethritis, chickenpox, Lyme disease was to assess the overall burden of HZ disease in France, in a pre-vaccination era. inserm-00805914,version11 Herpes zoster: burden of disease in France. Authors S. Gonzalez Chiappe a, b , M. Sarazin a, b

Boyer, Edmond

395

Construction and characterization of herpes simplex type 1 viruses without introns in immediate early gene 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes at least 70 distinct genes in a DNA genome sequence of about 150 kb. In contrast to most cellular genes and those of several other DNA viruses, the overwhelming majority of HSV-1 transcripts are not spliced. One exception is immediate early (IE) gene 1, which contains two introns in the Vmwll0 coding region.

Roger D. Everett

1991-01-01

396

Immunogenicity of a subviral herpes simplex type 1 preparation: Reduction of recurrent disease in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Immunization of mice with a relatively small dose of subviral herpes simplex type 1 vaccine used prior to homotypic virus infection reduced the frequency of recurrent disease. However, the same vaccine dose administered after virus infection did not result in significant reduction of recurrences.

V. Šlichtová; L. Kutinová; V. Vonka

1982-01-01

397

Thymidine Kinase Mutations Conferring Acyclovir Resistance in Herpes Simplex Type 1 Recombinant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) infec- tions are associated with serious complications in immunocom- promised hosts. Prolonged antiviral treatment is often re- quired for the clinical management of these patients, which could lead to the emergence of drug-resistant viruses (5, 17). Acyclovir (ACV), which has been the standard treatment for HSV infections, must be phosphorylated first

Yan Sergerie; Guy Boivin

2006-01-01

398

Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone Associated with Localized Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus  

PubMed Central

The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) associated with localized herpes zoster is rarely reported and may be under-appreciated. We describe two diabetic men with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) who developed hyponatremia (114 and 116 mmol/L) during acute illness. Both were euvolemic and had elevated urine osmolality (435 and 368 mmol/kg.H2O) and sodium (Na+) concentration (61 and 63 mmol/L) along with normal cardiac, renal, liver, and endocrine function consistent with the diagnosis of SIADH. Thorough investigation for other causes of SIADH, including detailed physical examination, laboratory studies, and computed tomography of the brain, chest, and abdomen, were negative. Despite antiviral therapy (acyclovir) for herpes zoster, ophthalmoplegia, keratitis, and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) developed. Even with fluid restriction and high salt diet, SIADH lasted for 3 to 4 months and resolved concomitantly with resolution of PHN, suggesting an association between SIADH and HZO. These two cases raise the potential for herpes zoster infection, especially HZO, to involve the regulatory pathway of ADH secretion, contributing to SIADH. The presence of PHN, which reflects greater neural damage may, at least in part, explain the prolonged ADH secretion and hyponatremia. PMID:20878495

Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Chen, Jiann-Tomg

2010-01-01

399

Rapid Communication Immunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant  

E-print Network

. This is understandable given the view of HSV-2 as a sexually transmitted disease and the emerging evidence that genital herpes simplex virus 1 infection and prevents ocular disease Allison L. van Lint, Ernesto Torres-Lopez 1 in the cornea, prevented ocular disease and reduced latent infection by the HSV-1 strain. Therefore, this HSV-2

Knipe, David M.

400

Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

2010-01-01

401

Intracellular Trafficking of the UL11 Tegument Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing evidence indicates that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acquires its final envelope in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). During the envelopment process, the viral nucleocapsid as well as the envelope and tegument proteins must arrive at this site in order to be incorporated into assembling virions. To gain a better understanding of how these proteins associate with cellular membranes

JOSHUA S. LOOMIS; J. BRADFORD BOWZARD; RICHARD J. COURTNEY; JOHN W. WILLS

2001-01-01

402

Biochemical Approaches to Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in Cervical Carcinoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Nucleic acid hybridization techniques are highly sensitive methods for determining the presence of herpes simplex type 2 genomes. Measurement of the rate of reassociation between labeled, purified viral DNA and DNA extracted from the tumor cells may be necessary to achieve adequate sensitivity if only a portion of the viral genome is present and if tumors contain substantial proportions

Clyde R. Goodheart

403

The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of

Bernard Roizman

1996-01-01

404

The Application of Genetically Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses to the Treatment of Experimental Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to lack of effective therapy, primary brain tumors are the focus of intense investigation of novel experimental approaches that use vectors and recombinant viruses. Therapeutic approaches have been both indirect, whereby vectors are used, or direct to allow for direct cell killing by the introduced virus. Genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses are currently being evaluated as an experimental approach

Samita S. Andreansky; Bin He; G. Yancey Gillespie; Liliana Soroceanu; James Markert; Joany Chou; Bernard Roizman; Richard J. Whitley

1996-01-01

405

Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD)

Paul Digard; Kevin P. Williams; Preston Hensley; Ian S. Brooks; Charles E. Dahl; Donald M. Coen

1995-01-01

406

Effects of innate immunity on herpes simplex virus and its ability to kill tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several clinical trials have or are being performed testing the safety and efficacy of different strains of oncolytic viruses (OV) for malignant cancers. OVs represent either naturally occurring or genetically engineered strains of viruses that exhibit relatively selective replication in tumor cells. Several types of OV have been derived from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). Tumor oncolysis depends on the

H Wakimoto; P R Johnson; D M Knipe; E A Chiocca

2003-01-01

407

Imbalanced Oxidative Stress Causes Chlamydial Persistence during Non-Productive Human Herpes Virus Co-Infection  

PubMed Central

Both human herpes viruses and Chlamydia are highly prevalent in the human population and are detected together in different human disorders. Here, we demonstrate that co-infection with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) interferes with the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and induces persistence. Induction of chlamydial persistence by HHV6 is independent of productive virus infection, but requires the interaction and uptake of the virus by the host cell. On the other hand, viral uptake is strongly promoted under co-infection conditions. Host cell glutathione reductase activity was suppressed by HHV6 causing NADPH accumulation, decreased formation of reduced glutathione and increased oxidative stress. Prevention of oxidative stress restored infectivity of Chlamydia after HHV6-induced persistence. We show that co-infection with Herpes simplex virus 1 or human Cytomegalovirus also induces chlamydial persistence by a similar mechanism suggesting that Chlamydia -human herpes virus co-infections are evolutionary shaped interactions with a thus far unrecognized broad significance. PMID:23077614

Prusty, Bhupesh K.; Bohme, Linda; Bergmann, Birgit; Siegl, Christine; Krause, Eva; Mehlitz, Adrian; Rudel, Thomas

2012-01-01

408

Inosiplex for Localized Herpes Zoster in Childhood Cancer Patients: Preliminary Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

By multiple criteria, inosiplex—a reputed stimulator of virus-sensitized lymphocytes—had no demonstrable therapeutic effects in a preliminary controlled study of patients with localized herpes zoster and cancer. Lymphocytes from the six drug-treated patients were no more responsive to varicella-zoster antigen and phytohemagglutinin than were lymphocytes from seven patients who received a placebo. PMID:81655

Feldman, S.; Hayes, F. A.; Chaudhary, S.; Ossi, M.

1978-01-01

409

Vaginal Formulations of Carrageenan Protect Mice from Herpes Simplex Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observations from the present study indicate that vaginal formulations of the sulfated polysaccharide carrageenan are highly effective in protecting mice from herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. Test formulations were placed in the vaginas of progestin-treated mice prior to inoculation with HSV-2. Infection was determined by the presence of inflammation in the genital region and death. At a

VANAJA R. ZACHAROPOULOS; DAVID M. PHILLIPS

1997-01-01

410

ISOLEMENT D'UN VIRUS HERPS DANS UN LEVAGE DE PIGEONS DE CHAIR (1)  

E-print Network

ISOLEMENT D'UN VIRUS HERPÃ?S DANS UN Ã?LEVAGE DE PIGEONS DE CHAIR (1) H. VINDEVOGEL P. P. PASTORET, G Champs, 1 200 Bruxelles SUMMARY HERPES VIRUS ISOLATED FROM PIGEONS A virus has been isolated from pigeons is pathogenic for pigeons. Lesions produced by intralaryngeal inoculation consists of small necrotic foci

Boyer, Edmond

411

Herpes-like viruses associated with high mortality levels in larvae and spat of Pacific oysters,  

E-print Network

Herpes-like viruses associated with high mortality levels in larvae and spat of Pacific oysters-like virus associated with high mortality levels among hatchery-reared lar- vae of the Pacific oyster, C on the Pacific oyster larvae reared in several French hatcheries. Significant mortality levels were observed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

Herp coordinates compartmentalization and recruitment of HRD1 and misfolded proteins for ERAD  

PubMed Central

A functional unfolded protein response (UPR) is essential for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded secretory proteins, reflecting the fact that some level of UPR activation must exist under normal physiological conditions. A coordinator of the UPR and ERAD processes has long been sought. We previously showed that the PKR-like, ER-localized eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? kinase branch of the UPR is required for the recruitment of misfolded proteins and the ubiquitin ligase HRD1 to the ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), a staging ground for ERAD. Here we show that homocysteine-induced ER protein (Herp), a protein highly upregulated by this UPR branch, is responsible for this compartmentalization. Herp localizes to the ERQC, and our results suggest that it recruits HRD1, which targets to ERAD the substrate presented by the OS-9 lectin at the ERQC. Predicted overall structural similarity of Herp to the ubiquitin-proteasome shuttle hHR23, but including a transmembrane hairpin, suggests that Herp may function as a hub for membrane association of ERAD machinery components, a key organizer of the ERAD complex. PMID:24478453

Leitman, Julia; Shenkman, Marina; Gofman, Yana; Shtern, Navit Ogen; Ben-Tal, Nir; Hendershot, Linda M.; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z.

2014-01-01

413

Efficient Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus from Mouse Central Nervous System Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, numerous ex vivo studies have documented that latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates efficiently from ganglia, but rarely from the central nervous systems (CNS), of mice when assayed by mincing tissues before explant culture, despite the presence of viral genomes in both sites. Here we show that 88% of mouse brain stems reactivated latent virus when they were

Shih-Heng Chen; Hui-Wen Yao; Wen-Yen Huang; Kuei-Sen Hsu; Huan-Yao Lei; Ai-Li Shiau; Shun-Hua Chen

2006-01-01

414

Analysis of Phosphorylation Sites of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 ICP4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herpes simplex virus ICP4 protein is required for induction of early and late viral gene transcription as well as for repression of expression of its own gene and several other viral genes. Several electrophoretic forms of ICP4 have been observed, and phosphorylation is thought to contribute to this heterogeneity and possibly to the multiple functions of ICP4. To define

KAI XIA; NEAL A. DELUCA; DAVID M. KNIPE

1996-01-01

415

Ex Vivo Organotypic Corneal Model of Acute Epithelial Herpes Simplex Virus Type I Infection  

PubMed Central

Herpes keratitis is one of the most severe pathologies associated with the herpes simplex virus-type 1 (HSV-1). Herpes keratitis is currently the leading cause of both cornea-derived and infection-associated blindness in the developed world. Typical presentation of herpes keratitis includes infection of the corneal epithelium and sometimes the deeper corneal stroma and endothelium, leading to such permanent corneal pathologies as scarring, thinning, and opacity 1. Corneal HSV-1 infection is traditionally studied in two types of experimental models. The in vitro model, in which cultured monolayers of corneal epithelial cells are infected in a Petri dish, offers simplicity, high level of replicability, fast experiments, and relatively low costs. On the other hand, the in vivo model, in which animals such as rabbits or mice are inoculated directly in the cornea, offers a highly sophisticated physiological system, but has higher costs, longer experiments, necessary animal care, and a greater degree of variability. In this video article, we provide a detailed demonstration of a new ex vivo model of corneal epithelial HSV-1 infection, which combines the strengths of both the in vitro and the in vivo models. The ex vivo model utilizes intact corneas organotypically maintained in culture and infected with HSV-1. The use of the ex vivo model allows for highly physiologically-based conclusions, yet it is rather inexpensive and requires time commitment comparable to that of the in vitro model. PMID:23149439

Alekseev, Oleg; Tran, Anh H.; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

2012-01-01

416

Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

2013-01-01

417

Chronic Active Herpes Simplex Type 2 Encephalitis in an Asymptomatic Immunocompetent Child  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique form of chronic, active, granulomatous herpes simplex type 2 encephalitis is described in an asymptomatic, immunocompetent 8-year-old girl who acquired the virus as a neonate. The extensive, bilateral cerebral parenchymal involvement was discovered incidentally. Diagnosis was confirmed by a combination of serial neuroimaging, brain biopsy, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeted to DNA sequences in the glycoprotein G

William D. Brown; Elaine L. Bearer; John E. Donahue

2010-01-01

418

Defensins Protect Cells from Infection by Herpes Simplex Virus by Inhibiting Viral Adhesion and Entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the ability of 20 synthetic defensins to protect cells from infection by type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2, respectively). The peptides included rhesus defensins (RTDs) 1 to 3, originally isolated from rhesus macaque leukocytes, and three peptides (retrocyclins 1 to 3) whose sequences were inferred from human -defensin (DEFT) pseudogenes. We also tested

Bushra Yasin; Wei Wang; Mabel Pang; Natalia Cheshenko; Teresa Hong; Alan J. Waring; Betsy C. Herold; Elizabeth A. Wagar; Robert I. Lehrer

2004-01-01

419

Phenotypic Manifestations of Certain Genetic Properties of Herpes Simplex Virus Depending on Conditions of Cultivation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of the influence of incubation temperature and type of cell culture on the plaque-forming capacity and resistance to sulphated polysaccharides on the part of various mutants of the L2K5 strain of the herpes virus. Mutants which were therm...

A. B. Germanov, M. I. Sokolov

1969-01-01

420

Longitudinal MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in herpes simplex encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy were performed in an 11 year-old female case of herpes simplex encephalitis with a complete recovery. On MR imaging, the white matter lesions, which could be seen in the subacute stage, but not in the acute or chronic stage, might represent edema due to postinfectious neuroallergic phenomena. Proton MR spectroscopy revealed marked reduction

Jun-ichi Takanashi; Katsuo Sugita; Mitsuko Ishii; Masahiko Aoyagi; Hiroo Niimi

1997-01-01

421

A cytosolic herpes simplex virus protein inhibits antigen presentation to CD8+ T lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of human fibro- blasts rapidly renders the cells resistant to lysis by HSV-specific CDS+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which normally recognize cell surface major histocom- patibillty complex (MHC) class I proteins presenting viral peptides. Within 3 hr of infection with HSV, MHC class I protein complexes are retained in the endoplas- mic reticulum (ER)\\/cis

Ian A. York; Cindy Roop; David W. Andrews; Stanley R. Riddell; Frank L. Graham; David C. Johnson

1994-01-01

422

Microtubule-mediated Transport of Incoming Herpes Simplex Virus 1Capsids to the Nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus 1 fuses with the plasma membrane of a host cell, and the incoming capsids are efficiently and rapidly transported across the cytosol to the nuclear pore complexes, where the viral DNA ge- nomes are released into the nucleoplasm. Using bio- chemical assays, immunofluorescence, and immuno- electron microscopy in the presence and absence of microtubule depolymerizing agents, it

Beate Sodeik; Melanie W. Ebersold; Ari Helenius

1997-01-01

423

The Role of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase in Pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A genetically engineered herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinase (TK) deletion mutant has been constructed and used to investigate the role of this gene in pathogenesis. Inoculation of mice with the HSV TK deletion mutant resulted in the establishment of latent ganglionic infection as demonstrated by superinfection of explanted ganglia with wild-type (wt) virus bat not by

S. Efstathiou; S. Kemp; G. Darby; A. C. Minson

1989-01-01

424

Amino-terminal sequence of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus is a structural component of the virion envelope which stimulates production of high titers of herpes simplex virus type-common neutralizing antibody. The authors caried out automated N-terminal amino acid sequencing studies on radiolabeled preparations of gD-1 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 1) and gD-2 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 2). Although some differences were noted, particularly in the methionine and alanine profiles for gD-1 and gD-2, the amino acid sequence of a number of the first 30 residues of the amino terminus of gD-1 and gD-2 appears to be quite similar. For both proteins, the first residue is a lysine. When we compared out sequence data for gD-1 with those predicted by nucleic acid sequencing, the two sequences could be aligned (with one exception) starting at residue 26 (lysine) of the predicted sequence. Thus, the first 25 amino acids of the predicted sequence are absent from the polypeptides isolated from infected cells.

Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Hogue-Angeletti, R.; Cohen, G.H.

1984-01-01

425

Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus Strains Differing in their Effects on Social Behaviour of Infected Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Established (laboratory) strains and fresh isolates of herpes simplex virus from patients with skin and genital lesions were classified into four groups depending on their effects on the social interaction among infected I~p-2 cells. The groups comprised strains causing (I) rounding of cells but no adhesion or fusion, (2) loose aggregation of rounded cells, (3) tight adhesion of rounded

PILARICA M. EJERCITO; E. D. Kieff; B. Roizman

1968-01-01

426

Influence of herpes simplex virus infection on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in monkey kidney cells  

SciTech Connect

Current research in our laboratory is designed to investigate the intracellular interactions of BP with oncogenic DNA viruses of animals and humans. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether BP is metabolized in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected cells and whether HSV-2 infection affects intracellular levels of the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system necessary for BP metabolism.

Degenhardt, J.H.; Whitcomb, B.; Hall, M.R.

1984-01-01

427

Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug  

SciTech Connect

A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel.

Price, R.

1984-12-18

428

A rare cause of Dysphagia in a pregnant woman:herpes simplex esophagitis.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) has rarely been reported in immunocompetent individuals. In a search of Medline until October 2012, we found only one case of HSE in a pregnant female. We present the first case of HSE in a healthy 36-year-old female at 27 weeks gestation who recovered without antiviral therapy. PMID:24829678

Koubaa, Makram; Lahiani, Dorra; Mâaloul, Imed; Makni, Saloua; Amouri, Ali; Marrakchi, Chakib; Hammami, Boussaima; Boudawara, Tahia; Tahri, Nabil; Ben Jemâa, Mounir

2013-04-01

429

Acyclovir prophylaxis to prevent herpes simplex virus recurrence at delivery: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveGenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Perinatal transmission of the virus to the fetus or neonate is a major concern in affected pregnancies. Our objective was to systematically review published data to estimate the effect of prophylactic acyclovir provided to pregnant women near term on the

Jeanne S Sheffield; Lisa M Hollier; James B Hill; Gretchen S Stuart; George D Wendel

2003-01-01

430

Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

2013-02-01

431

New 24-Hour Herpes Test for Pregnant Women and Newborns Developed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A new 24-hour test to detect herpes simplex infections in pregnant women and their babies has been developed by scientists in the Infectious Diseases Branch of the N...

1983-01-01

432

Detection and diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infection in adults with acute liver failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection may lead to acute liver failure (ALF) and the need for emergency liver transplantation (LT). The primary aim of this study was to determine the utility of HSV serological testing and HSV DNA testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis and management of indeterminate, pregnancy-related, and known HSV-related ALF. Stored sera obtained

Josh Levitsky; Anupama T. Duddempudi; Fred D. Lakeman; Richard J. Whitley; James P. Luby; William M. Lee; Robert J. Fontana; Andres T. Blei; Michael G. Ison

2008-01-01

433

Projected cost-savings with herpes simplex virus screening in pregnancy: towards a new screening paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in newborns are an uncommon but potentially devastating consequence of genital HSV infection in women. Current practice focuses on preventing perinatal transmission by women with prevalent HSV, but transmission risk is greatest when genital HSV is acquired for the first time late in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and

Ashleigh R Tuite; Caitlin J McCabe; Jennifer Ku; David N Fisman

2010-01-01

434

Infantile Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Diagnostic Features and Differentiation from Non-accidental Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is rare, but associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. After a baby, subsequently proven to have HSE, had initially been diagnosed as non-accidental injury (NAI), we reviewed the clinical features and radiology of infants with HSE recently diagnosed by our laboratory.Methods: Screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to Oxford for HSV polymerase

J. Kurtz; P. Anslow

2003-01-01

435

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections: HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo investigate the diagnostic potential of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and serum; to correlate the findings with outcome in the child and with type of maternal infection.METHODSCerebrospinal fluid and serum specimens from 36 children with verified neonatal HSV infections, diagnosed between 1973 and 1996, were examined using the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR).RESULTSIn 21 children for

G Malm; M Forsgren

1999-01-01

436

Fetal Demise Due to Herpes Simplex Virus: An Illustrated Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report and illustrate a case of fetal demise at 31 weeks caused by fulminant herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The 15-year-old mother reported no past history or symptoms of an HSV infection during pregnancy. Autopsy revealed extensively ulcerated skin and necrosis of the liver, adrenal glands, brain, and placental membranes. Flourescent in situ hybridization studies of the lungs, liver,

Katharine H Barefoot; George A Little; Kim T Ornvold

2002-01-01

437

Prevention of and Screening for Herpes Simplex Infection: A Survey of Quebec Physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine which methods are most used by Quebec physicians performing deliveries with regard to the prevention of and screening for infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. Methods: A pretested bilingual questionnaire was mailed to all the general practitioners performing deliveries who belong to the Association des omnipraticiens en périnatalité du Québec, as well as to all obstetrician-gynaecologists

Caroline Paquet; Marc Steben

2010-01-01

438

Failure of Thymidine Kinase-Negative Herpes Simplex Virus To Reactivate from Latency following Efficient Establishment  

PubMed Central

Thymidine kinase-negative mutants of herpes simplex virus did not reactivate from latency in mouse trigeminal ganglia, even when their latent viral loads were comparable to those that permitted reactivation by wild-type virus. Thus, reduced establishment of latency does not suffice to account for the failure to reactivate. PMID:14671133

Chen, Shih-Heng; Pearson, Angela; Coen, Donald M.; Chen, Shun-Hua

2004-01-01

439

Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

2010-01-01

440

Using the evidence base on genital herpes: optimising the use of diagnostic tests and information provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been several important advances in the range of available diagnostic tests for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in recent years; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is emerging in routine clinical use and the potential role of type specific serological tests is currently under debate. Several large trials of prophylactic vaccines, subsequently proved to be ineffective, have expanded knowledge

A Scoular

2002-01-01

441

Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA: Localization of Replication Recognition Signals within Defective Virus Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serially passaged herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain Justin was previously shown to contain defective virus genomes consisting of head-to-tail reiterations of sequences derived from the end of the S component of the standard virus DNA. Cotransfection of purified monomeric defective genome repeat units with foster helper virus DNAs onto rabbit skin cells resulted in regeneration and replication of

Donald A. Vlazny; Niza Frenkel

1981-01-01

442

Type differentiation of herpes simplex virus by stringent hybridization of polymerase chain reaction products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple procedure for type differentiation of herpes simplex virus with the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNAs, was established: 1. The target sequence region for PCR was chosen from the coding sequences for an envelope protein, with the terminal sequences for PCR primers to be common among different types, but with the internal sequences to be variable.

S. Inouye; R. Hondo

1993-01-01

443

Interferons Regulate the Phenotype of Wild-type and Mutant Herpes Simplex Viruses In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mechanisms responsible for neuroattenuation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been defined previously by studies of mutant viruses in cultured cells. The hypothesis that null mutations in host genes can override the attenuated phenotype of null mutations in certain viral genes was tested. Mutants such as those in infected cell protein (ICP) 0, thymidine kinase, ribonucleotide reductase, virion host

David A. Leib; Travis E. Harrison; Kathleen M. Laslo; Michael A. Machalek; Nathaniel J. Moorman; Herbert W. Virgin

444

Nuclear Pore Composition and Gating in Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which herpes simplex virus (HSV) exits the nucleus remains a matter of controversy. The generally accepted route proposes that capsids exit via primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and subsequent fusion of this primary particle with the outer nuclear membrane to gain capsid entry to the cytoplasm. However, recent observations indicate that HSV may induce gross

Helmut Hofemeister; Peter O'Hare

2008-01-01

445

A Case of Ramsay Hunt-Like Syndrome Caused by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

PubMed Central

We report an immunocompetent patient with recurrent auricular and facial vesicles associated with painful paresthesias and facial paralysis, consistent with Ramsay Hunt syndrome [1], due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Clinical and laboratory-proven acyclovir resistance developed during therapy. Immunologic assays revealed normal reactivity to HSV-2. PMID:15844081

Diaz, George A.; Rakita, Robert M.; Koelle, David M.

2005-01-01

446

Carbamazepine Hypersensitivity Syndrome Triggered by a Human Herpes Virus Reactivation in a Genetically Predisposed Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe hypersensitivity syndrome, triggered by carbamazepine in the presence of a concomitant active human herpes virus (HHV) 6 and 7 infection is described. To further understand the molecular mechanism of this adverse reaction, analyses of the genetic variants of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and of the epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1), previously associated with carbamazepine hypersensitivity, were performed.

Lorenzo Calligaris; Gabriele Stocco; Sara De Iudicibus; Sara Marino; Giuliana Decorti; Egidio Barbi; Marco Carrozzi; Federico Marchetti; Fiora Bartoli; Alessandro Ventura

2009-01-01

447

The Effect of Pharmacist Intervention on Herpes Zoster Vaccination in Community Pharmacies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of community pharmacy-based interventions in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine. DESIGN Prospective intervention study with a pre-post design. SETTING Three independent community pharmacies in Tennessee. PATIENTS Patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated they were eligible for the vaccine and patients presenting to receive the vaccine at study sites. INTERVENTIONS Interventions initiated by pharmacists to promote the herpes zoster vaccine included a press release published in local newspapers, a flyer accompanying each prescription dispensed at participating pharmacies, and a personalized letter mailed to patients whose pharmacy profiles indicated they were eligible for the vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Comparison of vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine during the control period and intervention period and patients’ indication for their sources of education and influence in receiving the vaccine. RESULTS Vaccination rates increased from 0.37% (n=59/16121) during the control period to 1.20% (n=193/16062) during the intervention period (P<0.0001). Cochran-Armitage Trend analyses including the months before and after the interventions confirmed a significantly higher vaccination rate during the intervention month than other months analyzed. More patients indicated that they were educated about the herpes zoster vaccine by one of the pharmacist-driven interventions than by a physician, family/friend, or other source during the intervention period (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Also, more patients were influenced to receive the vaccination as a result of one of the pharmacist-driven interventions rather than a physician (P=0.0260) or other source (P<0.0001). No difference in the effectiveness of patient influence was found when the pharmacy interventions were compared with family/friends (P=0.1025). CONCLUSION The three pharmacist-driven interventions were effective in increasing vaccination rates for the herpes zoster vaccine. PMID:23636155

Wang, Junling; Ford, Lindsay J.; Wingate, La'Marcus; Uroza, Sarah Frank; Jaber, Nina; Smith, Cindy T.; Randolph, Richard; Lane, Steve; Foster, Stephan L.

2012-01-01

448

Exposure to herpes simplex virus type 1 and cognitive impairments in individuals with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes-specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations. PMID:22490995

Prasad, Konasale M; Watson, Annie M M; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

2012-11-01

449

Exposure to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Cognitive Impairments in Individuals With Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes–specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations. PMID:22490995

Prasad, Konasale M.; Watson, Annie M. M.; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

2012-01-01

450

Glycoprotein D Homologs in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, Pseudorabies Virus, and Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 Bind Directly to Human HveC (Nectin-1) with Different Affinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct subsets of human receptors for alphaherpesviruses mediate the entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV), pseudorabies virus (PrV), or bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) into cells. Glycoprotein D (gD) is essential for receptor-mediated entry of all three viruses into cells. However, the gD homologs of these viruses share only 22–33% amino acid identity. Several entry receptors for HSV have

Sarah A. Connolly; J. Charles Whitbeck; Ann H. Rux; Claude Krummenacher; Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk; Gary H. Cohen; Roselyn J. Eisenberg

2001-01-01

451

Detection of herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and varicella-zoster virus in skin lesions. Comparison of real-time PCR, nested PCR and virus isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) cause a wide range of signs and symptoms, varying from trivial mucocutaneous lesions to life-threatening infections, especially in immuno-suppressed patients. Since antiviral drugs are available, rapid and sensitive laboratory diagnosis of these virus infections is important. Objective: To set up and evaluate HSV-1,

Julia Schmutzhard; Hilde Merete Riedel; Benita Zweygberg Wirgart; Lena Grillner

2004-01-01

452

Herpes simplex viruso su latencija susijusio geno promotoriaus sek? ?vairov? ir s?saja su klinikiniais požymiais.  

E-print Network

??Herpes simplex virusas sukelia recidyvuojan?i? burnos-veido ir lytini? organ? infekcij?. Latentin?je b?kl?je šis virusas gl?di sensoriniuose ganglijuose. Latencijos metu visi HSV genai yra supresuoti, išskyrus… (more)

Aukštuolien?, Egl?

2013-01-01

453

Herpes simplex 1 encephalitis presenting as a brain haemorrhage with normal cerebrospinal fluid analysis: a case report  

E-print Network

Abstract Introduction Herpes simplex encephalitis is a potentially lethal infection that should be recognised as soon as possible. The combination of clinical history and examination, brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging...

Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Lever, Andrew M L

2008-12-17

454

Effect of an herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum on reduction of herpes zoster pain: a pilot clinical trial.  

PubMed

Administration of hot water extracts of a herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum, WTMCGEPP (Wisteria floribunda 0.38, Trapa natans 0.38, Miristica agrans 0.38, Coix lachryma-jobi 0.75, cultivated Ganoderma lucidum 0.75, Elfuinga applanata 0.38, tissue cultured Panax ginseng 0.3, and Punica granatum 0.38: numerals designate dry weight gram/dose), decreased herpes zoster pain for five Japanese patients suffering from shingles. Pain relief started within a few days of intake and was almost complete within 10 days. Two acute herpes zoster with manifestations including trigeminal nerve ophthalmia (both 74 years old), lower body zoster (70 years old), herpes zoster oticus (17 years old), and leg herpes (28 years old), responded quickly to treatment and no patient developed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) after more than one year of follow-up. PMID:16173526

Hijikata, Yasuyo; Yasuhara, Akihiro; Sahashi, Yuko

2005-01-01

455

N-Terminal Phosphorylation Sites of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 Differentially Regulate Its Activities and Enhance Viral Replication  

E-print Network

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) is an immediate-early phosphoprotein that transactivates viral gene expression. Evidence suggests that phosphorylation regulates the functions of ICP0, and three regions (termed...

Mostafa, Heba H.; Thompson, Thornton W.; Davido, David J.

2013-02-01

456

Host strain-dependent difference in susceptibility in a rat model of herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is characterized by severe focal brain inflammation leading to substantial loss of nervous\\u000a tissue. The authors established a model of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV)-1-induced acute encephalitis in the rat by injecting into the whiskers’ area a virus strain isolated from\\u000a a fatal human HSE case. The model might resemble natural propagation of HSV-1 in

Biborka Bereczky-Veress; Olle Lidman; Farideh Sabri; Ivan Bednar; Fredrik Granath; Tomas Bergström; Christian Spenger; Alf Grandien; Tomas Olsson; Fredrik Piehl; Margarita Diez; Birgit Sköldenberg

2008-01-01

457

Detection by Complementation of Defective or Uninducible (Herpes Simplex Type 1) Virus Genomes Latent in Human Ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction experiments have shown that temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (Glasgow strain 17) grow, complement, and recombine with similar efficiency in human nerve ganglion cells, human brain cells, normal human fibroblasts (WI38), and baby hamster kidney (BHK) 21\\/C13 hamster cells. Cultures of human trigeminal, superior cervical, and vagus ganglia that had failed to release herpes

S. Moira Brown; J. H. Subak-Sharpe; K. G. Warren; Z. Wroblewska; H. Koprowski

1979-01-01

458

Effect of Prior Immunization on Induction of Cervical Cancer in Mice by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cervix produces premalignant and malignant lesions. In the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and Freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. It appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of cervical carcinoma.

Budd Wentz, W.; Heggie, Alfred D.; Anthony, Donald D.; Reagan, James W.

1983-12-01

459

Unusual concurrence of heterotopic glial nodule of the scalp and congenital herpes simplex virus type-2 infection.  

PubMed

Heterotopic glial nodules are rare congenital cutaneous lesions; only 13 cases of scalp localized lesions of this kind are reported in the English medical literature. Herpes simplex virus is a rare cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality and is a rare cause of intrauterine infection. We report the first case of concurrent presence of a heterotopic glial nodule of the scalp and neonatal, in utero-acquired, fatal herpes simplex virus type-2 infection. PMID:23998268

Marnerides, Andreas; Sirotkina, Meeli; Papadogiannakis, Nikos

2013-09-01

460

Herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus infections in pregnancy: consequences of neonatal or intrauterine infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1\\/2 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belong to the human herpes viruses and are among the most ubiquitous viruses in the adult population. In spite of the fact that a large proportion of women at childbearing age are seropositive to these viruses, especially to HSV, primary or secondary infections with these viruses may occur during pregnancy.Genital

Meytal Avgil; Asher Ornoy

2006-01-01

461

Towards a Rational Design of an Asymptomatic Clinical Herpes Vaccine: The Old, the New, and the Unknown  

PubMed Central

The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and molecular immunology have stimulated creative efforts in controlling herpes infection and disease. However, before moving towards new vaccine strategy, it is necessary to answer two fundamental questions: (i) why past herpes vaccines have failed? (ii) Why the majority of HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., asymptomatic individuals) are naturally “protected” exhibiting few or no recurrent clinical disease, while other HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., symptomatic individuals) have frequent ocular, orofacial, and/or genital herpes clinical episodes? We recently discovered several discrete sets of HSV-1 symptomatic and asymptomatic epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from seropositive symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. These asymptomatic epitopes will provide a solid foundation for the development of novel herpes epitope-based vaccine strategy. Here we provide a brief overview of past clinical vaccine trials, outline current progress towards developing a new generation “asymptomatic” clinical herpes vaccines, and discuss future mucosal “asymptomatic” prime-boost vaccines that could optimize local protective immunity. PMID:22548113

Alami Chentoufi, Aziz; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Yu, David M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2012-01-01

462

UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: Liu X, et al. Genetic engineering of a modified herpes simplex virus 1 vaccine vector. Vaccine (2009),  

E-print Network

of a modified herpes simplex virus 1 vaccine vector. Vaccine (2009), doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.003 ARTICLE journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/vaccine Genetic engineering of a modified herpes simplex virus 1 HSV-114 d106S15 Vaccine vector16 a b s t r a c t The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) d106 mutant virus

Knipe, David M.

463

Pathogenesis of human parainfluenza virus 3 infection in two species of cotton rats: Sigmodon hispidus develops bronchiolitis, while Sigmodon fulviventer develops interstitial pneumonia.  

PubMed Central

Human parainfluenza virus 3 replicates well in the noses and lungs of two species of cotton rats, Sigmodon hispidus and Sigmodon fulviventer. Peak viral titers of nearly 10(6) PFU/g are reached 2 days after infection in both tissues, are maintained through day 5, and are equivalent in the two species. Infectious virus is eliminated by day 8 after infection. Both species produce a strong neutralizing antibody response with titers of 1:10,000 4 weeks after infection. Viral replication in the nasal epithelium results in only minor histological changes, and viral antigen is found only in the apical portion of epithelial cells. Infection of S. hispidus causes a bronchiolitis with a peribronchiolar lymphoid cell infiltration that reaches a peak 6 days after infection, and there is only a minor component of interstitial pneumonia. In contrast, infection of S. fulviventer causes an interstitial pneumonia, and this lesion reaches its maximal extent by 6 days after infection. There is minimal peribronchiolar lymphoid cell infiltration in infected S. fulviventer. Lung lesions in both species of cotton rats are largely healed 9 days after infection, and the lungs are indistinguishable from those of uninfected controls 16 days after infection. These species of cotton rats offer separate models for the two major pulmonary manifestations of human parainfluenza virus 3 infection. The models may be useful for basic studies of the pathogenesis of this infection and for initial evaluation of candidate vaccines. Images PMID:1845878

Porter, D D; Prince, G A; Hemming, V G; Porter, H G

1991-01-01

464

[Herpes Zoster and its prevention in Italy. Scientific consensus statement].  

PubMed

In this paper, an Italian group of experts presents a revision of the available data about epidemiology and prevention of Herpes Zoster (HZ). HZ is an acute viral diseases caused by the reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). HZ is characterized by neurological and dermatological symptoms with a dermatomeric localization. The reactivation of the virus from the latent status in the sensitive ganglia increases with age and failing cell mediated immunity. In Europe, more than 95% of adults presents antibodies against VZV. Incidence of HZ is similar all over the world, related to the age of the population: from 2-3/1000 persons/year in the age group 20 to 50 years to 5/1000 in the 60 years old, 6-7/1000 between 70 and 80 up to >1/100 in older than 80. In Italy, about 157,000 new cases of HZ are estimated every year with an incidence of 6.3/1000 persons/year mostly in older adults. Among the hospitalized cases, 60% are over 65 years of age. The more frequent and severe complication of HZ is post herpetic neuralgia (PHN), characterized by severe localized pain lasting at least 3 month after the beginning of the acute phase. The pain is responsible for a sharp decrease in the quality of life. In Europe, PHN is described in 2.6-27% of HZ cases. In Italy, data obtained by a network of General Practitioner show PHN in 20.6% of HZ patients, while 9.2% of the patients still presents PHN at 6 months. The more frequent localization is thoracic; when the virus reactivate at the level of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve most patients develop ocular complications. The clinical and therapeutical managements of HZ patients is difficult and the results are often poor. Prevention of HZ e PHN in the population over 50 years is possible using a live attenuated vaccine containing VZV (Oka/Merck strain, not less than 19.400 plaque forming units), available since 2006. Efficacy of anti-HZ vaccine was demonstrated in two large clinical trials that showed a 51% reduction in the incidence of HZ and a 61% decrease of the burden of illness. Incidence of PHN showed a reduction of 67% in immunized subjects. Long-term follow-up showed a persistence of the protection even if a decrease was noted in older subjects and with time. Effectiveness studies confirm the data of clinical trials and numerous pharmaco-economical evaluation show a favorable profile of HZ vaccine. The vaccine is recommended in USA, Canada and some European countries for people over 60. The expert group concluded that HZ and PHN represent an important clinical and Public Health problem in Italy and that the possibility to prevent them should be carefully evaluated. PMID:24770367

Franco, Elisabetta; Gabutti, Giovanni; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Stefano Valente, Marco Ercolani; Ferro, Antonio; Icardi, Giancarlo; Antonio Volpi, Marzia Lazzari; Maggi, Stefania; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Greco, Donato

2014-01-01

465

Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

1987-08-01

466

Primary herpes virus infection and ischemic stroke in childhood: a new association?  

PubMed

We describe, to our knowledge, the first case of arterial ischemic stroke after primary herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) infection in a previously healthy child, without signs of encephalitis. A 10-year-old previously healthy girl was admitted to our hospital with acute left-sided hemiparesis which involved the lower half of her face. Submandibular lymphadenitis and oral vesicular lesions were present. MRI confirmed the suspicion of an acute ischemic stroke. Immunoglobulin M antibodies to HSV1 were detected. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction for herpes virus was negative. She was treated with aspirin (3mg/kg) and intravenous acyclovir (10mg/kg every 8 hours) for 21 days. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to HSV1 appeared 16 days after admission. Twelve months after her hospitalization the patient's examination was normal. Stroke should be considered a possible complication of HSV1 primary infection. Guidelines for the management of acute stroke in children are needed. PMID:24736195

Terlizzi, Vito; Improta, Federica; Di Fraia, Teresa; Sanguigno, Eduardo; D'Amico, Alessandra; Buono, Salvatore; Raia, Valeria; Boccia, Gabriella

2014-09-01

467

[Serotypes of herpes simplex virus and their association with cervical cancer].  

PubMed

Comparative studies of some properties of Herpes simplex viruses type I and II and their ability to reproduce latent infection in vitro revealed no essential differences between them. Virus-neutralizing and hemagglutinating antibodies to the virus type II are detected reliably more frequently in cervical cancer patients than in healthy ones. Forty six per cent of cervical cancer patients and thirty nine per cent of healthy females along with antibodies against the virus of serotype II showed a specific cellular response, which was demonstrated in the reaction of leucocyte migration inhibition. In patients with dissemination of the disease there is an inhibited cell immunity to Herpes virus without changing of the humoral resistance. PMID:6256973

Kamalian, L A; Makhmurian, T D; Movsesian, E A; Nadzharian, N U; Gevorkian, V I

1980-01-01

468

Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells  

SciTech Connect

The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.; Homa, F.L.; Levine, M.; Kelley, W.N.

1988-01-01