Sample records for cyprinid herpes virus-3

  1. Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Barr virus (EBV, HHV-4), which can cause infectious mononucleosis , Cytomegalovirus (CMV, HHV-5), human herpes virus 6 ( ... Planned Parenthood: Herpes » See all Article Sources Article Sources « Return to Related Pages NOTE: This article is ...

  2. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . Genital herpes is probably best known for the sores and ... you do not see a sore. How does genital herpes infection occur? The herpes virus can pass through ...

  3. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease - ...

  4. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  5. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about how it will impact their overall health, sex life, and relationships. It is best for you to talk to ... you will feel about current or future sexual relationships, it is important to ... this. Can I still have sex if I have herpes? If you have herpes, ...

  6. Herpes viral culture of lesion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... confirm herpes simplex infection. The herpes virus causes genital herpes . Or it can cause cold sores of the ... virus. Herpes infections include herpes genitalis , which is genital herpes, or cold sores on the lips or in ...

  7. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence . Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time they have any form of sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their ...

  8. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about how it will impact their overall health, sex life, and relationships. It is best for you to talk to ... you will feel about current or future sexual relationships, it is important to understand how to talk ... Can I still have sex if I have herpes? Where can I get ...

  9. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date. PMID:25153069

  10. Meet the Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

  11. Identification of B Cells as a Major Site for Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Aimee N.; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P.; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM+ WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM+ WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM? WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM+ WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM+ WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at ?127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. IMPORTANCE This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein-Barr virus and ICP4 from herpes simplex virus 1, which are genes important for latency. These strongly suggest that latency is evolutionally conserved across vertebrates. PMID:24899202

  12. Food Poisonings by Ingestion of Cyprinid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  13. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-02-01

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5?-cyprinol sulfate (5?-cholestane-3?, 7?, 12?, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans. PMID:24476713

  14. Latanoprost and herpes simplex keratitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Wand; C. Mitchell Gilbert; Thomas J Liesegang

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report three cases in which herpes simplex keratitis developed after initiation of latanoprost therapy.METHODS: Case report.RESULTS: One patient with a history of herpes simplex keratitis had recurrence of herpes simplex keratitis with latanoprost treatment, resolution when latanoprost was stopped, and another recurrence when rechallenged with latanoprost. A second patient with a history of herpes simplex keratitis had bilateral

  15. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by genital herpes can cause the urethra to swell. The urethra is the tube that carries urine ... quick weight gain or your legs and face swell Have questions? Type your question here. Frequently Asked ...

  16. Herpes zoster with dissemination.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Mehta, Shilpa; Pandhi, Deepika

    2006-04-01

    Herpes zoster or shingles is an acute vesico-bullous cutaneous infection characterized by dermatomal distribution, predominantly in adults. Extensive cutaneous dissemination has been reported in immunocompromised patients. However, its existence is documented in immunocompetent individuals as well. We report two children with disseminated herpes zoster, one of whom was immunocompromised secondary to severe mal-nutrition and had associated orbital septal cellulitis. PMID:16651676

  17. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... likely worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ... carry the virus. Although there is no cure, genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider’s ...

  18. Are the Immunocompetence and the Presence of Metazoan Parasites in Cyprinid Fish Affected by Reproductive Efforts of Cyprinid Fish?

    PubMed Central

    Rohlenová, Karolína; Šimková, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Each organism has the limited resources of energy that is distributed among important life traits. A trade-off between immune response and other physiological demands of organism especially costly reproduction is expected. Leuciscus cephalus, the cyprinid fish, was investigated during three periods varying in reproductive investment, that is, before-breeding, breeding, and after-breeding periods. We tested whether a potentially limited investment in immunity during the breeding is associated with higher susceptibility to the metazoan parasites. Following the immunocompetence handicap and sperm protection hypotheses, males expressing more elaborated sexual ornamentation should produce better quality sperm and be more parasitized. We found that reproductive investments in fish play an important role for energy allocation into somatic condition, immunity, and reproduction. The immune parameters including respiratory burst and leukocyte count were higher in breeding; however, parasite species richness and abundance appeared low. Males investing more in spawning tubercles reached high spermatocrite and were more parasitized by digeneans. PMID:20145709

  19. Herps: Pathways of Introduction

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Lizard Dresden- Bri's pet Corn Snake #12;Introduction, cont'd Red-eared Slider Turtles Trachemys scripta elegans With the hype of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles came a spike of the pet Red-eared Slider Turtles, Africa, South America Koby- Bri's Red-eared Slider Turtle #12;Hypothesis Our hypothesis: Herps

  20. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  1. Relations among Habitat Characteristics, Exotic Species, and Turbid-River Cyprinids in the Missouri River Drainage of Wyoming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Quist; Wayne A. Hubert; Frank J. Rahel

    2004-01-01

    We used data from 91 stream reaches in the Missouri River drainage of Wyoming to determine whether abiotic and biotic factors were related to the abundance of four cyprinid species associated with turbid-river environments: flathead chub Platygobio gracilis, sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, plains minnow Hybognathus placitus, and western silvery minnow H. argyritis. The abundance of these cyprinids was positively related

  2. In vitro inhibition of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 replication by RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, Michael; Soliman, Hatem; Besch, Robert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is an etiological agent of a notifiable disease that causes high mortality rates affecting both the common and koi carp Cyprinus carpio L. There is no current treatment strategy to save CyHV-3 infected fish. RNA mediated interference (RNAi) is an emerging strategy used for understanding gene function and is a promising method in developing novel therapeutics and antiviral medications. For this study, the possibility of activating the RNAi pathway by the use of small interfering (si)RNAs was tested to inhibit in vitro viral replication of CyHV-3 in common carp brain (CCB) cells. The siRNAs were designed to target either thymidine kinase (TK) or DNA polymerase (DP) genes, which both code for transcripts involved in DNA replication. The inhibition of viral replication caused by the siRNAs was measured by a reporter gene, termed ORF81. Treatment with siRNA targeting either TK or DP genes reduced the release of viral particles from infected CCB cells. However, siRNA targeting DP was most effective at reducing viral release as measured by qPCR. PMID:24893110

  3. A Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish

    E-print Network

    their stomach fullness and diet composition, we tested if migrating roach pay a cost of reduced foraging whenA Foraging Cost of Migration for a Partially Migratory Cyprinid Fish Ben B. Chapman1 *, Anders of Denmark (DTU), Silkeborg, Denmark, 3 Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, EAWAG Swiss Federal

  4. NOTROPIS VOLUCELLUS WICKLIFFI, A NEW SUB-SPECIES OF CYPRINID FISH FROM THE OHIO

    E-print Network

    Hulsey, C. Darrin

    relative, Notropis deliciosus stramineus (Cope), abounds. This condition holds for the Great LakesNOTROPIS VOLUCELLUS WICKLIFFI, A NEW SUB- SPECIES OF CYPRINID FISH FROM THE OHIO AND UPPER sub- species of the shiner Notropis volucellus (Cope) occur in various parts of its range

  5. Experimental demonstration of a behavioural modification in a cyprinid fish, Rutilus rutilus (L.),

    E-print Network

    al. 1992), or direct movement toward the microhabitats of foraging predators (e.g., Helluy 1984Experimental demonstration of a behavioural modification in a cyprinid fish, Rutilus rutilus (L Thomas, and Jean-François Guégan Abstract: Behavioural changes in parasitized hosts have been

  6. Quantitative scanning electron microscopy of solitary chemoreceptor cells in cyprinids and other teleosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Kotrschal; Konrad Lorenz

    1992-01-01

    Synopsis Solitary chemosensory cells (SCC) occur in the epidermis of many lower, aquatic vertebrates. By scanning electron microscopy, SCC apices were counted and density distributions estimated along various transects at the head and body of 12 species of teleost fishes, 7 cyprinids, 2 perciforms, 2 catfish and 1 characinid. In contrast to taste buds (TB), the distribution of SCCs is

  7. Herps of Texas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Funded by the University of Texas and the Texas Memorial Museum, this Website offers useful life history information on the Herps (lizards, turtles, snakes, crocodilians, salamanders, frogs, and toads) of Texas. Each broad group is further classified into Families, and each species is identified by scientific (Latin) and common name. To access descriptive and graphical information, click on the species of choice. Each species entry includes one or more color photograph(s), diagnostic features, natural history information, and a color range map (presence:absence, by county). The concise information in this useful resource should be helpful to seasoned researchers and beginners, alike.

  8. Viable metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeastern Thai cyprinid fish dishes--as part of a rational program for control of O. viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Prasongwatana, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2013-03-01

    Among the various types of chronic helminthic infections, only schistosomiasis hematobium, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis in a long-standing inflammation are found to be causative agents of cancer. Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer are prevalent among the residents in northeastern Thailand, who prefer consuming raw or improperly cooked cyprinid fish. Although numerous studies have reported on the presence of O. viverrini metacercariae in freshwater cyprinid fishes, none of the data has been derived directly from cyprinid fish dishes. Here, we have demonstrated the presence of viable metacercariae in a number of cyprinid fish dishes that are among the favorite foods of northeastern Thais. Traditional salt-fermented and grilled cyprinid fish were found to be safe to consume, but not raw fish salad or cyprinid fish fermented in sticky rice for 69 h. This information could be used as part of a rational and sustainable control program for O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer. PMID:23052784

  9. Effect of herbal therapy on herpes labialis and herpes genitalis.

    PubMed

    Hijikata, Y; Tsukamoto, Y

    1998-01-01

    Administration of hot water extracts of six herbs to four patients with recurrent herpes labialis led to prompt crusting over and complete recovery within a few days. Similar treatment for one female patient who had been suffering from recurrent genital herpes resolved the associated pain dramatically. In all cases mentioned, symptoms disappeared much more quickly than with previous outbreaks when herb extracts were not administered. PMID:9950099

  10. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  11. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  12. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Hans J.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.; Bester, Rachelle; Chooi, Kar Mun; Cohen, Daniel; Dolja, Valerian V.; Fuchs, Marc F.; Golino, Deborah A.; Jooste, Anna E. C.; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Naidu, Rayapati A.; Rowhani, Adib; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Burger, Johan T.

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is one of the most important grapevine viral diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. The impact on vine health, crop yield, and quality is difficult to assess due to a high number of variables, but significant economic losses are consistently reported over the lifespan of a vineyard if intervention strategies are not implemented. Several viruses from the family Closteroviridae are associated with GLD. However, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3), the type species for the genus Ampelovirus, is regarded as the most important causative agent. Here we provide a general overview on various aspects of GLRaV-3, with an emphasis on the latest advances in the characterization of the genome. The full genome of several isolates have recently been sequenced and annotated, revealing the existence of several genetic variants. The classification of these variants, based on their genome sequence, will be discussed and a guideline is presented to facilitate future comparative studies. The characterization of sgRNAs produced during the infection cycle of GLRaV-3 has given some insight into the replication strategy and the putative functionality of the ORFs. The latest nucleotide sequence based molecular diagnostic techniques were shown to be more sensitive than conventional serological assays and although ELISA is not as sensitive it remains valuable for high-throughput screening and complementary to molecular diagnostics. The application of next-generation sequencing is proving to be a valuable tool to study the complexity of viral infection as well as plant pathogen interaction. Next-generation sequencing data can provide information regarding disease complexes, variants of viral species, and abundance of particular viruses. This information can be used to develop more accurate diagnostic assays. Reliable virus screening in support of robust grapevine certification programs remains the cornerstone of GLD management. PMID:23596440

  13. Selective Herbivory by an Invasive Cyprinid, the Rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscinski, Kevin L [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; John, Farrell M [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Stehman, Stephen V [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Boyer, Gregory L [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Fernando, Danilo D [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Teece, Mark A [SUNY-ESF, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    1. Herbivory by non-native animals is a problem of growing concern globally, especially for ecosystems where significant native herbivores did not previously exist or have been replaced by non-natives. The rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) is an omnivorous cyprinid that has a nearly global longitudinal distribution due to human translocations, yet it is unknown whether the rudd feeds selectively among aquatic macrophyte species common to North American waters. 2. We tested a null hypothesis of non-selective feeding by rudds using five species of aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Najas flexilis, Stuckenia pectinata, and Vallisneria americana. Four rudds were placed in 15 different 890-L tanks and presented with known quantities of each macrophyte species (each tank serving as a block in a randomized complete block design). Each macrophyte bundle was weighed on six dates during a 13 d experiment. Differences in mean percent weight remaining among macrophyte species were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. We also quantified differences among chemical attributes of the five macrophyte species and qualitatively determined if selective feeding by rudds was related to dry matter content (DMC), percent C by dry weight (%C), percent N by dry weight (%N), and the concentrations of total soluble proteins, two organic acids (aconitic and oxalic acid), total soluble phenolic compounds (<1,000 Da), nine soluble phenolic metabolites, and total phenolic compounds. 3. Selective feeding by rudds was evident, with the order of macrophyte removal (from highest to lowest) being: N. flexilis > E. canadensis > S. pectinata > V. americana > C. demersum. Selection was positively related to %C and atomic C:N, but not DMC, %N, or concentration of total soluble proteins, contrary to the expectation that rudds would select the most nutritious plants available. The concentration of aconitic acid was greatest in N. flexilis, a preferred macrophyte, contrary to the expectation that this compound provides resistance to herbivory. The concentration of oxalic acid, which negatively affects palatability, was highest in C. demersum, the least preferred macrophyte. Selection was also positively related to the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds; however, examination of the influence of specific phenolic metabolites provided further insights. Concentrations of caffeic acid, trans-caftaric acid, and quercetin were positively related to macrophyte preference by rudds, whereas concentrations of cis-4-O- and trans-4-O-ferulic acid glucoside were negatively related. Patterns between the concentrations of p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and macrophyte preference by rudds were less obvious. 4. Our results suggest that selective feeding by rudds has the potential to alter macrophyte assemblages and jeopardize habitat restoration projects seeking to establish a diverse plant assemblage. Studies of selective herbivory by various aquatic taxa have provided evidence that selection is simultaneously influenced by multiple plant characteristics, including nutritional quality, morphology, rigidity, and chemical defenses. Future research designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which specific chemical attributes of macrophytes influence selective herbivory by rudds and other taxa will help provide an understanding of how herbivores have changed macrophyte assemblages and make predictions about how macrophyte assemblages will be altered following biological invasions.

  14. Synthesis of theoretical and empirical experiences from nutrient and cyprinid reductions in Lake Ringsjön

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bergman; L.-A. Hansson; A. Persson; J. Strand; P. Romare; M. Enell; W. Granéli; J. M. Svensson; S. F. Hamrin; G. Cronberg; G. Andersson; E. Bergstrand

    1999-01-01

    The reduction in external phosphorus load to Lake Ringsjön during the 1980s, did not result in improved water transparency during the following ten-year period. Furthermore, a fish-kill in the Eastern Basin of the lake, in addition to a cyprinid reduction programme (biomanipulation; 1988–1992), in contrast to theory, did not lead to any increase in zooplankton biomass or size. This absence

  15. Daily Survival Rates for Juveniles of Six Great Plains Cyprinid Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene R. Wilde; Bart W. Durham

    2008-01-01

    We collected age-0 fish from the Canadian and Brazos rivers, Texas, and used otolith microstructure to estimate daily survival rates for juveniles of six cyprinid species during their first summer. Across all samples, daily survival rates averaged 0.944 and ranged from 0.920 to 0.964. Daily survival differed between fish from the Canadian River (mean = 0.948) and those from the

  16. Hepatic respiratory compensation and haematological changes in the cave cyprinid, Phreatichthys andruzzii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliano Frangioni; Roberto Berti; Gianfranco Borgioli

    1997-01-01

    In several ectotherms, including all members of the Osteichthyes studied so far, the spleen is capable of storing and releasing\\u000a erythrocytes according to the animal's respiratory needs. The tropical cave cyprinid Phreatichthys andruzzii uses its liver rather than the spleen as the site of accumulation in the respiratory compensation process, like the amphibian\\u000a Rana esculenta. The reversible process of erythrocyte

  17. Interdemic variation in haematocrit and lactate dehydrogenase in the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. M ARTINEZ; L. J. C HAPMAN; J. M. G RADY; B. B. R EES

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri from Rwembaita Swamp (low-oxygen) and Njuguta River (high-oxygen) in the Kibale National Park, Uganda differed in traits related to aerobic and anaerobic metabolic potential. Haematocrit was measured as an index of blood oxygen-carrying capacity, and tissue activities and isozyme composition of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured as indices of tissue anaerobic

  18. Coping and adjustment to genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Manne; Irwin Sandler

    1984-01-01

    The current study examined how individuals deal with genital herpes, a recurrent, incurable disease with a great psychological impact. An assessment battery composed of cognitive and problem-focused coping, attribution, and social support mechanisms was employed. These coping mechanisms were correlated with measures of psychological adjustment: self-esteem, depression, sexual adjustment, and amount upset by herpes. Subjects were 152 people with herpes

  19. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes

  20. Herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Stephen; Choudhary, Anshoo

    2006-07-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) results from an infection with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) also known as human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1). Primary infection may involve an ocular or non-ocular site, following which latency might be established principally in the trigeminal ganglion but also in the cornea. During latency, the virus appears as a circular episome associated with histones with active transcription only from the region encoding the latency-associated transcript (LAT). The LAT region is implicated in neuronal survival, anti-apoptosis, virulence, suppression of transcription, establishment of and reactivation from latency. The initial keratitis may develop after infection through the "front door route" (entry into the ocular surface from droplet spread) or "back door route" (spread to the eye from a non-ocular site, principally the mouth). The initial ocular infection may be mild. Visual morbidity results from recurrent keratitis, which leads to corneal scarring, thinning and neovascularisation. Although, recurrent disease may potentially occur through anterograde axonal spread from the trigeminal ganglion to the cornea, recent evidence suggests that HSV-1 in the cornea may be another source of recurrent disease. The pathogenesis and severity of HSK is largely determined by an interaction between viral genes encoded by the strain of HSV-1 and the make up of the host's immune system. Herpetic stromal disease is due to the immune response to virus within the cornea and the ability of the strain to cause corneal stromal disease is correlated with its ability to induce corneal vascularisation. The pathogenesis of corneal scarring and vascularisation is uncertain but appears to be a complex interaction of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors either brought in by inflammatory cells or produced locally in response to HSV-1 infection. Evidence now suggests that HSV-1 infection disrupts the normal equilibrium between angiogenic and anti-angiogenic stimuli leading to vascularisation. Thrombospondin 1 and 2, matricellular proteins, involved in wound healing are potent anti-angiogenic factors and appear to be one of the key players. Elucidating their roles in corneal scarring and vascularisation may lead to improved therapies for HSK. PMID:16807055

  1. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the following…

  2. Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1984-01-01

    Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

  3. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  5. [Effects of thyroid hormone level alterations on the Weberian apparatus ontogeny of cyprinids (Cyprinidae; Teleostei)].

    PubMed

    Kapitanova, D V; Shkil', F N

    2014-01-01

    Effects of thyroid hormone (TH) level alterations on the development and definitive morphology of the Weberian apparatus (WA, morphofunctional complex, providing transmission of sound signals from the gas bladder to the labyrinth of inner ear) were experimentally assessed in cyprinid fishes (Labeobarbus intermedius and Danio rerio). Alterations of TH-level were shown to lead to heterochronies, changes of timing and rates of ontogenetic events resulting in changes of definitive morphology of some structures as well as of the WA as a whole. Differences, in reaction of WA structures to the TH-level alterations, and inter- and intraspecific variability of TH-responsiveness were revealed. PMID:25739296

  6. The sexually transmitted infection, genital herpes (herpes simplex virus 2, or HSV-2), is a

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    The sexually transmitted infection, genital herpes (herpes simplex virus 2, or HSV-2 genital herpes begin with the infection's primary location. Memory T cells circulate in the body to fight, and the entryway for HSV-2 ­ the genital tract. Several years ago Akiko Iwasaki, PhD, Professor of Immunobiology

  7. Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Isolation of Frog Virus 3 from Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) Suggests an Interclass Host #12;· Pallid Sturgeon Conservation within the Missouri River Basin ­ History of the decline · Significance & Future Directions Topics Covered #12;Decline of Pallid Sturgeon within the Missouri River Basin

  8. Host specificity and colony impacts of Solenopsis invicta virus 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thorough understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 different g...

  9. Mutation patterns of mitochondrial H- and L-strand DNA in closely related Cyprinid fishes.

    PubMed Central

    Bielawski, Joseph P; Gold, John R

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome replication is asymmetric. Replication starts from the origin of heavy (H)-strand replication, displacing the parental H-strand as it proceeds along the molecule. The H-strand remains single stranded until light (L)-strand replication is initiated from a second origin of replication. It has been suggested that single-stranded H-strand DNA is more sensitive to mutational damage, giving rise to substitutional rate differences between the two strands and among genes in mammalian mitochondrial DNA. In this study, we analyzed sequences of the cytochrome b, ND4, ND4L, and COI genes of cyprinid fishes to investigate rates and patterns of nucleotide substitution in the mitochondrial genome. To test for strand-asymmetric mutation pressure, a likelihood-ratio test was developed and applied to the cyprinid sequences. Patterns of substitution and levels of strand-asymmetric mutation pressure were largely consistent with a mutation gradient between the H- and L-strand origins of replication. Significant strand bias was observed among rates of transitional substitution. However, biological interpretation of the direction and strength of strand asymmetry for specific classes of substitutions is problematic. The problem occurs because the rate of any single class of substitution inferred from one strand is actually a sum of rates on two strands. The validity of the likelihood-ratio test is not affected by this problem. PMID:12583346

  10. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  11. Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

  12. Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

  13. Molecular Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grazia Revello; Roberto Manservigi

    1996-01-01

    Summary Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality both in neonates and adults. An early diagnosis can greatly help to reduce mortality in both groups; however, since none of the presenting symptoms is pathognomonic for HSE, a clinical diagnosis is unreliable. On the other hand, the technique of isolating herpes simplex virus (HSV) from brain

  14. Parasitism, life history traits and immune defence in cyprinid fish from Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The main prediction of life-history theory is that optimal energy allocated among the traits is related to the growth, maintenance and survival. It is hypothesized that the optimal resource allocated to immune function, which generates resistance towards parasites and reduce the fitness losses caused by parasitism, is depending on other requirements for energetic resource and the benefits associated with them. The aims of this study are to investigate in a comparative way (1) how parasitism is related to fish life history traits (fecundity, longevity, mortality), (2) whether there is a trade-off between reproduction and immune investments in fish females (i.e. energetic hypothesis) and in males (i.e. immunohandicap hypothesis), (3) whether parasitism influences host immunity (spleen size) and reproduction (gonad size) in females and males. Results Data on metazoan parasites of 23 cyprinid fish species from Central Europe were used for the analyses as well as new data collected from a field study. Ectoparasite species richness was negatively correlated with the fish mortality estimated by the k-value and positively correlated with fish body size, suggesting that parasite diversity increases with fish longevity. A negative relationship between spleen size and gonad size, controlling for fish body size, was found in females but not in males. Moreover, parasite abundance was positively correlated with fish spleen size and negatively with fish gonad size in females. Conclusion The comparative analyses using cyprinid fish species demonstrated that natural mortality could be considered as a factor contributing to the variability of parasite species richness and moreover, parasite species benefit from long-lived fish. The results obtained from the analyses investigating the potential trade-off between reproduction and immunity could be interpreted as an energetic trade-off between female reproduction and immune function. The lack of negative relationship between gonad size and spleen size in males did not support our prediction based on the immunohandicap hypothesis. PMID:18226212

  15. Development of a rapid cyprinid herpesvirus 2 detection method by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Liang, L-G; Xie, J; Luo, D

    2014-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) is a pathogen that causes severe disease and high mortality in goldfish and Prussian carp. We developed a six primer loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the intercapsomeric triplex protein gene. CyHV-2 DNA was 10-fold serially diluted (10(8)-10(0) copies ?l(-1)) and was used as the template to determine primer sensitivity. LAMP assays were performed with DNA templates from other pathogens to determine specificity. The LAMP assay had an unequivocal detection limit of 10 copies ?l(-1), which was 100 times lower than that of the polymerase chain reaction. Other pathogen strains were not amplified by the LAMP primers, indicating good specificity. SYBR Green I was added to visually detect the amplification products. Assay applicability was evaluated in 120 samples of Carassius auratus gibelio, and a positive rate of 92·5% was obtained. In conclusion, a conventional LAMP assay has high convenience, rapidity, sensitivity and specificity for detecting CyHV-2 in infected aquatic organisms. Significance and impact of the study: Herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis, caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2), is a severe disease of goldfish and Prussian carp associated with high mortality. We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect CyHV-2 at relatively low plasmid DNA copy levels. The results show that the LAMP assay has a number of advantages (simple, sensitive, rapid and specific) over the conventional polymerase chain reaction and can be applied in the laboratory and field. Particularly, the method is highly applicable to facilitate surveillance and early diagnosis of CyHV-2. PMID:24935791

  16. Herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Gardella, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing. PMID:25454993

  17. Human herpes virus associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; D'Antonio, Antonio; Tonacchera, Massimo; Carlomagno, Chiara; Vitale, Mario

    2013-09-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most frequent autoimmune disease with genetic and environmental aetiologies. Viral infections have been postulated as one of the factors that may trigger autoimmune diseases. Many studies suggest that Herpes simplex virus infections are involved in a variety of autoimmune diseases. We report the case of three patients presenting for the first time herpes labialis a few months before the onset of hashitoxicosis. Serological and clinical exams support the possible role of human herpes viruses in the aetiology of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:24008857

  18. RELATION OF VARICELLA TO HERPES ZOSTER

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, T. M.; Eldridge, L. A.

    1929-01-01

    Experiments and clinical observations dealing with the identity of the viruses of varicella and herpes zoster were presented. The results indicate that the etiological agents concerned with these two diseases are in the majority of instances not identical. PMID:19869590

  19. Epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Guinan, M E; Wolinsky, S M; Reichman, R C

    1985-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive review of the literature on the epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection. Topics covered include its microbiology, immunology, incidence, prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical course, diagnosis, treatment, transmission, prevention, and effect on pregnancy outcome. The prevalence of genital herpes is estimated at 20 million persons in the US, about 25% of whom are symptomatic. Determination of the actual incidence and prevalence of genital herpes requires the availability of methods able to distinguish precisely between type 1 and type 2 antibody. Indirect evidence suggests an increasing incidence of the disease over the past 15 years. Asymptomatic infected persons may shed virus in the absence of lesions and thus transmit genital herpes to their sexual partners. Of particular concern is vertical transmission of virus from the maternal genital tract to newborns. In the majority of documented cases of neonatal herpes, the mothers were asymptomatic at the time of delivery. Because of the severe morbidity and mortality associated with neonatal herpes infection, studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for vertical transmission and to design and test appropriate preventive intervention strategies. At present, treatment of genital herpes is limited to palliative therapy. No known antiviral agent either prevents or eliminates viral latency, although vaccines are under development for primary prevention. The role of contraceptive practice in the prevention of genital herpes infection is unclear. Although theoretically plausible, the efficacy of barrier methods in decreasing the risk of acquiring or transmitting infection has not yet been demonstrated. Virus may be present in areas not covered by condoms. Use of a spermicidal cream or jelly with a diaphragm may reduce the risk of virus infection and transmissions, but, again, this method cannot protect from virus transmission to or from the external genitalia. PMID:2996917

  20. The Epidemiology of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L Rosenthal

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and -2) infections are common among adolescents. HSV-1 can cause either oral or genital infections, whereas HSV-2 causes predominantly genital herpes. Therefore, HSV-2 seroprevalence can be used as a marker of genital herpes. As in adults, genital infections in adolescents are often unrecognized; consequently the magnitude of the problem of

  1. Case study: inoculation herpes barbae.

    PubMed

    Parlette, Eric C; Polo, James M

    2005-01-01

    A 21-year-old white man in otherwise excellent general health was referred for a painful, progressive, facial eruption with associated fever, malaise, and cervicofacial lymphadenopathy. The patient reported that a vesicular eruption progressed from the left side of his face to also involve the right side of his face over the 48 hours preceding his clinic visit. He also reported some lesions in his throat and the back of his mouth causing pain and difficulty swallowing. Four to 7 days before presentation to us, the patient noted exposure to his girlfriend's cold sore. Additionally, he complained of a personal history of cold sores, but had no recent outbreaks. Physical examination revealed a somewhat ill man with numerous vesicles and donut-shaped, 2-4 mm, crusted erosions predominantly on the left side of the bearded facial skin. There were fewer, but similar-appearing lesions, on the right-bearded skin. The lesions appeared folliculocentric (Figure). Cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy was present. Oral exam showed shallow erosions on the tonsillar pillars and soft palate. Genital examination was normal. The remainder of the physical exam was unremarkable. A Tzanck smear of vesicular lesions was positive for balloon cells and many multinucleated giant cells with nuclear molding. A viral culture was performed which, in several days, came back positive for herpes simplex virus. The complete blood cell count documented a white blood cell count of 8000/mm3 with 82.6% neutrophils and 9.0% lymphocytes. Based on the clinical presentation and the positive Tzanck smear, the patient was diagnosed with herpes simplex barbae, most likely spread by shaving. The patient was started on acyclovir 200 mg p.o. five times daily for 10 days. Oxycodone 5 mg in addition to acetaminophen 325 mg (Percocet; Endo Pharmaceuticals, Chadds Ford, PA) was prescribed for pain relief. A 1:1:1 suspension of viscous lidocaine (Xylocaine; AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE), diphenhydramine (Benadryl; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY), and attapulgite (Kaopectate; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY) was given as a swish and spit to relieve the oral discomfort. Good hygiene, no skin-to-skin contact with others, and no further shaving to prevent autoinoculation were stressed. He was advised to discard his old razor. PMID:15891258

  2. Reprint of "Experimental infection of Opisthorchis viverrini cercariae to the cyprinid fish, Barbonymus gonionotus".

    PubMed

    Donthaisong, Chalermlap; Arunsan, Patpicha; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Wongmaneeprateep, Sutee; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Tesana, Smarn

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is an important public health problem, a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma in the Greater Mekong subregion including Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. Humans acquire the infection by consumption of raw, fermented or partially cooked freshwater cyprinid fish containing infective metacercariae. This study examined the effect of cercarial infection dosage (25-200 cercariae), age (1-60 day) and size (1-24 mm) of Barbonymus gonionotus fish on infection success of O. viverrini cercariae. Additionally, the site of cyst formation of O. viverrini cercariae and subsequent development to the metacercariae was examined. The result showed that cercarial infection dose (F4,95=8.52, P<0.001) age (P<0.001, ?LR(2)=954.72) and size (P<0.001, ?LR(2)=1204.84) were significantly associated with number of O. viverrini metacercariae recovery with in every additional fish age, the O. viverrini metacercarial recovery rate increased by 5.4% (P<0.001). Most metacercariae were found in the body of the fish (81.4%). We concluded that O. viverrini cercarial infection dosage, and age and size of fish were important determinants for a successful infection to fish. PMID:25446173

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of the western North American cyprinid genus Richardsonius, with an overview of phylogeographic structure.

    PubMed

    Houston, Derek D; Shiozawa, Dennis K; Riddle, Brett R

    2010-04-01

    Diversification of many North American taxa, including freshwater fishes, has been heavily influenced by the effects of complex geological and climatic events throughout the Cenozoic that have significantly altered the landscape. Here, we employ an array of phylogenetic analyses using a multiple gene tree approach to address several questions regarding the phylogenetic relationships of the North American cyprinid genus Richardsonius and two other closely related genera, Clinostomus and Iotichthys. We also use divergence time estimates generated using fossil calibrations to qualitatively assess the phylogeographic implications of evolution within the group. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences show a sister relationship between Iotichthys and Richardsonius, with Clinostomus being sister to an Iotichthys-Richardsonius clade, hence the currently recognized sister relationship between Clinostomus and Richardsonius is not supported. These genera appear to be monophyletic lineages, and sister species within genera appear to be reciprocally monophyletic. The two species within the genus Richardsonius both exhibit phylogeographic structure that is worthy of further investigation. Divergence time estimates between genera and species are Miocene or Pliocene in age, and divergence between phylogroups within species occurred in the late Pliocene to Pleistocene. These splits coincide with documented geological and climatic events. PMID:19874904

  4. Immunocapture and direct binding loop mediated isothermal amplification simplify molecular diagnosis of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2009-12-01

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is used for rapid diagnosis of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3, formerly designated koi herpesvirus (KHV), with comparable sensitivity to PCR. To reduce the time required for the LAMP assay, an immunocapture (IC) and direct binding (DB) techniques were developed to exclude the DNA extraction step in molecular diagnostic procedures of the virus. Both techniques were evaluated by using PCR and CyHV-3-LAMP assays. The DB-LAMP/PCR assays were more sensitive (detecting 0.1 virus particles/ml) than the IC-LAMP/PCR assays (detecting 1 virus particle/ml). By using the SYBR Green I stain and the DB/LAMP assay the complete CyHV-3 diagnostic process can be achieved within 90 min compared to more than 5 h for the routine PCR assay. Both assays (IC/DB) could amplify successfully CyHV-3 from clinical samples which prove its application to diagnostic tests. The DB-LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive technique and applicable to the diagnosis of CyHV-3 in the field. PMID:19651160

  5. [Complete ophthalmoplegia following outburst of herpes zoster].

    PubMed

    Bjerrum, Søren Solborg; Hessellund, Anders

    2012-06-25

    An 86-year-old female presented with eye pain, complete ophthalmoplegia, a visual acuity of 1/60, vitritis, ptosis, displacement of the eye, and a partially dilated pupil unresponsive to light. A computed tomography of the cerebrum was normal. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus was suspected and treatment with i.v. acyclovir and prednisolone was commenced, which led to a gradual improvement of the clinical condition. Complete ophthalmoplegia due to herpes zoster ophthalmicus is a very rare condition and no evidence-based treatment is available. The prognosis is very good with almost complete remission of the symptoms within 18 months. PMID:22735124

  6. Herpes genitalis and the philosopher's stance.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Kilian

    2014-12-01

    For many people, living with genital herpes generates not just episodic physical discomfort but recurrent emotional distress, centred on concerns about how to live and love safely without passing infection to others. This article considers the evidence on herpes transmission, levels of sexual risk, when the law has intervened and to what extent health professionals should advise with respect to these issues. It proposes a mechanism by which moral philosophy might provide a rational basis on which to counsel concerning sexual behaviour. PMID:24429670

  7. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn. PMID:25459782

  8. Distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in cyprinid fish in Northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pinlaor, Somchai; Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-12-01

    To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats. PMID:24516277

  9. Does interspecies hybridization affect the host specificity of parasites in cyprinid fish?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Host specificity varies among parasite species. Some parasites are strictly host-specific, others show a specificity for congeneric or non-congeneric phylogenetically related host species, whilst some others are non-specific (generalists). Two cyprinids, Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio, plus their respective hybrids were investigated for metazoan parasites. The aim of this study was to analyze whether interspecies hybridization affects host specificity. The different degrees of host specificity within a phylogenetic framework were taken into consideration (i.e. strict specialist, intermediate specialist, and intermediate generalist). Methods Fish were collected during harvesting the pond and identified using meristic traits and molecular markers. Metazoan parasite species were collected. Host specificity of parasites was determined using the following classification: strict specialist, intermediate specialist, intermediate generalist and generalist. Parasite species richness was compared between parental species and their hybrids. The effect of host species on abundance of parasites differing in host specificity was tested. Results Hybrids harbored more different parasite species but their total parasite abundance was lower in comparison with parental species. Interspecies hybridization affected the host specificity of ecto- and endoparasites. Parasite species exhibiting different degrees of host specificity for C. carpio and C. gibelio were also present in hybrids. The abundance of strict specialists of C. carpio was significantly higher in parental species than in hybrids. Intermediate generalists parasitizing C. carpio and C. gibelio as two phylogenetically closely related host species preferentially infected C. gibelio when compared to C. carpio, based on prevalence and maximum intensity of infection. Hybrids were less infected by intermediate generalists when compared to C. gibelio. Conclusions This finding does not support strict co-adaptation between host and parasite genotypes resulting in narrow host specificity, and showed that hybrid genotypes are susceptible to parasites exhibiting host specificity. The immune mechanisms specific to parental species might represent potential mechanisms explaining the low abundance of parasites in C. gibelio x C. carpio hybrids. PMID:23587287

  10. Population differentiation of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri across dissolved oxygen regimes

    PubMed Central

    Harniman, Robert; Merritt, Thomas J S; Chapman, Lauren J; Lesbarrères, David; Martinez, Mery L

    2013-01-01

    Population level response to hypoxia has become an issue of global significance because of increased frequency and intensity of hypoxic events worldwide, and the potential for global warming to exacerbate hypoxic stress. In this study, we sequenced two nuclear intronic regions and a single mitochondrial region across seven populations of the African cyprinid, Barbus neumayeri from two river drainages in Uganda: the Rwembaita Swamp-Njuguta River System and the Dura River. We then examined two indices of population structure, GST and Jost's D, to detect links between oxygen availability and genetic variation and to determine if population genetic structure was associated with (i) dissolved oxygen regime (hypoxia or normoxia), (ii) geographical distance, or (iii) a combination of dissolved oxygen regime and geographical distance. Our results indicate that over a large scale (between drainages), geographical distance significantly affects the genetic structure of populations. However, within a single drainage, dissolved oxygen regime plays a key role in determining the genetic structure of populations. Within the Rwembaita-Njuguta system, gene flow was high between locations of similar oxygen regimes, but low between areas characterized by divergent oxygen regimes. Interestingly, GST analyses appear to yield less realistic measures of population structure than Jost's D, suggesting that caution must be taken when interpreting and comparing the results from different studies. These results support the idea that aquatic dissolved oxygen can act as a selective force limiting gene flow among populations of aquatic species and therefore should be considered when implementing conservation plans and assessing environmental impact of human activities. PMID:23789062

  11. Distribution and Abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini Metacercariae in Cyprinid Fish in Northeastern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Porntip; Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Chaidee, Apisit; Haonon, Ornuma; Limviroj, Wutipong; Tesana, Smarn; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2013-01-01

    To increase public health awareness for prevention of opisthorchiasis caused by eating raw freshwater fish, the distribution and abundance of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OV MC) was investigated in freshwater fish obtained from 20 provinces in northeastern Thailand between April 2011 and February 2012. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 12,890 fish consisting of 13 species randomly caught from 26 rivers, 10 dams, and 38 ponds/lakes. Fish, were collected in each of the rainy and winter seasons from each province. Fish were identified, counted, weighed, and digested using pepsin-HCl. Samples were examined for OV MC by a sedimentation method, and metacercariae were identified under a stereomicroscope. OV MC were found in 6 species of fish; i.e., Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides, Hampala dispar, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Osteochilus hasselti, and Puntioplites proctozysron from localities in 13 provinces. Among the sites where OV MC-infected fish were found, 70.0% were dams, 23.7% were ponds/lakes, and 7.7% were rivers. The mean intensity of OV MC ranged from 0.01 to 6.5 cysts per fish (or 1.3-287.5 cysts per kg of fish). A high mean intensity of OV MC per fish (>3 cysts) was found in 5 provinces: Amnat Charoen (6.5 cysts), Nakhon Phanom (4.3), Mukdahan (4.1), Khon Kaen, (3.5) and Si Sa Ket (3.4). In conclusion, OV MC are prevalent in natural cyprinid fish, with the infection rate varying according to fish species and habitats. PMID:24516277

  12. Biomarker responses in cyprinids of the middle stretch of the River Po, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Vigano, L. [National Council of Research, Milan (Italy). Water Research Inst.; Arillo, A.; Melodia, F. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Inst. of Zoology; Arlati, P.; Monti, C. [Presidio Multizonale Igiene Prevenzione, Lecco (Italy)

    1998-03-01

    Fish belonging to three species of cyprinids, that is, barbel (Barbus plebejus), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), and Italian nase (Chondrostoma soeetta), were collected from two sites of the River Po, located upstream and downstream from the confluence of one of its middle-reach polluted tributaries, the River Lambro. The two groups of individuals caught for each species were analyzed and compared for several microsomal and cytosolic biochemical markers. The enzymatic activities assayed in fish liver included ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), aminopyrine-N-demethylase (APDM), uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the contents of reduced glutathione and nonprotein thiols were measured. Despite some differences among species, all microsomal activities (EROD, APDM, UDPGT) were found to be significantly induced in fish living downstream the River Lambro. With the exception of a higher GST enzyme activity of barbel from the downstream reach, no significant modification was evident in any of the tested cytosolic biomarkers. Results showed that barbel and nase better discriminated the two reaches of the River Po. In general, the alterations observed in feral fish are consistent with the results found in previous studies conducted with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under both laboratory and field conditions in the same middle reach of the River Po. All of the data indicate that the downstream tract of the main river is exposed to the load of pollutants transported by the River Lambro, including known inducers such as polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The latter were analyzed in sediments sampled at the two sites of fish collection, and the downstream sediment showed the highest concentrations of PAHs, although their levels are comparable to those present in moderately polluted locations. Regardless of the site of exposure, barbel seem to be characterized by more efficient antioxidant defenses.

  13. Ophthalmoplegia secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Ugarte; Sarju Dey; Carole A Jones

    2010-01-01

    An 80-year-old Caucasian woman had been diagnosed with right herpes zoster ophthalmicus 2 ½ weeks before presentation to our department. Ten days after stopping oral aciclovir, she presented with periorbital pain, visual loss, ptosis and complete ophthalmoplegia. On examination, visual acuity in her right eye was hand movements, with a relative afferent pupillary defect and 2 mm proptosis. MRI demonstrated

  14. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  15. Rabies and Herpes simplex virus encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Budka; Therese Popow-Kraupp

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective study on the frequency, site and distribution of rabies and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 antigens by means of immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoperoxidase (IP) techniques was performed on routinely processed (formol-fixed, paraffin-embedded) brain autopsy material stored for up to 25 years. In 2 animal and 2 human rabies cases, inclusion bodies in neuronal cytoplasm and processes were

  16. 76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device...amending the special controls for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay...serological tests to identify antibodies to herpes simplex virus in serum, and the...

  17. 75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device...to amend the special controls for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay...serological tests to identify antibodies to herpes simplex virus in serum, and the...

  18. Trimester dependent preterm births in pregnancy with genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferenc Bánhidy; István Dudás; Andrew E. Czeizel

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies reported controversial results regarding the possible association of recurrent genital herpes during pregnancy\\u000a with a higher risk of preterm birth\\/low birth weight in newborns. Thus, birth outcomes of mothers with prospective and medically\\u000a recorded symptomatic recurrent genital herpes confirmed by serological examination and of mothers without genital herpes were\\u000a compared in the population-based large data set of the

  19. Herpes simplex encephalitis presenting after steroid treatment of panuveitis.

    PubMed

    Wittles, K Nadia; Goold, Lucy A; Gilhotra, Jagjit S

    2011-07-18

    A 62-year-old woman with an autoimmune disease presented with panuveitis and was treated with immune suppression. She subsequently developed herpetic acute retinal necrosis and later died of herpes simplex encephalitis. Acute retinal necrosis usually occurs months to years after herpes simplex encephalitis. In our case, the ocular findings were present for 5 weeks before the encephalitis presented. To our knowledge, this is the first Australian case of acute retinal necrosis preceding herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:21770880

  20. Pharmacologic management of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Mamdani, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infection caused by reactivation of dormant varicella-zoster virus. The acute course of herpes zoster is generally benign; however, some patients will experience postherpetic neuralgia characterized by severe, relentless, and at times disabling pain that is often refractory to treatment. While herpes zoster responds to acyclovir, cost-benefit considerations limit the drug's usefulness to only a select group. Postherpetic neuralgia requires a holistic approach, including pharmacologic therapy using several different classes of drugs. PMID:7907508

  1. Identification and Characterization of Cyprinid Herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) Encoded MicroRNAs.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Owen H; Henshilwood, Kathy; Way, Keith; Hakimjavadi, Roya; Stone, David M; Walls, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Some viruses encode their own miRNAs and these are increasingly being recognized as important modulators of viral and host gene expression. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is a highly pathogenic agent that causes acute mass mortalities in carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Here, bioinformatic analyses of the CyHV-3 genome suggested the presence of non-conserved precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) genes. Deep sequencing of small RNA fractions prepared from in vitro CyHV-3 infections led to the identification of potential miRNAs and miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs) derived from some bioinformatically predicted pre-miRNAs. DNA microarray hybridization analysis, Northern blotting and stem-loop RT-qPCR were then used to definitively confirm that CyHV-3 expresses two pre-miRNAs during infection in vitro. The evidence also suggested the presence of an additional four high-probability and two putative viral pre-miRNAs. MiRNAs from the two confirmed pre-miRNAs were also detected in gill tissue from CyHV-3-infected carp. We also present evidence that one confirmed miRNA can regulate the expression of a putative CyHV-3-encoded dUTPase. Candidate homologues of some CyHV-3 pre-miRNAs were identified in CyHV-1 and CyHV-2. This is the first report of miRNA and moRNA genes encoded by members of the Alloherpesviridae family, a group distantly related to the Herpesviridae family. The discovery of these novel CyHV-3 genes may help further our understanding of the biology of this economically important virus and their encoded miRNAs may have potential as biomarkers for the diagnosis of latent CyHV-3. PMID:25928140

  2. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines. PMID:25138572

  3. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a)...

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus 2 ICP0- Mutant Viruses Are Avirulent and Immunogenic: Implications for a Genital Herpes Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William P. Halford; Ringo Püschel; Brandon Rakowski; Darren P. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0? mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0? mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this possibility. Several HSV-2 ICP0? mutant viruses were constructed

  5. Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride. PMID:21747842

  6. [Characteristics of herpes genitalis in university women].

    PubMed

    Suárez, M; Briones, H; Alarcón, G; Aliaga, P; Del Solar, E; Grunberg, A; de Diego, S

    1991-04-01

    We analyzed 33 patients with herpes genitalis diagnosed at a student medical outpatient facility. 42% corresponded to a first herpetic infection. The HSV-1 was present in 43% of cases, the HSV-2 in the rest. Recurrence of infection was present in 39.5% of patients, 70% of them due to HSV-2. There was a relatively high rate of asymptomatic couples who were the source of primary herpetic infection. PMID:1668822

  7. Paedocypris, a new genus of Southeast Asian cyprinid fish with a remarkable sexual dimorphism, comprises the world's smallest vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Kottelat, Maurice; Britz, Ralf; Hui, Tan Heok; Witte, Kai-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Paedocypris is a new genus of paedomorphic cyprinid fish from highly acidic blackwater peat swamps in Southeast Asia. It includes two new species, one of which (Paedocypris progenetica) appears to be the smallest fish and vertebrate known, with the smallest mature female measuring a mere 7.9?mm. Paedocypris has many ’larval’ features typically associated with paedomorphic fish (e.g. narrow frontals that leave the brain unprotected dorsally by bone and a precaudal larval-fin-fold), but, uniquely among fishes, males also possess highly modified pelvic fins with hypertrophied muscles and a keratinized pad in front of the pelvic girdle, which, we hypothesize, function together as a clasping or holding device, thereby suggesting an unusual reproductive mode. Unfortunately, habitat destruction jeopardizes the survival of these fishes and thus opportunities for further research. PMID:16627273

  8. Herpes Viral Origin of the Parsonage-Turner Syndrome: Highlighting of Serological Immune Anti-Herpes Deficiency Cured by Anti-Herpes Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goaster, Jacqueline Le; Bourée, Patrice; Ifergan, Charles; Tangy, Frederic; Olivier, René; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a 50 year-old athletic male presented with weakness, pain and unilateral phrenic paralysis, followed by bilateral phrenic paralysis with deep dyspnea. In 2013, the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was diagnosed. When the patient was seen in September 2014 for the first time, he was facing phrenic neuromuscular failure, which led to the hypothesis of neurotropic herpes viruses. A control of the global serological anti-Herpes immunity to analyze his antibody (Ab) levels confirmed herpes immune genetic deficiency. An appropriate herpes chemotherapy treatment was proposed. Immediately, a spectacular recovery of the patient was observed, and after a few weeks, the respiratory function tests showed normal values. The hypothesis of the inductive role of viruses of the herpes family in the Parsonage-Turner syndrome was thus substantiated. The patient's immune deficiency covers the HSV2, HHV3, HHV4, HHV5 and HHV6 Ab levels. This led to the control of herpes in the family lineage: indeed, his daughter presented alterations of her serological herpes Ab levels.

  9. Genital herpes vaccines—cause for cautious optimism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MINNIS COMMUNICATIONS

    The high prevalence of herpes simplex virus infections in many communities, its numerous serious physical and psychological complications and its importance in enhancing the transmission of HIV make this virus an obvious target for prevention by vaccination. Randomised clinical trials of only one genital herpes vaccine has shown efficacy so far. Analysis of clinical results is complicated by the difference

  10. Behaviour disturbances during recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Greenwood; A Bhalla; A Gordon; J Roberts

    1983-01-01

    Bizarre behaviour disturbances in four patients occurring during incomplete recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Some aspects of their behaviour were similar to that originally described by Klüver and Bucy in monkeys following bilateral temporal lobectomy. Previous reports of behavioural disturbances in man after herpes simplex encephalitis are reviewed and attention drawn to the aggressive and disruptive behaviour that

  11. A case of late herpes simplex encephalitis relapse.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Andrea; Lauria, Giuseppe; Mantero, Vittorio; Salmaggi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Late relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis, defined as recurrence more than 3 months after the first initial encephalitic episode, is a rare condition. We describe the case of an adult patient who presented a relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis 8 years after the first episode occurred at the age of 57 years and review the literature of this topic. PMID:23757375

  12. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis during treatment with etanercept.

    PubMed

    Crusio, Robbert H J; Singson, Stephanie V; Haroun, Faysal; Mehta, Hetal H; Parenti, David M

    2014-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. They are associated with an increased risk for infections. We report a case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis in a patient receiving etanercept and review the literature on TNF-? and TNF-? inhibitors, and their importance in the pathophysiology of herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:24228826

  13. Role of type specific herpes simplex virus serology in the diagnosis and management of genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Munday; J. Vuddamalay; M. J. Slomka; D. W. Brown

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the indications for the use of a type specific antibody test for herpes simplex virus in a department of genitourinary medicine in the United Kingdom. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of case records of 127 patients who accepted the test during a 20 month period. RESULTS\\/CONCLUSION: The test contributed to patient management in 79% of patients with recurrent genital

  14. Quantitation of herpes simplex virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis by the polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Grazia Revello; Fausto Baldanti; Antonella Sarasini; Davide Zella; Maurizio Zavattoni; Giuseppe Gerna

    1997-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown the diagnostic utility of qualitative detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) from patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE).Objectives: To determine whether quantitation of HSV DNA in CSF could be useful for monitoring efficacy of antiviral therapy and provide prognostic indications.Study design: A quantitative

  15. The epidemiology of herpes simplex types 1 and 2 infection of the genital tract in Edinburgh 1978-1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J D Ross; I W Smith; R A Elton

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--The changing epidemiology of genital herpes in Edinburgh is described in relation to herpes simplex virus (HSV) Type 1 and herpes simplex virus Type 2 infection over a period of 14 years. METHODS--2018 episodes of genital herpes in 1794 patients over a 14 year period were assessed. Data on age, sex, sexual orientation, geographical origin and herpes antibodies were also

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis in Hamadan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghannad, Masoud Sabouri; Solgi, Ghasem; Hashemi, Sayed Hamid; Zebarjady-Bagherpour, Javad; Hemmatzadeh, Ali; Hajilooi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Encephalitis can cause a severe public health problem. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the medical laboratory results of patients with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis. Materials and Methods Diagnosis of encephalitis for these patients was firstly based on a clinical profile for Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), plus either a detected HSV1&2-DNA by PCR in CSF or brain neuro-imaging results. Results Molecular testing on CSF showed that 15 patients (15%) had HSV infection, 5 patients (5%) had Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and one case was positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-RNA in CSF. The cause of encephalitis in 79 out of 100 patients (79%) was unknown. The comparison of CSF analysis in HSV positives and negatives showed a significant increase of glucose and protein levels in HSV positives than negatives. The mortality rate was 46.6% (7/15) in patients with HSV encephalitis compared to 11.4% (10/85) in non-HSV encephalitis (P = 0.003). Conclusions In the current study, 15% of cases were diagnosed as having HSV. PMID:24475336

  17. [Neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis: clinical profile versus molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Giannina; Cofré, José; Torres, J Pablo; Venegas, Gerardo; Vergara, Alejandra; Farfán, Mauricio

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a diagnostic challenge and causes high morbidity and mortality in children. Early suspicion of the disease and a rapid, safe and useful diagnostic test are relevant because up to 70% of the cases may die. We report the case of a newborn girl aged 25 days, who presented with a clinical picture that was compatible with herpes simplex encephalitis where the confirmation of the etiological diagnosis was delayed. Only by repeated real-time polymerase chain reaction it was possible to confirm the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:23096552

  18. Complete genome sequence of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of an Argentinean isolate of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3ArgSF) obtained from the Santa Fe region of Argentina was sequenced in entirety. Assembly of 9 overlapping fragments yielded a consensus genome sequence 10,386 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail present on the 3' en...

  19. Sucessful transmission of Solenopsis invicta Virus 3 to field colonies of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive sense, single stranded virus that exhibits host specificity toward saevissima complex fire ants. The virus is being considered for release as a biological control agent in areas in which the virus is absent. This study demonstrates that field trans...

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 as a Cause of Genital Herpes: Impact on Surveillance and Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois Downey; Connie Celum; Anna Wald

    2000-01-01

    This study compared characteristics of patients who had herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 with characteristics of patients who had HSV-2, by use of data from a cross-sectional analysis. Data were collected in an urban sexually transmitted diseases clinic from patients who had positive genital HSV cultures. Overall, 17.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9%-19.3%) of 1145 genital HSV isolates obtained

  1. Does psychiatric illness affect the recurrence rate of genital herpes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Goldmeier; A Johnson

    1982-01-01

    The progress of 58 patients with first attacks of genital herpes was monitored for up to 30 weeks. The effects of sex (gender), age, social class, and non-psychotic psychiatric illness (as measured by the \\

  2. Herpes zoster vaccine for the elderly: boosting immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Joel V; Chen, Wilbur H

    2010-01-01

    Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a disease that results from the reactivation of a latent infection of the varicella zoster virus, which is usually encountered during early childhood. Aging is associated with an increased risk for herpes zoster and its complications. Boosting immunological memory is the key strategy for keeping the latent varicella zoster virus infection under control. A live attenuated virus vaccine is safe, effective and approved for use among healthy elderly adults aged 60 years or older. However, significant problems remain in the prevention of herpes zoster with the current vaccine. Future studies for improved vaccines and studies into the epidemiology of herpes zoster are required in order to address this significant public health burden. PMID:20607105

  3. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  4. Herpes simplex infection of the larynx requiring laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Sims, John R; Massoll, Nicole A; Suen, James Y

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection of the larynx is an exceedingly rare clinical entity, most frequently reported in the pediatric population or in immunocompromised adults. We present a 62-year-old woman presented with neck pain, hoarseness, crepitus over the larynx, and what appeared to be a necrotic mass of the right true vocal cord on laryngoscopy. Due to near-complete destruction of the cartilaginous framework of the larynx, a total laryngectomy was performed. The final pathology report showed squamous mucosal changes consistent with herpes simplex infection, confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Though herpes simplex laryngitis is uncommon, this case shows the potential for herpes simplex to cause extensive damage and compromise airway patency when left untreated. PMID:23332410

  5. Investigation of Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 genetic diversity by a multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis.

    PubMed

    Avarre, Jean-Christophe; Madeira, Jean-Paul; Santika, Ayi; Zainun, Zakki; Baud, Marine; Cabon, Joëlle; Caruso, Domenico; Castric, Jeannette; Bigarré, Laurent; Engelsma, Marc; Maskur, Maskur

    2011-05-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), or koi herpesvirus (KHV), is responsible for high mortalities in aquaculture of both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. The complete genomes of three CyHV-3 isolates showed more than 99% of DNA sequence identity, with the majority of differences located in short tandem repeats, also called VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats). By targeting these variations, eight loci were selected for genotyping CyHV-3 by multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA). CyHV-3 strains obtained after sequential in vivo infections exhibited identical MLVA profiles, whereas samples originating from a single isolate passaged 6 and 82 times in vitro exhibited mutations in two of the eight loci, suggesting a relatively slow genetic evolution rate of the VNTRs. The method was subsequently applied on 38 samples collected in Indonesia, France and the Netherlands. Globally, the isolates grouped in two main genetic clusters, each one divided in two subgroups including either CyHV-3-U/I or CyHV3-J. Interestingly, Indonesian strains were rather distant from CyHV-3-J isolate. The results of the present study indicate that these VNTR molecular markers are efficient in estimating the genetic diversity among CyHV-3 isolates and are therefore suitable for further molecular epidemiological studies. PMID:21392536

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus and the Chemokines That Mediate the Inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. J. Carr; L. Tomanek

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are highly pervasive pathogens in the human host with a seroconversion rate upwards of 60% worldwide.\\u000a HSV type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with the disease herpetic stromal keratitis, the leading cause of infectious corneal blindness\\u000a in the industrializedworld. Individuals suffering fromgenital herpes associated withHSV type 2 (HSV-2) are found to be two-\\u000a to threefoldmore susceptible in

  7. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (?35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. PMID:25392064

  8. Suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes: acyclovir v inosine pranobex.

    PubMed Central

    Mindel, A; Carney, O; Sonnex, C; Freris, M; Patou, G; Williams, P

    1989-01-01

    The suppressive action of acyclovir and inosine pranobex was compared in a randomised double blind controlled trial in patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. Fourteen patients received acyclovir and 17 inosine pranobex. Treatment continued for 12 weeks. The time to the first recurrence was significantly longer and the frequency of recurrences significantly less in the recipients of acyclovir. No important side effects were noted. It is concluded that acyclovir is the treatment of choice to suppress often recurring genital herpes. PMID:2473952

  9. Herpes simplex virus infection of the fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Overall, J C

    1994-03-01

    Although infrequent, untreated neonatal herpes results in death in half the cases and neurologic sequelae in three quarters of the survivors. Neonatal infection is usually acquired from maternal genital herpes, which is asymptomatic or unrecognized in 60% to 80% of women. The greatest risk of neonatal infection occurs when the mother has primary genital herpes involving the cervix at delivery, and the infant is premature and delivered with instrumentation (eg, scalp electrodes). More than 80% of neonates with herpes will have typical herpetic lesions of the skin, eye, or mouth, and most of the remainder will have either encephalitis or a sepsis syndrome with pneumonitis and hepatitis and negative bacterial cultures. Because herpes can mimic other neonatal infections, laboratory diagnosis is important, using cultures of the virus from lesions, peripheral blood white cells, or CSF. Treatment with intravenous acyclovir does reduce mortality and neurologic sequelae, but outcome is still guarded in babies with disseminated disease or encephalitis. Prevention focuses on caesarean section in women with active lesions at the time of impending delivery and avoidance of postnatal exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether maternal screening (eg, HSV-2 type specific antibodies and vaginal cultures in selected women at delivery) will be cost effective in preventing neonatal herpes. PMID:8015861

  10. Is herpes zoster a marker for occult or subsequent malignancy?

    PubMed Central

    Buntinx, Frank; Wachana, Richard; Bartholomeeusen, Stefaan; Sweldens, Kathleen; Geys, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that herpes zoster may be a marker for occult malignancy. Aim To examine the emergence of a subsequent cancer diagnosis in patients with and without herpes zoster. Design of study Retrospective cohort study. Setting Results were based on the database of Intego, an ongoing Belgian general practice-based morbidity registry, covering 37 general practitioners and including about 311 000 patient years between the years 1994 and 2000. Method Survival analysis comparing the emergence of malignancy in patients with and without herpes zoster. Results The number of patients below the age of 65 years with herpes zoster, cancer or both was too low to draw any sensible conclusions. Above the age of 65 years we identified a significant increase of cancer emergence in the whole group and in females (hazard ratio = 2.65, 95% confidence interval = 1.43 to 4.90), but not in males. No difference could be identified in the first year after the herpes zoster infection. Conclusion Our results do not justify extensive testing for cancer in herpes zoster patients. The association we identified, however, leaves open a number of questions with respect to the physiopathology behind it. PMID:15720930

  11. Ophthalmoplegia secondary to herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Marta; Dey, Sarju; Jones, Carole A

    2010-01-01

    An 80-year-old Caucasian woman had been diagnosed with right herpes zoster ophthalmicus 2 ½ weeks before presentation to our department. Ten days after stopping oral aciclovir, she presented with periorbital pain, visual loss, ptosis and complete ophthalmoplegia. On examination, visual acuity in her right eye was hand movements, with a relative afferent pupillary defect and 2 mm proptosis. MRI demonstrated contrast enhancement within the orbit extending into the apex, suggestive of an inflammatory process. Oral treatment was started with oral aciclovir and corticosteroids for 2 months, when she had resolution of the optic neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia. Vision recovered to 6/9 and repeat neuroimaging revealed regression of the inflammatory process. PMID:22798518

  12. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus associated with abducens palsy.

    PubMed

    Chaker, Nibrass; Bouladi, Mejda; Chebil, Ahmed; Jemmeli, Mehdi; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

    2014-04-01

    The extraocular muscle palsies associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are transient, self-limiting conditions, usually seen in elderly patients. There are different treatment recommendations for paralytic complications, but prognosis has generally reported to be favorable. A 75-year-old male patient presented with diplopia. Clinical history revealed left facial vesicular eruptions and pain treated by oral aciclovir 1 week following symptom onset. On examination, we observed cicatricial lesions with crusts involving left hemiface, a limitation in abduction of the left eye, and a superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) with decreased visual acuity (4/10). Examination of the right eye was unremarkable. Hess screen test confirmed left six nerve palsy. PMID:24966563

  13. Complications of herpes zoster in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trung N; Ray, G Thomas; Horberg, Michael A; Yawn, Barbara P; Castillo, Adrienne L; Saddier, Patricia; Habel, Laurel A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer patients tend to have a higher incidence of herpes zoster (HZ), but little is known about their risk of HZ complications. We conducted a retrospective study of 424 newly diagnosed hematologic (HM, n = 140) and solid tumor malignancy (STM, n = 284) patients who developed HZ between January 2001 and December 2006 to measure the frequency and identify risk factors of HZ complications. Patients were adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. HZ diagnosis and complications were confirmed by medical chart review. HM patients with HZ tended to have more HZ complications than STM patients (34% vs 23%, p = 0.02), largely due to more frequent non-pain complications. On multivariate analysis, older age and being male were associated with a higher risk of HZ complications in HM patients; more advanced cancer stage was associated with HZ complications in STM patients. HZ complications are frequent and can present extra disease burden in cancer patients who develop HZ. PMID:24796470

  14. [Herpes zoster-induced neuralgia (neuropathy)].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, M Yu; Sineva, N A; Vodopyanov, N P

    2014-01-01

    Neuralgia (neuropathy) is the most common manifestation of herpes zoster (HZ). In spinal and cranial neuralgia, there are 3 types of pain: 1) spontaneous, persistent, burning pain; 2) intermittent sharp pain; 3) pain occurring with nonpainful stimulation. The skin exhibits areas of hypesthesia, anesthesia, and dysesthesia. Ophthalmic neuralgia (of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve) is encountered in 20% of HZ cases. HZ of the auricle and external auditory meatus concurrent with facial and vestibulocochlear neuropathy is diagnosed as Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Postherpetic neuralgia (neuropathy) is characterized by pain present for 3 months or more after the appearance of herpetic eruptions. Combined therapy involving the earlier use of antiviral agents, tricyclic antidepressants, analgesics, and neuromidine is the most effective option for HZ-induced neuralgia (neuropathy). PMID:25715496

  15. Persistence in herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Longson, M.

    1978-01-01

    Diseases of man caused by the virus of herpes simplex fall into two broad categories. The primary disease occurs only once in any individual's life and is caused by transmission of virus from an already infected human. Thereafter, the individual may be subject to recurrent herpetic disease, the manifestations of which are different from the primary disease. Recurrent disease varies in severity from trivial, to incapacitating and frankly lethal (as in diseases resulting from the virus's neurotropic and oncogenic properties). The source of the virus in recurrent herpetic disease has never been conclusively resolved, but is almost certainly endogenous to the patient. Theories, case reports and experiments exist to show that endogenous virus may, in periods of clinical quiescence, be latent (or persistent) at the site of the recurrent lesions itself, or more remotely in nerve tissues related to the site of recurrence. Images Fig. 1 PMID:214773

  16. Proteins Specified by Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Patricia G.; Keller, John M.; Roizman, Bernard

    1970-01-01

    Membranes prepared from HEp-2 cells infected with herpes simplex virus and free from soluble proteins, virus, ribosomes, and other cellular constituents were solubilized and subjected to electrophoresis on acrylamide gels. The electropherograms showed the following. (i) The synthesis of host proteins and glycoproteins ceases after infection. However, the spectrum of host proteins in membranes remains unaltered. (ii) Between 4 and 22 hr postinfection, at least four glycoproteins are synthesized and bound to the smooth cytoplasmic membranes. On electrophoresis, these glycoproteins form two major and two minor bands in the gel and migrate with proteins ranging from 50,000 to 100,000 daltons in molecular weight. (iii) The same glycoproteins are present in all membranes fractionated by density and in partially purified virus. The implications of the data are discussed. Images PMID:4315403

  17. Herpes zoster: diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approaches.

    PubMed

    Bader, Mazen S

    2013-09-01

    Herpes zoster (Hz), which generally presents as a localized, painful cutaneous eruption, is a common clinical problem, particularly among adults ? 50 years of age and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis of Hz is mainly made clinically, except in patients with atypical manifestations or certain complications, such as central nervous system involvement, in which laboratory virologic testing is required. In addition to having a higher mortality rate, immunocompromised individuals have atypical and severe clinical findings and are at greater risk for complications and recurrence of Hz. Treatment of Hz includes the use of antiviral agents, analgesics for control of acute zoster pain, good skin care for healing, and prevention of secondary bacterial infection. Antiviral agents, preferably valacyclovir or famciclovir, should be started within 72 hours of onset to reduce the severity of the infection, the duration of the eruptive phase, and the intensity of acute pain. Herpes zoster has been associated with several complications, of which post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common and debilitating. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine and early treatment with either famciclovir or valacyclovir are the only measures proven to prevent PHN. The options for treating PHN include topical agents, such as lidocaine patches, and systemic agents, such as the anticonvulsants gabapentin and pregabalin. Measures for preventing Hz include infection control through routine hand hygiene and appropriate use of isolation precautions and personal protective equipment; immunoglobulins, such as the varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin and vaccine; and antiviral agents. The zoster vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of Hz and PHN. The vaccine is recommended for all individuals aged ? 60 years who have no contraindications, including individuals who report a previous episode of Hz. PMID:24113666

  18. Genital Herpes - Initial Visits to Physicians' Offices, United States, 1966-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 48. Genital Herpes — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices, United States, 1966 – ... page . Â NOTE : The relative standard errors for genital herpes estimates of more than 100,000 range from ...

  19. 75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...FDA-2009-N-0344] Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation...The direct final rule corrects the regulation classifying herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assays by removing the...

  20. Environmental chemical exposures and risk of herpes zoster.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, V; Vine, M F; Weigle, K

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated whether residence in Aberdeen, North Carolina, the location of the Aberdeen pesticides dumps site (a national priority list Superfund site containing organochlorine pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and metals), is associated with immune suppression as indicated by a higher incidence of herpes zoster and recent occurrences of other common infectious diseases. Study participants included 1,642 residents, 18-64 years of age, who responded to a telephone survey concerning potential occupational and recreational exposures to pesticides and other chemicals, lifetime history of herpes zoster (shingles), and the recent occurrence of other common infectious diseases. Stratified and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the cumulative incidence of herpes zoster among Aberdeen residents and residents of nearby communities. There was little evidence of an overall increased risk of herpes zoster among Aberdeen residents during the period 1951-1994 [relative risk (RR), 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-2.1]. However, an elevated risk of herpes zoster was noted consistently among Aberdeen residents of younger ages as compared to residents of the nearby communities. The RR was 2.0 (CI, 1.0-4.0) among those 18-40 years of age and was not affected by controlling for potential confounders. The RR of herpes zoster was also consistently elevated in all age groups for the period before 1985. No differences were noted between residents of Aberdeen and those of the nearby communities with respect to the recent occurrence of other common infectious diseases. These results support the plausibility of an association between exposure to the Aberdeen pesticides dumps site and immune suppression and the potential use of herpes zoster as a marker of immune suppression in studies of environmental chemical exposures. Images Figure 1 PMID:10504152

  1. A new fish-based multi-metric assessment index for cyprinid streams in the Iranian Caspian Sea Basin

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Hossein; Schinegger, Rafaela; Melcher, Andreas; Moder, Karl; Mielach, Carina; Schmutz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A major issue for water resource management is the assessment of environmental degradation of lotic ecosystems. The overall aim of this study is to develop a multi-metric fish index for the cyprinid streams of the Caspian Sea Basin (MMICS) in Iran. As species diversity and composition as well as population structure in the studied streams are different to other regions, there is a substantial need to develop a new fish index. We sampled fish and environmental data of 102 sites in medium sized streams. We analysed human pressures at different spatial scales and determined applicable fish metrics showing a response to human pressures. In total, five structural and functional types of metrics (i.e. biodiversity, habitat, reproduction, trophic level and water quality sensitivity) were considered. In addition, we used 29 criteria describing major anthropogenic human pressures at sampling sites and generated a regional pressure index (RPI) that accounted for potential effects of multiple human pressures. For the MMICS development, we first defined reference sites (least disturbed) and secondly quantified differences of fish metrics between reference and impaired sites. We used a Generalised Linear Model (GLM) to describe metric responses to natural environmental differences in least disturbed conditions. By including impaired sites, the residual distributions of these models described the response range of each metric to human pressures, independently of natural environmental influence. Finally, seven fish metrics showed the best ability to discriminate between impaired and reference sites. The multi-metric fish index performed well in discriminating human pressure classes, giving a significant negative linear response to a gradient of the RPI. These methods can be used for further development of a standardised monitoring tool to assess the ecological status and trends in biological condition for streams of the whole country, considering its complex and diverse geology and climate. PMID:25960581

  2. Functional characterization of viral tumor necrosis factor receptors encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) genome.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yang; Qi, Hemei; Yuan, Jimin; Wang, Rui; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Dong, Chuanfu

    2015-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) is a large double-stranded DNA virus of Alloherpesviridae family in the order Herpesvirales. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in common carp and its ornamental koi variety, and threatens the aquaculture industries worldwide. Mimicry of cytokines and cytokine receptors is a particular strategy for large DNA viruses in modulating the host immune response. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two novel viral homologues of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) encoded by CyHV3-ORF4 and -ORF12, respectively. CyHV3-ORF4 was identified as a homologue of HVEM and CyHV3-ORF12 as a homologue of TNFRSF1. Overexpression of ORF4 and ORF12 in zebrafish embryos results in embryonic lethality, morphological defects and increased apoptosis. Although we failed to identify any interaction between the two vTNFRs and their potential ligands in zebrafish TNF superfamily by yeast two-hybrid system, the expression of some genes in TNF superfamily or TNFR superfamily were mis-regulated in ORF4 or ORF12-overexpressing embryos, especially the death receptor zHDR and its cognate ligand DL1b. Further studies showed that the apoptosis induced by the both CyHV3 vTNFRs is mainly activated through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and requires the crosstalk between the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Additionally, using RT-qPCR and Western blot assays, the expression patterns of the both vTNFRs were also analyzed during CyHV3 productive infection. Collectively, this is the first functional study of two unique vTNFRs encoded by a herpesvirus infecting non-mammalian vertebrates, which may provide novel insights into viral immune regulation mechanism and the pathogenesis of CyHV3 infection. PMID:26052019

  3. Rational Development of an Attenuated Recombinant Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Vaccine Using Prokaryotic Mutagenesis and In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Ouyang, Ping; Fournier, Guillaume; Reschner, Anca; Rakus, Krzysztof; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Farnir, Frédéric; Bayrou, Calixte; Lieffrig, François; Li, Hong; Desmecht, Daniel; Davison, Andrew J.; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in common and koi carp industries, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open reading frame 134 (ORF134), we unexpectedly obtained a clone with additional deletion of ORF56 and ORF57. This triple deleted recombinant replicated efficiently in vitro and expressed an in vivo safety/efficacy profile compatible with use as an attenuated vaccine. To determine the role of the double ORF56-57 deletion in the phenotype and to improve further the quality of the vaccine candidate, a series of deleted recombinants was produced and tested in vivo. These experiments led to the selection of a double deleted recombinant lacking ORF56 and ORF57 as a vaccine candidate. The safety and efficacy of this strain were studied using an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system (IVIS), qPCR, and histopathological examination, which demonstrated that it enters fish via skin infection similar to the wild type strain. However, compared to the parental wild type strain, the vaccine candidate replicated at lower levels and spread less efficiently to secondary sites of infection. Transmission experiments allowing water contamination with or without additional physical contact between fish demonstrated that the vaccine candidate has a reduced ability to spread from vaccinated fish to naïve sentinel cohabitants. Finally, IVIS analyses demonstrated that the vaccine candidate induces a protective mucosal immune response at the portal of entry. Thus, the present study is the first to report the rational development of a recombinant attenuated vaccine against CyHV-3 for mass vaccination of carp. We also demonstrated the relevance of the CyHV-3 carp model for studying alloherpesvirus transmission and mucosal immunity in teleost skin. PMID:25700279

  4. V1-distributed Herpes Zoster and Meningitis in a Two-year Old.

    PubMed

    Wang, Audrey S; Ann Nguyen, Tuyet; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    Since the advent of the varicella vaccine, occurrence of herpes zoster in children has been rare. However, a subset of patients may develop herpes zoster after receiving the vaccine. Herein the authors report a case of a two-year-old boy who developed herpes zoster in the V1 distribution and meningitis following a single dose of varicella vaccine. PMID:26029337

  5. Predictive Factors of Herpes Zoster HIV-Infected Patients: Another Adverse Effect of Crack Cocaine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Predictive Factors of Herpes Zoster HIV-Infected Patients: Another Adverse Effect of Crack Cocaine.001; and in patients previously reported to use crack cocaine AHR=5.9, (95%CI=1.4-25), P=0.02. Herpes zoster incidence inhibitors on herpes zoster incidence. The present study is the first to suggest that crack cocaine

  6. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid antibodies in herpes simplex virus encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M L Koskiniemi; A Vaheri

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to different viruses and bacteria were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of six patients with herpes simplex virus encephalitis proven by brain biopsy and in five others with a presumptive diagnosis. Antibodies to herpes simplex virus but not to other organisms appeared in the CSF of all patients after the first weeks of the illness. Herpes simplex virus

  7. TLR3 deficiency in herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye Kyung; Seppänen, Mikko; Hautala, Timo; Ciancanelli, Michael J.; Itan, Yuval; Lafaille, Fabien G.; Dell, William; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Byun, Minji; Pauwels, Elodie; Rönnelid, Ylva; Cai, Xin; Boucherit, Soraya; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Paetau, Anders; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Tardieu, Marc; Abel, Laurent; Yildiran, Alisan; Vergison, Anne; Roivainen, Reina; Etzioni, Amos; Tienari, Pentti J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proportion of children with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) displaying TLR3 deficiency, the extent of TLR3 allelic heterogeneity, and the specific clinical features of TLR3 deficiency. Methods: We determined the sequence of all exons of TLR3 in 110 of the 120 patients with HSE enrolled in our study who do not carry any of the previously described HSE-predisposing mutations of TLR3 pathway genes (TLR3, UNC93B1, TRIF, TRAF3, and TBK1). All the new mutant TLR3 alleles detected were characterized experimentally in-depth to establish the causal relationship between the genotype and phenotype. Results: In addition to the 3 previously reported TLR3-deficient patients from the same cohort, 6 other children or young adults with HSE carry 1 of 5 unique or extremely rare (minor allele frequency <0.001) missense TLR3 alleles. Two alleles (M374T, D592N) heterozygous in 3 patients are not deleterious in vitro. The other 3 are deleterious via different mechanisms: G743D+R811I and L360P heterozygous in 2 patients are loss-of-function due to low levels of expression and lack of cleavage, respectively, and R867Q homozygous in 1 patient is hypomorphic. The 3 patients' fibroblasts display impaired TLR3 responses and enhanced herpes simplex virus 1 susceptibility. Overall, TLR3 deficiency is therefore found in 6 (5%) of the 120 patients studied. There is high allelic heterogeneity, with 3 forms of autosomal dominant partial defect by negative dominance or haploinsufficiency, and 2 forms of autosomal recessive defect with complete or partial deficiency. Finally, 4 (66%) of the 6 TLR3-deficient patients had at least 1 late relapse of HSE, whereas relapse occurred in only 12 (10%) of the total cohort of 120 patients. Conclusions: Childhood-onset HSE is due to TLR3 deficiency in a traceable fraction of patients, in particular the ones with HSE recurrence. Mutations in TLR3 and TLR3 pathway genes should be searched and experimentally studied in children with HSE, and patients with proven TLR3 deficiency should be followed carefully. PMID:25339207

  8. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth's magnetosphere is particularly worrisome because it includes ionizing radiation from cosmic galactic radiation. Increased stress levels appear even before flight, presumably from the rigors of preflight training and the anticipation of the mission (12, 32, 38, 39). Space flight causes significant changes in human immune function (32), but the means by which these changes come about have been difficult to discern. Consistent indicators of stress associated with space flight include increased production of stress hormones, and changes in cells of the immune system. These changes include elevated white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts at landing (15, 16, 35, 37). Activation of generalized stress responses before, during, and after space flight probably affects the function of the immune system. Space flight has been shown to decrease many aspects of immune function, including natural killer (NK) cell activity, interferon production, the blastogenic response of leukocytes to mitogens, cell-mediated immunity, neutrophil function and monocyte function (5, 16, 18, 21, 35-37).

  9. [Neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis: two twins, two cases].

    PubMed

    Conca M, Natalia; Labraña C, Yenis; Bercovich W, Mariana; Cienfuegos S, Guillermo; Santolaya De P, M Elena

    2011-06-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is an infrequent infection with high mortality and morbidity. Antiviral therapies decrease mortality but long term sequelae are still high, so early diagnosis is important for opportune treatment. We present a pair of twins with central nervous system herpes simplex infection during the first month of life. Both twins presented non-specific symptoms and consulted with 48 hours apart needing intensive care admission, the first one for noninvasive mechanical ventilation and the second for hemodynamic support. Diagnosis was made by cerebrospinal fluid PCR, in the first twin at day 9 of disease and in the second at admission. Both twins were treated with acyclovir, but only the second one at the beginning of her illness. Initial study with electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance was normal and cerebrospinal fluid on day 18 of treatment was negative for herpes simplex virus DNA detection in both patients. PMID:21879153

  10. The challenge of developing a herpes simplex virus 2 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Dropulic, Lesia K; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2013-01-01

    HSV infections are prevalent worldwide. A vaccine to prevent genital herpes would have a significant impact on this disease. Several vaccines have shown promise in animal models; however, so far these have not been successful in human clinical studies. Prophylactic HSV vaccines to prevent HSV infection or disease have focused primarily on eliciting antibody responses. Potent antibody responses are needed to result in sufficiently high levels of virus-specific antibody in the genital tract. Therapeutic vaccines that reduce recurrences need to induce potent T-cell responses at the site of infection. With the increasing incidence of HSV-1 genital herpes, an effective herpes vaccine should protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Novel HSV vaccines, such as replication-defective or attenuated viruses, have elicited humoral and cellular immune responses in preclinical studies. These vaccines and others hold promise in future clinical studies. PMID:23252387

  11. AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS IN HUMAN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Tankersley, Robert W.

    1964-01-01

    Tankersley, Robert W., Jr. (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond). Amino acid requirements of herpes simplex virus in human cells. J. Bacteriol. 87:609–613. 1964.—Progressive infection of human cells minimally infected with herpes simplex virus requires 11 of the amino acids of Eagle's medium, and glutamine. Lysine is not required, but rather exerts a partially inhibitory effect upon virus multiplication. Infected cells deprived of arginine support neither cytopathogenic effects nor virus replication; when arginine is replaced, a prompt and extensive infection follows. The effect of nutritional deficiencies on virus infection is discussed. PMID:14127578

  12. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review. PMID:25749169

  13. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity is associated with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Ogunjimi, Benson; Hens, Niel; Pebody, Richard; Jansens, Hilde; Seale, Holly; Quinlivan, Mark; Theeten, Heidi; Goossens, Herman; Breuer, Judy; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by VZV reactivation that is facilitated by a declined immunity against varicella-zoster virus (VZV), but also occurs in immunocompetent individuals. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with immunosenescence meaning that VZV-specific T-cells could be less responsive. This study aimed to determine whether CMV infection could be a risk factor for the development of HZ. CMV IgG serostatus was determined in stored serum samples from previously prospectively recruited ambulatory adult HZ patients in the UK (N = 223) in order to compare the results with those from UK population samples (N = 1545) by means of a logistic regression (controlling for age and gender). Furthermore, we compared the UK population CMV seroprevalence with those from population samples from other countries (from Belgium (N1 = 1741, N2 = 576), USA (N = 5572) and Australia (N = 2080)). Furthermore, CMV IgG titers could be compared between UK HZ patients and Belgium N2 population samples because the same experimental set-up for analysis was used. We found UK ambulatory HZ patients to have a higher CMV seroprevalence than UK population samples (OR 1.56 [1.11 2.19]). CMV IgG seropositivity was a significant risk factor for HZ in the UK (OR 3.06 [1.32 7.04]. Furthermore, high CMV IgG titers (exceeding the upper threshold) were less abundant in CMV-seropositive Belgian N2 population samples than in CMV-seropositive UK HZ patients (OR 0.51 [0.31 0.82]. We found CMV-seroprevalence to increase faster with age in the UK than in other countries (P < 0.05). We conclude that CMV IgG seropositivity is associated with HZ. This finding could add to the growing list of risk factors for HZ. PMID:25905443

  14. Zebrafish: Modeling for Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S.; Dale, Rodney M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure–function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits. PMID:24266790

  15. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  16. Performance of HerpeSelect and Kalon Assays in Detection of Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2?

    PubMed Central

    LeGoff, Jérôme; Mayaud, Philippe; Gresenguet, Gérard; Weiss, Helen A.; Nzambi, Khonde; Frost, Eric; Pepin, Jacques; Belec, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    The performances of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in detecting herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies have been inconsistent for African and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive populations. We compared the performances of the HerpeSelect and Kalon glycoprotein G2 ELISAs for patients with genital ulcer disease in Ghana and the Central African Republic. Sera from 434 women were tested with the HerpeSelect assay, and a subsample (n = 199) was tested by the Kalon assay. Ulcer swabs and cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HSV-2 DNA by PCR. HSV-2-seronegative women with detectable genital HSV-2 DNA were retested for HSV-2 antibodies 14 and 28 days later by the two ELISAs. A total of 346 (80%) women were positive by HerpeSelect at baseline, and 225 (54%) had detectable genital (lesional or cervicovaginal) HSV-2 DNA. Sixty-six (19%) HerpeSelect-positive samples had low-positive index values (1.1 to 3.5), and 58% of these samples had detectable genital HSV-2 DNA. Global agreement between the two serological assays was 86%. Concordance was high (99%) for sera that were negative by HerpeSelect or had high index values (>3.5). Defining infection detected by HSV-2 DNA PCR and/or Kalon assay as true infection, 71% of sera with low-positive index values were associated with true HSV-2 infection. Twenty-five women were identified as having nonprimary first-episode genital HSV-2 infection. Rates of HSV-2 seroconversion at day 14 were 77% (10/13 patients) by HerpeSelect assay and 23% (3/13 patients) by Kalon assay, with four additional seroconversions detected by Kalon assay at day 28. HIV serostatus did not influence assay performance. Low index values obtained with the HerpeSelect assay may correspond to true HSV-2 infection, in particular to nonprimary first episodes of genital HSV-2 infection, and need to be interpreted in the context of clinical history. PMID:18385443

  17. The mortality of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Medina, Eduardo; Cantey, Joseph B; Sánchez, Pablo J

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study characterized the clinical course of 13 neonates who died with herpes simplex virus infection from 2001 to 2011, representing a 26% case-fatality rate. Fatal disease developed at ?48 hours of age in one-third of infants, was mostly disseminated disease, and occurred despite early administration of high-dose acyclovir therapy. PMID:25868428

  18. Epidemiology of Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Developed Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Standardized; Jean-Elie Malkin

    SUMMARY Comparisons of the seroepidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection within and between countries are hampered by variations in tests, methods and populations sampled. Differences in seroprevalence may partly reflect variability in diagnostic efforts and healthcare awareness, expectations and utilization. To allow comparison between surveys and to improve their performance, seroepidemiological studies should use validated HSV type-specific tests,

  19. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) for cancer treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Shen; J Nemunaitis

    2006-01-01

    Cancer remains a serious threat to human health, causing over 500 000 deaths each year in US alone, exceeded only by heart diseases. Many new technologies are being developed to fight cancer, among which are gene therapies and oncolytic virotherapies. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic DNA virus with many favorable properties both as a delivery vector

  20. Vaccinia necrosum after smallpox vaccination for herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Funk, E A; Strausbaugh, L J

    1981-03-01

    We have described a patient with vaccinia necrosum after smallpox vaccination for persistent herpes labialis. The patient eventually recovered after surgical resection of the lesion and multiple courses of vaccinia immune globulin and methisazone. This report emphasizes the needless risks of vaccinating patients with herpetic infections. PMID:7221650

  1. Humoral response to herpes simplex virus is complement-dependent

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    Humoral response to herpes simplex virus is complement-dependent Xavier J. Da Costa*, Mark A) The complement system represents a cascade of serum proteins, which provide a major effector function in innate immunity. Recent studies have revealed that complement links innate and adaptive immunity via complement

  2. Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus Replication by Tobacco Extracts1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan-Michael Hirsch; Bo Svennerholm; Anders Vahlne

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with the genesis of leukoplakias, epithelial atypia, and oral cancer. Tobacco habits, such as snuff dipping, are also definitely corre lated with this type of lesion. The normal cytolytic HSV-1 infection can, after in vitro inactivation, transform cells. Extracts of snuff were prepared and assayed for their ability to inhibit HSV-1

  3. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making ... Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Can You Get Genital Herpes From a ...

  4. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  5. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  6. An efficient selection system for packaging herpes simplex virus amplicons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoliu Zhang; Helen O'Shea; Clare Entwisle; Mike Boursnell; Stacey Efstathiou; Stephen Inglis

    Due to their simplicity and flexibility of genomic construction, herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicon- based vectors are attractive vehicles for gene delivery. However, a significant problem faced in the generation of amplicon stocks is the low amplicon to helper virus (A\\/H) ratio. In order to improve the proportion of amplicons generated, a selection system for amplicon production was developed in

  7. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  8. Zinc Salts Inactivate Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAX ARENS; SHARON TRAVIS

    2000-01-01

    Using a standard plaque assay and clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV), we have tested the ability of zinc salts to inactivate HSV. Virus was treated by incubation at 37°C with zinc salts in morpholinepropane- sulfonic acid-buffered culture medium and was then diluted and plated onto CV-1 cells for detection and quantitation of remaining infectious virus. Of 10 randomly

  9. The Psychosocial Impact of Testing Individuals with No History of Genital Herpes for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomio Miyai; Katherine R. Turner; Charlotte K. Kent; Jeffrey Klausner

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although approximately 20% of the population has a genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, 80% of these infections are unrec- ognized or asymptomatic. Serologic identification of HSV-2 leads to recognition of infection, which could lead to behavioral changes that reduce transmission. However, there has been concern that HSV-2 testing among persons without symptoms will cause substantial psy- chosocial harm. Goal: The

  10. Ube2g2–gp78-mediated HERP polyubiquitylation is involved in ER stress recovery

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Long; Liu, Weixiao; Zhang, Huihui; Liu, Chao; Shang, Yongliang; Ye, Yihong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A large number of studies have focused on how individual organisms respond to a stress condition, but little attention has been paid to the stress recovery process, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress recovery. Homocysteine-induced ER protein (HERP) was originally identified as a chaperone-like protein that is strongly induced upon ER stress. Here we show that, after ER stress induction, HERP is rapidly degraded by Ube2g2–gp78-mediated ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The polyubiquitylation of HERP in vitro depends on a physical interaction between the CUE domain of gp78 and the ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain of HERP, which is essential for HERP degradation in vivo during ER stress recovery. We further show that although HERP promotes cell survival under ER stress, high levels of HERP expression reduce cell viability under oxidative stress conditions, suggesting that HERP plays a dual role in cellular stress adaptation. Together, these results establish the ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation of HERP as a novel mechanism that fine-tunes the stress tolerance capacity of the cell. PMID:24496447

  11. Herp Regulates Hrd1-mediated Ubiquitylation in a Ubiquitin-like Domain-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Kny, Melanie; Standera, Sybille; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Seeger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of aberrant proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the unfolded protein response pathway that helps the cell to survive under these stress conditions. Herp is a mammalian ubiquitin domain protein, which is strongly induced by the unfolded protein response. It is involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) and interacts directly with the ubiquitin ligase Hrd1, which is found in high molecular mass complexes of the ER membrane. Here we present the first evidence that Herp regulates Hrd1-mediated ubiquitylation in a ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain-dependent manner. We found that upon exposure of cells to ER stress, elevation of Herp steady state levels is accompanied by an enhanced association of Herp with pre-existing Hrd1. Hrd1-associated Herp is rapidly degraded and substituted by de novo synthesized Herp, suggesting a continuous turnover of the protein at Hrd1 complexes. Further analysis revealed the presence of multiple Hrd1 copies in a single complex enabling binding of a variable number of Herp molecules. Efficient ubiquitylation of the Hrd1-specific ERAD substrate ?1-antitrypsin null Hong Kong (NHK) required the presence of the Herp UBL domain, which was also necessary for NHK degradation. In summary, we propose that binding of Herp to Hrd1-containing ERAD complexes positively regulates the ubiquitylation activity of these complexes, thus permitting survival of the cell during ER stress. PMID:21149444

  12. Herpes Zoster Immunization in Older Adults Has Big Benefits.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Harald

    2015-06-01

    The value and importance of providing herpes zoster immunization to reduce the incidence and severity of acute herpes zoster neuralgia, especially in older patients, is described. The prevention of postherpetic neuralgia can profoundly impact patients' quality of life. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, © Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd, and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, LTD and is distributed free of charge to healthcare professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the website: www.paineurope.com at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources. PMID:26095496

  13. Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, c...

  14. Epigallocatechin Gallate Inactivates Clinical Isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Isaacs; Guang Y. Wen; Weimin Xu; Jun Hua Jia; Lisa Rohan; Christopher Corbo; Vincenzo Di Maggio; Edmund C. Jenkins; Sharon Hillier

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of a fully effective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine, topical microbicides represent an important strategy for preventing HSV transmission. ()-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (molecular weight, 458.4) is the primary catechin in green tea. The present study shows that EGCG has greater anti-HSV activity than other green tea catechins and inactivates multiple clinical isolates of HSV type 1 (HSV-1)

  15. Prolonged maternal postpartum fever and neonatal herpes infection.

    PubMed

    Anyebuno, M; Lopez-Medina, E; Sánchez, P J

    2014-09-01

    Maternal postpartum fever that is suggestive of endometritis often triggers evaluation of the mother and newborn infant for bacterial infection. Two neonates whose mothers had persistent postpartum fever despite broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy developed disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Obstetric and pediatric healthcare providers should be mindful of possible HSV infection if there is postpartum fever unresponsive to antibiotics, and both mother and neonate should be evaluated appropriately and treated promptly. PMID:25179382

  16. Psychological and Immunological Predictors of Genital Herpes Re currence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGARET E. KEMENY; FRANCES COHEN; LEONARD S. ZEGANS; MARCUS A. CONANT

    The relationships among stressful life experience, mood, helper-inducer (CD4+) and suppres- sor-cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) recurrence were investi- gated prospectively in 36 patients with recurrent HSV. The following factors were measured monthly for six months: stressful life experience (including current acute and ongoing stressors, residual effects of previous stressors, and anticipation of future stressors),

  17. Fifteen minute consultation: managing neonatal and childhood herpes encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Le Doare, K; Menson, Esse; Patel, Deepak; Lim, Ming; Lyall, Hermione; Herberg, Jethro

    2015-04-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common single cause of viral encephalitis in infants and children. Treated or untreated, it can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and its presentation is usually insidious and non-specific. Prompt and careful investigation is important in order to establish the diagnosis so that treatment can be optimised. We address some common questions arising when diagnosing and treating presumed HSE throughout childhood. PMID:25112286

  18. Oncolytic virus therapy using genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoki Todo

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of oncolytic virus vectors has been developed lately for cancer therapy. Herpes simplex virus type 1\\u000a (HSV-1) vectors are particularly useful, because they can be genetically engineered to replicate and spread highly selectively\\u000a in tumor cells and can also express multiple foreign transgenes. These vectors can manifest cytopathic effect in a wide variety\\u000a of tumor types without

  19. Herpes simplex virus-induced cardiomyopathy successfully treated with acyclovir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petr Kuchynka; Tomas Palecek; Hana Hrbackova; Ivana Vitkova; Stanislav Simek; Eduard Nemecek; Viktor Aster; William E. Louch; Michael Aschermann; Ales Linhart

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Die entzündliche dilatative Kardiomyopathie stellt eine erworbene Form der dilatativen Kardiomyopathie dar, wobei Virusinfektionen\\u000a die häufigste Ursache darstellen. Im Gegensatz zu anderen kardiotropen Viren, wird das Herpes simplex Virus (HSV) nur selten\\u000a in Biopsien des Myokards von Patienten mit dilatativer Kardiomyopathie gefunden. Wir berichten über einen Fall einer erfolgreichen\\u000a Behandlung mit Azyclovir einer durch HSV induzierten Kardiomyopathie.

  20. Herpes simplex virus esophagitis in the immunocompetent host: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jambunathan Ramanathan; Majed Rammouni; Joseph Baran; Riad Khatib

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to delineate the characteristics of herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) in the immunocompetent host.METHODS:The study entailed a case report and a review of relevant literature through a MEDLINE search back to 1966. All cases with documented HSVE in patients without immunosuppression were selected and their characteristics defined.RESULTS:A total of 38 cases were identified. The

  1. Mother-to-Child Transmission of Herpes Simplex Virus.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-09-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2), both alpha herpesviruses, are highly prevalent worldwide. Both HSV types commonly cause genital infection, which, when acquired or reactivated during pregnancy, carries with it the risk of transmission to the fetus or neonate. Women who acquire primary or first-episode genital herpes during pregnancy are at greater risk for transmitting the infection than are women with recurrent genital herpes. Because viral infection and reactivation are frequently asymptomatic, many affected women are unaware of their infection and risk of transmission to their infants. Neonatal HSV infection can have devastating long-term consequences, especially when the central nervous system (CNS) is involved. Treatment of affected neonates with intravenous acyclovir has improved outcomes but there is room for further improvement, especially in regard to CNS disease. Working with pregnant women to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HSV is an important component in reducing the overall disease burden of neonatal HSV infections. PMID:25232472

  2. Determinants of disclosure of genital herpes to partners

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Ferrier, S; Kocsis, A; Shadrick, J; Ukoumunne, O; Murphy, S; Hetherton, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors which determine whether and when patients will disclose infection with genital herpes to sexual partners. Methods: The sample was 26 women and 24 men attending a herpes clinic in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Semistructured interviews yielded quantitative data and also qualitative data which were subjected to content analysis. Results: Characteristics of partners were very important in determining whether disclosure occurred. Respondents were less likely to tell partners regarded as casual. Perception of the likely reaction of partners was important in deciding whether to tell. Many respondents assumed that they were not infectious if they were not currently having an attack or if they were taking antiviral medication. The decision whether to tell tended to be based on considerations of likely discovery and of honesty towards the partner rather than control of transmission. Of patient characteristics only self rated depressed mood was related to disclosure to the most recent partner. Conclusions: Perception of the partner and anticipated partner response is crucially important in determining whether and when disclosure of genital herpes infection occurs. PMID:12576613

  3. Recognition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Tegument Proteins by CD4 T Cells Infiltrating Human Genital Herpes Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID M. KOELLE; JEANNINE M. FRANK; MATTHEW L. JOHNSON; WILLIAM W. KWOK

    1998-01-01

    The local cellular immune response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is important in the control of recurrent HSV infection. The antiviral functions of infiltrating CD4-bearing T cells may include cytotoxicity, inhibition of viral growth, lymphokine secretion, and support of humoral and CD8 responses. The antigens recognized by many HSV-specific CD4 T cells localizing to genital HSV-2 lesions are unknown. T

  4. Results From a Hypothesis Generating Case-Control Study: Herpes Family Viruses and Schizophrenia Among Military Personnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Niebuhr; Amy M. Millikan; Robert Yolken; Yuanzhang Li; Natalya S. Weber

    2008-01-01

    Background: Herpes family viruses can cause central ner- vous system inflammatory changes that can present with symptoms indistinguishable from schizophrenia and there- fore are of interest inschizophreniaresearch. Mostexisting studies of herpes viruses have used small populations and postdiagnosis specimens. As part of a larger research pro- gram, we conducted a hypothesis-generating case-control study of selected herpes virus antibodies among individuals

  5. Herpes zoster vaccine effectiveness and manifestations of herpes zoster and associated pain by vaccination status.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Yawn, Barbara P; Hales, Craig M; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Zhang, John; Kurland, Marge J; Harpaz, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Options for managing herpes zoster (HZ)-related pain and complications have limited effectiveness, making HZ prevention through vaccination an important strategy. Limited data are available on HZ vaccine effectiveness against confirmed HZ and manifestations of HZ among vaccinated persons. We conducted a matched case-control study to assess HZ vaccine effectiveness for prevention of HZ and other HZ-related outcomes and a cohort study of persons with HZ to compare HZ-related outcomes by vaccination status. Cases were identified through active surveillance among persons age ?60 years with HZ onset and health-care encounters during 2010-2011 in Southeastern Minnesota. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Data were collected by medical record review and from participants via interviews and daily pain diaries. 266 HZ case-patients and 362 matched controls were enrolled in the vaccine effectiveness studies and 303 case-patients in the cohort study of HZ characteristics by vaccination status. Vaccination was associated with 54% (95% CI:32%-69%) reduction in HZ incidence, 58% (95% CI:31%-75%) reduction in HZ prodromal symptoms, and 70% (95% CI:33%-87%) reduction in medically-attended prodrome. HZ vaccine was statistically significant effective at preventing postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) measured at 30 d after rash onset, 61% (95% CI: 22%-80%). Among persons who developed HZ, no differences were found by vaccination status in severity or duration of HZ pain after rash onset. In this population-based study, HZ vaccination was associated with >50% reduction in HZ, HZ prodrome, and medically-attended prodrome. PMID:25806911

  6. A comparison of between detailed and simple histories in the diagnosis of genital herpes complicating pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zane A. Brown; Jacqueline K. Benedetti; D. Heather Watts; Stacey Selke; Sylvia Berry; Rhoda L. Ashley; Lawrence Corey

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All women seropositive for herpes simplex virus-2 are at risk for asymptomatic viral shedding at the onset of labor and neonatal transmission of the virus. Unfortunately, only 20% to 35% of seropositive adults give a history consistent with genital herpes. We evaluated whether more detailed questioning during pregnancy might elucidate symptoms of seropositivity and therefore better identity women at

  7. A prospective study of the psychological impact on patients with a first episode of genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Carney; E Ross; C Bunker; G Ikkos; A Mindel

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the psychological impact of first episode of genital herpes, and to determine whether this changes over time. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--The Departments of Genitourinary Medicine (GUM), and Dermatology, Middlesex Hospital London. The study group consisted of patients attending the department of GUM with a clinically proven first episode of genital herpes. Two control groups were recruited; firstly patients without

  8. The potential epidemiological impact of a genital herpes vaccine for women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G P Garnett; G Dubin; M Slaoui; T Darcis

    2004-01-01

    Background: In two phase III vaccine trials immunisation of women previously uninfected by herpes simplex virus provided protection against genital herpes disease. In deciding policy, an evaluation of the epidemiological impact of the partial protection provided by the vaccine should be considered.Methods: A sex and sexual activity stratified deterministic differential and partial differential equation model of the natural history of

  9. New developments in the epidemiology, natural history and management of genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Stanberry; Anthony Cunningham; Gregory Mertz; Adrian Mindel; Barry Peters; Michael Reitano; Stephen Sacks; Anna Wald; Sawko Wassilew; Paul Woolley

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of genital herpes is increasing in several populations worldwide. Factors that may be contributing to this increase include greater numbers of sexual partners, the high frequency of asymptomatic infections, poor use of safe sexual practices, and possibly the decreased incidence of childhood oral herpes simplex virus infection. Transmission occurs via skin-to-skin or mucous membrane contact during periods of

  10. Effects of innate immunity on herpes simplex virus and its ability to kill tumor cells

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    REVIEW Effects of innate immunity on herpes simplex virus and its ability to kill tumor cells H strains of viruses that exhibit relatively selective replication in tumor cells. Several types of OV have been derived from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1). Tumor oncolysis depends on the processes of initial OV

  11. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  12. Laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.

    PubMed

    Glinšek Biškup, Urška; Urši?, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative lesions of the vulva, vagina, and cervix in women and in the genital region in men. Direct methods of viral genome detection are recommended in the acute stage of primary and recurrent infections when manifest ulcers or lesions are evident. Serological testing is recommended as an aid in diagnosing genital herpes in patients with reinfection in atypical or already healed lesions. When herpes lesions are present, all sexual activities should be avoided to prevent transmission of infection. Antiviral drugs can reduce viral shedding and thus reduce the risk of sexual transmission of the virus. PMID:26086165

  13. The Molecular Biology of Frog Virus 3 and other Iridoviruses Infecting Cold-Blooded Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Chinchar, V. Gregory; Yu, Kwang H.; Jancovich, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the best characterized member of the family Iridoviridae. FV3 study has provided insights into the replication of other family members, and has served as a model of viral transcription, genome replication, and virus-mediated host-shutoff. Although the broad outlines of FV3 replication have been elucidated, the precise roles of most viral proteins remain unknown. Current studies using knock down (KD) mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMO) and small, interfering RNAs (siRNA), knock out (KO) following replacement of the targeted gene with a selectable marker by homologous recombination, ectopic viral gene expression, and recombinant viral proteins have enabled researchers to systematically ascertain replicative- and virulence-related gene functions. In addition, the application of molecular tools to ecological studies is providing novel ways for field biologists to identify potential pathogens, quantify infections, and trace the evolution of ecologically important viral species. In this review, we summarize current studies using not only FV3, but also other iridoviruses infecting ectotherms. As described below, general principles ascertained using FV3 served as a model for the family, and studies utilizing other ranaviruses and megalocytiviruses have confirmed and extended our understanding of iridovirus replication. Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease. PMID:22069524

  14. Ultrasonic absorption evidence for structural fluctuations in frog virus 3 and its subparticles.

    PubMed Central

    Robach, Y; Michels, B; Cerf, R; Braunwald, J; Tripier-Darcy, F

    1983-01-01

    The structural fluctuations specific to self-assemblies of biological molecules have been investigated further with ultrasonic techniques by using frog virus 3 (FV3). We compared the ultrasonic properties of complete FV3 virions and of several subparticles that may be obtained from this DNA virus: (i) the central nucleoprotein core versus its component DNA and proteins in a dissociated state; (ii) the core versus the capsidless subparticle, consisting of the core surrounded by the lipid membrane; and (iii) the complete virus versus the capsidless subparticle. The ultrasonic absorption by the core particle was quite large compared with the absorption by other nucleoprotein assemblies, suggesting that the core contains some organized structure. Both the core and the complete virus absorbed ultrasound more than did the capsidless subparticle. The difference spectrum for the virion relative to the capsidless subparticle may represent a single relaxation and is analyzed, by using a recent model, in terms of volume fluctuations due to radial movements in the virion. These fluctuations are much smaller than can be detected in virus crystals with present-day x-ray techniques. PMID:6408639

  15. Inflammation-Induced Reactivation of the Ranavirus Frog Virus 3 in Asymptomatic Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jacques; Grayfer, Leon; Edholm, Eva-Stina; Ward, Brian; De Jesús Andino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Natural infections of ectothermic vertebrates by ranaviruses (RV, family Iridoviridae) are rapidly increasing, with an alarming expansion of RV tropism and resulting die-offs of numerous animal populations. Notably, infection studies of the amphibian Xenopus laevis with the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) have revealed that although the adult frog immune system is efficient at controlling RV infections, residual quiescent virus can be detected in mononuclear phagocytes of otherwise asymptomatic animals following the resolution of RV infections. It is noteworthy that macrophage-lineage cells are now believed to be a critical element in the RV infection strategy. In the present work, we report that inflammation induced by peritoneal injection of heat-killed bacteria in asymptomatic frogs one month after infection with FV3 resulted in viral reactivation including detectable viral DNA and viral gene expression in otherwise asymptomatic frogs. FV3 reactivation was most prominently detected in kidneys and in peritoneal HAM56+ mononuclear phagocytes. Notably, unlike adult frogs that typically clear primary FV3 infections, a proportion of the animals succumbed to the reactivated FV3 infection, indicating that previous exposure does not provide protection against subsequent reactivation in these animals. PMID:25390636

  16. Anti-herpes simplex type 1 activity in IgG subclasses produced systemically and intrathecally in patients with herpes encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. H. Johansson; J. Blomberg

    1986-01-01

    The role of the humoral immune response in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is largely unknown. The finding that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) induced IgG Fc receptor binds to all IgG subclasses except IgG 3 prompted an investigation of anti-HSV activity in IgG subclasses from serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in ten patients with proven or highly probable

  17. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 ?g of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (?8%; 95% CI, ?59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  18. Molecular phylogeny of two lineages of Leuciscinae cyprinids (Telestes and Scardinius) from the peri-Mediterranean area based on cytochrome b data.

    PubMed

    Ketmaier, Valerio; Bianco, Pier Giorgio; Cobolli, Marina; Krivokapic, Marijana; Caniglia, Romolo; De Matthaeis, Elvira

    2004-09-01

    We examined phylogenetic relationships in two lineages of Leuciscinae cyprinid fishes based on the sequence data of the complete mitochondrial DNA region coding for the cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). Telestes includes obligate riverine, moderately cold water-adapted species whereas Scardinius comprises warm-adapted species living in lowland lakes and still waters of rivers and streams. We also analysed selected representatives of Leuciscus and Phoxinellus because the taxonomic status of some species belonging to these genera is dubious and they could be placed in the genus Telestes. The study includes 18 species, 43 populations, and 111 individuals from 9 of the 14 peri-Mediterranean ichthyogeographic districts. Clades recovered from the phylogenetic analyses do not support previous taxonomic assumptions based on morphology. Telestes, Leuciscus, and Phoxinellus do not form monophyletic assemblages; phylogenetic analyses suggest that L. polylepis, L. turskyi, P. croaticus, and P. metohiensis should be included in Telestes. Similarly, populations of Scardinius erythrophthalmus do not cluster together and the endangered S. scardafa, endemic to central Italy and surviving in a single locality, is nested within them. The radiations of Telestes and Scardinius occurred in different time periods. A major diversification of Telestes is consistent with a sea dispersal during the freshwater Messinian "Lago Mare" phase of the Mediterranean Sea. Cladogenetic events within Scardinius are likely related to the extension and confluence of river drainages in lowlands following multiple lowering of the sea level during the Quaternary glaciations. PMID:15288075

  19. Effects of water quality and trophic status on helminth infections in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 from three lakes in the Kashmir Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Zargar, U R; Yousuf, A R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmed, F; Bashir, H; Ahmed, F

    2012-03-01

    Water quality greatly influences the population density of aquatic biota, including parasites. In order to evaluate the relationship between fish parasites and water quality in Kashmir Himalayas, we assessed helminth parasite densities in Schizothorax niger Heckel, 1838 (an endemic cyprinid fish of Kashmir) from three lakes, namely Anchar, Manasbal and Dal, which reflected the varied stages of eutrophication. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was higher in the hypertrophic Anchar Lake (prevalence = 18.6%) compared to Manasbal Lake, which was the least eutrophied (prevalence = 6.4%). Furthermore, mean prevalence of monoxenous and heteroxenous parasites was higher in lakes containing higher levels of water degradation (Anchar and Dal). The mean number of helminth species per fish host was the highest in the hypertrophic lake (1.3 ± 0.3) in comparison to the least eutrophic lake (0.2 ± 1.5). Variability of calculated infection indices (prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance) revealed that helminth parasite composition in the fish was affected by the lakes' environmental stress (degraded water quality). Therefore, data on the density of helminth parasites in fish can provide supplementary information on the pollution status of a water body. PMID:21375793

  20. Invasive cyprinid fish in Europe originate from the single introduction of an admixed source population followed by a complex pattern of spread.

    PubMed

    Simon, Andrea; Britton, Robert; Gozlan, Rodolphe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hänfling, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The Asian cyprinid fish, the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), was introduced into Europe in the 1960s. A highly invasive freshwater fish, it is currently found in at least 32 countries outside its native range. Here we analyse a 700 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to examine different models of colonisation and spread within the invasive range, and to investigate the factors that may have contributed to their invasion success. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the introduced populations from continental Europe was higher than that of the native populations, although two recently introduced populations from the British Isles showed low levels of variability. Based on coalescent theory, all introduced and some native populations showed a relative excess of nucleotide diversity compared to haplotype diversity. This suggests that these populations are not in mutation-drift equilibrium, but rather that the relative inflated level of nucleotide diversity is consistent with recent admixture. This study elucidates the colonisation patterns of P. parva in Europe and provides an evolutionary framework of their invasion. It supports the hypothesis that their European colonisation was initiated by their introduction to a single location or small geographic area with subsequent complex pattern of spread including both long distance and stepping-stone dispersal. Furthermore, it was preceded by, or associated with, the admixture of genetically diverse source populations that may have augmented its invasive-potential. PMID:21674031

  1. DETECTION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAPEVINE FANLEAF VIRUS AND GRAPEVINE LEAFROLL-ASSOCIATED VIRUS 3 IN JORDAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Anfoka; W. Shahrour; M. K. Nakhla

    SUMMARY Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) have been detected by Double-Antibody Sandwich (DAS)-ELISA in six lo- cations where grapevines are commonly grown in Jor- dan. Using pairs of specific primers, fragments of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of GLRaV-3 and the coat protein (CP) gene of GFLV were amplified from symptomatic grapevine tissues by

  2. Development of a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine effective against parainfluenza virus 3 infection in an animal model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda S. Wyatt; Scott T. Shors; Brian R. Murphy; Bernard Moss

    1996-01-01

    The highly attenuated, replication-deficient, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) was used to express the fusion (F) and\\/or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins of parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3). Initial recombinant viruses in which the HN gene was regulated by a very strong synthetic earlyllate promoter replicated poorly in permissive chick embryo cells evidently due to toxic levels of the gene product. This result

  3. Orbital apex syndrome secondary to herpes zoster virus infection.

    PubMed

    Merino-Iglesias, Alexia; Montero, Javier Antonio; Calabuig-Goena, Maria; Giraldo-Agudelo, Luisa Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    A male patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) presented with left exophthalmos, external and internal ophthalmoplegia and decreased visual acuity. A CT scan revealed myositis without significant compression of the optic nerve. Intravenous acyclovir and oral steroids were started with improvement of the symptoms and eventual complete recovery.Orbital apex syndrome is a rare complication of HZO. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including a direct cytopathic effect of the virus as in the present case. Early diagnosis and therapy may lead to complete recovery of visual function. PMID:24614776

  4. Respiratory infection of camels associated with parainfluenza virus 3 in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Intisar, K S; Ali, Y H; Khalafalla, A I; Rahman, Mahasin E A; Amin, A S

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) in respiratory infection of camels. A total of 273 lung specimens from camels with pneumonia lesions were collected from slaughterhouses in four different areas of Sudan. In addition, eight specimens were collected from outbreaks of respiratory infection in camels. Using antigen detection sandwich ELISA kits, six out of the 281 specimens tested were positive for the PIV3 antigen (2.1%); the highest prevalence was noted in Eastern Sudan (4.2%), then in Central and Northern Sudan (1.4%). The direct immunofluorescent test (FAT) was used to confirm the positive reactions for PIV3 by ELISA. The polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied for the detection of the PIV3 genome in lungs of camels; two out of four samples which were positive by the PIV3 ELISA were also positive by RT-PCR. Virus isolation was attempted for PIV3 in MDBK cells; four specimens yielded cytopathic virus when inoculated onto the cell culture. The cytopathic effect (CPE) consisted of cell rounding, multinucleated cells, sloughing and elongation of cells, and some syncytia were observed on the 3rd to 7th day post-inoculation. Using commercially available indirect ELISA kits for antibodies to PIV3, 495 camel sera were tested, and the seroprevalence detected was 82.2%. The highest seroprevalence was observed in Central (92.6%), then in Eastern (92.2%) and Central to South Sudan (82.5%); the lowest prevalence was found in Northern Sudan (64.8%). PMID:19733593

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Frog Virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Majji, S.; Thodima, V.; Sample, R.; Whitley, D.; Deng, Y.; Mao, J.; Chinchar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Frog virus 3 is the best characterized species within the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. FV3's large (?105 kbp) dsDNA genome encodes 98 putative open reading frames (ORFs) that are expressed in a coordinated fashion leading to the sequential appearance of immediate early (IE), delayed early (DE) and late (L) viral transcripts. As a step toward elucidating molecular events in FV3 replication, we sought to identify the temporal class of viral messages. To accomplish this objective an oligonucleotide microarray containing 70-mer probes corresponding to each of the 98 FV3 ORFs was designed and used to examine viral gene expression. Viral transcription was initially monitored during the course of a productive replication cycle at 2, 4 and 9 hours after infection. To confirm results of the time course assay, viral gene expression was also monitored in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX), which limits expression to only IE genes, and following infection with a temperature sensitive (ts) mutant which at non-permissive temperatures is defective in viral DNA synthesis and blocked in late gene expression. Subsequently, microarray analyses were validated by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Using these approaches we identified 33 IE genes, 22 DE genes and 36 L viral genes. The temporal class of the 7 remaining genes could not be determined. Comparison of putative protein function with temporal class indicated that, in general, genes encoding putative regulatory factors, or proteins that played a part in nucleic acid metabolism and immune evasion, were classified as IE and DE genes, whereas those involved in DNA packaging and virion assembly were considered L genes. Information on temporal class will provide the basis for determining whether members of the same temporal class contain common upstream regulatory regions and perhaps allow us to identify virion-associated and virus-induced proteins that control viral gene expression. PMID:19608212

  6. Necrotizing Keratitis Caused by Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Toriyama, Koji; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Background We report a case of necrotizing keratitis caused by acyclovir (ACV)-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) with a clinical appearance similar to a previous fungal keratitis infection. Methods Observational case report. Results Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in the left eye with a history of herpetic keratitis that resolved with periodic treatment with ACV ointment and a topical steroid. The left eye was painful and red with an abscess and corneal erosion in the peripheral donor cornea. Examination of the scraped corneal epithelium by light microscopy and culturing identified Candida albicans; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative for human herpes viruses. After antifungal treatment, the ocular pain gradually decreased and the lesions slowly improved but recurred with a similar clinical appearance. A second light microscopy examination and cultures were negative for pathogens including C. albicans. PCR was positive for HSV-1 DNA; treatment with 3% topical ACV ointment was unsuccessful. A third examination showed only HSV-1 DNA. Despite antiviral ACV ointment, no clinical improvement occurred based on the HSV DNA copy numbers, which were the same before and after treatment, indicating a possible ACV-resistant strain. When topical trifluorothymidine was substituted for ACV, clinical improvement occurred and the HSV DNA copy numbers decreased. Conclusion Necrotizing keratitis induced by ACV-resistant HSV occurred independently after fungal keratitis, with a similar clinical appearance in this case, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. Monitoring the HSV DNA load by real-time PCR could be useful for refractory cases even with atypical clinical appearances. PMID:25473399

  7. Unusual initial presentation of herpes simplex virus as inguinal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sarah A; Strickler, John G

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy. PMID:25815228

  8. Legal and Moral Considerations in Educating Children with Herpes in Public School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article examines legal and moral implications in providing classroom education to children with herpes. Conclusions suggest the integration of the child into educationally appropriate programs during the disease's inactive stage. (CL)

  9. Interplay Between Viral and Cellular Factors Determines the Fate of Herpes Simplex Virus type I Infection

    E-print Network

    Mabrouk-Mostafa, Heba

    2014-05-31

    The herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is a major human pathogen that infects the majority of the world's population. The life cycle of HSV-1 is controlled by interactions with its hosts. Understanding virus-host interactions ...

  10. Acute Herpetic Gingivostomatitis Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus 2: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie Kitty; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Herpetic gingivostomatitis represents the most commonly observed clinical manifestation of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. HSV-1 has been associated with oro-labial disease, with most infections occurring during childhood, and HSV-2 with genital disease. However, it is possible for HSV-2 to cause oro-labial herpes and HSV-1 to cause genital herpes. An unusual case of acute herpetic gingivostomatitis (AHGS) that presented as extremely painful multiple ulcerations of the gingiva and hard palate in a 32-year-old male patient is presented. The association of HSV-2 in the etiology of oral lesions is highlighted. The clinical presentation, course, differential diagnosis and management of AHGS are discussed. How to cite the article: George AK, Anil S. Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis associated with herpes simplex virus 2: Report of a case. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):99-102. PMID:25083042

  11. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R Moench; Russell J Mumper; Timothy E Hoen; Mianmian Sun; Richard A Cone

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2) vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, \\

  12. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)-A potential cause of mortality.

    PubMed

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  13. G207, modified herpes simplex virus type 1, kills human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H. Lee; Howard J. Federoff; Luke O. Schoeniger

    1999-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is often fetal, and farther effective therapeutic options are needed. This study was designed to assess\\u000a whether the replication-restricted herpes simplex virus, G207, was effective in killing human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.\\u000a G207, a multimutated strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 carrying lacZ reporter gene, is capable of efficient cytolytic growth in many dividing cells, including

  14. 160. Systemic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Therapy of Spontaneously Arising Prostate Cancer in Transgenic TRAMP Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Varghese; Samuel D. Rabkin; Petur G. Nielsen; Renbin Liu; Wenzheng Wang; Robert L. Martuza

    2005-01-01

    Replication competent oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are effective agents against a wide spectrum of cancers, including prostate cancer. We have previously evaluated the efficacy of NV1023, a second-generation oncolytic herpes viral mutant of NV1020 for prostate cancer, using the poorly immunogenic TRAMP-C2 tumor model. NV1020, which was recently tested for safety in phase I clinical trial for metastatic liver

  15. Acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy prevents recurrent genital herpes and viral shedding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Braig; D Luton; O Sibony; C Edlinger; C Boissinot; P Blot; J. F Oury

    2001-01-01

    Neonatal herpes affects about 1 in 15,000 newborns and the prognosis for disseminated disease with encephalitis is poor. We investigated whether acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy effectively reduces the risk of viral shedding and, hence, of mother-to-child transmission at delivery.A prospective study was conducted. Pregnant women who had at least one episode of genital herpes during pregnancy were randomly assigned

  16. Preparation and efficacy of an inactivated subunit vaccine (NFUIBHK) against type 2 Herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Williams, D R; Buchan, A; Whitney, J; Harding, M; Bodfish, K

    1978-11-17

    A vaccine against Herpes simplex virus infection was prepared by Nonidet NP 40 and formalin treatment of a type 1, infected-cell extract; virus particles were removed by ultracentrifugation over sucrose. These procedures were not detrimental to the antigenic quality of the vaccine preparation. The vaccine afforded significant protection to experimental type 2 genital herpes virus infection in mice, as adjudged by clinical observations, cytopathological change, and virus yields. PMID:214676

  17. Prospective Studies of the Association of Genital Herpes Simplex Infection and Cervical Anaplasia1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nahmias; Zuher M. Naib; William E. Josey; Ernest Franklin; Ronald Jenkins

    SUMMARY The various problems associated with prospective epi demiológica!studies, aimed at evaluating the risk of cer vical anaplasia in women detected earlier with genital her- petic or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection are identified. Preliminary results are included of ongoing fol low-up studies in 871 women (herpes group) detected sero- logically, cytologically, or virologically with such infections and

  18. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis involving the right thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Navin, Patrick; Delanty, Norman; Brennan, Paul; Looby, Seamus

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is a rare but often fatal disease if left untreated. A 50-year-old woman was admitted with lethargy, confusion, dysphasia and cough. MRI brain demonstrated bilateral temporal and perisylvian hyperintense signal abnormality extending into the cingulate gyrus, typical of HSV encephalitis. However, there was also signal abnormality involving the right thalamus, indicating thalamic involvement. EEG and cerebrospinal fluid PCR confirmed HSV encephalitis. The patient was started on intravenous acyclovir resulting in marked improvement. Adequate assessment and prompt treatment of HSV encephalitis will aid in achieving adequate recovery. Radiological investigation plays a crucial role in diagnosis with typical MR features a useful aid to diagnosis. HSV encephalitis classically involves the medial temporal lobes, insula and cingulated gyri. The basal ganglia and thalami are nearly always spared. We present a very rare case of HSV encephalitis which involved the right thalamus. PMID:23784771

  19. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  20. Physician Attitudes toward the Herpes Zoster Vaccination in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tae Un; Choi, Won Suk; Song, Joon Young; Noh, Ji Yun; Kim, Woo Joo

    2014-01-01

    This survey investigated Korean physician attitudes toward the herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. A total of 400 physicians answered a self-reported questionnaire. Most physicians knew that HZ poses a significant socioeconomic burden and had good knowledge about HZ and its vaccine. Physicians who did not recommend HZ vaccine were concerned about costs (90.7%, 78/86) and doubted the effectiveness of the vaccine (58.1%, 50/86). Patient demand had a profound effect on physicians decisions; 84.9% (73/86) of them who said not recommending HZ vaccine reported that they would provide the vaccine upon patient request. In conclusion, educational initiatives should be targeted toward both physicians and patients. PMID:25298909

  1. TLR3 deficiency in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shen-Ying; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Ugolini, Sophie; Smahi, Asma; Elain, Gaëlle; Romero, Pedro; Segal, David; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Puel, Anne; Picard, Capucine; Chapgier, Ariane; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Titeux, Matthias; Cognet, Céline; von Bernuth, Horst; Ku, Cheng-Lung; Casrouge, Armanda; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Barreiro, Luis; Leonard, Joshua; Hamilton, Claire; Lebon, Pierre; Héron, Bénédicte; Vallée, Louis; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hovnanian, Alain; Rozenberg, Flore; Vivier, Eric; Geissmann, Frédéric; Tardieu, Marc; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2007-09-14

    Some Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide immunity to experimental infections in animal models, but their contribution to host defense in natural ecosystems is unknown. We report a dominant-negative TLR3 allele in otherwise healthy children with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. TLR3 is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where it is required to control HSV-1, which spreads from the epithelium to the CNS via cranial nerves. TLR3 is also expressed in epithelial and dendritic cells, which apparently use TLR3-independent pathways to prevent further dissemination of HSV-1 and to provide resistance to other pathogens in TLR3-deficient patients. Human TLR3 appears to be redundant in host defense to most microbes but is vital for natural immunity to HSV-1 in the CNS, which suggests that neurotropic viruses have contributed to the evolutionary maintenance of TLR3. PMID:17872438

  2. Anaerobic bacteria and herpes simplex virus in genital ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Masfari, A N; Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; Barton, I G; Duerden, B I

    1985-01-01

    Of 91 patients with genital ulceration, herpes simplex virus was isolated from 52 (57%) and Haemophilus ducreyi from 12 (13%); none had syphilis. The difference in incidence of other aerobes in patients and controls was not significant. Anaerobes, predominantly Bacteroides spp, were isolated from a large proportion (77%) of men and women patients with ulcers but from few control men. The most common anaerobic species were B asaccharolyticus and B ureolyticus, with fewer isolates of the melaninogenicus/oralis group. The bacterial flora of herpetic and non-herpetic ulcers were similar, but Candida albicans was isolated significantly more often from non-herpetic ulcers. Anaerobic bacteria may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital ulcers. PMID:2984108

  3. Prevention and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Upton D; Robinson, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates can result in devastating outcomes, including mortality and significant morbidity. All infants are potentially at risk for neonatal HSV infection. This position statement reviews epidemiology, transmission and risk factors, with a focus on intrapartum infection. It considers diagnosis and prognosis according to infection category, along with testing modalities and limitations. Recommendations for managing newborns known to have been exposed intrapartum to HSV are based on expert opinion because a randomized trial to compare management options is not feasible. Guidance is provided for the empirical management of infants with suspected clinical sepsis, including those who do not respond to antibacterial therapy. The present statement replaces a 2006 position statement by the Canadian Paediatric Society. PMID:24855418

  4. Animal models of herpes simplex virus immunity and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Christina M; Huneke, Richard B; Wigdahl, Brian; Jennings, Stephen R

    2015-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous human pathogens represented by two distinct serotypes: herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1); and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). In the general population, adult seropositivity rates approach 90% for HSV-1 and 20-25% for HSV-2. These viruses cause significant morbidity, primarily as mucosal membrane lesions in the form of facial cold sores and genital ulcers, with much less common but more severe manifestations causing death from encephalitis. HSV infections in humans are difficult to study in many cases because many primary infections are asymptomatic. Moreover, the neurotropic properties of HSV make it much more difficult to study the immune mechanisms controlling reactivation of latent infection within the corresponding sensory ganglia and crossover into the central nervous system of infected humans. This is because samples from the nervous system can only be routinely obtained at the time of autopsy. Thus, animal models have been developed whose use has led to a better understanding of multiple aspects of HSV biology, molecular biology, pathogenesis, disease, and immunity. The course of HSV infection in a spectrum of animal models depends on important experimental parameters including animal species, age, and genotype; route of infection; and viral serotype, strain, and dose. This review summarizes the animal models most commonly used to study HSV pathogenesis and its establishment, maintenance, and reactivation from latency. It focuses particularly on the immune response to HSV during acute primary infection and the initial invasion of the ganglion with comparisons to the events governing maintenance of viral latency. PMID:25388226

  5. The burden of disease of Herpes Zoster in Tuscany.

    PubMed

    Levi, Miriam; Bellini, Irene; Capecchi, Leonardo; Pieri, Luca; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Callaioli, Silvia; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Tiscione, Emilia; Bonanni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a disease caused by the reactivation of the latent ?-herpes virus varicella zoster virus (VZV), for which, in Italy, a specific surveillance system does not exist, but around 200?000 cases are estimated each year. In older patients, who are at increased risk of developing HZ, symptoms are more severe and the chances to develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the most severe complication, are substantially higher. A vaccine against HZ with demonstrated efficacy and an acceptable safety profile is now available and is recommended in Europe for adults >50 years.   In anticipation of the possible introduction of an immunization programme for the elderly in Tuscany, the burden of disease caused by HZ and its complications was assessed through a retrospective analysis of the hospital discharge records between 2002 and 2012, using the ICD-9-CM 053 code. In the period 2002-2012, 4475 hospital admissions were registered with annual means of 368 hospitalizations and 39 day-hospital admissions. Most of the hospitalizations (68%) involved subjects > 65 years; the mean length of stay was 9.5 days. Slightly more than half (51.2%) of total hospital admissions were complicated cases. The most frequent were neurological complications (24.2% of total admissions), followed by ophthalmic complications (16.5%). Cases with neurological complications were those with the higher average length of stay and higher average costs for case. This study confirmed the epidemiological impact of HZ and its complications and the positive impact on morbidity that the introduction of the HZ vaccination could have in older age groups. PMID:25483534

  6. Most Common Dermatologic Topics Published in Five High-Impact General Medical Journals, 1970–2012: Melanoma, Psoriasis, Herpes Simplex, Herpes Zoster, and Acne

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young M; Namavar, Aram A; Wu, Jashin J

    2014-01-01

    Context: General practitioners frequently encounter skin diseases and are accustomed to diagnosing the most common dermatologic conditions. Objective: We sought to determine the most common dermatologic topics published in five high-impact general medical journals (New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, the Journal of the American Medical Association, British Medical Journal (now The BMJ), and Annals of Internal Medicine). Design: We conducted an independent search of the Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation Index for common dermatologic topics, limited to the period 1970 to 2012. Main Outcome Measure: Total number of publications dealing with each dermatologic topic considered. Results: The five most common dermatologic topics published were melanoma, psoriasis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne. Melanoma and psoriasis were the top two dermatologic topics published in each journal except for Annals of Internal Medicine. Conclusions: Internists frequently diagnose herpes simplex, herpes zoster, and acne, which are also common dermatologic topics published. Although internists infrequently diagnose melanoma and psoriasis, they are major topics for general medical journals because of their increased community awareness, major advancements in therapeutic research, and their nondermatologic manifestations. PMID:25662523

  7. Effects of experimentally induced infections of goldfish Carassius auratus with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) at various water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-08-11

    In this study, we examined the influence of water temperature on the development of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus after experimentally induced infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2). In Expt 1, Ryukin goldfish were infected with CyHV-2 by intraperitoneal injection and maintained at 4 different water temperatures. Cumulative mortalities of the 15, 20, 25 and 30°C groups were 10, 90, 90 and 60%, respectively. Therefore, the temperature range of 20-25°C is considered highly permissive for HVHN. One of 6 surviving fish of the 15°C group died after a rapid temperature increase to 25°C at 30 d post infection. All 3 Edonishiki goldfish, co-reared with the surviving Ryukin in tanks where the water temperature was increased from 15 to 25°C, died. In Expt 2, Edonishiki goldfish were exposed to CyHV-2 by bath immersion at 13 or 24°C, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 0 and 87%, respectively, at 28 d post-exposure. No mortality of the surviving Edonishiki in the 13°C treatment was observed when the water temperature was increased to 24°C. In addition, in Expt 2, no mortality was observed in any Ranchu co-reared with CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki in the group where water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C, even after re-immersion challenge with CyHV-2. It is interesting to note that CyHV-2 DNA was detected in the kidneys of 4 of the 5 surviving Ranchu co-reared with the CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki group where the water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C. Therefore, it is likely that the surviving Edonishiki of the 13°C group were virus carriers. This study indicates that most fish infected with CyHV-2 at 13-15°C acquire resistance to HVHN, but as carriers they are able to infect naïve fish. PMID:25114043

  8. The effects of caudal fin loss and regeneration on the swimming performance of three cyprinid fish species with different swimming capacities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2013-08-15

    In nature, the caudal fins of fish species are frequently lost to some extent by aggressive behaviour, predation and diseases. To test whether the swimming performance of fish with different swimming capacities would be differentially affected due to caudal fin loss and regeneration, we investigated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit), swimming metabolic rate (M(O2)), tail beat frequency (f(TB)) and tail beat amplitude (A(TB)) after caudal fin loss and regeneration (20 days) in juveniles of three cyprinid fish species: the qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis; strong swimmer), the common carp (Cyprinus carpio; intermediate swimmer) and the goldfish (Carassius auratus; poor swimmer). The Ucrit values of the caudal-fin-lost qingbo, common carp and goldfish were 49, 32 and 35% significantly lower than those of the control groups, respectively. The maximum tail beat amplitude (A(TBmax)) (all three fishes), the maximum tail beat frequency (f(TBmax)) (only the common carp and the goldfish) and/or the active metabolic rate (M(O2active)) (only the common carp) of the caudal-fin-lost fish were significantly higher than those of the control groups. After 20 days of recovery, the caudal fins recovered to 41, 47 and 24% of those of the control groups for the qingbo, the common carp and the goldfish, respectively. However, the Ucrit values of the fin-regenerated qingbo, common carp and goldfish recovered to 86, 91 and 95% of those of the control group, respectively. The caudal-fin-regenerated qingbo and common carp showed a significantly higher A(TBmax) and f(TBmax), respectively, compared with those of the control groups. The qingbo had a higher f(TBmax) but a lower A(TBmax) than the common carp and the goldfish, which suggested that a strong swimmer may maintain swimming speed primarily by maintaining a greater f(TBmax), for which the caudal fin plays a more important role during swimming, than a poor swimmer. The M(O2active) of fish (common carp) with a redundant respiratory capacity could increase due to caudal fin loss to meet the increase in energy expenditure required by an increase in f(TBmax). In addition, the sustained swimming performance may not be the only selective pressure acting on caudal fin size in these three species, and the present caudal fin size may be a trade-off between sustain swimming performance and other factors (e.g. sexual selection, escape responses). PMID:23661776

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Antibody Detection Performance in Kisumu, Kenya, using the HerpeSelect ELISA, Kalon ELISA, Western Blot and Inhibition Testing

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J.S.; Bailey, R.C.; Westreich, D.J.; Maclean, I.; Agot, K.; Ndinya-Achola, J.O.; Hogrefe, W.; AshleyMorrow, R.; Moses, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background In certain parts of Africa, type-specific HSV type-2 ELISAs may have limited specificity. To date, no study has been conducted to validate HerpeSelect and Kalon type-specific HSV-2 ELISAs using both the Western blot (WB) and Recombinant gG ELISA inhibition testing as reference standards. Methods A total of 120 HIV-seronegative men (aged 18-24 years) provided blood samples. HSV-2 IgG serum antibodies were detected using four different methods: i. HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA (n=120), ii. Kalon HSV-2 ELISA (n=120), iii. University of Washington WB (n=101), and iv. a recombinant inhibition test (n=93). Results HSV-2 seroprevalence differed significantly by HSV-2 detection method, ranging from 24.8% with the WB to 69.8% with the HerpeSelect ELISA. Using the WB as the reference standard, the HerpesSelect had the highest sensitivity for HSV-2 antibody detection (100%), yet lowest specificity (40%). Similar results were obtained using the inhibition test as the reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity of the Kalon test were 92% and 79%, respectively, versus the WB; and 80% and 82% versus the inhibition test. Using the inhibition test as the reference standard, the sensitivity of the WB appeared low (49%). Conclusions In HIV-seronegative men in western Kenya, the HerpeSelect and Kalon type-specific ELISAs had high sensitivities yet limited specificities using the WB as reference standard. Overall, the Kalon ELISA performed better than the HerpeSelect ELISA in these young men from Kisumu. Further understanding is needed for the interpretation of HSV-2 inhibition or ELISA test positive/WB seronegative results. Before HSV-2 seropositivity may be reliably reported in selected areas of Africa, performance studies of HSV-2 serological assays in individual geographical areas are recommended. Summary Using Western-blot as the reference standard, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 40%, respectively for HSV-2 HerpeSelect, and 92% and 79% for HSV-2 Kalon ELISA among men from Kisumu, Kenya. PMID:18955387

  10. Evaluation of the in vitro skin permeation of antiviral drugs from penciclovir 1% cream and acyclovir 5% cream used to treat herpes simplex virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Hasler-Nguyen; Donald Shelton; Gilbert Ponard; Marlene Bader; Martina Schaffrik; Pascal Mallefet

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus infection (HSV) is a common and ubiquitous infection of the skin which causes mucocutaneous lesions called cold sores (herpes labialis) or fever blisters. It is estimated that approximately 80% of the population worldwide are carriers of the Herpes simplex virus, approximately 40% suffer from recurrent recurrent infections. This study evaluates the in vitro skin permeation and

  11. Herpes simplex virus resistance and sensitivity to phosphonoacetic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Honess, R W; Watson, D H

    1977-01-01

    Phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) inhibited the synthesis of herpes simplex virus DNA in infected cells and the activity of the virus-specific DNA polymerase in vitro. In the presence of concentrations of PAA sufficient to prevent virus growth and virus DNA synthesis, normal amounts of early virus proteins (alpha- and beta-groups) were made, but late virus proteins (gamma-group) were reduced to less than 15% of amounts made in untreated infected cells. This residual PAA-insensitive synthesis of gamma-polypeptides occurred early in the virus growth cycle when rates were identical in PAA-treated and untreated infected cells. Passage of virus in the presence of PAA resulted in selection of mutants resistant to the drug. Stable clones of mutant viruses with a range of drug sensitivities were isolated and the emergence of variants resistant to high concentrations of PAA involved the sequential selection of mutants progressively better adapted to growth in the presence of the drug. Increased drug resistance of virus yield or plaque formation was correlated with increased resistance of virus DNA synthesis, gamma-protein synthesis, and resistance of the virus DNA polymerase reaction in vitro to the inhibitory effects of the drug. PAA-resistant strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) complemented the growth of sensitive strains of homologous and heterologous types in mixed infections in the presence of the drug. Complementation was markedly dependent upon the proportions of the resistant and sensitive partners participating in the mixed infection. Intratypic (HSV-1A X HSV-1B) recombination of the PAA resistance marker(s), Pr, occurred at high frequency relative to plaque morphology (syn) and bromodeoxyuridine resistance (Br, thymidine kinase-negative phenotype) markers, with the most likely order being syn-Br-Pr. Recombinant viruses were as resistant or sensitive to PAA as the parental viruses, and viruses recombinant for their PAA resistance phenotype were also recombinant for the PAA resistance character of the virus DNA polymerase. The results provide additional evidence that the herpesvirus DNA polymerase is the site of action of PAA and illustrate the potential usefulness of PAA-resistant mutants in genetic studies of herpesviruses. Images PMID:189089

  12. Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of Herpes Zoster in Nearby Cheonan

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ho Soon; Kang, Jin Ku

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes Zoster is a disease that occurs after the virus is reactivated due to infection of the varicella virus in childhood. Risk factors are advanced age, malignant neoplasm, organ transplantation, immunosuppressive agents taking are known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the seasonal effect and other risk factors on the incidence of herpes zoster. Methods The medical records of 1,105 patients admitted to the outpatient diagnosed with herpes zoster were retrospectively examined. The patients' sex, age, dermatome, onset, underlying disease, residential areas were collected. Results The incidence of women outnumbered men and increased for those above the age of 50. The number of occurrences of herpes zoster patients was higher in the spring and summer than in winter. Unlike men, women had the most frequent outbreaks in March. The most common occurrence of dermatome is in the thoracic region. The number of occurrence was similar on the left as the right. Conclusions In this study, herpes zoster occurs more often in women than in men and more frequently occurs in women in the spring and summer.

  13. Intravenous Infusion of Cereport Increases Uptake and Efficacy of Acyclovir in Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Rat Brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORAH J. BIDANSET; LAURENT PLACIDI; RACHEL RYBAK; JOYCE PALMER; JEAN-PIERRE SOMMADOSSI; EARL R. KERN

    2001-01-01

    The outcome of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections manifesting as encephalitis in healthy or immuno- compromised individuals is generally very poor with mortality rates of about 8 to 28% with treatment. The long-term prognosis of survivors is often problematic, posing the need for alternative treatments that may decrease the mortality and morbidity associated with herpes encephalitis. This study addresses one

  14. Impact of suppressive antiviral therapy on the health related quality of life of patients with recurrent genital herpes infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Patel; S. Tyring; A. Strand; M. J. Price; D. M. Grant

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether suppressive antiviral therapy improves health related quality of life in patients with recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Health related quality of life was measured using the disease specific recurrent genital herpes quality of life questionnaire (RGHQoL) as part of a randomized, double blind, 52 week, placebo controlled, dose ranging study of once and twice daily valaciclovir or

  15. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  16. A syndrome of acute self-limiting ulcerative esophagitis in young adults probably due to herpes simplex virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Springer; L. R. DaCosta; I. T. Beck

    1979-01-01

    Five healthy young adults developed an acute self-limiting ulcerative esophagitis. Two had definite evidence of herpes virus being present and a third one had appropriate changes in herpes simplex viral titer. All cases followed a characteristic and similar course consisting of sudden onset of odynophagia, multiple discrete small ulcers in the esophagus and herpetiform lesions elsewhere in the skin or

  17. Preparation and efficacy of an inactivated subunit vaccine (NFU I BHK) against type 2 Herpes simplex virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. B. Skinner; D. R. Williams; A. Buchan; J. Whitney; M. Harding; K. Bodfish

    1978-01-01

    A vaccine againstHerpes simplex virus infection was prepared by Nonidet NP 40 and formalin treatment of a type 1, infected-cell extract; virus particles were removed by ultracentrifugation over sucrose. These procedures were not detrimental to the antigenic quality of the vaccine preparation. The vaccine afforded significant protection to experimental type 2 genital herpes virus infection in mice, as adjudged by

  18. Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide. PMID:24227835

  19. Association of type I DNA topoisomerase with herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Muller, M T; Bolles, C S; Parris, D S

    1985-07-01

    A topoisomerase activity is associated with herpes simplex virus type 1. The enzyme was recovered from purified virions which were disrupted with 6 M-guanidine-HCl followed by renaturation of extracted proteins. Based upon the following observations, the virion activity is classified as a type I topoisomerase: (i) the linking number of a unique DNA topoisomer is altered in steps of one; (ii) ATP and MgCl2 are not required for activity; (iii) the enzyme can be trapped in a covalent complex with DNA; (iv) the covalent linkage to DNA is through a 3' phosphoryl bond. A number of lines of evidence strongly indicate that the topoisomerase is external to the nucleocapsid. For example, the activity was released by treatment of intact virions with NP40, and subsequent washing steps extracted most residual activity. When guanidine extracts were prepared from nucleocapsids, topoisomerase activity was not detectable. Finally, DNA within the virion did not appear to contain covalently attached proteins with properties similar to topoisomerases. Thus, the enzyme appears to be a component of the envelope or tegument structure of the virion. PMID:2991429

  20. Thermal and tactile perception thresholds in acute herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Haanpää; Laippala; Nurmikko

    1999-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine somatosensory perception thresholds in 97 immunocompetent patients with herpes zoster (HZ), and to evaluate their associations with the development of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Warm, cold and heat pain thresholds were tested by Thermotest (SOMEDIC) and tactile thresholds by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. To establish reference values, 103 healthy subjects underwent somatosensory testing, from which values were calculated for both genders for four age groups (<60, 60-69, 70-79 and >/=80years) in five dermatomal levels (VI, C3, T3, T10 and S1). Patients with HZ underwent quantitative somatosensory testing within the affected dermatome, its mirror image dermatome and an adjacent dermatome bilaterally. The follow-up visits with somatosensory testing took place at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. When evaluated as means of the results, warm and cold thresholds were significantly elevated in the affected dermatome from the initial visit until 3 and 6 months, respectively. By contrast, heat pain thresholds were lowered at the initial visit but normalized by 2 weeks, and tactile thresholds remained unchanged. These threshold changes were associated neither with further development of PHN nor each other. It is concluded that measurement of somatosensory perception thresholds in early stages of HZ shows evidence of impaired neural function but is not helpful in predicting which patient will go on to develop PHN. Copyright 1999 European Federation of Chapters of the International Association for the Study of Pain. PMID:10700365

  1. Inhibitors of Nucleotidyltransferase Superfamily Enzymes Suppress Herpes Simplex Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E.; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L.; Wold, William S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 ?M, with suppression at 50 ?M reaching ?1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 ?M with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family. PMID:25267681

  2. Characterization of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus drug candidate.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Ozan S; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Thapa, Prem; Pheasey, Nigel; Bullock, Paul S; Bashiri, Houman; Siska, Christine S; Kerwin, Bruce A; He, Feng; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2015-02-01

    The structural integrity and conformational stability of a genetically modified live, oncolytic herpes simplex virus (o-HSV) were investigated across a wide pH (5.5-8.0) and temperature (10°C-87.5°C) range. A combination of circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence, and static light scattering results was visualized using an empirical phase diagram approach to provide a global assessment of physical stability. Distinct phases were identified including the native state of the virus, an intermediate phase that could represent gradual swelling and/or shedding of the viral envelope, and a highly disrupted, aggregated phase. The nature of these altered forms of the virus was further evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and viral plaque assays. The effect of freeze-thaw (F/T) stress on o-HSV was also examined. After one F/T cycle, a loss of infectious virus titers was observed. In addition, the monomeric virus particle concentration decreased during F/T stress, whereas there was a concurrent increase in larger particles (2-10 ?m). The comprehensive biophysical characterization of viral stability conducted in this study identified major degradation events leading to loss of infectivity of o-HSV and represents an important step toward stabilization of the virus against thermal and F/T stresses. PMID:25362835

  3. Clinical Correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus Viremia Among Hospitalized Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, William R.; Jerome, Keith R.; Cook, Linda; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Casper, Corey

    2009-01-01

    Background The quantification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA from the peripheral blood is often used to evaluate patients suspected of having disseminated HSV infection. Few studies have examined the clinical correlates of HSV viremia among adults. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of blood samples sent to a reference molecular virology diagnostic facility at a university hospital for quantification of HSV DNA between October 2001 and June 2006. Medical records of patients with detectable HSV DNA were reviewed to abstract relevant clinical characteristics. Results HSV DNA was detected in 37 (4.0%) of 951 samples from 29 individual patients. 19 (65.5%) were >16 years of age, and detailed medical records were available for review from 13 (68.4%) of 19 adults patients. Of the 10 patients whose HSV infection was typed, 6 (60%) had HSV-2, 3 (30%) had HSV-1, and one had evidence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. All viremic patients were treated with antiviral medications. The most common clinical findings were hepatitis (62%), fever (54%), CNS alterations (46%), skin lesions (38%), abdominal pain (31%), and sepsis (31%). Respiratory failure (23%) was uncommon. Patients with HSV viremia were observed to have a high mortality rate (6 of 10 immunocompromised and 1 of 3 immunocompetent individuals). Conclusions HSV viremia may be associated with a variety of morbid signs and symptoms in hospitalized immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, and is associated with high rates of mortality, though causality can only be determined by additional studies. PMID:19807272

  4. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection.   The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden. PMID:25483704

  5. The challenges and opportunities for the development of a T-cell epitope-based herpes simplex vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-11-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) infections have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a billion individuals worldwide. HSV-1 infections are predominant than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries, their development has been difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One "common denominator" among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or a whole viral protein, which contain both "pathogenic symptomatic" and "protective asymptomatic" antigens and epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate developing "asymptomatic" epitope-based sub-unit vaccine strategies that selectively incorporate "protective asymptomatic" epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized by effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (TEM cells) from "naturally" protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models of ocular and genital herpes. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss their current status, challenges, and prospects. PMID:25446827

  6. Studies of herpes virus latency in the sensory spinal ganglia of rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Tosolini, F. A.; McCarthy, K.; Baker, B. F.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental latent herpes infection of rabbit dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is reported. The simian herpes virus used was derived from fatal natural infection in owl monkeys and has limited neurotropism in the rabbit. Following intradermal injection of the flank it causes a local lesion followed only by dorsal root ganglionitis; segmental paraesthesia and/or sensory loss going on to clinical recovery. Methods were developed for mapping sensory losses. Virus could be immediately re-isolated from skin or DRG homogenates in the acute (first week) stage but from 8-550 days by DRG organ culture only. Spontaneous recurrence does not occur but reactivation can be provoked. The system provides an improved analogue model for the study of the pathogenesis and symptomatic treatment of herpes zoster. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:7153508

  7. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster virus and Orientia tsutsugamushi were found in the literature. In the described case, scrub typhus probably induced sufficient stress to reactivate the varicella zoster virus. Early recognition of this problem is imperative for prompt and appropriate management, as misdiagnosis can lead to long-term urinary dysfunction. It is important that a diagnosis of herpes zoster be considered, especially in patients with sudden onset urinary retention.

  8. Herpes esophagitis in the setting of immunosuppression from pemphigus vulgaris therapy.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Noah H; Friedmann, Daniel P; Phillips, Charles M

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of herpes esophagitis in a 35-year-old man with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) who was undergoing treatment with corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune intraepithelial bullous disease resulting from pathogenic IgG antibodies toward desmoglein antigens that often requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy for control of disease symptoms. Herpes esophagitis is an ulcerative eruption caused by viral reactivation in the setting of immunosuppression. Acute odynophagia in patients undergoing systemic treatment of active PV has a broad differential and warrants prompt endoscopic evaluation. PMID:25671444

  9. Functional analysis of the herpes simplex virus UL42 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Digard, P; Chow, C S; Pirrit, L; Coen, D M

    1993-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus UL42 gene encodes a multifunctional polypeptide (UL42) that is essential for virus DNA replication. To further understand the relationship between the structure of UL42 and the role that it plays during virus replication, we analyzed an extensive set of mutant UL42 proteins for the ability to perform the three major biochemical functions ascribed to the protein:binding to DNA, stably associating with the virus DNA polymerase (Pol), and acting to increase the length of DNA chains synthesized by Pol. Selected mutants were also assayed for their ability to complement the replication of a UL42 null virus. The results indicated that the N-terminal 340 amino acids of UL42 were sufficient for all three biochemical activities and could also support virus replication. Progressive C-terminal truncation resulted in the loss of detectable DNA-binding activity before Pol binding, while several mutations near the N terminus of the polypeptide resulted in an altered interaction with DNA but had no apparent affect on Pol binding. More dramatically, an insertion mutation at residue 160 destroyed the ability to bind Pol but had no effect on DNA binding. This altered polypeptide also failed to increase the length of DNA product synthesized by Pol, and the mutant gene could not complement the growth of a UL42 null virus, indicating that the specific interaction between Pol and UL42 is necessary for full Pol function and for virus replication. This study confirms the validity of the Pol-UL42 interaction as a target for the design of novel therapeutic agents. Images PMID:8437207

  10. Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated with herpes virus infection; yet, they can also be observed in patients with skin tumors or acantholytic dermatoses. Cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection can coexist in association with other conditions such as acantholytic dermatoses, benign skin tumors, bullous disorders, hematologic malignancies, inflammatory dermatoses, and physical therapies. However, when a herpes virus infection is suspected based upon the discovery of epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis, but either the clinic presentation or lack of response to viral therapy or absence of confirmatory laboratory studies does not support the diagnosis of a viral infection, the possibility of a primary acantholytic dermatosis should be considered and additional lesional skin biopsies performed. Also, because hematoxylin and eosin staining is not the golden standard for confirmation of autoimmune bullous dermatoses, skin biopsies for direct immunofluorescence should be performed when a primary bullous dermatosis is suspected since the histopathology observed on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections can be misleading. PMID:25396080

  11. Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific T Cells in the Murine Female Genital Tract Following Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregg N. Milligan; David I. Bernstein

    1995-01-01

    A murine model of genital infection with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was utilized to examine the development of the local T cell response in the genital mucosa and draining genital lymph nodes (gLN). HSV-specific cytokine-secreting T cells were detected in the gLN 4 days postintravaginal inoculation but not in the urogenital tract

  12. The Quantity of Latent Viral DNA Correlates with the Relative Rates at Which Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Cause Recurrent Genital Herpes Outbreaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JULIE A. LEKSTROM-HIMES; LESLEY PESNICAK; STEPHEN E. STRAUS

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) have evolved specific anatomic tropisms and site- dependent rates of reactivation. To determine whether reactivation rates depend on distinct abilities of HSV-1 and -2 to establish latency and to express latency-associated transcripts (LATs), virulent strains of each virus were studied in the guinea pig genital model. Following infection with equivalent

  13. Divergence and Recombination of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Isolates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Norberg; Mabula J. Kasubi; Lars Haarr; Tomas Bergstrom; Jan-Åke Liljeqvist

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and is one of the most common sexually transmitted viruses. Here we sequenced a segment comprising 3.5% of the HSV-2 genome, including genes coding for glycoproteins G, I, and E, from 27 clinical isolates from Tanzania, 10 isolates from Norway, and 10 isolates from Sweden. The sequence variation was low

  14. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  15. Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

  16. Herpes Zoster Induced Osteomyelitis in the Immunocompromised Patients: A 10-year Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Reza; Dehghani Nazhvani, Ali; Vahedi, Amir; Gholami, Mehdi; Zare, Raziyeh; Etemadi Parsa, Raha

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Alveolar bone necrosis induced by Herpes zoster infection is considered as a rare manifestation of osteomyelitis and few case reports are presented in the literature. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate mandibular osteomyelitis caused by herpes zoster in the immunocompromised patients with histopathologically documented osteomyelitis in the mandible and herpes zoster infection. Materials and Method: 30 patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. 19 patients were completely edentulous, 4 patients were partially edentulous and 7 with complete dentition. In all cases, specimens were analyzed using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for varicella zoster virus.  Results: 16 patients underwent dialysis, 9 patients received chemotherapy treatments and 5 patients had transplantation (four kidneys and one liver). Histopathological assessment demonstrated a nonspecific bone necrosis exhibiting an eosinophilic, homogeneous non-vital bone tissue with peripheral resorption surrounded by reactive connective tissue. PCR test was positive in 21 cases. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the frequency of osteomyelitis induced by herpes zoster could be more than the records provided by previous studies. Histopathological findings might be nonspecific in such patients. PCR test was not positive for all HZ induced osteomyelitis patients. PMID:25191659

  17. Molecular evaluation of extracellular activity of medicinal herb Clinacanthus nutans against herpes simplex virus type-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thaveechai Vachirayonstien; Duanthanorm Promkhatkaew; Malee Bunjob; Asawachai Chueyprom; Pranee Chavalittumrong; Pathom Sawanpanyalert

    2010-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C.

  18. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: molecular association with HIV and novel microbicides to prevent disease.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-04-01

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses is one of the most ancient diseases described to affect humans. Infection with these viruses produces vexing effects to the host, which frequently recur. Infection with herpes simplex viruses is lifelong, and currently there is no vaccine or drug to prevent or cure infection. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection varies significantly depending on the geographical region and nears 20% worldwide. Importantly, HSV-2 is the first cause of genital ulcers in the planet. HSV-2 affects approximately 500 million people around the globe and significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as its shedding. Thus, controlling HSV-2 infection and spread is of public health concern. Here, we review the diseases produced by herpes simplex viruses, the factors that modulate HSV-2 infection, the relationship between HSV-2 and HIV and novel therapeutic and prophylactic microbicides/antivirals under development to prevent infection and pathological outcomes produced by this virus. We also review mutations associated with HSV-2 resistance to common antivirals. PMID:25209142

  19. Compliance with herpes zoster vaccination in young and adult individuals in two regions of Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonino Parlato; Vincenzo Romano Spica; Massimo Ciccozzi; Francesca Farchi; Francesca Gallè; Valeria Di Onofrio; Elisabetta Franco; Giorgio Liguori

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to explore the knowledge and acceptance of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Herpes Zoster (HZ) vaccination in the general Italian population, where the HZ vaccine has not yet been distributed, using a prevalence study of subjects from two regions in Italy. METHODS: A group of 3,173 individuals were interviewed using a questionnaire. The youngest age

  20. Binding of herpes simplex virus to cellular heparan sulphate, an initial step in the adsorption process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Lycke; Maria Johansson; Bo Svennerholm; Ulf Lindahl

    1991-01-01

    It has been suggested that heparan sulphate has a receptor function in the initial phase of the attachment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) to cells. We have studied the influence of glycosaminoglycans on cell adsorption of, and plaque formation by, HSV-1 and HSV-2, with regard to the role of saccharide structure, chain length and charge density. Heparin and highly-sulphated heparan

  1. Resistance to vaginal or systemic infection with herpes simplex virus type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary C. Breinig; L. L. Wright; Margaret B. McGeorge; P. S. MORAItAN

    1978-01-01

    Summary Mortality due to vaginal or intravenous infection of female BALB\\/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was significantly reduced by treatment of mice with the immunomodulator pyran. Following intravaginal inoculation with virus, the incidence of vaginal infection and titers of virus present in the vaginal secretions were significantly reduced in pyran treated as compared with control mice.

  2. Herp coordinates compartmentalization and recruitment of HRD1 and misfolded proteins for ERAD

    PubMed Central

    Leitman, Julia; Shenkman, Marina; Gofman, Yana; Shtern, Navit Ogen; Ben-Tal, Nir; Hendershot, Linda M.; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z.

    2014-01-01

    A functional unfolded protein response (UPR) is essential for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded secretory proteins, reflecting the fact that some level of UPR activation must exist under normal physiological conditions. A coordinator of the UPR and ERAD processes has long been sought. We previously showed that the PKR-like, ER-localized eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? kinase branch of the UPR is required for the recruitment of misfolded proteins and the ubiquitin ligase HRD1 to the ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), a staging ground for ERAD. Here we show that homocysteine-induced ER protein (Herp), a protein highly upregulated by this UPR branch, is responsible for this compartmentalization. Herp localizes to the ERQC, and our results suggest that it recruits HRD1, which targets to ERAD the substrate presented by the OS-9 lectin at the ERQC. Predicted overall structural similarity of Herp to the ubiquitin-proteasome shuttle hHR23, but including a transmembrane hairpin, suggests that Herp may function as a hub for membrane association of ERAD machinery components, a key organizer of the ERAD complex. PMID:24478453

  3. Impedance monitoring of herpes simplex virus-induced cytopathic effect in Vero cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungbo Cho; Sybille Becker; Hagen von Briesen; Hagen Thielecke

    2007-01-01

    New regulations like, e.g. the European Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals Regulation (the REACH regulation) require efficient and easy to use cell-based systems to get toxicological data of chemicals or to detect viruses in small samples of serum. In this article, we investigate whether the effect of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) on Vero (green monkey kidney) cells can be

  4. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus in culture by oligonucleotides composed entirely of deoxyguanosine and thymidine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M. Fennewald; Shawn Mustain; Joshua Ojwang; Robert F. Rando

    1995-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) composed entirely of deoxyguanosine and thymidine, but not specifically designed to act as antisense agents, were able to significantly inhibit herpes simplex virus growth in acute infection assay systems. The guanosine\\/thymidine (GT) ODNs which demonstrated this antiviral activity contained either natural phosphodiester (PO) or phosphorothioate (PS) modified internucleoside linkages. In all experiments, the antiviral activity of the ODNs

  5. Induction and Prevention of Apoptosis in Human HEp2 Cells by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTINE AUBERT; JOHN A. BLAHO; Mount Sinai

    1999-01-01

    Cultured human epithelial cells infected with an ICP27 deletion strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) show characteristic features of apoptotic cells including cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation. These cells do not show such apoptotic features when infected with a wild-type virus unless the infections are performed in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor. Thus, both

  6. Herpes-Type Virus and Chromosome Marker in Normal Leukocytes after Growth with Irradiated Burkitt Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Henle; Volker Diehl; Gertrude Kohn; Harald Zur Hausen; Gertrude Henle

    1967-01-01

    Cultured cells derived from male patients with Burkitt's lymphoma and harboring herpes-type virus particles were lethally irradiated. These irradiated cells induced normal peripheral leukocytes of female infants to grow within 2 to 4 weeks after mixed cultivation. Cells of a line free of this agent failed to stimulate growth. If either type of cell was cultured separately, it did not

  7. Do herpes zoster patients receive antivirals?: a national survey in general practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Opstelten; G. A. van Essen; K. G. M. Moons; A. J. M. van Wijck; F. G. Schellevis; C. J. Kalkman; T. J. M. Verheij

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main complications of herpes zoster (HZ) are postherpetic neuralgia and, in case of HZ ophthalmicus, eye disorders. Antiviral treatment may modify the course of disease and reduce the risk of complications. OBJECTIVE: To assess which doctors' and patients' characteristics were related to prescription of antiviral therapy for HZ. METHODS: Ninety general practices (358 008 patients) in The Netherlands

  8. Preparation of herpes simplex virus type 1 genomic markers to differentiate strains of predominant genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Umene; M. Yoshida

    1994-01-01

    Summary Analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) isolated in Japan using restriction endonucleases recognizing 6-base pairs revealed the presence of two predominant genotypes of F1 and F35. Therefore, the possibility that the two predominant genotypes may differ in clinical manifestations had to be considered. To address the question of whether differences in

  9. Activity of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide against herpes simplex viruses in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Huheihel; Vladimir Ishanu; Jacov Tal

    2002-01-01

    The cell wall sulfated polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. exhibited impressive antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (rats and rabbits). Depending on the concentration, this polysaccharide completely inhibited or slowed down the development of the cytopathic effect in HSV-infected cells, but did not

  10. Role for Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in the Immune Control of Recurrent Human Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Donaghy; Lidija Bosnjak; Andrew N. Harman; Valerie Marsden; Stephen K. Tyring; Tze-Chiang Meng; Anthony L. Cunningham

    2009-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are an important component of the innate immune response, producing large amounts of alpha interferon in response to viral stimulation in vitro. Under noninflammatory conditions, pDC are not found in the skin and are restricted in location to the blood and lymph nodes. Therefore, their role in mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has

  11. Typing of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 Isolates with Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN-ÅKE LILJEQVIST; BO SVENNERHOLM; TOMAS BERGSTROM

    1999-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are ubiquitous human viruses for which a correct subtyping is essential for counseling work, epidemiological studies, and follow-up pro- grams in vaccine trials. Virus culture, followed by antigenic detection of type-specific determinants, is often used as the \\

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  13. Characteristics Associated with Genital Herpes Testing among Young Adults: Assessing Factors from Two National Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lisa K.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Roberts, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were…

  14. Oral Manifestation of Cytomegalovirus Associated With Herpes Simplex Virus in Renal Transplant Recipient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Lima; P. S. S. Santos; P. Malafronte; H. Muller; H. H. Caiaffa-Filho; Y. A. S. Sens

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with oral lesions associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). This female patient, who underwent a living donor renal transplant 26 months prior, presented with a painful buccal lesion after an episode of leukopenia. The search for CMV antigen was negative. A biopsy incision was made in

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Colorimetric Microtiter Plate Systems for Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YI-WEI TANG; PAUL N. RYS; BARBARA J. RUTLEDGE; P. SHAWN MITCHELL; THOMAS F. SMITH; DAVID H. PERSING

    1998-01-01

    In the past few years, application of the PCR to the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with encephalitis and meningitis has become standard laboratory practice. However, from an operational perspective, the true diagnostic value of PCR in this setting is yet to be realized because most laboratories subject the amplification products

  16. The Effect of Ganciclovir on Herpes Simplex Virus-Mediated Oncolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy M. Carroll; Maureen Chase; E. Antonio Chiocca; Kenneth K. Tanabe

    1997-01-01

    Entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into tumor cells results in viral gene expression followed by cellular lysis. Attenuated HSVs selectively destroy tumors with sparing of surrounding normal tissue. HSV encodes a thymidine kinase (TK) that converts ganciclovir to a toxic metabolite. This metabolite may be transferred between cells and lead to the death of neighboring uninfected cells, termed bystanders.

  17. Optimizing PCR Positivity Criterion for Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA on Skin and Mucosa?

    PubMed Central

    Magaret, Amalia S.; Wald, Anna; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Corey, Larry

    2007-01-01

    In 1997, we developed a PCR assay for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA. Recently, we determined an optimal positivity criterion based on research specimens and a dilution study. We found that a cutoff of 50 HSV DNA copies/ml of swab specimen, a level 10-fold lower than our previous cutoff, minimizes misclassification. PMID:17329447

  18. Inosiplex for Localized Herpes Zoster in Childhood Cancer Patients: Preliminary Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, S.; Hayes, F. A.; Chaudhary, S.; Ossi, M.

    1978-01-01

    By multiple criteria, inosiplex—a reputed stimulator of virus-sensitized lymphocytes—had no demonstrable therapeutic effects in a preliminary controlled study of patients with localized herpes zoster and cancer. Lymphocytes from the six drug-treated patients were no more responsive to varicella-zoster antigen and phytohemagglutinin than were lymphocytes from seven patients who received a placebo. PMID:81655

  19. Enhanced in vitro reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus from neural and peripheral tissues with hexamethylenebisacetamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. I. Bernstein; J. C. Kappes

    1988-01-01

    Summary We evaluated the effect of the demethylating agent hexamethylenebisacetamide on reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) from guinea pig neural and extraneural tissues. Four explant cultures from the dorsal root ganglia of 42 latently infected guinea pigs and vaginal and cervical explant cultures from 33 animals were divided so that half received 5 mM of hexamethylenebisacetamide

  20. Proteins Specified by Herpes Simplex Virus, IV. Site of Glycosylation and Accumulation of Viral Membrane Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Patricia G.; Roizman, Bernard

    1970-01-01

    The membrane glycoproteins specified by herpes simplex virus are synthesized concurrently with structural viral proteins and accumulate in the cytoplasm and in the membranes lining it. Analyses of free and membranebound polyribosomes, the cytoplasmic pool of soluble proteins, and purified smooth membranes showed that viral membrane proteins bind to membranes soon after synthesis and become glycosylated in situ. PMID:4316680

  1. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid antibodies in herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Koskiniemi, M L; Vaheri, A

    1982-03-01

    Antibodies to different viruses and bacteria were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of six patients with herpes simplex virus encephalitis proven by brain biopsy and in five others with a presumptive diagnosis. Antibodies to herpes simplex virus but not to other organisms appeared in the CSF of all patients after the first weeks of the illness. Herpes simplex virus antibodies were not found in control CSF. The antibodies persisted in the CSF and the serum/CSF antibody ratio remained altered, 32:1 to less than 1:1, in all cases during the follow-up to 29 months or until death. The CSF albumin level was normal and the IgG index (formula: see text) elevated in four proven and three presumptive cases indicating a local antibody production; in four patients the findings were inconsistent. These results suggest that prolonged antigen stimulation is present in the central nervous system after acute herpes simplex encephalitis and that serological measurements combined with immunoglobulin and albumin determinations may provide a tentative but not definite diagnosis in some cases after the acute phase of encephalitis together with a method for follow-up of patients. PMID:6283030

  2. Statins and the Risk of Herpes Zoster: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Tony; Zheng, Hong; Singh, Samantha; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Gomes, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs with immunomodulatory properties that may favor reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus infection. However, whether statins increase the risk of herpes zoster is unknown. Methods.?We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of Ontario residents aged ?66 years between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2010 to examine the association between statin use and incidence of herpes zoster. We used propensity score matching to ensure similarity between users and nonusers of statins, and Cox proportional hazard models to assess differences in outcomes between study groups. To test the specificity of our findings, we examined the association between statin exposure and knee arthroplasty. Results.?During the 13-year study period, we matched 494 651 individuals treated with a statin to an equal number of untreated individuals. In the main analysis, the rate of herpes zoster was higher among users of statins relative to nonusers of these drugs (13.25 vs 11.71 per 1000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio [HR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–1.17). The attributable fraction of exposed individuals was 11.6%. In a prespecified analysis, we found a similar risk of herpes zoster among statin users in the subgroup of patients with diabetes (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09–1.27). As expected, we found no association between statin use and knee arthroplasty (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, .99–1.09). Conclusions.?Among older patients, treatment with statins is associated with a small but significantly increased risk of herpes zoster. PMID:24235264

  3. Peptic ulcer as a risk factor for postherpetic neuralgia in adult patients with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Lan, Kuo-Mao; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Tseng, Su-Feng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication of herpes zoster. Identifying predictors for postherpetic neuralgia may help physicians screen herpes zoster patients at risk of postherpetic neuralgia and undertake preventive strategies. Peptic ulcer has been linked to immunological dysfunctions and malnutrition, both of which are predictors of postherpetic neuralgia. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to determine whether adult herpes zoster patients with peptic ulcer were at greater risk of postherpetic neuralgia. Adult zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia patients were automatically selected from a medical center's electronic database using herpes zoster/postherpetic neuralgia ICD-9 codes supported with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Consequently, medical record review was performed to validate the diagnostic codes and all pertaining data including peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and ulcerogenic medications. Because no standard pain intensity measurement exists, opioid usage was used as a proxy measurement for moderate to severe pain. In total, 410 zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and 115 postherpetic neuralgia patients were included. Multivariate logistic regressions identified 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain as independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia. Among etiologies of peptic ulcer, H. pylori infection and usage of non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were significantly associated with the increased risk of postherpetic neuralgia; conversely, other etiologies were not significantly associated with the postherpetic neuralgia risk. In conclusion, 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain are independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia in adult herpes zoster patients. PMID:25156435

  4. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chan, Woan-Eng [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ko, Tzu-Ping [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jiann-Shiun [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Wang, Andrew H.-J., E-mail: ahjwang@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  5. PS1-17: Herpes Zoster in Children

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Sheila; Chun, Colleen; Riedlinger, Karen; Roberts, Michelle; Rix, Mary; Marin-Nelson, Mona; Schmid, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Vaccine-strain herpes zoster (HZ) is a potential adverse outcome of varicella vaccination. Data are needed on the incidence of and risk factors for vaccine-strain HZ among children <18 years of age. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded a study at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) to determine the number and proportion of pediatric HZ cases caused by varicella vaccine, assess positive predictive value (PPV) of physician diagnosis of HZ, and compute incidence of vaccine and wild-type HZ in the KPNW population. Methods: We used electronic data to identify all pediatric medical office visits with a HZ diagnosis. During the visit, the provider collected a lesion specimen and completed a questionnaire. The study nurse called to interview the parent and, if no specimen was previously collected, schedule a home visit to obtain it. A follow-up questionnaire on severity and duration of HZ was returned four weeks after rash onset. Specimens were sent to the National Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Laboratory at the CDC for PCR analysis to confirm presence of the virus and classify it as wild-type or vaccine-type. Results: From 5/2005 to 3/2009, we enrolled 308 subjects in the study. Two-hundred eighty-one (96%) had adequate lesion specimens for PCR analysis. We found VZV in 75% of adequate specimens; 69% were wild-type, while 9% were vaccine-type and 1% (2) were vaccine:wild-type recombination. Among vaccinated subjects, 69% had wild-type HZ. The PPV for provider diagnosis of ‘definite HZ’ was 83%: 85% for unvaccinated subjects and 76% for vaccinated subjects. Incidence rates for vaccine-strain and wild-type VZV in plan children age 0–17 will be presented. Conclusions: Vaccine-strain VZV was found in a minority of HZ cases in this age group. We observed recombination of vaccine-strain and wild-type viruses in two subjects. Provider diagnosis of HZ was good overall.

  6. Herpes simplex virus infections among rural residents in eastern China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has two types: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both infect epithelial cells and establish latent infections in neurons causing an infection that persists for life. Information on age- and gender-specific seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 is valuable for understanding HSV transmission dynamics and designing population-based prevention and intervention programs for HSV. However, such information is not available for China. Methods Cryopreserved serum samples of all subjects aged 5 to 60 years from two randomly selected rural villages in Zhejiang province in Eastern China who had participated in the China national seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection conducted in 2006 were tested. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections were determined by type-specific IgG antibody tests using an ELISA technique. Their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for the sampling fraction were calculated according to the Clopper-Pearson method. Results A total of 2,141 residents participated in the survey, with a response rate of 82.3%. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 92.0% overall, 89.1% for males and 94.2% for females. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 61.6% among children aged 5-9 years, 90.3% among 25-29 years, and nearly 100% among those aged > = 40 years. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 13.2% overall, 10.5% for males and 15.3% for females. No children aged 5-14 years were HSV-2 positive, and HSV-2 seroprevalence was 7.1% among 15-19 years and peaked at 24.3% among those aged 45-49 years. Neither HSV-1 nor HSV-2 infections were significantly different by gender. About 11.8% of study subjects were co-infected with both types of HSV. Among 549 participating couples, 8.6% were HSV-1 serodiscordant and 11.8% were HSV-2 serodiscordant. No one tested positive for HIV. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 16.2%, 16.9% for males and 15.4% for females. Conclusions HSV-1 was highly prevalent among all rural residents aged between 5-60 years in Eastern China, whereas HSV-2 was prevalent among sexually active people. HSV-1 and HSV-2 have different transmission modes and dynamics. Future HSV prevention and control programs in China should be type specific. PMID:21414231

  7. Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Valdez, Hernan; Mortensen, Eric; Chew, Robert; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Kawabata, Thomas; Riese, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ) (i.e., shingles). The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with tofacitinib increases the risk of HZ in patients with RA. Methods HZ cases were identified as those reported by trial investigators from the databases of the phase II, phase III, and long-term extension (LTE) clinical trials in the Tofacitinib RA Development Program. Crude incidence rates (IRs) of HZ per 100 patient-years (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were calculated by exposure group. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential risk factors for HZ (e.g., age, prednisone use). Results Among 4,789 participants, 239 were identified as having tofacitinib-associated HZ during the phase II, phase III, and LTE trials, of whom 208 (87%) were female and whose median age was 57 years (range 21–75 years). One HZ case (0.4%) was multidermatomal; none of the cases involved visceral dissemination or death. Twenty-four patients with HZ (10%) permanently discontinued treatment with tofacitinib, and 16 (7%) were either hospitalized or received intravenous antiviral drugs. The crude HZ IR across the development program was 4.4 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 3.8–4.9), but the IR was substantially higher within Asia (7.7 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 6.4–9.3). Older age was associated with HZ (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.6), and IRs for HZ were similar between patients receiving 5 mg tofacitinib twice daily (4.4 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.2–6.0) and those receiving 10 mg twice daily (4.2 per 100 patient-years, 95% CI 3.1–5.8). In the phase III trials among placebo recipients, the incidence of HZ was 1.5 per 100 patient-years (95% CI 0.5–4.6). Conclusion In the Tofacitinib RA Development Program, increased rates of HZ were observed in patients treated with tofacitinib compared with those receiving placebo, particularly among patients within Asia. Complicated HZ among tofacitinib-treated patients was rare. PMID:24943354

  8. N-Terminal Phosphorylation Sites of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 Differentially Regulate Its Activities and Enhance Viral Replication

    E-print Network

    Mostafa, Heba H.; Thompson, Thornton W.; Davido, David J.

    2013-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) is an immediate-early phosphoprotein that transactivates viral gene expression. Evidence suggests that phosphorylation regulates the functions of ICP0, and ...

  9. Altering Central Nervous System Physiology with a Defective Herpes Simplex Virus Vector Expressing the Glucose Transporter Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dora Y. Ho; Edward S. Mocarski; Robert M. Sapolsky

    1993-01-01

    Because of their postmitotic nature, neurons are difficult subjects for gene transfer. To circumvent this, we have used a defective herpes simplex virus vector to overexpress the rat brain glucose transporter (GT) gene under the control of the human cytomegalovirus ie1 promoter. This vector, designated vIE1GT, was propagated using a herpes simplex virus type 1 temperature-sensitive mutant, ts756, GT expressed

  10. Immunodominance among herpes simplex virus-specific CD8 T cells expressing a tissue-specific homing receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Koelle; Zhi Liu; Christopher L. McClurkan; Randal C. Cevallos; Jeffrey Vieira; Nancy A. Hosken; Clement A. Meseda; Devon C. Snow; Anna Wald; Lawrence Corey

    2003-01-01

    The study of immunodominance within microbe-specific CD8 T cell responses has been challenging. We used a previously undescribed approach to create unbiased panels of CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones specific for herpes simplex virus type 2, a pathogen with a complex genome encoding at least 85 polypeptides. Circulating herpes simplex virus type 2-specific cells were enriched and cloned after sorting

  11. Antitumor effects on human melanoma xenografts of an amplicon vector transducing the herpes thymidine kinase gene followed by ganciclovir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suming Wang; Jianguo Qi; Michael Smith; Charles J Link

    2002-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) has been demonstrated as a potentially useful gene delivery vector for gene therapy due to its high efficiency of in vivo transduction. The helper virus–dependent, HSV-1 amplicon vectors were developed for easier operation and their larger capacity. In this study, the herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene was cloned into the pHE700 amplicon

  12. Antiviral Activity of Obtained Extracts from Different Parts of Cupressus sempervirens against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyed Ahmad Emami; Zahra Tayarani-Najaran; Masoud Sabouri Ghannad; Pezhman Khajeh Karamadini; Mehrangiz Khajeh Karamadini

    Objective(s) The aim of this study was to search for new antiviral agents from herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts of C. semipervirens, C. semipervirens var. horizontalis and C. semipervirens cv. Cereiformis were used in experiments to test their influence on herpes viruses (HSV-1). Materials and Methods HeLa cells monolayers were infected with herpes viruses (HSV-1). Antiviral activity of the plant extracts

  13. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: Mapping of Structural Proteins, Ribosomal Frameshifting, and Similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Steven M.; Bell, Susanne; Firth, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV), an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order. PMID:24686475

  14. Pathogenicity of frog virus 3-like virus in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) at two environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Allender, M C; Mitchell, M A; Torres, T; Sekowska, J; Driskell, E A

    2013-01-01

    Ranaviral disease has affected several species of reptiles, but disease progression and mortality in relation to environmental temperature has yet to be determined. In this study, two separate trials challenged adult female red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) with a ranavirus (frog virus 3-like virus; FV3) isolate at environmental temperatures of 22 °C (n = 4) and 28 °C (n = 4). The mortality rates in the turtles in the 22 °C and 28 °C trials were 100% and 50%, respectively. Median survival time for turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C was 24 days, while it was 30 days in the group kept at 28 °C. Consistent microscopical lesions were observed only in the group inoculated at 22 °C and included fibrinoid necrosis of vessels in the spleen, vascular and sinusoidal thrombi in the liver, necrotizing myositis and a mild heterophilic interstitial pneumonia. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, targeting a conserved portion of the major capsid protein, was able to detect virus copies in whole blood, oral and cloacal swabs, tongue, skeletal muscle, lung, heart, liver, spleen, ovary and kidney. Viral copy number in ante-mortem clinical samples was non-significantly highest in whole blood, while kidney had the highest viral copy number in post-mortem samples. All samples had higher virus copy number in turtles exposed to FV3 at 22 °C compared with 28 °C. This study determined that environmental temperature affects the survival and disease progression in ranavirus-infected red-eared slider turtles, which will aid in managing animals in a clinical or free-ranging setting. PMID:23582975

  15. Towards a Rational Design of an Asymptomatic Clinical Herpes Vaccine: The Old, the New, and the Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Alami Chentoufi, Aziz; Kritzer, Elizabeth; Yu, David M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    The best hope of controlling the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) pandemic is the development of an effective vaccine. However, in spite of several clinical trials, starting as early as 1920s, no vaccine has been proven sufficiently safe and efficient to warrant commercial development. In recent years, great strides in cellular and molecular immunology have stimulated creative efforts in controlling herpes infection and disease. However, before moving towards new vaccine strategy, it is necessary to answer two fundamental questions: (i) why past herpes vaccines have failed? (ii) Why the majority of HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., asymptomatic individuals) are naturally “protected” exhibiting few or no recurrent clinical disease, while other HSV seropositive individuals (i.e., symptomatic individuals) have frequent ocular, orofacial, and/or genital herpes clinical episodes? We recently discovered several discrete sets of HSV-1 symptomatic and asymptomatic epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from seropositive symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. These asymptomatic epitopes will provide a solid foundation for the development of novel herpes epitope-based vaccine strategy. Here we provide a brief overview of past clinical vaccine trials, outline current progress towards developing a new generation “asymptomatic” clinical herpes vaccines, and discuss future mucosal “asymptomatic” prime-boost vaccines that could optimize local protective immunity. PMID:22548113

  16. Multicenter randomized study of inosine pranobex versus acyclovir in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis and recurrent herpes genitalis in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    You, Yi; Wang, Li; Li, Yafei; Wang, Qianqiu; Cao, Shuanglin; Tu, Yating; Li, Shenqiu; Bai, Li; Lu, Jianyun; Wei, Zhiping; Chen, Wenchieh; Hao, Fei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral inosine pranobex as compared with acyclovir in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) and recurrent herpes genitalis (RHG). A multicenter double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, parallel group trial was conducted in 144 patients with RHL and 144 RHG. Patients were assigned to treatment in one of two groups: (i) inosine pranobex group (active inosine pranobex, 1 g four times daily, and acyclovir placebo); or (ii) acyclovir group (active acyclovir, 200 mg five times daily, and inosine pranobex placebo). The total symptom score (TSS) of patients with RHL did not differ in the inosine pranobex and acyclovir group on the 3rd or 7th day of treatment. There was also no difference in the efficacy rates between the two groups. No difference of TSS was observed between patients with RHG taking inosine pranobex and acyclovir on days 3 or 5 of the treatment, respectively. The short-term clinical recurrence rate of RHG at 3-month follow-up was much lower in the inosine pranobex group than acyclovir group. The incidence of hyperuricemia was higher in the inosine pranobex group than acyclovir group. In conclusion, inosine pranobex was as effective as acyclovir in treating RHL and RHG with significantly greater reduction of the short-term recurrence rate of herpes genitalis at 3-month follow up. Long-term recurrence rates at 6 months or longer remain to be determined. Hyperuricemia should be monitored during the treatment. PMID:25819042

  17. Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, and herpes zoster: immunization guidelines for adults.

    PubMed

    Hendriksz, Tami; Malouf, Philip; Foy, James E

    2011-10-01

    Although vaccinations are most commonly associated with the pediatric population, it is important for healthcare professionals to be familiar with the vaccines that are recommended for adults. The authors discuss 3 vaccines-the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, the varicella vaccine, and the herpes zoster vaccine-including information about the diseases and complications that they protect against. Two doses, separated by 4 weeks, of both the MMR and varicella vaccines are recommended for all adults who do not have immunization or contraindications. All adults aged 60 years or older should receive a single dose of the herpes zoster vaccine unless they have contraindications. These 3 vaccines offer protection from illnesses that can have serious sequelae and substantial public health implications. PMID:22086887

  18. [Clinical aspects of treatment of genital herpes with plaferon LB and phenowine].

    PubMed

    Nozadze, T G; Korsantiia, N B; Kupradze, S A

    2005-01-01

    Exacerbation of genital herpes simplex is followed by suppression of immunocompetence of patients. This proves necessity of adjuvant immunocorrective therapy. In our previous investigations it was shown that plaferon LB possessed immunotropic effect, and phenowine (as an antioxidant remedy) was intensifying the action of plaferon. These data allow us to examine protective action of plaferon and phenowine in complex treatment of genital herpes. High-performance scheme of herpetic relapse was suggested, which was established on aetiotropic effect of acyclovir and immunomodulating action of plaferon and phenowine: satisfactory outcome in 92,1 percent (monotherapy with acyclovir--70,7%). Results of complex therapy appeared in reduction of period of acute infection (on average 2,3 days) and in prolongation of remission (on average 157,3 days, vs 88,5 days in control group). Therapeutic action was achieved by antiviral properties of acyclovir and plaferon, immunostimulating action of plaferon and antioxidant effect of phenowine. PMID:15821333

  19. Aquaporin 4 regulation during acute and long-term experimental Herpes simplex virus encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Martinez Torres; D. Völcker; N. Dörner; Th. Lenhard; S. Nielsen; J. Haas; K. Kiening; U. Meyding-Lamadé

    2007-01-01

    Structural damage of the central nervous system (CNS) often leads to severely disabling residual symptoms despite effective\\u000a antiviral therapy during Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE). Edematous space-occupying lesions are pathological and\\u000a neuroradiological well-known phenomena for this disease. The molecular mechanisms of brain edema development in HSVE are poorly\\u000a understood, the regulation of water brain-blood barrier (BBB) permeability might be disturbed.

  20. Chromatin Structure is Required to Block Transcription of the Methylated Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Buschhausen; B. Wittig; M. Graessmann; A. Graessmann

    1987-01-01

    Inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) gene transcription (pHSV-106, pML-BPV-TK4) by DNA methylation is an indirect effect, which occurs with a latency period of ≈ 8 hr after microinjection of the DNA into TK- rat 2 and mouse LTK- cells. We have strong evidence that chromatin formation is critical for the transition of the injected DNA from

  1. Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Allahverdiyev; N. Duran; M. Ozguven; S. Koltas

    2004-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200?g\\/ml) of volatile oils were examined.

  2. Central hypoventilation syndrome after Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis and herpes infection.

    PubMed

    Tirupathi, Sandya; Webb, David W; Phelan, Ethna; Butler, Karina; McMenamin, Joseph B

    2008-11-01

    A case of central hypoventilation syndrome was identified in a child with brainstem and cervical cord injury following Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis and extensive herpes simplex infection. This process resulted in a spastic tetraplegia, and the child continues to require respiratory support. Possible mechanisms of causation are discussed including an evolving, progressive inflammatory or vasculitic process in the setting of transient immunosuppression. PMID:18940561

  3. Progesterone Increases Susceptibility and Decreases Immune Responses to Genital Herpes Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charu Kaushic; Ali A. Ashkar; Lesley A. Reid; Kenneth L. Rosenthal

    2003-01-01

    Depo-provera, a long-acting progestational formulation, is widely used to facilitate infection of sexually transmitted diseases in animal models. We have previously reported that hormone treatments change suscep- tibility and immune responses to genital tract infections. In this study we compared the changes in suscepti- bility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) after Depo-provera or a saline

  4. Effects of genetic resistance against Herpes simplex virus in vaginally infected mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Schneweis; M. Olbrich; V. Saftig; R. Scholz

    1982-01-01

    In order to take the conditions of naturalHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infection into consideration, the genetic resistance of C57-B1 mice, which was established by intraperitoneal HSV-1 infection [Lopez, 1975], was investigated in vaginally infected mice. The course of infection in the mucous membranes did not differ in sensitive (NMRI) and resistant (C57-B1) mice: both number of takes and virus elimination

  5. Engineered herpes simplex virus expressing bacterial cytosine deaminase for experimental therapy of brain tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M B Guffey; J N Parker; W S Luckett; G Y Gillespie; S Meleth; R J Whitley; J M Markert

    2007-01-01

    Lack of effective therapy of primary brain tumors has promoted the development of novel experimental approaches utilizing oncolytic viruses combined with gene therapy. Towards this end, we have assessed a conditionally replication-competent, ?134.5-deleted herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) expressing cytosine deaminase (CD) for treatment of malignant brain tumors. Our results are summarized as follows: (i) a recombinant HSV (M012)

  6. The epidemiology of herpes zoster and potential cost-effectiveness of vaccination in England and Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J Edmunds; M Brisson; J. D Rose

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) was quantified from a variety of data sources and the potential cost-effectiveness of vaccination assessed. The annual incidence and severity of zoster increases sharply with age, as measured by physician consultation and hospitalisation rates, average length of stay, average proportion of cases developing PHN and the age-specific case-fatality ratio. Combining these

  7. Exposure to varicella boosts immunity to herpes-zoster: implications for mass vaccination against chickenpox

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Brisson; N. J. Gay; W. J. Edmunds; N. J. Andrews

    2002-01-01

    We present data to confirm that exposure to varicella boosts immunity to herpes-zoster. We show that exposure to varicella is greater in adults living with children and that this exposure is highly protective against zoster (Incidence ratio=0.75, 95% CI, 0.63–0.89). The data is used to parameterise a mathematical model of varicella zoster virus (VZV) transmission that captures differences in exposure

  8. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus progressing to encephalitis: beware pain preceding the rash

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Novoneel; Morris, Paul; Blundell, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    We present a challenging case in which the dermatomal pain associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus preceded the cutaneous rash by several days. It thus highlights the need to consider this diagnosis among the differentials for severe unilateral headache in the elderly. The patient unfortunately progressed to develop encephalitis, an uncommon but serious complication of zoster reactivation and a reminder that this remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. PMID:23853008

  9. In-vivo immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of herpes simplex virus type 1 keratitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Kaufman; Jeffery A. Laird; Roger W. Beuerman

    1996-01-01

    The white-light confocal microscope offers an in vivo, cellular-level resolution view of the cornea. This instrument has proven to be a valuable research and diagnostic tool for the study of infectious keratitis. In this study, we investigate the direct visualization of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected corneal epithelium, with in vivo confocal microscopy, using HSV-1 immunofluorescent antibodies. New Zealand

  10. Characteristics Associated With Genital Herpes Testing Among Young Adults: Assessing Factors From Two National Data Sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa K. Gilbert; Brooke A. Levandowski; Craig M. Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: In the United States, genital herpes (GH) prevalence is 10.6% among 20- to 29-year-olds and about 90% of seropositive persons do not know their status. This study investigated individual characteristics associated with GH screening and diagnosis in sexually active young adults aged 18 to 24. Methods: Two data sets were analyzed: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent

  11. Genomic characterization of two predominant genotypes of herpes simplex virus type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Umene; M. Yoshida

    1993-01-01

    Summary Genomic profiles of 66 strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) isolated in Japan were investigated with regard to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and length variation of fragments containing reiterations. There were two predominant genotypes of F1 and F35, and the genomic characteristics of each were studied. The nucleotide change between F1 and F35 was estimated to

  12. Treatment of herpes simplex esophagitis in an immunocompetent patient with intravenous acyclovir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Kurahara; Kunihiko Aoyagi; Shotaro Nakamura; Yasuyuki Kuwano; Chifumi Yamamoto; Mitsuo Iida; Masatoshi Fujishima

    1998-01-01

    A 35-yr-old, immunocompetent male was admitted complaining of severe odynophagia. He was diagnosed as having herpes simplex esophagitis and was started on intravenous acyclovir 5 mg\\/kg every 8 h on the day of admission. His response was dramatic. Within 24 h he was virtually asymptomatic. Acyclovir therapy in immunocompetent adults with esophagitis has been described in only a handful of

  13. Herpes simplex virus infection of the uterine cervix—relationship with a cervical factor?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waltraud Eggert-Kruse; Barbara Mildenberger-Sandbrink; Paul Schnitzler; Gerhard Rohr; Thomas Strowitzki; Detlef Petzoldt

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) in women of reproductive age and to evaluate a potential relation of asymptomatic HSV shedding with a cervical factor.Design: Prospective study.Setting: Outpatient infertility clinic of a university hospital.Patient(s): Randomly chosen asymptomatic women (n = 1,262) with a median age of 30 years.Intervention(s): None.Main Outcome Measure(s): Prevalence of cervical HSV,

  14. Acute retinal necrosis in primary herpes simplex virus type I infection.

    PubMed

    Mora, Paolo; Guex-Crosier, Yan; Kamberi, Erilda; Orsoni, Jelka G

    2009-02-01

    Here we report the case of an immunocompetent 8-year-old child who developed acute retinal necrosis concomitant with a primary herpes simplex virus type I infection. Ocular inflammation changed along with the development of a specific antibody titer in the serum. This evidence suggests that the immune response of the host can significantly modulate the clinical aspect of the ocular infection. PMID:19106778

  15. Interaction of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein gC with Mammalian Cell Surface Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH TAL-SINGER; CHARLINE PENG; MANUEL PONCE DELEON; WILLIAM R. ABRAMS; BRUCE W. BANFIELD; FRANK TUFARO; GARY H. COHEN; ANDROSELYN J. EISENBERG

    1995-01-01

    The entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into mammalian cells is a multistep process beginning with an attachment step involving glycoproteins gC and gB. A second step requires the interaction of glycoprotein gD with a cell surface molecule. We explored the interaction between gC and the cell surface by using purified proteins in the absence of detergent. Truncated forms of

  16. Packaging Determinants in the UL11 Tegument Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua S. Loomis; Richard J. Courtney; John W. Wills

    2006-01-01

    The UL11 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a 96-amino-acid tegument protein that is myristylated, palmitylated, and phosphorylated and is found on the cytoplasmic faces of nuclear, Golgi apparatus-derived, and plasma membranes of infected cells. Although this protein is thought to play a role in virus budding, its specific function is unknown. Purified virions were found to contain

  17. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from Rumex acetosa L. inhibit the attachment of herpes simplex virus type-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten Gescher; Andreas Hensel; Wali Hafezi; Andrea Derksen; Joachim Kühn

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenole-enriched acetone–water extract R2 from the aerial parts of Rumex acetosa L. containing high amounts of oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins and flavonoids was tested for antiviral activity. R2 exhibited strong antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) while the replication of adenovirus 3 was not affected. By plaque reduction test and MTT assay on Vero cells, the HSV-1-specific

  18. Establishment of a new cell line susceptible to Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) and possible latency of CyHV-3 by temperature shift in the cells.

    PubMed

    Imajoh, M; Fujioka, H; Furusawa, K; Tamura, K; Yamasaki, K; Kurihara, S; Yamane, J; Kawai, K; Oshima, S

    2015-06-01

    A new cell line named CCF-K104 predominantly consisting of fibroblastic cells showed optimal growth at temperatures from 25 °C to 30 °C. Serial morphological changes in the cells induced by Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) included cytoplasmic vacuolar formation, cell rounding and detachment. Mature virions were purified from CyHV-3-infected CCF-K104 cells by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and had a typical herpesvirus structure on electron microscopy. Infectious CyHV-3 was produced stably in CCF-K104 cells over 30 viral passages. Our findings showed that CCF-K104 is a useful cell line for isolation and productive replication of CyHV-3. A temperature shift from 25 °C to 15 °C or 35 °C did not allow serial morphological changes as observed at 25 °C for 14 days. Under the same conditions, real-time PCR showed that CyHV-3 was present with low viral DNA loads, suggesting that CyHV-3 may establish latent infection in CCF-K104 cells. Amplification of the left and right terminal repeat sequences of the CyHV-3 genome arranged in a head-to-tail manner was detected by nested PCR following an upshift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C. The PCR results suggested that the circular genome may represent a latent form of CyHV-3. PMID:24820532

  19. Macromolecular Synthesis in Cells Infected by Frog Virus 3. VII. Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Virus Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Willis, D. B.; Goorha, R.; Miles, M.; Granoff, A.

    1977-01-01

    We have used improved techniques for separating individual species of RNA and protein to study the mechanisms that control gene expression by frog virus 3, a eucaryotic DNA virus. Forty-seven species of viral RNA and 35 viral polypeptide species were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative molar ratios of virus-specific polypeptides synthesized at various times after infection were determined by computer planimetry and were compared with the molar ratios of appropriate-sized viral RNAs to code for each polypeptide. Viral polypeptides were classified according to the time during the growth cycle at which their maximal rate of synthesis occurred - early, 2 to 2.5 h; intermediate, 4 to 4.5 h; and late, 6 to 6.5 h. The viral RNAs, which were assumed to be mRNA's, could not be classified according to time of maximum synthesis; once their synthesis had begun, most of the RNAs continued to be synthesized at the same or higher rates. However, only 10 of the 47 viral RNA bands were plainly visible after electrophoresis of extracts from cells labeled from 1 to 1.5 h after infection; these 10 RNAs were designated “early” RNA. The early pattern of both RNA and polypeptide synthesis was maintained for at least 6 h in the presence of the amino acid analog fluorophenylalanine, which indicates that a functional viral polypeptide was required for “late” transcription and translation. The presumptive mRNA's for late polypeptides did not appear until 2 h after infection, but two of these “late” RNAs became the major products of transcription by 4 h into the infectious cycle. In contrast to the declining rate of synthesis of the early proteins, corresponding early RNA species continued to be synthesized at the same or higher rates throughout the replicative cycle. Although the synthesis of late virus-specific proteins appeared to be regulated at the level of transcription, our results suggest that the synthesis of both early and intermediate proteins was regulated at the post-transcriptional level. Images PMID:561861

  20. Hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to adenovirus or herpes simplex virus infection following renal transplantation: four case reports.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, G F; Oliveira, R A; Lucon, M; de Paula, F J; Lucon, A M; Ianhez, L E; Srougi, M; Sabbaga, E

    2009-12-01

    Viral infections are common complications following renal transplantation. However, there have been few reported cases of viral cystitis secondary to herpes simplex virus or adenovirus infection. Herein, we have reported four cases of hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to infections with herpes simplex virus and adenovirus following renal transplantation. The etiology was adenovirus in three cases and herpes simplex virus in the remaining case. In all four cases, the primary cause of the renal dysfunction was diabetic nephropathy. All four patients presented with a clinical profile characterized by dysuria, pollakiuria, macroscopic hematuria, and graft dysfunction. Three of the four patients developed these symptoms within the first 3 months after renal transplantation. In all four cases, there was an increase, albeit slight, in creatinine levels, which returned to normal or near-normal values upon resolution of the symptoms. Acute cellular rejection was observed in only one case. Although rare, hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to infection, which typically occurs early in the posttransplant period, causes pronounced symptoms. The infection appears to be self-limiting, resolving completely within 4 weeks. PMID:20005412

  1. Molecular diagnostics and newborns at risk for genital herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Chua, Caroline; Arnolds, Marin; Niklas, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the newborn carries a high mortality rate and can result in lifelong neurologic impairment. The severity of HSV infection in the newborn has always dictated conservative management when prodromal symptoms or active genital lesions (or those suggestive of genital herpes) are present during labor and delivery. The risk of intrapartum infection, however, is related to the presence or absence of maternal immunity (neutralizing antibody) to HSV. The most significant risk of transmission is in first-episode primary infections with active lesions at delivery. Recent recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committees on Infectious Diseases and the Fetus and Newborn use rapid serologic and virologic screening in the management of asymptomatic infants born to mothers with active genital herpes. The revised guidelines highlight infants at greatest risk for HSV disease but do not apply to asymptomatic infants born to mothers with a history of HSV but no genital lesions at delivery. The current guidelines also stipulate that maternal serologic screening and molecular assays for HSV in newborn blood and cerebrospinal fluid must be available and reported in a timely fashion. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(5):e97-e102.]. PMID:25996200

  2. Predictors of the Sexual Well-being of Individuals Diagnosed with Herpes and Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Lyndsay R; Byers, E Sandra

    2014-11-19

    Research suggests that having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as genital herpes and human papillomavirus (HPV) can negatively affect sexual well-being. However, there is little research examining factors associated with poorer sexual well-being among individuals with a STI. This study investigated the extent to which stigma experiences, individual characteristics, and STI characteristics were associated with multiple aspects of sexual well-being among individuals diagnosed with herpes and/or HPV. Participants were an average of 36 years old (SD = 11.58) and included 188 individuals with herpes and/or HPV who completed measures of sexual activity, sexual problems, and sexual cognitive-affective factors. The results showed that experiences of stigmatization were the most important predictors of sexual well-being. Participants who perceived were stigmatized by others as well as those who internalized negative social attitudes to a greater extent reported poorer sexual well-being across all dimensions, over and above individual and STI characteristics. The implications of these findings for sexual health professionals are discussed. PMID:25408498

  3. Stepwise Evolution of the Herpes Simplex Virus Origin Binding Protein and Origin of Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Monica; Tang, Ka-Wei; Persson, Cecilia; Wilhelmsson, L. Marcus; Billeter, Martin; Elias, Per

    2009-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus replicon consists of cis-acting sequences, oriS and oriL, and the origin binding protein (OBP) encoded by the UL9 gene. Here we identify essential structural features in the initiator protein OBP and the replicator sequence oriS, and we relate the appearance of these motifs to the evolutionary history of the alphaherpesvirus replicon. Our results reveal two conserved sequence elements in herpes simplex virus type 1, OBP; the RVKNL motif, common to and specific for all alphaherpesviruses, is required for DNA binding, and the WP XXXGAXXFXX L motif, found in a subset of alphaherpesviruses, is required for specific binding to the single strand DNA-binding protein ICP8. A 121-amino acid minimal DNA binding domain containing conserved residues is not soluble and does not bind DNA. Additional sequences present 220 amino acids upstream from the RVKNL motif are needed for solubility and function. We also examine the binding sites for OBP in origins of DNA replication and how they are arranged. NMR and DNA melting experiments demonstrate that origin sequences derived from many, but not all, alphaherpesviruses can adopt stable boxI/boxIII hairpin conformations. Our results reveal a stepwise evolutionary history of the herpes simplex virus replicon and suggest that replicon divergence contributed to the formation of major branches of the herpesvirus family. PMID:19351883

  4. [Statistical observations on patients with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Makise, H; Sasaki, K; Nishida, N; Igarashi, O; Kubota, M; Goto, Y

    1981-11-01

    From 1969 to 1980, 83 patients with herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia were referred to our clinic. They consisted of 36 male and 47 female, whose ages ranged from 18 to 91 years. They were tested mainly with stellate ganglion block or epidural block. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia received imipramine 60 mg per day in addition. About half of the patients were relieved of pain or considerably improved after treatment. Other half of the patients somewhat improved excluding those patients whose therapeutic effect could not be assessed. More favourable results were obtained in patients whose treatment was instituted within 2 weeks from onset of herpes zoster than patients over 2 weeks from onset. Duration of treatment was shorter in younger patients (approximately 59 years) than older patients (60 years approximately), but results were same in both age groups. About 10% of the patients had concomitant malignant disease or autoimmune disease. No relationship between the localization of herpes zoster and the site of malignant disease was found. PMID:7338339

  5. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Koch, C; Reichling, J; Schneele, J; Schnitzler, P

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.016%, 0.0075%, 0.007%, 0.004%, 0.003% and 0.0015% for anise oil, hyssop oil, thyme oil, ginger oil, camomile oil and sandalwood oil, respectively. A clearly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-2 could be demonstrated for all essential oils tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 90% when HSV-2 was preincubated with hyssop oil, thyme oil or ginger oil. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the essential oils were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-2 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that essential oils affected HSV-2 mainly before adsorption probably by interacting with the viral envelope. Camomile oil exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as virucidal agents for treatment of herpes genitalis. PMID:17976968

  6. Acute pancreatitis associated with herpes zoster: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Ye, Jun; Han, Yue-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a type of herpes virus known to cause varicella, mainly in young children, and herpes zoster in adults. Although generally non-lethal, VZV infection can be associated with serious complications, particularly in adults. Acute pancreatitis caused by VZV infection is a rare event, with reports primarily concerning immunocompromised individuals. Here we report a 44-year-old immunocompetent female who developed acute pancreatitis associated with VZV infection. The patient presented with vomiting and persistent pain in the upper quadrant less than one week after diagnosis and treatment for a herpes zoster-related rash with stabbing pain on the abdomen and dorsal right trunk side. A diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed based on abdominal pain, elevated levels of urine and serum amylase, and findings of peri-pancreatic exudation and effusions by computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. This case highlights that, though rare, acute pancreatitis should be considered in VZV patients who complain of abdominal pain, especially in the epigastric area. Early detection and proper treatment are needed to prevent the condition from deteriorating further and to minimize mortality. PMID:25548507

  7. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  8. Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, A; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

    2003-01-01

    The virucidal effect of peppermint oil, the essential oil of Mentha piperita, against herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of peppermint oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.002% and 0.0008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Peppermint oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 82% and 92% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Higher concentrations of peppermint oil reduced viral titers of both herpesviruses by more than 90%. A clearly time-dependent activity could be demonstrated, after 3 h of incubation of herpes simplex virus with peppermint oil an antiviral activity of about 99% could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of the essential oil, peppermint oil was added at different times to the cells or viruses during infection. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oil prior to adsorption. These results indicate that peppermint oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell. Thus this essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal effect on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACV(res)), plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99%. Considering the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical therapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes infection. PMID:13678235

  9. Expression of entry receptor nectin-1 of herpes simplex virus 1 and/or herpes simplex virus 2 in normal and neoplastic human nervous system tissues.

    PubMed

    Guzman, G; Oh, S; Shukla, D; Engelhard, H H; Valyi-Nagy, T

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 and/or Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV) are important pathogens of human nervous system (NS) and genetically modified HSV strains have been proposed as vectors for gene therapy targeting the brain and brain tumors. Nectin-1 is an immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecule that participates in the formation of synapses and serves as an entry receptor for HSV. The expression pattern of nectin-1 in normal human NS and brain tumors is not well understood. To better understand the nectin-1 expression in normal and neoplastic human NS, immunohistochemistry was used to detect the nectin-1 expression in sections of normal human brain, spinal cord and trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (n=10) and in sections of primary NS neoplasms (n=22). In normal human NS, nectin-1 was detected in the soma and processes of central and peripheral neurons, in ependymal cells, choroid plexus epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells and meningothelial cells. Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, and Schwann cells showed variable immunoreactivity. Among tumors, schwannoma, fibrous meningioma, and medulloblastoma were nectin-1 negative. Oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme and meningothelial meningioma showed weak focal nectin-1-positivity. Ganglion cells of ganglioglioma were strongly positive. These studies provide novel information about the expression of nectin-1 in normal and neoplastic NS, and thus may lead to a better understanding of cell targeting by HSV during HSV-induced neurological disease and during a HSV-based gene therapy. PMID:16599187

  10. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days (combined odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92-6.70), and at 14 days (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.33-13.04), but pooling was limited by lack of homogeneity and low study quality. Direct comparisons at 1 week of treatment showed that trifluridine or acyclovir was significantly better than idoxuridine (OR, 3.12 and 4.56; 95% CI, 1.55-6.29 and 2.76-7.52, respectively), and indirect comparisons were also consistent with a clinically significant benefit. Vidarabine was not significantly better than idoxuridine in pooled treatment comparisons at 1 week (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.72-2.00) but was better in 2 indirect comparisons (OR, 4.22 and 4.78; 95% CI, 1.69-10.54 and 2.15-10.65, respectively). At 14 days, trifluridine (OR, 6.05; 95% CI, 2.50-14.66), acyclovir (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.39-4.78), and vidarabine (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.65-2.37) were each better than idoxuridine. Trials of geographic epithelial keratitis also suggested that trifluridine, acyclovir, and vidarabine were more effective that idoxuridine. Other topical antiviral agents, such as bromovinyldeoxuridine, ganciclovir, and foscarnet, appeared equivalent to trifluridine or acyclovir. Oral acyclovir was equivalent to topical antiviral therapy and did not hasten healing when used in combination with topical treatment. Antiviral agents did not increase the speed of healing when compared to debridement but reduced the risk of recrudescent epithelial keratitis. The combination of physicochemical treatment with an antiviral agent seemed to be better than either physicochemical or antiviral treatment alone, but the heterogeneous cauterization and curettage techniques and the various treatment combinations limited valid quantitative summary effect measures. The combination of topical interferon with an antiviral agent was significantly better than antiviral therapy at 7 days (OR, 13.49; 95% CI, 7.39-24.61) but not at 14 days (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 0.82-6.79). Finding apparent heterogeneity for some pooled estimates suggested that dissimilarities in patients, interventions, outcomes, or other logistical aspects of cli

  11. Effect of a Zoster Vaccine on Herpes Zoster-Related Interference with Functional Status and Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmader, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Gary R.; Saddier, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Maria; Wang, William W.B.; Zhang, Jane H.; Chan, Ivan S.F.; Yeh, Shing-Shing; Levin, Myron J.; Harbecke, Ruth M.; Oxman, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a zoster vaccine on herpes zoster related interference with activities of daily living (ADL) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Design Randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Setting 22 US sites. Patients 38,546 women and men ?60 years of age. Intervention Zoster vaccine or placebo. Measurements Herpes zoster Burden of Interference with ADL and HRQL using ratings from the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory and SF-12 Mental and Physical Component Scores. Vaccine efficacy was calculated for the modified-intention-to-treat trial population and solely among those subjects who developed herpes zoster. Results For the modified-intention-to-treat population, the overall zoster vaccine efficacy was 66% (95% CI: 55, 74) for Zoster Brief Pain Inventory ADL Burden of Interference Score and 55% (95% CI: 48, 61) for both the SF-12 Mental and Physical Component Scores. Among subjects who developed herpes zoster, zoster vaccine reduced the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory ADL Burden of Interference Score by 31% (95% CI: 12, 51) respectively, and did not significantly reduce the impact on HRQL. Conclusions Zoster vaccine reduced the burden of herpes zoster related interference with ADL in the population of vaccinees and among vaccinees who developed herpes zoster. Zoster vaccine reduced the impact of herpes zoster on HRQL in the population of vaccinees but not among vaccinees who developed herpes zoster. PMID:20863322

  12. HERP1 Inhibits Myocardin-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation by Interfering With SRF Binding to CArG Box

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Doi; Tatsuya Iso; Miki Yamazaki; Hideo Akiyama; Hiroyoshi Kanai; Hiroko Sato; Keiko Kawai-Kowase; Toru Tanaka; Toshitaka Maeno; Ei-ichi Okamoto; Masashi Arai; Larry Kedes; Masahiko Kurabayashi

    2010-01-01

    Objective—Myocardin is a coactivator of serum response factor (SRF) required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation. HERP1 is a transcriptional repressor, which is abundantly expressed in vascular system and is known to function as a target gene of Notch. However, the role of HERP1 in the pathogenesis of vascular lesions remains unknown. The present study characterizes the expression of

  13. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked viral inducible system for the rapid detection of Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    LaRocco, M T

    2000-03-01

    A commercial enzyme-linked viral inducible system (ELVIS HSV; BioWhittaker, USA) was evaluated in comparison with the spin-amplified tube cell culture (SATCC) method for the rapid detection of herpes simplex virus in 1007 clinical specimens. A total of 91 (9%) specimens were positive by SATCC. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ELVIS was 88%, >99%, 99%, and 99%, respectively. Herpes simplex virus was detected sooner by ELVIS than by SATCC in 34 of 80 (42%) specimens. Preincubated ELVIS shell vials held at room temperature for 24 h prior to reincubation and inoculation produced results similar to those of freshly preincubated shell vials, with no reduction in either the number or the staining intensity of the infected cells. The results of this study indicate that ELVIS HSV is an accurate method for the rapid detection of herpes simplex virus in a wide variety of clinical specimens. PMID:10795600

  14. Recombinant lactobacillus expressing G protein of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) combined with ORF81 protein of koi herpesvirus (KHV): A promising way to induce protective immunity against SVCV and KHV infection in cyprinid fish via oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Chun; Guan, Xue-Ting; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Tian, Chang-Yong; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2015-06-17

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and koi herpesvirus (KHV) are highly contagious and pathogenic to cyprinid fish, causing enormous economic losses in aquaculture. Although DNA vaccines reported in recent years could induce protective immune responses in carps against these viruses via injection, there are a number of consequences and uncertainties related to DNA vaccination. Therefore, more effective and practical method to induce protective immunity such as oral administration would be highly desirable. In this study, we investigated the utilities of a genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) coexpressing glycoprotein (G) of SVCV and ORF81 protein of KHV as oral vaccine to induce protective immunity in carps via oral vaccination. The surface-displayed recombinant plasmid pYG-G-ORF81 was electroporated into L. plantarum, giving rise to LP/pYG-G-ORF81, where expression and localization of G-ORF81 fusion protein from the LP/pYG-G-ORF81 was identified by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. Bait feed particles containing the LP/pYG-G-ORF81 were used as vaccine to immunize carps via gastrointestinal route. Compared to control groups, the carps orally immunized with the LP/pYG-G-ORF81 were induced significant levels of immunoglobulin M (IgM), and its immunogenicity was confirmed by viral loads reduction detected by PCR assay after virus challenge followed by an effective protection rate 71% in vaccinated carps and 53% in vaccinated koi until at days 65 post challenge, respectively. Our study here demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of recombinant L. plantarum as oral vaccine against SVCV and KHV infection in carps, suggesting a practical multivalent strategy for the control of spring viremia of carp and koi herpesvirus disease. PMID:25981489

  15. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of infants with human parechovirus or human herpes virus-6 detected in cerebrospinal fluid tested for enterovirus or herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Messacar, Kevin; Breazeale, Garrett; Wei, Qi; Robinson, Christine C; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2015-05-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) are acquired commonly in infancy and associated with central nervous system infection. The prevalence of HPeV and HHV-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infants tested for enterovirus (EV) and herpes-simplex virus (HSV) is unknown. All stored CSF samples from EV or HSV testing in infants less than 6 months of age at Children's Hospital Colorado between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were tested for HPeV, HHV-6, EV, and HSV by PCR. Clinical characteristics and epidemiological data were collected using retrospective electronic chart review. Of 239 infants tested, 29 cases of EV (12.1%), 7 cases of HPeV (2.9%), 5 cases of HHV-6 (2.1%), and 5 cases of HSV (2.1%) were identified with no bacterial co-infections. HPeV cases occurred between July and October in infants with median age of 24 days. Infants with HPeV had a median maximum temperature of 39?°C, median fever duration of 3 days and median peripheral white blood cell count of 5.2?×?10(3)/?L. HHV-6 cases occurred in infants with median age of 61 days without seasonality. Five percent of infants less than 6 months of age undergoing testing for EV or HSV have HPeV or HHV-6 in the CSF. Targeting testing of HPeV towards febrile infants less than 2 months of age with leukopenia in the late summer to early fall, and HHV-6 towards older infants may increase diagnostic yield. The clinical and fiscal impact of testing infants for HPeV and HHV-6 needs to be determined. PMID:25650069

  16. Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV-1) and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Promote Survival of Latently Infected Sensory Neurons, in Part by Inhibiting Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Clinton

    2013-01-01

    ?-Herpesvirinae subfamily members, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), initiate infection in mucosal surfaces. BHV-1 and HSV-1 enter sensory neurons by cell-cell spread where a burst of viral gene expression occurs. When compared to non-neuronal cells, viral gene expression is quickly extinguished in sensory neurons resulting in neuronal survival and latency. The HSV-1 latency associated transcript (LAT), which is abundantly expressed in latently infected neurons, inhibits apoptosis, viral transcription, and productive infection, and directly or indirectly enhances reactivation from latency in small animal models. Three anti-apoptosis genes can be substituted for LAT, which will restore wild type levels of reactivation from latency to a LAT null mutant virus. Two small non-coding RNAs encoded by LAT possess anti-apoptosis functions in transfected cells. The BHV-1 latency related RNA (LR-RNA), like LAT, is abundantly expressed during latency. The LR-RNA encodes a protein (ORF2) and two microRNAs that are expressed in certain latently infected neurons. Wild-type expression of LR gene products is required for stress-induced reactivation from latency in cattle. ORF2 has anti-apoptosis functions and interacts with certain cellular transcription factors that stimulate viral transcription and productive infection. ORF2 is predicted to promote survival of infected neurons by inhibiting apoptosis and sequestering cellular transcription factors which stimulate productive infection. In addition, the LR encoded microRNAs inhibit viral transcription and apoptosis. In summary, the ability of BHV-1 and HSV-1 to interfere with apoptosis and productive infection in sensory neurons is crucial for the life-long latency-reactivation cycle in their respective hosts. PMID:25278776

  17. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus with isolated trochlear nerve palsy in an otherwise healthy 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Won Yeol; Kim, Nam Yeong; Kwon, Yoon Hyung; Ahn, Hee Bae

    2014-04-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is rare in healthy children. It is occasionally associated with extraocular muscle palsies and rarely with isolated trochlear nerve palsy. We report a case of unilateral isolated trochlear nerve palsy associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 13-year-old girl who presented with diplopia and blurred vision in her right eye. The right cornea had multiple subepithelial opacities. Ocular motility returned to normal and diplopia and corneal opacification resolved with steroid therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first such case involving the troclear nerve in a child. PMID:24582467

  18. Apolipoprotein E genotype and hepatitis C, HIV and herpes simplex disease risk: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E is a polymorphic and multifunctional protein with numerous roles in lipoprotein metabolism. The three common isoforms apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 show isoform-specific functional properties including different susceptibilities to diseases. ApoE4 is an accepted risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disorders. Recently, associations between apoE4 and infectious diseases have been demonstrated. This review summarises how apoE4 may be involved in the infection incidence and associated pathologies of specific infectious diseases, namely hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus disease and herpes simplex. ApoE4 seems to be protective against chronic hepatitis C virus infection and retards fibrosis progression. In contrast apoE4 enhances the fusion rate of human immunodeficiency virus with target cell membranes, resulting in accelerated cell entry and faster disease progression. Its association with human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia remains controversial. Regarding herpes simplex virus infection, apoE4 intensifies virus latency and is associated with increased oxidative damage of the central nervous system, and there is some evidence that herpes simplex virus infection in combination with the apoE4 genotype may be associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. In addition to reviewing available data from human trials, evidence derived from a variety of cell culture and animal models are considered in this review in order to provide mechanistic insights into observed association between apoE4 genotype and viral disease infection and pathology. PMID:20109174

  19. Griffithsin Protects Mice from Genital Herpes by Preventing Cell-to-Cell Spread

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Briana; Stefanidou, Martha; Mesquita, Pedro M. M.; Fakioglu, Esra; Segarra, Theodore; Rohan, Lisa; Halford, William; Palmer, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Griffithsin, which binds N-linked glycans on gp120 to prevent HIV entry, has the most potent HIV-1 inhibitory activity described for any antiviral lectin and is being developed for topical preexposure prophylaxis. The current studies were designed to further assess its potential by exploring its activity against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), a cofactor for HIV acquisition, in vitro and in a murine model. Safety was evaluated by examining its impact on epithelial barrier integrity in polarized cultures and testing whether repeated intravaginal dosing potentiates the susceptibility of mice to genital herpes. Griffithsin displayed modest inhibitory activity against HSV-2 if present during viral entry but completely blocked plaque formation if present postentry, reduced plaque size, and prevented cell-to-cell spread. These in vitro findings translated to significant protection against genital herpes in mice treated with 0.1% griffithsin gel. Griffithsin, but not placebo gel, prevented viral spread (visualized with a luciferase-expressing virus), significantly reduced disease scores, and resulted in greater survival (P < 0.05, log rank test). Protection persisted when HSV-2 was introduced in seminal plasma. Although griffithsin triggered a small decline in transepithelial electrical resistance in polarized cultures, this did not translate to any significant increase in the ability of HIV to migrate from the apical to the basolateral chamber nor to an increase in susceptibility to HSV-2 in mice treated with griffithsin gel for 7 days. These findings demonstrate that griffithsin inhibits HSV-2 by a unique mechanism of blocking cell-to-cell spread and support its further development for HIV and HSV-2 prevention. PMID:23536670

  20. Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, G R; Woolley, P D; Thin, R N; De Maubeuge, J; Foidart, J M; Engst, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. DESIGN--Double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial. SETTING--13 centres in UK, Belgium and Germany. SUBJECTS--127 immunocompetent patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of patients reporting recurrences, recurrence frequency, and mean duration of lesions during breakthrough recurrences in each treatment group during a 6 month treatment period; time to first recurrence during treatment and follow-up after treatment cessation. RESULTS--During treatment, acyclovir recipients showed significant differences (p < 0.05) when compared with isoprinosine recipients in terms of a lower proportion reporting recurrences (31% vs 96%), a reduced mean number of reported recurrences per patient (0.6 vs 3.6), a shorter mean duration of breakthrough lesions (6.4 days vs 8.2 days), and a longer mean time (standard error) to first recurrence (143.7 (9.1) days vs 40.5 (5.4) days. The mean time to first recurrence after treatment cessation did not differ between the two groups. As compared with placebo recipients, isoprinosine treated patients had an increased recurrence frequency (3.6 vs 2.5) during treatment, and a shorter time to first recurrence after treatment cessation. All treatments were well tolerated without serious adverse events or toxicity. CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. PMID:1385295

  1. Sexually transmitted infections among patients with herpes simplex virus at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the commonest viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of STIs among HSV positive patients at a tertiary hospital in Jeddah. Secondary objective of the study included the description of the demographic and clinical profile of patients with HSV and HIV co-infection. Methods A retrospective chart review of the medical records was performed for HSV positive women who presented to the emergency room and outpatient department of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 1, 2003 and August 30, 2011. Data were collected from the medical records of all the patients and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results Three hundred forty-three HSV positive patients were included in this study. Co-infection with HIV was documented in 45 patients (13.1%). Other STIs included chlamydia (n?=?43, 12.5%), gonorrhea (n?=?44, 12.8%), hepatitis B infection (n?=?8, 2.3%), and cytomegalovirus infection (n?=?37, 10.8%). Nineteen patients (5.5%) had a total of 47 term pregnancies and five abortions post HSV diagnosis. Genital ulcer disease was diagnosed in 11 (57.9%) of the cases during labor. One newborn developed neonatal herpes infection and subsequently showed delayed psychomotor development during follow up. Genital herpes was diagnosed in one patient’s partner; however, there was no documentation of screening for STIs in the partners of the other patients. Conclusions Sexually transmitted infections are relatively common among HSV positive patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Amongst these, HIV is the most common, with a prevalence of 13.1%. Further studies are warranted to evaluate STIs in Saudi Arabia. Health policy makers should adopt a protocol to screen for STIs in the partners of persons who are positive for any STI as early detection and appropriate treatment can improve the outcome. PMID:23898826

  2. Cryopreserved cell monolayers for rapid detection of herpes simplex virus and influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yung T; Yan, Huimin; Sun, Yan; Jollick, Joseph A; Baird, Heather

    2002-11-01

    Cryopreserved cell monolayers are a new cell culture technology intended to ensure the availability of cells in the laboratory for virus detection. Two cryopreserved cell monolayers, ELVIS for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and R-Mix for the detection of influenza virus, were evaluated. The results indicated that fresh and cryopreserved cell monolayers are comparable in sensitivity for the detection of HSV and influenza virus. The cells retain the same level of sensitivity for up to 4 months at -80 degrees C. PMID:12409415

  3. The First Identified Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Herpesviral Capsid Protein: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 VP19C

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Zheng, Chunfu

    2012-01-01

    VP19C is a structural protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 viral particle, which is essential for assembly of the capsid. In this study, a nuclear export signal (NES) of VP19C is for the first time identified and mapped to amino acid residues 342 to 351. Furthermore, VP19C is demonstrated to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm through the NES in a chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent manner involving RanGTP hydrolysis. This makes VP19C the first herpesviral capsid protein with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling property and adds it to the list of HSV-1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins. PMID:22927916

  4. Herpes Gestationis after Ovodonation: Is Placenta the only Target of the Immune Reaction?

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Isabella; Monte, Giuseppe Lo; Graziano, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Gestationis (HG) is an autoimmune disorder that rarely complicates pregnancy. Its pathogenesis has not been clarified yet, as it derives from a complex interplay between immunologic, genetic, and hormonal factors. We present a case of HG occurring in a surrogate mother whose pregnancy was achieved via egg donation and in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The disease appeared at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestation and subsequently worsened despite the administration of oral and topic corticosteroids. A healthy baby was delivered at 35 weeks and 2 days of gestation by elective cesarean section and the clinical manifestations resolved in the postpartum period. PMID:25584273

  5. Molecular Requirement for Sterols in Herpes Simplex Virus Entry and Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Wudiri, George A.; Pritchard, Suzanne M.; Li, Hong; Liu, Jin; Aguilar, Hector C.; Gilk, Stacey D.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol or desmosterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24?/? cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating that entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in diminished HSV-1 entry, suggesting a general sterol requirement for HSV-1 entry and that desmosterol can operate in virus entry. Cholesterol functioned more effectively than desmosterol, suggesting that the hydrocarbon tail of cholesterol influences viral entry. PMID:25231306

  6. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in a child.

    PubMed

    Sakalli, Hale; Erinanc, Hilal; Dursun, Recep; Baskin, Esra

    2013-01-01

    We describe an 11-year-old girl presenting with lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) and acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) following herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection as evidenced by serological data and by detection of HSV-1 DNA in the blood with the use of PCR. Based on the literature search, this case represents the first childhood case of LSC and acute bilateral CTS following HSV-1 infection. The experience with this patient emphasizes the importance of serological tests and PCR as well as the other laboratory techniques for the accurate diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23526061

  7. Resveratrol suppresses nuclear factor-kappaB in herpes simplex virus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Faith, Seth A; Sweet, Thomas J; Bailey, Erin; Booth, Tristan; Docherty, John J

    2006-12-01

    Resveratrol inhibits herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication by an unknown mechanism. Previously it was suggested that this inhibition may be mediated through a cellular factor essential for HSV replication [Docherty, J.J., Fu, M.M., Stiffler, B.S., Limperos, R.J., Pokabla, C.M., DeLucia, A.L., 1999. Resveratrol inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication. Antivir. Res. 43, 145-155]. After examining numerous cellular factors, we report that resveratrol suppresses NF-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in HSV infected cells. Reports have indicated that HSV activates NF-kappaB during productive infection and this may be an essential aspect of its replication scheme [Patel, A., Hanson, J., McLean, T.I., Olgiate, J., Hilton, M., Miller, W.E., Bachenheimer, S.L., 1998. Herpes simplex type 1 induction of persistent NF-kappa B nuclear translocation increases the efficiency of virus replication. Virology 247, 212-222; Gregory, D., Hargett, D., Holmes, D., Money, E., Bachenheimer, S.L., 2004. Efficient replication by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves activation of the IkappaB kinase-IkappaB-RelA/p65 pathway. J. Virol. 78, 13582-13590]. Electromobility shift assays determined that resveratrol, in a dose dependent and reversible manner, suppressed activation of NF-kappaB in Vero cells infected with HSV-1, HSV-2 and acyclovir resistant HSV-1. Furthermore, resveratrol did not protect IkappaBalpha, a cytoplasmic NF-kappaB inhibitor, from degradation in HSV-1 infected cells. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that RelA/p65, a component of the dimeric NF-kappaB complex, translocated to the nucleus of HSV-1 infected cells in the presence of resveratrol. Finally, direct effects on viral transcription and DNA synthesis were evaluated. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that resveratrol treatment of infected cells resulted in reductions of mRNA for ICP0, ICP4, ICP8 and HSV-1 DNA polymerase by 2.1-, 3.3-, 3.8- and 3.1-fold, respectively. Plus, mRNA for glycoprotein C, an HSV late gene, was completely absent in the presence of resveratrol. Lastly, quantitative PCR showed that resveratrol significantly blocked HSV DNA synthesis. Cumulatively, these data indicate that resveratrol (i) suppresses HSV induced activation of NF-kappaB within the nucleus and (ii) impairs expression of essential immediate-early, early and late HSV genes and synthesis of viral DNA. PMID:16876885

  8. Cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection on multi dermatomal herpes zoster scars: an isotopic immune response.

    PubMed

    Katibi, O S; Dlova, N C; Mosam, A

    2015-01-01

    As more patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are surviving, despite severe immune suppression, clinicians are faced with atypical manifestations of both common and uncommon dermatoses. A 30-year-old black South African woman presented with a 10-month history of multiple chronic ulcers appearing on a multidermatomal herpes zoster (HZ) scar. The woman was infected with HIV, and her CD4 count was 45 cells/?L. Histology and PCR revealed cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This case highlights an unusual presentation of cutaneous CMV occurring as an isotopic immune response on a pre-existing multidermatomal HZ scar. PMID:25266481

  9. [Optimization of initial dental caries diagnostics and treatment in patients infected with herpes virus].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Iu V; Bulgakova, A I

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of examination and treatment of patients with initial caries (K02.0), infected with herpes virus. Technologies and methods used by most dentists are not sensitive enough to detect caries at early stages, while the remineralizing therapy can be very effective. The method of laser fluorescence spectroscopy with DIAGNOdent pen device (KaVo) was used for diagnostic of dental caries at early stages. Treatment was carried out with HealOzon device (KaVo), which is used in oral medicine to produce ozone. PMID:23268215

  10. In vitro antiviral activity of Phyllanthus orbicularis extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Fernández Romero, J A; Del Barrio Alonso, G; Romeu Alvarez, B; Gutiérrez, Y; Valdés, V S; Parra, F

    2003-09-01

    The antiviral activity of butanol- and acetic acid-soluble fractions, prepared from the leaves and stems of Phyllanthus orbicularis H.B.K., has been investigated against acyclovir-sensitive or -resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strains, using human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) and green ape kidney (Vero) cell lines. Both fractions showed antiviral selectivity indexes (SI) from 10.3 to 22.8, while their extracellular virucidal activities reached SI values ranging from 371 to 1,040. Time-addition experiments suggested that the active compounds present in the studied fractions acted on early steps of the virus replication cycle. PMID:13680841

  11. Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Pediatric Patients: Current Status and Future Needs

    PubMed Central

    James, SH; Whitley, RJ

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) are members of the Herpesviridae family and are characterized by their ability to establish latency after primary infection and subsequently reactivate. HSV infections in the neonatal and pediatric populations range from uncomplicated mucocutaneous diseases to severe, life-threatening infections involving the central nervous system (CNS). The antiviral agent acyclovir has significantly improved treatment outcomes of HSV infections, including the frequency of mucocutaneous recurrences and mortality associated with CNS and disseminated infections. PMID:20881952

  12. Cytologic evaluation of experimental type 2 herpes simplex infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, D R; Whitney, J E; Harding, M; Bodfish, K; Skinner, G R

    1978-01-01

    The nature and frequency of cytopathologic changes in female mice genitally infected with type 2 herpes simplex virus have been investigated. The extent of virus infection in an individual mouse was assessed by a system of "plus scoring". Exfoliative cytology clearly provided a reliable evaluation of the extent of virus infection and a reliable prognostic index of mouse mortality. A composite index combining both cytologic and virologic information ('vircyt' value) was derived and shown to provide a convenient and precise prognostic index of mouse mortality. PMID:214984

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Counteracts Viperin via Its Virion Host Shutoff Protein UL41

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guanghui; Wang, Kezhen; Wang, Shuai; Cai, Mingsheng; Li, Mei-li

    2014-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-inducible viperin protein restricts a broad range of viruses. However, whether viperin plays a role during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is poorly understood. In the present study, it was shown for the first time that wild-type (WT) HSV-1 infection couldn't induce viperin production, and ectopically expressed viperin inhibited the replication of UL41-null HSV-1 but not WT viruses. The underlying molecular mechanism is that UL41 counteracts viperin's antiviral activity by reducing its mRNA accumulation. PMID:25078699

  14. The Link between Hypersensitivity Syndrome Reaction Development and Human Herpes Virus-6 Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Joshua C.; Nanau, Radu M.; Neuman, Manuela G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. There are challenges in the clinical diagnosis of drug-induced injury and in obtaining information on the reactivation of human herpes viruses (HHV) during idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. Objectives. (i) To develop a unified list of drugs incriminated in drug-induced hepatotoxicity and severe cutaneous reactions, in which drug hypersensitivity leads to HHV-6 reactivation and further complication of therapy and recovery and (ii) to supplement the already available data on reporting frequencies of liver- or skin-induced cases with knowledge of individual case reports, including HHV-6 reactivation and briefly introducing chromosomally integrated HHV-6. Data Sources and Extraction. Drugs identified as causes of (i) idiosyncratic reactions, (ii) drug-induced hypersensitivity, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, acute liver failure, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and (iii) human herpes virus reactivation in PubMed since 1997 have been collected and discussed. Results. Data presented in this paper show that HHV-6 reactivation is associated with more severe organ involvement and a prolonged course of disease. Conclusion. This analysis of HHV-6 reactivation associated with drug-induced severe cutaneous reactions and hepatotoxicity will aid in causality assessment and clinical diagnosis of possible life-threatening events and will provide a basis for further patient characterization and therapy. PMID:22666603

  15. Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Basta-Juzbaši?, Aleksandra; ?eovi?, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. PMID:24559566

  16. Potent Adjuvant Activity of Cationic Liposome-DNA Complexes for Genital Herpes Vaccines?

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I.; Cardin, Rhonda D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Strasser, Jane E.; Farley, Nicholas; Chalk, Claudia; Lay, Marla; Fairman, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Development of a herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine is a priority because these infections are common. It appears that potent adjuvants will be required to augment the immune response to subunit HSV vaccines. Therefore, we evaluated cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant in a mouse model of genital herpes. Using a whole-virus vaccine (HVAC), we showed that the addition of CLDC improved antibody responses compared to vaccine alone. Most important, CLDC increased survival, reduced symptoms, and decreased vaginal virus replication compared to vaccine alone or vaccine administered with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) plus trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM) following intravaginal challenge of mice. When CLDC was added to an HSV gD2 vaccine, it increased the amount of gamma interferon that was produced from splenocytes stimulated with gD2 compared to the amount produced with gD2 alone or with MPL-alum. The addition of CLDC to the gD2 vaccine also improved the outcome following vaginal HSV type 2 challenge compared to vaccine alone and was equivalent to vaccination with an MPL-alum adjuvant. CLDC appears to be a potent adjuvant for HSV vaccines and should be evaluated further. PMID:19279167

  17. Rad51 and Rad52 Are Involved in Homologous Recombination of Replicating Herpes Simplex Virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ka-Wei; Norberg, Peter; Holmudden, Martin; Elias, Per; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Replication of herpes simplex virus 1 is coupled to recombination, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly characterized. The role of Rad51 and Rad52 recombinases in viral recombination was examined in human fibroblast cells 1BR.3.N (wild type) and in GM16097 with replication defects caused by mutations in DNA ligase I. Intermolecular recombination between viruses, tsS and tsK, harboring genetic markers gave rise to ?17% recombinants in both cell lines. Knock-down of Rad51 and Rad52 by siRNA reduced production of recombinants to 11% and 5%, respectively, in wild type cells and to 3% and 5%, respectively, in GM16097 cells. The results indicate a specific role for Rad51 and Rad52 in recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus 1 DNA. Mixed infections using clinical isolates with restriction enzyme polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes revealed recombination frequencies of 0.7%/kbp in wild type cells and 4%/kbp in GM16097 cells. Finally, tandem repeats in the US7 gene remained stable upon serial passage, indicating a high fidelity of recombination in infected cells. PMID:25365323

  18. Incidence of Herpes Simplex Virus Keratitis in HIV/AIDS patients compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Burcea, M; Gheorghe, A; Pop, M

    2015-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is associated with a wide spectrum of systemic and ocular infectious diseases. Little information is known about Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) keratoconjunctivitis in association with AIDS. Because HSV-1 is becoming, day by day, a common eye disease (nearly 100% patients of over 60 years old harbor HSV in their trigeminal ganglia at autopsy), this article discussing a worldwide public health problem. Aim. The purpose of this paper is to compare the incidence and clinical aspects of HSV-1 Keratitis in HIV/ AIDS patients compared with the general population who develops HSV- 1 Keratitis. Method. The study is retrospective and comparative. Each patient was examined thoroughly at the biomicroscope ocular slit after corneal staining with fluorescein or rose bengal. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure and corneal sensitivity were also examined. Results. From 170 patients with HIV and ocular anterior segment disorders, 47 patients had viral etiology. 58 patients had keratitis; 14 of them were HSV-1 keratitis. Conclusion. Doctors should be aware of the existence of the ocular damage in HIV/ AIDS and emphasize the importance of regular ophthalmologic examination of patients with HIV/ AIDS as HSV infection is common nowadays among the general population. Abbreviations: HSV = herpes simplex virus, HIV = human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome PMID:25914741

  19. Native 3D intermediates of membrane fusion in herpes simplex virus 1 entry

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Ulrike E.; Sodeik, Beate; Grünewald, Kay

    2008-01-01

    The concerted action of four viral glycoproteins and at least one cellular receptor is required to catalyze herpes simplex virus 1 entry into host cells either by fusion at the plasma membrane or intracellularly after internalization by endocytosis. Here, we applied cryo electron tomography to capture 3D intermediates from Herpes simplex virus 1 fusion at the plasma membrane in their native environment by using two model systems: adherent cells and synaptosomes. The fusion process was delineated as a series of structurally different steps. The incoming capsid separated from the tegument and was closely surrounded by the cortical cytoskeleton. After entry, the viral membrane curvature changed concomitantly with a reorganization of the envelope glycoprotein spikes. Individual glycoprotein complexes in transitional conformations during pore formation and dilation revealed the complex viral fusion mechanism in action. Snapshots of the fusion intermediates provide unprecedented details concerning the overall structural changes occurring during herpesvirus entry. Moreover, our data suggest that there are two functional “poles” of the asymmetric herpesvirion: one related to cell entry, and the other formed during virus assembly. PMID:18653756

  20. Relay of herpes simplex virus between Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells in human skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min; Truong, Naomi R; James, Virginia; Bosnjak, Lidija; Sandgren, Kerrie J; Harman, Andrew N; Nasr, Najla; Bertram, Kirstie M; Olbourne, Norman; Sawleshwarkar, Shailandra; McKinnon, Kaylene; Cohen, Ralph C; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism by which immunity to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is initiated is not completely defined. HSV initially infects mucosal epidermis prior to entering nerve endings. In mice, epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) are the first dendritic cells (DCs) to encounter HSV, but it is CD103(+) dermal DCs that carry viral antigen to lymph nodes for antigen presentation, suggesting DC cross-talk in skin. In this study, we compared topically HSV-1 infected human foreskin explants with biopsies of initial human genital herpes lesions to show LCs are initially infected then emigrate into the dermis. Here, LCs bearing markers of maturation and apoptosis formed large cell clusters with BDCA3(+) dermal DCs (thought to be equivalent to murine CD103(+) dermal DCs) and DC-SIGN(+) DCs/macrophages. HSV-expressing LC fragments were observed inside the dermal DCs/macrophages and the BDCA3(+) dermal DCs had up-regulated a damaged cell uptake receptor CLEC9A. No other infected epidermal cells interacted with dermal DCs. Correspondingly, LCs isolated from human skin and infected with HSV-1 in vitro also underwent apoptosis and were taken up by similarly isolated BDCA3(+) dermal DCs and DC-SIGN(+) cells. Thus, we conclude a viral antigen relay takes place where HSV infected LCs undergo apoptosis and are taken up by dermal DCs for subsequent antigen presentation. This provides a rationale for targeting these cells with mucosal or perhaps intradermal HSV immunization. PMID:25875649

  1. Diagnosing of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Suspected Patients Using Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Aliabadi, Nasrin; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Asaei, Sadaf; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus infections are very common worldwide. The virus can cause infection in various body parts, especially eyes and the nervous system. Therefore, an early diagnosis and highly sensitive method is very helpful. Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the efficiency of Real-time TaqMan probe PCR in the diagnosis of HSV infection in suspected patients. Patients and Methods: In this study, 1566 patients with suspected HSV infections were enrolled. They aged 17 days to 96 years. The collected specimens were classified into four groups; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from HSE suspected individuals, samples from eye epithelial scraping, tear fluid or aqueous humor from herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) suspected patients, plasma of immune compromised patients and mucocutaneous collected samples from different body parts. The samples were analyzed by Real-time PCR assays. Results: In total, 44 (5.6%), 118 (26.8%), 23 (11.7%), 13 (44.8%) and 65 (45.5%) of 791 HSE, 407 HSK, 29 skin HSV, 143 oropharyngeal suspected patients and 196 patients with systemic HSV infection HSV had positive results by Real-time PCR assays, respectively. Conclusions: Real-time PCR assay, due to its high sensitivity and specificity, can help in early diagnosis and more effective treatment for patients. Also, it requires shorter hospital stay and promotes patients' survival. PMID:25834711

  2. Spectroscopic evaluation of the effect of a red microalgal polysaccharide on herpes-infected Vero cells.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly

    2003-04-01

    The sulfated polysaccharide obtained from a species of red microalga has proved to be a potent antiviral agent against various members of the herpes family. In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to investigate differences between normal cells, those infected with herpes viruses, and infected cells treated with red microalgal polysaccharide. FT-IR enables the characterization of cell or tissue pathology based on characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of the cells. The advantage of microscopic FT-IR spectroscopy over conventional FT-IR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell cultures or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and noninfected cells, and between infected cells treated with the polysaccharide and those not treated. In infected cells, there was an impressive decrease in sugar content and a considerable increase in phosphate levels in conjunction with the infection progress. Our results also proved that sugars penetrated and accumulated inside cells treated with the red microalgal polysaccharide. These could have been sugar fragments of low molecular weight present in the polysaccharide solution, despite purification by dialysis. Such sugar accumulation might be responsible for a breakdown in the internal steps of the viral replication cycle. PMID:14658634

  3. In vivo immunofluorescence to diagnose herpes simplex virus keratitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A; Shimeld, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Herpes simplex virus keratitis (HSK) is the most common cause of corneal blindness in the Western world. Delay in the treatment of HSK can lead to a more significant corneal scar and topical steroid treatment in unsuspected active HSK can lead to corneal melting. Current culture techniques for herpes simplex virus (HSV) take several days and commercially available HSV laboratory based diagnostic techniques such as Herpchek vary in sensitivity. This study was conducted to assess the viability of a new, quicker, and simpler method to diagnose HSK.?METHODS—Direct immunofluorescence was used in vivo in a masked study to diagnose HSK in mice using a standard slit lamp with cobalt blue illumination. Murine monoclonal fluorescently labelled antibody was applied to the cornea for 10 or 20 minutes and then washed off with phosphate buffered solution. Mice with HSK were stained with either fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibody against HSV or fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibody against cytomegalovirus. Mice with corneal abrasions of non-viral origin were given fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibody against HSV.?RESULTS—Fluorescence was seen only in the mice with HSK given fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibody against HSV. This observation was confirmed upon microscopic immunofluorescent imaging of the corneal epithelial sheets.?CONCLUSION—In vivo immunofluorescence may be useful in the clinical diagnosis of HSK.?? PMID:9422934

  4. Combinatorial strategies for oncolytic herpes simplex virus therapy of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Ryuichi; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Oncolytic viruses, such as the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV), are an exciting new therapeutic strategy for cancer as they are replication competent in tumor cells but not normal cells. In order to engender herpes simplex virus with oncolytic activity and make it safe for clinical application, mutations are engineered into the virus. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadly primary brain tumor in adults. Despite many advances in therapy, overall survival has not been substantially improved over the last several decades. A number of different oHSVs have been tested as monotherapy in early-phase clinical trials for GBM and have demonstrated safety and anecdotal evidence of efficacy. However, strategies to improve efficacy are likely to be necessary to successfully treat GBM. Cancer treatment usually involves multimodal approaches, so the standard of care for GBM includes surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In preclinical GBM models, combinations of oHSV with other types of therapy have exhibited markedly improved activity over individual treatments alone. In this review, we will discuss the various combination strategies that have been employed with oHSV, including chemotherapy, small-molecule inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents, radiotherapy and expression of therapeutic transgenes. Effective combinations, especially synergistic ones, are clinically important not just for improved efficacy but also to permit lower and less-toxic doses and potentially overcome resistance. PMID:23687568

  5. Anti-herpes virus activities of Achyranthes aspera: an indian ethnomedicine, and its triterpene acid.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Hemanta; Ojha, Durbadal; Bag, Paromita; Chandel, Himanshu Singh; Bhattacharyya, Souvik; Chatterjee, Tapan K; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Chakraborti, Sekhar; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral potential of methanolic extract (ME) of Achyranthes aspera, an Indian folk medicine and one of its pure compound oleanolic acid (OA) against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). The ME possessed weak anti-herpes virus activity (EC50 64.4?g/ml for HSV-1 and 72.8?g/ml for HSV-2). While OA exhibited potent antiherpesvirus activity against both HSV-1 (EC50 6.8?g/ml) and HSV-2 (EC50 7.8?g/ml). The time response study revealed that the antiviral activity of ME and OA is highest at 2-6h post infection. The infected and drug-treated peritoneal macrophage at specific time showed increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL6 and IL12). Further, the PCR of DNA from infected cultures treated with ME and OA, at various time intervals, failed to show amplification at 48-72h, similar to that of HSV infected cells treated with acyclovir, indicating that the ME and OA probably inhibit the early stage of multiplication (post infection of 2-6h). Thus, our study demonstrated that ME and OA have good anti-HSV activity, with SI values of 12, suggesting the potential use of this plant. PMID:23218996

  6. [Management of herpes zoster neurotrophic ulcer using a new matrix therapy agent (RGTA): A case report].

    PubMed

    De Monchy, I; Labbé, A; Pogorzalek, N; Gendron, G; M'Garrech, M; Kaswin, G; Labetoulle, M

    2012-03-01

    Neurotrophic keratopathy is a potential consequence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. The treatment is based on artificial tears and the withdrawal of preserved eye drops or other types of epitheliotoxic topical medicines. Autologous serum or amniotic membrane transplantation may also be used in severe cases, but their cost and safety are still under debate. We report a case of a patient with a history of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, who developed a persistent epithelial ulcer after cataract surgery, with no improvement despite 3 weeks of artificial tears (eight drops per day). A new ophthalmologic solution based on a regenerating agent (RGTA, Cacicol20(®)) was then used, with a dosage of two eye drops per week for 6 weeks. Improvement was observed 1 week later, and complete healing was obtained in less than 3 weeks, with no side effects. This heparin mimetic, which may stimulate extracellular matrix healing, may be a possible alternative therapy to autologous serum or amniotic membrane transplantation in severe neurotrophic ulcer. However, randomized studies are necessary to validate this observation. PMID:22015067

  7. Phenotypic Switching in Cells Transformed with the Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ostrander, Michael; Vogel, Steven; Silverstein, Saul

    1982-01-01

    Biochemical transformation of Ltk? cells with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene resulted in numerous TK+ colonies that survived selection in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium. Many of these TK+ cells lines switched phenotypes and reverted to the TK? state. In this report, we describe the biological and biochemical characteristics of three TK? revertant lines. One (K1B5) transiently expressed TK in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine, which selects for the TK? phenotype. Another TK? sibling (K1B6n) expressed TK only after removal from bromodeoxyuridine-containing medium. The last variant (K1B6me) lost the ability to switch to the TK+ phenotype, although it maintained the herpes simplex virus sequences coding for TK. Loss of the ability of K1B6me cells to express TK was correlated with extensive methylation of the sequence recognized by the restriction endonuclease HpaII (pCpCpGpG). After these cells were treated with 5-azacytidine, they regained the ability to clone in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium and reexpressed virus tk mRNA and enzyme. In addition, the HpaII sites that were previously shown to be refractile to enzyme digestion were converted to a sensitive state, demonstrating that they were no longer methylated. Images PMID:14582166

  8. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 41(8):149-153, 2006 The "False Breeding Season" of the Eastern Newt, Notophthalmus viridescens

    E-print Network

    Sever, David M.

    149 Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 41(8):149-153, 2006 The "False Breeding Season" of the Eastern Newt adult of the eastern newt that the two were considered separate species for nearly 60 years. Some portion of an extended mating season made possible by female sperm storage. The eastern newt

  9. Concurrent detection of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster viruses by polymerase chain reaction from the same anatomic location.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Neelam; Wright, Patricia A; Espy, Mark J; Schneider, Susan K; Smith, Thomas F; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2011-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may cause latent infection of the same peripheral nerve ganglia. However, there are no large studies addressing the frequency of concurrent HSV/VZV PCR positivity from the same anatomic location. In an eight-year retrospective study, we observed 1.3% dual positivity from dermal, genital, and oral mucosal sources. PMID:21658875

  10. Evaluations of Unformulated and Formulated Dendrimer-Based Microbicide Candidates in Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Genital Herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. I. Bernstein; L. R. Stanberry; S. Sacks; N. K. Ayisi; Y. H. Gong; J. Ireland; R. J. Mumper; G. Holan; B. Matthews; T. McCarthy; N. Bourne

    2003-01-01

    Prevention of sexually transmitted infections is a priority in developed and developing countries. One approach to prevention is the use of topical microbicides, and one promising approach is the use of dendrim- ers, highly branched macromolecules synthesized from a polyfunctional core. Three new dendrimer products developed to provide stable and cost-efficient microbicides were initially evaluated in vitro for anti-herpes simplex

  11. Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H A Weiss; S L Thomas; S K Munabi; R J Hayes

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Male circumcision is associated with reduced risk of HIV infection. This may be partly because of a protective effect of circumcision on other sexually transmitted infections (STI), especially those causing genital ulcers, but evidence for such protection is unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of the associations between male circumcision and infection with herpes

  12. Candidate Topical Microbicides Bind Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B and Prevent Viral Entry and Cell-to-Cell Spread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Cheshenko; Marla J. Keller; Veronica MasCasullo; Gary A. Jarvis; Hui Cheng; Minnie John; Jin-Hua Li; Kathleen Hogarty; Robert A. Anderson; Donald P. Waller; Lourens J. D. Zaneveld; Albert T. Profy; Mary E. Klotman; Betsy C. Herold

    2004-01-01

    Topical microbicides designed to prevent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections are urgently needed. Nonoxynol-9, the only commercially available spermicide, damages epithelium and may enhance human immunodeficiency virus transmission. The observation that herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immu- nodeficiency virus bind heparan sulfate provided the rationale for the development of sulfated or sulfonated polymers as topical agents. Although several of

  13. Immunity to vaginal infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 in adult mice: characterization of the immunoglobulins in vaginal mucus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl L Parr; John J Bozzola; Margaret B Parr

    1998-01-01

    Progestin-treated female mice are susceptible to vaginal infection by two sexually transmitted disease organisms: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Chlamydia trachomatis. Vaccination of mice with HSV-2 or chlamydial antigens elicits immunity to vaginal infection that may be due in part to secreted antibodies in the vaginal lumen. Analysis of the role of these antibodies in immunity would be

  14. The Role of Gamma Interferon in Immune Resistance to Vaginal Infection by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret B. Parr; Earl L. Parr

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the role of interferon gamma (IFN-?) in a mouse model of immunity to vaginal infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Within 8 h after immune mice were challenged intravaginally with HSV-2, IFN-? concentrations in vaginal secretions reached levels that can be antiviral in vitro. This rapid synthesis of IFN-? occurred in immune-challenged mice but not in

  15. A herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript mutant with increased virulence and reduced spontaneous reactivation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is essential for efficient spontaneous reactivation of HSV-1 from latency. We previously reported that insertion of the LAT promoter and just the first 1.5 kb of the 8.3 LAT gene into an ectopic location in the virus re...

  16. Adenovirus E1a protein enhances the cytotoxic effects of the herpes thymidine kinase-ganciclovir system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Parada; Javier Hernández Losa; Juan Guinea; Víctor Sánchez-Arévalo; Víctor Fernández Soria; Luis Alvarez-Vallina; Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto; Santiago Ramón y Cajal

    2003-01-01

    Cancer gene therapy based on the use of suicide genes, such as the thymidine kinase gene, is not producing satisfactory results. Several approaches have been delineated to enhance the therapeutic responses, including augmentation of the bystander effect, the combination of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-ganciclovir (HSVTK-GCV) system into replication competent adenoviruses and others. Moreover, because usually less than 20%

  17. Proteolytic Cleavage of VP1-2 Is Required for Release of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 DNA into the Nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Jovasevic; Li Liang; Bernard Roizman

    2008-01-01

    In this report we propose a model in which after the herpes simplex virus (HSV) capsid docks at the nuclear pore, the tegument protein attached to the capsid must be cleaved by a serine or a cysteine protease in order for the DNA to be released into the nucleus. In support of the model are the following results. (i) Exposure

  18. Knowledge and Attitudes of University Health Service Clients about Genital Herpes: Implications for Patient Education and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillard, James R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Genital herpes virus infection can cause both psychological and medical consequences. A study surveyed knowledge and attitudes of college students to assess degree of familiarity with this disease. Findings suggest misconceptions that could be dealt with in health education programs. (Author/DF)

  19. A Case Study of the Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits of Temporal Lobe Damage in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Margaret K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This case study illustrates the highly significant language difficulties, marked memory deficits, and propensity for physical aggression following temporal lobe damage brought about by herpes encephalitis, and presents the usefulness of a new diagnostic measure in delineating such a variable cognitive pattern. (Author)

  20. Inclusion of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene in a replicating adenovirus does not augment antitumor efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ES Lambright; K Amin; R Wiewrodt; SD Force; M Lanuti; KJ Propert; L Litzky; LR Kaiser; SM Albelda

    2001-01-01

    Replication-incompetent adenoviruses (Ad) carrying the herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene have been used in a number of human cancer gene therapy trials, however transduction has generally been limited to a small minority of tumor cells. To solve this problem, replication-competent adenoviral vectors carrying transgenes such as HSVtk have been developed. However, contradictory evidence exists regarding the efficacy of these

  1. Nerve Growth Factor-Dependence of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency in Peripheral Sympathetic and Sensory Neurons in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Wilcox; L. Smith; C. R. Freed; E. M. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Previously, we reported that nerve growth factor (NGF) is required to maintain herpes simplex virus (HSV) latency in cultures of rat sympathetic neurons (Wilcox and Johnson, 1987, 1988). Here, we extend these results by showing that NGF was also required to maintain HSV latency in cultures of sensory neurons obtained from dorsal root ganglia of rats, monkeys, and humans. The

  2. Herpes Consensus PCR test: a useful diagnostic approach to the screening of viral diseases of the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Calvario; A Bozzi; M Scarasciulli; C Ventola; R Seccia; D Stomati; B Brancasi

    2002-01-01

    Background: Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a difficult diagnostic problem for both clinicians and microbiologists. Various clinical signs, such as encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, may be associated with herpesviruses. The use of multiplex ‘Herpes Consensus’ polymerase chain reaction (HC-PCR) in association with nested PCR (nPCR), in addition to classical techniques, made it possible to optimise the management of

  3. Disseminated cutaneous Herpes Simplex Virus1 in a woman with rheumatoid arthritis receiving Infliximab: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Ann Justice; Sophia Yasmin Khan; Sarah Logan; Paresh Jobanputra

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a seronegative rheumatoid arthritis who developed pustular psoriasis whilst on etanercept and subsequently developed disseminated herpes simplex on infliximab. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient presented with an inflammatory arthritis which failed to respond to both methotrexate and leflunomide, and sulphasalazine treatment led to side effects. She was started on etanercept but

  4. Detection, quantification and genotyping of Herpes Simplex Virus in cervicovaginal secretions by real-time PCR: a cross sectional survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther AN Aryee; Robin L Bailey; Angels Natividad-Sancho; Steve Kaye; Martin J Holland

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD) is an important public health problem, whose interaction with HIV results in mutually enhancing epidemics. Conventional methods for detecting HSV tend to be slow and insensitive. We designed a rapid PCR-based assay to quantify and type HSV in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid of subjects attending a Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. Vaginal

  5. Clinician and patient recognition of anogenital herpes disease in HIV positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Michael Isiah; Johnston, Christine; Bowe, David; Saracino, Misty; Schacker, Timothy; Shaughnessy, Mary; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-09-01

    Anogenital ulcers caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. When compared with clinician examination, HIV/HSV-2 coinfected men who have sex with men are frequently unaware of anogenital ulcers. These data highlight the importance of condom use and the need for new HSV-2 prevention strategies. PMID:21844739

  6. Analysis of Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 infection in women with high risk sexual behaviour in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos J Conde-Glez; Luis Juárez-Figueroa; Felipe Uribe-Salas; Pilar Hernández-Nevárez; D Scott Schmid; Ernesto Calderóna; Mauricio Hernández-Avilaa

    1999-01-01

    Background This paper describes the seroprevalence and risk factors of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in a group of female prostitutes from Mexico City. Methods Women who consented to participate in the study voluntarily attended a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic during 1992. A standardized questionnaire was administered and a blood sample was obtained from each participant. Type- specific Western

  7. The Effect of Herpes Simplex Virus1 on Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Rat Brain: The Role of Glucocorticoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Hasson; Joseph Weidenfeld; Rachel Mizrachi-Kol; Tamir Ben-Hur; Haim Ovadia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a common cause of viral encephalitis manifested by activation of the adrenocortical axis, fever and behavioral changes. We investigated the early effects of HSV-1 on constitutive (c) and inducible (i) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in rat brain and in mixed glial cell culture. The effect of glucocorticoids (GCs) on NOS responses to HSV-1

  8. Re-evaluating the role of natural killer cells in innate resistance to herpes simplex virus type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William P Halford; Jennifer L Maender; Bryan M Gebhardt

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon-? acts to multiply the potency with which innate interferons (?\\/?) suppress herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication. Recent evidence suggests that this interaction is functionally relevant in host defense against HSV-1. However, it is not clear which WBCs of the innate immune system, if any, limit HSV-1 spread in an IFN-? dependent manner. The current study was

  9. Anti-viral activity of the extracts of a Kenyan medicinal plant Carissa edulis against herpes simplex virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Festus M. Tolo; Geoffrey M. Rukunga; Faith W. Muli; Eliud N. M. Njagi; Wilson Njue; Kazuko Kumon; Geoffrey M. Mungai; Charles N. Muthaura; Joseph M. Muli; Lucia K. Keter; Esau Oishi; Mawuli W. Kofi-Tsekpo

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a major opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed persons. It is therefore a serious disease in high HIV\\/AIDS prevalence areas as in sub-Saharan Africa where infections due to HSV have risen significantly. The development of resistant strains of HSV to the available drugs for infection management, as is evident in the first drug of choice acyclovir,

  10. The impact of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia on health-related quality of life: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Levin, Myron J.; Johnson, Robert; Oxman, Michael N.; Patrick, David; Blanchette, Caty; Mansi, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Vaccination against herpes zoster is being considered in many countries. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to describe the impact of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia on health-related quality of life. Methods From October 2005 to July 2006, 261 outpatients aged 50 years or older with herpes zoster were recruited from the clinical practices of 83 physicians within 14 days after rash onset. The Zoster Brief Pain Inventory was used to measure severity of pain and interference with activities of daily living because of pain. The EuroQol EQ-5D assessment tool was used to measure quality of life. These outcomes were assessed at recruitment and on days 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 following recruitment. Results Acute herpes zoster interfered in all health domains, especially sleep (64% of participants), enjoyment of life (58%) and general activities (53%). The median duration of pain was 32.5 days. The median duration of interference with activities of daily living because of pain varied between 27 and 30 days. Overall, 24% of the participants had postherpetic neuralgia (pain for more than 90 days after rash onset). Anxiety and depression, enjoyment of life, mood and sleep were most frequently affected during the postherpetic neuralgia period. The mean EQ-5D score was 0.59 at enrolment and remained at 0.67 at all follow-up points among participants who reported clinically significant pain. Interpretation These data support the need for preventive strategies and additional early intervention to reduce the burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. PMID:20921251

  11. Elimination of Mitochondrial DNA Is Not Required for Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Duguay, Brett A.; Saffran, Holly A.; Ponomarev, Alina; Duley, Shayla A.; Eaton, Heather E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) results in the rapid elimination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from host cells. It is known that a mitochondrial isoform of the viral alkaline nuclease (UL12) called UL12.5 triggers this process. However, very little is known about the impact of mtDNA depletion on viral replication or the biology of HSV-1 infections. These questions have been difficult to address because UL12.5 and UL12 are encoded by overlapping transcripts that share the same open reading frame. As a result, mutations that alter UL12.5 also affect UL12, and UL12 null mutations severely impair viral growth by interfering with the intranuclear processing of progeny viral genomes. Therefore, to specifically assess the impact of mtDNA depletion on viral replication, it is necessary to eliminate the activity of UL12.5 while preserving the nuclear functions of UL12. Previous work has shown that the human cytomegalovirus alkaline nuclease UL98 can functionally substitute for UL12 during HSV-1 replication. We found that UL98 is unable to deplete mtDNA in transfected cells and therefore generated an HSV-1 variant in which UL98 coding sequences replace the UL12/UL12.5 open reading frame. The resulting virus was severely impaired in its ability to trigger mtDNA loss but reached titers comparable to those of wild-type HSV-1 in one-step and multistep growth experiments. Together, these observations demonstrate that the elimination of mtDNA is not required for HSV-1 replication in cell culture. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 destroy the DNA of host cell mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells. Epstein-Barr virus, a distantly related herpesvirus, has a similar effect, indicating that mitochondrial DNA destruction is under positive selection and thus confers a benefit to the virus. The present work shows that mitochondrial DNA destruction is not required for efficient replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in cultured Vero kidney epithelial cells, suggesting that this activity likely benefits the virus in other cell types or in the intact human host. PMID:24371054

  12. Splicing-Independent Expression of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Thymidine Kinase Gene Is Mediated by Three cis-Acting RNA Subelements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GLEN C. OTERO; THOMAS J. HOPE

    1998-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus genes are predominantly intronless. We identified cis-acting elements in the intronless herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (TK) gene that facilitate intron-independent gene expression. TK sequences functionally replaced the hepatitis B virus (HBV) posttranscriptional regulatory element (PRE) by inducing the expression of the intronless HBV surface message. TK also activated the pDM138 assay by inducing the

  13. Multiple Antibody Targets on Herpes B Glycoproteins B and D Identified by Screening Sera of Infected Rhesus Macaques with Peptide Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Beutling, Ulrike; Jentsch, Dieter; Motzkus, Dirk; Frank, Ronald; Hunsmann, Gerhard; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Fritz, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1) is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any) in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV). 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs) were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test. PMID:24497986

  14. Nuclear sensing of viral DNA, epigenetic regulation of herpes simplex virus infection, and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Knipe, David M

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. HSV viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. PMID:25742715

  15. Preventing and managing herpes zoster: key actions to foster healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Stefania; Gabutti, Giovanni; Franco, Elisabetta; Bonanni, Paolo; Conversano, Michele; Ferro, Antonio; Lazzari, Marzia; Rossi, Alessandro; Scotti, Silvestro; Vitale, Francesco; Volpi, Antonio; Greco, Donato

    2015-02-01

    Population aging is the demographic phenomenon characterizing all countries in the world, and it is challenging the national infrastructures, in particular health systems. However, aging itself is not associated with increased medical spending, but disability and comorbidity that affect older individuals are the actual drivers for health expenditures. Therefore, if people age in better health, medical spending may be significantly reduced. Preventative interventions proved to be effective in reducing/preventing disease and disability and often found to be cost effective, include diet and exercise interventions, medications, routine disease screenings, and immunizations. Vaccination can protect older citizens against life-threatening diseases, such as influenza, pneumococcal infections, tetanus, and against diseases which adversely impact their quality of life, such as herpes zoster (HZ). Including HZ vaccination in its citizens' lifetime immunization calendar can reinforce Europe's commitment toward active, healthy aging. This paper outlines the consensus statement of a group of Italian experts on HZ. PMID:25652328

  16. New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) as the heralding manifestation of herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Raut, Tushar Premraj; Giri, Prithvi; Praharaj, Heramba Narayan

    2013-01-01

    New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a relatively novel concept used to describe a cohort of previously healthy young adults mostly women presenting with denovo refractory status epilepticus which has a miserable impact on the outcome. Various infectious and non-infectious causes have been considered to be responsible for this dreaded syndrome; however, many a times the exact cause is not identified. As therapy with antiepileptic and anaesthetic drugs is not so successful, identifying and treating the exact cause could improve the outcome. Here the authors describe a woman who presented with NORSE. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and she responded drastically to acyclovir along with complete control of seizures. In this case, NORSE was the presenting feature of HSE and the refractoriness of her seizures was terminated only after treating the exact cause, that is, encephalitis. PMID:23887985

  17. Evaluation of LightCycler PCR for Implementation of Laboratory Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Espy, Mark J.; Ross, Teri K.; Teo, Rosaline; Svien, Kathleen A.; Wold, Arlo D.; Uhl, James R.; Smith, Thomas F.

    2000-01-01

    Five hundred specimens (288 genital, 192 dermal, and 20 ocular) were extracted by technologists, and the DNA was assayed by LightCycler PCR (DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase [TK] gene targets) and by conventional tube and shell vial cell culture. One hundred fifty-eight confirmed (by cell culture and TK target PCR) positive and LightCycler-positive specimens were detected during the first 30 PCR cycles. LightCycler PCR-positive results for cycles 31 to 45 (39 of 67 [58.2%]) required confirmation by another PCR target (TK). LightCycler PCR is more sensitive (n = 197; 23.1%) than cell cultures (n = 150) for the routine laboratory detection of herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:10921993

  18. Ocular herpes simplex virus: how are latency, reactivation, recurrent disease and therapy interrelated?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dujaili, Lena J; Clerkin, Patrick P; Clement, Christian; McFerrin, Harris E; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E; Hill, James M

    2012-01-01

    Most humans are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 in early childhood and remain latently infected throughout life. While most individuals have mild or no symptoms, some will develop destructive HSV keratitis. Ocular infection with HSV-1 and its associated sequelae account for the majority of corneal blindness in industrialized nations. Neuronal latency in the peripheral ganglia is established when transcription of the viral genome is repressed (silenced) except for the latency-associated transcripts and microRNAs. The functions of latency-associated transcripts have been investigated since 1987. Roles have been suggested relating to reactivation, establishment of latency, neuronal protection, antiapoptosis, apoptosis, virulence and asymptomatic shedding. Here, we review HSV-1 latent infections, reactivation, recurrent disease and antiviral therapies for the ocular HSV diseases. PMID:21861620

  19. The Herpes Simplex Virus Triplex Protein, VP23, Exists as a Molten Globule

    PubMed Central

    Kirkitadze, Marina D.; Barlow, Paul N.; Price, Nicholas C.; Kelly, Sharon M.; Boutell, Christopher J.; Rixon, Frazer J.; McClelland, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Two proteins, VP19C (50,260 Da) and VP23 (34,268 Da), make up the triplexes which connect adjacent hexons and pentons in the herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid. VP23 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by Ni-agarose affinity chromatography. In vitro capsid assembly experiments demonstrated that the purified protein was functionally active. Its physical status was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate binding studies. These studies established that the bacterially expressed VP23 exhibits properties consistent with its being in a partially folded, molten globule state. We propose that the molten globule represents a functionally relevant intermediate which is necessary to allow VP23 to undergo interaction with VP19C in the process of capsid assembly. PMID:9811746

  20. Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Practical Consideration for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a transient disease caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) in spinal or cranial sensory ganglia. It is characterized by a painful rash in the affected dermatome. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most troublesome side effect associated with HZ. However, PHN is often resistant to current analgesic treatments such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, and topical agents including lidocaine patches and capsaicin cream and can persist for several years. The risk factors for reactivation of HZ include advanced age and compromised cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Early diagnosis and treatment with antiviral agents plus intervention treatments is believed to shorten the duration and severity of acute HZ and reduce the risk of PHN. Prophylactic vaccination against VZV can be the best option to prevent or reduce the incidence of HZ and PHN. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of HZ and PHN, as well as the efficacy of the HZ vaccine. PMID:26175877

  1. Pemphigus vegetans with coexistent herpes simplex infection and deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Marchalik, Rachel; Reserva, Jeave; Plummer, Malgorzata Anna; Braniecki, Marylee

    2015-01-01

    An elderly patient presented with a 4-month history of eroded hypertrophic condylomatous plaques with areas of vesiculation on the groin and lower extremities bilaterally, associated with swelling. Biopsy and immunofluorescence studies confirmed the diagnosis of pemphigus vegetans (PVeg). Further clinical evaluation revealed deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities and septic shock from secondarily infected pemphigus lesions. Fluid obtained from vesicles was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) via PCR-based testing. The patient was therapeutically anticoagulated, treated with high-dose corticosteroid therapy, broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics and acyclovir. This case represents a constellation of diagnoses not previously described. Although pemphigus vulgaris has been linked to thromboembolic events and has been associated with HSV, these associations have not been previously reported in PVeg. The coexistence of these diseases should encourage vigilance in the clinical work up of a patient with PVeg. PMID:26178000

  2. The treatment of herpes simplex infections: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Cernik, Christina; Gallina, Kelly; Brodell, Robert T

    2008-06-01

    Genital and labial herpes simplex virus infections are frequently encountered by primary care physicians in the United States. Whereas the diagnosis of this condition is often straightforward, choosing an appropriate drug (eg, acyclovir, valacyclovir hydrochloride, or famciclovir) and dosing regimen can be confusing in view of (1) competing clinical approaches to therapy; (2) evolving dosing schedules based on new research; (3) approved regimens of the Food and Drug Administration that may not match recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or of other experts; and (4) dissimilar regimens for oral and genital infections. The physician must first choose an approach to treatment (ie, intermittent episodic therapy, intermittent suppressive therapy, or chronic suppressive therapy) based on defined clinical characteristics and patient preference. Then, an evidence-based dosing regimen must be selected. In this review, data from all sources are tabulated to provide a handy clinical reference. PMID:18541820

  3. Cell surface receptors for herpes simplex virus are heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The role of cell surface heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was investigated using CHO cell mutants defective in various aspects of glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Binding of radiolabeled virus to the cells and infection were assessed in mutant and wild-type cells. Virus bound efficiently to wild-type cells and initiated an abortive infection in which immediate-early or alpha viral genes were expressed, despite limited production of late viral proteins and progeny virus. Binding of virus to heparan sulfate-deficient mutant cells was severely impaired and mutant cells were resistant to HSV infection. Intermediate levels of binding and infection were observed for a CHO cell mutant that produced undersulfated heparan sulfate. These results show that heparan sulfate moieties of cell surface proteoglycans serve as receptors for HSV. PMID:1310996

  4. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Primary Enveloped Virions from the Perinuclear Space?

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Maryn E.; Sydnor, Mariam L.; Wilson, Duncan W.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) nucleocapsids exit the nucleus by budding into the inner nuclear membrane, where they exist briefly as primary enveloped virions. These virus particles subsequently fuse their envelopes with the outer nuclear membrane, permitting nucleocapsids to then enter the cytoplasm and complete assembly. We have developed a method to isolate primary enveloped virions from HSV-1-infected cells and subjected the primary enveloped virion preparation to MALDI-MS/MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem mass spectrometry) analyses. We identified most capsid proteins, a tegument protein (VP22), a glycoprotein (gD), and a cellular protein (annexin A2) in the primary enveloped virion preparation. We determined that annexin A2 does not play an essential role in infection under our experimental conditions. Elucidating the structure and biochemical properties of this unique virus assembly intermediate will provide new insights into HSV-1 biology. PMID:19279117

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Triggers and Then Disarms a Host Antiviral Response

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Karen L.; Macgregor, Pascale F.; Rozmus, Jacob J.; Goryachev, Andrew B.; Edwards, Aled M.; Smiley, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Virus infection induces an antiviral response that is predominantly associated with the synthesis and secretion of soluble interferon. Here, we report that herpes simplex virus type 1 virions induce an interferon-independent antiviral state in human embryonic lung cells that prevents plaquing of a variety of viruses. Microarray analysis of 19,000 human expressed sequence tags revealed induction of a limited set of host genes, the majority of which are also induced by interferon. Genes implicated in controlling the intracellular spread of virus and eliminating virally infected cells were among those induced. Induction of the cellular response occurred in the absence of de novo cellular protein synthesis and required viral penetration. In addition, this response was only seen when viral gene expression was inhibited, suggesting that a newly synthesized viral protein(s) may function as an inhibitor of this response. PMID:11134288

  6. Vaccination against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in France: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bresse, Xavier; Annemans, Lieven; Préaud, Emmanuelle; Bloch, Karine; Duru, Gérard; Gauthier, Aline

    2013-06-01

    This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia in France, using a published Markov model. The cost-effectiveness of vaccinating individuals aged from 65 years or between 70 and 79 years was evaluated over their lifetime, from a third-party payer perspective. French-specific data were combined with results from clinical studies and international quality-of-life-based (EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire) utilities from the literature. HZ vaccination was highly cost effective in both populations. Incremental cost-effective ratios were estimated between €9513 and 12,304 per quality-adjusted life year gained, corresponding to €2240-2651 per HZ case avoided and €3539-4395 per postherpetic neuralgia case avoided. In addition to epidemiological and clinical evidence, economic evidence also supports the implementation of HZ vaccination in France. PMID:23537397

  7. Role of AF6 protein in cell-to-cell spread of Herpes simplex virus 1.

    PubMed

    Keyser, Johanna; Lorger, Mihaela; Pavlovic, Jovan; Radziwill, Gerald; Moelling, Karin

    2007-11-27

    AF6 and its rat homologue afadin are multidomain proteins localized at cell junctions and involved in intercellular adhesion. AF6 interacts via its PDZ domain with nectin-1 at epithelial adherens junctions. Nectin-1 serves as a mediator of cell-to-cell spread for Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). We analyzed the role of AF6 protein in the viral spread and nectin-1 clustering at cell-cell contacts by knockdown of AF6 in epithelial cells. AF6 knockdown reduced efficiency of HSV-1 spreading, however, the clustering of nectin-1 at cell-cell contacts was not affected. Thus, AF6 protein is important for spreading of HSV-1 in epithelial cells, independently of nectin clustering, possibly by stabilization of the E-cadherin-dependent cell adhesion. PMID:17967423

  8. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection after cesarean section with intact amniotic membranes.

    PubMed

    Peng, J; Krause, P J; Kresch, M

    1996-01-01

    We describe a preterm neonate delivered by cesarean section with intact membranes who had herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis at 9 days of age and whose twin with a separate amniotic membrane that was pierced for insertion of a fetal scalp electrode simultaneously had HSV infection of the scalp. That no histologic evidence of HSV infection was seen in either placenta suggests the potential for HSV penetration of intact amniotic membranes as a mode of transmission of HSV to the neonate. Although the extent of risk of HSV infection in a second twin remains unclear, we believe that when infection is suspected in one of a set of twins, appropriate cultures should be obtained from both infants, and acyclovir therapy should be considered for both. PMID:8915941

  9. Neuronal Interferon Signaling Is Required for Protection against Herpes Simplex Virus Replication and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rosato, Pamela C.; Leib, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses are critical for controlling herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The importance of neuronal IFN signaling in controlling acute and latent HSV-1 infection remains unclear. Compartmentalized neuron cultures revealed that mature sensory neurons respond to IFN? at both the axon and cell body through distinct mechanisms, resulting in control of HSV-1. Mice specifically lacking neural IFN signaling succumbed rapidly to HSV-1 corneal infection, demonstrating that IFN responses of the immune system and non-neuronal tissues are insufficient to confer survival following virus challenge. Furthermore, neurovirulence was restored to an HSV strain lacking the IFN-modulating gene, ?34.5, despite its expected attenuation in peripheral tissues. These studies define a crucial role for neuronal IFN signaling for protection against HSV-1 pathogenesis and replication, and they provide a novel framework to enhance our understanding of the interface between host innate immunity and neurotropic pathogens. PMID:26153886

  10. Helper virus-free transfer of herpes simplex virus type 1 plasmid vectors into neural cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fraefel, C; Song, S; Lim, F; Lang, P; Yu, L; Wang, Y; Wild, P; Geller, A I

    1996-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) plasmid vectors have promise for genetic intervention in the brain, but several problems caused by the helper virus have compromised their utility. To develop a helper virus-free packaging system for these vectors, the DNA cleavage/packaging signals were deleted from a set of cosmids that represents the HSV-1 genome. Following cotransfection into cells, this modified cosmid set supported replication and packaging of vector DNA. However, in the absence of the DNA cleavage/packaging signals, the HSV-1 genome was not packaged, and consequently vector stocks were free of detectable helper virus. In the absence of helper virus, the vectors efficiently infected rat neural cells in culture or in the brain with minimal cytopathic effects. beta-galactosidase-positive cells were observed for at least 1 month in vivo, and vector DNA persisted for this period. This system may facilitate studies on neuronal physiology and potential therapeutic applications. PMID:8794366

  11. Herpes Zoster Mimicking Breast Cancer With Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis on PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Oh, Jin Kyoung; Chung, Yong-An

    2015-07-01

    Herpes zoster is a reactivated varicella-zoster virus infection and demonstrates typical dermatomal distribution. We herein describe a case of a 41-year-old woman with a history of ovarian cancer. Intense hot uptake in the left breast and enlarged ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes were noted on F-FDG PET/CT for adjuvant chemotherapy response evaluation. Blinded to the patient's clinical information, these lesions were interpreted as incidental breast cancer with axillary nodal metastasis. However, clinically she presented with vesicles along the T4 dermatome and palpable enlarged nodes in the left axilla. On 3-month follow-up PET/CT after antiviral treatment, these intense hot uptake areas were no longer visualized. PMID:26018707

  12. Antiviral effects of synthetic membrane-active peptides on herpes simplex virus, type 1.

    PubMed

    Egal, M; Conrad, M; MacDonald, D L; Maloy, W L; Motley, M; Genco, C A

    1999-09-01

    Magainins are cationic peptides with antimicrobial activity which were originally isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Several synthetic derivatives of this class of peptides were evaluated for antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV). Some of the peptides (MSI-102, -248, -420, -499/500 combination, -591, -594, and -1251) showed significant reduction of HSV plaque-forming units. The antiviral effect was enhanced when HSV was pretreated with the peptides prior to inoculation onto Vero monolayers, suggesting a direct effect on the virion. Most of the peptides with anti-HSV activity were lysine-rich, and the addition of octanoyl groups to the peptides appeared to enhance the antiviral effect. PMID:10563406

  13. Critical role of miR-155 in herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhela, Siddheshvar; Mulik, Sachin; Reddy, Pradeep B. J.; Ricardson, Raphael L.; Gimenez, Fernanda; Rajasagi, Naveen K; Veiga-Parga, Tamara; Osmand, Alexander P.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of adult humans occasionally results in life-threatening herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) for reasons that remain to be defined. An animal system that could prove useful to model HSE could be miR-155 knockout mice (miR-155KO). Thus we observe that mice with a deficiency of miR-155 are highly susceptible to HSE with a majority of animals (75–80%) developing HSE after ocular infection with HSV-1. The lesions appeared to primarily represent the destructive consequences of viral replication and animals could be protected from HSE by acyclovir treatment provided 4 days after ocular infection. The miR-155KO animals were also more susceptible to develop zosteriform lesions, a reflection of viral replication and dissemination within the nervous system. One explanation for the heightened susceptibility to HSE and zosteriform lesions could be because miR-155KO animals develop diminished CD8 T cell responses when the numbers, functionality and homing capacity of effector CD8 T cell responses were compared. Indeed, adoptive transfer of HSV-immune CD8 T cells to infected miR-155KO mice at 24 hours post infection provided protection from HSE. Deficiencies in CD8 T cell numbers and function also explained the observation that miR-155KO animals were less able than control animals to maintain HSV latency. Our observations may be the first to link miR-155 expression with increased susceptibility of the nervous system to virus infection. PMID:24516198

  14. Disrupting seasonality to control disease outbreaks: the case of koi herpes virus.

    PubMed

    Omori, Ryosuke; Adams, Ben

    2011-02-21

    Common carp accounts for a substantial proportion of global freshwater aquaculture production. Koi herpes virus (KHV), a highly virulent disease affecting carp that emerged in the late 1990s, is a serious threat to this industry. After a fish is infected with KHV, there is a temperature dependent delay before it becomes infectious, and a further delay before mortality. Consequently, KHV epidemiology is driven by seasonal changes in water temperature. Also, it has been proposed that outbreaks could be controlled by responsive management of water temperature in aquaculture setups. We use a mathematical model to analyse the effect of seasonal temperature cycles on KHV epidemiology, and the impact of attempting to control outbreaks by disrupting this cycle. We show that, although disease progression is fast in summer and slow in winter, total mortality over a 2-year period is similar for outbreaks that start in either season. However, for outbreaks that start in late autumn, mortality may be low and immunity high. A single bout of water temperature management can be an effective outbreak control strategy if it is started as soon as dead fish are detected and maintained for a long time. It can also be effective if the frequency of infectious fish is used as an indicator for the beginning of treatment. In this case, however, there is a risk that starting the treatment too soon will increase mortality relative to the case when no treatment is used. This counterproductive effect can be avoided if multiple bouts of temperature management are used. We conclude that disrupting normal seasonal patterns in water temperature can be an effective strategy for controlling koi herpes virus. Exploiting the seasonal patterns, possibly in combination with temperature management, can also induce widespread immunity to KHV in a cohort of fish. However, employing these methods successfully requires careful assessment to ensure that the treatment is started, and finished, at the correct time. PMID:21145328

  15. Investigations of Allerton-type herpes virus infection in East African game animals and cattle

    PubMed Central

    Plowright, W.; Jessett, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Neutralization tests with a strain (BA) of Allerton-type herpes virus, derived from a buffalo (Syncerus caffer) were carried out on 924 sera from 17 species of E. African game animals and on cattle sera from Tanzania (2001), Kenya (792) and Uganda (410). Buffalo populations throughout E. Africa showed a very high rate of infection, with all animals over 2 years of age serologically positive. Antibody was present in some giraffe, waterbuck and hippopotamus sera and, less frequently, in impala, eland, bushbuck and oryx. Data are provided on the titres of positive samples; the mean titre of buffalo sera increased with age. Cattle in many localities of N. Tanzania and S. Kenya showed a very high rate of infection, 85-95% of sera from animals more than 2-years old containing antibody; the titres recorded were lower than those in buffaloes. Very high infection rates were also found in Karamoja and Teso (Uganda) and also in some other areas of Kenya, whilst a considerably lower incidence of infection was detected in W. Nile Province of Uganda and in central Tanzania. Differences in infection rates may have been related to herd size and husbandry practices. It was shown that a wave of infection was probably spreading through cattle in N. Tanzania at about the same time as an outbreak of disease occurred in buffaloes and it is suggested that virus transmission may have been by biting flies. No clinical signs attributable to the virus were reported in cattle but mouth lesions similar to those recorded in buffaloes, or nasal lesions, could have passed undetected. Allerton-type virus probably produces a range of clinical syndromes in cattle, closely resembling those associated with some herpes viruses in primates but infection is seldom related in the field to either pseudo-lumpy skin disease, mammillitis or stomatitis. PMID:4326248

  16. A herpes-like virus in king crabs: Characterization and transmission under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryazanova, T V; Eliseikina, M G; Kalabekov, I M; Odintsova, N A

    2015-05-01

    A herpes-like virus was found infecting the antennal gland and bladder epithelium in the blue king crab Paralithodes platypus from the eastern area of the Sea of Okhotsk. Electron microscopic analysis of antennal gland samples from blue king crabs with histologically confirmed signs of disease revealed virus particles, which were mostly hexagonal in shape and located primarily in the nucleus; these particles were rarely observed in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Most virus particles ranged in size from 115 to 125nm. Hemocytes of the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus in cell culture could be experimentally infected with virus from thawed antennal gland samples of the blue king crabs with histologically confirmed signs of viral infection. Clear signs of infection were observed in hemocyte cultures at 3-4days post-inoculation as small foci of highly vacuolated formations. These formations included several nuclei and were surrounded by a halo of small cytoplasmic bubbles containing actin and tubulin. As demonstrated by electron microscopic studies, no virus-like particles were found in the cells 1day post-inoculation, but particles become abundant at 7days post-inoculation. We developed a consensus primer PCR method for amplification of a region of the herpesviral DNA-directed DNA polymerase. Primers were designed to target sequences encoding highly conserved amino acid motifs covering a region of approximately 800bp. Thus, macroscopic, histological and ultra-structural examinations of blue king crabs infected with a virus and the molecular identification of the pathogen revealed the presence of herpesviruses. The frequency of the herpes-like viral infection in natural populations of blue king crabs in the Sea of Okhotsk ranged from 0% to 3% in different years. PMID:25712900

  17. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  18. Cryo Electron Tomography of Herpes Simplex Virus during Axonal Transport and Secondary Envelopment in Primary Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ibiricu, Iosune; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Döhner, Katinka; Bradke, Frank; Sodeik, Beate; Grünewald, Kay

    2011-01-01

    During herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) egress in neurons, viral particles travel from the neuronal cell body along the axon towards the synapse. Whether HSV1 particles are transported as enveloped virions as proposed by the ‘married’ model or as non-enveloped capsids suggested by the ‘separate’ model is controversial. Specific viral proteins may form a recruitment platform for microtubule motors that catalyze such transport. However, their subviral location has remained elusive. Here we established a system to analyze herpesvirus egress by cryo electron tomography. At 16 h post infection, we observed intra-axonal transport of progeny HSV1 viral particles in dissociated hippocampal neurons by live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Cryo electron tomography of frozen-hydrated neurons revealed that most egressing capsids were transported independently of the viral envelope. Unexpectedly, we found not only DNA-containing capsids (cytosolic C-capsids), but also capsids lacking DNA (cytosolic A-/B-capsids) in mid-axon regions. Subvolume averaging revealed lower amounts of tegument on cytosolic A-/B-capsids than on C-capsids. Nevertheless, all capsid types underwent active axonal transport. Therefore, even few tegument proteins on the capsid vertices seemed to suffice for transport. Secondary envelopment of capsids was observed at axon terminals. On their luminal face, the enveloping vesicles were studded with typical glycoprotein-like spikes. Furthermore, we noted an accretion of tegument density at the concave cytosolic face of the vesicle membrane in close proximity to the capsids. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that these assembly sites lacked cytoskeletal elements, but that filamentous actin surrounded them and formed an assembly compartment. Our data support the ‘separate model’ for HSV1 egress, i.e. progeny herpes viruses being transported along axons as subassemblies and not as complete virions within transport vesicles. PMID:22194682

  19. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  20. Sacral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Terms of Use | Contact Us © 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... practices and to make choices about online behavioral advertising, please click here . ... here . © Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Use of this site ...

  1. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Friction to the area – for example, with sexual intercourse or tight-fitting clothes Self-Care Guidelines Acetaminophen ( ... but antiviral medications can reduce symptoms, shorten the duration of outbreaks, and decrease the chance of spreading ...

  2. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the chance that your partner will get the virus. You should also use a condom every time you have sexual contact. This includes genital, oral, and anal sex. Barrier protection is not perfect, so it is important that ...

  3. A novel method to assay herpes simplex virus neutralizing antibodies using BHKICP6LacZ-5 (ELVIS) cells.

    PubMed

    Ashley, R L; Dalessio, J; Sekulovich, R E

    1997-01-01

    A novel method for determining neutralizing serum antibody titers to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was developed based on reduction of infectivity in BHKICP6LacZ-5 (ELVIS) cells; baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells that have been genetically engineered to contain the Escherichia coli LacZ gene under the control of an inducible herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) promoter. The test has a semiautomated, colorimetric readout resulting in rapid, objective readings of infectivity reduction. Extent of neutralization is calculated against a calibration curve of virus infectivity generated in each run. HSV-2 neutralizing activity can be detected with serum dilutions in excess of 1:5120. PMID:9473152

  4. Valacyclovir therapy does not reverse herpes-associated alterations in cervical immunology: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Yi, Tae Joon; Shannon, Brett; Chieza, Lisungu; Su, DeSheng; Saunders, Megan; Tharao, Wangari; Huibner, Sanja; Remis, Robert; Raboud, Janet; Kaul, Rupert

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition, perhaps through alterations in mucosal HIV-susceptible target cells. We performed a clinical trial to assess the impact of herpes therapy on cervical immunology in HSV-2-infected, HIV-uninfected women from Africa or the Caribbean who were living in Toronto, Canada. Thirty participants received 1 g of valacyclovir orally each day for 2 months in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Valacyclovir did not reduce the number of cervical CD4(+) T cells, the number of dendritic cells, or the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and tended to increase the expression of the HIV coreceptor CCR5 and the activation marker CD69. Short-term valacyclovir therapy did not reverse HSV-2-associated alterations in genital immunology. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00946556. PMID:24664172

  5. The Adjuvant CLDC Increases Protection of a Herpes Simplex Type 2 Glycoprotein D Vaccine in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Farley, Nicholas; Bravo, Fernando J.; Earwood, Julie; McNeal, Monica; Fairman, Jeff; Cardin, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but there is no vaccine available. We evaluated cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant for an HSV gD2 vaccine and compared it to an MPL/Alum adjuvant in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. The addition of CLDC to the gD2 vaccine significantly decreased acute and recurrent disease and most importantly the number of days with recurrent virus shedding compared to gD2 alone. Reductions in these outcomes were also detected when gD2+CLDC was compared to gD2+MPL/Alum. When the vaccine and adjuvants were evaluated as therapeutic vaccines, they were ineffective. CLDC enhanced protection compared to MPL/Alum and is the first vaccine to reduce recurrent virus shedding, a key to decreasing the spread of HSV-2. PMID:19857450

  6. Trends in Hospitalizations With Primary Varicella and Herpes Zoster During the Prevaricella and Initial Postvaricella and Herpes Zoster Vaccine Eras, Connecticut, 1994–2012

    PubMed Central

    Humes, Elizabeth A.; Weinberger, Daniel M.; Kudish, Kathy S.; Hadler, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background.?The introductions of the varicella vaccine in 1995 and herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine in 2006 have an ongoing potential to modify the epidemiology of both diseases. Analysis of data on hospitalizations can be conducted to examine trends in the occurrence of severe disease over time and to assess the possible impact of vaccination on the incidence of hospitalization. Methods.?Statewide hospital discharge data 1994–2012 in Connecticut were used to identify individuals discharged with a diagnosis of varicella and the initial admissions of persons with a discharge diagnosis of HZ in the first or second diagnostic position. Trends in overall age-standardized and age group-specific hospitalization rates for preselected time intervals before and after the introduction of vaccines were examined using Poisson regression models or Mantel–Haenszel ?2 tests. Results.?Beginning in 2001, 5 years after the introduction of varicella vaccine, HZ hospitalization rates decreased significantly in individuals <15 years at an average rate of 19.4% per year through 2012. Among individuals ?60 years, HZ hospitalization rates increased by 5.1% per year from 2001 to 2006 but decreased by 4.2% per year from 2007 to 2012. Primary varicella hospitalization rates declined 82.9% from the prevaccine era (1994–1995) to the 1-dose era (2001–2005) (P < .001). Rates further decreased significantly in the 2-dose era (2010–2012) among 5 to 9 year olds (100% decrease). Conclusions.?Varicella vaccine seems to have had an impact on both varicella and HZ hospitalizations, and introduction of the HZ vaccine may be having an impact on HZ hospitalizations.

  7. NP1, a Rabbit  Defensin, Prevents the Entry and Intercellular Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Sinha; Natalia Cheshenko; Robert I. Lehrer; Betsy C. Herold

    2003-01-01

    Rabbit neutrophil peptide-1 (NP-1), a prototypic -defensin, protects cells in vitro from infection by clinical and laboratory isolates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Incubation of concentrated virus stocks for 1 h with noncytotoxic concentrations of NP-1 reduces subsequent infection by >98%. Pretreating cells with NP-1 for 1 h prior to inoculation with untreated virus also prevents infection. NP-1,

  8. Conformational Changes in the Herpes Simplex Virus ICP8 DNA-Binding Protein Coincident with Assembly in Viral Replication Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Uprichard; David M. Knipe

    2003-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) single-stranded DNA-binding protein, ICP8, is required for viral DNA synthesis. Before viral DNA replication, ICP8 colocalizes with other replication proteins at small punctate foci called prereplicative sites. With the onset of viral genome amplification, these proteins become redistributed into large globular replication compartments. Here we present the results of immunocytochemical and bio- chemical analysis of

  9. Imaging progress of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase suicide gene therapy in living subjects with positron emission tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahriar S Yaghoubi; Jorge R Barrio; Mohammad Namavari; Nagichettiar Satyamurthy; Michael E Phelps; Harvey R Herschman; Sanjiv S Gambhir

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging of a suicide transgene's expression will aid the development of efficient and precise targeting strategies, and imaging for cancer cell viability may assess therapeutic efficacy. We used the PET reporter probe, 9-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG) to monitor the expression of a mutant Herpes Simplex Virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-sr39tk) in C6 glioma tumors implanted subcutaneously in nude mice that were

  10. Glycoprotein D Receptor-Dependent, Low-pH-Independent Endocytic Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard S. B. Milne; Anthony V. Nicola; J. Charles Whitbeck; Roselyn J. Eisenberg; Gary H. Cohen

    2005-01-01

    Two herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry pathways have been described: direct fusion between the vi- rion envelope and the plasma membrane, as seen on Vero cells, and low-pH-dependent endocytosis, as seen on CHO nectin-1 and HeLa cells. In this paper, we studied HSV entry into C10 murine melanoma cells and iden- tified a third entry pathway for this

  11. A Protective Role of Locally Administered Immunostimulatory CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide in a Mouse Model of Genital Herpes Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali M. Harandi; Kristina Eriksson; Jan Holmgren

    2003-01-01

    Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial DNA or synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are known as potent activators of the immune system and inducers of several Th1-associated immunomodulatory cytokines. We therefore investigated whether such a CpG-containing ODN (CpG ODN) given mucosally in the female genital tract could enhance innate immunity and protect against genital herpes infection. Groups of C57BL\\/6 mice were treated intravaginally

  12. The international development of the RGHQoL: a quality of life measure for recurrent genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Doward; S. P. McKenna; T. Kohlmann; M. Niero; D. Patrick; B. Spencer; H. Thorsen

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the international development and psychometric testing of the Recurrent Genital Herpes Quality of Life Questionnaire (RGHQoL), a condition-specific quality of life (QoL) instrument. The theoretical foundation for the measure is the needs-based model of QoL and the content of the instrument was derived from in-depth qualitative interviews with relevant patients in the UK. Versions of the RGHQoL

  13. Protective Immunity against Ocular Herpes Infection and Disease Induced by Highly Immunogenic Self Adjuvanting Glycoprotein D Lipopeptide Vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilham Bettahi; Anthony B. Nesburn; Susan Yoon; Xiuli Zhang; Amir Mohebbi; Valerie Sue; Aaron Vanderberg; Steven L. Wechsler; Lbachir BenMohamed

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE. An important phase in the development of an ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) subunit vaccine is the identification of an efficient, safe, and adjuvant-free antigen delivery system capable of inducing and sustaining long-term memory T-cell protective immunity. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that immunization with self-adjuvanting lipopeptide bearing HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) T-cell epitopes

  14. HLA-A*0201Restricted CD8 Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitopes Identified from Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aziz Alami Chentoufi; Xiuli Zhang; Kasper Lamberth; Gargi Dasgupta; Ilham Bettahi; Alex Nguyen; Michelle Wu; Xiaoming Zhu; Amir Mohebbi; Søren Buus; Steven L. Wechsler; Anthony B. Nesburn; Lbachir BenMohamed

    Evidence obtained from both animal models and humans suggests that T cells specific for HSV-1 and HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) contribute to protective immunity against herpes infection. However, knowledge of gD-specific human T cell responses is limited to CD4 T cell epitopes, with no CD8 T cell epitopes identified to date. In this study, we screened the HSV-1 gD amino

  15. Treatment of herpes simplex esophagitis in an immunocompetent patient with intravenous acyclovir: A case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Kurahara; Kunihiko Aoyagi; Shotaro Nakamura; Yasuyuki Kuwano; Chifumi Yamamoto; Mitsuo Iida; Masatoshi Fujishima

    1998-01-01

    A 35-yr-old, immunocompetent male was admitted complaining of severe odynophagia. He was diagnosed as having herpes simplex esophagitis and was started on intravenous acyclovir 5 mg\\/kg every 8 h on the day of admission. His response was dramatic. Within 24 h he was virtually asymptomatic. Acyclovir therapy in immunocompetent adults with esophagitis has been described in only a handful of

  16. Houttuynoids A-E, anti-herpes simplex virus active flavonoids with novel skeletons from Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Dan; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Qin-Chang; Wang, Ya-Qi; Li, Ting; Mu, Zhen-Qiang; Wu, Hong-Ling; Peng, Tao; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Houttuynoids A-E (1-5), a new type of flavonoid with houttuynin tethered to hyperoside, and their presumed biosynthetic precursor hyperoside (6) were isolated from the whole plant of Houttuynia cordata. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR. A hypothetical biogenetic pathway for houttuynoids A-E was proposed. Compounds 1-5 exhibited potent anti-HSV (herpes simplex viruses) activity. PMID:22414220

  17. Anti-herpes simplex virus effect of a seed extract from the tropical plant Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch (Chrysobalanaceae).

    PubMed

    Miranda, M M F S; Gonçalves, J L S; Romanos, M T V; Silva, F P; Pinto, L; Silva, M H; Ejzemberg, R; Granja, L F Z; Wigg, M D

    2002-10-01

    Incubation of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (ACVr-HSV1), during infection of the HEp-2 cell culture, with an extract prepared from the seeds of Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch (Chrysobalanaceae) species impaired the productive replication of this virus in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract was able to inhibit extracellular virus (virucidal effect) and also interfered with a very early event of cell infection, at a non-cytotoxic concentration. PMID:12487329

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Enters Human Epidermal Keratinocytes, but Not Neurons, via a pH-Dependent Endocytic Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony V. Nicola; Jean Hou; Eugene O. Major; Stephen E. Straus

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) enters some laboratory cell lines via a pH-dependent, endocytic mechanism. We investigated whether this entry pathway is used in human cell types relevant to pathogenesis. Three different classes of lysosomotropic agents, which raise endosomal pH, blocked HSV entry into primary and transformed human keratinocytes, but not into human neurons or neuroblastoma lines. In keratinocytes, incoming HSV

  19. Localization of type-specific epitopes of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G recognized by human and mouse antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Trybala; Bo Svennerholm; Stig Jeansson; Eva Sjo; Tomas Bergstro

    Glycoprotein G is a major target for the humoral immune response against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis discriminating HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. The mature part of HSV-2 glycoprotein G-2 (gG-2) contains a unique stretch suspected to mediate type specificity, and in addition a region homologous to HSV-1 glycoprotein G-1 (gG-1). Antigenic determinants of the

  20. Lichen planus remission is associated with a decrease of human herpes virus type 7 protein expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. C. de Vries; Marcel B. M. Teunissen; Fokla Zorgdrager; Daisy Picavet; Marion Cornelissen

    2007-01-01

    The cause of lichen planus is still unknown. Previously we showed human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) DNA and proteins in lesional\\u000a lichen planus skin, and significantly less in non-lesional lichen planus, psoriasis or healthy skin. Remarkably, lesional\\u000a lichen planus skin was infiltrated with plasmacytoid dendritic cells. If HHV-7 is associated with lichen planus, then HHV-7\\u000a replication would reduce upon lichen

  1. Marker Gene Transfer and Oncolysis of Human Y79 Retinoblastoma Cells Mediated by Herpes simplex Virus Mutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Nicolò; E. Antonio Chiocca

    1998-01-01

    Three different herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutants, designated hrR3, MGH-1 and R3616, were used to infect Y79 retinoblastoma cells grown in suspension. Two parameters were assayed: (a) vector-mediated gene expression, measured by histochemical staining of a transferred LacZ transgene, and (b) virus-mediated oncolysis, determined by the inability of infected cells to exclude trypan blue dye. The tested HSV mutants were

  2. Livedoid Vasculopathy and Mononeuritis Multiplex, with a Fulminant Hepatic Failure which was caused by Herpes Simplex Hepatitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pai B, Sathish; Pai, Kanthilatha

    2013-05-01

    Livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex is a rare association. We are presenting a case of an unusual association of livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex, who developed fulminant hepatic failure which was secondary to Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis, while she was on treatment with immunosuppressants. Her skin biopsy and immunofluorescence studies showed the features of vasculitis. A biopsy from the sural nerve showed the features of chronic vasculitis. PMID:23814745

  3. Livedoid Vasculopathy and Mononeuritis Multiplex, with a Fulminant Hepatic Failure which was caused by Herpes Simplex Hepatitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pai B, Sathish; Pai, Kanthilatha

    2013-01-01

    Livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex is a rare association. We are presenting a case of an unusual association of livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex, who developed fulminant hepatic failure which was secondary to Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis, while she was on treatment with immunosuppressants. Her skin biopsy and immunofluorescence studies showed the features of vasculitis. A biopsy from the sural nerve showed the features of chronic vasculitis. PMID:23814745

  4. Detection and Differentiation of Herpes Simplex Viruses by Use of the Viper Platform: Advantages, Limitations, and Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Amanda L. S.; Roberts, Catherine; Mazzulli, Tony; Hatchette, Todd F.

    2014-01-01

    The Viper HSV-Qx assay was evaluated for the detection of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in specimens from oral, anogenital, and other miscellaneous sites. The HSV-Qx assay was found to be highly sensitive and accurate; however, a gray zone may be required for specimens with values falling between 50 and 800 maximum relative fluorescence units. PMID:24696023

  5. Localization of the Coding Region for a 35000 Dalton Polypeptide on the Genome of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTHA SUH; CHRISTIANE CHAUVIN; MARIO FILION; G. C. Shore; ERIC FROST

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The cloned BglII N fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA has been shown to code for a 35K polypeptide. Subfragments made by cleavage with XhoI, BamHI, SstII and XorII were then cloned and used with RNA extracted from HSV-2- infected cells for mRNA selection and in vitro protein synthesis. We found that the major translation product

  6. Complete Sequence and Comparative Analysis of the Genome of Herpes B Virus (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1) from a Rhesus Monkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludmila Perelygina; L. Zhu; H. Zurkuhlen; R. Mills; M. Borodovsky; J. K. Hilliard

    2003-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of herpes B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) strain E2490, isolated from a rhesus macaque, was determined. The total genome length is 156,789 bp, with 74.5% GC composition and overall genome organization characteristic of alphaherpesviruses. The first and last residues of the genome were defined by sequencing the cloned genomic termini. There were six origins of DNA

  7. Interactions between the products of the Herpes simplex genome and Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes: Relevance to pathological-signalling cascades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Carter

    2008-01-01

    The products of the Herpes simplex (HSV-1) genome interact with many Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes or proteins. These in turn affect those of the virus. For example, HSV-1 binds to heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG2), or alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M), and enters cells via nectin receptors, which are cleaved by gamma-secretase (APH1B, PSEN1, PSEN2, PEN2, NCSTN). The virus also binds to blood-borne lipoproteins

  8. Prevalence and correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus2 and syphilis infections in the general population in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S K Sgaier; P Mony; S Jayakumar; C McLaughlin; P Arora; R Kumar; P Bhatia; P Jha

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine the prevalence and correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis infections in the general population in India.Methods2456 adults were surveyed in Hyderabad, Bangalore and Chandigarh in India. Socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were obtained through a questionnaire, and a dried blood spot (DBS) was collected from all individuals aged 18 years and over; sexual behaviour was collected from

  9. Co-infection by alveolate parasites and frog virus 3-like ranavirus during an amphibian larval mortality event in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, Jan H; Kiryu, Yasunari; Tabuchi, Maki; Waltzek, Thomas B; Enge, Kevin M; Reintjes-Tolen, Sarah; Preston, Asa; Pessier, Allan P

    2013-07-22

    A multispecies amphibian larval mortality event, primarily affecting American bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus, was investigated during April 2011 at the Mike Roess Gold Head Branch State Park, Clay County, Florida, USA. Freshly dead and moribund tadpoles had hemorrhagic lesions around the vent and on the ventral body surface, with some exhibiting a swollen abdomen. Bullfrogs (100%), southern leopard frogs L. sphenocephalus (33.3%), and gopher frogs L. capito (100%) were infected by alveolate parasites. The intensity of infection in bullfrog livers was high. Tadpoles were evaluated for frog virus 3 (FV3) by histology and PCR. For those southern leopard frog tadpoles (n = 2) whose livers had not been obscured by alveolate spore infection, neither a pathologic response nor intracytoplasmic inclusions typically associated with clinical infections of FV3-like ranavirus were noted. Sequencing of a portion (496 bp) of the viral major capsid protein gene confirmed FV3-like virus in bullfrogs (n = 1, plus n = 6 pooled) and southern leopard frogs (n = 1, plus n = 4 pooled). In July 2011, young-of-the-year bullfrog tadpoles (n = 7) were negative for alveolate parasites, but 1 gopher frog tadpole was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed mortality event for amphibians in Florida associated with FV3-like virus, but the extent to which the virus played a primary role is uncertain. Larval mortality was most likely caused by a combination of alveolate parasite infections, FV3-like ranavirus, and undetermined etiological factors. PMID:23872853

  10. Susceptibility of Xenopus laevis tadpoles to infection by the ranavirus Frog-Virus 3 correlates with a reduced and delayed innate immune response in comparison with adult frogs

    PubMed Central

    De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Chen, Guangchun; Li, Zhenghui; Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Xenopus laevis adults mount effective immune responses to ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) infections and clear the pathogen within 2–3 weeks. In contrast, most tadpoles cannot clear FV3 and succumb to infections within a month. While larval susceptibility has been attributed to ineffective adaptive immunity, the contribution of innate immune components has not been addressed. Accordingly, we performed a comprehensive gene expression analysis on FV3-infected tadpoles and adults. In comparison to adults, leukocytes and tissues of infected tadpoles exhibited modest (10–100 time lower than adult) and delayed (3 day later than adult) increase in expression of inflammation-associated (TNF-?, IL-1? and IFN-?) and antiviral (Mx1) genes. In contrast, these genes were readily and robustly upregulated in tadpoles upon bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, greater proportions of larval than adult PLs were infected by FV3. Our study suggests that tadpole susceptibility to FV3 infection is partially due to poor virus-elicited innate immune responses. PMID:22819836

  11. Differential Transcription of Fathead Minnow Immune-related Genes Following Infection with Frog virus 3, an Emerging Pathogen of Ectothermic Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kwang; Escalon, B. Lynn; Robert, Jacques; Chinchar, V. Gregory; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2014-01-01

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) and other ranaviruses are responsible for die-offs involving wild, farmed, and captive amphibians, fish, and reptiles. To ascertain which elements of the immune system respond to infection, we explored transcriptional responses following infection of fathead minnow cells with either wild type (wt) FV3 or a knock out (KO) mutant targeting the 18 kDa immediate early gene (18K). At 8 hr post infection we observed marked upregulation of multiple transcripts encoding proteins affecting innate and acquired immunity. Sequences expressed 4-fold or higher in wt-infected cells included transcripts encoding interferon (IFN), IFN regulatory factors (IRFs), IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) such as Mx and MHC class I, and interleukins IL-1?, IL-8, IL-17C and IL-12. Cells infected with the 18K KO mutant (?18K) showed qualitative differences and lower levels of induction. Collectively, these results indicate that ranavirus infection induced expression of multiple cellular genes affecting both innate and acquired immunity. PMID:24889227

  12. Production of a fragment of glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 and evaluation of its diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Ji Feng; Yu, Hua; Si, Guo Jing; Hu, Jun; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital herpes. Glycoprotein G (gG) is a prototype antigen for type-specific serodiagnosis distinguishing between HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 infections. As immunological diagnosis kits for accurate differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies can be expensive, there is a need to develop a convenient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective serodiagnostic kit. METHODS We successfully expressed a fragment of gG comprising residues 321–580 of HSV-2 with histidine tag (gG321–580His) in a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, which had an antigenicity similar to its native counterpart. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using gG321–580His as the diagnostic antigen and evaluated by comparison with a commercial HerpeSelect 2 ELISA immunoglobulin G kit as reference. RESULTS In testing 318 field serum samples, the diagnostic relative sensitivity and specificity of the developed gG321–580His-ELISA test in qualitative comparison with the commercial kit were 93.81% and 96.74%, respectively, and the accuracy was 94.65%. CONCLUSION The study indicates that gG321–580His has a high diagnostic potential for HSV-2 virus serodiagnosis in humans. PMID:25532518

  13. Identification of TRIM27 as a Novel Degradation Target of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0

    PubMed Central

    Conwell, Sara E.; White, Anne E.; Harper, J. Wade

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein ICP0 performs many functions during infection, including transactivation of viral gene expression, suppression of innate immune responses, and modification and eviction of histones from viral chromatin. Although these functions of ICP0 have been characterized, the detailed mechanisms underlying ICP0's complex role during infection warrant further investigation. We thus undertook an unbiased proteomic approach to identifying viral and cellular proteins that interact with ICP0 in the infected cell. Cellular candidates resulting from our analysis included the ubiquitin-specific protease USP7, the transcriptional repressor TRIM27, DNA repair proteins NBN and MRE11A, regulators of apoptosis, including BIRC6, and the proteasome. We also identified two HSV-1 early proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism, UL39 and UL50, as novel candidate interactors of ICP0. Because TRIM27 was the most statistically significant cellular candidate, we investigated the relationship between TRIM27 and ICP0. We observed rapid, ICP0-dependent loss of TRIM27 during HSV-1 infection. TRIM27 protein levels were restored by disrupting the RING domain of ICP0 or by inhibiting the proteasome, arguing that TRIM27 is a novel degradation target of ICP0. A mutant ICP0 lacking E3 ligase activity interacted with endogenous TRIM27 during infection as demonstrated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation and supported by immunofluorescence data. Surprisingly, ICP0-null mutant virus yields decreased upon TRIM27 depletion, arguing that TRIM27 has a positive effect on infection despite being targeted for degradation. These results illustrate a complex interaction between TRIM27 and viral infection with potential positive or negative effects of TRIM27 on HSV under different infection conditions. IMPORTANCE During productive infection, a virus must simultaneously redirect multiple cellular pathways to replicate itself while evading detection by the host's defenses. To orchestrate such complex regulation, viruses, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), rely on multifunctional proteins such as the E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0. This protein regulates various cellular pathways concurrently by targeting a diverse set of cellular factors for degradation. While some of these targets have been previously identified and characterized, we undertook a proteomic screen to identify additional targets of this activity to further characterize ICP0's role during infection. We describe a set of candidate interacting proteins of ICP0 identified through this approach and our characterization of the most statistically significant result, the cellular transcriptional repressor TRIM27. We present TRIM27 as a novel degradation target of ICP0 and describe the relationship of these two proteins during infection. PMID:25320289

  14. The Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Virion-Associated Ribonuclease vhs Interferes with Stress Granule Formation

    PubMed Central

    Finnen, Renée L.; Hay, Thomas J. M.; Dauber, Bianca; Smiley, James R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a previous study, it was observed that cells infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) failed to accumulate stress granules (SGs) in response to oxidative stress induced by arsenite treatment. As a follow-up to this observation, we demonstrate here that disruption of arsenite-induced SG formation by HSV-2 is mediated by a virion component. Through studies on SG formation in cells infected with HSV-2 strains carrying defective forms of UL41, the gene that encodes vhs, we identify vhs as a virion component required for this disruption. Cells infected with HSV-2 strains producing defective forms of vhs form SGs spontaneously late in infection. In addition to core SG components, these spontaneous SGs contain the viral immediate early protein ICP27 as well as the viral serine/threonine kinase Us3. As part of these studies, we reexamined the frameshift mutation known to reside within the UL41 gene of HSV-2 strain HG52. We demonstrate that this mutation is unstable and can rapidly revert to restore wild-type UL41 following low-multiplicity passaging. Identification of the involvement of virion-associated vhs in the disruption of SG formation will enable mechanistic studies on how HSV-2 is able to counteract antiviral stress responses early in infection. In addition, the ability of Us3 to localize to stress granules may indicate novel roles for this viral kinase in the regulation of translation. IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic cells respond to stress by rapidly shutting down protein synthesis and storing mRNAs in cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs). Stoppages in protein synthesis are problematic for all viruses as they rely on host cell machinery to synthesize viral proteins. Thus, many viruses target SGs for disruption or modification. Infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) was previously observed to disrupt SG formation induced by oxidative stress. In this follow-up study, we identify virion host shutoff protein (vhs) as a viral protein involved in this disruption. The identification of a specific viral protein involved in disrupting SG formation is a key step toward understanding how HSV-2 interacts with these antiviral structures. Additionally, this understanding may provide insights into the biology of SGs that may find application in studies on human motor neuron degenerative diseases, like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which may arise as a result of dysregulation of SG formation. PMID:25142597

  15. Herpes zoster is associated with an increased risk of subsequent lymphoid malignancies - A nationwide population-based matched-control study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious agents have been shown to contribute to the development of lymphoid malignancies. The different distribution of lymphoid malignancies in Asian and Western populations suggests possibly different etiologies in Asian populations. Herpes zoster infection, commonly seen in immunocompromised persons, has been reported to be associated with lymphoid malignancies in retrospective case–control studies from Western populations, but the results are controversial and large-scale prospective studies from Asian populations are lacking. Methods A nationwide population-based matched-controlled prospective study on Taiwanese patients was performed using the National Health Insurance Research Database from 1996 to 2007. Herpes zoster and malignancies were defined by compatible ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes. Patients who had been diagnosed with any malignancies before herpes zoster, with known viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus, and duration from herpes zoster to diagnosis of malignancies less than 6 months were excluded. Results Of 42,498 patients with herpes zoster prior to the diagnosis of any malignancies, the cumulative incidence for lymphoid malignancies was 0.11% (n = 48), compared with 0.06% (n = 106) in 169,983 age- and gender-matched controls (univariate hazard ratio (HR): 1.82, 95%CI: 1.29-2.55). The most common lymphoid malignancy was non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (60.4%, n = 29), followed by multiple myeloma (27.1%, n = 13). Risk for developing lymphoid malignancies is significantly higher in herpes zoster patients (log rank P = 0.005). After adjusting for presence of any comorbidities in Charlson comorbidity index, time-dependent covariate for herpes group, and income category using Cox proportional hazard regressions, herpes zoster patients had an increased risk of developing lymphoid malignancies (adjusted HR: 1.68, 95%CI: 1.35-2.42, P = 0.0026), but did not have an increased risk of developing non-lymphoid malignancies (adjusted HR: 1.00, 95%CI: 0.91-1.05, P = 0.872). Conclusion Preceding herpes zoster infection is an independent risk marker for subsequent lymphoid malignancies in Taiwanese subjects. Further studies are warranted for pathogenesis exploration and preventive strategies in Asian populations. PMID:23114019

  16. Proteins Specified by Herpes Simplex Virus XI. Identification and Relative Molar Rates of Synthesis of Structural and Nonstructural Herpes Virus Polypeptides in the Infected Cell

    PubMed Central

    Honess, Robert W.; Roizman, Bernard

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of polypeptides made in HEp-2 cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the synthesis of at least 49 infected cell polypeptides (ICP) ranging in molecular weight from 15,000 to 280,000. Evidence for virus specificity based on increased rates of synthesis postinfection, immunological specificity, and viral control of mobility and rate of synthesis was available for 47 of the ICP. These 47 polypeptides can account for 75% of the virus genetic information assuming a DNA molecular weight of 108 and asymmetric transcription. On the basis of their mobility relative to virion proteins, the ICP were classified as structural (S, 23 polypeptides), nonstructural (NS, 16 polypeptides), and unassigned (U, 10 polypeptides). Analysis of the synthesis of the ICP revealed the following. (i) Rapid posttranslational cleavages of HSV proteins were not detected; in parallel experiments rapid posttranslational cleavages were readily demonstrated in poliovirus-infected cells and these were blocked by protease inhibitors. (ii) Slow posttranslational changes in the mobility of at least two polypeptides were observed. (iii) Analysis of the rates of synthesis of ICP examined at four intervals postinfection revealed regulation of the pattern and amount of ICP synthesized. ICP formed six classes (A to F) differing in their kinetics of synthesis. S and NS ICP were distributed nonrandomly among these classes. Thus, of the sum of S protein amino acid sequences apportioned among these kinetic classes, 47%, constituting class A and comprising “late” structural proteins, were characterized by progressively increasing rates of synthesis until at least 12 h postinfection; whereas “early” structural proteins constituting class C, amounting to 31% of the total amino acid sequences, were synthesized with initially increasing rates until 4 h postinfection and with declining rates thereafter. NS polypeptides and remaining S polypeptides were distributed among the other kinetic classes—B, D, E, and F. Control of protein abundance was evident in that the polypeptides were not made in equimolar amounts. However, S and NS polypeptides could not be differentiated on the basis of their molar rates of synthesis. The bulk of the detected polypeptides did not differ by more than eightfold in their molar rates of synthesis. Images PMID:4357511

  17. Evaluating the performance of the focus HerpeSelect(®) HSV-2 IgG in veterans with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Burton, MaryJane; Van Wagoner, Nicholas J; Sunesara, Imran; Penman, Alan; Swiatlo, Edwin; Hook, Edward W

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiologic links between chronic hepatitis C and herpes simplex type-2 infection have been suggested; however, type-specific tests for HSV-2 infection have not been validated in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. The Focus HerpeSelect(®) HSV-2 IgG (Cypress, California) assay and the Biokit HSV-2 rapid assay (Biokit USA, Lexington, MA) were performed on serum samples obtained from 84 veterans with chronic hepatitis C who demonstrated a previously positive HSV-2 serologic test in their medical records. Using the Biokit HSV-2 as the comparator assay, the positive predictive value, and specificity for the HerpeSelect(®) HSV-2 assay were 62.1% (95%CI: 49.3-73.8) and 41.9% (95%CI: 27.0-57.9), respectively. Increasing the HerpeSelect(®) HSV-2 index value defining a positive test result from >1.1 to ?2.89 increased the assay's specificity to 97.7% (95%CI: 87.7-99.6) and the positive predictive value to 94.1%(95%CI: 71.2-99.0). J. Med. Virol. 9999: 1-5, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. In veterans with chronic hepatitis C infection, HerpeSelect(®) HSV-2 index values between 1.1 and 2.89 should be confirmed with an alternate test for HSV-2 infection. J. Med. Virol. 87:1377-1381, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25908332

  18. Isolation and characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3, a new positive-strand RNA virus infecting the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    SciTech Connect

    Valles, Steven M., E-mail: Steven.Valles@ars.usda.go [Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, USDA-ARS, 1600 SW 23rd Drive, Gainesville, FL 32608 (United States); Hashimoto, Yoshifumi [Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University, Tower Road, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-06-05

    We report the discovery of a new virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) represents the third virus discovered from this ant species using the metagenomics approach. The single (positive)-strand RNA, monopartite, bicistronic genome of SINV-3 was sequenced in entirety (GenBank accession number (FJ528584)), comprised of 10,386 nucleotides, and polyadenylated at the 3' terminus. This genome size was confirmed by Northern analysis. The genome revealed 2 large open reading frames (ORFs) in the sense orientation with an untranslated region (UTR) at each end and between the two ORFs. The 5' proximal ORF (ORF 1) encoded a predicted protein of 299.1 kDa (2580 amino acids). The 3' proximal ORF (ORF 2) encoded a predicted protein of 73.2 kDa (651 amino acids). RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), helicase, and protease domains were recognized in ORF 1. SDS-PAGE separation of purified SINV-3 particles yielded 2 bands (ostensibly capsid proteins) with a combined molecular mass of 77.3 kDa which was similar to the mass predicted by ORF 2 (73.2 kDa). Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved amino acid sequences containing domains I to VIII of the RdRp from dicistroviruses, iflaviruses, plant small RNA viruses, picornaviruses, and 4 unassigned positive-strand RNA viruses revealed a trichotomous phenogram with SINV-3 and Kelp fly virus comprising a unique cluster. Electron microscopic examination of negatively stained samples of SINV-3 revealed isometric particles with apparent projections and a diameter of 27.3 +- 1.3 nm. SINV-3 was successfully transmitted to uninfected workers by feeding. The minus (replicative) strand of SINV-3 was detected in worker ants indicating replication of the virus. The possibility of using SINV-3 as a microbial control agent for fire ants is discussed.

  19. Quantitative measurement of paramyxovirus fusion: differences in requirements of glycoproteins between simian virus 5 and human parainfluenza virus 3 or Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Bagai, S; Lamb, R A

    1995-11-01

    To compare the requirements for paramyxovirus-mediated cell fusion, the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins of simian virus 5 (SV5), human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were expressed individually or coexpressed in either homologous or heterologous combinations in CV-1 or HeLa-T4 cells, using the vaccinia virus-T7 polymerase transient expression system. The contribution of individual glycoproteins in virus-induced membrane fusion was examined by using a quantitative assay for lipid mixing based on the relief of self-quenching (dequenching) of fluorescence of the lipid probe octadecyl rhodamine (R18) and a quantitative assay for content mixing based on the cytoplasmic activation of a reporter gene, beta-galactosidase. In these assays, expression of the individual F glycoproteins did not induce significant levels of cell fusion and no cell fusion was observed in experiments when cells individually expressing homologous F or HN proteins were mixed. However, coexpression of homologous F and HN glycoproteins resulted in extensive cell fusion. The kinetics of fusion were found to be very similar for all three paramyxoviruses studied. With NDV and HPIV-3, no cell fusion was detected when F proteins were coexpressed with heterologous HN proteins or influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). In contrast, SV5 F protein exhibited a considerable degree of fusion activity when coexpressed with either NDV or HPIV-3 HN or with influenza virus HA, although the kinetics of fusion were two- to threefold higher when the homologous SV5 F and HN proteins were coexpressed. Thus, these data indicate that among the paramyxoviruses tested, SV5 has different requirements for cell fusion. PMID:7474081

  20. Epidemiology of Herpes Human Virus 6 and 7 Infections in Salivary Gland Neoplasms in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shanehsazzadeh, Mehrnaz; Rad, Javad Sharifi-; Pourazar, Abbasali; Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    Background: The previous studies showed that herpes human virus-6 (HHV-6) and HHV-7 exist in salivary glands. One of the important areas in oral and maxillofacial pathology field is tumors of the salivary glands. In this study, to declare the major sites of persistent infection with HHV-6 and HHV-7, the existence of HHV-6 and HHV-7 genomes in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples of salivary gland tumors. Methods: This analytical study was performed in 60 paraffin blocks samples of malignant and benign neoplasms of both major and minor salivary glands. This study performed with highly sensitive real time PCR method. Results: Among 60 paraffin blocks salivary gland tumors with equal chances of presence of the HHV-7 and HHV-6 in the samples, 34% were positive for both HHV-7 and HHV-6 while 47.2% were only positive for HHV-7, 18.9% samples were positive for HHV-6. A relationship was noticed between HHV-7 and HHV-6 genomes. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed no relation between virus and diseases with P=0.953. Also it could be inferred that there is a relationship between HHV-6 and 7 in salivary glands neoplasms. PMID:25568552

  1. Herpes Zoster Is Associated with Prior Statin Use: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kang, Jiunn-Horng

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated the association between statin use and herpes zoster (HZ) occurrence in a population-based case-control study. Methods Study subjects were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. This study included 47,359 cases with HZ and 142,077 controls. We performed conditional logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio (OR) to present the association between HZ and having previously been prescribed statin. Results We found that 13.0% of the sampled subjects had used statins, at 15.5% and 12.1% for cases and controls, respectively (p<0.001). A conditional logistic regression analysis suggested that the adjusted OR of being a statin user before the index date for cases was 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24?1.32) compared to controls. Subjects aged 18?44 years had the highest adjusted OR for prior statin use among cases compared to controls (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.45?1.92). Furthermore, we found that the ORs of being a regular and irregular statin user before the index date for cases were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.27?1.38) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.181.29), respectively, compared to controls. Conclusions We concluded that prior statin use was associated with HZ occurrence. PMID:25343666

  2. Application of McCoy Cell Line for Propagation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1.

    PubMed

    Nabavinia, Maryam Sadat; Rostami, Sina; Ghasemi, Faezeh; Meshkat, Zahra

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are members of the Herpesviridae family. About 40% to 80% of the world populations are infected with HSV and its prevalence is high in Iran. The high prevalence of this virus in the community and the ability of the virus in causing fatal diseases among immunocompromised patients, have encouraged studies to be performed on HSV and suitable cell lines which supports the propagation of HSV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of McCoy cell line in the isolation and propagation of HSV. An isolated wild-type HSV-1 was obtained from the labial vesicles of a 29-year-old patient who was referred to Ghaem Hospital (Mashhad, Iran). The virus was inoculated in McCoy cell monolayer cells and its titer was calculated by 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) method. Cytopathic effects (CPE) of HSV on McCoy cells appeared about 20 hours after the infection of cells. Titer of the virus was 10(-5.25) TCID50/ml. Our data showed that the McCoy cell line supported the propagation of HSV in high titer. This was the first study that used McCoy cell line for the isolation and propagation of HSV-1. McCoy cell line could be used, as a proper cell line of HSV, for various studies in the future. PMID:25999628

  3. Protective effects of red ginseng extract against vaginal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ara; Roh, Yoon Seok; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Park, Surim; Kim, Jong Won; Lim, Kyu Hee; Kwon, Jungkee; Eo, Seong Kug; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract has various immune modulatory activities both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine the effects of orally administered KRG extract on immunity against herpes simplex virus (HSV). Balb/c mice were administered with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral doses of KRG extract for 10 d and then vaginally infected with HSV. We found that KRG extract rendered recipients more resistant against HSV vaginal infection and further systemic infection, including decreased clinical severity, increased survival rate, and accelerated viral clearance. Such results appeared to be mediated by increased vaginal IFN-? secretion. Moreover, increased mRNA expression of IFN-?, granzyme B, and Fas-ligand was identified in the iliac lymph node and vaginal tracts of KRG extract treated groups (200 and 400 mg/kg). These results suggest that the activities of local natural killer cells were promoted by KRG extract consumption and that KRG may be an attractive immune stimulator for helping hosts overcome HSV infection. PMID:23717174

  4. Protective effects of red ginseng extract against vaginal herpes simplex virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ara; Roh, Yoon Seok; Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Park, Surim; Kim, Jong Won; Lim, Kyu Hee; Kwon, Jungkee; Eo, Seong Kug; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that Korean red ginseng (KRG) extract has various immune modulatory activities both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine the effects of orally administered KRG extract on immunity against herpes simplex virus (HSV). Balb/c mice were administered with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral doses of KRG extract for 10 d and then vaginally infected with HSV. We found that KRG extract rendered recipients more resistant against HSV vaginal infection and further systemic infection, including decreased clinical severity, increased survival rate, and accelerated viral clearance. Such results appeared to be mediated by increased vaginal IFN-? secretion. Moreover, increased mRNA expression of IFN-?, granzyme B, and Fas-ligand was identified in the iliac lymph node and vaginal tracts of KRG extract treated groups (200 and 400 mg/kg). These results suggest that the activities of local natural killer cells were promoted by KRG extract consumption and that KRG may be an attractive immune stimulator for helping hosts overcome HSV infection. PMID:23717174

  5. Anterograde Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids in Neurons by both Separate and Married Mechanisms?†

    PubMed Central

    Wisner, Todd W.; Sugimoto, Ken; Howard, Paul W.; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Johnson, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Anterograde transport of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from neuronal cell bodies into, and down, axons is a fundamentally important process for spread to other hosts. Different techniques for imaging HSV in axons have produced two models for how virus particles are transported in axons. In the Separate model, viral nucleocapsids devoid of the viral envelope and membrane glycoproteins are transported in axons. In the Married model, enveloped HSV particles (with the viral glycoproteins) encased within membrane vesicles are transported in the anterograde direction. Earlier studies of HSV-infected human neurons involving electron microscopy (EM) and immunofluorescence staining of glycoproteins and capsids supported the Separate model. However, more-recent live-cell imaging of rat, chicken, and mouse neurons produced evidence supporting the Married model. In a recent EM study, a mixture of Married (75%) and Separate (25%) HSV particles was observed. Here, we studied an HSV recombinant expressing a fluorescent form of the viral glycoprotein gB and a fluorescent capsid protein (VP26), observing that human SK-N-SH neurons contained both Separate (the majority) and Married particles. Live-cell imaging of rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neuronal axons in a chamber system (which oriented the axons) also produced evidence of Separate and Married particles. Together, our results suggest that one can observe anterograde transport of both HSV capsids and enveloped virus particles depending on which neurons are cultured and how the neurons are imaged. PMID:21450818

  6. Differing Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Pseudorabies Virus Infections on Centrosomal Function

    PubMed Central

    Labetoulle, Marc; Rixon, Frazer J.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient intracellular transport of the capsid of alphaherpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), is known to be dependent upon the microtubule (MT) network. Typically, the MT network radiates from an MT-organizing center (MTOC), which is, in most cases, the centrosome. During herpesvirus egress, it has been assumed that capsids travel first from the nucleus to the centrosome and then from the centrosome to the site of envelopment. Here we report that the centrosome is no longer a primary MTOC in HSV-1-infected cells, but it retains this function in cells infected by another alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PrV). As a result, MTs formed at late times after infection with PrV grow from a major, centralized MTOC, while those formed after HSV-1 infection arise from dispersed locations in the cytoplasm, indicating the presence of alternative and minor MTOCs. Thus, loss of the principal MT nucleating center in cells following HSV-1 infection raises questions about the mechanism of HSV-1 capsid egress. It is possible that, rather than passing via the centrosome, capsids may travel directly to the site of envelopment after exiting the nucleus. We suggest that, in HSV-1-infected cells, the disruption of centrosomal functions triggers reorganization of the MT network to favor noncentrosomal MTs and promote efficient viral spread. PMID:23596303

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids Are Transported in Neuronal Axons without an Envelope Containing the Viral Glycoproteins? †

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Aleksandra; Wisner, Todd W.; Johnson, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Electron micrographic studies of neuronal axons have produced contradictory conclusions on how alphaherpesviruses are transported from neuron cell bodies to axon termini. Some reports have described unenveloped capsids transported on axonal microtubules with separate transport of viral glycoproteins within membrane vesicles. Others have observed enveloped virions in proximal and distal axons. We characterized transport of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human and rat neurons by staining permeabilized neurons with capsid- and glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Deconvolution microscopy was used to view 200-nm sections of axons. HSV glycoproteins were very rarely associated with capsids (3 to 5%) and vice versa. Instances of glycoprotein/capsid overlap frequently involved nonconcentric puncta and regions of axons with dense viral protein concentrations. Similarly, HSV capsids expressing a VP26-green fluorescent protein fusion protein (VP26/GFP) did not stain with antiglycoprotein antibodies. Live-cell imaging experiments with VP26/GFP-labeled capsids demonstrated that capsids moved in a saltatory fashion, and very few stalled for more than 1 to 2 min. To determine if capsids could be transported down axons without glycoproteins, neurons were treated with brefeldin A (BFA). However, BFA blocked both capsid and glycoprotein transport. Glycoproteins were transported into and down axons normally when neurons were infected with an HSV mutant that produces immature capsids that are retained in the nucleus. We concluded that HSV capsids are transported in axons without an envelope containing viral glycoproteins, with glycoproteins transported separately and assembling with capsids at axon termini. PMID:16971450

  8. The Use of Herpes Simplex Virus in Ex Vivo Slice Culture.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Allyson K; Han, Ming-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can be used for a wide range of genetic manipulations in ex vivo slices of central nervous system tissue from both young and adult rodents. The fast expression of the HSV viral-mediated gene transfer, which can be engineered to produce cell-type specificity, can be utilized in slice cultures for a variety of purposes over a 1- to 4-day period with spatial and temporal specificity. This protocol exploits the rapid expression of HSV viral vectors by utilizing slice culture for electrophysiological recordings, avoiding the need to do intracranial viral injections. Brain slice cultures maintain many aspects of in vivo biology, including functional local synaptic circuitry with preserved brain architecture, while allowing good experimental access and precise control of the extracellular environment, making them ideal platforms for quick access to evaluate expression effects of HSV viral-mediated gene transfer on the molecular and cellular properties of specific neurons. This protocol provides an easy way to study neuronal function following viral expression of a gene of interest. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26131662

  9. Glutamine and Leucine Provide Enhanced Protective Immunity Against Mucosal Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Lee, Hern-Ku

    2012-01-01

    Besides their role as building blocks of protein, there are growing evidences that some amino acids have roles in regulating key metabolic pathways that are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity. Here, we evaluated the modulatory functions of several amino acids in protective immunity against mucosal infection of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We found that glutamine (Gln) and leucine (Leu) showed enhanced protective immunity to HSV-1 mucosal infection when two administration of Gln and single administration of Leu per day, but not when administered in combinations. Ameliorated clinical signs of HSV-1 challenged mice by the intraperitoneal administration of Gln and Leu were closely associated with viral burden and IFN-? production in the vaginal tract at 2 and 4 days post-infection. In addition, the enhanced production of vaginal IFN-? appeared to be caused by NK and HSV-1 antigen-specific Th1-type CD4+ T cells recruited into vaginal tract of mice treated with Gln and Leu, which indicates that IFN-?, produced by NK and Th1-type CD4+ T cells, may be critical to control the outcome of diseases caused by HSV-1 mucosal infection. Collectively, our results indicate that intraperitoneal administration of Gln and Leu following HSV-1 mucosal infection could provide beneficial effects for the modulation of protective immunity, but dosage and frequency of administration should be carefully considered, because higher frequency and overdose of Gln and Leu, or their combined treatment, showed detrimental effects to protective immunity. PMID:23213313

  10. The Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Transactivator Infected Cell Protein-4 Drives VEGF-A Dependent Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Todd; Zheng, Min; Efstathiou, Stacey; Halford, William P.; Carr, Daniel J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) causes lifelong infection affecting between 50 and 90% of the global population. In addition to causing dermal lesions, HSV-1 is a leading cause of blindness resulting from recurrent corneal infection. Corneal disease is characterized by loss of corneal immunologic privilege and extensive neovascularization driven by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). In the current study, we identify HSV-1 infected cells as the dominant source of VEGF-A during acute infection, and VEGF-A transcription did not require TLR signaling or MAP kinase activation. Rather than being an innate response to the pathogen, VEGF-A transcription was directly activated by the HSV-1 encoded immediate early transcription factor, ICP4. ICP4 bound the proximal human VEGF-A promoter and was sufficient to promote transcription. Transcriptional activation also required cis GC-box elements common to the VEGF-A promoter and HSV-1 early genes. Our results suggest that the neovascularization characteristic of ocular HSV-1 disease is a direct result of HSV-1's major transcriptional regulator, ICP4, and similarities between the VEGF-A promoter and those of HSV-1 early genes. PMID:21998580

  11. Isolation of herpes simplex virus regulatory protein ICP4 as a homodimeric complex.

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, D W; Wilcox, K W

    1985-01-01

    The viral polypeptide ICP4 (or Vmw175) is synthesized during the immediate early phase of infection by herpes simplex virus and regulates the transcription of delayed early and late viral genes. We obtained a partially purified preparation of soluble ICP4 under nondenaturing conditions. Physical constants for native ICP4 were empirically determined by molecular sieve chromatography and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. The Stokes radius of native ICP4 was 8.72 X 10(-7) cm. The sedimentation coefficient of native ICP4 was 9.00S. From these values, the calculated molecular weight of native ICP4 was 342,000, a value which is twice that of monomeric ICP4, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The failure of any other polypeptides to specifically coprecipitate with native ICP4 in the presence of anti-ICP4 antibody indicates that the 342,000-dalton complex is a homodimer of ICP4. The frictional coefficient ratio of native ICP4, which is 1.9, indicates that the homodimer is a highly elongated molecule. Images PMID:2991559

  12. Herpes simplex virus-2 transmission probability estimates based on quantity of viral shedding

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T.; Mayer, Bryan T.; Fong, Youyi; Swan, David A.; Wald, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is periodically shed in the human genital tract, most often asymptomatically, and most sexual transmissions occur during asymptomatic shedding. It would be helpful to identify a genital viral load threshold necessary for transmission, as clinical interventions that maintain viral quantity below this level would be of high utility. However, because viral expansion, decay and re-expansion kinetics are extremely rapid during shedding episodes, it is impossible to directly measure genital viral load at the time of sexual activity. We developed a mathematical model based on reproducing shedding patterns in transmitting partners, and median number of sex acts prior to transmission in discordant couples, to estimate infectivity of single viral particles in the negative partner's genital tract. We then inferred probability estimates for transmission at different levels of genital tract viral load in the transmitting partner. We predict that transmission is unlikely at viral loads less than 104 HSV DNA copies. Moreover, most transmissions occur during prolonged episodes with high viral copy numbers. Many shedding episodes that result in transmission do not reach the threshold of clinical detection, because the ulcer remains very small, highlighting one reason why HSV-2 spreads so effectively within populations. PMID:24671939

  13. Retrovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene therapy approach for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao Ding Cheng; An, W; Dai, J

    1999-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) system on hepatocellular carcinoma was studied in this experiment. The tk-containing retroviral recombinants were used to infect hepatoma cells (BEL-7402) and the cells were treated with ganciclovir (0-1000 microg/ml). The results showed that HSV-tk gene could be efficiently transferred in vitro into hepatoma cells and stably expressed. The growth potential of the tk-containing cells was significantly inhibited by GCV (P<0.01) as compared to the non-tk-containing cells. The antitumor effect of HSV-tk/GCV system was also produced ex vivo in tk-containing tumor of nude mice as characterized by a marked decrease in tumor growth after GCV treatment contrary to a progressive enlargement of non-tk-containing tumors. Although the histological examination demonstrated that the efficiency of the gene transfer was less than 30%, the killing effect of HSV-tk/GCV system on hepatocellular carcinoma was still significantly generated. The proper mechanism of HSV-tk gene therapy on hepatic tumor referred as "bystander effect" in therapeutic approach has not been found in this study and required to be explored further. PMID:10520605

  14. Antiviral Effects of Blackberry Extract Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Robert J.; Wang, Chunmei; Dai, Jin; Mumper, Russell J.; Miller, Craig S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antiviral properties of blackberry extract against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Methods HSV-infected oral epithelial (OKF6) cells and cell-free virus suspensions were treated with blackberry extract (2.24 to 1400 ?g/mL) and virus yield and infectivity were quantified by direct plaque assay. Results Blackberry extract ? 56 ?g/ml inhibited HSV-1 replication in oral epithelial cells by > 99% (p < 0.005). Concentrations ? 280 ?g/ml were antiviral when the extract was added after virus adsorption and entry. Exposure of cell-free virus to ? 280 ?g/ml blackberry extract for 15 minutes at room temperature was virucidal (p = 0.0002). The virucidal effects were not due to pH changes at concentrations up to 1500 ?g/ml. Conclusions Blackberry extract inhibited the early stages of HSV-1 replication and had potent virucidal activity. These properties suggest that this natural fruit extract could provide advantage as a topical prophylactic/therapeutic agent for HSV infections. PMID:21827957

  15. The synergistic effects of betulin with acyclovir against herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yunhao; Raj, Karim M; Luscombe, Carolyn A; Gadawski, Izabelle; Tam, Teresa; Chu, Jianhua; Gibson, David; Carlson, Robert; Sacks, Stephen L

    2004-11-01

    Betulin, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, was isolated from the bark of Betula papyrifera. The antiviral efficacies of betulin on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) were evaluated using viral plaque reduction assays on Vero cells. The results indicate that betulin is active against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections with the 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)) of 0.40 and 4.15 microg/ml, respectively. The cytotoxicity of betulin was examined on Vero cells using a neutral red uptake assay. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of betulin was 73.1 microg/ml. A synergistic antiviral effect between betulin and acyclovir (ACV) was determined by drug combination studies. Strong and moderate synergistic antiviral effects were observed for betulin and ACV against HSV-1 when the concentrations of ACV and betulin were higher than 0.068 and 0.4 microg/ml, respectively. At the concentrations lower than these, additive effect was found. Synergistic antiviral effects were also found against HSV-2 at higher concentrations than for HSV-1, i.e. 0.45 microg/ml of ACV combined with 8.4 microg/ml of betulin. PMID:15498608

  16. Nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase gene of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, M J; Sharp, J A; Summers, W C

    1981-01-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the thymidine kinase (ATP:thymidine 5' phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 strain CL101 from a plasmid clone of viral DNA derived by Enquist et al. [Enquist, L. W., Vande Woude, G. F., Wagner, M., Smiley, J. R. & Summers, W. C. (1979) Gene 7, 335-342]. A cDNA copy of the 5' end of thymidine kinase mRNA was also analyzed to locate the transcribed sequences. The transcribed portion of the gene is approximately 1300 nucleotides in length and appears to contain no intervening sequences. There is an untranslated region of 107 nucleotides at the 5' end of the mRNA followed by an open reading frame of 1128 nucleotides. The gene is thus capable of coding for a protein of 376 amino acids. Sequences similar to those thought to be involved in control of transcription and translation of a variety of eukaryotic and viral genes such as a "Hogness box" and A-A-T-A-A-A polyadenylylation signals are also present in the herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene. Images PMID:6262799

  17. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections: HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and serum

    PubMed Central

    Malm, G; Forsgren, M

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the diagnostic potential of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and serum; to correlate the findings with outcome in the child and with type of maternal infection.?METHODS—Cerebrospinal fluid and serum specimens from 36 children with verified neonatal HSV infections, diagnosed between 1973 and 1996, were examined using the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR).?RESULTS—In 21 children for whom both cerebrospinal fluid and sera were available, HSV DNA was found in one or both specimens in 19(90%). Overall, HSV DNA was found in the cerebrospinal fluid of 74% of 27 children, and in the sera of 20 out of 30 children (67%). In two children HSV DNA was not demonstrable in either serum or cerebrospinal fluid. In sequential specimens from four children, the persistence of HSV DNA after the end of intravenous treatment was associated with a poor prognosis.?CONCLUSIONS—These findings indicate that HSV DNA detection in CSF and serum is highly sensitive for the diagnosis of neonatal HSV infections but does not replace the detection of virus in other locations using virus isolation and antigen detection.?? PMID:10375358

  18. Activity of Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide against herpes simplex viruses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huheihel, Mahmoud; Ishanu, Vladimir; Tal, Jacov; Arad, Shoshana Malis

    2002-01-01

    The cell wall sulfated polysaccharide of the red microalga Porphyridium sp. exhibited impressive antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (rats and rabbits). Depending on the concentration, this polysaccharide completely inhibited or slowed down the development of the cytopathic effect in HSV-infected cells, but did not show any cytotoxic effects on vero cells even when a concentration as high as 250 microg/ml was used. There was indirect evidence for a strong interaction between the polysaccharide and HSV and a weak interaction with the cell surface. When tested in vivo, Porphyridium sp. polysaccharide conferred significant and efficient protection against HSV-1 infection: at a concentration as low as 100 microg/ml, it prevented the appearance and development of symptoms of HSV-1 infection in rats and rabbits. The polysaccharide did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects at a concentration of 2 mg/ml in vivo. PMID:11741707

  19. [Alternative diagnoses among suspected herpes simplex encephalitis patients with negative polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Domingues, R B; Pannuti, C S; Fink, M C; Tsanaclis, A M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the diagnosis found in a series of patients in which the diagnosis of Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was ruled out by a negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result for HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Forty three out of 61 HSE suspected patients had negative PCR. An alternative diagnosis was established in 41.9% of these patients. These patients were diagnosed as having viral (2 cases-11.1%) and non viral (5 cases-27.2%) CNS infections, vascular (4 cases-22.2%) and demyelinating diseases (3 cases-16.7%), metabolic disturbances (3 cases-16.7%), and CNS tumor (1 case-5.6%). The non specific clinical presentation of this disease and the availability of an efficient treatment for HSE explain why several patients with other diseases were initially treated with acyclovir. The early use of PCR in CSF was considered essential for the evaluation of the acute encephalitis cases in this study. PMID:11105075

  20. Natural exposure of Dromedary camels in Sudan to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (bovine herpes virus-1).

    PubMed

    Intisar, K S; Ali, Y H; Khalafalla, A I; Mahasin, E A Rahman; Amin, A S

    2009-09-01

    The occurrence of bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) in camels was studied. A total of 186 pneumonic camel lungs were collected from slaughter houses at four different areas in Sudan during 2000-2006. Using sandwich ELISA 1.6% of 186 tested lungs were found positive for BHV-1 antigen, all were from Tambool at Central Sudan. Direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT) was used to confirm the BHV-1 ELISA positives, all ELISA positives were also positive. PCR was used to detect BHV-1 genome with three positive results. BHV-1 was isolated from two camel lungs in MDBK cells. Isolates were identified using ELISA and FAT. Indirect ELISA was used to detect antibodies to BHV-1 in 260 camel sera; 76.9% were found positive. Highest prevalence was observed in sera from Kordofan (84%) then Blue Nile (80%) and Tambool (76.3%). This is the first report for the detection of BHV-1 antigen, genome using PCR, isolation in cell culture and antibodies in camels in Sudan. PMID:19433051

  1. The Immunologic Basis for Severe Neonatal Herpes Disease and Potential Strategies for Therapeutic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Soren; Muller, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect a large proportion of the world's population. Infection is life-long and can cause periodic mucocutaneous symptoms, but it only rarely causes life-threatening disease among immunocompetent children and adults. However, when HSV infection occurs during the neonatal period, viral replication is poorly controlled and a large proportion of infants die or develop disability even with optimal antiviral therapy. Increasingly, specific differences are being elucidated between the immune system of newborns and those of older children and adults, which predispose to severe infections and reflect the transition from fetal to postnatal life. Studies in healthy individuals of different ages, individuals with primary or acquired immunodeficiencies, and animal models have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that control HSV infection and how these may be impaired during the neonatal period. This paper outlines our current understanding of innate and adaptive immunity to HSV infection, immunologic differences in early infancy that may account for the manifestations of neonatal HSV infection, and the potential of interventions to augment neonatal immune protection against HSV disease. PMID:23606868

  2. Immunological studies of herpes simplex virus infection in children with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, H M; McLeish, P; Randall, S; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R; Winther, M; Rolland, J; Morgan, G; Harper, J I

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the role of immune defence mechanisms in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in atopic eczema and whether impairment of these mechanisms explains the susceptibility of some children with atopic eczema to cutaneous HSV infections. Ten children with eczema herpeticum and 13 with atopic eczema and recurrent HSV infection affecting multiple skin sites were studied, together with relevant control groups. In all children with atopic eczema, in vitro lymphoproliferation in response to stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) was significantly decreased and natural killer (NK) cells (CD16 + 56) were reduced compared with non-atopic controls. IL-2 receptors, a marker for lymphocyte activation, were decreased during the acute phase of eczema herpeticum, and for 1 month thereafter. A positive stimulation index (> 3) to HSV antigen, and high HSV IgG antibody titres measured by ELISA, Western blotting and neutralization assay, were seen in children with eczema herpeticum by 6 weeks, and also in children with atopic eczema and recurrent HSV infections. No evidence of an HSV-specific immune defect (either cell-mediated or humoral) was found in atopic eczema. Impairment of cell-mediated immunity in atopic eczema was suggested by the reduced response to Con A. It is likely that reduced numbers of circulating NK cells and a decrease in IL-2 receptors during early eczema herpeticum contribute to the susceptibility of children with atopic eczema to cutaneous HSV infections. PMID:8745891

  3. Nelfinavir Impairs Glycosylation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Envelope Proteins and Blocks Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Soren; Gachelet, Eliora; Carlsson, Jacquelyn; Barcy, Serge; Casper, Corey; Lagunoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Nelfinavir (NFV) is an HIV-1 aspartyl protease inhibitor that has numerous effects on human cells, which impart attractive antitumor properties. NFV has also been shown to have in vitro inhibitory activity against human herpesviruses (HHVs). Given the apparent absence of an aspartyl protease encoded by HHVs, we investigated the mechanism of action of NFV herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in cultured cells. Selection of HSV-1 resistance to NFV was not achieved despite multiple passages under drug pressure. NFV did not significantly affect the level of expression of late HSV-1 gene products. Normal numbers of viral particles appeared to be produced in NFV-treated cells by electron microscopy but remain within the cytoplasm more often than controls. NFV did not inhibit the activity of the HSV-1 serine protease nor could its antiviral activity be attributed to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. NFV was found to decrease glycosylation of viral glycoproteins B and C and resulted in aberrant subcellular localization, consistent with induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response by NFV. These results demonstrate that NFV causes alterations in HSV-1 glycoprotein maturation and egress and likely acts on one or more host cell functions that are important for HHV replication. PMID:25709648

  4. Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Associated with Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shirts, Brian H.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Dickerson, Faith; Yolken, Robert H.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment in the form of decreased working memory and executive functions has been recognized as a key deficit in schizophrenia. Neurotropic viruses have been associated with focal gray matter deficits in patients with schizophrenia. We evaluated whether such agents alter cognitive function in schizophrenia. Methods The sample consisted of 329 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We evaluated associations between exposure to selected agents (Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2 (HSV1, HSV2 respectively) cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma gondii) and scores on the Trail Making Test (TMT), controlling for relevant variables. Results Serological evidence of exposure to CMV was associated with impaired performance on TMT part A time to completion (p=0.044), a measure of visual search, working memory, and psychomotor speed. Both CMV and HSV1 were significantly associated with increased errors on TMT part B (p<0.001 for both viruses). HSV2 and Toxoplasma gondii exposure measures were not associated with any of the cognitive functions evaluated using TMT. Conclusions Both CMV and HSV1 are associated with impaired cognitive function in schizophrenia as measured by the TMT. Further analyses to evaluate the impact of other illness related variables including genetic variants are warranted. PMID:18801645

  5. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of crude water extracts of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Yoosook, C; Bunyapraphatsara, N; Boonyakiat, Y; Kantasuk, C

    2000-01-01

    A number of Thai medicinal plants, recommended as remedies for herpesvirus infection and have been used in primary health care were investigated for their intracellular activities against herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Centella asiatica L., Maclura cochinchinensis Cornor, and Mangifera indica L. contained both anti-HSV-1 and -2 activities, as determined by plaque inhibition assay. An inhibition of the production of infectious HSV-2 virions from infected Vero cells could also be demonstrated. Combinations of each of these reconstituted extracts with 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanosine (acyclovir; ACV) resulted either in subadditive, additive, or synergistic interaction, against HSV-2, depending on the dose of ACV used; mixture of C. asiatica and M. indica exerted an additive effect in a similar assay. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of these plant extracts were also substantiated by flow cytometric analysis of virus-specific antigens in the infected cells. The active constituent present in C. asiatica extract was determined to be asiaticoside while in M. indica was mangiferin. Thus, these data suggest therapeutic potential of these plant extracts. PMID:10715843

  6. Inhibitory effect of anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory herbs on herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, C Y; Hsieh, C L; Wu, S L; Lai, I L; Ho, T Y

    2001-01-01

    The increasing clinical use of acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet against herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus has been associated with the emergence of drug-resistant herpesvirus strains. To develop anti-HSV compounds from plants, 31 herbs used as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents in Chinese medicine were screened. Five different preparations (cold aqueous, hot aqueous, ethanolic, acid ethanolic, and methanolic) from 31 herbs were analyzed by plaque reduction assay, and 7 extracts. which showed significant antiviral activities, were further elucidated for their antiviral mechanisms. Our results showed that ethanolic extract of Rheum officinale and methanolic extract of Paeonia suffruticosa prevented the process of virus attachment and penetration. Aqueous extract of P. suffruticosa and ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan inhibited virus attachment to cell surface. Aqueous extract of Sophora flavescens and methanolic extract of M. toosendan showed no effect on virus attachment and penetration. These data indicated that these 4 herbs have a potential value as a source of new powerful anti-HSV compounds. PMID:11789588

  7. Anti herpes simplex-1 activity of a standard extract of Zataria multiflora Boiss.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, Ali Mohammad; Ansari-Dogaheh, Mehdi; Sharififar, Fariba; Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Heidarbeigi, Mahnaz

    2013-02-15

    In Rosmarinic Acid (RA) is a phenolic acid which has many biological activities such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory and anti viral effects. In the present study, we have studied the anti Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) effect of methanolic extract of Zataria multiflora which has been standardized on the basis of RA content. Methanolic extract of Zatria multiflora was prepared by maceration method. RA content of plant extract was measured by spectrophotometry method using the calibration curve of RA. Maximum non Toxic Concentration (MNTC) of the plant was determined by neutral red method. MNTC and lower serial dilutions of extract were examined in vitro on vero cells for their effect against HSV-1 using a plaque reduction assay. Acyclovir was used as positive control. Time-dependent antiviral effect of Z. multiflora was studied by adding the extract to HSV-1 infected vero cells at different stages of infection. The percentage of RA was determined as 2.2% in Z. multiflora. This plant was effective in all used concentrations and significantly reduced plaque formation up to 100% at concentrations of 800 and 1000 microg mL(-1). Clearly Z. multiflora revealed both a time and concentration inhibition. It seems that the presence of rosmarinic acid would be a determining factor for anti HSV activity of Z. multiflora. PMID:24171266

  8. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of alkaloids isolated from Stephania cepharantha.

    PubMed

    Nawawi, A; Ma, C; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kurokawa, M; Shiraki, K; Kashiwaba, N; Ono, M

    1999-03-01

    By screening water and MeOH extracts of 30 Chinese medicinal plants for their anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 activity, a MeOH extract of the root tubers of Stephania cepharantha HAYATA showed the most potent activity on the plaque reduction assay with an IC50 value of 18.0 microg/ml. Of 49 alkaloids isolated from the MeOH extract, 17 alkaloids were found to be active against HSV-1, including 13 bisbenzylisoquinoline, 1 protoberberine, 2 morphinane and 1 proaporphine alkaloids, while benzylisoquinoline and hasubanane alkaloids were inactive. Although N-methylcrotsparine was active against HSV-1, as well as HSV-1 thymidine kinase deficient (acyclovir resistant type, HSV-1 TK-) and HSV-2 (IC50 values of 8.3, 7.7 and 6.7 microg/ml, respectively), it was cytotoxic. FK-3000 was found to be the most active against HSV-1, HSV-1 TK- and HSV-2 (IC50 values of 7.8, 9.9 and 8.7 microg/ml) with in vitro therapeutic indices of 90, 71 and 81, respectively. FK-3000 was found to be a promising candidate as an anti-HSV agent against HSV-1, acyclovir (ACV) resistant-type HSV-1 and HSV-2. PMID:10220283

  9. Antiviral activity of Viracea against acyclovir susceptible and acyclovir resistant strains of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K D

    1998-07-01

    Viracea, a topical microbicide, is a blend of benzalkonium chloride and phytochemicals derived from Echinacea purpurea and is a proprietary formula from Destiny BioMediX Corp. Viracea was tested against 40 strains of herpes simplex virus (HSV): 15 strains (five HSV-1 and ten HSV-2) were resistant to acyclovir (ACV-R) and 25 strains (13 HSV-1 and 12 HSV-2) were susceptible to ACV (ACV-S). The median ED50 of Viracea for the five ACV-R strains of HSV-1 was a 1:100 dilution of the drug with a range of 1:50-1:400. The median ED50 of Viracea for the ten ACV-R strains of HSV-2 was 1:200 with a range of 1:50-1:3200. For the ACV-S strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2, the median ED50 of Viracea was 1:100 and 1:200, respectively. The cytotoxicity of Viracea was evaluated in a standard neutral red dye uptake assay in human foreskin fibroblasts. The cytotoxicity of Viracea approached only 50% at the highest concentration of the drug tested, a 1:2 dilution, indicating that Viracea is non-toxic in this cell cytotoxicity assay. Although the active component(s) in Viracea that has anti-HSV activity is not known, it appears that this extract has good antiviral activity against both ACV resistant and ACV susceptible strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2. PMID:9754950

  10. Overcoming drug-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection by a humanized antibody

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Adalbert; Arndt, Michaela A. E.; Grosse-Hovest, Ludger; Weichert, Wilko; Giebel, Bernd; Dittmer, Ulf; Hengel, Hartmut; Jäger, Dirk; Schneweis, Karl E.; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M.; Roggendorf, Michael; Krauss, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of antiviral chemotherapy, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infections remain a severe global health problem. Of particular concern is the growing incidence of drug resistance in immunocompromised patients, which stresses the urgency to develop new effective treatment alternatives. We have developed a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb hu2c) that completely abrogates viral cell-to-cell spread, a key mechanism by which HSV-1/2 escapes humoral immune surveillance. Moreover, mAb hu2c neutralized HSV fully independent of complement and/or immune effector cell recruitment in a highly efficient manner. Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of mAb hu2c completely prevented infection-related mortality of severely immunodeficient mice being challenged with a lethal dose of HSV-1. The high neutralization capacity of mAb hu2c was fully maintained toward clinical HSV isolates being multiresistant to standard antiviral drugs, and infection was fully resolved in 7/8 nonobese diabetic/SCID mice being infected with a multidrug resistant HSV-1 patient isolate. Immunohistochemical studies revealed no significant cross-reactivity of the antibody toward human tissues. These features warrant further clinical development of mAb hu2c as an immunotherapeutic compound for the management of severe and particularly drug-resistant HSV infections. PMID:23569258

  11. Oral manifestation of cytomegalovirus associated with herpes simplex virus in renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Lima, R B; Santos, P S S; Malafronte, P; Muller, H; Caiaffa-Filho, H H; Sens, Y A S

    2008-06-01

    We report a case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with oral lesions associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). This female patient, who underwent a living donor renal transplant 26 months prior, presented with a painful buccal lesion after an episode of leukopenia. The search for CMV antigen was negative. A biopsy incision was made in the mucous membrane and the material collected by scarification was sent for polymerase chain reaction PCR, anatomic, pathological, and cytological exams. The lab results showed infections with CMV, HSV, and Candida albicans. Thus, the treatment involved the use of acyclovir (1 g a day for 10 days), topical Nystatin gargles (six times a day), and an aqueous solution of chlorexidine (0.12%), as well as laser therapy. After the adoption of these therapeutic modalities, there was complete remission of the buccal lesions. The odontological routine follow-up and early treatment of oral complications deriving from the immunosuppressive therapy contributed to a significant outcome. PMID:18589111

  12. Human T-lymphocyte response in vitro to synthetic peptides of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed Central

    DeFreitas, E C; Dietzschold, B; Koprowski, H

    1985-01-01

    Immunization of mice with a synthetic peptide that corresponds to a murine antibody-defined immunodominant domain of herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein D (gD) induced neutralizing antibodies against HSV types 1 and 2 and protected animals against a lethal challenge with HSV type 2 (Dietzschold, B., Eisenberg, R., Ponce de Leon, M., Golub, E., Hudecz, F., Varicchio, A. & Cohen, G. (1984) J. Virol. 52, 431-435). We report here that human peripheral blood T cells from HSV-seropositive and -seronegative adult donors are activated by this synthetic peptide in vitro. Interleukin-2-dependent T-cell lines established from these cultures respond specifically to peptides containing residues 1-23 of HSV gD and to a panel of overlapping peptides within this domain. The T-cell proliferative response was maximal when the majority of interleukin-2-propagated T cells were of the helper phenotype and the peptides were at least 16 amino acids long. Peptides of 8 or 12 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus were nonstimulatory. Peptide-activated T-cell lines from sero-negative donors less than 11 years old could be established in vitro, but most cells were of the suppressor/cytotoxic phenotype and demonstrated no antigen-specificity when tested with the panel of synthetic peptides. Images PMID:2582411

  13. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Vector–Mediated Enkephalin Gene Therapy on Bladder Overactivity and Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Goins, William F.; Goss, James R.; Nishizawa, Osamu; de Groat, William C.; Wolfe, Darren; Krisky, David M.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We previously reported the effects of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector–mediated enkephalin on bladder overactivity and pain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of vHPPE (E1G6-ENK), a newly engineered replication-deficient HSV vector encoding human preproenkephalin (hPPE). vHPPE or control vector was injected into the bladder wall of female rats 2 weeks prior to the following studies. A reverse-transcription PCR study showed high hPPE transgene levels in L6 dorsal root ganglia innervating the bladder in the vHPPE group. The number of freezing behaviors, which is a nociceptive reaction associated with bladder pain, was also significantly lower in the vHPPE group compared with the control group. The number of L6 spinal cord c-fos–positive cells and the urinary interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 levels after resiniferatoxin (RTx) administration into the bladder of the vHPPE group were significantly lower compared with those of the control vector–injected group. In continuous cystometry, the vHPPE group showed a smaller reduction in intercontraction interval after RTx administration into the bladder. This antinociceptive effect was antagonized by naloxone hydrochloride. Thus, the HSV vector vHPPE encoding hPPE demonstrated physiological improvement in visceral pain induced by bladder irritation. Gene therapy may represent a potentially useful treatment modality for bladder hypersensitive disorders such as bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:23316929

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Targets the Murine Olfactory Neuroepithelium for Host Entry

    PubMed Central

    Shivkumar, Maitreyi; Milho, Ricardo; May, Janet S.; Nicoll, Michael P.; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous and important human pathogen. It is known to persist in trigeminal ganglia (TG), but how it reaches this site has been difficult to determine, as viral transmission is sporadic, pathogenesis is complicated, and early infection is largely asymptomatic. We used mice to compare the most likely natural HSV-1 host entry routes: oral and nasal. Intranasal infection was 100-fold more efficient than oral and targeted predominantly the olfactory neuroepithelium. Live imaging of HSV-1-expressed luciferase showed infection progressing from the nose to the TG and then reemerging in the facial skin. The brain remained largely luciferase negative throughout. Infected cell tagging by viral Cre recombinase expression in floxed reporter gene mice showed nasal virus routinely reaching the TG and only rarely reaching the olfactory bulbs. Thus, HSV-1 spread from the olfactory neuroepithelium to the TG and reemerged peripherally without causing significant neurological disease. This recapitulation of typical clinical infection suggests that HSV-1 might sometimes also enter humans via the respiratory tract. PMID:23903843

  15. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Becerril-García, Miguel Angel; Limón-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pavón, Lenin; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-? and reduced IL-6 and TNF-? concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i) this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii) the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii) Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv) Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v) the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines. PMID:25984538

  16. Herpesvirus entry mediator is a serotype specific determinant of pathogenesis in ocular herpes

    PubMed Central

    Karaba, Andrew H.; Kopp, Sarah J.; Longnecker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 is initiated by viral glycoprotein D (gD) binding to a receptor on the host cell. Two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, mediate entry in murine models of HSV-1 and HSV-2. HVEM is dispensable for HSV-2 infection of the vagina and brain, but is required for WT pathogenesis of HSV-1 infection of the cornea. By challenging WT and HVEM KO mice with multiple strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2, we demonstrate that without HVEM, all HSV-1 strains tested do not replicate well in the cornea and infection does not result in severe symptoms, as observed in WT mice. In contrast, all HSV-2 strains tested had no requirement for HVEM to replicate to WT levels in the cornea and still cause severe disease. These findings imply that HSV-2 does not require HVEM to cause disease regardless of route of entry, but HVEM must be present for HSV-1 to cause full pathogenesis in the eye. These findings uncover a unique role for HVEM in mediating HSV-1 infection in an area innervated by the trigeminal ganglion and may explain why the presence of HVEM can lead to severe inflammation in the cornea. Thus, the dependence on HVEM is a dividing point between HSV-1 and HSV-2 that evolved to infect areas innervated by different sensory ganglia. PMID:23184983

  17. Mucus-Penetrating Nanoparticles for Vaginal Drug Delivery Protect Against Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, Laura M.; Tang, Benjamin C.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Tse, Terence A.; Hoen, Timothy; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Incomplete coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We investigated vaginal distribution, retention, and safety of nanoparticles with surfaces modified to enhance transport through mucus. We show that mucus-penetrating particles (MPPs) provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas conventional nanoparticles (CPs) that are mucoadhesive are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. Moreover, when delivered hypotonically, MPPs were transported advectively (versus diffusively) through mucus deep into vaginal folds (rugae) within minutes. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers, more MPPs were retained in the vaginal tract after 6 h compared to CPs. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then developed MPPs composed of acyclovir monophosphate (ACVp). When administered prior to vaginal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) challenge, ACVp-MPPs protected 53% of mice, compared to only 16% protected by soluble drug. Overall, MPPs improved vaginal drug distribution and retention, provided more effective protection against vaginal viral challenge than soluble drug, and were non-toxic when administered daily for one week. PMID:22700955

  18. Early Events in Herpes Simplex Virus Lifecycle with Implications for an Infection of Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Sarah; Sheth, Urmi; Shukla, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Affecting a large percentage of human population herpes simplex virus (HSV) types -1 and -2 mainly cause oral, ocular, and genital diseases. Infection begins with viral entry into a host cell, which may be preceded by viral “surfing” along filopodia. Viral glycoproteins then bind to one or more of several cell surface receptors, such as herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), nectin-1, 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS), paired immunoglobulin-like receptor ?, and non-muscle myosin-IIA. At least five viral envelope glycoproteins participate in entry and these include gB, gC, gD and gH-gL. Post-entry, these glycoproteins may also facilitate cell-to-cell spread of the virus, which helps in the evasion of physical barriers as well as several components of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The spread may be facilitated by membrane fusion, movement across tight junctions, transfer across neuronal synapses, or the recruitment of actin-containing structures. This review summarizes some of the recent advances in our understanding of HSV entry and cell-to-cell spread. PMID:22291864

  19. Electrorotation studies of baby hamster kidney fibroblasts infected with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Archer, S; Morgan, H; Rixon, F J

    1999-05-01

    The dielectric properties of baby hamster kidney fibroblast (BHK(C-13)) cells have been measured using electrorotation before and after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The dielectric properties and morphology of the cells were investigated as a function of time after infection. The mean specific capacitance of the uninfected cells was 2.0 microF/cm2, reducing to a value of 1. 5 microF/cm2 at 12 h after infection. This change was interpreted as arising from changes in the cell membrane morphology coupled with alterations in the composition of the cell membrane as infection progressed. The measured changes in the cell capacitance were correlated with alterations in cellular morphology determined from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Between 9 and 12 h after infection the internal permittivity of the cell exhibited a rapid change, reducing in value from 75epsilono to 58epsilono, which can be correlated with the generation of large numbers of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles and enveloped viral capsids. The data are discussed in relation to the known life cycle of HSV-1 and indicate that electrorotation can be used to observe dynamic changes in both the dielectric and morphological properties of virus-infected cells. Calculations of the dielectrophoretic spectrum of uninfected and infected cells have been performed, and the results show that cells in the two states could be separated using appropriate frequencies and electrode arrays. PMID:10233099

  20. Electrorotation studies of baby hamster kidney fibroblasts infected with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S; Morgan, H; Rixon, F J

    1999-01-01

    The dielectric properties of baby hamster kidney fibroblast (BHK(C-13)) cells have been measured using electrorotation before and after infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The dielectric properties and morphology of the cells were investigated as a function of time after infection. The mean specific capacitance of the uninfected cells was 2.0 microF/cm2, reducing to a value of 1. 5 microF/cm2 at 12 h after infection. This change was interpreted as arising from changes in the cell membrane morphology coupled with alterations in the composition of the cell membrane as infection progressed. The measured changes in the cell capacitance were correlated with alterations in cellular morphology determined from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Between 9 and 12 h after infection the internal permittivity of the cell exhibited a rapid change, reducing in value from 75epsilono to 58epsilono, which can be correlated with the generation of large numbers of Golgi-derived membrane vesicles and enveloped viral capsids. The data are discussed in relation to the known life cycle of HSV-1 and indicate that electrorotation can be used to observe dynamic changes in both the dielectric and morphological properties of virus-infected cells. Calculations of the dielectrophoretic spectrum of uninfected and infected cells have been performed, and the results show that cells in the two states could be separated using appropriate frequencies and electrode arrays. PMID:10233099

  1. Measuring the dielectric properties of herpes simplex virus type 1 virions with dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael P; Morgan, Hywel; Rixon, Frazer J

    2002-05-10

    An investigation has been performed into the biophysical properties of the enveloped mammalian virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The dielectrophoretic behaviour of the virus particles was measured as a function of applied frequency (over the range 100 kHz-20 MHz) and conductivity of the suspending medium (over the range 1-100 mS m(-1)). The dielectric properties of the virus were determined from the dielectrophoretic data using the smeared-out shell model. The data suggest that the intact particle has a surface conductance of 0.3 nS, an internal and membrane permittivity of 75varepsilon(o) and 7.5varepsilon(o), respectively, an internal conductivity of approximately 0.1 S m(-1) and a zeta potential of 70 mV. The dielectric properties were measured for intact, fresh virus particles and also for particles following exposure to various modifying agents, such as treatment with enzymes, ionophores and ageing. It is shown that the observed changes in the dielectrophoretic spectrum, and the variations in the dielectric properties of the virus concur with the expected physiological effects of these agents. PMID:12031284

  2. Suppression of transcription factor early growth response 1 reduces herpes simplex virus lethality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Heng; Yao, Hui-Wen; Chen, I-Te; Shieh, Biehuoy; Li, Ching; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is the most common cause of sporadic, fatal encephalitis, but current understanding of how the virus interacts with cellular factors to regulate disease progression is limited. Here, we show that HSV-1 infection induced the expression of the cellular transcription factor early growth response 1 (Egr-1) in a human neuronal cell line. Egr-1 increased viral replication by activating promoters of viral productive cycle genes through binding to its corresponding sequences in the viral promoters. Mouse studies confirmed that Egr-1 expression was enhanced in HSV-1–infected brains and that Egr-1 functions to promote viral replication in embryonic fibroblasts. Furthermore, Egr-1 deficiency or knockdown of Egr-1 by a DNA-based enzyme greatly reduced the mortality of HSV-1–infected mice by decreasing viral loads in tissues. This study provides what we believe is the first evidence that Egr-1 increases the mortality of HSV-1 encephalitis by enhancing viral replication. Moreover, blocking this cellular machinery exploited by the virus could prevent host mortality. PMID:18769632

  3. [Intrafollicular infection of mammals and human oocytes by the herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Abdulmedzhidova, A G; Rog, K V; Zavalishina, L É; Kushch, A A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the capacity of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) of infecting ovary with disease in case of the intravaginal experimental animals. The results of the study demonstrated that the ascending HSV infection in mice lead to modification of all the cells of the ovary, including follicular cells synthesizing estrogen and progesterone. The two hormones influence the development of the disease. Estrogens provide the protective effects against the virus. Progesterone does not modify the body sensitivity to HSV, but reduces the effectiveness of the antiviral immunity, resulting in increased mortality of animals. We demonstrated that infection of oocytes in ovarian follicles of female mice during infection with HSV modified the process in vitro and for the first time demonstrated the detection of viral antigens in mature oocytes in patient with infertility. During the intracytoplasmic sperm injection into the infected oocytes (ICSI), the failure of fertilization was observed. These results are of interest, because there is no available literature on whether HSV infection of oocytes can have a direct negative impact on the process of fertilization in humans. PMID:25065146

  4. The Role of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Thymidine Kinase Alanine 168 in Substrate Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Willmon, Candice L; Sussman, Django; Black, Margaret E

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) has been widely used in suicide gene therapy for the treatment of cancer due to its broad substrate specificity and the inability of the endogenous human TK to phosphorylate guanosine analogs such as ganciclovir (GCV). The basis of suicide gene therapy is the introduction of a gene that encodes a prodrug-activating enzyme into tumor cells. After administration, the prodrug is selectively converted to a toxic drug by the suicide gene product thereby bringing about the eradication of the cancer cells. A major drawback to this therapy is the low activity the enzyme displays towards the prodrugs, requiring high prodrug doses that result in adverse side effects. Earlier studies revealed two HSV TK variants (SR39 and mutant 30) derived by random mutagenesis with enhanced activities towards GCV in vitro and in vivo. While these mutants contain multiple amino acid substitutions, molecular modeling suggests that substitutions at alanine 168 (A168) may be responsible for the observed increase in prodrug sensitivity. To evaluate this, site-directed mutagenesis was used to individually substitute A168 with phenylalanine or tyrosine to reflect the mutations found in SR39 and mutant 30, respectively. Additionally, kinetic parameters and the ability of these mutants to sensitize tumor cells to GCV in comparison to wild-type thymidine kinase were determined. PMID:18949076

  5. Herpes simplex encephalitis and management of acyclovir in encephalitis patients in France.

    PubMed

    Stahl, J P; Mailles, A; De Broucker, T

    2012-02-01

    This study reports on the clinical profiles of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) case-patients and the management of acyclovir prescriptions. We designed a study on the causes of encephalitis in France in 2007. Case-patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled in all the hospitals that volunteered to participate. Fifty-five of 253 enrolled case-patients were diagnosed with HSE. Three (5%) HSE patients died and 48 (89%) were discharged with persistent neurological symptoms. All HSE patients were prescribed acyclovir, 10 of whom had a 2-week course; 42 a 3-week course; two received incomplete courses; and one received two courses of 21 days each due to relapse. The acyclovir dosage was reported for 45 adult HSE patients, 25 (53%) of whom received 10 mg/kg t.i.d. and 22 (47%) received 15 mg/kg t.i.d. The mortality rate was low despite 49% of patients being admitted to intensive-care units. A high dose of acyclovir was not associated with a better outcome in HSE patients. Most patients had persisting symptoms on discharge suggesting neuropsychological rehabilitation is an important issue for survivors. PMID:21470440

  6. Varicella-Zoster Virus–Specific Immune Responses in Elderly Recipients of a Herpes Zoster Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Levin, M. J; Oxman, M. N; Zhang, J. H; Johnson, G. R; Stanley, H; Hayward, A. R; Caulfield, M. J; Irwin, M. R; Smith, J. G; Clair, J; Chan, I. S. F; Williams, H; Harbecke, R; Marchese, R; Straus, S. E; Gershon, A; Weinberg, A

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundA double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that involved 38,546 subjects ?60 years old demonstrated efficacy of a high-potency live-attenuated Oka/Merck varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine. The trial included an immunology substudy to determine the relationship of VZV-specific immune responses to vaccination and clinical outcome MethodsThe immunology substudy enrolled 1395 subjects at 2 sites where blood samples obtained prior to vaccination, at 6 weeks after vaccination, and at 1, 2, and 3 years thereafter were tested for VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity (VZV-CMI) by ?-interferon ELISPOT and responder cell frequency assays and for VZV antibody by glycoprotein ELISA ResultsVZV-CMI and VZV antibodies were significantly increased in vaccine recipients at 6 weeks after vaccination. The vaccine-induced increases in VZV-CMI persisted during the 3 years of follow-up, although their magnitude decreased over time. The magnitude of these VZV-specific immune responses was greater in subjects 60–69 years old than in subjects ?70 years old ConclusionsThe zoster vaccine induced a significant increase in VZV-CMI and VZV antibody. The magnitude and duration of the boost in VZV-CMI in vaccine recipients and the relationship of this boost to age paralleled the clinical effects of the vaccine observed during the efficacy trial. These findings support the hypothesis that boosting VZV-CMI protects older adults against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia PMID:18419349

  7. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Improve the Replication of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cody, James J.; Markert, James M.; Hurst, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    New therapies are needed for metastatic breast cancer patients. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) is an exciting therapy being developed for use against aggressive tumors and established metastases. Although oHSV have been demonstrated safe in clinical trials, a lack of sufficient potency has slowed the clinical application of this approach. We utilized histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which have been noted to impair the innate antiviral response and improve gene transcription from viral vectors, to enhance the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. A panel of chemically diverse HDAC inhibitors were tested at three different doses (<, ?=?, and >LD50) for their ability to modulate the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. Several of the tested HDAC inhibitors enhanced oHSV replication at low multiplicity of infection (MOI) following pre-treatment of the metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the oHSV-resistant cell line 4T1, but not in the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Inhibitors of class I HDACs, including pan-selective compounds, were more effective for increasing oHSV replication compared to inhibitors that selectively target class II HDACs. These studies demonstrate that select HDAC inhibitors increase oHSV replication in breast cancer cells and provides support for pre-clinical evaluation of this combination strategy. PMID:24651853

  8. Preclinical Evaluation of Engineered Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus for the Treatment of Pediatric Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Megison, Michael L.; Gillory, Lauren A.; Stewart, Jerry E.; Nabers, Hugh C.; Mroczek-Musulman, Elizabeth; Waters, Alicia M.; Coleman, Jennifer M.; Kelly, Virginia; Markert, James M.; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Friedman, Gregory K.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, investigators showed that mice with syngeneic murine gliomas that were treated with a neuroattenuated oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (oHSV), M002, had a significant increase in survival. M002 has deletions in both copies of the ?134.5 gene, enabling replication in tumor cells but precluding infection of normal cells. Previous studies have shown antitumor effects of other oHSV against a number of adult tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the oncolytic potential of M002 against difficult to treat pediatric liver and kidney tumors. We showed that the oHSV, M002, infected, replicated, and decreased cell survival in hepatoblastoma, malignant rhabdoid kidney tumor, and renal sarcoma cell lines. In addition, we showed that in murine xenografts, treatment with M002 significantly increased survival and decreased tumor growth. Finally, these studies showed that the primary entry protein for oHSV, CD111 (nectin-1) was present in human hepatoblastoma and malignant rhabdoid kidney tumor specimens. We concluded that M002 effectively targeted these rare aggressive tumor types and that M002 may have potential for use in children with unresponsive or relapsed pediatric solid tumors. PMID:24497984

  9. Herpes simplex virus 1 infected neuronal and skin cells differ in their susceptibility to complement attack

    PubMed Central

    Rautemaa, Riina; Helander, Tuula; Meri, Seppo

    2002-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in neurons is lifelong and generally asymptomatic. Reactivation of this latent infection results in skin blistering whereas the respective peripheral neurons are rarely affected. Why the neuronal cells are spared while the skin cells are sacrificed is not well understood. In the present study our aim was to study whether neuronal and skin cells differ in their ability to control complement attack during HSV-1 infection. Human embryonal skin (HES) cells and neuronal Paju cells were infected by HSV-1 in vitro. Both types of infected cells activated complement but were initially resistant to membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition. During the first hours of infection the expression of the endogenous complement regulators decay accelerating factor (DAF) and CD59 increased on both HES and Paju cells. By 12 hr the infected HES cells had lost their ability to control complement attack. The expression of DAF and CD59 decreased and the cells became targets for MAC attack. In contrast, complement regulator expression on the Paju cells did not decrease below the initial level and complement C5b-9 deposition was found only on 10% of the Paju cells at 12 hr. The results suggest that HSV-infected neuronal cells are better than skin cells in protecting themselves against complement attack. This may contribute to the persistence of a latent HSV-1 infection in neuronal cells for prolonged periods. PMID:12100729

  10. One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine parainfluenza virus 3

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Detection of respiratory viruses in veterinary species has traditionally relied on virus detection by isolation or immunofluorescence and/or detection of circulating antibody using ELISA or serum neutralising antibody tests. Multiplex real time PCR is increasingly used to diagnose respiratory viruses in humans and has proved to be superior to traditional methods. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in housed cattle and virus infections can play a major role. We describe here a one step multiplex reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (mRT-qPCR) to detect the viruses commonly implicated in BRD. Results A mRT-qPCR assay was developed and optimised for the simultaneous detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus type 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPI3 i & ii) nucleic acids in clinical samples from cattle. The assay targets the highly conserved glycoprotein B gene of BoHV-1, nucleocapsid gene of BRSV and nucleoprotein gene of BPI3. This mRT-qPCR assay was assessed for sensitivity, specificity and repeatability using in vitro transcribed RNA and recent field isolates. For clinical validation, 541 samples from clinically affected animals were tested and mRT-qPCR result compared to those obtained by conventional testing using virus isolation (VI) and/or indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Conclusions The mRT-qPCR assay was rapid, highly repeatable, specific and had a sensitivity of 97% in detecting 102 copies of BRSV, BoHV-1 and BPI3 i & ii. This is the first mRT-qPCR developed to detect the three primary viral agents of BRD and the first multiplex designed using locked nucleic acid (LNA), minor groove binding (MGB) and TaqMan probes in one reaction mix. This test was more sensitive than both VI and IFAT and can replace the aforesaid methods for virus detection during outbreaks of BRD. PMID:22455597

  11. Suppression of the ERK1\\/2 signaling pathway from HCV NS5A protein expressed by herpes simplex recombinant viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Georgopoulou; K. Caravokiri; P. Mavromara

    2003-01-01

    Summary.  ?Two herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) recombinant viruses carrying the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A open reading frame under\\u000a the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early (IE) or a herpes simplex chimeric promoter (?4?1UL19) were constructed\\u000a and characterized. Expression studies showed that both HSV-NS5A recombinant viruses were able to express high levels of the\\u000a NS5A protein in infected cells. Most

  12. [Application of real-time PCR assay for investigating the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA].

    PubMed

    Midak-Siewirska, Anna; Karabin, Karolina; Chudzik, Emilia; Dzieciatkowski, Tomasz; Przybylski, Maciej; Majewska, Anna; ?uczak, Miros?aw; M?ynarczyk, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a member of the Alphaherpesviridae subfamily, as it can infect both skin and nerves and develop latent infection within the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Infection with this virus is common and causes a wide range of clinical syndromes. Although HSV-1 infect healthy children and adults, disease is more severe and extensive in the immunocompromised individuals. The goal of the study was development of real-time PCR assay for detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in clinical samples, using primers targeting a conserved region of the viral DNA glycoprotein G gene and a specific TaqMan hydrolyzing probe. The analytical sensitivity of assay was tested using serial dilutions of HSV-1 DNA in range between 10(0) and 10(-6) (4,35 x 10(5) - 4,00 x 10(1) copies/ml). Fifteen cell line isolates and twenty plasma samples taken from a group of adult recipients of allogeneic HSCT were tested for the presence of HSV-1 DNA in the LightCycler system. For comparison commercial quantitative HSV-1/2 LC PCR Kit (Artus/Qiagen) was used, according to the manufacturer's instructions. Both LightCycler assays, including in-house real-time PCR, detected HSV-1 DNA in 23 specimens. The conclusion is that developed TaqMan-based probe real-time PCR test is very reliable and valuable for detection of HSV-1 viremia in different kind of samples. The high level of sensitivity and accuracy provided by the LightCycler instrument is favorable for the use of this method in the detection of herpes simplex virus 1 DNA also in clinical specimens. PMID:20564975

  13. Establishment and Characterization of an Air-Liquid Canine Corneal Organ Culture Model To Study Acute Herpes Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Harman, Rebecca M.; Bussche, Leen; Ledbetter, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the clinical importance of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced ocular disease, the underlying pathophysiology of the disease remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of adequate virus–natural-host models in which to study the cellular and viral factors involved in acute corneal infection. We developed an air-liquid canine corneal organ culture model and evaluated its susceptibility to canine herpesvirus type 1 (CHV-1) in order to study ocular herpes in a physiologically relevant natural host model. Canine corneas were maintained in culture at an air-liquid interface for up to 25 days, and no degenerative changes were observed in the corneal epithelium during cultivation using histology for morphometric analyses, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Next, canine corneas were inoculated with CHV-1 for 48 h, and at that time point postinfection, viral plaques could be visualized in the corneal epithelium and viral DNA copies were detected in both the infected corneas and culture supernatants. In addition, we found that canine corneas produced proinflammatory cytokines in response to CHV-1 infection similarly to what has been described for HSV-1. This emphasizes the value of our model as a virus–natural-host model to study ocular herpesvirus infections. IMPORTANCE This study is the first to describe the establishment of an air-liquid canine corneal organ culture model as a useful model to study ocular herpesvirus infections. The advantages of this physiologically relevant model include the fact that (i) it provides a system in which ocular herpes can be studied in a virus–natural-host setting and (ii) it reduces the number of experimental animals needed. In addition, this long-term explant culture model may also facilitate research in other fields where noninfectious and infectious ocular diseases of dogs and humans are being studied. PMID:25231295

  14. Antiviral activity of Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac) extract against two types of herpes simplex viruses in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Reichling, J; Neuner, A; Sharaf, M; Harkenthal, M; Schnitzler, P

    2009-08-01

    We report on the antiviral potency of an aqueous extract of root/stem bark of Rhus aromatica (fragrant sumac extract) against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in cell culture (RC-37 cells) using a plaque reduction assay. The extract exhibited a high level of anti-HSV activity with IC50-values of 0.0005% for HSV-1 and 0.0043% for HSV-2 as well as high selectivity indices (SI) of 5400 for HSV-1 and 628 for HSV-2. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, the fragrant sumac extract was added at different times to the cells or viruses during the viral infection cycle. At maximum non-cytotoxic concentration (0.25%), plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 99% when herpes simplex viruses were pretreated with the plant extract for 1 h prior to cell infection. When the host cells were pretreated with the fragrant sumac extract for 1 h prior to virus infection, the infectivity of viruses was reduced by 50% for HSV-1 but only moderately for HSV-2. No antiviral effect was seen when the plant extract was added to already infected host cells. Based on these findings the plant extract seems to interact not only with the viral envelope but also with the surface of the host cells impairing the ability of herpes simplex viruses to adsorb to and penetrate into the host cells. In conclusion, the aqueous fragrant sumac extract revealed a strong antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro. PMID:19746844

  15. 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs and putative cis-acting elements of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 reveals 'unique' features of gene expression strategy in the genus Ampelovirus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The family Closteroviridae comprises genera with monopartite genomes, Closterovirus and Ampelovirus, and with bipartite and tripartite genomes, Crinivirus. By contrast to closteroviruses in the genera Closterovirus and Crinivirus, much less is known about the molecular biology of viruses in the genus Ampelovirus, although they cause serious diseases in agriculturally important perennial crops like grapevines, pineapple, cherries and plums. Results The gene expression and cis-acting elements of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3; genus Ampelovirus) was examined and compared to that of other members of the family Closteroviridae. Six putative 3'-coterminal subgenomic (sg) RNAs were abundantly present in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) infected with GLRaV-3. The sgRNAs for coat protein (CP), p21, p20A and p20B were confirmed using gene-specific riboprobes in Northern blot analysis. The 5'-termini of sgRNAs specific to CP, p21, p20A and p20B were mapped in the 18,498 nucleotide (nt) virus genome and their leader sequences determined to be 48, 23, 95 and 125 nt, respectively. No conserved motifs were found around the transcription start site or in the leader sequence of these sgRNAs. The predicted secondary structure analysis of sequences around the start site failed to reveal any conserved motifs among the four sgRNAs. The GLRaV-3 isolate from Washington had a 737 nt long 5' nontranslated region (NTR) with a tandem repeat of 65 nt sequence and differed in sequence and predicted secondary structure with a South Africa isolate. Comparison of the dissimilar sequences of the 5'NTRs did not reveal any common predicted structures. The 3'NTR was shorter and more conserved. The lack of similarity among the cis-acting elements of the diverse viruses in the family Closteroviridae is another measure of the complexity of their evolution. Conclusions The results indicate that transcription regulation of GLRaV-3 sgRNAs appears to be different from members of the genus Closterovirus. An analysis of the genome sequence confirmed that GLRaV-3 has an unusually long 5'NTR of 737 nt compared to other monopartite members of the family Closteroviridae, with distinct differences in the sequence and predicted secondary structure when compared to the corresponding region of the GLRaV-3 isolate from South Africa. PMID:20682046

  16. Treatment of Malignant Gliomas with a Replicating Adenoviral Vector Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus-Thymidine Kinase1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dharmin Nanda; Ronald Vogels; Menzo Havenga; Cees J. Avezaat; Abraham Bout; Peter Sillevis Smitt

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the interaction between oncolytic, replication-competent adenoviral vectors and the herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene\\/ganciclovir (GCV) suicide system for the treatment of malignant gliomas. We constructed a panel of replication-competent ad- enoviral vectors in which the luciferase (IG.Ad5E1. E3Luc) or HSV1-tk gene (IG.Ad5E1.E3TK) replace the Mr 19,000 glycoprotein (gp19K) cod- ing sequence in the E3 region. IG.Ad5E1.

  17. Twenty Years of Medically-Attended Pediatric Varicella and Herpes Zoster in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wormsbecker, Anne E.; Wang, Jun; Rosella, Laura C.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Seo, Chi Yon; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if reductions in medically-attended pediatric varicella and herpes zoster occurred in Ontario, Canada, after publicly-funded varicella immunization was implemented in 2004. Methods For fiscal years (FY) 1992-2011, we examined data on varicella and herpes zoster physician office visits, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations (including for varicella-associated skin and soft tissue infections [SSTI]), and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, among those aged <18 years. The pre-vaccine, privately-available, and vaccine program eras were FY1992-1998, FY1999-2003, and FY2004-2011, respectively. We used Poisson regressionand Kruskal-Wallis tests (all at the p<0.05 level of significance), and compared rates using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Incidence of varicella office visits declined over the study period from a high of 25.1/1,000 in FY1994 to a low of 3.2/1,000 in FY2011. ED visits and hospitalizations followed similar patterns of decreasing rates later in the study period. IRRs comparing the vaccine program versus pre-vaccine eras were 0.29 (95%CI: 0.26-0.32) for office visits, 0.29 (95%CI: 0.21-0.40) for ED visits, and 0.41 (95%CI: 0.10-1.69) for hospitalizations. Annual declines in varicella office visits were 7.7%, 9.1%, 8.4%, and 8.4% per year among children aged <1 year, 1-4 years, 5-11 years, and ?12 years, respectively (all p<0.001). Age-specific rates of varicella-associated SSTI declined significantly among children <12 years (p<0.001) and rates of ICU admissions decreased significantly for children <1 year (p = 0.02). (p<0.001) over the study period. For children aged 5-17 years, herpes zoster office visits decreased whereas ED visits increased (both p<0.001) and there was a small, non-significant (p = 0.07), decrease in hospitalizations. Conclusion Medically-attended varicella decreased during the study period, particularly since varicella vaccine was publicly-funded. Results suggest immunization program-related changes in varicella epidemiology, including herd effects, demonstrated by reductions in varicella in program-ineligible age groups. We did not observe a consistent impact on herpes zoster. PMID:26177077

  18. An oncolytic adenovirus expressing herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase for targeting cancer therapy: An in vitro evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fei-qun Zheng; Yin Xu; Yi-de Qin; Ren-jie Yang; Jun Han

    2009-01-01

    Objective  Oncolytic adenovirus, also called conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAD), has been developed for the treatment of cancer.\\u000a However, there is a tremendous need to enhance their antitumor efficacy. Here we wish to evaluate whether a strategy that\\u000a combines the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase with oncolytic effects offers a therapeutic advantage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A novel adenovirus Ad-ETK containing a sequentially positioned promoter of human

  19. The UL12 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Is Regulated by Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hikaru; Kato, Akihisa; Mugitani, Michio; Kashima, Yukie; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Arii, Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL12 protein (pUL12) is a nuclease that is critical for viral replication in vitro and neurovirulence in vivo. In this study, mass spectrometric analysis of pUL12 and phosphate-affinity SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis identified tyrosine at pUL12 residue 371 (Tyr-371) as a pUL12 phosphorylation site: Tyr-371 is conserved in pUL12 homologs in herpesviruses in all Herpesviridae subfamilies. Replacement of Tyr-371 with phenylalanine (Y371F) in pUL12 (i) abolished its exonuclease activity in HSV-1-infected Vero, HEL, and A549 cells, (ii) reduced viral replication, cell-cell spread, and pUL12 expression in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, (iii) led to aberrant subcellular localization of pUL12 in infected cells in a cell type-dependent manner, and (iv) reduced HSV-1 neurovirulence in mice. The effects of the pUL12 Y371F mutation in cell cultures and mice were similar to those of a nuclease-dead double mutation in pUL12, although the Y371F mutation reduced viral replication severalfold more than the nuclease-dead double mutation in a cell type- and multiplicity-of-infection-dependent manner. Replacement of Tyr-371 with glutamic acid, which mimics constitutive phosphorylation, restored the wild-type phenotype in cell cultures and mice. These results suggested that phosphorylation of pUL12 Tyr-371 was essential for pUL12 to express its nuclease activity in HSV-1-infected cells and that this phosphorylation promoted viral replication and cell-cell spread in cell cultures and neurovirulence in mice mainly by upregulating pUL12 nuclease activity and, in part, by regulating the subcellular localization and expression of pUL12 in HSV-1-infected cells. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses encode a considerable number of enzymes for their replication. Like cellular enzymes, the viral enzymes need to be properly regulated in infected cells. Although the functional aspects of herpesvirus enzymes have gradually been clarified, information on how most of these enzymes are regulated in infected cells is lacking. In the present study, we report that the enzymatic activity of the herpes simplex virus 1 alkaline nuclease pUL12 was regulated by phosphorylation of pUL12 Tyr-371 in infected cells and that this phosphorylation promoted viral replication and cell-cell spread in cell cultures and neurovirulence in mice, mainly by upregulating pUL12 nuclease activity. Interestingly, pUL12 and tyrosine at pUL12 residue 371 appeared to be conserved in all herpesviruses in the family Herpesviridae, raising the possibility that the herpesvirus pUL12 homologs may also be regulated by phosphorylation of the conserved tyrosine residue. PMID:24991005

  20. IgG in cervicovaginal mucus traps HSV and prevents vaginal Herpes infections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Ying; Kannan, Arthi; Nunn, Kenetta L.; Murphy, Michael A.; Subramani, Durai B.; Moench, Thomas; Cone, Richard; Lai, Samuel K.

    2014-01-01

    IgG is the predominant immunoglobulin in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), yet how IgG in mucus can protect against infections is not fully understood. IgG diffuses rapidly through cervical mucus, slowed only slightly by transient adhesive interactions with mucins. We hypothesize this almost unhindered diffusion allows IgG to accumulate rapidly on pathogen surfaces, and the resulting IgG array forms multiple weak adhesive crosslinks to mucus gel that effectively trap (immobilize) pathogens, preventing them from initiating infections. Here, we report herpes simplex virus serotype 1 (HSV-1) readily penetrated fresh, pH-neutralized ex vivo samples of CVM with low or no detectable levels of anti-HSV-1 IgG, but was trapped in samples with even modest levels of anti-HSV-1 IgG. In samples with little or no endogenous anti-HSV-1 IgG, addition of exogenous anti-HSV-1 IgG, affinity purified from intravenous immunoglobulin, trapped virions at concentrations below those needed for neutralization and with similar potency as endogenous IgG. Deglycosylating purified anti-HSV-1 IgG, or removing its Fc component, markedly reduced trapping potency. Finally, a non-neutralizing IgG against HSV-gG significantly protected mice against vaginal infection, and removing vaginal mucus by gentle lavage abolished protection. These observations suggest IgG-Fc has a glycan dependent “muco-trapping” effector function that may provide exceptionally potent protection at mucosal surfaces. PMID:24496316