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Sample records for cysteine protease activity

  1. Cysteine Proteases: Modes of Activation and Future Prospects as Pharmacological Targets.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sonia; Dixit, Rajnikant; Pandey, Kailash C

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes are crucial for a variety of biological processes in organisms ranging from lower (virus, bacteria, and parasite) to the higher organisms (mammals). Proteases cleave proteins into smaller fragments by catalyzing peptide bonds hydrolysis. Proteases are classified according to their catalytic site, and distributed into four major classes: cysteine proteases, serine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases. This review will cover only cysteine proteases, papain family enzymes which are involved in multiple functions such as extracellular matrix turnover, antigen presentation, processing events, digestion, immune invasion, hemoglobin hydrolysis, parasite invasion, parasite egress, and processing surface proteins. Therefore, they are promising drug targets for various diseases. For preventing unwanted digestion, cysteine proteases are synthesized as zymogens, and contain a prodomain (regulatory) and a mature domain (catalytic). The prodomain acts as an endogenous inhibitor of the mature enzyme. For activation of the mature enzyme, removal of the prodomain is necessary and achieved by different modes. The pro-mature domain interaction can be categorized as protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and may be targeted in a range of diseases. Cysteine protease inhibitors are available that can block the active site but no such inhibitor available yet that can be targeted to block the pro-mature domain interactions and prevent it activation. This review specifically highlights the modes of activation (processing) of papain family enzymes, which involve auto-activation, trans-activation and also clarifies the future aspects of targeting PPIs to prevent the activation of cysteine proteases. PMID:27199750

  2. Cysteine Proteases: Modes of Activation and Future Prospects as Pharmacological Targets

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sonia; Dixit, Rajnikant; Pandey, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes are crucial for a variety of biological processes in organisms ranging from lower (virus, bacteria, and parasite) to the higher organisms (mammals). Proteases cleave proteins into smaller fragments by catalyzing peptide bonds hydrolysis. Proteases are classified according to their catalytic site, and distributed into four major classes: cysteine proteases, serine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases. This review will cover only cysteine proteases, papain family enzymes which are involved in multiple functions such as extracellular matrix turnover, antigen presentation, processing events, digestion, immune invasion, hemoglobin hydrolysis, parasite invasion, parasite egress, and processing surface proteins. Therefore, they are promising drug targets for various diseases. For preventing unwanted digestion, cysteine proteases are synthesized as zymogens, and contain a prodomain (regulatory) and a mature domain (catalytic). The prodomain acts as an endogenous inhibitor of the mature enzyme. For activation of the mature enzyme, removal of the prodomain is necessary and achieved by different modes. The pro-mature domain interaction can be categorized as protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and may be targeted in a range of diseases. Cysteine protease inhibitors are available that can block the active site but no such inhibitor available yet that can be targeted to block the pro-mature domain interactions and prevent it activation. This review specifically highlights the modes of activation (processing) of papain family enzymes, which involve auto-activation, trans-activation and also clarifies the future aspects of targeting PPIs to prevent the activation of cysteine proteases. PMID:27199750

  3. Microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Kędzior, Mateusz; Seredyński, Rafał; Gutowicz, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine proteases are one of the major classes of proteolytic enzymes involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes in plants, animals and microorganisms. When their synthesis, activity and localization in mammalian cells are altered, they may contribute to the development of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and cancer. Therefore, cysteine proteases have become promising drug targets for the medical treatment of these disorders. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases are also produced by almost every group of living organisms, being responsible for the control of intracellular proteolytic activity. Microorganisms synthesize cysteine protease inhibitors not only to regulate the activity of endogenous, often virulent enzymes, but also to hinder the host's proteolytic defense system and evade its immune responses against infections. Present work describes known to date microbial inhibitors of cysteine proteases in terms of their structure, enzyme binding mechanism, specificity and pathophysiological roles. The overview of both proteinaceous and small-molecule inhibitors produced by all groups of microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists) and viruses is provided. Subsequently, possible applications of microbial inhibitors in science, medicine and biotechnology are also highlighted. PMID:27048482

  4. Gastrointestinal absorption and biological activities of serine and cysteine proteases of animal and plant origin: review on absorption of serine and cysteine proteases

    PubMed Central

    Lorkowski, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Research has confirmed that peptides and larger protein molecules pass through the mucosal barrier of the gastrointestinal tract. Orally administered serine and cysteine proteases of plant and animal origin also reach blood and lymph as intact, high molecular weight and physiologically active protein molecules. Their absorption may be supported by a self-enhanced paracellular transport mechanism resulting in sub-nanomolar concentration of transiently free protease molecules or, in a complex with anti-proteases, at higher concentrations. Data from pharmacokinetic investigations reveals dose linearity for maximum plasma levels of free proteases not unusual for body proteases and a high inter-individual variability. There is no interference with each other after oral administration of protease combinations, and absorption follows an unusual invasion and elimination kinetic due to slow velocity of absorption and a fast 100% protein binding to anti-proteases. Oral application of proteases leads to increased proteolytic serum activity and increased plasma concentrations of the corresponding anti-proteases. Their biological activity is determined by their proteolytic activity as free proteases on soluble peptides/proteins or cell surface receptors (e.g. protease activated receptors) and their activity in the complex formed with their specific and/or unspecific anti-proteases. The anti-protease-complexes, during immune reaction and injuries often loaded with different cytokines, are cleared from body fluids and tissue by receptor mediated endocytosis on hepatocytes and/or blood cells. Oral administration of enteric coated tablets containing proteolytic enzymes of plant and animal origin may be a safe method to stabilize, positively influence or enhance physiological and immunological processes during disease processes and in healthy consumers. PMID:22461953

  5. A new autocatalytic activation mechanism for cysteine proteases revealed by Prevotella intermedia interpain A

    PubMed Central

    Mallorquí-Fernández, Noemí; Manandhar, Surya P.; Mallorquí-Fernández, Goretti; Usón, Isabel; Wawrzonek, Katarzyna; Kantyka, Tomasz; Solà, Maria; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F.Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a major periodontopathogen contributing to human gingivitis and periodontitis. Such pathogens release proteases as virulence factors that cause deterrence of host defences and tissue destruction. A new cysteine protease from the cysteine-histidine-dyad class, interpain A, was studied in its zymogenic and its self-processed mature form. The latter consists of a bivalved moiety made up by two subdomains. In the structure of a catalytic cysteine-to-alanine zymogen variant, the right subdomain interacts with an unusual prodomain, thus contributing to latency. Unlike the catalytic cysteine residue, already in its competent conformation in the zymogen, the catalytic histidine is swung out from its active conformation and trapped in a cage shaped by a backing helix, a zymogenic hairpin and a latency flap in the zymogen. Dramatic rearrangement of up to 20Å of these elements triggered by a tryptophan switch occurs during activation and accounts for a new activation mechanism for proteolytic enzymes. These findings can be extrapolated to related potentially pathogenic cysteine proteases such as Streprococcus pyogenes SpeB and Porphyromonas gingivalis periodontain. PMID:17993455

  6. Cysteine protease gene expression and proteolytic activity during senescence of Alstroemeria petals.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Carol; Leverentz, Michael K; Griffiths, Gareth; Thomas, Brian; Chanasut, Usawadee; Stead, Anthony D; Rogers, Hilary J

    2002-02-01

    The functional life of the flower is terminated by senescence and/or abscission. Multiple processes contribute to produce the visible signs of petal wilting and inrolling that typify senescence, but one of the most important is that of protein degradation and remobilization. This is mediated in many species through protein ubiquitination and the action of specific protease enzymes. This paper reports the changes in protein and protease activity during development and senescence of Alstroemeria flowers, a Liliaceous species that shows very little sensitivity to ethylene during senescence and which shows perianth abscission 8-10 d after flower opening. Partial cDNAs of ubiquitin (ALSUQ1) and a putative cysteine protease (ALSCYP1) were cloned from Alstroemeria using degenerate PCR primers and the expression pattern of these genes was determined semi-quantitatively by RT-PCR. While the levels of ALSUQ1 only fluctuated slightly during floral development and senescence, there was a dramatic increase in the expression of ALSCYP1 indicating that this gene may encode an important enzyme for the proteolytic process in this species. Three papain class cysteine protease enzymes showing different patterns of activity during flower development were identified on zymograms, one of which showed a similar expression pattern to the cysteine protease cDNA. PMID:11807127

  7. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Library of Thiocarbazates and their Activity as Cysteine Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuqing; Myers, Michael C.; Shah, Parag P.; Beavers, Mary Pat; Benedetti, Phillip A.; Diamond, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we identified a novel class of potent cathepsin L inhibitors, characterized by a thiocarbazate warhead. Given the potential of these compounds to inhibit other cysteine proteases, we designed and synthesized a library of thiocarbazates containing diversity elements at three positions. Biological characterization of this library for activity against a panel proteases indicated a significant preference for members of the papain family of cysteine proteases over serine, metallo-, and certain classes of cysteine proteases, such as caspases. Several very potent inhibitors of Cathepsin L and S were identified. The SAR data was employed in docking studies in an effort to understand the structural elements required for Cathepsin S inhibition. This study provides the basis for the design of highly potent and selective inhibitors of the papain family of cysteine proteases. PMID:20438448

  8. Evaluation of trypanocidal activity of combinations of anti-sleeping sickness drugs with cysteine protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is unsatisfactory because only a few drugs, with serious side effects and poor efficacy, are available. As drug combination regimes often achieve greater therapeutic efficacy than monotherapies, here the trypanocidal activity of the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 in combination with current anti-HAT drugs using bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei was investigated. Isobolographic analysis was used to determine the interaction between cysteine protease inhibitors (K11777, CA-074Me and CAA0225) and anti-HAT drugs (suramin, pentamidine, melarsoprol and eflornithine). Bloodstream forms of T. brucei were incubated in culture medium containing cysteine protease inhibitors or anti-HAT drugs alone or in combination at a 1:1 fixed-dose ratio. After 48 h incubation, live cells were counted, the 50% growth inhibition values determined and combination indices calculated. The general cytotoxicity of drug combinations was evaluated with human leukaemia HL-60 cells. Combinations of K11777 with suramin, pentamidine and melarsoprol showed antagonistic effects while with eflornithine a synergistic effect was observed. Whereas eflornithine antagonises with CA-074Me, an inhibitor inactivating the targeted TbCATL only under reducing conditions, it synergises with CAA0255, an inhibitor structurally related to CA-074Me which inactivates TbCATL independently of thiols. These findings indicate an essential role of thiols for the synergistic interaction between K11777 and eflornithine. Encouragingly, the K11777/eflornithine combination displayed higher trypanocidal than cytotoxic activity. The results of this study suggest that the combination of the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777 and eflornithine display promising synergistic trypanocidal activity that warrants further investigation of the drug combination as possible alternative treatment of HAT. PMID:25662707

  9. Salicylic acid induced cysteine protease activity during programmed cell death in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Judit; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2016-06-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR), a type of programmed cell death (PCD) during biotic stress is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). The aim of this work was to reveal the role of proteolysis and cysteine proteases in the execution of PCD in response of SA. Tomato plants were treated with sublethal (0.1 mM) and lethal (1 mM) SA concentrations through the root system. Treatment with 1 mM SA increased the electrolyte leakage and proteolytic activity and reduced the total protein content of roots after 6 h, while the proteolytic activity did not change in the leaves and in plants exposed to 0.1 mM SA. The expression of the papain-type cysteine protease SlCYP1, the vacuolar processing enzyme SlVPE1 and the tomato metacaspase SlMCA1 was induced within the first three hours in the leaves and after 0.5 h in the roots in the presence of 1 mM SA but the transcript levels did not increase significantly at sublethal SA. The Bax inhibitor-1 (SlBI-1), an antiapoptotic gene was over-expressed in the roots after SA treatments and it proved to be transient in the presence of sublethal SA. Protease inhibitors, SlPI2 and SlLTC were upregulated in the roots by sublethal SA but their expression remained low at 1 mM SA concentration. It is concluded that in contrast to leaves the SA-induced PCD is associated with increased proteolytic activity in the root tissues resulting from a fast up-regulation of specific cysteine proteases and down-regulation of protease inhibitors. PMID:27165526

  10. Cysteine Protease Activity of Feline Tritrichomonas foetus Promotes Adhesion-Dependent Cytotoxicity to Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tolbert, M. K.; Stauffer, S. H.; Brand, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Trichomonads are obligate protozoan parasites most renowned as venereal pathogens of the reproductive tract of humans and cattle. Recently, a trichomonad highly similar to bovine venereal Tritrichomonas foetus but having a unique tropism for the intestinal tract was recognized as a significant cause of colitis in domestic cats. Despite a high prevalence, worldwide distribution, and lack of consistently effective drugs for treatment of the infection, the cellular mechanisms of T. foetus pathogenicity in the intestinal tract have not been examined. The aims of this study were to determine the pathogenic effect of feline T. foetus on porcine intestinal epithelial cells, the dependence of T. foetus pathogenicity on adhesion of T. foetus to the intestinal epithelium, and the identity of mediators responsible for these effects. Using an in vitro coculture approach to model feline T. foetus infection of the intestinal epithelium, these studies demonstrate that T. foetus promotes a direct contact-dependent activation of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis signaling and progressive monolayer destruction. Moreover, these pathological effects were demonstrated to be largely dependent on T. foetus cell-associated cysteine protease activity. Finally, T. foetus cysteine proteases were identified as enabling cytopathic effects by promoting adhesion of T. foetus to the intestinal epithelium. The present studies are the first to examine the cellular mechanisms of pathogenicity of T. foetus toward the intestinal epithelium and support further investigation of the cysteine proteases as virulence factors in vivo and as potential therapeutic targets for ameliorating the pathological effects of intestinal trichomonosis. PMID:24752513

  11. Cysteine protease activity of feline Tritrichomonas foetus promotes adhesion-dependent cytotoxicity to intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, M K; Stauffer, S H; Brand, M D; Gookin, J L

    2014-07-01

    Trichomonads are obligate protozoan parasites most renowned as venereal pathogens of the reproductive tract of humans and cattle. Recently, a trichomonad highly similar to bovine venereal Tritrichomonas foetus but having a unique tropism for the intestinal tract was recognized as a significant cause of colitis in domestic cats. Despite a high prevalence, worldwide distribution, and lack of consistently effective drugs for treatment of the infection, the cellular mechanisms of T. foetus pathogenicity in the intestinal tract have not been examined. The aims of this study were to determine the pathogenic effect of feline T. foetus on porcine intestinal epithelial cells, the dependence of T. foetus pathogenicity on adhesion of T. foetus to the intestinal epithelium, and the identity of mediators responsible for these effects. Using an in vitro coculture approach to model feline T. foetus infection of the intestinal epithelium, these studies demonstrate that T. foetus promotes a direct contact-dependent activation of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis signaling and progressive monolayer destruction. Moreover, these pathological effects were demonstrated to be largely dependent on T. foetus cell-associated cysteine protease activity. Finally, T. foetus cysteine proteases were identified as enabling cytopathic effects by promoting adhesion of T. foetus to the intestinal epithelium. The present studies are the first to examine the cellular mechanisms of pathogenicity of T. foetus toward the intestinal epithelium and support further investigation of the cysteine proteases as virulence factors in vivo and as potential therapeutic targets for ameliorating the pathological effects of intestinal trichomonosis. PMID:24752513

  12. Cysteine proteases from the Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited thrombin and plasmin like activities.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H V; Riyaz, M; Venkatesh Kumar, R; Dharmappa, K K; Tarannum, Shaista; Siddesha, J M; Rajesh, R; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-10-01

    In the present study we evaluated the presence of cysteine protease from the latex of four plants Asclepias curassavica L., Calotropis gigantea R.Br., Pergularia extensa R.Br. and Cynanchum puciflorum R.Br. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. Cysteine proteases from these plants latex exhibited both thrombin and plasmin like activities. Latex enzyme fraction in a concentration dependent manner induced the formation of clot in citrated blood plasma. Direct incubation of fibrinogen with latex enzyme fraction resulted in the formation of fibrin clot similar to thrombin enzyme. However prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot suggesting plasmin like activity. Latex enzyme fraction preferentially hydrolyzed Aalpha and Bbeta chains of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot. Latex enzyme fraction also hydrolyzed the subunits of fully cross linked fibrin efficiently, the order of hydrolysis was alpha-polymer > alpha-chains > beta-chain and gamma-gamma dimer. Cysteine proteases from all the four Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited similar action on fibrinogen and fibrin. This study scientifically validate the use of plant latex in stop bleeding and wound healing by traditional healers all over the world. PMID:18979066

  13. Small Molecule-Induced Allosteric Activation of the Vibrio Cholerae RTX Cysteine Protease Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lupardus, P.J.; Shen, A.; Bogyo, M.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-19

    Vibrio cholerae RTX (repeats in toxin) is an actin-disrupting toxin that is autoprocessed by an internal cysteine protease domain (CPD). The RTX CPD is efficiently activated by the eukaryote-specific small molecule inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP{sub 6}), and we present the 2.1 angstrom structure of the RTX CPD in complex with InsP{sub 6}. InsP{sub 6} binds to a conserved basic cleft that is distant from the protease active site. Biochemical and kinetic analyses of CPD mutants indicate that InsP{sub 6} binding induces an allosteric switch that leads to the autoprocessing and intracellular release of toxin-effector domains.

  14. Consideration of cysteine protease activity for serological M-typing of clinical Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masatomo; Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Watanabe, Haruo

    2004-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes were classified by serological typing of their surface M protein. Non-M typeable strains with the emm1 gene were characterized as the degradation of M protein caused by overproduction of the extracellular cysteine protease, SpeB. These events are dependent on the growth phase. M protein produced prior to expression of SpeB is degraded in the stationary phase when the active form of SpeB is detected. The proteolytic degradation of M protein should be considered for precise M typing analysis. PMID:15502412

  15. Mapping Inhibitor Binding Modes on an Active Cysteine Protease via NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gregory M.; Balouch, Eaman; Goetz, David H.; Lazic, Ana; McKerrow, James H.; Craik, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Cruzain is a member of the papain/cathepsin-L family of cysteine proteases, and the major cysteine protease of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas’ disease. We report an auto-induction methodology that provides soluble-cruzain at high yields (> 30 mg per liter in minimal media). These increased yields provide sufficient quantities of active enzyme for use in NMR-based ligand mapping. Using CD and NMR spectroscopy, we also examined the solution-state structural dynamics of the enzyme in complex with a covalently bound vinyl sulfone inhibitor (K777). We report the backbone amide and side chain carbon chemical shift assignments of cruzain in complex with K777. These resonance assignments were used to identify and map residues located in the substrate binding pocket, including the catalytic Cys25 and His162. Selective 15N-Cys, 15N-His, and 13C-Met labeling was performed to quickly assess cruzain-ligand interactions for a set of eight low molecular weight compounds exhibiting micromolar binding or inhibition. Chemical shift perturbation mapping verifies that six of the eight compounds bind to cruzain at the active site. Three different binding modes were delineated for the compounds, namely covalent, non-covalent, and non-interacting. These results provide examples of how NMR spectroscopy can be used to screen compounds for fast evaluation of enzyme-inhibitor interactions in order to facilitate lead compound identification and subsequent structural studies. PMID:23181936

  16. Activation of a 66-kilodalton human endothelial cell matrix metalloprotease by Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Burns, E H; Marciel, A M; Musser, J M

    1996-11-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to gain insight into the molecular mechanism whereby the major extracellular protease from group A streptococci damages host tissue. HUVECs exposed to streptococcal cysteine protease (SCP) for various times exhibited cytopathic effect and cell detachment from the culture vessel. Gelatin substrate zymography showed that a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the level of activity of an approximately 66-kDa gelatinase occurred in culture medium taken from cells exposed to enzymatically active SCP. This gelatinase comigrated in gelatin zymograms with the activated form of purified recombinant matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and had type IV collagenase activity. In contrast, medium taken from cells exposed to inactivated (boiled) SCP and cells exposed to SCP inhibited by treatment with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-valyl-glycine diazomethyl ketone lacked the 66-kDa gelatinase. Appearance of the 66-kDa gelatinase activity was also prevented by 1,10-phenanthroline, a zinc chelator and MMP inhibitor. Inasmuch as proteolytically active SCP is required for the emergence of this gelatinase and MMP activation occurs by proteolytic processing, the 66-kDa gelatinase may be a proteolytic cleavage product of a latent MMP expressed extracellularly by HUVECs. Direct SCP treatment of culture supernatant taken from HUVECs not exposed to SCP also produced the 66-kDa gelatinase. The data show that SCP activates an MMP produced by human endothelial cells, a process that may contribute to endothelial cell damage, tissue destruction, and hemodynamic derangement observed in some patients with severe, invasive group A streptococcal infection. PMID:8890235

  17. Activation of a 66-kilodalton human endothelial cell matrix metalloprotease by Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, E H; Marciel, A M; Musser, J M

    1996-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to gain insight into the molecular mechanism whereby the major extracellular protease from group A streptococci damages host tissue. HUVECs exposed to streptococcal cysteine protease (SCP) for various times exhibited cytopathic effect and cell detachment from the culture vessel. Gelatin substrate zymography showed that a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the level of activity of an approximately 66-kDa gelatinase occurred in culture medium taken from cells exposed to enzymatically active SCP. This gelatinase comigrated in gelatin zymograms with the activated form of purified recombinant matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and had type IV collagenase activity. In contrast, medium taken from cells exposed to inactivated (boiled) SCP and cells exposed to SCP inhibited by treatment with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-valyl-glycine diazomethyl ketone lacked the 66-kDa gelatinase. Appearance of the 66-kDa gelatinase activity was also prevented by 1,10-phenanthroline, a zinc chelator and MMP inhibitor. Inasmuch as proteolytically active SCP is required for the emergence of this gelatinase and MMP activation occurs by proteolytic processing, the 66-kDa gelatinase may be a proteolytic cleavage product of a latent MMP expressed extracellularly by HUVECs. Direct SCP treatment of culture supernatant taken from HUVECs not exposed to SCP also produced the 66-kDa gelatinase. The data show that SCP activates an MMP produced by human endothelial cells, a process that may contribute to endothelial cell damage, tissue destruction, and hemodynamic derangement observed in some patients with severe, invasive group A streptococcal infection. PMID:8890235

  18. Highly efficient recombinant production and purification of streptococcal cysteine protease streptopain with increased enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Lane, Michael D; Seelig, Burckhard

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes produces the cysteine protease streptopain (SpeB) as a critical virulence factor for pathogenesis. Despite having first been described seventy years ago, this protease still holds mysteries which are being investigated today. Streptopain can cleave a wide range of human proteins, including immunoglobulins, the complement activation system, chemokines, and structural proteins. Due to the broad activity of streptopain, it has been challenging to elucidate the functional results of its action and precise mechanisms for its contribution to S. pyogenes pathogenesis. To better study streptopain, several expression and purification schemes have been developed. These methods originally involved isolation from S. pyogenes culture but were more recently expanded to include recombinant Escherichia coli expression systems. While substantially easier to implement, the latter recombinant approach can prove challenging to reproduce, often resulting in mostly insoluble protein and poor purification yields. After extensive optimization of a wide range of expression and purification conditions, we applied the autoinduction method of protein expression and developed a two-step column purification scheme that reliably produces large amounts of purified soluble and highly active streptopain. This method reproducibly yielded 3 mg of streptopain from 50 mL of expression culture at >95% purity, with an activity of 5306 ± 315 U/mg, and no remaining affinity tags or artifacts from recombinant expression. This improved method therefore enables the facile production of the important virulence factor streptopain at higher yields, with no purification scars that might bias functional studies, and with an 8.1-fold increased enzymatic activity compared to previously described procedures. PMID:26773742

  19. Metal-mediated modulation of streptococcal cysteine protease activity and its biological implications.

    PubMed

    Chella Krishnan, Karthickeyan; Mukundan, Santhosh; Landero Figueroa, Julio A; Caruso, Joseph A; Kotb, Malak

    2014-07-01

    Streptococcal cysteine protease (SpeB), the major secreted protease produced by group A streptococcus (GAS), cleaves both host and bacterial proteins and contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of invasive GAS infections. Modulation of SpeB expression and/or its activity during invasive GAS infections has been shown to affect bacterial virulence and infection severity. Expression of SpeB is regulated by the GAS CovR-CovS two-component regulatory system, and we demonstrated that bacteria with mutations in the CovR-CovS two-component regulatory system are selected for during localized GAS infections and that these bacteria lack SpeB expression and exhibit a hypervirulent phenotype. Additionally, in a separate study, we showed that expression of SpeB can also be modulated by human transferrin- and/or lactoferrin-mediated iron chelation. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to investigate the possible roles of iron and other metals in modulating SpeB expression and/or activity in a manner that would potentiate bacterial virulence. Here, we report that the divalent metals zinc and copper inhibit SpeB activity at the posttranslational level. Utilizing online metal-binding site prediction servers, we identified two putative metal-binding sites in SpeB, one of which involves the catalytic-dyad residues (47)Cys and (195)His. Based on our findings, we propose that zinc and/or copper availability in the bacterial microenvironment can modulate the proteolytic activity of SpeB in a manner that preserves the integrity of several other virulence factors essential for bacterial survival and dissemination within the host and thereby may exacerbate the severity of invasive GAS infections. PMID:24799625

  20. Metal-Mediated Modulation of Streptococcal Cysteine Protease Activity and Its Biological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chella Krishnan, Karthickeyan; Mukundan, Santhosh; Landero Figueroa, Julio A.; Caruso, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcal cysteine protease (SpeB), the major secreted protease produced by group A streptococcus (GAS), cleaves both host and bacterial proteins and contributes importantly to the pathogenesis of invasive GAS infections. Modulation of SpeB expression and/or its activity during invasive GAS infections has been shown to affect bacterial virulence and infection severity. Expression of SpeB is regulated by the GAS CovR-CovS two-component regulatory system, and we demonstrated that bacteria with mutations in the CovR-CovS two-component regulatory system are selected for during localized GAS infections and that these bacteria lack SpeB expression and exhibit a hypervirulent phenotype. Additionally, in a separate study, we showed that expression of SpeB can also be modulated by human transferrin- and/or lactoferrin-mediated iron chelation. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to investigate the possible roles of iron and other metals in modulating SpeB expression and/or activity in a manner that would potentiate bacterial virulence. Here, we report that the divalent metals zinc and copper inhibit SpeB activity at the posttranslational level. Utilizing online metal-binding site prediction servers, we identified two putative metal-binding sites in SpeB, one of which involves the catalytic-dyad residues 47Cys and 195His. Based on our findings, we propose that zinc and/or copper availability in the bacterial microenvironment can modulate the proteolytic activity of SpeB in a manner that preserves the integrity of several other virulence factors essential for bacterial survival and dissemination within the host and thereby may exacerbate the severity of invasive GAS infections. PMID:24799625

  1. Active site mapping, biochemical properties and subcellular localization of rhodesain, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, C R; Hansell, E; Lucas, K D; Brinen, L S; Alvarez Hernandez, A; Cheng, J; Gwaltney, S L; Roush, W R; Stierhof, Y D; Bogyo, M; Steverding, D; McKerrow, J H

    2001-11-01

    Cysteine protease activity of African trypanosome parasites is a target for new chemotherapy using synthetic protease inhibitors. To support this effort and further characterize the enzyme, we expressed and purified rhodesain, the target protease of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (MVAT4 strain), in reagent quantities from Pichia pastoris. Rhodesain was secreted as an active, mature protease. Site-directed mutagenesis of a cryptic glycosylation motif not previously identified allowed production of rhodesain suitable for crystallization. An invariable ER(A/V)FNAA motif in the pro-peptide sequence of rhodesain was identified as being unique to the genus Trypanosoma. Antibodies to rhodesain localized the protease in the lysosome and identified a 40-kDa protein in long slender forms of T. b. rhodesiense and all life-cycle stages of T. b. brucei. With the latter parasite, protease expression was five times greater in short stumpy trypanosomes than in the other stages. Radiolabeled active site-directed inhibitors identified brucipain as the major cysteine protease in T. b. brucei. Peptidomimetic vinyl sulfone and epoxide inhibitors designed to interact with the S2, S1 and S' subsites of the active site cleft revealed differences between rhodesain and the related trypanosome protease cruzain. Using fluorogenic dipeptidyl substrates, rhodesain and cruzain had acid pH optima, but unlike some mammalian cathepsins retained significant activity and stability up to pH 8.0, consistent with a possible extracellular function. S2 subsite mapping of rhodesain and cruzain with fluorogenic peptidyl substrates demonstrates that the presence of alanine rather than glutamate at S2 prevents rhodesain from cleaving substrates in which P2 is arginine. PMID:11704274

  2. Proteolytic Activation of the Essential Parasitophorous Vacuole Cysteine Protease SERA6 Accompanies Malaria Parasite Egress from Its Host Erythrocyte*

    PubMed Central

    Ruecker, Andrea; Shea, Michael; Hackett, Fiona; Suarez, Catherine; Hirst, Elizabeth M. A.; Milutinovic, Katarina; Withers-Martinez, Chrislaine; Blackman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The malaria parasite replicates within an intraerythrocytic parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV and host cell membranes eventually rupture, releasing merozoites in a process called egress. Certain inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteases block egress, indicating a crucial role for proteases. The Plasmodium falciparum genome encodes nine serine-repeat antigens (SERAs), each of which contains a central domain homologous to the papain-like (clan CA, family C1) protease family. SERA5 and SERA6 are indispensable in blood-stage parasites, but the function of neither is known. Here we show that SERA6 localizes to the PV where it is precisely cleaved just prior to egress by an essential serine protease called PfSUB1. Mutations that replace the predicted catalytic Cys of SERA6, or that block SERA6 processing by PfSUB1, could not be stably introduced into the parasite genomic sera6 locus, indicating that SERA6 is an essential enzyme and that processing is important for its function. We demonstrate that cleavage of SERA6 by PfSUB1 converts it to an active cysteine protease. Our observations reveal a proteolytic activation step in the malarial PV that may be required for release of the parasite from its host erythrocyte. PMID:22984267

  3. Fibrinogen cleavage by the Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease and generation of antibodies that inhibit enzyme proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Matsuka, Y V; Pillai, S; Gubba, S; Musser, J M; Olmsted, S B

    1999-09-01

    The extracellular cysteine protease from Streptococcus pyogenes is a virulence factor that plays a significant role in host-pathogen interaction. Streptococcal protease is expressed as an inactive 40-kDa precursor that is autocatalytically converted into a 28-kDa mature (active) enzyme. Replacement of the single cysteine residue involved in formation of the enzyme active site with serine (C192S mutation) abolished detectable proteolytic activity and eliminated autocatalytic processing of zymogen to the mature form. In the present study, we investigated activity of the wild-type (wt) streptococcal protease toward human fibrinogen and bovine casein. The former is involved in blood coagulation, wound healing, and other aspects of hemostasis. Treatment with streptococcal protease resulted in degradation of the COOH-terminal region of fibrinogen alpha chain, indicating that fibrinogen may serve as an important substrate for this enzyme during the course of human infection. Polyclonal antibodies generated against recombinant 40- and 28-kDa (r40- and r28-kDa) forms of the C192S streptococcal protease mutant exhibited high enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers but demonstrated different inhibition activities toward proteolytic action of the wt enzyme. Activity of the wt protease was readily inhibited when the reaction was carried out in the presence of antibodies generated against r28-kDa C192S mutant. Antibodies produced against r40-kDa C192S mutant had no significant effect on proteolysis. These data suggest that the presence of the NH(2)-terminal prosegment prevents generation of functionally active antibodies and indicate that inhibition activity of antibodies most likely depends on their ability to bind the active-site region epitope(s) of the protein. PMID:10456870

  4. Fibrinogen Cleavage by the Streptococcus pyogenes Extracellular Cysteine Protease and Generation of Antibodies That Inhibit Enzyme Proteolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Matsuka, Yury V.; Pillai, Subramonia; Gubba, Siddeswar; Musser, James M.; Olmsted, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    The extracellular cysteine protease from Streptococcus pyogenes is a virulence factor that plays a significant role in host-pathogen interaction. Streptococcal protease is expressed as an inactive 40-kDa precursor that is autocatalytically converted into a 28-kDa mature (active) enzyme. Replacement of the single cysteine residue involved in formation of the enzyme active site with serine (C192S mutation) abolished detectable proteolytic activity and eliminated autocatalytic processing of zymogen to the mature form. In the present study, we investigated activity of the wild-type (wt) streptococcal protease toward human fibrinogen and bovine casein. The former is involved in blood coagulation, wound healing, and other aspects of hemostasis. Treatment with streptococcal protease resulted in degradation of the COOH-terminal region of fibrinogen α chain, indicating that fibrinogen may serve as an important substrate for this enzyme during the course of human infection. Polyclonal antibodies generated against recombinant 40- and 28-kDa (r40- and r28-kDa) forms of the C192S streptococcal protease mutant exhibited high enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers but demonstrated different inhibition activities toward proteolytic action of the wt enzyme. Activity of the wt protease was readily inhibited when the reaction was carried out in the presence of antibodies generated against r28-kDa C192S mutant. Antibodies produced against r40-kDa C192S mutant had no significant effect on proteolysis. These data suggest that the presence of the NH2-terminal prosegment prevents generation of functionally active antibodies and indicate that inhibition activity of antibodies most likely depends on their ability to bind the active-site region epitope(s) of the protein. PMID:10456870

  5. Heparin Modulates the Endopeptidase Activity of Leishmania mexicana Cysteine Protease Cathepsin L-Like rCPB2.8

    PubMed Central

    Judice, Wagner A. S.; Manfredi, Marcella A.; Souza, Gerson P.; Sansevero, Thiago M.; Almeida, Paulo C.; Shida, Cláudio S.; Gesteira, Tarsis F.; Juliano, Luiz; Westrop, Gareth D.; Sanderson, Sanya J.; Coombs, Graham H.; Tersariol, Ivarne L. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cysteine protease B is considered crucial for the survival and infectivity of the Leishmania in its human host. Several microorganism pathogens bind to the heparin-like glycosaminoglycans chains of proteoglycans at host-cell surface to promote their attachment and internalization. Here, we have investigated the influence of heparin upon Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease rCPB2.8 activity. Methodology/Principal Findings The data analysis revealed that the presence of heparin affects all steps of the enzyme reaction: (i) it decreases 3.5-fold the k1 and 4.0-fold the k−1, (ii) it affects the acyl-enzyme accumulation with pronounced decrease in k2 (2.7-fold), and also decrease in k3 (3.5-fold). The large values of ΔG  =  12 kJ/mol for the association and dissociation steps indicate substantial structural strains linked to the formation/dissociation of the ES complex in the presence of heparin, which underscore a conformational change that prevents the diffusion of substrate in the rCPB2.8 active site. Binding to heparin also significantly decreases the α-helix content of the rCPB2.8 and perturbs the intrinsic fluorescence emission of the enzyme. The data strongly suggest that heparin is altering the ionization of catalytic (Cys25)-S−/(His163)-Im+ H ion pair of the rCPB2.8. Moreover, the interaction of heparin with the N-terminal pro-region of rCPB2.8 significantly decreased its inhibitory activity against the mature enzyme. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, depending on their concentration, heparin-like glycosaminoglycans can either stimulate or antagonize the activity of cysteine protease B enzymes during parasite infection, suggesting that this glycoconjugate can anchor parasite cysteine protease at host cell surface. PMID:24278253

  6. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-increased protease activity by niacinamide, N-acetyl-L-cysteine or dexamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, F.M.; Broomfield, C.A.; Smith, W.J.

    1991-03-11

    The pathologic mechanism of sulfur mustard-induced skin vesication is as yet undefined. Papirmeister et al. have postulated a biochemical mechanism for sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injury involving sequelae of DNA alkylation, metabolic disruption resulting in NAD+ depletion and activation of protease. The authors have utilized a chromogenic peptide substrate assay to establish that human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed 24 hr previously to sulfur mustard exhibited an increase in proteolytic activity. Doses of compounds known to alter the biochemical events associated with sulfur mustard exposure or reduce protease activity were tested in this system for their ability to block the sulfur mustard-induced protease activity. Treatment with niacinamide 1 hr after or with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or dexamethasone 24 hr prior to sulfur mustard exposure resulted in a decrease of 39%, 33% and 42% respectively of sulfur mustard-increased protease activity. These data suggest that therapeutic intervention into the biochemical pathways that culminate in protease activation might serve as an approach to treatment of sulfur mustard-induced pathology.

  7. C-Terminal extension of a plant cysteine protease modulates proteolytic activity through a partial inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sruti; Choudhury, Debi; Dattagupta, Jiban K; Biswas, Sampa

    2011-09-01

    The amino acid sequence of ervatamin-C, a thermostable cysteine protease from a tropical plant, revealed an additional 24-amino-acid extension at its C-terminus (CT). The role of this extension peptide in zymogen activation, catalytic activity, folding and stability of the protease is reported. For this study, we expressed two recombinant forms of the protease in Escherichia coli, one retaining the CT-extension and the other with it truncated. The enzyme with the extension shows autocatalytic zymogen activation at a higher pH of 8.0, whereas deletion of the extension results in a more active form of the enzyme. This CT-extension was not found to be cleaved during autocatalysis or by limited proteolysis by different external proteases. Molecular modeling and simulation studies revealed that the CT-extension blocks some of the substrate-binding unprimed subsites including the specificity-determining subsite (S2) of the enzyme and thereby partially occludes accessibility of the substrates to the active site, which also corroborates the experimental observations. The CT-extension in the model structure shows tight packing with the catalytic domain of the enzyme, mediated by strong hydrophobic and H-bond interactions, thus restricting accessibility of its cleavage sites to the protease itself or to the external proteases. Kinetic stability analyses (T(50) and t(1/2) ) and refolding experiments show similar thermal stability and refolding efficiency for both forms. These data suggest that the CT-extension has an inhibitory role in the proteolytic activity of ervatamin-C but does not have a major role either in stabilizing the enzyme or in its folding mechanism. PMID:21707922

  8. Zingipain, A cysteine protease from Zingiber ottensii Valeton rhizomes with antiproliferative activities against fungi and human malignant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Karnchanatat, Aphichart; Tiengburanatam, Nathachai; Boonmee, Apaporn; Puthong, Songchan; Sangvanich, Polkit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of a protein identified as cysteine protease, purified from Zingiber ottensii Valeton rhizomes, in terms of antiproliferation against fungi, bacteria, and human malignant cell lines. By means of buffer extraction followed by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography, the obtained dominant protein (designated F50) was submitted to non-denaturing and reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), where a single band and three bands were revealed from eletrophoretic patterns, respectively. It could be concluded at this point that the F50 was potentially a heterotrimer or heterodimer composed of either two small (∼13.8 and ∼15.2 kD) subunits or these two together with a larger (∼32.5 kD) one. In-gel digestion was carried out for the most intense band from reducing SDS-PAGE, and to the resulting material was applied liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. The main F50 subunit was found to contain fragments with 100% similarity to zingipain-1, a cysteine protease first discovered in Zingiber officinale. The activity corresponding to the identified data, cysteine protease, was then confirmed in the F50 by azocasein assay and a positive result was obtained. The F50 then was further investigated for antiproliferation against three plant pathogenic fungi species by disk diffusion test, four bacterial species by direct exposure in liquid culture and dish diffusion tests, and five human malignant cell lines by tissue culture assay. It was found that a dose of 23.6 µg F50/0.3 cm(2) of paper disk exhibited the best inhibitory effect against Collectotrichum cassiicola, while lesser effects were found in Exserohilum turicicum and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. No inhibitory effect against bacterial proliferation was detected in all studied bacterial strains. However, relatively strong antiproliferative effects were found against five human

  9. Cysteine Protease Inhibitors as Chemotherapy: Lessons from a Parasite Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Paul M.; Pingel, Sabine; Hsieh, Ivy; Ugele, Bernhard; Chan, Victor J.; Engel, Juan C.; Bogyo, Matthew; Russell, David G.; Sakanari, Judy A.; McKerrow, James H.

    1999-09-01

    Papain family cysteine proteases are key factors in the pathogenesis of cancer invasion, arthritis, osteoporosis, and microbial infections. Targeting this enzyme family is therefore one strategy in the development of new chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Little is known, however, about the efficacy, selectivity, and safety of cysteine protease inhibitors in cell culture or in vivo. We now report that specific cysteine protease inhibitors kill Leishmania parasites in vitro, at concentrations that do not overtly affect mammalian host cells. Inhibition of Leishmania cysteine protease activity was accompanied by defects in the parasite's lysosome/endosome compartment resembling those seen in lysosomal storage diseases. Colocalization of anti-protease antibodies with biotinylated surface proteins and accumulation of undigested debris and protease in the flagellar pocket of treated parasites were consistent with a pathway of protease trafficking from flagellar pocket to the lysosome/endosome compartment. The inhibitors were sufficiently absorbed and stable in vivo to ameliorate the pathology associated with a mouse model of Leishmania infection.

  10. Identification of papain-like cysteine proteases from the bovine piroplasm Babesia bigemina and evolutionary relationship of piroplasms C1 family of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Martins, Tiago M; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Domingos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases have been shown to have essential roles in parasitic protozoa and are under study as promising drug targets. Five genes were identified by sequence similarity search to be homologous to the cysteine protease family in the ongoing Babesia bigemina genome sequencing project database and were compared with the annotated genes from the complete bovine piroplasm genomes of Babesia bovis, Theileria annulata, and Theileria parva. Multiple genome alignments and sequence analysis were used to evaluate the molecular evolution events that occurred in the C1 family of cysteine proteases in these piroplasms of veterinary importance. BbiCPL1, one of the newly identified cysteine protease genes in the B. bigemina genome was expressed in Escherichia coli and shows activity against peptide substrates. Considerable differences were observed in the cysteine protease family between Babesia and Theileria genera, and this may partially explain the diverse infection mechanisms of these tick-borne diseases. PMID:20655912

  11. Identification of non-peptidic cysteine reactive fragments as inhibitors of cysteine protease rhodesain.

    PubMed

    McShan, Danielle; Kathman, Stefan; Lowe, Brittiney; Xu, Ziyang; Zhan, Jennifer; Statsyuk, Alexander; Ogungbe, Ifedayo Victor

    2015-10-15

    Rhodesain, the major cathepsin L-like cysteine protease in the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, is a well-validated drug target. In this work, we used a fragment-based approach to identify inhibitors of this cysteine protease, and identified inhibitors of T. brucei. To discover inhibitors active against rhodesain and T. brucei, we screened a library of covalent fragments against rhodesain and conducted preliminary SAR studies. We envision that in vitro enzymatic assays will further expand the use of the covalent tethering method, a simple fragment-based drug discovery technique to discover covalent drug leads. PMID:26342866

  12. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Cysteine Protease Inhibitor from Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Milica; Andjelkovic, Uros; Grozdanovic, Milica; Aleksic, Ivana; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2013-03-01

    The need for replacing traditional pesticides with alternative agents for the management of agricultural pathogens is rising worldwide. In this study, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI), 11 kDa in size, was purified from green kiwifruit to homogeneity. We examined the growth inhibition of three plant pathogenic Gram-negative bacterial strains by kiwi CPI and attempted to elucidate the potential mechanism of the growth inhibition. CPI influenced the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens (76.2 % growth inhibition using 15 μM CPI), Burkholderia cepacia (75.6 % growth inhibition) and, to a lesser extent, Erwinia carotovora (44.4 % growth inhibition) by inhibiting proteinases that are excreted by these bacteria. Identification and characterization of natural plant defense molecules is the first step toward creation of improved methods for pest control based on naturally occurring molecules. PMID:24426085

  13. Cleavage of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) precursor to produce active IL-1 beta by a conserved extracellular cysteine protease from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, V; Majesky, M W; Li, L L; Black, R A; Musser, J M

    1993-01-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B), a conserved extracellular cysteine protease expressed by the human pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, was purified and shown to cleave inactive human interleukin 1 beta precursor (pIL-1 beta) to produce biologically active IL-1 beta. SPE B cleaves pIL-1 beta one residue amino-terminal to the site where a recently characterized endogenous human cysteine protease acts. IL-1 beta resulting from cleavage of pIL-1 beta by SPE B induced nitric oxide synthase activity in vascular smooth muscle cells and killed of the human melanoma A375 line. Two additional naturally occurring SPE B variants cleaved pIL-1 beta in a similar fashion. By demonstrating that SPE B catalyzes the formation of biologically active IL-1 beta from inactive pIL-1 beta, our data add a further dimension to an emerging theme in microbial pathogenesis that bacterial and viral virulence factors act directly on host cytokine pathways. The data also contribute to an enlarging literature demonstrating that microbial extracellular cysteine proteases are important in host-parasite interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7689226

  14. Cysteine proteases as therapeutic targets: does selectivity matter? A systematic review of calpain and cathepsin inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Siklos, Marton; BenAissa, Manel; Thatcher, Gregory R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine proteases continue to provide validated targets for treatment of human diseases. In neurodegenerative disorders, multiple cysteine proteases provide targets for enzyme inhibitors, notably caspases, calpains, and cathepsins. The reactive, active-site cysteine provides specificity for many inhibitor designs over other families of proteases, such as aspartate and serine; however, a) inhibitor strategies often use covalent enzyme modification, and b) obtaining selectivity within families of cysteine proteases and their isozymes is problematic. This review provides a general update on strategies for cysteine protease inhibitor design and a focus on cathepsin B and calpain 1 as drug targets for neurodegenerative disorders; the latter focus providing an interesting query for the contemporary assumptions that irreversible, covalent protein modification and low selectivity are anathema to therapeutic safety and efficacy. PMID:26713267

  15. α-Ketoheterocycles as inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB

    PubMed Central

    Steert, Koen; Berg, Maya; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Coombs, Graham H.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Joossens, Jurgen; Van der Veken, Pieter; Haemers, Achiel; Augustyns, Koen

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes and also play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites. Inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas’ disease and leishmaniasis. Inspired by the in vivo antiparasitic activity of the vinyl sulfone based cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs), a series of α-ketoheterocycles 1-15 has been developed as reversible inhibitors of a recombinant L. mexicana cysteine protease CPB2.8. The isoxazoles 1-3 and especially the oxadiazole 15 are potent reversible inhibitors of CPB2.8, however, in vitro whole-organism screening against a panel of protozoan parasites did not fully correlate with the observed inhibition of the cysteine protease. PMID:20799311

  16. The SpeB virulence factor of Streptococcus pyogenes, a multifunctional secreted and cell surface molecule with strepadhesin, laminin-binding and cysteine protease activity.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, J; Haataja, S; Gerlach, D; Podbielski, A; Finne, J

    2001-01-01

    The interactions between pathogenic bacteria and the host need to be resolved at the molecular level in order to develop novel vaccines and drugs. We have previously identified strepadhesin, a novel glycoprotein-binding activity in Streptococcus pyogenes, which is regulated by Mga, a regulator of streptococcal virulence factors. We have now identified the protein responsible for the strepadhesin activity and find that (i) strepadhesin activity is carried by SpeB, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin with cysteine protease activity; (ii) SpeB carries laminin-binding activity of the bacteria; and (iii) SpeB is not only a secreted molecule but also occurs unexpectedly tightly bound to the bacterial cell surface. Thus, in contrast to the previous view of SpeB as mainly an extracellular protease, it is also present as a streptococcal surface molecule with binding activity to laminin and other glycoproteins. PMID:11136470

  17. Fighting an enemy within: cytoplasmic inhibitors of bacterial cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Jan; Golonka, Ewa; Filipek, Renata; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2005-08-01

    The genes encoding secreted, broad-spectrum activity cysteine proteases of Staphylococcus spp. (staphopains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (streptopain, SpeB) are genetically linked to genes encoding cytoplasmic inhibitors. While staphopain inhibitors have lipocalin-like folds, streptopain is inhibited by a protein bearing the scaffold of the enzyme profragment. Bioinformatic analysis of other prokaryotic genomes has revealed that two more species may utilize this same genetic arrangement to control streptopain-like proteases with lipocalin-like inhibitors, while three other species may employ a C-terminally located domain that resembles the profragment. This apparently represents a novel system that bacteria use to control the intracellular activity of their proteases. PMID:16045606

  18. Effect of Group A Streptococcal Cysteine Protease on Invasion of Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pei-Jane; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Lin, Kuei-Yuan; Lin, Yee-Shin; Lei, Huan-Yao; Chen, Fen-Fen; Wang, Jen-Ren; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    1998-01-01

    Cysteine protease of group A streptococci (GAS) is considered an important virulence factor. However, its role in invasiveness of GAS has not been investigated. We demonstrated in this study that two strains of protease-producing GAS had the ability to invade A-549 human respiratory epithelial cells. Isogenic protease mutants were constructed by using integrational plasmids to disrupt the speB gene and confirmed by Southern hybridization and Western immunoblot analyses. No extracellular protease activity was produced by the mutants. The mutants had growth rates similar to those of the wild-type strains and produced normal levels of other extracellular proteins. When invading A-549 cells, the mutants had a two- to threefold decrease in activity compared to that of the wild-type strains. The invasion activity increased when the A-549 cells were incubated with purified cysteine protease and the mutant. However, blockage of the cysteine protease with a specific cysteine protease inhibitor, E-64, decreased the invasion activity of GAS. Intracellular growth of GAS was not found in A-549 cells. The presence or absence of protease activity did not affect the adhesive ability of GAS. These results suggested that streptococcal cysteine protease can enhance the invasion ability of GAS in human respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:9529068

  19. Effect of group A streptococcal cysteine protease on invasion of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, P J; Kuo, C F; Lin, K Y; Lin, Y S; Lei, H Y; Chen, F F; Wang, J R; Wu, J J

    1998-04-01

    Cysteine protease of group A streptococci (GAS) is considered an important virulence factor. However, its role in invasiveness of GAS has not been investigated. We demonstrated in this study that two strains of protease-producing GAS had the ability to invade A-549 human respiratory epithelial cells. Isogenic protease mutants were constructed by using integrational plasmids to disrupt the speB gene and confirmed by Southern hybridization and Western immunoblot analyses. No extracellular protease activity was produced by the mutants. The mutants had growth rates similar to those of the wild-type strains and produced normal levels of other extracellular proteins. When invading A-549 cells, the mutants had a two- to threefold decrease in activity compared to that of the wild-type strains. The invasion activity increased when the A-549 cells were incubated with purified cysteine protease and the mutant. However, blockage of the cysteine protease with a specific cysteine protease inhibitor, E-64, decreased the invasion activity of GAS. Intracellular growth of GAS was not found in A-549 cells. The presence or absence of protease activity did not affect the adhesive ability of GAS. These results suggested that streptococcal cysteine protease can enhance the invasion ability of GAS in human respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:9529068

  20. A cysteine protease encoded by the baculovirus Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, T; Majima, K; Maeda, S

    1994-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the BamHI F fragment of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) revealed an open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had homology to those of cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily. The putative cysteine protease sequence (BmNPV-CP) was 323 amino acids long and showed 35% identity to a cysteine proteinase precursor from Trypanosoma brucei. Of 36 residues conserved among cathepsins B, H, L, and S and papain, 31 were identical in BmNPV-CP. In order to determine the activity and function of the putative cysteine protease, a BmNPV mutant (BmCysPD) was constructed by homologous recombination of the protease gene with a beta-galactosidase gene cassette. BmCysPD-infected BmN cell extracts were significantly reduced in acid protease activity compared with wild-type virus-infected cell extracts. The cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinylleucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane] inhibited wild-type virus-expressed protease activity. Deletion of the cysteine protease gene had no significant effect on viral growth or polyhedron production in BmN cells, indicating that the cysteine protease was not essential for viral replication in vitro. However, B. mori larvae infected with BmCysPD showed symptoms different from those of wild-type BmNPV-infected larvae, e.g., less degradation of the body, including fat body cells, white body surface color due presumably to undegraded epidermal cells, and an increase in the number of polyhedra released into the hemolymph. This is the first report of (i) a virus-encoded protease with activity on general substrates and (ii) evidence that a virus-encoded protease may play a role in degradation of infected larvae to facilitate horizontal transmission of the virus. Images PMID:8083997

  1. Cysteine protease of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis preferentially evokes an IgE/IgG1 antibody response in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, I; Yamada, M; Uchikawa, R; Matsuda, S; Arizono, N

    1995-01-01

    Some cysteine proteases such as papain and those of mites and schistosomes have potent allergenic properties. To clarify the allergenicity of nematode cysteine proteases, the enzyme was purified from the intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis using cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protease, of 16 kD and pI 8.5, showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 5.5 and substrate preference for Z-Phe-Arg-MCA. The specific inhibitors of cysteine protease leupeptin, iodoacetic acid, and E-64, completely suppressed the activity, indicating that the purified enzyme belongs to the cysteine protease family. Cysteine protease activity was found not only in somatic extract, but also in the excretory-secretory (ES) product of the nematode. When anti-cysteine protease immunoglobulin isotypes were examined in sera from rats infected with N. brasiliensis, a high level of IgG1 and a lower level of IgE antibody were detected. Depletion of IgG antibodies from the sera using protein G affinity columns resulted in a marked increase in reactivity of anti-cysteine protease IgE with the antigen, possibly due to the removal of competing IgG antibodies. In contrast to IgE and IgG1, production of anti-cysteine protease IgG2a was negligible. These results indicate that the nematode cysteine protease preferentially evokes an IgE/IgG1 antibody response. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7554403

  2. Synthesis of a sugar-based thiosemicarbazone series and structure-activity relationship versus the parasite cysteine proteases rhodesain, cruzain, and Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Nayara Cristina; da Cruz, Luana Faria; da Silva Villela, Filipe; do Nascimento Pereira, Glaécia Aparecida; de Siqueira-Neto, Jair Lage; Kellar, Danielle; Suzuki, Brian M; Ray, Debalina; de Souza, Thiago Belarmino; Alves, Ricardo José; Sales Júnior, Policarpo Ademar; Romanha, Alvaro José; Murta, Silvane Maria Fonseca; McKerrow, James H; Caffrey, Conor R; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado

    2015-05-01

    The pressing need for better drugs against Chagas disease, African sleeping sickness, and schistosomiasis motivates the search for inhibitors of cruzain, rhodesain, and Schistosoma mansoni CB1 (SmCB1), the major cysteine proteases from Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and S. mansoni, respectively. Thiosemicarbazones and heterocyclic analogues have been shown to be both antitrypanocidal and inhibitory against parasite cysteine proteases. A series of compounds was synthesized and evaluated against cruzain, rhodesain, and SmCB1 through biochemical assays to determine their potency and structure-activity relationships (SAR). This approach led to the discovery of 6 rhodesain, 4 cruzain, and 5 SmCB1 inhibitors with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ≤ 10 μM. Among the compounds tested, the thiosemicarbazone derivative of peracetylated galactoside (compound 4i) was discovered to be a potent rhodesain inhibitor (IC50 = 1.2 ± 1.0 μM). The impact of a range of modifications was determined; removal of thiosemicarbazone or its replacement by semicarbazone resulted in virtually inactive compounds, and modifications in the sugar also diminished potency. Compounds were also evaluated in vitro against the parasites T. cruzi, T. brucei, and S. mansoni, revealing active compounds among this series. PMID:25712353

  3. Synthesis of a Sugar-Based Thiosemicarbazone Series and Structure-Activity Relationship versus the Parasite Cysteine Proteases Rhodesain, Cruzain, and Schistosoma mansoni Cathepsin B1

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Nayara Cristina; da Cruz, Luana Faria; da Silva Villela, Filipe; do Nascimento Pereira, Glaécia Aparecida; de Siqueira-Neto, Jair Lage; Kellar, Danielle; Suzuki, Brian M.; Ray, Debalina; de Souza, Thiago Belarmino; Alves, Ricardo José; Júnior, Policarpo Ademar Sales; Romanha, Alvaro José; Murta, Silvane Maria Fonseca; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.; de Oliveira, Renata Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    The pressing need for better drugs against Chagas disease, African sleeping sickness, and schistosomiasis motivates the search for inhibitors of cruzain, rhodesain, and Schistosoma mansoni CB1 (SmCB1), the major cysteine proteases from Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and S. mansoni, respectively. Thiosemicarbazones and heterocyclic analogues have been shown to be both antitrypanocidal and inhibitory against parasite cysteine proteases. A series of compounds was synthesized and evaluated against cruzain, rhodesain, and SmCB1 through biochemical assays to determine their potency and structure-activity relationships (SAR). This approach led to the discovery of 6 rhodesain, 4 cruzain, and 5 SmCB1 inhibitors with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ≤10 μM. Among the compounds tested, the thiosemicarbazone derivative of peracetylated galactoside (compound 4i) was discovered to be a potent rhodesain inhibitor (IC50 = 1.2 ± 1.0 μM). The impact of a range of modifications was determined; removal of thiosemicarbazone or its replacement by semicarbazone resulted in virtually inactive compounds, and modifications in the sugar also diminished potency. Compounds were also evaluated in vitro against the parasites T. cruzi, T. brucei, and S. mansoni, revealing active compounds among this series. PMID:25712353

  4. A protein extract and a cysteine protease inhibitor enriched fraction from Jatropha curcas seed cake have in vitro anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity.

    PubMed

    Soares, A M S; Carvalho, L P; Melo, E J T; Costa, H P S; Vasconcelos, I M; Oliveira, J T A

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of great medical and veterinary importance that has worldwide distribution and causes toxoplasmosis. There are few treatments available for toxoplasmosis and the search for plant extracts and compounds with anti-Toxoplasma activity is of utmost importance for the discovery of new active drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of a protein extract and a protease inhibitor enriched fraction from J. curcas seed cake on developing tachyzoites of T. gondii-infected Vero cells. The protein extract (JcCE) was obtained after solubilization of the J. curcas seed cake with 100 mM sodium borate buffer, pH 10, centrifugation and dialysis of the resulting supernatant with the extracting buffer. JcCE was used for the in vitro assays of anti-Toxoplasma activity at 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/ml concentration for 24 h. The results showed that JcCE reduced the percentage of infection and the number of intracellular parasites, but had no effect on the morphology of Vero cells up to 3.0 mg/mL. The cysteine protease inhibitor enriched fraction, which was obtained after chromatography of JcCE on Sephadex G-75 and presented a unique protein band following SDS-PAGE, reduced both the number of T. gondii infected cells and intracellular parasites. These results suggest that both JcCE and the cysteine protease inhibitor enriched fraction interfere with the intracellular growth of T. gondii. PMID:25816973

  5. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine.

    PubMed

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target. PMID:26597768

  6. Binding modes of a new epoxysuccinyl-peptide inhibitor of cysteine proteases. Where and how do cysteine proteases express their selectivity?

    PubMed

    Czaplewski, C; Grzonka, Z; Jaskólski, M; Kasprzykowski, F; Kozak, M; Politowska, E; Ciarkowski, J

    1999-05-18

    Papain from Carica papaya, an easily available cysteine protease, is the best-studied representative of this family of enzymes. The three dimensional structure of papain is very similar to that of other cysteine proteases of either plant (actinidin, caricain, papaya protease IV) or animal (cathepsins B, K, L, H) origin. As abnormalities in the activities of mammalian cysteine proteases accompany a variety of diseases, there has been a long-lasting interest in the development of potent and selective inhibitors for these enzymes. A covalent inhibitor of cysteine proteases, designed as a combination of epoxysuccinyl and peptide moieties, has been modeled in the catalytic pocket of papain. A number of its configurations have been generated and relaxed by constrained simulated annealing-molecular dynamics in water. A clear conformational variability of this inhibitor is discussed in the context of a conspicuous conformational diversity observed earlier in several solid-state structures of other complexes between cysteine proteases and covalent inhibitors. The catalytic pockets S2 and even more so S3, as defined by the pioneering studies on the papain-ZPACK, papain-E64c and papain-leupeptin complexes, appear elusive in view of the evident flexibility of the present inhibitor and in confrontation with the obvious conformational scatter seen in other examples. This predicts limited chances for the development of selective structure-based inhibitors of thiol proteases, designed to exploit the minute differences in the catalytic pockets of various members of this family. A simultaneous comparison of the three published proenzyme structures suggests the enzyme's prosegment binding loop-prosegment interface as a new potential target for selective inhibitors of papain-related thiol proteases. PMID:10350606

  7. Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

    2006-09-19

    Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

  8. Exogenous Thyropin from p41 Invariant Chain Diminishes Cysteine Protease Activity and Affects IL-12 Secretion during Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zavašnik-Bergant, Tina; Bergant Marušič, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role as antigen presenting cells (APC) and their maturation is crucial for effectively eliciting an antigen-specific immune response. The p41 splice variant of MHC class II-associated chaperone, called invariant chain p41 Ii, contains an amino acid sequence, the p41 fragment, which is a thyropin-type inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes. The effects of exogenous p41 fragment and related thyropin inhibitors acting on human immune cells have not been reported yet. In this study we demonstrate that exogenous p41 fragment can enter the endocytic pathway of targeted human immature DC. Internalized p41 fragment has contributed to the total amount of the immunogold labelled p41 Ii-specific epitope, as quantified by transmission electron microscopy, in particular in late endocytic compartments with multivesicular morphology where antigen processing and binding to MHC II take place. In cell lysates of treated immature DC, diminished enzymatic activity of cysteine proteases has been confirmed. Internalized exogenous p41 fragment did not affect the perinuclear clustering of acidic cathepsin S-positive vesicles typical of mature DC. p41 fragment is shown to interfere with the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in LPS-stimulated DC. p41 fragment is also shown to reduce the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12/p70) during the subsequent maturation of treated DC. The inhibition of proteolytic activity of lysosomal cysteine proteases in immature DC and the diminished capability of DC to produce IL-12 upon their subsequent maturation support the immunomodulatory potential of the examined thyropin from p41 Ii. PMID:26960148

  9. Nitric oxide inhibits falcipain, the Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Venturini, G; Colasanti, M; Salvati, L; Gradoni, L; Ascenzi, P

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pluripotent regulatory molecule possessing, among others, an antiparasitic activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of NO on the catalytic activity of falcipain, the papain-like cysteine protease involved in Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite hemoglobin degradation, is reported. In particular, NO donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), (+/-)-(E)-p6ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenami de (NOR-3), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) inhibit dose-dependently the falcipain activity present in the P. falciparum trophozoite extract, this effect likely attributable to S-nitrosylation of the Cys25 catalytic residue. The results represent a new insight into the modulation mechanism of falcipain activity, thereby being relevant in developing new strategies for inhibition of the P. falciparum life cycle. PMID:10623597

  10. Expression and deletion analysis of the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense cysteine protease in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Pamer, E G; Davis, C E; So, M

    1991-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei, the cause of African sleeping sickness, differentiates in the mammalian bloodstream from a long, slender trypanosome into a short, stumpy trypanosome. This event is necessary for infection of the tsetse fly and maintenance of the life cycle. We have previously shown that the stumpy form contains 10- to 15-fold-greater cysteine protease activity than either the slender form or the insect midgut procyclic, and we have isolated a cDNA encoding the protease. In order to determine whether the cDNA encodes the developmentally regulated cysteine protease, we have purified the protease from trypanosomes and have made a polyclonal antiserum against it. The trypanosomal protease gene was then expressed in Escherichia coli with three different methionines within the pre- and propeptides acting as initiation sites. In each case, a protein was synthesized that was recognized by an antiserum specific for the developmentally regulated trypanosomal cysteine protease. The protein synthesized from the more upstream initiation site within the propeptide was proteolytically active. The recombinant protease and the trypanosomal enzyme were identical with respect to peptide substrates and protease inhibitors. The protein remained active when synthesized in a truncated form lacking the nine consecutive prolines and carboxy-terminus extension, indicating that the terminal 108 amino acids are not necessary for proteolytic activity. Images PMID:1997411

  11. THE ROLE OF CYSTEINE PROTEASE IN ALZHEIMER DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Hasanbasic, Samra; Jahic, Alma; Karahmet, Emina; Sejranic, Asja; Prnjavorac, Besim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cysteine protease are biological catalysts which play a pivotal role in numerous biological reactions in organism. Much of the literature is inscribed to their biochemical significance, distribution and mechanism of action. Many diseases, e.g. Alzheimer’s disease, develop due to enzyme balance disruption. Understanding of cysteine protease’s disbalance is therefor a key to unravel the new possibilities of treatment. Cysteine protease are one of the most important enzymes for protein disruption during programmed cell death. Whether protein disruption is part of cell deaths is not enough clear in any cases. Thereafter, any tissue disruption, including proteolysis, generate more or less inflammation appearance. Review: This review briefly summarizes the current knowledge about pathological mechanism’s that results in AD, with significant reference to the role of cysteine protease in it. Based on the summary, new pharmacological approach and development of novel potent drugs with selective toxicity targeting cysteine protease will be a major challenge in years to come. PMID:27482169

  12. Secreted cysteine proteases of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini: regulation of cathepsin F activation by autocatalysis and trans-processing by cathepsin B

    PubMed Central

    Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Laha, Thewarach; To, Joyce; Brindley, Paul J.; Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Dalton, John P.; Robinson, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Opisthorchis viverrini is an important helminth pathogen of humans that is endemic in Thailand and Laos. Adult flukes reside within host bile ducts and feed on epithelial tissue and blood cells. Chronic opisthorchiasis is associated with severe hepatobiliary diseases such as cholangiocarcinoma. Here we report that adult O. viverrini secrete two major cysteine proteases: cathepsin F (Ov-CF-1) and cathepsin B1 (Ov-CB-1). Ov-CF-1 is secreted as an inactive zymogen that auto-catalytically processes and activates to a mature enzyme at pH 4.5 via an intermolecular cleavage at the prosegment-mature domain junction. Ov-CB-1 is also secreted as a zymogen but, in contrast to Ov-CF-1, is fully active against peptide and macromolecular substrates despite retaining the N-terminal prosegment. The active Ov-CB-1 zymogen was capable of trans-activating Ov-CF-1 by proteolytic removal of its prosegment at pH 5.5, a pH at which the Ov-CF-1 zymogen cannot auto-catalytically activate. Both cathepsins hydrolyse human haemoglobin but their combined action more efficiently degrades haemoglobin to smaller peptides than each enzyme alone. Ov-CF-1 degraded extracellular matrix proteins more effectively than Ov-CB-1 at physiological pH. We propose that Ov-CB-1 regulates Ov-CF-1 activity and that both enzymes work together to degrade host tissue contributing to the development of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:20070308

  13. Peptidyl cyclopropenones: Reversible inhibitors, irreversible inhibitors, or substrates of cysteine proteases?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Meital; Bretler, Uriel; Albeck, Amnon

    2013-01-01

    Peptidyl cyclopropenones were previously introduced as selective cysteine protease reversible inhibitors. In the present study we synthesized one such peptidyl cyclopropenone and investigated its interaction with papain, a prototype cysteine protease. A set of kinetics, biochemical, HPLC, MS, and 13C-NMR experiments revealed that the peptidyl cyclopropenone was an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme, alkylating the catalytic cysteine. In parallel, this cyclopropenone also behaved as an alternative substrate of the enzyme, providing a product that was tentatively suggested to be either a spiroepoxy cyclopropanone or a gamma-lactone. Thus, a single family of compounds exhibits an unusual variety of activities, being reversible inhibitors, irreversible inhibitors and alternative substrates towards enzymes of the same family. PMID:23553793

  14. Cysteine and Aspartyl Proteases Contribute to Protein Digestion in the Gut of Freshwater Planaria.

    PubMed

    Goupil, Louise S; Ivry, Sam L; Hsieh, Ivy; Suzuki, Brian M; Craik, Charles S; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; McKerrow, James H

    2016-08-01

    Proteases perform numerous vital functions in flatworms, many of which are likely to be conserved throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes. Within this phylum are several parasitic worms that are often poorly characterized due to their complex life-cycles and lack of responsiveness to genetic manipulation. The flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, or planaria, is an ideal model organism to study the complex role of protein digestion due to its simple life cycle and amenability to techniques like RNA interference (RNAi). In this study, we were interested in deconvoluting the digestive protease system that exists in the planarian gut. To do this, we developed an alcohol-induced regurgitation technique to enrich for the gut enzymes in S. mediterranea. Using a panel of fluorescent substrates, we show that this treatment produces a sharp increase in proteolytic activity. These enzymes have broad yet diverse substrate specificity profiles. Proteomic analysis of the gut contents revealed the presence of cysteine and metallo-proteases. However, treatment with class-specific inhibitors showed that aspartyl and cysteine proteases are responsible for the majority of protein digestion. Specific RNAi knockdown of the cathepsin B-like cysteine protease (SmedCB) reduced protein degradation in vivo. Immunohistochemistry and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) confirmed that the full-length and active forms of SmedCB are found in secretory cells surrounding the planaria intestinal lumen. Finally, we show that the knockdown of SmedCB reduces the speed of tissue regeneration. Defining the roles of proteases in planaria can provide insight to functions of conserved proteases in parasitic flatworms, potentially uncovering drug targets in parasites. PMID:27501047

  15. Cysteine and Aspartyl Proteases Contribute to Protein Digestion in the Gut of Freshwater Planaria

    PubMed Central

    Goupil, Louise S.; Ivry, Sam L.; Hsieh, Ivy; Suzuki, Brian M.; Craik, Charles S.; O’Donoghue, Anthony J.; McKerrow, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Proteases perform numerous vital functions in flatworms, many of which are likely to be conserved throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes. Within this phylum are several parasitic worms that are often poorly characterized due to their complex life-cycles and lack of responsiveness to genetic manipulation. The flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, or planaria, is an ideal model organism to study the complex role of protein digestion due to its simple life cycle and amenability to techniques like RNA interference (RNAi). In this study, we were interested in deconvoluting the digestive protease system that exists in the planarian gut. To do this, we developed an alcohol-induced regurgitation technique to enrich for the gut enzymes in S. mediterranea. Using a panel of fluorescent substrates, we show that this treatment produces a sharp increase in proteolytic activity. These enzymes have broad yet diverse substrate specificity profiles. Proteomic analysis of the gut contents revealed the presence of cysteine and metallo-proteases. However, treatment with class-specific inhibitors showed that aspartyl and cysteine proteases are responsible for the majority of protein digestion. Specific RNAi knockdown of the cathepsin B-like cysteine protease (SmedCB) reduced protein degradation in vivo. Immunohistochemistry and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) confirmed that the full-length and active forms of SmedCB are found in secretory cells surrounding the planaria intestinal lumen. Finally, we show that the knockdown of SmedCB reduces the speed of tissue regeneration. Defining the roles of proteases in planaria can provide insight to functions of conserved proteases in parasitic flatworms, potentially uncovering drug targets in parasites. PMID:27501047

  16. Structure-function and pathogenesis studies of Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Burns, E H; Marciel, A M; Musser, J M

    1997-01-01

    Replacement of the single cysteine residue (C192) with serine in the Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease (SCP) prevented auto-catalytic processing of the 40-kDa zymogen to the 28-kDa mature form and eliminated proteolytic activity. SCP incubated with human endothelial cells induced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in a 66-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase in culture supernatants. Activation of this gelatinase/collagenase may contribute to endothelial cell damage, tissue destruction, and hemodynamic derangement observed in some patients with severe, invasive S. pyogenes infection. PMID:9331720

  17. Inhibitory Properties of Cysteine Protease Pro-Peptides from Barley Confer Resistance to Spider Mite Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems. PMID:26039069

  18. Copper Inhibits the Protease from Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 by Both Cysteine-Dependent and Cysteine-Independent Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, Anders R.; Levine, Rodney L.

    1991-07-01

    The protease of the human immunodeficiency virus is essential for replication of the virus, and the enzyme is therefore an attractive target for antiviral action. We have found that the viral protease is inhibited by approximately stoichiometric concentrations of copper or mercury ions. Inactivation by Cu2+ was rapid and not reversed by subsequent exposure to EDTA or dithiothreitol. Direct inhibition by Cu2+ required the presence of cysteine residue(s) in the protease. Thus, a synthetic protease lacking cysteine residues was not inhibited by exposure to copper. However, addition of dithiothreitol as an exogenous thiol rendered even the synthetic protease susceptible to inactivation by copper. Oxygen was not required for inactivation of either the wild-type or the synthetic protease. These results provide the basis for the design of novel types of protease inhibitors.

  19. Homology modelling and structural analysis of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase NAT1: evidence for the conservation of a cysteine protease catalytic domain and an active-site loop.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Lima, F; Deloménie, C; Goodfellow, G H; Grant, D M; Dupret, J M

    2001-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.5) (NATs) catalyse the biotransformation of many primary arylamines, hydrazines and their N-hydroxylated metabolites, thereby playing an important role in both the detoxification and metabolic activation of numerous xenobiotics. The recently published crystal structure of the Salmonella typhimurium NAT (StNAT) revealed the existence of a cysteine protease-like (Cys-His-Asp) catalytic triad. In the present study, a three-dimensional homology model of human NAT1, based upon the crystal structure of StNAT [Sinclair, Sandy, Delgoda, Sim and Noble (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 560-564], is demonstrated. Alignment of StNAT and NAT1, together with secondary structure predictions, have defined a consensus region (residues 29-131) in which 37% of the residues are conserved. Homology modelling provided a good quality model of the corresponding region in human NAT1. The location of the catalytic triad was found to be identical in StNAT and NAT1. Comparison of active-site structural elements revealed that a similar length loop is conserved in both species (residues 122-131 in NAT1 model and residues 122-133 in StNAT). This observation may explain the involvement of residues 125, 127 and 129 in human NAT substrate selectivity. Our model, and the fact that cysteine protease inhibitors do not affect the activity of NAT1, suggests that human NATs may have adapted a common catalytic mechanism from cysteine proteases to accommodate it for acetyl-transfer reactions. PMID:11368758

  20. Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    PubMed

    Kongkerd, Natthawan; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Morakote, Nimit; Sajid, Mohammed; McKerrow, James H

    2008-08-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a causative agent of human gnathostomiasis, a common parasitic disease involving skin and visceral organs, especially the central nervous system. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (GsCL1) from the lambdaZAP cDNA library of G. spinigerum advanced third-stage larva (aL3) and characterized the biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme. The cloned cDNA of 1484bp encoded 398 amino acids which contained a typical signal peptide sequence (23 amino acids), a pro-domain (156 amino acids), and a mature domain (219 amino acids) with an approximate molecular weight of 24kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of GsCL1 gene showed 53-64% identity to cathepsin L proteases of various organisms including a cathepsin L family member (cpl-1) of Caenorhabditis elegans. Recombinant proGsCL1 expressed in Pichia pastoris showed typical biochemical characteristics of cysteine proteases. The expressed enzyme displayed optimal protease activity toward Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrate at pH 6.0 but not toward Z-Arg-Arg-AMC. The activity was sensitive to cysteine protease inhibitors E-64 and K11777. The preference for large hydrophilic and aromatic residues in the P2 position (I, L, F, W, U, V) was typical of cathepsin L proteases. Mouse anti-GST-proGsCL1 serum showed reactivity with 35-, 38- and 45-kDa proteins in the aL3 extracts. These proteins were shown to localize inside the intestinal cells of aL3. PMID:18554733

  1. Natural cysteine protease inhibitors in protozoa: Fifteen years of the chagasin family.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tatiana F R; Lima, Ana Paula C A

    2016-03-01

    Chagasin-type inhibitors comprise natural inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases that are distributed among Protist, Bacteria and Archaea. Chagasin was identified in the pathogenic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi as an approximately 11 kDa protein that is a tight-binding and highly thermostable inhibitor of papain, cysteine cathepsins and endogenous parasite cysteine proteases. It displays an Imunoglobulin-like fold with three exposed loops to one side of the molecule, where amino acid residues present in conserved motifs at the tips of each loop contact target proteases. Differently from cystatins, the loop 2 of chagasin enters the active-site cleft, making direct contact with the catalytic residues, while loops 4 and 6 embrace the enzyme from the sides. Orthologues of chagasin are named Inhibitors of Cysteine Peptidases (ICP), and share conserved overall tri-dimensional structure and mode of binding to proteases. ICPs are tentatively distributed in three families: in family I42 are grouped chagasin-type inhibitors that share conserved residues at the exposed loops; family I71 contains Plasmodium ICPs, which are large proteins having a chagasin-like domain at the C-terminus, with lower similarity to chagasin in the conserved motif at loop 2; family I81 contains Toxoplasma ICP. Recombinant ICPs tested so far can inactivate protozoa cathepsin-like proteases and their mammalian counterparts. Studies on their biological roles were carried out in a few species, mainly using transgenic protozoa, and the conclusions vary. However, in all cases, alterations in the levels of expression of chagasin/ICPs led to substantial changes in one or more steps of parasite biology, with higher incidence in influencing their interaction with the hosts. We will cover most of the findings on chagasin/ICP structural and functional properties and overview the current knowledge on their roles in protozoa. PMID:26546840

  2. Mutation in the Pro-Peptide Region of a Cysteine Protease Leads to Altered Activity and Specificity—A Structural and Biochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sruti; Choudhury, Debi; Roy, Sumana; Dattagupta, Jiban Kanti; Biswas, Sampa

    2016-01-01

    Papain-like proteases contain an N-terminal pro-peptide in their zymogen form that is important for correct folding and spatio-temporal regulation of the proteolytic activity of these proteases. Catalytic removal of the pro-peptide is required for the protease to become active. In this study, we have generated three different mutants of papain (I86F, I86L and I86A) by replacing the residue I86 in its pro-peptide region, which blocks the specificity determining S2-subsite of the catalytic cleft of the protease in its zymogen form with a view to investigate the effect of mutation on the catalytic activity of the protease. Steady-state enzyme kinetic analyses of the corresponding mutant proteases with specific peptide substrates show significant alteration of substrate specificity—I86F and I86L have 2.7 and 29.1 times higher kcat/Km values compared to the wild-type against substrates having Phe and Leu at P2 position, respectively, while I86A shows lower catalytic activity against majority of the substrates tested. Far-UV CD scan and molecular mass analyses of the mature form of the mutant proteases reveal similar CD spectra and intact masses to that of the wild-type. Crystal structures of zymogens of I86F and I86L mutants suggest that subtle reorganization of active site residues, including water, upon binding of the pro-peptide may allow the enzyme to achieve discriminatory substrate selectivity and catalytic efficiency. However, accurate and reliable predictions on alteration of substrate specificity require atomic resolution structure of the catalytic domain after zymogen activation, which remains a challenging task. In this study we demonstrate that through single amino acid substitution in pro-peptide, it is possible to modify the substrate specificity of papain and hence the pro-peptide of a protease can also be a useful target for altering its catalytic activity/specificity. PMID:27352302

  3. Enzymatic characterization of germination-specific cysteine protease-1 expressed transiently in cotyledons during the early phase of germination.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Tsukamoto, Kana; Iwamoto, Keiko; Ito, Yuka; Yuasa, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine protease activity that shows a unique transient expression profile in cotyledons of daikon radish during germination was detected. The enzyme showed a distinct elution pattern on DEAE-cellulose compared with cathepsin B-like and Responsive to dessication-21 cysteine protease. Although this activity was not detected in seed prior to imbibition, the activity increased markedly and reached a maximum at 2 days after imbibition and then decreased rapidly and completely disappeared after 5 days. Using cystatin-Sepharose, the 26 kDa cysteine protease (DRCP26) was isolated from cotyledons at 2 days after imbibition. The deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA nucleotide sequence indicated that DRCP26 is an orthologue of Arabidopsis unidentified protein, germination-specific cysteine protease-1, belonging to the C1 family of cysteine protease predicted from genetic information. In an effort to characterize the enzymatic properties of DRCP26, the enzyme was purified to homogeneity from cotyledons at 48 h after imbibition. The best synthetic substrate for the enzyme was carbobenzoxy-Phe-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide. All model peptides were digested to small peptides by the enzyme, suggesting that DRCP26 possesses broad cleavage specificity. These results indicated that DRCP26 plays a role in the mobilization of storage proteins in the early phase of seed germination. PMID:23112094

  4. Cysteine protease and its inhibitor in experimentally produced squamous cell carcinomas in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Alidina, R; Kikuchi, M; Kashima, M; Epstein, J H; Fukuyama, K

    1988-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) were experimentally produced in hairless mouse skin, and cysteine protease and its inhibitor were simultaneously purified from extracts of 1 g of tissue of SCC and normal skin. Activity of cysteine proteinases, Mr greater than 50,000 and Mr 28,000, increased in SCC compared to those in normal skin. SCC also showed elevation of cysteine proteinase inhibitor activity and Mr 13,000 and Mr 82,000 inhibitors were purified. Mr 13,000 inhibitor was found to have biochemical properties which were the same as those of the inhibitor present in normal skin. Mr 82,000 inhibitor was not detectable in normal skin and it differed from a serum inhibitor with a similar Mr in terms of activity and stability at acidic pH. The findings suggest that the increased activity of both cysteine proteases and endogenous inhibitors may be involved in the regulatory mechanisms of malignant cell metabolism and tissue remodeling associated with SCC development. PMID:3396664

  5. Structural Basis for the Immunomodulatory Function of Cysteine Protease Inhibitor from Human Roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Guoqiang; Dong, Jianmei; Li, Zhaotao; Liu, Sanling; Liu, Yunfeng; Sun, Mingze; Liu, Guiyun; Su, Zhong; Liu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Immunosuppression associated with infections of nematode parasites has been documented. Cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) released by the nematode parasites is identified as one of the major modulators of host immune response. In this report, we demonstrated that the recombinant CPI protein of Ascaris lumbricoides (Al-CPI) strongly inhibited the activities of cathepsin L, C, S, and showed weaker effect to cathepsin B. Crystal structure of Al-CPI was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Two segments of Al-CPI, loop 1 and loop 2, were proposed as the key structure motifs responsible for Al-CPI binding with proteases and its inhibitory activity. Mutations at loop 1 and loop 2 abrogated the protease inhibition activity to various extents. These results provide the molecular insight into the interaction between the nematode parasite and its host and will facilitate the development of anthelmintic agents or design of anti-autoimmune disease drugs. PMID:24781326

  6. Targeted expression of cystatin restores fertility in cysteine protease induced male sterile tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pawan; Subhashini, Mranu; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Ahmed, Israr; Trishla, Shalibhadra; Kirti, P B

    2016-05-01

    Fertility restoration in male sterile plants is an essential requirement for their utilization in hybrid seed production. In an earlier investigation, we have demonstrated that the targeted expression of a cysteine protease in tapetal cell layer resulted in complete male sterility in tobacco transgenic plants. In the present investigation, we have used a cystatin gene, which encodes for a cysteine protease inhibitor, from a wild peanut, Arachis diogoi and developed a plant gene based restoration system for cysteine protease induced male sterile transgenic tobacco plants. We confirmed the interaction between the cysteine protease and a cystatin of the wild peanut, A. diogoi through in silico modeling and yeast two-hybrid assay. Pollen from primary transgenic tobacco plants expressing cystatin gene under the tapetum specific promoter- TA29 restored fertility on cysteine protease induced male sterile tobacco plants developed earlier. This has confirmed the in vivo interaction of cysteine protease and cystatin in the tapetal cells, and the inactivation of cysteine protease and modulation of its negative effects on pollen fertility. Both the cysteine protease and cystatin genes are of plant origin in contrast to the analogous barnase-barstar system that deploys genes of prokaryotic origin. Because of the deployment of genes of plant origin, this system might not face biosafety problems in developing hybrids in food crops. PMID:26993235

  7. Cure of Hookworm Infection with a Cysteine Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jon J.; Lantz, Lorine D.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm disease is a major global health problem and principal among a number of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) for the chronic disability inflicted that impacts both personal and societal productivity. Mass drug administration most often employs single-dose therapy with just two drugs of the same chemical class to which resistance is a growing concern. New chemical entities with the appropriate single-dose efficacy are needed. Methods and Findings Using various life-cycle stages of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum in vitro and a hamster model of infection, we report the potent, dose-dependent cidal activities of the peptidyl cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) K11002 (4-mopholino-carbonyl-phenylalanyl-homophenylalanyl- vinyl sulfone phenyl) and K11777 (N-methylpiperazine-phenylalanyl-homophenylalanyl-vinylsulfone phenyl). The latter is in late pre-clinical testing for submission as an Investigational New Drug (IND) with the US Federal Drug Administration as an anti-chagasic. In vitro, K11002 killed hookworm eggs but was without activity against first-stage larvae. The reverse was true for K11777 with a larvicidal potency equal to that of the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole (ABZ). Both CPIs produced morbidity in ex vivo adult hookworms with the activity of K11777 again being at least the equivalent of ABZ. Combinations of either CPI with ABZ enhanced morbidity compared to single compounds. Strikingly, oral treatment of infected hamsters with 100 mg/kg K11777 b.i.d. (i.e., a total daily dose of 200 mg/kg) for one day cured infection: a single 100 mg/kg treatment removed >90% of worms. Treatment also reversed the otherwise fatal decrease in blood hemoglobin levels and body weights of hosts. Consistent with its mechanism of action, K11777 decreased by >95% the resident CP activity in parasites harvested from hamsters 8 h post-treatment with a single 100 mg/kg oral dose. Conclusion A new, oral single-dose anthelmintic that is active in an

  8. Sequence comparison, molecular modeling, and network analysis predict structural diversity in cysteine proteases from the Cape sundew, Drosera capensis.

    PubMed

    Butts, Carter T; Zhang, Xuhong; Kelly, John E; Roskamp, Kyle W; Unhelkar, Megha H; Freites, J Alfredo; Tahir, Seemal; Martin, Rachel W

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous plants represent a so far underexploited reservoir of novel proteases with potentially useful activities. Here we investigate 44 cysteine proteases from the Cape sundew, Drosera capensis, predicted from genomic DNA sequences. D. capensis has a large number of cysteine protease genes; analysis of their sequences reveals homologs of known plant proteases, some of which are predicted to have novel properties. Many functionally significant sequence and structural features are observed, including targeting signals and occluding loops. Several of the proteases contain a new type of granulin domain. Although active site residues are conserved, the sequence identity of these proteases to known proteins is moderate to low; therefore, comparative modeling with all-atom refinement and subsequent atomistic MD-simulation is used to predict their 3D structures. The structure prediction data, as well as analysis of protein structure networks, suggest multifarious variations on the papain-like cysteine protease structural theme. This in silico methodology provides a general framework for investigating a large pool of sequences that are potentially useful for biotechnology applications, enabling informed choices about which proteins to investigate in the laboratory. PMID:27471585

  9. Subclassification and Biochemical Analysis of Plant Papain-Like Cysteine Proteases Displays Subfamily-Specific Characteristics1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Richau, Kerstin H.; Kaschani, Farnusch; Verdoes, Martijn; Pansuriya, Twinkal C.; Niessen, Sherry; Stüber, Kurt; Colby, Tom; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Bogyo, Matthew; Van der Hoorn, Renier A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) are a large class of proteolytic enzymes associated with development, immunity, and senescence. Although many properties have been described for individual proteases, the distribution of these characteristics has not been studied collectively. Here, we analyzed 723 plant PLCPs and classify them into nine subfamilies that are present throughout the plant kingdom. Analysis of these subfamilies revealed previously unreported distinct subfamily-specific functional and structural characteristics. For example, the NPIR and KDEL localization signals are distinctive for subfamilies, and the carboxyl-terminal granulin domain occurs in two PLCP subfamilies, in which some individual members probably evolved by deletion of the granulin domains. We also discovered a conserved double cysteine in the catalytic site of SAG12-like proteases and two subfamily-specific disulfides in RD19A-like proteases. Protease activity profiling of representatives of the PLCP subfamilies using novel fluorescent probes revealed striking polymorphic labeling profiles and remarkably distinct pH dependency. Competition assays with peptide-epoxide scanning libraries revealed common and unique inhibitory fingerprints. Finally, we expand the detection of PLCPs by identifying common and organ-specific protease activities and identify previously undetected proteases upon labeling with cell-penetrating probes in vivo. This study provides the plant protease research community with tools for further functional annotation of plant PLCPs. PMID:22371507

  10. Calpain-like: A Ca(2+) dependent cystein protease in Entamoeba histolytica cell death.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Virginia Sánchez; Flores, Olivia Medel; García, Consuelo Gómez; Maya, Yesenia Chávez; Fernández, Tania Domínguez; Pérez Ishiwara, D Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    Entamoeba histolytica programmed cell death (PCD) induced by G418 is characterized by the release of important amounts of intracellular calcium from reservoirs. Nevertheless, no typical caspases have been detected in the parasite, the PCD phenotype is inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64. These results strongly suggest that Ca(2+)-dependent proteases could be involved in PCD. In this study, we evaluate the expression and activity of a specific dependent Ca(2+) protease, the calpain-like protease, by real-time quantitative PCR (RTq-PCR), Western blot assays and a enzymatic method during the induction of PCD by G418. Alternatively, using cell viability and TUNEL assays, we also demonstrated that the Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al calpain inhibitor reduced the rate of cell death. The results demonstrated 4.9-fold overexpression of calpain-like gene 1.5 h after G418 PCD induction, while calpain-like protein increased almost two-fold with respect to basal calpain-like expression after 3 h of induction, and calpain activity was found to be approximately three-fold higher 6 h after treatment compared with untreated trophozoites. Taken together, these results suggest that this Ca(2+)-dependent protease could be involved in the executory phase of PCD. PMID:26496790

  11. Isolation and characterization of a cysteine protease from the latex of Araujia hortorum fruits.

    PubMed

    Priolo, N; Morcelle del Valle, S; Arribére, M C; López, L; Caffini, N

    2000-01-01

    A new protease (araujiain h I) was purified to mass spectroscopy homogeneity from the latex of Araujia hortorum Fourn. (Asclepiadaceae) fruits by ultracentrifugation and ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 24,031 (mass spectrometry) and an iso-electric point higher than 9.3. The optimum pH range for casein hydrolysis was 8.0-9.5. The enzyme showed remarkable caseinolytic activity at high temperatures, although its thermal stability decayed rapidly. The proteinase was activated by thiol compounds and inhibited by common thiol-blocking reagents, particularly E-64 and HgCl2, suggesting the enzyme belongs to the cysteine protease family. The concentration of active sites as determined by titration with E-64 was 3.3 microM. When assayed on N-alpha-CBZ-amino acid-p-nitrophenyl esters, the enzyme showed higher preference for the glutamine derivative, followed by those of alanine, asparagine, glycine, and leucine, in decreasing order. Partial homology (36-48%) with other plant cysteine proteinases was observed in an internal fragment obtained by Protease V8 treatment. PMID:10882171

  12. Clitocypin, a fungal cysteine protease inhibitor, exerts its insecticidal effect on Colorado potato beetle larvae by inhibiting their digestive cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Šmid, Ida; Rotter, Ana; Gruden, Kristina; Brzin, Jože; Buh Gašparič, Meti; Kos, Janko; Žel, Jana; Sabotič, Jerica

    2015-07-01

    Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, CPB) is a major potato pest that adapts readily to insecticides. Several types of protease inhibitors have previously been investigated as potential control agents, but with limited success. Recently, cysteine protease inhibitors from parasol mushroom, the macrocypins, were reported to inhibit growth of CPB larvae. To further investigate the insecticidal potential and mode of action of cysteine protease inhibitors of fungal origin, clitocypin, a cysteine protease inhibitor from clouded agaric (Clitocybe nebularis), was evaluated for its lethal effects on CPB larvae. Clitocypin isolated from fruiting bodies and recombinant clitocypin produced in Escherichia coli slowed growth and reduced survival of CPB larvae in a concentration dependent manner. Clitocypin was also expressed by transgenic potato, but only at low levels. Nevertheless, it reduced larval weight gain and delayed development. We have additionally shown that younger larvae are more susceptible to the action of clitocypin. The inhibition of digestive cysteine proteases, intestains, by clitocypin was shown to be the underlying mode of action. Protease inhibitors from mushrooms are confirmed as promising candidates for biopesticides. PMID:26071808

  13. Redefining the concept of protease-activated receptors: cathepsin S evokes itch via activation of Mrgprs

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vemuri B.; Sun, Shuohao; Azimi, Ehsan; Elmariah, Sarina B.; Dong, Xinzhong; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory neurons expressing Mas-related G protein coupled receptors (Mrgprs) mediate histamine-independent itch. We show that the cysteine protease cathepsin S activates MrgprC11 and evokes receptor-dependent scratching in mice. In contrast to its activation of conventional protease-activated receptors, cathepsin S mediated activation of MrgprC11 did not involve the generation of a tethered ligand. We demonstrate further that different cysteine proteases selectively activate specific mouse and human Mrgpr family members. This expansion of our understanding by which proteases interact with GPCRs redefines the concept of what constitutes a protease-activated receptor. The findings also implicate proteases as ligands to members of this orphan receptor family while providing new insights into how cysteine proteases contribute to itch. PMID:26216096

  14. Cysteine Protease Profiles of the Medicinal Plant Calotropis procera R. Br. revealed by de novo transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Chang Woo; Park, Kyung-Min; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Shin, Sang Woon; Je, Yeon Ho; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2015-01-01

    Calotropis procera R. Br., a traditional medicinal plant in India, is a promising source of commercial proteases, because the cysteine proteases from the plant exhibit high thermo-stability, broad pH optima, and plasma-clotting activity. Though several proteases such as Procerain, Procerain B, CpCp-1, CpCp-2, and CpCp-3 have been isolated and characterized, the information of their transcripts is limited to cDNAs encoding their mature peptides. Due to this limitation, in this study, to determine the cDNA sequences encoding full open reading frame of these cysteine proteases, transcripts were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq2000 sequencer. A total of 171,253,393 clean reads were assembled into 106,093 contigs with an average length of 1,614 bp and an N50 of 2,703 bp, and 70,797 contigs with an average length of 1,565 bp and N50 of 2,082 bp using Trinity and Velvet-Oases software, respectively. Among these contigs, we found 20 unigenes related to papain-like cysteine proteases by BLASTX analysis against a non-redundant NCBI protein database. Our expression analysis revealed that the cysteine protease contains an N-terminal pro-peptide domain (inhibitor region), which is necessary for correct folding and proteolytic activity. It was evident that expression yields using an inducible T7 expression system in Escherichia coli were considerably higher with the pro-peptide domain than without the domain, which could contribute to molecular cloning of the Calotropis procera protease as an active form with correct folding. PMID:25786229

  15. Cysteine Protease Profiles of the Medicinal Plant Calotropis procera R. Br. Revealed by De Novo Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang Woo; Park, Kyung-Min; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Shin, Sang Woon; Je, Yeon Ho; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2015-01-01

    Calotropis procera R. Br., a traditional medicinal plant in India, is a promising source of commercial proteases, because the cysteine proteases from the plant exhibit high thermo-stability, broad pH optima, and plasma-clotting activity. Though several proteases such as Procerain, Procerain B, CpCp-1, CpCp-2, and CpCp-3 have been isolated and characterized, the information of their transcripts is limited to cDNAs encoding their mature peptides. Due to this limitation, in this study, to determine the cDNA sequences encoding full open reading frame of these cysteine proteases, transcripts were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq2000 sequencer. A total of 171,253,393 clean reads were assembled into 106,093 contigs with an average length of 1,614 bp and an N50 of 2,703 bp, and 70,797 contigs with an average length of 1,565 bp and N50 of 2,082 bp using Trinity and Velvet-Oases software, respectively. Among these contigs, we found 20 unigenes related to papain-like cysteine proteases by BLASTX analysis against a non-redundant NCBI protein database. Our expression analysis revealed that the cysteine protease contains an N-terminal pro-peptide domain (inhibitor region), which is necessary for correct folding and proteolytic activity. It was evident that expression yields using an inducible T7 expression system in Escherichia coli were considerably higher with the pro-peptide domain than without the domain, which could contribute to molecular cloning of the Calotropis procera protease as an active form with correct folding. PMID:25786229

  16. High-Molecular-Weight Protein (pUL48) of Human Cytomegalovirus Is a Competent Deubiquitinating Protease: Mutant Viruses Altered in Its Active-Site Cysteine or Histidine Are Viable†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianlei; Loveland, Amy N.; Kattenhorn, Lisa M.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Gibson, Wade

    2006-01-01

    We show here that the high-molecular-weight protein (HMWP or pUL48; 253 kDa) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a functionally competent deubiquitinating protease (DUB). By using a suicide substrate probe specific for ubiquitin-binding cysteine proteases (DUB probe) to screen lysates of HCMV-infected cells, we found just one infected-cell-specific DUB. Characteristics of this protein, including its large size, expression at late times of infection, presence in extracellular virus particles, and reactivity with an antiserum to the HMWP, identified it as the HMWP. This was confirmed by constructing mutant viruses with substitutions in two of the putative active-site residues, Cys24Ile and His162Ala. HMWP with these mutations either failed to bind the DUB probe (C24I) or had significantly reduced reactivity with it (H162A). More compellingly, the deubiquitinating activity detected in wild-type virus particles was completely abolished in both the C24I and H162A mutants, thereby directly linking HMWP with deubiquitinating enzyme activity. Mutations in these active-site residues were not lethal to virus replication but slowed production of infectious virus relative to wild type and mutations of other conserved residues. Initial studies, by electron microscopy, of cells infected with the mutants revealed no obvious differences at late times of replication in the general appearance of the cells or in the distribution, relative numbers, or appearance of virus particles in the cytoplasm or nucleus. PMID:16731939

  17. The Streptococcal Cysteine Protease SpeB Is Not a Natural Immunoglobulin-Cleaving Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Helena; Vindebro, Reine

    2013-01-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes has developed a broad variety of virulence mechanisms to evade the actions of the host immune defense. One of the best-characterized factors is the streptococcal cysteine protease SpeB, an important multifunctional protease that contributes to group A streptococcal pathogenesis in vivo. Among many suggested activities, SpeB has been described to degrade various human plasma proteins, including immunoglobulins (Igs). In this study, we show that SpeB has no Ig-cleaving activity under physiological conditions and that only Igs in a reduced state, i.e., semimonomeric molecules, are cleaved and degraded by SpeB. Since reducing conditions outside eukaryotic cells have to be considered nonphysiological and IgG in a reduced state lacks biological effector functions, we conclude that SpeB does not contribute to S. pyogenes virulence through the proteolytic degradation of Igs. PMID:23569114

  18. Microarray analysis reveals strategies of Tribolium castaneum larvae to compensate for cysteine and serine protease inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarrays containing Tribolium castaneum whole-genome sequences were developed to study the transcriptome response of T. castaneum larvae to dietary protease inhibitors. In larvae fed diets containing 0.1% of the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 alone or in combination with 5.0% of the serine pro...

  19. Kinetic, Mutational, and Structural Studies of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 2 Cysteine Protease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Compton, Jaimee R; Leary, Dagmar H; Olson, Mark A; Lee, Michael S; Cheung, Jonah; Ye, Wenjuan; Ferrer, Mark; Southall, Noel; Jadhav, Ajit; Morazzani, Elaine M; Glass, Pamela J; Marugan, Juan; Legler, Patricia M

    2016-05-31

    The Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) cysteine protease (EC 3.4.22.-) is essential for viral replication and is involved in the cytopathic effects (CPE) of the virus. The VEEV nsP2 protease is a member of MEROPS Clan CN and characteristically contains a papain-like protease linked to an S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent RNA methyltransferase (SAM MTase) domain. The protease contains an alternative active site motif, (475)NVCWAK(480), which differs from papain's (CGS(25)CWAFS), and the enzyme lacks a transition state-stabilizing residue homologous to Gln-19 in papain. To understand the roles of conserved residues in catalysis, we determined the structure of the free enzyme and the first structure of an inhibitor-bound alphaviral protease. The peptide-like E64d inhibitor was found to bind beneath a β-hairpin at the interface of the SAM MTase and protease domains. His-546 adopted a conformation that differed from that found in the free enzyme; one or both of the conformers may assist in leaving group departure of either the amine or Cys thiolate during the catalytic cycle. Interestingly, E64c (200 μM), the carboxylic acid form of the E64d ester, did not inhibit the nsP2 protease. To identify key residues involved in substrate binding, a number of mutants were analyzed. Mutation of the motif residue, N475A, led to a 24-fold reduction in kcat/Km, and the conformation of this residue did not change after inhibition. N475 forms a hydrogen bond with R662 in the SAM MTase domain, and the R662A and R662K mutations both led to 16-fold decreases in kcat/Km. N475 forms the base of the P1 binding site and likely orients the substrate for nucleophilic attack or plays a role in product release. An Asn homologous to N475 is similarly found in coronaviral papain-like proteases (PLpro) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) virus. Mutation of another motif residue, K480A, led to a 9

  20. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF CYSTEINE AND TRYPSIN PROTEASE, EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HOSTS ON PROTEASE EXPRESSION, AND RNAI MEDIATED SILENCING OF CYSTEINE PROTEASE GENE IN THE SUNN PEST.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Azam; Bandani, Ali Reza; Alizadeh, Houshang

    2016-04-01

    Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, is a serious pest of cereals in the wide area of the globe from Near and Middle East to East and South Europe and North Africa. This study described for the first time, identification of E. integriceps trypsin serine protease and cathepsin-L cysteine, transcripts involved in digestion, which might serve as targets for pest control management. A total of 478 and 500 base pair long putative trypsin and cysteine gene sequences were characterized and named Tryp and Cys, respectively. In addition, the tissue-specific relative gene expression levels of these genes as well as gluten hydrolase (Gl) were determined under different host kernels feeding conditions. Result showed that mRNA expression of Cys, Tryp, and Gl was significantly affected after feeding on various host plant species. Transcript levels of these genes were most abundant in the wheat-fed E. integriceps larvae compared to other hosts. The Cys transcript was detected exclusively in the gut, whereas the Gl and Tryp transcripts were detectable in both salivary glands and gut. Also possibility of Sunn pest gene silencing was studied by topical application of cysteine double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The results indicated that topically applied dsRNA on fifth nymphal stage can penetrate the cuticle of the insect and induce RNA interference. The Cys gene mRNA transcript in the gut was reduced to 83.8% 2 days posttreatment. Also, it was found that dsRNA of Cys gene affected fifth nymphal stage development suggesting the involvement of this protease in the insect growth, development, and molting. PMID:26609789

  1. Penduliflorain I: A cysteine protease isolated from Hohenbergia penduliflora (A.Rich.) Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Pérez, A; Carvajal, C; Trejo, S; Torres, M J; Martin, M I; Lorenzo, J C; Natalucci, C L; Hernández, M

    2010-05-01

    Penduliflorain I, a new plant endopeptidase, was isolated and characterized from Hohenbergia penduliflora. Crude extract was obtained from stems. A partially purified enzyme preparation was obtained by ethanol precipitation. This preparation showed maximum activity between pH 7.5 and 8.5, was stable at ionic strength (20% decrease in proteolytic activity could be detected after 2 h in 0.4 M sodium chloride solution), and exhibited high thermal stability (inactivation required heating for 20 min at 75 degrees C). Inhibition and activation assays indicated the cysteine nature of the enzymatic preparation. Penduliflorain I was purified by anion exchange chromatography (Q-Sepharose HP) by FPLC system. Homogeneity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Molecular mass of the enzyme was 23 412.847 Da (MALDI-TOF-MS). Kinetic parameters were determined for PFLNA (K (m) = 0.3227 mM and k (cat) = 4.27 s(-1)). The N-terminal sequence (AVPQSIDWRDYGAVTTDKNQ) of isolated protease showed considerable similarity to other cysteine proteases obtained from stems or fruits of different Bromeliaceae species. PMID:20521163

  2. Purification and characterization of a highly stable cysteine protease from the latex of Ervatamia coronaria.

    PubMed

    Sundd, M; Kundu, S; Pal, G P; Medicherla, J V

    1998-10-01

    A highly stable cysteine protease was purified to homogeneity from the latex of Ervatamia coronaria by a simple purification procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 25,000 Da by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The extinction coefficient (epsilon 280 nm 1%) of the enzyme was 24.6. The enzyme hydrolyzed denatured natural substrates like casein, hemoglobin, azoalbumin, and azocasein with a high specific activity but showed low specific activity towards synthetic substrates. The pH and temperature optima were 7.5-8.0 and 50 degrees C respectively. The activity of the enzyme was strongly inhibited by thiol-specific inhibitors like leupeptin, iodoacetamide, PCMB, NEM, and mercuric chloride. The striking property of this enzyme was its stability over a wide pH range (2-12) and other extreme conditions of temperature, denaturants, and organic solvents. The N-terminal sequence showed marked similarity to known cysteine proteases. PMID:9836431

  3. Cwp84, a Clostridium difficile cysteine protease, exhibits conformational flexibility in the absence of its propeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, William J.; Roberts, April K.; Shone, Clifford C.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2015-02-19

    Two structures of Cwp84, a cysteine protease from the S-layer of C. difficile, are presented after propeptide cleavage. They reveal the movement of three loops, two in the active-site groove and one on the surface of the lectin-like domain, exposing a hydrophobic pocket. In recent decades, the global healthcare problems caused by Clostridium difficile have increased at an alarming rate. A greater understanding of this antibiotic-resistant bacterium, particularly with respect to how it interacts with the host, is required for the development of novel strategies for fighting C. difficile infections. The surface layer (S-layer) of C. difficile is likely to be of significant importance to host–pathogen interactions. The mature S-layer is formed by a proteinaceous array consisting of multiple copies of a high-molecular-weight and a low-molecular-weight S-layer protein. These components result from the cleavage of SlpA by Cwp84, a cysteine protease. The structure of a truncated Cwp84 active-site mutant has recently been reported and the key features have been identified, providing the first structural insights into the role of Cwp84 in the formation of the S-layer. Here, two structures of Cwp84 after propeptide cleavage are presented and the three conformational changes that are observed are discussed. These changes result in a reconfiguration of the active site and exposure of the hydrophobic pocket.

  4. Selective modulation of superantigen-induced responses by streptococcal cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Rita G; Nizet, Victor; Jeng, Arthur; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Kotb, Malak

    2003-02-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (Spe) B, a streptococcal cysteine protease, is believed to be important in group A streptococcal (GAS) pathogenesis. The present study examined the effect of SpeB on the activity of superantigenic exotoxins secreted by M1T1 GAS isolates. The proliferative response of human lymphocytes to culture supernatant (SUP) from an SpeB(+) isolate increased significantly (P<.05) when the isolate was grown with N-[N-(L-3-trans-carboxyoxirane-2-carbonyl)-L-leucyl]-agmatine, a cysteine protease inhibitor. The lymphocyte-stimulating activity of SUP from a spontaneous SpeB(-) variant or SpeB(-) knockout (DeltaSpeB) mutant was also significantly higher than that of SUP from the SpeB(+) parent isolate (P<.001). The addition of recombinant SpeB to the DeltaSpeB mutant reduced the lymphocyte response to a level comparable to that with the SpeB(+) isolate. SpeB affected superantigens that stimulate cells expressing T cell receptor Vbeta (TCRBV)-4, TCRBV7, and TCRBV8 but not those that stimulate TCRBV2. SpeB has a selective proteolytic effect on GAS superantigens. PMID:12552423

  5. Localization of the Clostridium difficile Cysteine Protease Cwp84 and Insights into Its Maturation Process▿

    PubMed Central

    ChapetónMontes, Diana; Candela, Thomas; Collignon, Anne; Janoir, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen involved in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. C. difficile expresses a cysteine protease, Cwp84, which has been shown to degrade some proteins of the extracellular matrix and play a role in the maturation of the precursor of the S-layer proteins. We sought to analyze the localization and the maturation process of this protease. Two identifiable forms of the protease were found to be associated in the bacteria: a form of ∼80 kDa and a cleaved one of 47 kDa, identified as the mature protease. They were found mainly in the bacterial cell surface fractions and weakly in the extracellular fraction. The 80-kDa protein was noncovalently associated with the S-layer proteins, while the 47-kDa form was found to be tightly associated with the underlying cell wall. Our data supported that the anchoring of the Cwp84 47-kDa form is presumably due to a reassociation of the secreted protein. Moreover, we showed that the complete maturation of the recombinant protein Cwp8430-803 is a sequential process beginning at the C-terminal end, followed by one or more cleavages at the N-terminal end. The processing sites of recombinant Cwp84 are likely to be residues Ser-92 and Lys-518. No proteolytic activity was detected with the mature recombinant protease Cwp8492-518 (47 kDa). In contrast, a fragment including the propeptide (Cwp8430-518) displayed proteolytic activity on azocasein and fibronectin. These results showed that Cwp84 is processed essentially at the bacterial cell surface and that its different forms may display different proteolytic activities. PMID:21784932

  6. Expression, Characterization, and Cellular Localization of Knowpains, Papain-Like Cysteine Proteases of the Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Rajesh; Atul; Soni, Awakash; Puri, Sunil Kumar; Sijwali, Puran Singh

    2012-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases of malaria parasites degrade haemoglobin in an acidic food vacuole to provide amino acids for intraerythrocytic parasites. These proteases are potential drug targets because their inhibitors block parasite development, and efforts are underway to develop chemotherapeutic inhibitors of these proteases as the treatments for malaria. Plasmodium knowlesi has recently been shown to be an important human pathogen in parts of Asia. We report expression and characterization of three P. knowlesi papain-like proteases, termed knowpains (KP2-4). Recombinant knowpains were produced using a bacterial expression system, and tested for various biochemical properties. Antibodies against recombinant knowpains were generated and used to determine their cellular localization in parasites. Inhibitory effects of the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 were assessed on P. knowlesi culture to validate drug target potential of knowpains. All three knowpains were present in the food vacuole, active in acidic pH, and capable of degrading haemoglobin at the food vacuolar pH (≈5.5), suggesting roles in haemoglobin degradation. The proteases showed absolute (KP2 and KP3) to moderate (KP4) preference for peptide substrates containing leucine at the P2 position; KP4 preferred arginine at the P2 position. While the three knowpains appear to have redundant roles in haemoglobin degradation, KP4 may also have a role in degradation of erythrocyte cytoskeleton during merozoite egress, as it displayed broad substrate specificity and was primarily localized at the parasite periphery. Importantly, E64 blocked erythrocytic development of P. knowlesi, with enlargement of food vacuoles, indicating inhibition of haemoglobin hydrolysis and supporting the potential for inhibition of knowpains as a strategy for the treatment of malaria. Functional expression and characterization of knowpains should enable simultaneous screening of available cysteine protease inhibitor libraries

  7. Cysteine cathepsin activity suppresses osteoclastogenesis of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Edgington-Mitchell, Laura E.; Rautela, Jai; Duivenvoorden, Hendrika M.; Jayatilleke, Krishnath M.; van der Linden, Wouter A.; Verdoes, Martijn; Bogyo, Matthew; Parker, Belinda S.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsin proteases contribute to many normal cellular functions, and their aberrant activity within various cell types can contribute to many diseases, including breast cancer. It is now well accepted that cathepsin proteases have numerous cell-specific functions within the tumor microenvironment that function to promote tumor growth and invasion, such that they may be valid targets for anti-metastatic therapeutic approaches. Using activity-based probes, we have examined the activity and expression of cysteine cathepsins in a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis to bone. In mice bearing highly metastatic tumors, we detected abundant cysteine cathepsin expression and activity in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These immature immune cells have known metastasis-promoting roles, including immunosuppression and osteoclastogenesis, and we assessed the contribution of cysteine cathepsins to these functions. Blocking cysteine cathepsin activity with multiple small-molecule inhibitors resulted in enhanced differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts. This highlights a potential role for cysteine cathepsin activity in suppressing the fusion of osteoclast precursor cells. In support of this hypothesis, we found that expression and activity of key cysteine cathepsins were downregulated during MDSC-osteoclast differentiation. Another cysteine protease, legumain, also inhibits osteoclastogenesis, in part through modulation of cathepsin L activity. Together, these data suggest that cysteine protease inhibition is associated with enhanced osteoclastogenesis, a process that has been implicated in bone metastasis. PMID:26308073

  8. Deficiency for the cysteine protease cathepsin L promotes tumor progression in mouse epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Dennemärker, J; Lohmüller, T; Mayerle, J; Tacke, M; Lerch, MM; Coussens, LM; Peters, C; Reinheckel, T

    2011-01-01

    To define a functional role for the endosomal/lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L (Ctsl) during squamous carcinogenesis, we generated mice harboring a constitutive Ctsl deficiency in addition to epithelial expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 oncogenes (human cytokeratin 14 (K14)–HPV16).We found enhanced tumor progression and metastasis in the absence of Ctsl. As tumor progression in K14–HPV16 mice is dependent on inflammation and angiogenesis, we examined immune cell infiltration and vascularization without finding any effect of the Ctsl genotype. In contrast, keratinocyte-specific transgenic expression of cathepsin V, the human orthologue of mouse Ctsl, in otherwise Ctsl-deficient K14–HPV16 mice restored the phenotype observed in the control HPV16 skin. To better understand this phenotype at the molecular level, we measured several oncogenic signal transduction pathways in primary keratinocytes on stimulation with keratinocyte-conditioned cell culture medium. We found increased activation of protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in protease-deficient cells, especially if treated with media conditioned by Ctsl-deficient keratinocytes. Similarly, the level of active GTP-Ras was increased in Ctsl-deficient epidermis. We conclude that Ctsl is critical for the termination of growth factor signaling in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment of keratinocytes and, therefore, functions as an anti-tumor protease. PMID:20023699

  9. A Cysteine Protease Inhibitor Rescues Mice from a Lethal Cryptosporidium parvum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nath-Chowdhury, Milli; Sajid, Mohammed; Marcus, Victoria; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Sakanari, Judy; Chow, Eric; Mackey, Zachary; Land, Kirkwood M.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; McKerrow, James H.; Arrowood, Michael J.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, can stunt infant growth and can be lethal in immunocompromised individuals. The most widely used drugs for treating cryptosporidiosis are nitazoxanide and paromomycin, although both exhibit limited efficacy. To investigate an alternative approach to therapy, we demonstrate that the clan CA cysteine protease inhibitor N-methyl piperazine-Phe-homoPhe-vinylsulfone phenyl (K11777) inhibits C. parvum growth in mammalian cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, using the C57BL/6 gamma interferon receptor knockout (IFN-γR-KO) mouse model, which is highly susceptible to C. parvum, oral or intraperitoneal treatment with K11777 for 10 days rescued mice from otherwise lethal infections. Histologic examination of untreated mice showed intestinal inflammation, villous blunting, and abundant intracellular parasite stages. In contrast, K11777-treated mice (210 mg/kg of body weight/day) showed only minimal inflammation and no epithelial changes. Three putative protease targets (termed cryptopains 1 to 3, or CpaCATL-1, -2, and -3) were identified in the C. parvum genome, but only two are transcribed in infected mammals. A homology model predicted that K11777 would bind to cryptopain 1. Recombinant enzymatically active cryptopain 1 was successfully targeted by K11777 in a competition assay with a labeled active-site-directed probe. K11777 exhibited no toxicity in vitro and in vivo, and surviving animals remained free of parasites 3 weeks after treatment. The discovery that a cysteine protease inhibitor provides potent anticryptosporidial activity in an animal model of infection encourages the investigation and development of this biocide class as a new, and urgently needed, chemotherapy for cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24060869

  10. Crystal structure of the cysteine protease inhibitor 2 from Entamoeba histolytica: Functional convergence of a common protein fold

    SciTech Connect

    Casados-Vázquez, Luz E.; Lara-González, Samuel; Brieb, Luis G.

    2012-04-18

    Cysteine proteases (CP) are key pathogenesis and virulence determinants of protozoan parasites. Entamoeba histolytica contains at least 50 cysteine proteases; however, only three (EhCP1, EhCP2 and EhCP5) are responsible for approximately 90% of the cysteine protease activity in this parasite. CPs are expressed as inactive zymogens. Because the processed proteases are potentially cytotoxic, protozoan parasites have developed mechanisms to regulate their activity. Inhibitors of cysteine proteases (ICP) of the chagasin-like inhibitor family (MEROPS family I42) were recently identified in bacteria and protozoan parasites. E. histolytica contains two ICP-encoding genes of the chagasin-like inhibitor family. EhICP1 localizes to the cytosol, whereas EhICP2 is targeted to phagosomes. Herein, we report two crystal structures of EhICP2. The overall structure of EhICP2 consists of eight {beta}-strands and closely resembles the immunoglobulin fold. A comparison between the two crystal forms of EhICP2 indicates that the conserved BC, DE and FG loops form a flexible wedge that may block the active site of CPs. The positively charged surface of the wedge-forming loops in EhICP2 contrasts with the neutral surface of the wedge-forming loops in chagasin. We postulate that the flexibility and positive charge observed in the DE and FG loops of EhICP2 may be important to facilitate the initial binding of this inhibitor to the battery of CPs present in E. histolytica.

  11. Identification of Semicarbazones, Thiosemicarbazones and Triazine Nitriles as Inhibitors of Leishmania mexicana Cysteine Protease CPB

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Jörg; Noack, Sandra; Marhöfer, Richard J.; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Coombs, Graham H.; Selzer, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily are present in nearly all eukaryotes. They play pivotal roles in the biology of parasites and inhibition of cysteine proteases is emerging as an important strategy to combat parasitic diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas’ disease and leishmaniasis. Homology modeling of the mature Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease CPB2.8 suggested that it differs significantly from bovine cathepsin B and thus could be a good drug target. High throughput screening of a compound library against this enzyme and bovine cathepsin B in a counter assay identified four novel inhibitors, containing the warhead-types semicarbazone, thiosemicarbazone and triazine nitrile, that can be used as leads for antiparasite drug design. Covalent docking experiments confirmed the SARs of these lead compounds in an effort to understand the structural elements required for specific inhibition of CPB2.8. This study has provided starting points for the design of selective and highly potent inhibitors of L. mexicana cysteine protease CPB that may also have useful efficacy against other important cysteine proteases. PMID:24146999

  12. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Amol; Cotton, James A.; Dixon, Brent R.; Gedamu, Lashitew; Yates, Robin M.; Buret, Andre G.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates) trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate) trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections. PMID:26334299

  13. Bacterial AvrRpt2-Like Cysteine Proteases Block Activation of the Arabidopsis Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, MPK4 and MPK111[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Jiang, Xiyuan; Elmore, James Mitch; Mackey, David; Shan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    To establish infection, pathogens deliver effectors into host cells to target immune signaling components, including elements of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades. The virulence function of AvrRpt2, one of the first identified Pseudomonas syringae effectors, involves cleavage of the plant defense regulator, RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4), and interference with plant auxin signaling. We show now that AvrRpt2 specifically suppresses the flagellin-induced phosphorylation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MPK4 and MPK11 but not MPK3 or MPK6. This inhibition requires the proteolytic activity of AvrRpt2, is associated with reduced expression of some plant defense genes, and correlates with enhanced pathogen infection in AvrRpt2-expressing transgenic plants. Diverse AvrRpt2-like homologs can be found in some phytopathogens, plant-associated and soil bacteria. Employing these putative bacterial AvrRpt2 homologs and inactive AvrRpt2 variants, we can uncouple the inhibition of MPK4/MPK11 activation from the cleavage of RIN4 and related members from the so-called nitrate-induced family as well as from auxin signaling. Thus, this selective suppression of specific mitogen-activated protein kinases is independent of the previously known AvrRpt2 targets and potentially represents a novel virulence function of AvrRpt2. PMID:27208280

  14. Bacterial AvrRpt2-Like Cysteine Proteases Block Activation of the Arabidopsis Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, MPK4 and MPK11.

    PubMed

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Jiang, Xiyuan; Elmore, James Mitch; Mackey, David; Shan, Libo; Coaker, Gitta; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2016-07-01

    To establish infection, pathogens deliver effectors into host cells to target immune signaling components, including elements of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades. The virulence function of AvrRpt2, one of the first identified Pseudomonas syringae effectors, involves cleavage of the plant defense regulator, RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4), and interference with plant auxin signaling. We show now that AvrRpt2 specifically suppresses the flagellin-induced phosphorylation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MPK4 and MPK11 but not MPK3 or MPK6. This inhibition requires the proteolytic activity of AvrRpt2, is associated with reduced expression of some plant defense genes, and correlates with enhanced pathogen infection in AvrRpt2-expressing transgenic plants. Diverse AvrRpt2-like homologs can be found in some phytopathogens, plant-associated and soil bacteria. Employing these putative bacterial AvrRpt2 homologs and inactive AvrRpt2 variants, we can uncouple the inhibition of MPK4/MPK11 activation from the cleavage of RIN4 and related members from the so-called nitrate-induced family as well as from auxin signaling. Thus, this selective suppression of specific mitogen-activated protein kinases is independent of the previously known AvrRpt2 targets and potentially represents a novel virulence function of AvrRpt2. PMID:27208280

  15. Leishmania aethiopica: identification and characterization of cathepsin L-like cysteine protease genes.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Teklu; Jirata, Dagim; Genetu, Abebe; Barr, Stephen; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abraham; Gedamu, Lashitew

    2007-03-01

    There is limited information on the biology and pathogenesis of Leishmania aethiopica, causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ethiopia. In this study we have identified and characterized two cathepsin L-like cysteine protease genes, Laecpa and Laecpb, from L. aethiopica. The predicted amino acid sequence of Laecpa and Laecpb is more than 75% identical with homologous cathepsin L-like cysteine protease genes of other Leishmania species and less than 50% identical with human cathepsin L. Laecpa is expressed predominantly in the stationary, and to a lower level, during the amastigote stage while Laecpb is specifically expressed in the stationary stage of L. aethiopica development. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two genes are grouped into separate clades which are the result of gene duplication. The isolation of these genes will be useful in developing Leishmania species specific diagnostics for molecular epidemiological studies and serves as a first step to study the role of cysteine proteases in L. aethiopica pathogenesis. PMID:17083936

  16. A Fragment-Based Method to Discover Irreversible Covalent Inhibitors of Cysteine Proteases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel fragment-based drug discovery approach is reported which irreversibly tethers drug-like fragments to catalytic cysteines. We attached an electrophile to 100 fragments without significant alterations in the reactivity of the electrophile. A mass spectrometry assay discovered three nonpeptidic inhibitors of the cysteine protease papain. The identified compounds display the characteristics of irreversible inhibitors. The irreversible tethering system also displays specificity: the three identified papain inhibitors did not covalently react with UbcH7, USP08, or GST-tagged human rhinovirus 3C protease. PMID:24870364

  17. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikado, Hideto; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. - Highlights: • We identified the murine IL3R as a novel target of papain-family cysteine proteases. • Papain-family cysteine proteases cleaved IL3Rα/CD123 on murine basophils. • Papain suppressed IL3- but not TSLP-induced expansion of murine basophils. • The inactivation of IL3R might be a strategy for pathogens to suppress host immunity.

  18. Purification and characterization of a stable cysteine protease ervatamin B, with two disulfide bridges, from the latex of Ervatamia coronaria.

    PubMed

    Kundu, S; Sundd, M; Jagannadham, M V

    2000-02-01

    Latex of the medicinal plant Ervatamia coronaria was found to contain at least three cysteine proteases with high proteolytic activity, called ervatamins. One of these proteases, named ervatamin B, has been purified to homogeneity using ion-exchange chromatography and crystallization. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 26 000 Da by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The extinction coefficient (epsilon(1%)(280 nm)) of the enzyme was 20.5 with 7 tryptophan and 10 tyrosine residues per molecule. The enzyme hydrolyzed denatured natural substrates such as casein, azoalbumin, and azocasein with a high specific activity. In addition, it showed amidolytic activity toward N-succinyl-alanine-alanine-alanine-p-nitroanilide with an apparent K(m) and K(cat) of 6.6 +/- 0.5 mM and 1.87 x 10(2) s(-)(1), respectively. The pH optima was 6.0-6.5 with azocasein as substrate and 7.0-7.5 with azoalbumin as substrate. The temperature optimum was around 50-55 degrees C. The enzyme was basic with an isoelectric point of 9.35 and had no carbohydrate content. Both the proteolytic and amidolytic activity of the enzyme was strongly inhibited by thiol-specific inhibitors. Interestingly, the enzyme had only two disulfide bridges versus three as in most plant cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily. The enzyme was relatively stable toward pH, denaturants, temperature, and organic solvents. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the pure enzyme gave a single precipitin line in Ouchterlony's double immunodiffusion and typical color in ELISA. Other related proteases do not cross-react with the antisera to ervatamin B showing that the enzyme is immunologically distinct. The N-terminal sequence showed conserved amino acid residues and considerable similarity to typical plant cysteine proteases. PMID:10691612

  19. Expression and characterization of group A Streptococcus extracellular cysteine protease recombinant mutant proteins and documentation of seroconversion during human invasive disease episodes.

    PubMed

    Gubba, S; Low, D E; Musser, J M

    1998-02-01

    A recent study with isogenic strains constructed by recombinant DNA strategies unambiguously documented that a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) is a critical virulence factor in a mouse model of invasive disease (S. Lukomski, S. Sreevatsan, C. Amberg, W. Reichardt, M. Woischnik, A. Podbielski, and J. M. Musser, J. Clin. Invest. 99:2574-2580, 1997). To facilitate further investigations of the streptococcal cysteine protease, recombinant proteins composed of a 40-kDa zymogen containing a C192S amino acid substitution that ablates enzymatic activity, a 28-kDa mature protein with the C192S replacement, and a 12-kDa propeptide were purified from Escherichia coli containing His tag expression vectors. The recombinant C192S zymogen retained apparently normal structural integrity, as assessed by the ability of purified wild-type streptococcal cysteine protease to process the 40-kDa molecule to the 28-kDa mature form. All three recombinant purified proteins retained immunologic reactivity with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Humans with a diverse range of invasive disease episodes (erysipelas, cellulitis, pneumonia, bacteremia, septic arthritis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing fasciitis) caused by six distinct M types of GAS seroconverted to the streptococcal cysteine protease. These results demonstrate that this GAS protein is expressed in vivo during the course of human infections and thereby provide additional evidence that the cysteine protease participates in host-pathogen interactions in some patients. PMID:9453639

  20. Expression and Characterization of Group A Streptococcus Extracellular Cysteine Protease Recombinant Mutant Proteins and Documentation of Seroconversion during Human Invasive Disease Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Gubba, Siddeswar; Low, Donald E.; Musser, James M.

    1998-01-01

    A recent study with isogenic strains constructed by recombinant DNA strategies unambiguously documented that a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) is a critical virulence factor in a mouse model of invasive disease (S. Lukomski, S. Sreevatsan, C. Amberg, W. Reichardt, M. Woischnik, A. Podbielski, and J. M. Musser, J. Clin. Invest. 99:2574–2580, 1997). To facilitate further investigations of the streptococcal cysteine protease, recombinant proteins composed of a 40-kDa zymogen containing a C192S amino acid substitution that ablates enzymatic activity, a 28-kDa mature protein with the C192S replacement, and a 12-kDa propeptide were purified from Escherichia coli containing His tag expression vectors. The recombinant C192S zymogen retained apparently normal structural integrity, as assessed by the ability of purified wild-type streptococcal cysteine protease to process the 40-kDa molecule to the 28-kDa mature form. All three recombinant purified proteins retained immunologic reactivity with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Humans with a diverse range of invasive disease episodes (erysipelas, cellulitis, pneumonia, bacteremia, septic arthritis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing fasciitis) caused by six distinct M types of GAS seroconverted to the streptococcal cysteine protease. These results demonstrate that this GAS protein is expressed in vivo during the course of human infections and thereby provide additional evidence that the cysteine protease participates in host-pathogen interactions in some patients. PMID:9453639

  1. Design, Synthesis, Evaluation and Thermodynamics of 1-Substituted Pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]Pyridine Derivatives as Cysteine Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohd Sajid; Baig, Mohd Hassan; Ahmad, Saheem; Siddiqui, Shapi Ahmad; Srivastava, Ashwini Kumar; Srinivasan, Kumar Venkatraman; Ansari, Irfan A.

    2013-01-01

    Targeting papain family cysteine proteases is one of the novel strategies in the development of chemotherapy for a number of diseases. Novel cysteine protease inhibitors derived from 1-pyridylimidazo[1,5-a]pyridine representing pharmacologically important class of compounds are being reported here for the first time. The derivatives were initially designed and screened in silico by molecular docking studies against papain to explore the possible mode of action. The molecular interaction between the compounds and cysteine protease (papain) was found to be very similar to the interactions observed with the respective epoxide inhibitor (E-64c) of papain. Subsequently, compounds were synthesized to validate their efficacy in wet lab experiments. When characterized kinetically, these compounds show their Ki and IC50 values in the range of 13.75 to 99.30 µM and 13.40 to 96.50 µM, respectively. The thermodynamics studies suggest their binding with papain hydrophobically and entropically driven. These inhibitors also inhibit the growth of clinically important different types of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria having MIC50 values in the range of 0.6–1.4 µg/ml. Based on Lipinski’s rule of Five, we also propose these compounds as potent antibacterial prodrugs. The most active antibacterial compound was found to be 1-(2-pyridyl)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine (3a). PMID:23940536

  2. Study of protein complexes via homology modeling, applied to cysteine proteases and their protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tastan Bishop, Ozlem; Kroon, Matthys

    2011-12-01

    This paper develops and evaluates large-scale calculation of 3D structures of protein complexes by homology modeling as a promising new approach for protein docking. The complexes investigated were papain-like cysteine proteases and their protein inhibitors, which play numerous roles in human and parasitic metabolisms. The structural modeling was performed in two parts. For the first part (evaluation set), nine crystal structure complexes were selected, 1325 homology models of known complexes were rebuilt by various templates including hybrids, allowing an analysis of the factors influencing the accuracy of the models. The important considerations for modeling the interface were protease coverage and inhibitor sequence identity. In the second part (study set), the findings of the evaluation set were used to select appropriate templates to model novel cysteine protease-inhibitor complexes from human and malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The energy scores, considering the evaluation set, indicate that the models are of high accuracy. PMID:21365221

  3. Replacement of histidine 340 with alanine inactivates the group A Streptococcus extracellular cysteine protease virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Gubba, S; Cipriano, V; Musser, J M

    2000-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes expresses a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease that is a virulence factor for invasive disease, including soft tissue infection. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a His340Ala recombinant mutant protein that was made as a stable 40-kDa zymogen by Escherichia coli. Purified His340Ala protein was proteolytically inactive when bovine casein and human fibronectin were used as substrates. Wild-type 28-kDa streptococcal protease purified from S. pyogenes processed the 40-kDa mutant zymogen to a 28-kDa mature form, a result suggesting that the derivative protein retained structural integrity. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that His340 is an enzyme active site residue, an idea confirmed by recent solution of the zymogen crystal structure (T. F. Kagawa, J. C. Cooney, H. M. Baker, S. McSweeney, M. Liu, S. Gubba, J. M. Musser, and E. N. Baker, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:2235-2240, 2000). The data provide additional insight into structure-function relationships in this S. pyogenes virulence factor. PMID:10816533

  4. Replacement of Histidine 340 with Alanine Inactivates the Group A Streptococcus Extracellular Cysteine Protease Virulence Factor

    PubMed Central

    Gubba, Siddeswar; Cipriano, Vincent; Musser, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes expresses a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease that is a virulence factor for invasive disease, including soft tissue infection. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a His340Ala recombinant mutant protein that was made as a stable 40-kDa zymogen by Escherichia coli. Purified His340Ala protein was proteolytically inactive when bovine casein and human fibronectin were used as substrates. Wild-type 28-kDa streptococcal protease purified from S. pyogenes processed the 40-kDa mutant zymogen to a 28-kDa mature form, a result suggesting that the derivative protein retained structural integrity. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that His340 is an enzyme active site residue, an idea confirmed by recent solution of the zymogen crystal structure (T. F. Kagawa, J. C. Cooney, H. M. Baker, S. McSweeney, M. Liu, S. Gubba, J. M. Musser, and E. N. Baker, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:2235–2240, 2000). The data provide additional insight into structure-function relationships in this S. pyogenes virulence factor. PMID:10816533

  5. Cysteine protease antigens cleave CD123, the α subunit of murine IL-3 receptor, on basophils and suppress IL-3-mediated basophil expansion.

    PubMed

    Nishikado, Hideto; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Takai, Toshiro

    2015-05-01

    Th2 type immune responses are essential for protective immunity against parasites and play crucial roles in allergic disorders. Helminth parasites secrete a variety of proteases for their infectious cycles including for host entry, tissue migration, and suppression of host immune effector cell function. Furthermore, a number of pathogen-derived antigens, as well as allergens such as papain, belong to the family of cysteine proteases. Although the link between protease activity and Th2 type immunity is well documented, the mechanisms by which proteases regulate host immune responses are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cysteine proteases papain and bromelain selectively cleave the α subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα/CD123) on the surface of murine basophils. The decrease in CD123 expression on the cell surface, and the degradation of the extracellular domain of recombinant CD123 were dependent on the protease activity of papain and bromelain. Pre-treatment of murine basophils with papain resulted in inhibition of IL-3-IL-3R signaling and suppressed IL-3- but not thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced expansion of basophils in vitro. Our unexpected findings illuminate a novel mechanism for the regulation of basophil functions by protease antigens. Because IL-3 plays pivotal roles in the activation and proliferation of basophils and in protective immunity against helminth parasites, pathogen-derived proteases might contribute to the pathogenesis of infections by regulating IL-3-mediated functions in basophils. PMID:25778870

  6. Hydrophobic Core Flexibility Modulates Enzyme Activity in HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Seema; Cai, Yufeng; Nalam, Madhavi N.L.; Bolon, Daniel N.A.; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2012-09-11

    Human immunodeficiency virus Type-1 (HIV-1) protease is crucial for viral maturation and infectivity. Studies of protease dynamics suggest that the rearrangement of the hydrophobic core is essential for enzyme activity. Many mutations in the hydrophobic core are also associated with drug resistance and may modulate the core flexibility. To test the role of flexibility in protease activity, pairs of cysteines were introduced at the interfaces of flexible regions remote from the active site. Disulfide bond formation was confirmed by crystal structures and by alkylation of free cysteines and mass spectrometry. Oxidized and reduced crystal structures of these variants show the overall structure of the protease is retained. However, cross-linking the cysteines led to drastic loss in enzyme activity, which was regained upon reducing the disulfide cross-links. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that altered dynamics propagated throughout the enzyme from the engineered disulfide. Thus, altered flexibility within the hydrophobic core can modulate HIV-1 protease activity, supporting the hypothesis that drug resistant mutations distal from the active site can alter the balance between substrate turnover and inhibitor binding by modulating enzyme activity.

  7. Compatibility in the Ustilago maydis–Maize Interaction Requires Inhibition of Host Cysteine Proteases by the Fungal Effector Pit2

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, André N.; Ziemann, Sebastian; Treitschke, Steffi; Aßmann, Daniela; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize, with large plant tumors being formed as the most prominent disease symptoms. During all steps of infection, U. maydis depends on a biotrophic interaction, which requires an efficient suppression of plant immunity. In a previous study, we identified the secreted effector protein Pit2, which is essential for maintenance of biotrophy and induction of tumors. Deletion mutants for pit2 successfully penetrate host cells but elicit various defense responses, which stops further fungal proliferation. We now show that Pit2 functions as an inhibitor of a set of apoplastic maize cysteine proteases, whose activity is directly linked with salicylic-acid-associated plant defenses. Consequently, protease inhibition by Pit2 is required for U. maydis virulence. Sequence comparisons with Pit2 orthologs from related smut fungi identified a conserved sequence motif. Mutation of this sequence caused loss of Pit2 function. Consequently, expression of the mutated protein in U. maydis could not restore virulence of the pit2 deletion mutant, indicating that the protease inhibition by Pit2 is essential for fungal virulence. Moreover, synthetic peptides of the conserved sequence motif showed full activity as protease inhibitor, which identifies this domain as a new, minimal protease inhibitor domain in plant-pathogenic fungi. PMID:23459172

  8. Hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of cysteine proteases from Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br. Latex

    PubMed Central

    Bindhu, Omana Sukumaran; Singh, Maheshwari Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Plant latex is a natural source of biologically active compounds and several hydrolytic enzymes responsible for their diverse health benefits. Recent past has witnessed substantial progress in understanding their supplementary industrial and pharmaceutical utility. Calotropis gigantea is one of the important latex producing plants belonging to asclepediaceae family with wide ethnopharmacological applications and is rich in proteolytic enzymes. Present study investigates hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of C. gigantea latex proteases. Materials and Methods: The protease activity of crude enzyme (CE), obtained by centrifugation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis, was assayed using casein as the substrate. Effect of pH, temperature and specific inhibitors on protease activity was determined. Native PAGE and in gel protease activity of CE was performed. Hemostatic (Fibrinogen polymerization, fibrinogen agarose plate and blood clot lysis assays), milk clotting and blood stain removal efficacies of CE were determined. Results: CE exhibited high caseinolytic activity. Enzyme activity was optimum at 37-50ºC and pH 8.0. Fibrinogen polymerization assay showed concentration dependent increase in turbidity indicating thrombin like activity which was further confirmed by fibrinogen agarose plate assays. Clot lysis assay indicated 92.41% thrombolysis by CE in 90 min. CE also revealed significantly high ratio of milk clotting to protease activity (Milk Clotting Index, MCI = 827.59 ± 1.52). Complete destaining of blood stained fabric was observed when incubated with 1% detergent incorporated with 0.1mg/ml CE. The study highlights and validates the compound application potential of latex cysteine proteases from C. gigantea. PMID:24991114

  9. Effect of anaerobiosis on cysteine protease regulation during the embryonic-larval transition in

    PubMed

    Warner; Jackson; Clegg

    1997-01-01

    Hydrated encysted embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana have the ability to withstand years in anaerobic sea water using metabolic strategies that enable them to inactivate all cell metabolic activities and then to resume development when placed in aerobic sea water. However, this unique characteristic of Artemia franciscana embryos is lost during a very short period, at the embryonic­larval transition period of development, coincident with the appearance of prenauplius larvae. Thus, while encysted embryos show complete inhibition of proteolysis over at least 4 years under anoxia, control of this activity, together with resistance to anoxia, is lost in newly hatched nauplius larvae after only a few days in anaerobic sea water. In contrast to encysted embryos, young larvae in anaerobic sea water produce large amounts of lactic acid, which reaches a concentration of nearly 50 mmol l-1 within 12 h of incubation. The accumulated lactic acid is believed to reduce the intracellular pH (pHi) to considerably less than 6.3, the value found in encysted embryos after 5 months in anaerobic sea water. We find that larvae, in contrast to embryos, lose cytoplasmic proteins at the rate of 4­5 ng h-1 larva-1 upon transfer to anaerobic sea water, while yolk proteins are not degraded in either embryos or larvae under anoxic conditions. The decline in cytoplasmic protein levels in anaerobic larvae may be due to activation of an endogenous cysteine protease (CP) as the pHi becomes acidic. Contributing to the apparent uncontrolled CP activity is a decrease in the level of cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) activity during the embryonic­larval transition period, resulting in an increase in the CP/CPI ratio, from approximately 0.5 in embryos to greater than 1.0 in newly hatched larvae. Finally, data are presented to suggest that loss of the 26 kDa stress protein from embryos during the embryonic­larval transition may also contribute to the loss in resistance of young nauplius

  10. Transcript profiling reveals that cysteine protease inhibitors are up-regulated in tuber sprouts after extended darkness.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Veronica; Fantino, Elisa; Cerrudo, Ignacio; Bachmann, Sandra; Santin, Franco; Ulloa, Rita M

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are an excellent staple food due to its high nutritional value. When the tuber reaches physiological competence, sprouting proceeds accompanied by changes at mRNA and protein levels. Potato tubers become a source of carbon and energy until sprouts are capable of independent growth. Transcript profiling of sprouts grown under continuous light or dark conditions was performed using the TIGR 10K EST Solanaceae microarray. The profiles analyzed show a core of highly expressed transcripts that are associated to the reactivation of growth. Under light conditions, the photosynthetic machinery was fully activated; the highest up-regulation was observed for the Rubisco activase (RCA), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the Photosystem II 22 kDa protein (CP22) genes, among others. On the other hand, sprouts exposed to continuous darkness elongate longer, and after extended darkness, synthesis of chloroplast components was repressed, the expression of proteases was reduced while genes encoding cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) and metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors (MPIs) were strongly induced. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis confirmed that MPI levels correlated with the length of the dark period; however, CPI expression was strong only after longer periods of darkness, suggesting a feedback loop (regulation mechanism) in response to dark-induced senescence. Prevention of cysteine protease activity in etiolated sprouts exposed to extended darkness could delay senescence until they emerge to light. PMID:27075731

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the cysteine protease inhibitor clitocypin

    SciTech Connect

    Galeša, Katja; Brzin, Jože; Sabotič, Jerica; Turk, Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Clitocypin is a cysteine protease inhibitor from the mushroom Clitocybe nebularis. The protein has been purified from natural sources and crystallized in a variety of non-isomorphous forms belonging to monoclinic and triclinic space groups. Clitocypin is a cysteine protease inhibitor from the mushroom Clitocybe nebularis. The protein has been purified from natural sources and crystallized in a variety of non-isomorphous forms belonging to monoclinic and triclinic space groups. A diffraction data set to 1.55 Å resolution was obtained from a crystal belonging to space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.326, b = 33.597, c = 55.568 Å, β = 104°. An inability to achieve isomorphism forced the use of MAD and SAD phasing methods. Phasing is in progress.

  12. Cysteine protease inhibition by nitrile-based inhibitors: a computational study

    PubMed Central

    Quesne, Matthew G.; Ward, Richard A.; de Visser, Sam P.

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine protease enzymes are important for human physiology and catalyze key protein degradation pathways. These enzymes react via a nucleophilic reaction mechanism that involves a cysteine residue and the proton of a proximal histidine. Particularly efficient inhibitors of these enzymes are nitrile-based, however, the details of the catalytic reaction mechanism currently are poorly understood. To gain further insight into the inhibition of these molecules, we have performed a combined density functional theory and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study on the reaction of a nitrile-based inhibitor with the enzyme active site amino acids. We show here that small perturbations to the inhibitor structure can have dramatic effects on the catalysis and inhibition processes. Thus, we investigated a range of inhibitor templates and show that specific structural changes reduce the inhibitory efficiency by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, as the reaction takes place on a polar surface, we find strong differences between the DFT and QM/MM calculated energetics. In particular, the DFT model led to dramatic distortions from the starting structure and the convergence to a structure that would not fit the enzyme active site. In the subsequent QM/MM study we investigated the use of mechanical vs. electronic embedding on the kinetics, thermodynamics and geometries along the reaction mechanism. We find minor effects on the kinetics of the reaction but large geometric and thermodynamics differences as a result of inclusion of electronic embedding corrections. The work here highlights the importance of model choice in the investigation of this biochemical reaction mechanism. PMID:24790966

  13. The cell envelope-associated protein, LytR, regulates the cysteine protease SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Minami, Masaaki; Ichikawa, Mariko; Ohta, Michio; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2012-05-01

    The LytR family of cell envelope-associated transcriptional attenuators in bacteria has been brought into focus of scientific interest on the expression of various virulence factors, as well as bacterial cell envelope maintenance. However, this protein of Streptococcus pyogenes has been only described as cell surface-associated protein, and its function is completely unknown. We created lytR mutant strains from two independent S. pyogenes strains to analyze the function of LytR. The protease assay in culture supernatant showed that lytR mutant had the higher cysteine protease activity than wild-type. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and western blotting analysis revealed that the amount of cysteine protease, SpeB in lytR mutant was more compared with that in wild-type. The level of speB mRNA in lytR mutant also increased compared with that of wild-type. The membrane integrity and potential in lytR mutant also were decreased compared with that of wild-type. Murine infection model showed that less survival was detected in mice inoculated with lytR mutant than that with wild-type, and the size of wound lesion of mice with lytR mutant was larger than that with wild-type. Our data suggest that the lytR regulates the expression of SpeB in S. pyogenes with relation to membrane integrity. PMID:22515297

  14. Sweet potato cysteine proteases SPAE and SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Liang, Shu-Hao; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2015-08-15

    Sweet potato sporamins are trypsin inhibitors and exhibit strong resistance to digestion by pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. In addition, they constitute the major storage proteins in the sweet potato and, after degradation, provide nitrogen as a nutrient for seedling regrowth in sprouting storage roots. In this report, four cysteine proteases-one asparaginyl endopeptidase (SPAE), two papain-like cysteine proteases (SPCP1 and SPCP2), and one granulin-containing cysteine protease (SPCP3)-were studied to determine their association with sporamin degradation in sprouting storage roots. Sporamin degradation became significant in the flesh of storage roots starting from week 4 after sprouting and this correlated with expression levels of SPAE and SPCP2, but not of SPCP1 and SPCP3. In the outer flesh near the skin, sporamin degradation was more evident and occurred earlier than in the inner flesh of storage roots. Degradation of sporamins in the outer flesh was inversely correlated with the distance of the storage root from the sprout. Exogenous application of SPAE and SPCP2, but not SPCP3, fusion proteins to crude extracts of the outer flesh (i.e., extracted from a depth of 0.3cm and within 2cm of one-week-old sprouts) promoted in vitro sporamin degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment of SPAE and SPCP2 fusion proteins at 95°C for 5min prior to their application to the crude extracts reduced sporamin degradation. These data show that sweet potato asparaginyl endopeptidase SPAE and papain-like cysteine protease SPCP2 participate in sporamin degradation during storage root sprouting. PMID:26363719

  15. Potential involvement of Brugia malayi cysteine proteases in the maintenance of the endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Lustigman, Sara; Melnikow, Elena; Anand, Setty Balakrishnan; Contreras, Aroha; Nandi, Vijay; Liu, Jing; Bell, Aaron; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Rogers, Mathew B.; Ghedin, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    Brugia malayi, a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis, harbors endosymbiotic intracellular bacteria, Wolbachia, that are required for the development and reproduction of the worm. The essential nature of this endosymbiosis led to the development of anti-Wolbachia chemotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of human filarial infections. Our study is aimed at identifying specific proteins that play a critical role in this endosymbiotic relationship leading to the identification of potential targets in the adult worms. Filarial cysteine proteases are known to be involved in molting and embryogenesis, processes shown to also be Wolbachia dependent. Based on the observation that cysteine protease transcripts are differentially regulated in response to tetracycline treatment, we focused on defining their role in symbiosis. We observe a bimodal regulation pattern of transcripts encoding cysteine proteases when in vitro tetracycline treated worms were examined. Using tetracycline-treated infertile female worms and purified embryos we established that the first peak of the bimodal pattern corresponds to embryonic transcripts while the second takes place within the hypodermis of the adult worms. Localization studies of the native proteins corresponding to Bm-cpl-3 and Bm-cpl-6 indicate that they are present in the area surrounding Wolbachia, and, in some cases, the proteins appear localized within the bacteria. Both proteins were also found in the inner bodies of microfilariae. The possible role of these cysteine proteases during development and endosymbiosis was further characterized using RNAi. Reduction in Bm-cpl-3 and Bm-cpl-6 transcript levels was accompanied by hindered microfilarial development and release, and reduced Wolbachia DNA levels, making these enzymes strong drug target candidates. PMID:25516837

  16. Purification, characterization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a cysteine protease from Pachyrrhizus erosus seeds.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shaojie; Song, Xiaomin; Yan, Ming; Zhou, Zhaocai; Wu, Fang; Gong, Weimin

    2004-01-01

    The proteins Spe31 and Spe32, named after their respective molecular weights of about 31 and 32 kDa, were purified simultaneously from the seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus. They cannot be separated from each other by column chromatography. N-terminal sequence analysis indicated that they belonged to the papain family of cysteine proteases. An in-gel activity assay revealed that Spe31 possesses proteolytic activity while Spe32 only displays very weak activity for protein degradation. Both of them are glycoproteins as detected by the periodic acid and Schiff's reagent method. Crystals were obtained from the protein mixture by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method; they diffracted to a resolution of 2.61 A on an in-house X-ray source. The crystals belong to space group P4(1(3))2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.96, c = 145.61 A. Gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions showed that the protein crystallized was Spe31. PMID:14684925

  17. Effect of synthesized inhibitors on babesipain-1, a new cysteine protease from the bovine piroplasm Babesia bigemina.

    PubMed

    Martins, T M; Gonçalves, L M D; Capela, R; Moreira, R; do Rosário, V E; Domingos, A

    2010-04-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases (CP) have been shown to have essential roles in parasitic protozoa and are under study as promising drug targets. One gene was identified by sequence similarity search to be homologous to the CP family in the ongoing Babesia bigemina genome sequencing project database. The newly identified CP gene, called babesipain-1, was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein, and the effect of different inhibitors on proteolytic activity was tested. A series of new artemisinin-vinyl sulfone hybrid molecules were tested as inhibitors being effective on the range of 0.3-30 microm, depending on the core-containing molecule. PMID:20537109

  18. The Papain Inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis Inhibits Bacterial Cysteine Proteases and Is an Antagonist of Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zindel, Stephan; Kaman, Wendy E.; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Peters, Anna; Hays, John P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae was completely inhibited by 10 μM SPI. At this concentration of SPI, no cytotoxicity was observed. We conclude that SPI inhibits bacterial virulence factors and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic treatment against a range of unrelated pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23587952

  19. Isolation of cDNA from Jacaratia mexicana encoding a mexicain-like cysteine protease gene.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martínez, Erick M; Herrera-Ramírez, Alejandra C; Badillo-Corona, Jesús Agustín; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; González-Rábade, Nuria; Oliver-Salvador, María Del Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Cysteine proteases (CPs) from the C1 family, which are similar to papain, can be found in animals and plants, as well as some viruses and prokaryotes. These enzymes have diverse physiological functions and are thus very attractive for science and industry. Jacaratia mexicana, a member of the Caricaceae plant family, contains several CPs, the principal being mexicain, found to favorably compete against papain for many industrial applications due to its high stability and specific activity. In this study, leaves of J. mexicana were used to isolate a CP-coding gene, similar to those that code for mexicain and chymomexicain. By using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) as well as oligonucleotide design from papain-like conserved amino acids (aa), a sequence of 1404 bp consisting of a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 153 bp, a 3' terminal UTR of 131 bp, with a polyadenylation (poly(A)) signal sequence and a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1046 bp, was obtained by overlapping three partial sequences. Two full-length cDNA sequences that encode for mexicain-like proteases were cloned from mRNA (JmCP4 and JmCP5). JmCP4 is predicted to have an ORF of 1044 bp, which codifies for polypeptides that have a 26 aa signal peptide region, a 108 aa propeptide region and a mature enzyme of 214 aa. A 969 bp fragment (JmCP5) encodes for a partial sequence of a CP gene, without the signal peptide region but with a full-length propeptide region. The sequence analysis showed that this protease presented a high similarity to other plant CPs from J. mexicana, Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, Vasconcellea stipulata, and Carica papaya, among others, mainly at the conserved catalytic site. Obtaining the sequence of this CP gene from J. mexicana provides an alternative for production in a standard system and could be an initial step towards the commercialization of this enzyme. PMID:22543019

  20. Mapping, Complementation, and Targets of the Cysteine Protease Actinidin in Kiwifruit1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Maddumage, Ratnasiri; Tsang, Gianna K.; Fraser, Lena G.; Cooney, Janine M.; De Silva, H. Nihal; Green, Sol; Richardson, Kim A.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine proteases (CPs) accumulate to high concentration in many fruit, where they are believed to play a role in fungal and insect defense. The fruit of Actinidia species (kiwifruit) exhibit a range of CP activities (e.g. the Actinidia chinensis variety YellowA shows less than 2% of the activity of Actinidia deliciosa variety Hayward). A major quantitative trait locus for CP activity was mapped to linkage group 16 in a segregating population of A. chinensis. This quantitative trait locus colocated with the gene encoding actinidin, the major acidic CP in ripe Hayward fruit encoded by the ACT1A-1 allele. Sequence analysis indicated that the ACT1A locus in the segregating A. chinensis population contained one functional allele (A-2) and three nonfunctional alleles (a-3, a-4, and a-5) each containing a unique frameshift mutation. YellowA kiwifruit contained two further alleles: a-6, which was nonfunctional because of a large insertion, and a-7, which produced an inactive enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis of the act1a-7 protein revealed a residue that restored CP activity. Expression of the functional ACT1A-1 cDNA in transgenic plants complemented the natural YellowA mutations and partially restored CP activity in fruit. Two consequences of the increase in CP activity were enhanced degradation of gelatin-based jellies in vitro and an increase in the processing of a class IV chitinase in planta. These results provide new insight into key residues required for CP activity and the in vivo protein targets of actinidin. PMID:22039217

  1. Impact of oilseed rape expressing the insecticidal cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin on the beneficial predator Harmonia axyridis (multicoloured Asian ladybeetle).

    PubMed

    Ferry, N; Raemaekers, R J M; Majerus, M E N; Jouanin, L; Port, G; Gatehouse, J A; Gatehouse, A M R

    2003-02-01

    Insect-resistant transgenic plants have been suggested to have deleterious effects on beneficial predators through transmission of the transgene product by the pest to the predator. To test this hypothesis, effects of oilseed rape expressing the cysteine protease inhibitor oryzacystatin-1 (OC-1) on the predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis were investigated using diamondback moth Plutella xylostella as the pest species. As expected, oilseed rape expressing OC-1 had no effects on either development or survival of the pest, which utilizes serine digestive proteases. Immunoassays confirmed accumulation of the transgene product in pest larval tissues at levels of up to 3 ng per gut. Characterization of proteolytic digestive enzymes of H. axyridis demonstrated that larvae and adults utilize cysteine and aspartic proteases; the former activity was completely inhibited by oryzacystatin in vitro. However, when H. axyridis larvae consumed prey reared on OC-1 expressing plants over their entire life cycle, no significant effects upon survival or overall development were observed. The inhibitor initially stimulated development, with a shortening of the developmental period of the second instar by 27% (P < 0.0001) accompanied by a 36% increase in weight of second instar larvae (P = 0.007). OC-1 had no detrimental effects on reproductive fitness of adult H. axyridis. Interestingly there was a significant increase in consumption of OC-1 dosed prey. The results show that prey reared on transgenic plants expressing a protein which inhibited ladybird digestive enzymes in vitro had no effects in vivo; the ladybird was able to up-regulate digestive proteases in response to the inhibitor. PMID:12535099

  2. Serum albumin as a probe for testing the selectivity of irreversible cysteine protease inhibitors: The case of vinyl sulfones.

    PubMed

    Regazzoni, Luca; Colombo, Simone; Mazzolari, Angelica; Vistoli, Giulio; Carini, Marina

    2016-05-30

    Vinyl sulfones are used for drug design of irreversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases since they are able to alkylate cysteine thiols inside the catalytic pocket of this class of enzymes. Some authors have reported the lack of reactivity towards glutathione as sufficient evidence of the selectivity of such a mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate that some simple molecules containing a vinyl sulfone moiety are not thiol-specific alkylants since they react with some albumin nucleophiles including side chains of Cys34 and His146. Such side-reactions are not desirable for any drug candidate since they limit serum stability, bioavailability and they possibly trigger toxicity mechanisms. In silico predictions, indicate that the compounds tested share similar structural features with reported inhibitors of cysteine proteases, as well as similar poses around the main albumin nucleophiles. Altogether, the data suggest that albumin is better than glutathione for the setup of early in vitro tests probing the selectivity of cysteine protease inhibitors. PMID:26970985

  3. Deficiency for the Cysteine Protease Cathepsin L Impairs Myc-Induced Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brindle, Nicola R.; Joyce, Johanna A.; Rostker, Fanya; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Swigart-Brown, Lamorna; Evan, Gerard; Hanahan, Douglas; Shchors, Ksenya

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the recent implication of cysteine protease cathepsin L as a potential target for anti-cancer drug development, we used a conditional MycERTAM;Bcl-xL model of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumorigenesis (PNET) to assess the role of cathepsin L in Myc-induced tumor progression. By employing a cysteine cathepsin activity probe in vivo and in vitro, we first established that cathepsin activity increases during the initial stages of MycERTAM;Bcl-xL tumor development. Among the cathepsin family members investigated, only cathepsin L was predominately produced by beta-tumor cells in neoplastic pancreata and, consistent with this, cathepsin L mRNA expression was rapidly upregulated following Myc activation in the beta cell compartment. By contrast, cathepsins B, S and C were highly enriched in tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Genetic deletion of cathepsin L had no discernible effect on the initiation of neoplastic growth or concordant angiogenesis. However, the tumors that developed in the cathepsin L-deficient background were markedly reduced in size relative to their typical wild-type counterparts, indicative of a role for cathepsin L in enabling expansive tumor growth. Thus, genetic blockade of cathepsin L activity is inferred to retard Myc-driven tumor growth, encouraging the potential utility of pharmacological inhibitors of cysteine cathepsins in treating late stage tumors. PMID:25927437

  4. Signaling pathways activated by a protease allergen in basophils

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Rachel K.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Yu, Shuang; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases represent a significant burden in industrialized countries, but why and how the immune system responds to allergens remain largely unknown. Because many clinically significant allergens have proteolytic activity, and many helminths express proteases that are necessary for their life cycles, host mechanisms likely have evolved to detect the proteolytic activity of helminth proteases, which may be incidentally activated by protease allergens. A cysteine protease, papain, is a prototypic protease allergen that can directly activate basophils and mast cells, leading to the production of cytokines, including IL-4, characteristic of the type 2 immune response. The mechanism of papain’s immunogenic activity remains unknown. Here we have characterized the cellular response activated by papain in basophils. We find that papain-induced IL-4 production requires calcium flux and activation of PI3K and nuclear factor of activated T cells. Interestingly, papain-induced IL-4 production was dependent on the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) adaptor protein Fc receptor γ-chain, even though the canonical ITAM signaling was not activated by papain. Collectively, these data characterize the downstream signaling pathway activated by a protease allergen in basophils. PMID:25369937

  5. α1-Antichymotrypsin inactivates staphylococcal cysteine protease in cross-class inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wladyka, Benedykt; Kozik, Agata J; Bukowski, Michal; Rojowska, Anna; Kantyka, Tomasz; Dubin, Grzegorz; Dubin, Adam

    2011-05-01

    Staphylococcal cysteine proteases are implicated as virulence factors in human and avian infections. Human strains of Staphylococcus aureus secrete two cysteine proteases (staphopains A and B), whereas avian strains express staphopain C (ScpA2), which is distinct from both human homologues. Here, we describe probable reasons why the horizontal transfer of a plasmid encoding staphopain C between avian and human strains has never been observed. The human plasma serine protease inhibitor α(1)-antichymotrypsin (ACHT) inhibits ScpA2. Together with the lack of ScpA2 inhibition by chicken plasma, these data may explain the exclusively avian occurrence of ScpA2. We also clarify the mechanistic details of this unusual cross-class inhibition. Analysis of mutated ACHT variants revealed that the cleavage of the Leu383-Ser384 peptide bond results in ScpA2 inhibition, whereas hydrolysis of the preceding peptide bond leads to ACHT inactivation. This evidence is consistent with the suicide-substrate-like mechanism of inhibition. PMID:21296644

  6. The Majority of 9,729 Group A Streptococcus Strains Causing Disease Secrete SpeB Cysteine Protease: Pathogenesis Implications

    PubMed Central

    Raghuram, Anjali; Cantu, Concepcion; Hartman, Meredith H.; Jimenez, Francisco E.; Lee, Susan; Ngo, Ashley; Rice, Kelsey A.; Saddington, Deborah; Spillman, Hannaka; Valson, Chandni; Flores, Anthony R.; Beres, Stephen B.; Long, S. Wesley; Nasser, Waleed; Musser, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS), the causative agent of pharyngitis and necrotizing fasciitis, secretes the potent cysteine protease SpeB. Several lines of evidence suggest that SpeB is an important virulence factor. SpeB is expressed in human infections, protects mice from lethal challenge when used as a vaccine, and contributes significantly to tissue destruction and dissemination in animal models. However, recent descriptions of mutations in genes implicated in SpeB production have led to the idea that GAS may be under selective pressure to decrease secreted SpeB protease activity during infection. Thus, two divergent hypotheses have been proposed. One postulates that SpeB is a key contributor to pathogenesis; the other, that GAS is under selection to decrease SpeB during infection. In order to distinguish between these alternative hypotheses, we performed casein hydrolysis assays to measure the SpeB protease activity secreted by 6,775 GAS strains recovered from infected humans. The results demonstrated that 84.3% of the strains have a wild-type SpeB protease phenotype. The availability of whole-genome sequence data allowed us to determine the relative frequencies of mutations in genes implicated in SpeB production. The most abundantly mutated genes were direct transcription regulators. We also sequenced the genomes of 2,954 GAS isolates recovered from nonhuman primates with experimental necrotizing fasciitis. No mutations that would result in a SpeB-deficient phenotype were identified. Taken together, these data unambiguously demonstrate that the great majority of GAS strains recovered from infected humans secrete wild-type levels of SpeB protease activity. Our data confirm the important role of SpeB in GAS pathogenesis and help end a long-standing controversy. PMID:26416912

  7. The majority of 9,729 group A streptococcus strains causing disease secrete SpeB cysteine protease: pathogenesis implications.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Randall J; Raghuram, Anjali; Cantu, Concepcion; Hartman, Meredith H; Jimenez, Francisco E; Lee, Susan; Ngo, Ashley; Rice, Kelsey A; Saddington, Deborah; Spillman, Hannaka; Valson, Chandni; Flores, Anthony R; Beres, Stephen B; Long, S Wesley; Nasser, Waleed; Musser, James M

    2015-12-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS), the causative agent of pharyngitis and necrotizing fasciitis, secretes the potent cysteine protease SpeB. Several lines of evidence suggest that SpeB is an important virulence factor. SpeB is expressed in human infections, protects mice from lethal challenge when used as a vaccine, and contributes significantly to tissue destruction and dissemination in animal models. However, recent descriptions of mutations in genes implicated in SpeB production have led to the idea that GAS may be under selective pressure to decrease secreted SpeB protease activity during infection. Thus, two divergent hypotheses have been proposed. One postulates that SpeB is a key contributor to pathogenesis; the other, that GAS is under selection to decrease SpeB during infection. In order to distinguish between these alternative hypotheses, we performed casein hydrolysis assays to measure the SpeB protease activity secreted by 6,775 GAS strains recovered from infected humans. The results demonstrated that 84.3% of the strains have a wild-type SpeB protease phenotype. The availability of whole-genome sequence data allowed us to determine the relative frequencies of mutations in genes implicated in SpeB production. The most abundantly mutated genes were direct transcription regulators. We also sequenced the genomes of 2,954 GAS isolates recovered from nonhuman primates with experimental necrotizing fasciitis. No mutations that would result in a SpeB-deficient phenotype were identified. Taken together, these data unambiguously demonstrate that the great majority of GAS strains recovered from infected humans secrete wild-type levels of SpeB protease activity. Our data confirm the important role of SpeB in GAS pathogenesis and help end a long-standing controversy. PMID:26416912

  8. Odanacatib, a Cathepsin K Cysteine Protease Inhibitor, Kills Hookworm In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Vermeire, Jon J; Suzuki, Brian M; Caffrey, Conor R

    2016-01-01

    Hookworm infection is chief among soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) for the chronic morbidly inflicted. Deworming via mass drug administration (MDA) programs most often employs single doses of benzimidazole drugs to which resistance is a constant threat. To discover new drugs, we employ a hamster model of hookworm infection with Ancylostoma ceylanicum and use albendazole (ABZ; 10 mg/kg orally) as the gold standard therapy. We previously showed that a single oral 100 mg/kg dose of the cathepsin cysteine protease (CP) inhibitor, K11777, offers near cure of infection that is associated with a 95% reduction in the parasite's resident CP activity. We confirm these findings here and demonstrate that odanacatib (ODN), Merck's cathepsin K inhibitor and post-clinical Phase III drug candidate for treatment of osteoporosis, decreases worm burden by 73% at the same dose with a 51% reduction in the parasite's CP activity. Unlike K11777, ODN is a modest inhibitor of both mammalian cathepsin B and the predominant cathepsin B-like activity measureable in hookworm extracts. ODN's somewhat unexpected efficacy, therefore, may be due to its excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) profile which allows for sustained plasma exposure and, possibly, sufficient perturbation of hookworm cathepsin B activity to be detrimental to survival. Accordingly, identifying a CP inhibitor(s) that combines the inhibition potency of K11777 and the PK attributes of ODN could lead to a drug that is effective at a lower dose. Achieving this would potentially provide an alternative or back-up to the current anti-hookworm drug, albendazole. PMID:27384569

  9. CPDadh: A new peptidase family homologous to the cysteine protease domain in bacterial MARTX toxins

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Jimin; Lupardus, Patrick J; Garcia, K Christopher; Grishin, Nick V

    2009-01-01

    A cysteine protease domain (CPD) has been recently discovered in a group of multifunctional, autoprocessing RTX toxins (MARTX) and Clostridium difficile toxins A and B. These CPDs (referred to as CPDmartx) autocleave the toxins to release domains with toxic effects inside host cells. We report identification and computational analysis of CPDadh, a new cysteine peptidase family homologous to CPDmartx. CPDadh and CPDmartx share a Rossmann-like structural core and conserved catalytic residues. In bacteria, domains of the CPDadh family are present at the N-termini of a diverse group of putative cell-cell interaction proteins and at the C-termini of some RHS (recombination hot spot) proteins. In eukaryotes, catalytically inactive members of the CPDadh family are found in cell surface protein NELF (nasal embryonic LHRH factor) and some putative signaling proteins. PMID:19309740

  10. Tigutcystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor from Triatoma infestans midgut expressed in response to Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Buarque, Diego S.; Spindola, Leticia M.N.; Martins, Rafael M.; Braz, Gloria R.C.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Tigutcystatin inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine proteases with high specificity. {yields} Tigutcystatin expression is up-regulated in response to T. cruzi infection. {yields} It is the first cysteine proteases inhibitor characterized from a triatomine insect. -- Abstract: The insect Triatoma infestans is a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. A cDNA library was constructed from T. infestans anterior midgut, and 244 clones were sequenced. Among the EST sequences, an open reading frame (ORF) with homology to a cystatin type 2 precursor was identified. Then, a 288-bp cDNA fragment encoding mature cystatin (lacking signal peptide) named Tigutcystatin was cloned fused to a N-terminal His tag in pET-14b vector, and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta gami. Tigutcystatin purified and cleaved by thrombin to remove His tag presented molecular mass of 11 kDa and 10,137 Da by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, respectively. Purified Tigutcystatin was shown to be a tight inhibitor towards cruzain, a T. cruzi cathepsin L-like enzyme (K{sub i} = 3.29 nM) and human cathepsin L (K{sub i} = 3.78 nM). Tissue specific expression analysis showed that Tigutcystatin was mostly expressed in anterior midgut, although amplification in small intestine was also detected by semi quantitative RT-PCR. qReal time PCR confirmed that Tigutcystatin mRNA is significantly up-regulated in anterior midgut when T. infestans is infected with T. cruzi. Together, these results indicate that Tigutcystatin may be involved in modulation of T. cruzi in intestinal tract by inhibiting parasite cysteine proteases, which represent the virulence factors of this protozoan.

  11. Absence of a cysteine protease effect on bacterial virulence in two murine models of human invasive group A streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Ashbaugh, C D; Wessels, M R

    2001-11-01

    The cysteine protease of group A streptococci has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of invasive infection through degradation of host tissue, activation of the host inflammatory response, release of protective molecules from the bacterial cell surface, or other mechanisms. However, studies of the effects on virulence of inactivating the cysteine protease gene speB have yielded conflicting results. In some reports, a speB mutant was relatively avirulent in mouse models of invasive infection whereas little or no attenuation of virulence was observed in other studies of similar mutant strains. Possible reasons for these discordant results include differences in the streptococcal strains from which the speB mutants were derived, differences in the infection models employed, or unintended effects on another virulence determinant(s) that arose during the derivation of a speB mutant. We attempted to clarify these issues by characterizing the phenotypic properties and relative virulence in mice of two speB mutant strains, both derived from wild-type strain AM3: speB mutant AM3speB, which has been shown to be markedly attenuated in virulence in mice after intraperitoneal or subcutaneous challenge, and AM3speBOmega, a new mutant strain derived for this investigation. Both mutant strains were negative for protease activity, as expected, and both produced wild-type amounts of type 3 M protein and streptolysin O. However, AM3speB produced significantly less cell-associated hyaluronic acid capsule than did parent strain AM3 or strain AM3speBOmega. Compared to wild-type strain AM3, AM3speB was more sensitive to opsonophagocytic killing in vitro and was significantly less virulent in mice after intraperitoneal challenge. By contrast, AM3speBOmega was fully resistant to phagocytosis and did not differ significantly from the wild-type strain in mouse virulence after an intraperitoneal or subcutaneous challenge. We concluded that previous reports attributing loss of

  12. Absence of a Cysteine Protease Effect on Bacterial Virulence in Two Murine Models of Human Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ashbaugh, Cameron D.; Wessels, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    The cysteine protease of group A streptococci has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of invasive infection through degradation of host tissue, activation of the host inflammatory response, release of protective molecules from the bacterial cell surface, or other mechanisms. However, studies of the effects on virulence of inactivating the cysteine protease gene speB have yielded conflicting results. In some reports, a speB mutant was relatively avirulent in mouse models of invasive infection whereas little or no attenuation of virulence was observed in other studies of similar mutant strains. Possible reasons for these discordant results include differences in the streptococcal strains from which the speB mutants were derived, differences in the infection models employed, or unintended effects on another virulence determinant(s) that arose during the derivation of a speB mutant. We attempted to clarify these issues by characterizing the phenotypic properties and relative virulence in mice of two speB mutant strains, both derived from wild-type strain AM3: speB mutant AM3speB, which has been shown to be markedly attenuated in virulence in mice after intraperitoneal or subcutaneous challenge, and AM3speBΩ, a new mutant strain derived for this investigation. Both mutant strains were negative for protease activity, as expected, and both produced wild-type amounts of type 3 M protein and streptolysin O. However, AM3speB produced significantly less cell-associated hyaluronic acid capsule than did parent strain AM3 or strain AM3speBΩ. Compared to wild-type strain AM3, AM3speB was more sensitive to opsonophagocytic killing in vitro and was significantly less virulent in mice after intraperitoneal challenge. By contrast, AM3speBΩ was fully resistant to phagocytosis and did not differ significantly from the wild-type strain in mouse virulence after an intraperitoneal or subcutaneous challenge. We concluded that previous reports attributing loss of virulence

  13. Crystal structure of the zymogen form of the group A Streptococcus virulence factor SpeB: an integrin-binding cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, T F; Cooney, J C; Baker, H M; McSweeney, S; Liu, M; Gubba, S; Musser, J M; Baker, E N

    2000-02-29

    Pathogenic bacteria secrete protein toxins that weaken or disable their host, and thereby act as virulence factors. We have determined the crystal structure of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), a cysteine protease that is a major virulence factor of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes and participates in invasive disease episodes, including necrotizing fasciitis. The structure, determined for the 40-kDa precursor form of SpeB at 1.6-A resolution, reveals that the protein is a distant homologue of the papain superfamily that includes the mammalian cathepsins B, K, L, and S. Despite negligible sequence identity, the protease portion has the canonical papain fold, albeit with major loop insertions and deletions. The catalytic site differs from most other cysteine proteases in that it lacks the Asn residue of the Cys-His-Asn triad. The prosegment has a unique fold and inactivation mechanism that involves displacement of the catalytically essential His residue by a loop inserted into the active site. The structure also reveals the surface location of an integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif that is a feature unique to SpeB among cysteine proteases and is linked to the pathogenesis of the most invasive strains of S. pyogenes. PMID:10681429

  14. Crystal structure of the zymogen form of the group A Streptococcus virulence factor SpeB: An integrin-binding cysteine protease

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, Todd F.; Cooney, Jakki C.; Baker, Heather M.; McSweeney, Sean; Liu, Mengyao; Gubba, Siddeswar; Musser, James M.; Baker, Edward N.

    2000-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria secrete protein toxins that weaken or disable their host, and thereby act as virulence factors. We have determined the crystal structure of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), a cysteine protease that is a major virulence factor of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes and participates in invasive disease episodes, including necrotizing fasciitis. The structure, determined for the 40-kDa precursor form of SpeB at 1.6-Å resolution, reveals that the protein is a distant homologue of the papain superfamily that includes the mammalian cathepsins B, K, L, and S. Despite negligible sequence identity, the protease portion has the canonical papain fold, albeit with major loop insertions and deletions. The catalytic site differs from most other cysteine proteases in that it lacks the Asn residue of the Cys-His-Asn triad. The prosegment has a unique fold and inactivation mechanism that involves displacement of the catalytically essential His residue by a loop inserted into the active site. The structure also reveals the surface location of an integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif that is a feature unique to SpeB among cysteine proteases and is linked to the pathogenesis of the most invasive strains of S. pyogenes. PMID:10681429

  15. Exoerythrocytic Plasmodium Parasites Secrete a Cysteine Protease Inhibitor Involved in Sporozoite Invasion and Capable of Blocking Cell Death of Host Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rennenberg, Annika; Lehmann, Christine; Heitmann, Anna; Witt, Tina; Hansen, Guido; Nagarajan, Krishna; Deschermeier, Christina; Turk, Vito; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Heussler, Volker T.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites must control cysteine protease activity that is critical for hepatocyte invasion by sporozoites, liver stage development, host cell survival and merozoite liberation. Here we show that exoerythrocytic P. berghei parasites express a potent cysteine protease inhibitor (PbICP, P. berghei inhibitor of cysteine proteases). We provide evidence that it has an important function in sporozoite invasion and is capable of blocking hepatocyte cell death. Pre-incubation with specific anti-PbICP antiserum significantly decreased the ability of sporozoites to infect hepatocytes and expression of PbICP in mammalian cells protects them against peroxide- and camptothecin-induced cell death. PbICP is secreted by sporozoites prior to and after hepatocyte invasion, localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole as well as to the parasite cytoplasm in the schizont stage and is released into the host cell cytoplasm at the end of the liver stage. Like its homolog falstatin/PfICP in P. falciparum, PbICP consists of a classical N-terminal signal peptide, a long N-terminal extension region and a chagasin-like C-terminal domain. In exoerythrocytic parasites, PbICP is posttranslationally processed, leading to liberation of the C-terminal chagasin-like domain. Biochemical analysis has revealed that both full-length PbICP and the truncated C-terminal domain are very potent inhibitors of cathepsin L-like host and parasite cysteine proteases. The results presented in this study suggest that the inhibitor plays an important role in sporozoite invasion of host cells and in parasite survival during liver stage development by inhibiting host cell proteases involved in programmed cell death. PMID:20361051

  16. Iron-Binding Protein Degradation by Cysteine Proteases of Naegleria fowleri

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Rico, Gerardo; Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Shibayama, Mineko

    2015-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes acute and fulminant primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This microorganism invades its host by penetrating the olfactory mucosa and then traveling up the mesaxonal spaces and crossing the cribriform plate; finally, the trophozoites invade the olfactory bulbs. During its invasion, the protozoan obtains nutrients such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and cationic ions (e.g., iron, calcium, and sodium) from the host. However, the mechanism by which these ions are obtained, particularly iron, is poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of N. fowleri to degrade iron-binding proteins, including hololactoferrin, transferrin, ferritin, and hemoglobin. Zymography assays were performed for each substrate under physiological conditions (pH 7 at 37°C) employing conditioned medium (CM) and total crude extracts (TCEs) of N. fowleri. Different degradation patterns with CM were observed for hololactoferrin, transferrin, and hemoglobin; however, CM did not cause ferritin degradation. In contrast, the TCEs degraded only hololactoferrin and transferrin. Inhibition assays revealed that cysteine proteases were involved in this process. Based on these results, we suggest that CM and TCEs of N. fowleri degrade iron-binding proteins by employing cysteine proteases, which enables the parasite to obtain iron to survive while invading the central nervous system. PMID:26090408

  17. Iron-Binding Protein Degradation by Cysteine Proteases of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Castillo, Moisés; Ramírez-Rico, Gerardo; Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Shibayama, Mineko

    2015-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes acute and fulminant primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This microorganism invades its host by penetrating the olfactory mucosa and then traveling up the mesaxonal spaces and crossing the cribriform plate; finally, the trophozoites invade the olfactory bulbs. During its invasion, the protozoan obtains nutrients such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and cationic ions (e.g., iron, calcium, and sodium) from the host. However, the mechanism by which these ions are obtained, particularly iron, is poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of N. fowleri to degrade iron-binding proteins, including hololactoferrin, transferrin, ferritin, and hemoglobin. Zymography assays were performed for each substrate under physiological conditions (pH 7 at 37°C) employing conditioned medium (CM) and total crude extracts (TCEs) of N. fowleri. Different degradation patterns with CM were observed for hololactoferrin, transferrin, and hemoglobin; however, CM did not cause ferritin degradation. In contrast, the TCEs degraded only hololactoferrin and transferrin. Inhibition assays revealed that cysteine proteases were involved in this process. Based on these results, we suggest that CM and TCEs of N. fowleri degrade iron-binding proteins by employing cysteine proteases, which enables the parasite to obtain iron to survive while invading the central nervous system. PMID:26090408

  18. Cloning and expression analysis of cysteine protease gene (MwCP) in Agropyron mongolicum Keng.

    PubMed

    Ao, T G B Y; Lang, M L; Li, Y Q; Zhao, Y; Wang, L C; Yang, X J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a cysteine protease gene (MwCP) from Agropyron mongolicum Keng was isolated using RACE. Sequence analysis indicated that MwCP was 1473 bp, and it contained a 1134-bp open reading frame, which encoded 377 amino acids with a 24-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. The results indicated that the MwCP protein was a new member of the papain C1A family, and it was predicted to be an extracellular, secretory stable hydrophilic protein. The secondary structure of MwCP was mainly composed of α-helices and random coils, and the space structure primarily contained α-helices, β-sheets, and β-turns. Homology analyses showed the 98% homology between MwCP amino acids and a cysteine protease found in Triticum aestivum (GenBank accession No. AAW21813.1). Analysis of mRNA using semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that during a 48-h drought stress period, MwCP was expressed during the 4th hour, and the expression level peaked during the 6th hour before declining to the original level. The results revealed that MwCP was involved in drought-resistant physiological processes of A. mongolicum. Moreover, the MwCP expression levels were highest in leaves, intermediate in roots, and lowest in stems. PMID:26909915

  19. Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Shahin; Nabian, Sedighe; Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Najafi, Ali; Moghaddam, Mehrdad Moosazadeh; Sazmand, Alireza; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud; Tabrizi, Saeed Sattari

    2016-02-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important ectoparasites of bovines and is responsible for the transmission of different pathogens such as Babesia and Anaplasma. Cysteine proteases are involved in several host-tick interactions including invasion of host tissues, immune evasion, pathogen transmission, embryogenesis and blood digestion. In this study, the gene encoding R. annulatus cathepsin L-like enzyme (RaCL1) was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector, sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics approaches. The nucleotide length of RaCL1 was 999 bp. Bioinformatics analysis showed 332 amino acids with an approximate molecular weight of 36.3 kDa which contained a signal peptide sequence (18 amino acids), pro-region (97 amino acids) and mature enzyme (217 amino acids). Multiple sequence alignment of the RaCL1 revealed high similarity to cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases from other tick species such as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Amblyomma variegatum. Based on bioinformatics analyses, results of this work suggest that RaCL1 can be a suitable candidate for the development of vaccine against R. annulatus. PMID:26597589

  20. Vasohibins: new transglutaminase-like cysteine proteases possessing a non-canonical Cys-His-Ser catalytic triad

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Ponting, Chris P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Vasohibin-1 and Vasohibin-2 regulate angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastasis. Their molecular functions, however, were previously unknown, in large part owing to their perceived lack of homology to proteins of known structure and function. To identify their functional amino acids and domains, their molecular activity and their evolutionary history, we undertook an in-depth analysis of Vasohibin sequences. We find that Vasohibin proteins are previously undetected members of the transglutaminase-like cysteine protease superfamily, and all possess a non-canonical Cys-His-Ser catalytic triad. We further propose a calcium-dependent activation mechanism for Vasohibin proteins. These findings can now be used to design constructs for protein structure determination and to develop enzyme inhibitors as angiogenic regulators to treat metastasis and tumour growth. Contact: luis.sanchezpulido@dpag.ox.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26794318

  1. ASTROGLIOSIS AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN MICE LACKING THE NEUTRAL CYSTEINE PROTEASE BLEOMYCIN HYDROLASE

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, S.E.; Thiels, E.; Card, J.P.; Lazo, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Bleomycin hydrolase is a multifaceted neutral cysteine protease with a suggested role in antigen presentation, homocysteine-thiolactone metabolism, and Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. Deletion of the protease in mice results in increased neonatal mortality and dermatopathology. Immunohistochemical and behavioral studies of BLMH knockout mice were undertaken to further evaluate the role of the protease in the brain. No gross abnormalities in the central nervous system were observed upon preliminary histological examination of B6.129Blmhtm1Geh/J null animals. However, glial fibrillary acid protein immunohistochemistry revealed a global reactive astrogliosis in the aged null animals, indicative of undefined brain pathology. The role of BLMH in the brain was further explored by characterizing the behavioral phenotype of hybrid [129S6-Blmhtm1Geh/J X B6.129 Blmhtm1Geh/J]F1 null and littermate controls using multiple behavioral paradigms. In the water maze, deletion of BLMH resulted in poorer performance during water maze probe trials without detectable effect of the mutation on sensorimotor function. In addition, no age-dependent decline in discriminative performance on probe trials was observed in null animals. These data suggest a physiological non-redundant function for BLMH in the central nervous system. PMID:17391860

  2. Biotechnology of Cold-Active Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2013-01-01

    The bulk of Earth’s biosphere is cold (<5 °C) and inhabited by psychrophiles. Biocatalysts from psychrophilic organisms (psychrozymes) have attracted attention because of their application in the ongoing efforts to decrease energy consumption. Proteinases as a class represent the largest category of industrial enzymes. There has been an emphasis on employing cold-active proteases in detergents because this allows laundry operations at ambient temperatures. Proteases have been used in environmental bioremediation, food industry and molecular biology. In view of the present limited understanding and availability of cold-active proteases with diverse characteristics, it is essential to explore Earth’s surface more in search of an ideal cold-active protease. The understanding of molecular and mechanistic details of these proteases will open up new avenues to tailor proteases with the desired properties. A detailed account of the developments in the production and applications of cold-active proteases is presented in this review. PMID:24832807

  3. Proteases as Insecticidal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Robert L.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases from a variety of sources (viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects) have toxicity towards insects. Some of these insecticidal proteases evolved as venom components, herbivore resistance factors, or microbial pathogenicity factors, while other proteases play roles in insect development or digestion, but exert an insecticidal effect when over-expressed from genetically engineered plants or microbial pathogens. Many of these proteases are cysteine proteases, although insect-toxic metalloproteases and serine proteases have also been examined. The sites of protease toxic activity range from the insect midgut to the hemocoel (body cavity) to the cuticle. This review discusses these insecticidal proteases along with their evaluation and use as potential pesticides. PMID:22069618

  4. Mirl-CP, a novel defense cysteine protease accumulates in maize vascular tissues in response to herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When lepidopteran larvae feed on the insect-resistant maize genotype, Mp708, there is a rapid accumulation of a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, at the feeding site. Silver-enhanced immunolocalization visualized with both light and transmission microscopy was used to determine the location of M...

  5. Cysteine Cathepsin Activity Regulation by Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Lenarčič, Brigita

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are a group of enzymes normally found in the endolysosomes where they are primarily involved in intracellular protein turnover but also have a critical role in MHC II-mediated antigen processing and presentation. However, in a number of pathologies cysteine cathepsins were found to be heavily upregulated and secreted into extracellular milieu, where they were found to degrade a number of extracellular proteins. A major role in modulating cathepsin activities play glycosaminoglycans, which were found not only to facilitate their autocatalytic activation including at neutral pH, but also to critically modulate their activities such as in the case of the collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K. The interaction between cathepsins and glycosaminoglycans will be discussed in more detail. PMID:25587532

  6. The structure of the cysteine protease and lectin-like domains of Cwp84, a surface layer-associated protein from Clostridium difficile

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, William J.; Kirby, Jonathan M.; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Chambers, Christopher J.; Davies, Abigail H.; Roberts, April K.; Shone, Clifford C.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2014-07-01

    The crystal structure of Cwp84, an S-layer protein from Clostridium difficile is presented for the first time. The cathepsin L-like fold of cysteine protease domain, a newly observed ‘lectin-like’ domain and several other features are described. Clostridium difficile is a major problem as an aetiological agent for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. The mechanism by which the bacterium colonizes the gut during infection is poorly understood, but undoubtedly involves a myriad of components present on the bacterial surface. The mechanism of C. difficile surface-layer (S-layer) biogenesis is also largely unknown but involves the post-translational cleavage of a single polypeptide (surface-layer protein A; SlpA) into low- and high-molecular-weight subunits by Cwp84, a surface-located cysteine protease. Here, the first crystal structure of the surface protein Cwp84 is described at 1.4 Å resolution and the key structural components are identified. The truncated Cwp84 active-site mutant (amino-acid residues 33–497; C116A) exhibits three regions: a cleavable propeptide and a cysteine protease domain which exhibits a cathepsin L-like fold followed by a newly identified putative carbohydrate-binding domain with a bound calcium ion, which is referred to here as a lectin-like domain. This study thus provides the first structural insights into Cwp84 and a strong base to elucidate its role in the C. difficile S-layer maturation mechanism.

  7. Structure of the mexicain-E-64 complex and comparison with other cysteine proteases of the papain family.

    PubMed

    Gavira, J A; González-Ramírez, L A; Oliver-Salvador, M C; Soriano-García, M; García-Ruiz, J M

    2007-05-01

    Mexicain is a 23.8 kDa cysteine protease from the tropical plant Jacaratia mexicana. It is isolated as the most abundant product after cation-exchange chromatography of the mix of proteases extracted from the latex of the fruit. The purified enzyme inhibited with E-64 [N-(3-carboxyoxirane-2-carbonyl)-leucyl-amino(4-guanido)butane] was crystallized by sitting-drop vapour diffusion and the structure was solved by molecular replacement at 2.1 A resolution and refined to an R factor of 17.7% (R(free) = 23.8%). The enzyme belongs to the alpha+beta class of proteins and the structure shows the typical papain-like fold composed of two domains, the alpha-helix-rich (L) domain and the beta-barrel-like (R) domain, separated by a groove containing the active site formed by residues Cys25 and His159, one from each domain. The four monomers in the asymmetric unit show one E-64 molecule covalently bound to Cys25 in the active site and differences have been found in the placement of E-64 in each monomer. PMID:17452780

  8. Rat liver cysteine dioxygenase (cysteine oxidase). Further purification, characterization, and analysis of the activation and inactivation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Hosokawa, Y; Kohashi, N; Kori, Y; Sakakibara, S; Ueda, I

    1978-02-01

    Rat liver cysteine dioxygenase has been purified to homogeneity. It is a single subunit protein having a molecular weight of 22,500 +/- 1,000, with a pI of 5.5. The enzyme purified was catalytically inactive and activated by anaerobic incubation with either L-cysteine or its analogues such as carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, carboxyethyl-L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, D-cysteine, cysteamine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and DL-homocysteine. The enzyme thus activated with L-cysteine was rapidly inactivated under aerobic condition. This rapid inactivation was observed at 0 degrees C where no formation of either the reaction product cysteine sulfinate or the autoxidation product of cysteine, cystine, was detected. Further analysis shows that the inactivation of the activated enzyme was due to oxygen but unrelated to either the presence of substrate, enzyme turnover or accumulation of inhibitor produced during assay. A distinct rat liver cytoplasmic protein, called protein-A, could completely prevented the enzyme from the aerobic inactivation. The loss of activity during assay in the absence of protein-A was shown to be a first order decay process. From the plots of log(deltaproduct/min) versus time, the initial velocity (VO) and the velocity at 7 min (V7) were obtained. The apparent Km value for L-cysteine in the absence of protein-A was calculated from the initial velocity as 4.5 X 10(-4)M. Protein-A did not alter the apparent Km value for L-cysteine. The chelating agents such as o-phenanthroline, alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl, bathophenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, EGTA, and EDTA strongly inhibited the enzyme activity when these chelating agents were added before preactivation. The purified cystein dioxygenase contains 1 atom of iron per mol of enzyme protein. By the activation procedure, the enzyme became less susceptible to the heat denaturation, the inhibitory effects of chelating agents and the tryptic digestion. PMID:632231

  9. Serine and cysteine protease-like genes in the genome of a gall midge and their interactions with host plant genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For plant-feeding insects, digestive proteases are targets for engineering protease inhibitors for pest control. In this study, we identified 105 putative serine- and cysteine-protease genes from Hessian fly genome. Among the genes, 31 encode putative trypsins, 18 encode putative chymotrypsins, se...

  10. Characterization of a papain-like cysteine protease essential for the survival of Babesia ovis merozoites.

    PubMed

    Carletti, Tamara; Barreto, Carmo; Mesplet, Maria; Mira, Anabela; Weir, William; Shiels, Brian; Oliva, Abel Gonzalez; Schnittger, Leonhard; Florin-Christensen, Monica

    2016-02-01

    Babesia ovis, a tick-transmitted intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, causes severe infections in small ruminants from Southern Europe, Middle East, and Northern Africa. With the aim of finding potential targets for the development of control methods against this parasite, sequence analysis of its genome led to the identification of four putative cysteine proteases of the C1A family. Orthology between B. ovis, B. bovis, T. annulata, and T. parva sequences showed that each B. ovis C1A peptidase sequence clustered within one of the four ortholog groups previously reported for these piroplasmids. The ortholog of bovipain-2 of B. bovis and falcipain-2 of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, was designated "ovipain-2" and further characterized. In silico analysis showed that ovipain-2 has the typical topology of papain-like cysteine peptidases and a highly similar predicted three dimensional structure to bovipain-2 and falcipain-2, suggesting susceptibility to similar inhibitors. Immunoblotting using antibodies raised against a recombinant form of ovipain-2 (r-ovipain-2) demonstrated expression of ovipain-2 in in vitro cultured B. ovis merozoites. By immunofluorescence, these antibodies reacted with merozoites and stained the cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes. This suggests that ovipain-2 is secreted by the parasite and could be involved in intra- and extracellular digestion of hemoglobin and/or cleavage of erythrocyte proteins facilitating parasite egress. A significant reduction in the percentage of parasitized erythrocytes was obtained upon incubation of B. ovis in vitro cultures with anti-r-ovipain-2 antibodies, indicating an important functional role for ovipain-2 in the intra erythrocytic development cycle of this parasite. Finally, studies of the reactivity of sera from B. ovis-positive and negative sheep against r-ovipain-2 showed that this protease is expressed in vivo, and can be recognized by host antibodies. The results of this study suggest that ovipain-2

  11. Prorenin processing enzyme (PPE) produced by Baculovirus-infected Sf-9 insect cells: PPE is the cysteine protease encoded in the acMNPV gene.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Takeshi; Awa, Hirono; Kikuchi, Ken-Ichi; Nirasawa, Satoru; Takahashi, Saori

    2010-01-01

    In infection cultures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) insect cells with a recombinant baculovirus, vhpR, carrying human preprorenin cDNA in the polyhedrin locus of Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV), the expressed inactive recombinant human (rh)-prorenin is reported to be proteolytically processed to yield active rh-renin in the very late phase of culture (Takahashi et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 71, 2610-2613 (2007)). To identify the enzyme that catalyzes the processing of rh-prorenin, referred to as prorenin processing enzyme (PPE), we purified potential PPE from virus-infected Sf-9 culture supernatant by the use of an internally quenched fluorescent (IQF) substrate for PPE. The 32-kDa protein band agreed well with PPE activity on the final Mono Q FPLC. By N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, the protein was revealed to be a cysteine protease encoded by the AcMNPV gene. Enzyme activity was inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors but not by other protease inhibitors. When the purified rh-prorenin was incubated with the 32-kDa protein, renin activity appeared concomitant with the disappearance of rh-prorenin. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the activated product was identical to that of the rh-renin that had accumulated in the infection cultures. These results indicate that the 32-kDa cysteine protease derived from the AcMNPV gene is the enzyme PPE of virus-infected Sf-9 cells. PMID:20139610

  12. Characterization of senescence-associated protease activities involved in the efficient protein remobilization during leaf senescence of winter oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Poret, Marine; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is a crop plant characterized by a poor nitrogen (N) use efficiency that is mainly due to low N remobilization efficiency during the sequential leaf senescence of the vegetative stage. As a high leaf N remobilization efficiency was strongly linked to a high remobilization of proteins during leaf senescence of rapeseed, our objective was to identify senescence-associated protease activities implicated in the protein degradation. To reach this goal, leaf senescence processes and protease activities were investigated in a mature leaf becoming senescent in plants subjected to ample or low nitrate supply. The characterization of protease activities was performed by using in vitro analysis of RuBisCO degradation with or without inhibitors of specific protease classes followed by a protease activity profiling using activity-dependent probes. As expected, the mature leaf became senescent regardless of the nitrate treatment, and nitrate limitation enhanced the senescence processes associated with an enhanced degradation of soluble proteins. The characterization of protease activities revealed that: (i) aspartic proteases and the proteasome were active during senescence regardless of nitrate supply, and (ii) the activities of serine proteases and particularly cysteine proteases (Papain-like Cys proteases and vacuolar processing enzymes) increased when protein remobilization associated with senescence was accelerated by nitrate limitation. Short statement: Serine and particularly cysteine proteases (both PLCPs and VPEs) seem to play a crucial role in the efficient protein remobilization when leaf senescence of oilseed rape was accelerated by nitrate limitation. PMID:26993244

  13. Vaccination of dogs with a recombinant cysteine protease from the intestine of canine hookworms diminishes the fecundity and growth of worms.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Alex; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Williamson, Angela L; Goud, Gaddam N; Mendez, Susana; Zhan, Bin; Hawdon, John M; Elena Bottazzi, Maria; Brindley, Paul J; Hotez, Peter J

    2004-05-15

    We expressed a catalytically active cysteine protease, Ac-CP-2, from the blood-feeding stage of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and vaccinated dogs with the purified protease. Dogs acquired high-titer, antigen-specific antibody responses, and adult hookworms recovered from the intestines of vaccinated dogs were significantly smaller than hookworms from control dogs. There was also a marked decrease in fecal egg counts and the number of female hookworms in vaccinated dogs. Ac-CP-2 is expressed by the parasite in the brush-border membrane of its alimentary canal, and anti-Ac-CP-2 antibodies were bound to the gut of hookworms from vaccinated dogs, which suggests that these antibodies were ingested by the parasites with their blood meal. IgG from vaccinated dogs decreased proteolytic activity against a peptide substrate by 73%, which implies that neutralizing antibodies were induced by vaccination. These results indicate that cysteine proteases involved in parasite nutrition are promising candidates as vaccines against hookworm disease. PMID:15122534

  14. In vitro effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on Trichomonas foetus-induced cytopathic changes in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, M Katherine; Brand, Mabre D; Gould, Emily N

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of specific cysteine protease (CP) inhibitors on cytopathic changes to porcine intestinal epithelial cells induced by Tritrichomonas foetus isolated from naturally infected cats. SAMPLE T foetus isolates from 4 naturally infected cats and nontransformed porcine intestinal epithelial cells. PROCEDURES T foetus isolates were treated with or without 0.1 to 1.0mM of the CP inhibitors antipain, cystatin, leupeptin, and chymostatin and the vinyl sulfone inhibitors WRR-483 and K11777. In-gel gelatin zymography was performed to evaluate the effects of these inhibitors on CP activity of T foetus isolates. Each treated or untreated isolate was also cocultured with monolayers of porcine intestinal epithelial cells for 24 hours, and cytopathic effects of T foetus were evaluated by light microscopy and crystal violet spectrophotometry. RESULTS Results of in-gel gelatin zymography suggested an ability of WRR-483, K11777, and cystatin to target specific zones of CP activity of the T foetus isolates. These inhibitors had no effect on T foetus growth, and the cytopathic changes to the intestinal epithelium induced by all 4 T foetus isolates were significantly inhibited. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study revealed that certain protease inhibitors were capable of inhibiting regions of CP activity (which has been suggested to cause intestinal cell damage in cats) in T foetus organisms and of ameliorating T foetus-induced cytopathic changes to porcine intestinal epithelium in vitro. Although additional research is needed, these inhibitors might be useful in the treatment of cats with trichomonosis. PMID:27463553

  15. Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease falcipain-2 cleaves erythrocyte membrane skeletal proteins at late stages of parasite development.

    PubMed

    Hanspal, Manjit; Dua, Meenakshi; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Chishti, Athar H; Mizuno, Akiko

    2002-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum-derived cysteine protease falcipain-2 cleaves host erythrocyte hemoglobin at acidic pH and specific components of the membrane skeleton at neutral pH. Analysis of stage-specific expression of these 2 proteolytic activities of falcipain-2 shows that hemoglobin-hydrolyzing activity is maximum in early trophozoites and declines rapidly at late stages, whereas the membrane skeletal protein hydrolyzing activity is markedly increased at the late trophozoite and schizont stages. Among the erythrocyte membrane skeletal proteins, ankyrin and protein 4.1 are cleaved by native and recombinant falcipain-2 near their C-termini. To identify the precise peptide sequence at the hydrolysis site of protein 4.1, we used a recombinant construct of protein 4.1 as substrate followed by MALDI-MS analysis of the cleaved product. We show that falcipain-2-mediated cleavage of protein 4.1 occurs immediately after lysine 437, which lies within a region of the spectrin-actin-binding domain critical for erythrocyte membrane stability. A 16-mer peptide containing the cleavage site completely inhibited the enzyme activity and blocked falcipain-2-induced fragmentation of erythrocyte ghosts. Based on these results, we propose that falcipain-2 cleaves hemoglobin in the acidic food vacuole at the early trophozoite stage, whereas it cleaves specific components of the red cell skeleton at the late trophozoite and schizont stages. It is the proteolysis of skeletal proteins that causes membrane instability, which, in turn, facilitates parasite release in vivo. PMID:12130521

  16. Density functional theory and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study of cysteine protease inhibition by nitrile-based inhibitors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Visser, Sam; Quesne, Matthew; Ward, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cysteine protease enzymes are important for human physiology and catalyze key protein degradation pathways. These enzymes react via a nucleophilic reaction mechanism that involves a cysteine residue and the proton of a proximal histidine. Particularly efficient inhibitors of these enzymes are nitrile-based, however, the details of the catalytic reaction mechanism currently are poorly understood. To gain further insight into the inhibition of these molecules, we have performed a combined density functional theory and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study on the reaction of a nitrile-based inhibitor with the enzyme active site amino acids. We show here that small perturbations to the inhibitor structure can have dramatic effects on the catalysis and inhibition processes. Thus, we investigated a range of inhibitor templates and show that specific structural changes reduce the inhibitory efficiency by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, as the reaction takes place on a polar surface, we find strong differences between the DFT and QM/MM calculated energetics. In particular, the DFT model led to dramatic distortions from the starting structure and the convergence to a structure that would not fit the enzyme active site. In the subsequent QM/MM study we investigated the use of mechanical versus electronic embedding on the kinetics, thermodynamics and geometries along the reaction mechanism. We find minor effects on the kinetics of the reaction but large geometric and thermodynamics differences as a result of inclusion of electronic embedding corrections. The work here highlights the importance of model choice in the investigation of this biochemical reaction mechanism.

  17. Isolation and gene expression analysis of a papain-type cysteine protease in thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius).

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Masuko, Hiromi; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2012-01-01

    Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) spadices contain abundant transcripts for cysteine protease (CP). From thermogenic spadices, we isolated SrCPA, a highly expressed CP gene that encoded a papain-type CP. SrCPA is structurally similar to other plant CPs, including the senescence-associated CPs found in aroids. The expression of SrCPA increased during floral development, and was observed in all floral tissues except for the stamens. PMID:23047088

  18. Trichuris suis: thiol protease activity from adult worms.

    PubMed

    Hill, D E; Sakanari, J A

    1997-01-01

    Trichuris suis, the whipworm of swine, causes anemia, weight loss, anorexia, mucohemorrhagic diarrhea, and death in heavy infections. A zinc metalloprotease has been suggested to play a role in the severe enteric pathology associated with infection and the infiltration of opportunistic bacteria into deeper tissues in the swine colon. In this study, a thiol protease from gut extracts of adult T. suis and from excretory/secretory components (E/S) of adult worms was characterized using fluorogenic peptide substrates and protein substrate gels. The protease cleaved the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC, and this cleavage was completely inhibited by the thiol protease inhibitors E-64, leupeptin, Z-Phe-Ala-CH2F, and Z-Phe-Arg-CH2F. Gelatin substrate gels and fluorescence assays using both the gut and the stichosome extracts and E/S revealed enhanced activity when 2 mM dithiothreitol or 5 mM cysteine was included in the incubation buffer, and optimal activity was seen over a pH range of 5.5 to 8.5. Incubation of gut extracts or E/S material with inhibitors of aspartic, serine, or metalloproteases had no effect on the cleavage of Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. Thiol protease activity was found in extracts of gut tissue but not in the extracts of stichocytes of adult worms. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the protease revealed sequence homologies with cathepsin B-like thiol protease identified from parasitic and free-living nematodes. PMID:9024202

  19. Immobilised native plant cysteine proteases: packed-bed reactor for white wine protein stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Acciaro, Giuseppe; Zappino, Matteo; Esti, Marco

    2016-02-01

    This research presents a feasibility study of using a continuous packed-bed reactor (PBR), containing immobilised native plant cysteine proteases, as a specific and mild alternative technique relative to the usual bentonite fining for white wine protein stabilisation. The operational parameters for a PBR containing immobilised bromelain (PBR-br) or immobilised papain (PBR-pa) were optimised using model wine fortified with synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA). The effectiveness of PBR-br, both in terms of hazing potential and total protein decrease, was significantly higher than PBR-pa, in all the seven unfined, white wines used. Among the wines tested, Sauvignon Blanc, given its total protein content as well as its very high intrinsic instability, was selected as a control wine to evaluate the effect of the treatment on wine as to its soluble protein profile, phenolic composition, mineral component, and sensory properties. The treatment in a PBR containing immobilised bromelain appeared effective in decreasing both wine hazing potential and total protein amount, while it did not significantly affect the phenol compounds, the mineral component nor the sensory quality of wine. The enzymatic treatment in PBR was shown to be a specific and mild technique for use as an alternative to bentonite fining for white wine protein stabilisation. PMID:27162393

  20. 3-Aminopiperidine-Based Peptide Analogues as the First Selective Noncovalent Inhibitors of the Bacterial Cysteine Protease IdeS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A series of eight peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of the hinge region of IgG and 17 newly synthesized peptide analogues containing a piperidine moiety as a replacement of a glycine residue were tested as potential inhibitors of the bacterial IgG degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes, IdeS. None of the peptides showed any inhibitory activity of IdeS, but several piperidine-based analogues were identified as inhibitors. Two different analysis methods were used: an SDS-PAGE based assay to detect IgG cleavage products and a surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy based assay to quantify the degree of inhibition. To investigate the selectivity of the inhibitors for IdeS, all compounds were screened against two other related cysteine proteases (SpeB and papain). The selectivity results show that larger analogues that are active inhibitors of IdeS are even more potent as inhibitors of papain, whereas smaller analogues that are active inhibitors of IdeS inhibit neither SpeB nor papain. Two compounds were identified that exhibit high selectivity against IdeS and will be used for further studies. PMID:22369147

  1. Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) with an apparent molecular mass of 11.5 kDa was purified from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by gel filtration of Sephadex G-50 followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange column chromatographies. The purified cysteine proteinase inhibitor, ...

  2. Influence of cysteine 164 on active site structure in rat cysteine dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Matthias; Siakkou, Eleni; Faponle, Abayomi S; Tchesnokov, Egor P; de Visser, Sam P; Wilbanks, Sigurd M; Jameson, Guy N L

    2016-07-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a non-heme mononuclear iron enzyme with unique structural features, namely an intramolecular thioether cross-link between cysteine 93 and tyrosine 157, and a disulfide bond between substrate L-cysteine and cysteine 164 in the entrance channel to the active site. We investigated how these posttranslational modifications affect catalysis through a kinetic, crystallographic and computational study. The enzyme kinetics of a C164S variant are identical to WT, indicating that disulfide formation at C164 does not significantly impair access to the active site at physiological pH. However, at high pH, the cysteine-tyrosine cross-link formation is enhanced in C164S. This supports the view that disulfide formation at position 164 can limit access to the active site. The C164S variant yielded crystal structures of unusual clarity in both resting state and with cysteine bound. Both show that the iron in the cysteine-bound complex is a mixture of penta- and hexa-coordinate with a water molecule taking up the final site (60 % occupancy), which is where dioxygen is believed to coordinate during turnover. The serine also displays stronger hydrogen bond interactions to a water bound to the amine of the substrate cysteine. However, the interactions between cysteine and iron appear unchanged. DFT calculations support this and show that WT and C164S have similar binding energies for the water molecule in the final site. This variant therefore provides evidence that WT also exists in an equilibrium between penta- and hexa-coordinate forms and the presence of the sixth ligand does not strongly affect dioxygen binding. PMID:27193596

  3. PIRIN2 stabilizes cysteine protease XCP2 and increases susceptibility to the vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Tremousaygue, Dominique; Denancé, Nicolas; van Esse, H Peter; Hörger, Anja C; Dabos, Patrick; Goffner, Deborah; Thomma, Bart P H J; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Tuominen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    PIRIN (PRN) is a member of the functionally diverse cupin protein superfamily. There are four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PRN family, but the roles of these proteins are largely unknown. Here we describe a function of the Arabidopsis PIRIN2 (PRN2) that is related to susceptibility to the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Two prn2 mutant alleles displayed decreased disease development and bacterial growth in response to R.  solanacearum infection. We elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism by analyzing PRN2 interactions with the papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) XCP2, RD21A, and RD21B, all of which bound to PRN2 in yeast two-hybrid assays and in Arabidopsis protoplast co-immunoprecipitation assays. We show that XCP2 is stabilized by PRN2 through inhibition of its autolysis on the basis of PLCP activity profiling assays and enzymatic assays with recombinant protein. The stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 was also confirmed in planta. Like prn2 mutants, an xcp2 single knockout mutant and xcp2 prn2 double knockout mutant displayed decreased susceptibility to R. solanacearum, suggesting that stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 underlies susceptibility to R. solanacearum in Arabidopsis. PMID:24947605

  4. PIRIN2 stabilizes cysteine protease XCP2 and increases susceptibility to the vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Tremousaygue, Dominique; Denancé, Nicolas; van Esse, H Peter; Hörger, Anja C; Dabos, Patrick; Goffner, Deborah; Thomma, Bart P H J; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Tuominen, Hannele

    2014-09-01

    PIRIN (PRN) is a member of the functionally diverse cupin protein superfamily. There are four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PRN family, but the roles of these proteins are largely unknown. Here we describe a function of the Arabidopsis PIRIN2 (PRN2) that is related to susceptibility to the bacterial plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Two prn2 mutant alleles displayed decreased disease development and bacterial growth in response to R.  solanacearum infection. We elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism by analyzing PRN2 interactions with the papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) XCP2, RD21A, and RD21B, all of which bound to PRN2 in yeast two-hybrid assays and in Arabidopsis protoplast co-immunoprecipitation assays. We show that XCP2 is stabilized by PRN2 through inhibition of its autolysis on the basis of PLCP activity profiling assays and enzymatic assays with recombinant protein. The stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 was also confirmed in planta. Like prn2 mutants, an xcp2 single knockout mutant and xcp2 prn2 double knockout mutant displayed decreased susceptibility to R. solanacearum, suggesting that stabilization of XCP2 by PRN2 underlies susceptibility to R. solanacearum in Arabidopsis. PMID:24947605

  5. Polymorphism of the Cysteine Protease YopT from Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Platonov, Mikhail E; Svetoch, Tat'yana E; Evseeva, Vera V; Knyazeva, Anastasiya I; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V; Motin, Vladimir L; Uversky, Vladimir N; Anisimov, Andrey P

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy of plague is hampered by the recent isolation of Yersinia pestis strain resistant to all of antibiotics recommended for cure. This has constrained a quest for new antimicrobials taking aim at alternative targets. Recently Y. pestis cysteine protease YopT has been explored as a potential drug target. Targets conserved in the pathogen populations should be more efficacious; therefore, we evaluated intraspecies variability in yopT genes and their products. 114 Y. pestis isolates were screened. Only two YopT full-size isoforms were found among them. The endemic allele (N149) was present in biovar caucasica from Dagestan-highland natural plague focus # 39. The biovar caucasica strains from Transcaucasian highland (# 4-6) and Pre-Araks (# 7) plague foci also contained the N149 allele. These strains from foci # 4 7 possessed a truncated version of YopT that was a consequence of a frame-shift due to the deletion of a single nucleotide at position 71 bp. Computational analyses showed that although the SNP at the position 149 has a very minimal effect of the intrinsic disorder propensity of YopT proteins, whereas the N-terminal truncations of the YopT detected in bv. caucasica strains Pestoides F_YopT1 and F_YopT2, and Pestoides G generated isoforms with the significantly modified intrinsic disorder propensities and with reduced capability to interact with lost ability to utilize their N-terminal tail for the disorder-based interactions with biological partners. Considering that representatives of biovar caucasica were reported to be the reason of sporadic cases of human plague, this study supports the necessity of additional testing of globally disseminated YopT (S149) isoform as a potential target for treatment of plague caused by the strains producing different YopT isoforms. PMID:26845766

  6. Reversible Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Show Promise for a Chagas Disease Cure

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Christian; Black, W. Cameron; Isabel, Elise; Vasquez-Camargo, Fabio; Nath-Chowdhury, Milli; Massé, Frédéric; Mellon, Christophe; Methot, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    The cysteine protease cruzipain is essential for the viability, infectivity, and virulence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Thus, inhibitors of cruzipain are considered promising anti-T. cruzi chemotherapeutic agents. Reversible cruzipain inhibitors containing a nitrile “warhead” were prepared and demonstrated 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) as potent as 1 nM in baculovirus-generated cruzipain enzyme assays. In epimastigote and intracellular amastigote in vitro assays, the most potent compounds demonstrated antiparasitic behavior in the 5 to 10 μM IC50 range; however, trypomastigote production from the amastigote form was ∼90 to 95% inhibited at 2 μM. Two key compounds, Cz007 and Cz008, with IC50s of 1.1 and 1.8 nM, respectively, against the recombinant enzyme were tested in a murine model of acute T. cruzi infection, with oral dosing in chow for 28 days at doses from 3 to 50 mg/kg of body weight. At 3 mg/kg of Cz007 and 3 mg/kg of Cz008, the blood parasitemia areas under the concentration-time curves were 16% and 25% of the untreated group, respectively. At sacrifice, 24 days after immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide, parasite presence in blood, heart, and esophagus was evaluated. Based on negative quantitative PCR results in all three tissues, cure rates in surviving animals were 90% for Cz007 at 3 mg/kg, 78% for Cz008 at 3 mg/kg, and 71% for benznidazole, the control compound, at 50 mg/kg. PMID:24323474

  7. Activation mechanism of thiol protease precursor from broiler chicken specific Staphylococcus aureus strain CH-91.

    PubMed

    Wladyka, Benedykt; Dubin, Grzegorz; Dubin, Adam

    2011-01-10

    Staphylococcus aureus strain CH-91 isolated from chicken dermatitis lesions produces large quantities of thiol protease implicated in disease formation. Observed overproduction requires efficient activation of the protease precursor which mechanism is studied here in detail. Wild type and mutant precursor forms are expressed in E. coli to test different hypotheses on the activation process. It is demonstrated that wild type precursor undergoes rapid autocatalytic processing whereas proteolytically inactive catalytic triad cysteine mutant (C(249)A) of the precursor is stable, but can be processed by minute quantities of active protease. It is concluded that limited intramolecular proteolysis is mainly responsible for efficient activation but, a positive feedback loop also contributes to the process. Both activation pathways allow efficient production of mature extracellular thiol protease, a putative virulence factor specific for avian strains of S. aureus. PMID:20598816

  8. The Importance of pH in Regulating the Function of the Fasciola hepatica Cathepsin L1 Cysteine Protease

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Jonathan; Robinson, Mark W.; Donnelly, Sheila M.; Xu, Weibo; Stack, Colin M.; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L cysteine proteases to invade its host, migrate through tissues and digest haemoglobin, its main source of amino acids. Here we investigated the importance of pH in regulating the activity and functions of the major cathepsin L protease FheCL1. The slightly acidic pH of the parasite gut facilitates the auto-catalytic activation of FheCL1 from its inactive proFheCL1 zymogen; this process was ∼40-fold faster at pH 4.5 than at pH 7.0. Active mature FheCL1 is very stable at acidic and neutral conditions (the enzyme retained ∼45% activity when incubated at 37°C and pH 4.5 for 10 days) and displayed a broad pH range for activity peptide substrates and the protein ovalbumin, peaking between pH 5.5 and pH 7.0. This pH profile likely reflects the need for FheCL1 to function both in the parasite gut and in the host tissues. FheCL1, however, could not cleave its natural substrate Hb in the pH range pH 5.5 and pH 7.0; digestion occurred only at pH≤4.5, which coincided with pH-induced dissociation of the Hb tetramer. Our studies indicate that the acidic pH of the parasite relaxes the Hb structure, making it susceptible to proteolysis by FheCL1. This process is enhanced by glutathione (GSH), the main reducing agent contained in red blood cells. Using mass spectrometry, we show that FheCL1 can degrade Hb to small peptides, predominantly of 4–14 residues, but cannot release free amino acids. Therefore, we suggest that Hb degradation is not completed in the gut lumen but that the resulting peptides are absorbed by the gut epithelial cells for further processing by intracellular di- and amino-peptidases to free amino acids that are distributed through the parasite tissue for protein anabolism. PMID:19172172

  9. Purification and characterization of cathepsin B-like cysteine protease from cotyledons of daikon radish, Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Yayoi; Ogawa, Kentaro; Saika, Hiroko; Yuasa, Keizo; Nagahama, Masami

    2008-11-01

    Plant cathepsin B-like cysteine protease (CBCP) plays a role in disease resistance and in protein remobilization during germination. The ability of animal cathepsin B to function as a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase has been attributed to the presence of a dihistidine (His110-His111) motif in the occluding loop, which represents a unique structure of cathepsin B. However, a dihistidine motif is not present in the predicted sequence of the occluding loop of plant CBCP, as determined from cDNA sequence analysis, and the loop is shorter. In an effort to investigate the enzymatic properties of plant CBCP, which possesses the unusual occluding loop, we have purified CBCP from the cotyledons of daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) by chromatography through Sephacryl S-200, DEAE-cellulose, hydroxyapatite and organomercurial-Sepharose. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 28 kDa by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions. The best synthetic substrate for CBCP was t-butyloxycarbonyl Leu-Arg-Arg-4-methylcoumaryl 7-amide, as is the case with human cathepsin B. However, the endopeptidase activity of CBCP towards glucagon and adrenocorticotropic hormone showed broad cleavage specificity. Human cathepsin B preferentially cleaves model peptides via its dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase activity, whereas daikon CBCP displays both endopeptidase and exopeptidase activities. In addition, CBCP was found to display carboxymonopeptidase activity against the substrate o-aminobenzoyl-Phe-Arg-Phe(4-NO(2)). Daikon CBCP is less sensitive (1/7000) to CA-074 than human cathepsin B. Expression analysis of CBCP at the protein and RNA levels indicated that daikon CBCP activity in cotyledons is regulated by post-transcriptional events during germination. PMID:18959767

  10. Site-specific O-Glycosylation on the MUC2 Mucin Protein Inhibits Cleavage by the Porphyromonas gingivalis Secreted Cysteine Protease (RgpB)*

    PubMed Central

    van der Post, Sjoerd; Subramani, Durai B.; Bäckström, Malin; Johansson, Malin E. V.; Vester-Christensen, Malene B.; Mandel, Ulla; Bennett, Eric P.; Clausen, Henrik; Dahlén, Gunnar; Sroka, Aneta; Potempa, Jan; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2013-01-01

    The colonic epithelial surface is protected by an inner mucus layer that the commensal microflora cannot penetrate. We previously demonstrated that Entamoeba histolytica secretes a protease capable of dissolving this layer that is required for parasite penetration. Here, we asked whether there are bacteria that can secrete similar proteases. We screened bacterial culture supernatants for such activity using recombinant fragments of the MUC2 mucin, the major structural component, and the only gel-forming mucin in the colonic mucus. MUC2 has two central heavily O-glycosylated mucin domains that are protease-resistant and has cysteine-rich N and C termini responsible for polymerization. Culture supernatants of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacterium that secretes proteases responsible for periodontitis, cleaved the MUC2 C-terminal region, whereas the N-terminal region was unaffected. The active enzyme was isolated and identified as Arg-gingipain B (RgpB). Two cleavage sites were localized to IR↓TT and NR↓QA. IR↓TT cleavage will disrupt the MUC2 polymers. Because this site has two potential O-glycosylation sites, we tested whether recombinant GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) could glycosylate a synthetic peptide covering the IRTT sequence. Only GalNAc-T3 was able to glycosylate the second Thr in IRTT, rendering the sequence resistant to cleavage by RgpB. Furthermore, when GalNAc-T3 was expressed in CHO cells expressing the MUC2 C terminus, the second threonine was glycosylated, and the protein became resistant to RgpB cleavage. These findings suggest that bacteria can produce proteases capable of dissolving the inner protective mucus layer by specific cleavages in the MUC2 mucin and that this cleavage can be modulated by site-specific O-glycosylation. PMID:23546879

  11. The structure of the cysteine protease and lectin-like domains of Cwp84, a surface layer-associated protein from Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, William J.; Kirby, Jonathan M.; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Chambers, Christopher J.; Davies, Abigail H.; Roberts, April K.; Shone, Clifford C.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a major problem as an aetiological agent for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. The mechanism by which the bacterium colonizes the gut during infection is poorly understood, but undoubtedly involves a myriad of components present on the bacterial surface. The mechanism of C. difficile surface-layer (S-layer) biogenesis is also largely unknown but involves the post-translational cleavage of a single polypeptide (surface-layer protein A; SlpA) into low- and high-molecular-weight subunits by Cwp84, a surface-located cysteine protease. Here, the first crystal structure of the surface protein Cwp84 is described at 1.4 Å resolution and the key structural components are identified. The truncated Cwp84 active-site mutant (amino-acid residues 33–497; C116A) exhibits three regions: a cleavable propeptide and a cysteine protease domain which exhibits a cathepsin L-like fold followed by a newly identified putative carbohydrate-binding domain with a bound calcium ion, which is referred to here as a lectin-like domain. This study thus provides the first structural insights into Cwp84 and a strong base to elucidate its role in the C. difficile S-layer maturation mechanism. PMID:25004975

  12. Development of fluorescent substrates and assays for the key autophagy-related cysteine protease enzyme, ATG4B.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh G; Honson, Nicolette S; Arns, Steven; Davis, Tara L; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Kovacic, Suzana; Kumar, Nag S; Pfeifer, Tom A; Young, Robert N

    2014-04-01

    The cysteine protease ATG4B plays a role in key steps of the autophagy process and is of interest as a potential therapeutic target. At an early step, ATG4B cleaves proLC3 isoforms to form LC3-I for subsequent lipidation to form LC3-II and autophagosome membrane insertion. ATG4B also cleaves phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) from LC3-II to regenerate LC3-I, enabling its recycling for further membrane biogenesis. Here, we report several novel assays for monitoring the enzymatic activity of ATG4B. An assay based on mass spectrometric analysis and quantification of cleavage of the substrate protein LC3-B was developed and, while useful for mechanistic studies, was not suitable for high throughput screening (HTS). A doubly fluorescent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) ligand YFP-LC3B-EmGFP (FRET-LC3) was constructed and shown to be an excellent substrate for ATG4B with rates of cleavage similar to that for LC3B itself. A HTS assay to identify candidate inhibitors of ATG4B utilizing FRET-LC3 as a substrate was developed and validated with a satisfactory Z' factor and high signal-to-noise ratio suitable for screening small molecule libraries. Pilot screens of the 1,280-member library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC(™)) and a 3,481-member library of known drugs (KD2) gave hit rates of 0.6% and 0.5% respectively, and subsequent titrations confirmed ATG4B inhibitory activity for three compounds, both in the FRET and mass spectrometry assays. The FRET- and mass spectrometry-based assays we have developed will allow for both HTS for inhibitors of ATG4B and mechanistic approaches to study inhibition of a major component of the autophagy pathway. PMID:24735444

  13. The role of the second binding loop of the cysteine protease inhibitor, cystatin A (stefin A), in stabilizing complexes with target proteases is exerted predominantly by Leu73.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Alona; Björk, Ingemar

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the roles of individual residues within the flexible second binding loop of human cystatin A in the inhibition of cysteine proteases. Four recombinant variants of the inhibitor, each with a single mutation, L73G, P74G, Q76G or N77G, in the most exposed part of this loop were generated by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis. The binding of these variants to papain, cathepsin L, and cathepsin B was characterized by equilibrium and kinetic methods. Mutation of Leu73 decreased the affinity for papain, cathepsin L and cathepsin B by approximately 300-fold, >10-fold and approximately 4000-fold, respectively. Mutation of Pro74 decreased the affinity for cathepsin B by approximately 10-fold but minimally affected the affinity for the other two enzymes. Mutation of Gln76 and Asn77 did not alter the affinity of cystatin A for any of the proteases studied. The decreased affinities were caused exclusively by increased dissociation rate constants. These results show that the second binding loop of cystatin A plays a major role in stabilizing the complexes with proteases by retarding their dissociation. In contrast with cystatin B, only one amino-acid residue of the loop, Leu73, is of principal importance for this effect, Pro74 assisting to a minor extent only in the case of cathepsin B binding. The contribution of the second binding loop of cystatin A to protease binding varies with the protease, being largest, approximately 45% of the total binding energy, for inhibition of cathepsin B. PMID:12423365

  14. Comparison of cysteine peptidase activities in Trichobilharzia regenti and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae.

    PubMed

    Kasný, M; Mikes, L; Dalton, J P; Mountford, A P; Horák, P

    2007-10-01

    Cercariae of the bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti and of the human schistosome Schistosoma mansoni employ proteases to invade the skin of their definitive hosts. To investigate whether a similar proteolytic mechanism is used by both species, cercarial extracts of T. regenti and S. mansoni were biochemically characterized, with the primary focus on cysteine peptidases. A similar pattern of cysteine peptidase activities was detected by zymography of cercarial extracts and their chromatographic fractions from T. regenti and S. mansoni. The greatest peptidase activity was recorded in both species against the fluorogenic peptide substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC, commonly used to detect cathepsins B and L, and was markedly inhibited (> 96%) by Z-Phe-Ala-CHN2 at pH 4.5. Cysteine peptidases of 33 kDa and 33-34 kDa were identified in extracts of T. regenti and S. mansoni cercariae employing a biotinylated Clan CA cysteine peptidase-specific inhibitor (DCG-04). Finally, cercarial extracts from both T. regenti and S. mansoni were able to degrade native substrates present in skin (collagen II and IV, keratin) at physiological pH suggesting that cysteine peptidases are important in the pentration of host skin. PMID:17517170

  15. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira de; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease. PMID:26641247

  16. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches’ broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease. PMID:26641247

  17. Development of a New Antileishmanial Aziridine-2,3-Dicarboxylate-Based Inhibitor with High Selectivity for Parasite Cysteine Proteases.

    PubMed

    Schad, Caroline; Baum, Ulrike; Frank, Benjamin; Dietzel, Uwe; Mattern, Felix; Gomes, Carlos; Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Moll, Heidrun; Schurigt, Uta; Schirmeister, Tanja

    2016-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major neglected tropical diseases of the world. Druggable targets are the parasite cysteine proteases (CPs) of clan CA, family C1 (CAC1). In previous studies, we identified two peptidomimetic compounds, the aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylate compounds 13b and 13e, in a series of inhibitors of the cathepsin L (CL) subfamily of the papain clan CAC1. Both displayed antileishmanial activity in vitro while not showing cytotoxicity against host cells. In further investigations, the mode of action was characterized in Leishmania major. It was demonstrated that aziridines 13b and 13e mainly inhibited the parasitic cathepsin B (CB)-like CPC enzyme and, additionally, mammalian CL. Although these compounds induced cell death of Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro, the induction of a proleishmanial T helper type 2 (Th2) response caused by host CL inhibition was observed in vivo. Therefore, we describe here the synthesis of a new library of more selective peptidomimetic aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylates discriminating between host and parasite CPs. The new compounds are based on 13b and 13e as lead structures. One of the most promising compounds of this series is compound s9, showing selective inhibition of the parasite CPs LmaCatB (a CB-like enzyme of L. major; also named L. major CPC) and LmCPB2.8 (a CL-like enzyme of Leishmania mexicana) while not affecting mammalian CL and CB. It displayed excellent leishmanicidal activities against L. major promastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 37.4 μM) and amastigotes (IC50 = 2.3 μM). In summary, we demonstrate a new selective aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylate, compound s9, which might be a good candidate for future in vivo studies. PMID:26596939

  18. Development of a New Antileishmanial Aziridine-2,3-Dicarboxylate-Based Inhibitor with High Selectivity for Parasite Cysteine Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Schad, Caroline; Baum, Ulrike; Frank, Benjamin; Dietzel, Uwe; Mattern, Felix; Gomes, Carlos; Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Moll, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major neglected tropical diseases of the world. Druggable targets are the parasite cysteine proteases (CPs) of clan CA, family C1 (CAC1). In previous studies, we identified two peptidomimetic compounds, the aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylate compounds 13b and 13e, in a series of inhibitors of the cathepsin L (CL) subfamily of the papain clan CAC1. Both displayed antileishmanial activity in vitro while not showing cytotoxicity against host cells. In further investigations, the mode of action was characterized in Leishmania major. It was demonstrated that aziridines 13b and 13e mainly inhibited the parasitic cathepsin B (CB)-like CPC enzyme and, additionally, mammalian CL. Although these compounds induced cell death of Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro, the induction of a proleishmanial T helper type 2 (Th2) response caused by host CL inhibition was observed in vivo. Therefore, we describe here the synthesis of a new library of more selective peptidomimetic aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylates discriminating between host and parasite CPs. The new compounds are based on 13b and 13e as lead structures. One of the most promising compounds of this series is compound s9, showing selective inhibition of the parasite CPs LmaCatB (a CB-like enzyme of L. major; also named L. major CPC) and LmCPB2.8 (a CL-like enzyme of Leishmania mexicana) while not affecting mammalian CL and CB. It displayed excellent leishmanicidal activities against L. major promastigotes (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 37.4 μM) and amastigotes (IC50 = 2.3 μM). In summary, we demonstrate a new selective aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylate, compound s9, which might be a good candidate for future in vivo studies. PMID:26596939

  19. Effects of mechanical wounding on Carica papaya cysteine endopeptidases accumulation and activity.

    PubMed

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Dibiani, Rachid; Baulard, Céline; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-05-30

    The mechanical wounding impact on the Carica papaya latex protein pattern was investigated by analyzing three latexes. A first one commercially available, a second harvested from unripe but fully grown fruits, both obtained from regularly tapped fruits. A third one was collected from similar fruits but wounded for the first time. The results demonstrated both quantitative and qualitative changes in the protein content and in the enzymatic activity. Repeated wounding results in either, accumulation or activation (or both of them) of papain, chymopapain and caricain. Furthermore, new cysteine protease activity was found to transiently accumulate in the latex collected from newly wounded fruits. The possible implication of this enzymatic material in the papaya cysteine endopeptidases pro-forms activation is discussed. PMID:16580724

  20. A Role in Immunity for Arabidopsis Cysteine Protease RD21, the Ortholog of the Tomato Immune Protease C14

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Takayuki; Misas-Villamil, Johana C.; Hörger, Anja C.; Song, Jing; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Secreted papain-like Cys proteases are important players in plant immunity. We previously reported that the C14 protease of tomato is targeted by cystatin-like EPIC proteins that are secreted by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Pinf) during infection. C14 has been under diversifying selection in wild potato species coevolving with Pinf and reduced C14 levels result in enhanced susceptibility for Pinf. Here, we investigated the role C14-EPIC-like interactions in the natural pathosystem of Arabidopsis with the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa). In contrast to the Pinf-solanaceae pathosystem, the C14 orthologous protease of Arabidopsis, RD21, does not evolve under diversifying selection in Arabidopsis, and rd21 null mutants do not show phenotypes upon compatible and incompatible Hpa interactions, despite the evident lack of a major leaf protease. Hpa isolates express highly conserved EPIC-like proteins during infections, but it is unknown if these HpaEPICs can inhibit RD21 and one of these HpaEPICs even lacks the canonical cystatin motifs. The rd21 mutants are unaffected in compatible and incompatible interactions with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, but are significantly more susceptible for the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, demonstrating that RD21 provides immunity to a necrotrophic pathogen. PMID:22238602

  1. Amblyomma americanum tick saliva serine protease inhibitor 6 is a cross-class inhibitor of serine proteases and papain-like cysteine proteases that delays plasma clotting and inhibits platelet aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, A.; Kim, T.; Ibelli, A. M. G.

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Amblyomma americanum tick serine protease inhibitor 6 (AamS6) was secreted into the host during tick feeding and that both its mRNA and protein were ubiquitously and highly expressed during the first 3 days of tick feeding. This study demonstrates that AamS6 is a cross-class inhibitor of both serine- and papain-like cysteine proteases that has apparent antihaemostatic functions. Consistent with the typical inhibitory serpin characteristics, enzyme kinetics analyses revealed that Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant (r) AamS6 reduced initial velocities of substrate hydrolysis (V0) and/or maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax) of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, chymase, and papain in a dose–response manner. We speculate that rAamS6 inhibited plasmin in a temporary fashion in that while rAamS6 reduced V0 of plasmin by up to ~53%, it had no effect on Vmax. Our data also suggest that rAmS6 has minimal or no apparent effect on V0 or Vmax of thrombin, factor Xa, and kallikrein. We speculate that AamS6 is apparently involved in facilitating blood meal feeding in that various amounts of rAamS6 reduced platelet aggregation by up to ~47% and delayed plasma clotting time in the recalcification time assay by up to ~210 s. AamS6 is most likely not involved with the tick’s evasion of the host’s complement defense mechanism, in that rAamS6 did not interfere with the complement activation pathway. Findings in this study are discussed in the context of expanding our understanding of tick proteins that control bloodmeal feeding and hence tick-borne disease transmission by ticks. PMID:23521000

  2. Functional imaging of proteases: recent advances in the design and application of substrate-based and activity-based probes.

    PubMed

    Edgington, Laura E; Verdoes, Martijn; Bogyo, Matthew

    2011-12-01

    Proteases are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in protein substrates. This process can be important for regulated turnover of a target protein but it can also produce protein fragments that then perform other functions. Because the last few decades of protease research have confirmed that proteolysis is an essential regulatory process in both normal physiology and in multiple disease-associated conditions, there has been an increasing interest in developing methods to image protease activity. Proteases are also considered to be one of the few 'druggable' classes of proteins and therefore a large number of small molecule based inhibitors of proteases have been reported. These compounds serve as a starting point for the design of probes that can be used to target active proteases for imaging applications. Currently, several classes of fluorescent probes have been developed to visualize protease activity in live cells and even whole organisms. The two primary classes of protease probes make use of either peptide/protein substrates or covalent inhibitors that produce a fluorescent signal when bound to an active protease target. This review outlines some of the most recent advances in the design of imaging probes for proteases. In particular, it highlights the strengths and weaknesses of both substrate-based and activity-based probes and their applications for imaging cysteine proteases that are important biomarkers for multiple human diseases. PMID:22098719

  3. Zingipain, a ginger protease with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Rungsaeng, Porlin; Sangvanich, Polkit; Karnchanatat, Aphichart

    2013-06-01

    In order to search for new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), 15 Zingiberaceae plants were tested for AChEI activity in rhizome extracts. The crude homogenate and ammonium sulfate cut fraction of Zingiber officinale contained a significant AChEI activity. Eighty percent saturation ammonium sulfate precipitation and diethylaminoethyl cellulose ion exchange chromatography (unbound fraction) enriched the protein to a single band on nondenaturing and reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (approximately 33.5 kDa). Gelatin-degrading zymography showed that the AChEI-containing band also contained cysteine protease activity. The AChEI activity was largely stable between -20 and 60 °C (at least over 120 min) and over a broad pH range (2-12). The AChEI activity was stimulated strongly by Mn(2+) and Cu(2+) at 1-10 mM and weakly by Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+) at 1 mM, but was inhibited at 10 mM. In contrast, Hg(2+) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were very and moderately strongly inhibitory, respectively. In-gel tryptic digestion with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy resolution revealed two heterogeneous peptides, a 16-amino-acid-long fragment with 100 % similarity to zingipain-1, which is a cysteine protease from Z. officinale, and a 9-amino-acid-long fragment that was 100 % identical to actinidin Act 2a, suggesting that the preparation was heterogeneous. AChEI exhibited noncompetitive inhibition of AChE for the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide with a K(i) value of 9.31 mg/ml. PMID:23625608

  4. A Naturally Occurring Plant Cysteine Protease Possesses Remarkable Toxicity against Insect Pests and Synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W. K.; Williams, W. Paul; Luthe, Dawn S.

    2008-01-01

    When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC50 values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins. PMID:18335057

  5. Transient ECM protease activity promotes synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Magnowska, Marta; Gorkiewicz, Tomasz; Suska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Wlodarczyk, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent proteolysis at a synapse has been recognized as a pivotal factor in controlling dynamic changes in dendritic spine shape and function; however, excessive proteolytic activity is detrimental to the cells. The exact mechanism of control of these seemingly contradictory outcomes of protease activity remains unknown. Here, we reveal that dendritic spine maturation is strictly controlled by the proteolytic activity, and its inhibition by the endogenous inhibitor (Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 - TIMP-1). Excessive proteolytic activity impairs long-term potentiation of the synaptic efficacy (LTP), and this impairment could be rescued by inhibition of protease activity. Moreover LTP is altered persistently when the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit protease activity is abrogated, further demonstrating the role of such inhibition in the promotion of synaptic plasticity under well-defined conditions. We also show that dendritic spine maturation involves an intermediate formation of elongated spines, followed by their conversion into mushroom shape. The formation of mushroom-shaped spines is accompanied by increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio of glutamate receptors. Altogether, our results identify inhibition of protease activity as a critical regulatory mechanism for dendritic spines maturation. PMID:27282248

  6. Transient ECM protease activity promotes synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Magnowska, Marta; Gorkiewicz, Tomasz; Suska, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Wlodarczyk, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent proteolysis at a synapse has been recognized as a pivotal factor in controlling dynamic changes in dendritic spine shape and function; however, excessive proteolytic activity is detrimental to the cells. The exact mechanism of control of these seemingly contradictory outcomes of protease activity remains unknown. Here, we reveal that dendritic spine maturation is strictly controlled by the proteolytic activity, and its inhibition by the endogenous inhibitor (Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 – TIMP-1). Excessive proteolytic activity impairs long-term potentiation of the synaptic efficacy (LTP), and this impairment could be rescued by inhibition of protease activity. Moreover LTP is altered persistently when the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit protease activity is abrogated, further demonstrating the role of such inhibition in the promotion of synaptic plasticity under well-defined conditions. We also show that dendritic spine maturation involves an intermediate formation of elongated spines, followed by their conversion into mushroom shape. The formation of mushroom-shaped spines is accompanied by increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio of glutamate receptors. Altogether, our results identify inhibition of protease activity as a critical regulatory mechanism for dendritic spines maturation. PMID:27282248

  7. A secreted streptococcal cysteine protease can cleave a surface-expressed M1 protein and alter the immunoglobulin binding properties.

    PubMed

    Raeder, R; Woischnik, M; Podbielski, A; Boyle, M D

    1998-09-01

    Previous studies of recent clinical isolates of serotype M1 group A streptococci indicated that they display two patterns of non-immune human IgG subclass binding reactivity associated with their M1 protein. One group reacted with all four IgG subclasses (type IIo), while the second group expressed an M1 protein reacting preferentially with human IgG3 (type IIb). In this study, we have demonstrated that a cysteine protease, SpeB, present in culture supernatants of M1 serotype group A streptococcal isolates expressing type IIb IgG binding protein, can convert a recombinant Emm1 protein from a type IIo functional profile to a type IIb profile by removal of 24 amino acids from the N-terminus of the mature M1 protein. Furthermore, SpeB can convert bacteria expressing IgG binding proteins of the type IIo phenotype into those expressing type IIb proteins. The role of the cysteine protease as the central bacterial enzyme in this posttranslational modification event was confirmed by generation of an isogenic SpeB-negative mutant. PMID:9795991

  8. Coagulation, Protease Activated Receptors and Viral Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Antoniak, Silvio; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation protease cascade plays an essential role in hemostasis. In addition, a clot contributes to host defense by limiting the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases induce intracellular signaling by cleavage of cell surface receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors allow cells to sense changes in the extracellular environment, such as infection. Viruses activate the coagulation cascade by inducing tissue factor expression and by disrupting the endothelium. Virus infection of the heart can cause myocarditis, cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Recent studies using a mouse model have shown that tissue factor, thrombin and PAR-1 signaling all positively regulate the innate immune during viral myocarditis. In contrast, PAR-2 signaling was found to inhibit interferon-β expression and the innate immune response. These observations suggest that anticoagulants may impair the innate immune response to viral infection and that inhibition of PAR-2 may be a new target to reduce viral myocarditis.. PMID:24203054

  9. Novel cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like cysteine protease of Naegleria fowleri excretory-secretory proteins and their biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yang, Hee-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Sun; Kim, Kyongmin; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2014-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes a lethal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals, which leads to death within 7-14 days. Cysteine proteases of parasites play key roles in nutrient uptake, excystment/encystment, host tissue invasion, and immune evasion. In this study, we cloned N. fowleri cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes from our cDNA library of N. fowleri. The full-length sequences of genes were 1,038 and 939 bp (encoded 345 and 313 amino acids), and molecular weights were 38.4 and 34 kDa, respectively. Also, nfcpb and nfcpb-L showed a 56 and 46 % identity to Naegleria gruberi cathepsin B and cathepsin B-like enzyme, respectively. Recombinant NfCPB (rNfCPB) and NfCPB-L (rNfCPB-L) proteins were expressed by the pEX5-NT/TOPO vector that was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21, and they showed 38.4 and 34 kDa bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis using their respective antibodies. Proteolytic activity of refolded rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L was maximum at a pH of 4.5, and the most effective substrate was Z-LR-MCA. rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L showed proteolytic activity for several proteins such as IgA, IgG, IgM, collagen, fibronectin, hemoglobin, and albumin. These results suggested that NfCPB and NfCPB-L cysteine protease are important components of the N. fowleri ESP, and they may play important roles in host tissue invasion and immune evasion as pathogens that cause N. fowleri PAM. PMID:24832815

  10. Protease and protease inhibitory activity in pregnant and postpartum involuting uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Milwidsky, A.; Beller, U.; Palti, Z.; Mayer, M.

    1982-08-15

    The presence of two distinct proteolytic activities in the rat uterus was confirmed with /sup 14/C-labeled globin used as a sensitive protein substrate and following release of label into the trichloroacetic acid-soluble supernatant fraction. Protease I is a cytoplasmic acid protease while protease II is associated with the pellet fraction, can be extracted by 0.6 M sodium chloride, and is active at pH 7.0. Protease I activity is low during pregnancy and markedly increases at term achieving maximal activity at day 3 post partum with a subsequent decline to preterm activity values. Lactation did not affect the uterine protease I activity. Protease II activity is not significantly different during pregnancy, at term, and post partum. The presence of an inhibitor of protease I was suggested by a decrease in enzyme activity with an increased cytosolic protein concentration. The inhibitor also lessened bovine trypsin activity but had no effect on protease II. Although its inhibitory potency on trypsin fluctuated during the various uterine physiologic stages, these changes appeared to be statistically insignificant. Human uterine samples were also found to contain the two protease activities with similar changes in protease I post partum. It is suggested that, both in the rat and in man, uterine involution post partum is associated with a marked increase in activity of acid cytosolic protease, while a particulate neutral protease and a soluble inhibitor of trypsin, which are also present in uterine cells, do not appear to play a significant role in the dissolution of uterine tissues after parturition.

  11. Measurement of Cysteine Dioxygenase Activity and Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Stipanuk, Martha H.; Dominy, John E.; Ueki, Iori; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.

    2009-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is an iron (Fe2+)-dependent thiol dioxygenase that uses molecular oxygen to oxidize the sulfhydryl group of cysteine to generate 3-sulfinoalanine (commonly called cysteinesulfinic acid). Cysteine dioxygenase activity is routinely assayed by measuring cysteinesulfinate formation from substrate L-cysteine at pH 6.1 in the presence of ferrous ions to saturate the enzyme with metal cofactor, a copper chelator to diminish substrate oxidation, and hydroxylamine to inhibit pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent degradation of product. The amount of cysteine dioxygenase may be measured by immunoblotting. Upon SDS-PAGE, cysteine dioxygenase can be separated into two major bands, with the upper band representing the 23-kDa protein and the lower band representing the mature enzyme that has undergone formation of an internal thioether cross link in the active site. Formation of this cross link is dependent upon the catalytic turnover of substrate and produces an enzyme with a higher catalytic efficiency and catalytic half-life. PMID:19885389

  12. Inactivation of the cysteine protease SpeB affects hyaluronic acid capsule expression in group A streptococci.

    PubMed

    Woischnik, M; Buttaro, B A; Podbielski, A

    2000-04-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes expresses several virulence factors that are required for the pathogens survival within the host and the concomitant development of disease. To examine the influence of one virulence factor, the extracellular cysteine protease SpeB, on the expression of other virulence factors, the speB structural gene of a serotype M3 and M49 strain was inactivated. Morphologic examination, quantification of extracellular hyaluronic acid capsule, and Northern blot analysis of the isogenic speB -mutants revealed a strain-dependent decrease of hyaluronic acid capsule production and an increase in superoxide dismutase transcription. The transcription of streptolysin O (slo), di- and oligo-peptide permease (dpp, opp), hyaluronidase (hyl), streptokinase (ska) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (speA) was unaffected. PMID:10764613

  13. Role of the cysteine protease interpain A of Prevotella intermedia in breakdown and release of haem from haemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Dominic P; Wawrzonek, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Anna; Birss, Andrew J; Potempa, Jan; Smalley, John W

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The Gram-negative oral anaerobe Prevotella intermedia forms an iron(III) protoporphyrin IX pigment from haemoglobin. The microorganism expresses a 90 kDa cysteine protease, Interpain A (InpA), a homologue of Streptococcus pyogenes streptopain (SpeB). The role of InpA in haemoglobin breakdown and haem release was investigated. At pH 7.5, InpA mediated oxidation of oxyhaemoglobin to hydroxymethaemoglobin (in which the haem iron is oxidised to the Fe(III) state and which carries OH− as the sixth co-ordinate ligand) by limited proteolysis of globin chains as indicated by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis. Prolonged incubation at pH 7.5, did not result in further haemoglobin protein breakdown, but in the formation of a haemoglobin haemichrome (where the haem Fe atom is co-ordinated by another amino acid ligand in addition to the proximal histidine) stable to degradation by InpA. InpA-mediated haem release from hydroxymethaemoglobin-agarose was minimal compared with trypsin at pH 7.5. At pH 6.0, InpA increased oxidation at a rate greater than auto-oxidation, producing aquomethaemoglobin (with H2O as sixth co-ordinate ligand), and resulted in its complete breakdown and haem loss. Aquo-methaemoglobin proteolysis and haem release was prevented by blocking haem dissociation by ligation with azide, whilst InpA proteolysis of haem-free globin was rapid even at pH 7.5. Both oxidation of oxyhaemoglobin and breakdown of methaemoglobin by InpA were inhibited by the cysteine-protease inhibitor E64. In summary we conclude that InpA may play a central role in haem acquisition by mediating oxyhaemoglobin oxidation, and by degrading aquomethaemoglobin in which haem-globin affinity is weakened under acidic conditions. PMID:19814715

  14. Identification of covalent active site inhibitors of dengue virus protease

    PubMed Central

    Koh-Stenta, Xiaoying; Joy, Joma; Wang, Si Fang; Kwek, Perlyn Zekui; Wee, John Liang Kuan; Wan, Kah Fei; Gayen, Shovanlal; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Kang, CongBao; Lee, May Ann; Poulsen, Anders; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Hill, Jeffrey; Nacro, Kassoum

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) protease is an attractive target for drug development; however, no compounds have reached clinical development to date. In this study, we utilized a potent West Nile virus protease inhibitor of the pyrazole ester derivative class as a chemical starting point for DENV protease drug development. Compound potency and selectivity for DENV protease were improved through structure-guided small molecule optimization, and protease-inhibitor binding interactions were validated biophysically using nuclear magnetic resonance. Our work strongly suggests that this class of compounds inhibits flavivirus protease through targeted covalent modification of active site serine, contrary to an allosteric binding mechanism as previously described. PMID:26677315

  15. A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive systeine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect’s peritro...

  16. Identification, Characterization and Down-Regulation of Cysteine Protease Genes in Tobacco for Use in Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Duwadi, Kishor; Chen, Ling; Menassa, Rima; Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Plants are an attractive host system for pharmaceutical protein production. Many therapeutic proteins have been produced and scaled up in plants at a low cost compared to the conventional microbial and animal-based systems. The main technical challenge during this process is to produce sufficient levels of recombinant proteins in plants. Low yield is generally caused by proteolytic degradation during expression and downstream processing of recombinant proteins. The yield of human therapeutic interleukin (IL)-10 produced in transgenic tobacco leaves was found to be below the critical level, and may be due to degradation by tobacco proteases. Here, we identified a total of 60 putative cysteine protease genes (CysP) in tobacco. Based on their predicted expression in leaf tissue, 10 candidate CysPs (CysP1-CysP10) were selected for further characterization. The effect of CysP gene silencing on IL-10 accumulation was examined in tobacco. It was found that the recombinant protein yield in tobacco could be increased by silencing CysP6. Transient expression of CysP6 silencing construct also showed an increase in IL-10 accumulation in comparison to the control. Moreover, CysP6 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting that ER may be the site of IL-10 degradation. Overall results suggest that CysP6 is important in determining the yield of recombinant IL-10 in tobacco leaves. PMID:26148064

  17. Molecular characterization of group A streptococcal (GAS) oligopeptide permease (opp) and its effect on cysteine protease production.

    PubMed

    Podbielski, A; Pohl, B; Woischnik, M; Körner, C; Schmidt, K H; Rozdzinski, E; Leonard, B A

    1996-09-01

    Bacterial oligopeptide permeases are membrane-associated complexes of five proteins belonging to the ABC-transporter family, which have been found to be involved in obtaining nutrients, cell-wall metabolism, competence, and adherence to host cells. A lambda library of the strain CS101 group A streptococcal (GAS) genome was used to sequence 10,192 bp containing the five genes oppA to oppF of the GAS opp operon. The deduced amino acid sequences exhibited 50-84% homology to pneumococcal AmiA to AmiF sequences. The operon organization of the five genes was confirmed by transcriptional analysis and an additional shorter oppA transcript was detected. Insertional inactivation was used to create serotype M49 strains which did not express either the oppA gene or the ATPase genes, oppD and oppF. The mutation in oppA confirmed that the additional shorter oppA transcript originated from the opp operon and was probably due to an intra-operon transcription terminator site located downstream of oppA. While growth kinetics, binding of serum proteins, and attachment to eukaryotic cells were unaffected, the oppD/F mutants showed reduced production of the cysteine protease, SpeB, and a change in the pattern of secreted proteins. Thus, the GAS opp operon appears to contribute to both protease production and export/processing of secreted proteins. PMID:8885277

  18. Role of RopB in growth phase expression of the SpeB cysteine protease of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Neely, Melody N; Lyon, William R; Runft, Donna L; Caparon, Michael

    2003-09-01

    The Rgg family of transcription regulators is widely distributed among gram-positive bacteria; however, how the members of this family control transcription is poorly understood. In the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the Rgg family member RopB is required for transcription of the gene that encodes the secreted SpeB cysteine protease. Expression of the protease follows distinct kinetics that involves control of transcription in response to the growth phase. In this study, the contribution of RopB to growth phase control was examined. The gene encoding the protease (speB) and ropB are transcribed divergently from a 940-bp intergenic region. Primer extension analyses, in conjunction with reporter fusion studies, revealed that the major region controlling the transcription of both speB and ropB is adjacent to ropB and that the promoters for the two genes likely overlap. Furthermore, it was found that RopB is a DNA-binding protein that specifically binds to sequences in this control region. The interrelationship between ropB and speB expression was further reflected in the observation that transcription of ropB itself is subject to growth phase control. However, while expression of ropB from a promoter expressed during the early logarithmic phase of growth could complement a ropB deletion mutant, ectopic expression of ropB did not uncouple the expression of speB from its growth phase signal. These data implicate other factors in growth phase control and suggest that regulation of ropB expression itself is not the central mechanism of control. PMID:12923089

  19. Role of RopB in Growth Phase Expression of the SpeB Cysteine Protease of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Melody N.; Lyon, William R.; Runft, Donna L.; Caparon, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The Rgg family of transcription regulators is widely distributed among gram-positive bacteria; however, how the members of this family control transcription is poorly understood. In the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the Rgg family member RopB is required for transcription of the gene that encodes the secreted SpeB cysteine protease. Expression of the protease follows distinct kinetics that involves control of transcription in response to the growth phase. In this study, the contribution of RopB to growth phase control was examined. The gene encoding the protease (speB) and ropB are transcribed divergently from a 940-bp intergenic region. Primer extension analyses, in conjunction with reporter fusion studies, revealed that the major region controlling the transcription of both speB and ropB is adjacent to ropB and that the promoters for the two genes likely overlap. Furthermore, it was found that RopB is a DNA-binding protein that specifically binds to sequences in this control region. The interrelationship between ropB and speB expression was further reflected in the observation that transcription of ropB itself is subject to growth phase control. However, while expression of ropB from a promoter expressed during the early logarithmic phase of growth could complement a ropB deletion mutant, ectopic expression of ropB did not uncouple the expression of speB from its growth phase signal. These data implicate other factors in growth phase control and suggest that regulation of ropB expression itself is not the central mechanism of control. PMID:12923089

  20. Basis Tetrapeptides as Potent Intracellular Inhibitors of type A Botulinum Neurotoxin Protease Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, M.; Swaminathan, S.; Oyler, G.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2011-01-21

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most potent of all toxins that cause flaccid muscle paralysis leading to death. They are also potential biothreat agents. A systematic investigation of various short peptide inhibitors of the BoNT protease domain with a 17-residue peptide substrate led to arginine-arginine-glycine-cysteine having a basic tetrapeptide structure as the most potent inhibitor. When assayed in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), the inhibitory effect was drastically reduced. Replacing the terminal cysteine with one hydrophobic residue eliminated the DTT effect but with two hydrophobic residues made the pentapeptide a poor inhibitor. Replacing the first arginine with cysteine or adding an additional cysteine at the N terminus did not improve inhibition. When assessed using mouse brain lysates, the tetrapeptides also inhibited BoNT/A cleavage of the endogenous SNAP-25. The peptides penetrated the neuronal cell lines, N2A and BE(2)-M17, without adversely affecting metabolic functions as measured by ATP production and P-38 phosphorylation. Biological activity of the peptides persisted within cultured chick motor neurons and rat and mouse cerebellar neurons for more than 40 h and inhibited BoNT/A protease action inside the neurons in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Our results define a tetrapeptide as the smallest peptide inhibitor in the backdrop of a large substrate protein of 200+ amino acids having multiple interaction regions with its cognate enzyme. The inhibitors should also be valuable candidates for drug development.

  1. Lung protease/anti-protease network and modulation of mucus production and surfactant activity.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Verdugo, Ignacio; Descamps, Delphyne; Chignard, Michel; Touqui, Lhousseine; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    Lung epithelium guarantees gas-exchange (performed in the alveoli) and protects from external insults (pathogens, pollutants…) present within inhaled air. Both functions are facilitated by secretions lining airway surface liquid, mucus (in the upper airways) and pulmonary surfactant (in the alveoli). Mucins, the main glycoproteins present within the mucus, are responsible for its rheologic properties and participate in lung defense mechanisms. In parallel, lung collectins are pattern recognition molecules present in pulmonary surfactant that also modulate lung defense. During chronic airways diseases, excessive protease activity can promote mucus hypersecretion and degradation of lung collectins and therefore contribute to the pathophysiology of these diseases. Importantly, secretion of local and systemic anti-proteases might be crucial to equilibrate the protease/anti-protease unbalance and therefore preserve the function of lung host defense compounds and airway surface liquid homeostasis. In this review we will present information relative to proteases able to modulate mucin production and lung collectin integrity, two important compounds of innate immune defense. One strategy to preserve physiological mucus production and collectin integrity during chronic airways diseases might be the over-expression of local 'alarm' anti-proteases such as SLPI and elafin. Interestingly, a cross-talk between lung collectins and anti-protease activity has recently been described, implicating the presence within the lung of a complex network between proteases, anti-proteases and pattern recognition molecules, which aims to keep or restore homeostasis in resting or inflamed lungs. PMID:20493919

  2. Activation of Bacteroides fragilis toxin by a novel bacterial protease contributes to anaerobic sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Vivian M; Herrou, Julien; Hecht, Aaron L; Teoh, Wei Ping; Turner, Jerrold R; Crosson, Sean; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

    2016-05-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is the leading cause of anaerobic bacteremia and sepsis. Enterotoxigenic strains that produce B. fragilis toxin (BFT, fragilysin) contribute to colitis and intestinal malignancy, yet are also isolated in bloodstream infection. It is not known whether these strains harbor unique genetic determinants that confer virulence in extra-intestinal disease. We demonstrate that BFT contributes to sepsis in mice, and we identify a B. fragilis protease called fragipain (Fpn) that is required for the endogenous activation of BFT through the removal of its auto-inhibitory prodomain. Structural analysis of Fpn reveals a His-Cys catalytic dyad that is characteristic of C11-family cysteine proteases that are conserved in multiple pathogenic Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium spp. Fpn-deficient, enterotoxigenic B. fragilis has an attenuated ability to induce sepsis in mice; however, Fpn is dispensable in B. fragilis colitis, wherein host proteases mediate BFT activation. Our findings define a role for B. fragilis enterotoxin and its activating protease in the pathogenesis of bloodstream infection, which indicates a greater complexity of cellular targeting and activity of BFT than previously recognized. The expression of fpn by both toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains suggests that this protease may contribute to anaerobic sepsis in ways that extend beyond its role in toxin activation. It could thus potentially serve as a target for disease modification. PMID:27089515

  3. Inverse relation between disease severity and expression of the streptococcal cysteine protease, SpeB, among clonal M1T1 isolates recovered from invasive group A streptococcal infection cases.

    PubMed

    Kansal, R G; McGeer, A; Low, D E; Norrby-Teglund, A; Kotb, M

    2000-11-01

    The streptococcal cysteine protease (SpeB) is one of the major virulence factors produced by group A streptococci (GAS). In this study we investigated if differences exist in SpeB production by clonally related M1T1 clinical isolates derived from patients with invasive infections. Twenty-nine of these isolates were from nonsevere cases and 48 were from severe cases, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) cases. The expression and amount of the 28-kDa SpeB protein produced were determined by quantitative Western blotting, and protease activity was measured by a fluorescent enzymatic assay. A high degree of variation in SpeB expression was seen among the isolates, and this variation seemed to correlate with the severity and/or clinical manifestation of the invasive infection. The mean amount of 28-kDa SpeB protein and cysteine protease activity produced by isolates from nonsevere cases was significantly higher than that from STSS cases (P = 0.001). This difference was partly due to the fact that 41% of STSS isolates produced little or no SpeB compared to only 14% of isolates recovered in nonsevere cases. Moreover, the cysteine protease activity among those isolates that expressed SpeB was significantly lower for STSS isolates than for isolates from nonsevere cases (P = 0.001). Increased SpeB production was also inversely correlated with intact M protein expression, and inhibition of cysteine protease activity blocked the cleavage of the surface M protein. Together, the data support the existence of both an "on-off" and a posttranslational regulatory mechanism(s) controlling SpeB production, and they suggest that isolates with the speB gene in the "off" state are more likely to spare the surface M protein and to be isolated from cases of severe rather than nonsevere invasive infection. These findings may have important implications for the role of SpeB in host-pathogen interactions via regulation of the expression of GAS

  4. Inverse Relation between Disease Severity and Expression of the Streptococcal Cysteine Protease, SpeB, among Clonal M1T1 Isolates Recovered from Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Rita G.; McGeer, Allison; Low, Donald E.; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Kotb, Malak

    2000-01-01

    The streptococcal cysteine protease (SpeB) is one of the major virulence factors produced by group A streptococci (GAS). In this study we investigated if differences exist in SpeB production by clonally related M1T1 clinical isolates derived from patients with invasive infections. Twenty-nine of these isolates were from nonsevere cases and 48 were from severe cases, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) cases. The expression and amount of the 28-kDa SpeB protein produced were determined by quantitative Western blotting, and protease activity was measured by a fluorescent enzymatic assay. A high degree of variation in SpeB expression was seen among the isolates, and this variation seemed to correlate with the severity and/or clinical manifestation of the invasive infection. The mean amount of 28-kDa SpeB protein and cysteine protease activity produced by isolates from nonsevere cases was significantly higher than that from STSS cases (P = 0.001). This difference was partly due to the fact that 41% of STSS isolates produced little or no SpeB compared to only 14% of isolates recovered in nonsevere cases. Moreover, the cysteine protease activity among those isolates that expressed SpeB was significantly lower for STSS isolates than for isolates from nonsevere cases (P = 0.001). Increased SpeB production was also inversely correlated with intact M protein expression, and inhibition of cysteine protease activity blocked the cleavage of the surface M protein. Together, the data support the existence of both an “on-off” and a posttranslational regulatory mechanism(s) controlling SpeB production, and they suggest that isolates with the speB gene in the “off” state are more likely to spare the surface M protein and to be isolated from cases of severe rather than nonsevere invasive infection. These findings may have important implications for the role of SpeB in host-pathogen interactions via regulation of the expression of

  5. Role of the cysteine protease interpain A of Prevotella intermedia in breakdown and release of haem from haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dominic P; Wawrzonek, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Anna; Birss, Andrew J; Potempa, Jan; Smalley, John W

    2010-01-01

    The gram-negative oral anaerobe Prevotella intermedia forms an iron(III) protoporphyrin IX pigment from haemoglobin. The bacterium expresses a 90 kDa cysteine protease, InpA (interpain A), a homologue of Streptococcus pyogenes streptopain (SpeB). The role of InpA in haemoglobin breakdown and haem release was investigated. At pH 7.5, InpA mediated oxidation of oxyhaemoglobin to hydroxymethaemoglobin [in which the haem iron is oxidized to the Fe(III) state and which carries OH- as the sixth co-ordinate ligand] by limited proteolysis of globin chains as indicated by SDS/PAGE and MALDI (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization)-TOF (time-of-flight) analysis. Prolonged incubation at pH 7.5 did not result in further haemoglobin protein breakdown, but in the formation of a haemoglobin haemichrome (where the haem Fe atom is co-ordinated by another amino acid ligand in addition to the proximal histidine residue) resistant to degradation by InpA. InpA-mediated haem release from hydroxymethaemoglobin-agarose was minimal compared with trypsin at pH 7.5. At pH 6.0, InpA increased oxidation at a rate greater than auto-oxidation, producing aquomethaemoglobin (with water as sixth co-ordinate ligand), and resulted in its complete breakdown and haem loss. Aquomethaemoglobin proteolysis and haem release was prevented by blocking haem dissociation by ligation with azide, whereas InpA proteolysis of haem-free globin was rapid, even at pH 7.5. Both oxidation of oxyhaemoglobin and breakdown of methaemoglobin by InpA were inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane]. In summary, we conclude that InpA may play a central role in haem acquisition by mediating oxyhaemoglobin oxidation, and by degrading aquomethaemoglobin in which haem-globin affinity is weakened under acidic conditions. PMID:19814715

  6. Measuring Cysteine Cathepsin Activity to Detect Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Repnik, Urška; Česen, Maruša Hafner; Turk, Boris

    2016-01-01

    During lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), lysosomal lumenal contents can be released into the cytosol. Small molecules are more likely to be released, and cysteine cathepsins, with mature forms possessing a mass of 25-30 kDa, are among the smallest lumenal lysosomal enzymes. In addition, specific substrates for cysteine cathepsins are available to investigators, and therefore the measurement of the cathepsin activity as a hallmark of LMP works well. Here, we present a protocol for measuring the activity of these enzymes after selective plasma membrane permeabilization with a low concentration of digitonin and after total cell membrane lysis with a high concentration of digitonin. A fluorogenic substrate can be added either directly to the well with lysed cells to show LMP or to the cell-free extract to show that the lysosomal membrane has been sufficiently destabilized to allow the translocation of lysosomal enzymes. Although the content of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins differs between cell lines, this method has general applicability, is sensitive, and has high throughput. The presented protocol shows how to measure cysteine cathepsin activity in the presence of lysed cells and also in cell-free extracts. Depending on the aim of the study, one or both types of measurements can be performed. PMID:27140915

  7. Fibrin(ogen)olytic activity of bumblebee venom serine protease

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Yuling; Choo, Young Moo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Jia Jingming; Cui Zheng; Wang Dong; Kim, Doh Hoon; Sohn, Hung Dae; Jin, Byung Rae

    2011-09-01

    Bee venom is a rich source of pharmacologically active components; it has been used as an immunotherapy to treat bee venom hypersensitivity, and venom therapy has been applied as an alternative medicine. Here, we present evidence that the serine protease found in bumblebee venom exhibits fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Compared to honeybee venom, bumblebee venom contains a higher content of serine protease, which is one of its major components. Venom serine proteases from bumblebees did not cross-react with antibodies against the honeybee venom serine protease. We provide functional evidence indicating that bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) acts as a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. Bt-VSP activates prothrombin and directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. However, Bt-VSP is not a plasminogen activator, and its fibrinolytic activity is less than that of plasmin. Taken together, our results define roles for Bt-VSP as a prothrombin activator, a thrombin-like protease, and a plasmin-like protease. These findings offer significant insight into the allergic reaction sequence that is initiated by bee venom serine protease and its potential usefulness as a clinical agent in the field of hemostasis and thrombosis. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Bumblebee venom serine protease (Bt-VSP) is a fibrin(ogen)olytic enzyme. > Bt-VSP activates prothrombin. > Bt-VSP directly degrades fibrinogen into fibrin degradation products. > Bt-VSP is a hemostatically active protein that is a potent clinical agent.

  8. Irreversible inhibition of the bacterial cysteine protease-transpeptidase sortase (SrtA) by substrate-derived affinity labels.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher J; McDowell, Andrew; Martin, S Lorraine; Lynas, John F; Vandenbroeck, Koen; Walker, Brian

    2002-01-01

    We report on the first synthesis, kinetic evaluation and application of novel substrate-derived inhibitors against the Staphylococcus aureus cysteine protease-transpeptidase, sortase (staphylococcal surface protein sorting A, SrtA). The peptidyl-diazomethane and peptidyl-chloromethane analogues, Cbz (benzyloxycarbonyl)-Leu-Pro-Ala-Thr-CHN(2) (I) and Cbz-Leu-Pro-Ala-Thr-CH(2)Cl (II) respectively were found to act as time-dependent irreversible inhibitors of recombinant sortase (SrtA(DeltaN)). The peptidyl-chloromethane analogue (II) was the most powerful with an inhibitor specificity constant (k(i)/K(i)) of 5.3x10(4) M(-1).min(-1), approx. 2-fold greater than that determined for the peptidyl-diazomethane (I). Additionally, using Western-blot analysis, we have been able to demonstrate that a biotinylated version of the peptidyl-diazomethane analogue, biotin-Ahx (aminohexanoyl)-Leu-Pro-Ala-Thr-CHN(2) (III), can be used as an affinity label to detect the presence of wild-type SrtA in crude cell lysates prepared from S. aureus. PMID:12069686

  9. Evidence supporting the 19 β-strand model for Tom40 from cysteine scanning and protease site accessibility studies.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Sebastian W K; Taylor, Rebecca D; Go, Nancy E; Wong, Annie; Sherman, E Laura; Nargang, Frank E

    2014-08-01

    Most proteins found in mitochondria are translated in the cytosol and enter the organelle via the TOM complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane). Tom40 is the pore forming component of the complex. Although the three-dimensional structure of Tom40 has not been determined, the structure of porin, a related protein, has been shown to be a β-barrel containing 19 membrane spanning β-strands and an N-terminal α-helical region. The evolutionary relationship between the two proteins has allowed modeling of Tom40 into a similar structure by several laboratories. However, it has been suggested that the 19-strand porin structure does not represent the native form of the protein. If true, modeling of Tom40 based on the porin structure would also be invalid. We have used substituted cysteine accessibility mapping to identify several potential β-strands in the Tom40 protein in isolated mitochondria. These data, together with protease accessibility studies, support the 19 β-strand model for Tom40 with the C-terminal end of the protein localized to the intermembrane space. PMID:24947507

  10. Evidence Supporting the 19 β-Strand Model for Tom40 from Cysteine Scanning and Protease Site Accessibility Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Sebastian W. K.; Taylor, Rebecca D.; Go, Nancy E.; Wong, Annie; Sherman, E. Laura; Nargang, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    Most proteins found in mitochondria are translated in the cytosol and enter the organelle via the TOM complex (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane). Tom40 is the pore forming component of the complex. Although the three-dimensional structure of Tom40 has not been determined, the structure of porin, a related protein, has been shown to be a β-barrel containing 19 membrane spanning β-strands and an N-terminal α-helical region. The evolutionary relationship between the two proteins has allowed modeling of Tom40 into a similar structure by several laboratories. However, it has been suggested that the 19-strand porin structure does not represent the native form of the protein. If true, modeling of Tom40 based on the porin structure would also be invalid. We have used substituted cysteine accessibility mapping to identify several potential β-strands in the Tom40 protein in isolated mitochondria. These data, together with protease accessibility studies, support the 19 β-strand model for Tom40 with the C-terminal end of the protein localized to the intermembrane space. PMID:24947507

  11. Comparative molecular field analysis and molecular docking studies on novel aryl chalcone derivatives against an important drug target cysteine protease in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Thillainayagam, Mahalakshmi; Anbarasu, Anand; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2016-08-21

    The computational studies namely molecular docking simulations and Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) are executed on series of 52 novel aryl chalcones derivatives using Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases (falcipain - 2) as vital target. In the present study, the correlation between different molecular field effects namely steric and electrostatic interactions and chemical structures to the inhibitory activities of novel aryl chalcone derivatives is inferred to perceive the major structural prerequisites for the rational design and development of potent and novel lead anti-malarial compound. The apparent binding conformations of all the compounds at the active site of falcipain - 2 and the hydrogen-bond interactions which could be used to modify the inhibitory activities are identified by using Surflex-dock study. Statistically significant CoMFA model has been developed with the cross-validated correlation coefficient (q(2)) of 0.912 and the non-cross-validated correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.901. Standard error of estimation (SEE) of 0.210, with the optimum number of components is ten. The predictability of the derived model is examined with a test set consists of sixteen compounds and the predicted r(2) value is found to be 0.924. The docking and QSAR study results confer crucial suggestions for the optimization of novel 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one derivatives and synthesis of effective anti- malarial compounds. PMID:27185536

  12. Detection of protease and protease activity using a single nanoscrescent SERS probe

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gang L.; Ellman, Jonathan A.; Lee, Luke P.; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    2013-01-29

    This invention pertains to the in vitro detection of proteases using a single peptide-conjugate nanocrescent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes with at least nanomolar sensitivity. The probe enables detection of proteolytic activity in extremely small volume and at low concentration. In certain embodiments the probes comprise an indicator for the detection of an active protease, where the indicator comprises a nanocrescent attached to a peptide, where said peptide comprises a recognition site for the protease and a Raman tag attached to the peptide.

  13. Identification and characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor gene MdCPI from Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Liu, Fengsong; Zhang, D; Tang, T; Ge, X

    2011-10-01

    Cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPIs) are involved in many vital cellular processes such as signalling pathways, apoptosis, immune response and development; however, no CPIs have yet been reported from the housefly Musca domestica. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a housefly CPI gene designated MdCPI. The gene contains an open reading frame of 357 bp encoding a protein of 118 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acid residues. Protein alignment demonstrated a high homology to that of Sarcophaga crassipalpis (identity = 51%). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all CPIs from dipterans, including the housefly, belong to the I25A family and may be descended from a single common ancestor. The gene was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Biochemical studies showed that MdCPI exerts an inhibiting function on papain, which is a classical assay to confirm CPIs. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunolocalization analysis revealed that MdCPI is specifically expressed in haemocytes and fat bodies. It is highly down-regulated in larvae and markedly up-regulated in the pupal stage, suggesting that it may be related to development. PMID:21711401

  14. Synergistic Caseinolytic Activity and Differential Fibrinogenolytic Action of Multiple Proteases of Maclura spinosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) latex

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, B. K.; Achar, Raghu Ram; Sharanappa, P.; Priya, B. S.; Swamy, S. Nanjunda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kollamalayaali tribes of South India use latex of Maclura spinosa for milk curdling. This action is implicated to proteases which exhibit strong pharmacological potential in retardation of blood flow and acceleration of wound healing. Objective: To validate the presence of a proteolytic enzyme(s) in Maclura spinosa latex (MSL), and to investigate their probable role in hemostasis. Materials and Methods: Processed latex was examined for proteolytic and hemostatic activity using casein and human fibrinogen as substrates, respectively. Caseinoltyic activity was compared with two standard proteases viz., trypsin I and trypsin II. Effect of various standard protease inhibitors viz., iodoacetic acid (IAA), phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on both caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities were examined. Electrophoretogram of fibrinogenolytic assays were subjected to densitometric analysis. Results: Proteolytic action of MSL was found to be highly efficient over trypsin I and trypsin II in dose-dependent caseinolytic activity (P < 0.05; specific activity of 1,080 units/mg protein). The Aα and Bβ bands of human fibrinogen were readily cleaved by MSL (for 1 μg crude protein and 30 min of incubation time). Furthermore, MSL cleaved γ subunit in dose- and time-dependent manner. Quantitative correlation of these results was obtained by densitometric analysis. The caseinolytic activity of MSL was inhibited by IAA, PMSF. While, only PMSF inhibited fibrinogenolytic activity. Conclusions: MSL contains proteolytic enzymes belonging to two distinct superfamilies viz., serine protease and cysteine proteases. The fibrinogenolytic activity of MSL is restricted to serine proteases only. The study extrapolates the use of M. spinosa latex from milk curdling to hemostasis. SUMMARY Proteolytic enzymes present in latex of Maclura spinosa can be assigned to two different protease superfamilies viz

  15. An inhibitive determination method for heavy metals using bromelain, a cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Shukor, M Y; Masdor, N; Baharom, N A; Jamal, J A; Abdullah, M P A; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2008-03-01

    A heavy-metal assay has been developed using bromelain, a protease. The enzyme is assayed using casein as a substrate with Coomassie dye to track completion of hydrolysis of casein. In the absence of inhibitors, casein is hydrolysed to completion, and the solution is brown. In the presence of metal ions such as Hg2+ and Cu2+, the hydrolysis of casein is inhibited, and the solution remains blue. Exclusion of sulfhydryl protective agent and ethylenediaminetetraacetic in the original assay improved sensitivity to heavy metals several fold. The assay is sensitive to Hg2+ and Cu2+, exhibiting a dose-response curve with an IC50 of 0.15 mg 1(-1) for Hg2+ and a one-phase binding curve with an IC50 of 0.23 mg 1(-1) for Cu2+. The IC50 value for Hg2+ is found to be lower to several other assays such as immobilized urease and papain assay, whilst the IC50 value for Cu2+ is lower than immobilized urease, 15-min Microtox, and rainbow trout. PMID:18556817

  16. German cockroach proteases and protease-activated receptor-2 regulate chemokine production and dendritic cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Day, Scottie B; Ledford, John R; Zhou, Ping; Lewkowich, Ian P; Page, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that serine proteases in German cockroach (GC) feces (frass) decreased experimental asthma through the activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2. Since dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in the initiation of asthma, we queried the role of GC frass proteases in modulating CCL20 (chemokine C-C motif ligand 20) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production, factors that regulate pulmonary DCs. A single exposure to GC frass resulted in a rapid, but transient, increase in GM-CSF and a steady increase in CCL20 in the airways of mice. Instillation of protease-depleted GC frass or instillation of GC frass in PAR-2-deficient mice significantly decreased chemokine release. A specific PAR-2-activating peptide was also sufficient to induce CCL20 production. To directly assess the role of the GC frass protease in chemokine release, we enriched the protease from GC frass and confirmed that the protease was sufficient to induce both GM-CSF and CCL20 production in vivo. Primary airway epithelial cells produced both GM-CSF and CCL20 in a protease- and PAR-2-dependent manner. Finally, we show a decreased percentage of myeloid DCs in the lung following allergen exposure in PAR-2-deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. However, there was no difference in GC frass uptake. Our data indicate that, through the activation of PAR-2, allergen-derived proteases are sufficient to induce CCL20 and GM-CSF production in the airways. This leads to increased recruitment and/or differentiation of myeloid DC populations in the lungs and likely plays an important role in the initiation of allergic airway responses. PMID:21876326

  17. A novel protease activity assay using a protease-responsive chaperone protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sao, Kentaro; Murata, Masaharu; Fujisaki, Yuri; Umezaki, Kaori; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki; Hashizume, Makoto

    2009-06-05

    Protease activity assays are important for elucidating protease function and for developing new therapeutic agents. In this study, a novel turbidimetric method for determining the protease activity using a protease-responsive chaperone protein is described. For this purpose, a recombinant small heat-shock protein (sHSP) with an introduced Factor Xa protease recognition site was synthesized in bacteria. This recombinant mutant, FXa-HSP, exhibited chaperone-like activity at high temperatures in cell lysates. However, the chaperone-like activity of FXa-HSP decreased dramatically following treatment with Factor Xa. Protein precipitation was subsequently observed in the cell lysates. The reaction was Factor Xa concentration-dependent and was quantitatively suppressed by a specific inhibitor for Factor Xa. Protein aggregation was detected by a simple method based on turbidimetry. The results clearly demonstrate that this assay is an effective, easy-to-use method for determining protease activities without the requirement of labeling procedures and the use of radioisotopes.

  18. Synthetic siRNAs effectively target cystein protease 12 and α-actinin transcripts in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Ravaee, Roya; Ebadi, Parimah; Hatam, Gholamreza; Vafafar, Arghavan; Ghahramani Seno, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) causes trichomoniasis, a reproductive tract infection, in humans. Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In addition to direct consequences such as infertility and abortion, there are indications that trichomoniasis favours development of prostate cancer and it has also been associated with increased risk of spreading human immunodeficiency virus and papillomavirus infections. Reports from around the world show that the rate of drug resistance in T. vaginalis is increasing, and therefore new therapeutic approaches have to be developed. Studying molecular biology of T. vaginalis will be quite helpful in identifying new drugable targets. RNAi is a powerful technique which allows biologist to specifically target gene products (i.e. mRNA) helping them in unravelling gene functions and biology of systems. However, due to lack of some parts of the required intrinsic RNAi machinery, the RNAi system is not functional in all orders of life. Here, by using synthetic siRNAs targeting two genes, i.e. α-actinin and cystein protease 12 (cp12), we demonstrate T. vaginalis cells are amenable to RNAi experiments conducted by extrinsic siRNAs. Electroporation of siRNAs targeting α-actinin or cp12 into T. vaginalis cells resulted in, respectively, 48-67% and 33-72% downregulation of the cognate transcripts compared to the T. vaginalis cells received siRNAs targeting GL2 luciferase as a control. This finding is helpful in that it demonstrates the potential of using extrinsically induced RNAi in studies on molecular biology of T. vaginalis such as those aiming at identifying new drug targets. PMID:26134763

  19. A peptide with a cysteine terminus: probe for label-free fluorescent detection of thrombin activity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingjing; Zhuo, Caixia; Ma, Xuejuan; Li, Shuangqin; Zhang, Yaodong

    2016-07-21

    Thrombin has been implicated in atherosclerotic disease development. However, thrombin activity detection is currently limited because of the lack of convenient fluorescent probes. We developed a label-free fluorescent method to assay thrombin activity on the basis of a designed peptide probe with a thrombin-cleavable peptide sequence and a cysteine terminus. The peptide probe can be conjugated to DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) through Ag-S bonding; as a result, the fluorescence of DNA-AgNCs was enhanced. As the DNA-AgNCs-peptide conjugate was adsorbed to graphene oxide (GO), the enhanced fluorescence of DNA-AgNCs was quenched. Once the peptide probe was cleaved by thrombin, the resulting release of the DNA-AgNCs from the surface of GO restored the enhanced fluorescence. Thrombin can be determined with a linear range of 0.0-50.0 nM with a detection limit of 1 nM. The thrombin-sensitive probe with a cysteine terminus may be developed into probes to detect other proteases. PMID:27187619

  20. The Cysteine Protease CEP1, a Key Executor Involved in Tapetal Programmed Cell Death, Regulates Pollen Development in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Di; Lv, Xiaomeng; Wang, Ying; Xun, Zhili; Liu, Zhixiong; Li, Fenglan; Lu, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) is a prerequisite for pollen grain development in angiosperms, and cysteine proteases are the most ubiquitous hydrolases involved in plant PCD. We identified a papain-like cysteine protease, CEP1, which is involved in tapetal PCD and pollen development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CEP1 is expressed specifically in the tapetum from stages 5 to 11 of anther development. The CEP1 protein first appears as a proenzyme in precursor protease vesicles and is then transported to the vacuole and transformed into the mature enzyme before rupture of the vacuole. cep1 mutants exhibited aborted tapetal PCD and decreased pollen fertility with abnormal pollen exine. A transcriptomic analysis revealed that 872 genes showed significantly altered expression in the cep1 mutants, and most of them are important for tapetal cell wall organization, tapetal secretory structure formation, and pollen development. CEP1 overexpression caused premature tapetal PCD and pollen infertility. ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed that the CEP1 expression level showed a strong relationship to the degree of tapetal PCD and pollen fertility. Our results reveal that CEP1 is a crucial executor during tapetal PCD and that proper CEP1 expression is necessary for timely degeneration of tapetal cells and functional pollen formation. PMID:25035401

  1. Phosphoramidates as novel activity-based probes for serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Haedke, Ute R; Frommel, Sandra C; Hansen, Fabian; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Bogyo, Matthew; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2014-05-26

    Activity-based probes (ABPs) are small molecules that exclusively form covalent bonds with catalytically active enzymes. In the last decade, they have especially been used in functional proteomics studies of proteases. Here, we present phosphoramidate peptides as a novel type of ABP for serine proteases. These molecules can be made in a straightforward manner by standard Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, allowing rapid diversification. The resulting ABPs covalently bind different serine proteases, depending on the amino acid recognition element adjacent to the reactive group. A reporter tag enables downstream gel-based analysis or LC-MS/MS-mediated identification of the targeted proteases. Overall, we believe that these readily accessible probes will provide new avenues for the functional study of serine proteases in complex proteomes. PMID:24817682

  2. Structural Insights into the Protease-like Antigen Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 and Its Noncanonical Active-Site Serine

    SciTech Connect

    Hodder, Anthony N.; Malby, Robyn L.; Clarke, Oliver B.; Fairlie, W. Douglas; Colman, Peter M.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Smith, Brian J.

    2009-08-28

    The sera genes of the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium encode a family of unique proteins that are maximally expressed at the time of egress of parasites from infected red blood cells. These multi-domain proteins are unique, containing a central papain-like cysteine-protease fragment enclosed between the disulfide-linked N- and C-terminal domains. However, the central fragment of several members of this family, including serine repeat antigen 5 (SERA5), contains a serine (S596) in place of the active-site cysteine. Here we report the crystal structure of the central protease-like domain of Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, revealing a number of anomalies in addition to the putative nucleophilic serine: (1) the structure of the putative active site is not conducive to binding substrate in the canonical cysteine-protease manner; (2) the side chain of D594 restricts access of substrate to the putative active site; and (3) the S{sub 2} specificity pocket is occupied by the side chain of Y735, reducing this site to a small depression on the protein surface. Attempts to determine the structure in complex with known inhibitors were not successful. Thus, despite having revealed its structure, the function of the catalytic domain of SERA5 remains an enigma.

  3. Evolutionary lines of cysteine peptidases.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A J; Rawlings, N D

    2001-05-01

    The proteolytic enzymes that depend upon a cysteine residue for activity have come from at least seven different evolutionary origins, each of which has produced a group of cysteine peptidases with distinctive structures and properties. We show here that the characteristic molecular topologies of the peptidases in each evolutionary line can be seen not only in their three-dimensional structures, but commonly also in the two-dimensional structures. Clan CA contains the families of papain (C1), calpain (C2), streptopain (C10) and the ubiquitin-specific peptidases (C12, C19), as well as many families of viral cysteine endopeptidases. Clan CD contains the families of clostripain (C11), gingipain R (C25), legumain (C13), caspase-1 (C14) and separin (C50). These enzymes have specificities dominated by the interactions of the S1 subsite. Clan CE contains the families of adenain (C5) from adenoviruses, the eukaryotic Ulp1 protease (C48) and the bacterial YopJ proteases (C55). Clan CF contains only pyroglutamyl peptidase I (C15). The picornains (C3) in clan PA have probably evolved from serine peptidases, which still form the majority of enzymes in the clan. The cysteine peptidase activities in clans PB and CH are autolytic only. In conclusion, we suggest that although almost all the cysteine peptidases depend for activity on catalytic dyads of cysteine and histidine, it is worth noting some important differences that they have inherited from their distant ancestral peptidases. PMID:11517925

  4. Brain pyroglutamate amyloid-β is produced by cathepsin B and is reduced by the cysteine protease inhibitor E64d, representing a potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Hook, Gregory; Yu, Jin; Toneff, Thomas; Kindy, Mark; Hook, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Pyroglutamate amyloid-β peptides (pGlu-Aβ) are particularly pernicious forms of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) present in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. pGlu-Aβ peptides are N-terminally truncated forms of full-length Aβ peptides (flAβ(1-40/42)) in which the N-terminal glutamate is cyclized to pyroglutamate to generate pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42). β-secretase cleavage of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) produces flAβ(1-40/42), but it is not yet known whether the β-secretase BACE1 or the alternative β-secretase cathepsin B (CatB) participate in the production of pGlu-Aβ. Therefore, this study examined the effects of gene knockout of these proteases on brain pGlu-Aβ levels in transgenic AβPPLon mice, which express AβPP isoform 695 and have the wild-type (wt) β-secretase activity found in most AD patients. Knockout or overexpression of the CatB gene reduced or increased, respectively, pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42), flAβ(1-40/42), and pGlu-Aβ plaque load, but knockout of the BACE1 gene had no effect on those parameters in the transgenic mice. Treatment of AβPPLon mice with E64d, a cysteine protease inhibitor of CatB, also reduced brain pGlu-Aβ(3-42), flAβ(1-40/42), and pGlu-Aβ plaque load. Treatment of neuronal-like chromaffin cells with CA074Me, an inhibitor of CatB, resulted in reduced levels of pGlu-Aβ(3-40) released from the activity-dependent, regulated secretory pathway. Moreover, CatB knockout and E64d treatment has been previously shown to improve memory deficits in the AβPPLon mice. These data illustrate the role of CatB in producing pGlu-Aβ and flAβ that participate as key factors in the development of AD. The advantages of CatB inhibitors, especially E64d and its derivatives, as alternatives to BACE1 inhibitors in treating AD patients are discussed. PMID:24595198

  5. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Wall, Daniel M.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. coli α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macro­globulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group. PMID:26143919

  6. A Structural Study of Norovirus 3C Protease Specificity: Binding of a Designed Active Site-Directed Peptide Inhibitor†

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses are the major cause of human epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a 3C cysteine protease that cleaves a 200 kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional proteins. Here we describe the X-ray structure of the Southampton norovirus 3C protease (SV3CP) bound to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor (MAPI) which has been refined at 1.7 Å resolution. The inhibitor, acetyl-Glu-Phe-Gln-Leu-Gln-X, which is based on the most rapidly cleaved recognition sequence in the 200 kDa polyprotein substrate, reacts covalently through its propenyl ethyl ester group (X) with the active site nucleophile, Cys 139. The structure permits, for the first time, the identification of substrate recognition and binding groups in a noroviral 3C protease and thus provides important new information for the development of antiviral prophylactics. PMID:21128685

  7. Cysteine protease SpeB expression in group A streptococci is influenced by the nutritional environment but SpeB does not contribute to obtaining essential nutrients.

    PubMed

    Podbielski, A; Woischnik, M; Kreikemeyer, B; Bettenbrock, K; Buttaro, B A

    1999-11-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) cysteine protease is a major virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of purulent and invasive infections. The secreted enzyme cleaves a number of different bacterial and host proteins which could contribute to different stages of the infective processes. It has been proposed that, among these functions, SpeB plays a role in obtaining nutrients during late growth phases. In the present study, speB mutants of various GAS serotypes were found to exhibit unaltered growth characteristics in several complex and chemically defined media (CDM). When amino acid-depleted CDM was prepared, neither SpeB activity on whole proteins added to the medium during incubation nor the addition of SpeB-digested proteins was able to support bacterial growth. SpeB also was unable to liberate iron from iron-containing protein sources added to iron-deficient CDM. However, SpeB levels in culture supernatants changed in response to the protein and glucose content of the media. Using a speB promoter-luciferase reporter, speB expression levels were found to correspond to peptide concentrations in the culture media. The effect appeared to be specific for peptides since addition of peptides derived from various proteins had an affect on expression, while addition of the whole proteins had no effect. Addition of glucose to CDM had no effect on speB expression, while glucose addition to complex medium decreased speB expression. Overall, SpeB did not appear to be directly involved in providing the bacteria with nutritional factors but expression of the speB gene responded to ratios of peptides and carbohydrates in the culture medium. PMID:10753062

  8. Cathepsin S Cleavage of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 on Endothelial Cells Promotes Microvascular Diabetes Complications.

    PubMed

    Kumar Vr, Santhosh; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Steiger, Stefanie; Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Tato, Maia; Kukarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Thomasova, Dana; Popper, Bastian; Demleitner, Jana; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Cohen, Clemens D; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Liapis, Helen; Moll, Solange; Reid, Emma; Stitt, Alan W; Schott, Brigitte; Gruner, Sabine; Haap, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Martin; Hartmann, Guido; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a central pathomechanism in diabetes-associated complications. We hypothesized a pathogenic role in this dysfunction of cathepsin S (Cat-S), a cysteine protease that degrades elastic fibers and activates the protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on endothelial cells. We found that injection of mice with recombinant Cat-S induced albuminuria and glomerular endothelial cell injury in a PAR2-dependent manner. In vivo microscopy confirmed a role for intrinsic Cat-S/PAR2 in ischemia-induced microvascular permeability. In vitro transcriptome analysis and experiments using siRNA or specific Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists revealed that Cat-S specifically impaired the integrity and barrier function of glomerular endothelial cells selectively through PAR2. In human and mouse type 2 diabetic nephropathy, only CD68(+) intrarenal monocytes expressed Cat-S mRNA, whereas Cat-S protein was present along endothelial cells and inside proximal tubular epithelial cells also. In contrast, the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C was expressed only in tubules. Delayed treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with Cat-S or PAR2 inhibitors attenuated albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis (indicators of diabetic nephropathy) and attenuated albumin leakage into the retina and other structural markers of diabetic retinopathy. These data identify Cat-S as a monocyte/macrophage-derived circulating PAR2 agonist and mediator of endothelial dysfunction-related microvascular diabetes complications. Thus, Cat-S or PAR2 inhibition might be a novel strategy to prevent microvascular disease in diabetes and other diseases. PMID:26567242

  9. Characterization of a novel otubain-like protease with deubiquitination activity from Nosema bombycis (Microsporidia).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Dang, Xiaoqun; Luo, Bo; Li, Chunfeng; Long, Mengxian; Li, Tian; Li, Zhi; Pan, Guoqing; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-10-01

    Otubains are a recently identified family of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). They are involved in diverse biological processes including protein degradation, signal transduction, and cell immune response. Several microsporidian genomes have been published in the last decade; however, little is known about the otubain-like protease in these widely-spread obligate intracellular parasites. Here, we characterized a 25 kDa otubain-like protease (NbOTU1) from the microsporidian Nosema bombycis, the pathogen causing pebrine disease in the economically important insect Bombyx mori. Sequence analysis showed that this protein contained a conserved catalytic triad of otubains composed of aspartate, cysteine, and histidine residues. The expression of Nbotu1 began on day 3 postinfection as determined by the RT-PCR method. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that NbOTU1 is localized on the spore wall of N. bombycis. The subcellular localization of the NbOTU1 was further detected with immunoelectron microscopy, which showed that NbOTU1 is localized at the regions around endospore wall and plasma membrane. Deubiquitination analysis confirmed that the recombinant NbOTU1 possessed deubiquitination activity in vitro. Taken together, a novel microsporidian otubain-like protease NbOTU1 was partially characterized in N. bombycis, demonstrating its subcellular location and deubiquitination activity. This study provided a basic reference for further dissecting the function of otubains in microsporidia. PMID:26177898

  10. EhCP112 is an Entamoeba histolytica secreted cysteine protease that may be involved in the parasite-virulence.

    PubMed

    Ocádiz, Ramón; Orozco, Esther; Carrillo, Eduardo; Quintas, Laura Itzel; Ortega-López, Jaime; García-Pérez, Rosa María; Sánchez, Tomas; Castillo-Juárez, Beatriz A; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2005-02-01

    EhCP112 is an Entamoeba histolytica protease that together with the EhADH112 protein forms the EhCPADH complex involved in trophozoite virulence. Here, we produced the recombinant EhCP112 and studied its relationships with extracellular matrix components and with target cells. A DNA fragment containing the pro-peptide and the mature enzyme was expressed in bacteria as an active enzyme (rEhCP112), whereas the full gene containing the signal peptide, the pro-peptide and the mature enzyme expressed a non-active protein. The fragment only with the mature enzyme was not expressed. rEhCP112 purified by affinity columns digested azocasein and had a strong autoproteolytic activity. Four hours after purification the protein appeared degraded. Anti-tag antibodies, monoclonal antibodies against the EhCP112 and sera from human patients with amoebiasis recognized rEhCP112. rEhCP112 digested gelatin, collagen type I, fibronectin and haemoglobin; it destroyed MDCK cell monolayers and bound to red blood cells. The native EhCP112 was poorly expressed in a virulence-deficient mutant, and in the wild-type clone it was located in secreted vesicles, forming the EhCPADH complex. Altogether these results show that EhCP112 is a molecule able to disrupt cell monolayers and digest proteins of the extracellular matrix and haemoglobin, and it is secreted by the trophozoites. PMID:15659066

  11. Acid phosphatase and protease activities in immobilized rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Troup, J. P.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hind-limb immobilization on selected Iysosomal enzyme activities was studied in rat hing-limb muscles composed primarily of type 1. 2A, or 2B fibers. Following immobilization, acid protease and acid phosphatase both exhibited signifcant increases in their activity per unit weight in all three fiber types. Acid phosphatase activity increased at day 14 of immobilization in the three muscles and returned to control levels by day 21. Acid protease activity also changed biphasically, displaying a higher and earlier rise than acid phosphatase. The pattern of change in acid protease, but not acid phosphatase, closely parallels observed muscle wasting. The present data therefore demonstrate enhanced proteolytic capacity of all three fiber types early during muscular atrophy. In addition, the data suggest a dependence of basal hydrolytic and proteolytic activities and their adaptive response to immobilization on muscle fiber composition.

  12. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (<12 kDa) for Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P<0.05, Bonferroni test). The two fractions of Crotalaria spectabilis showed the same ovicidal activity (P>0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties. PMID:25054490

  13. Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a putative mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment

    SciTech Connect

    Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander W.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Wall, Daniel M.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2015-06-30

    The X-ray structure of protease-cleaved E. coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a putative mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. coli α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macroglobulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this group.

  14. Novel Ca2+-activated neutral protease from an aquatic fungus, Allomyces arbuscula.

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, M; Wallace, C J

    1988-01-01

    A Ca2+-activated neutral protease was purified to homogeneity from an aquatic Phycomycete fungus, Allomyces arbuscula. It requires millimolar concentrations of Ca2+ for activation (1.8 to 2 mM for 50% activation). Sr2+ can replace Ca2+ but at higher concentrations (4 mM for 50% activation). The enzyme is a dimer of 40-kilodalton subunits and contains six cysteine residues, three of which are revealed only after the addition of micromolar concentrations of Ca2+; the other three are free. Enzyme activity is strongly inhibited by SH-group inhibitors and some trypsin inhibitors (leupeptin and alpha-N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone). The enzyme lacks general trypsinlike specificity, since substrates containing tryptic cleavage sites are not cleaved nor is enzyme activity inhibited by other trypsin inhibitors. The enzyme has many functional similarities to the extensively characterized mammalian and avian Ca2+-activated neutral proteases but differs in its substrate specificity, inhibition by alpha-N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, and subunit structure. It is, nevertheless, presumed that this enzyme has a similar high order of specificity and is involved in the regulation of a specific growth function. Images PMID:2830232

  15. Structure Based Docking and Molecular Dynamic Studies of Plasmodial Cysteine Proteases against a South African Natural Compound and its Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Musyoka, Thommas M.; Kanzi, Aquillah M.; Lobb, Kevin A.; Tastan Bishop, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Identification of potential drug targets as well as development of novel antimalarial chemotherapies with unique mode of actions due to drug resistance by Plasmodium parasites are inevitable. Falcipains (falcipain-2 and falcipain-3) of Plasmodium falciparum, which catalyse the haemoglobin degradation process, are validated drug targets. Previous attempts to develop peptide based drugs against these enzymes have been futile due to the poor pharmacological profiles and susceptibility to degradation by host enzymes. This study aimed to identify potential non-peptide inhibitors against falcipains and their homologs from other Plasmodium species. Structure based virtual docking approach was used to screen a small non-peptidic library of natural compounds from South Africa against 11 proteins. A potential hit, 5α-Pregna-1,20-dien-3-one (5PGA), with inhibitory activity against plasmodial proteases and selectivity on human cathepsins was identified. A 3D similarity search on the ZINC database using 5PGA identified five potential hits based on their docking energies. The key interacting residues of proteins with compounds were identified via molecular dynamics and free binding energy calculations. Overall, this study provides a basis for further chemical design for more effective derivatives of these compounds. Interestingly, as these compounds have cholesterol-like nuclei, they and their derivatives might be well tolerated in humans. PMID:27030511

  16. Structure Based Docking and Molecular Dynamic Studies of Plasmodial Cysteine Proteases against a South African Natural Compound and its Analogs.

    PubMed

    Musyoka, Thommas M; Kanzi, Aquillah M; Lobb, Kevin A; Tastan Bishop, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Identification of potential drug targets as well as development of novel antimalarial chemotherapies with unique mode of actions due to drug resistance by Plasmodium parasites are inevitable. Falcipains (falcipain-2 and falcipain-3) of Plasmodium falciparum, which catalyse the haemoglobin degradation process, are validated drug targets. Previous attempts to develop peptide based drugs against these enzymes have been futile due to the poor pharmacological profiles and susceptibility to degradation by host enzymes. This study aimed to identify potential non-peptide inhibitors against falcipains and their homologs from other Plasmodium species. Structure based virtual docking approach was used to screen a small non-peptidic library of natural compounds from South Africa against 11 proteins. A potential hit, 5α-Pregna-1,20-dien-3-one (5PGA), with inhibitory activity against plasmodial proteases and selectivity on human cathepsins was identified. A 3D similarity search on the ZINC database using 5PGA identified five potential hits based on their docking energies. The key interacting residues of proteins with compounds were identified via molecular dynamics and free binding energy calculations. Overall, this study provides a basis for further chemical design for more effective derivatives of these compounds. Interestingly, as these compounds have cholesterol-like nuclei, they and their derivatives might be well tolerated in humans. PMID:27030511

  17. X-ray structure at 1.75 resolution of a norovirus 3C protease linked to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Jon; Coates, Leighton; Hussey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized universally as the most important cause of human epidemic non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a 3C cysteine protease that cleaves a 200kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional proteins. Here we describe the X-ray structure of the Southampton norovirus 3C protease (SV3CP) bound to an active site-directed peptide inhibitor (MAPI) which has been refined at 1.75 resolution, following initial MAD phasing with a selenomethionine derivative. The inhibitor, acetyl-Glu-Phe-Gln-Leu-Gln-X, based on a 3C protease cleavage recognition sequences in the 200kDa polyprotein substrate, reacts covalently through its propenylethylester group (X) with the active site nucleophile, Cys 139. The 3C protease-inhibitor structure permits, for the first time, the identification of substrate recognition and binding groups and provides important new information for the development of antiviral prophylactics.

  18. Protease-activated-receptor-2 affects protease-activated-receptor-1-driven breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Mohammad; Maoz, Miriam; Kancharla, Arun; Agranovich, Daniel; Peretz, Tamar; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Uziely, Beatrice; Bar-Shavit, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian protease-activated-receptor-1 and -2 (PAR1 and PAR2) are activated by proteases found in the flexible microenvironment of a tumor and play a central role in breast cancer. We propose in the present study that PAR1 and PAR2 act together as a functional unit during malignant and physiological invasion processes. This notion is supported by assessing pro-tumor functions in the presence of short hairpin; shRNA knocked-down hPar2 or by the use of a truncated PAR2 devoid of the entire cytoplasmic tail. Silencing of hPar2 by shRNA-attenuated thrombin induced PAR1 signaling as recapitulated by inhibiting the assembly of Etk/Bmx or Akt onto PAR1-C-tail, by thrombin-instigated colony formation and invasion. Strikingly, shRNA-hPar2 also inhibited the TFLLRN selective PAR1 pro-tumor functions. In addition, while evaluating the physiological invasion process of placenta extravillous trophoblast (EVT) organ culture, we observed inhibition of both thrombin or the selective PAR1 ligand; TFLLRNPNDK induced EVT invasion by shRNA-hPar2 but not by scrambled shRNA-hPar2. In parallel, when a truncated PAR2 was utilized in a xenograft mouse model, it inhibited PAR1-PAR2-driven tumor growth in vivo. Similarly, it also attenuated the interaction of Etk/Bmx with the PAR1-C-tail in vitro and decreased markedly selective PAR1-induced Matrigel invasion. Confocal images demonstrated co-localization of PAR1 and PAR2 in HEK293T cells over-expressing YFP-hPar2 and HA-hPar1. Co-immuno-precipitation analyses revealed PAR1-PAR2 complex formation but no PAR1-CXCR4 complex was formed. Taken together, our observations show that PAR1 and PAR2 act as a functional unit in tumor development and placenta-uterus interactions. This conclusion may have significant consequences on future breast cancer therapeutic modalities and improved late pregnancy outcome. PMID:24177339

  19. Genetic inactivation of an extracellular cysteine protease (SpeB) expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes decreases resistance to phagocytosis and dissemination to organs.

    PubMed

    Lukomski, S; Burns, E H; Wyde, P R; Podbielski, A; Rurangirwa, J; Moore-Poveda, D K; Musser, J M

    1998-02-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), a conserved cysteine protease expressed by virtually all Streptococcus pyogenes strains, has recently been shown to be an important virulence factor (S. Lukomski, S. Sreevatsan, C. Amberg, W. Reichardt, M. Woischnik, A. Podbielski, and J. M. Musser, J. Clin. Invest. 99:2574-2580, 1997). Genetic inactivation of SpeB significantly decreased the lethality of a serotype M49 strain for mice and abolished the lethality of a serotype M3 strain after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. In the present study, a wild-type M3 isolate and an M3 speB mutant derivative were used to investigate the mechanism responsible for altered virulence. Following i.p. injection, the mutant and wild-type strains induced virtually identical cellular inflammatory responses, characterized largely by an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In addition, the mutant and wild-type strains rapidly entered the blood and were recovered from all organs examined. However, significantly fewer (P < 0.05) CFUs of the isogenic mutant derivative than of the wild-type parent strain were recovered from blood and organs. PMNs effectively cleared the M3 speB mutant from the peritoneum by 22 h, thereby sparing the host. In contrast, the wild-type M3 strain continued to replicate intraperitoneally and had the ability to kill phagocytes. This process allowed the wild-type strain to continuously disseminate, resulting in host death. Our results indicate that genetic inactivation of the cysteine protease decreased the resistance of the mutant to phagocytosis and impaired its subsequent dissemination to organs. These results provide insight into the detrimental effect of SpeB inactivation on virulence. PMID:9453640

  20. Genetic Inactivation of an Extracellular Cysteine Protease (SpeB) Expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes Decreases Resistance to Phagocytosis and Dissemination to Organs

    PubMed Central

    Lukomski, Slawomir; Burns, Eugene H.; Wyde, Philip R.; Podbielski, Andreas; Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Moore-Poveda, Donna K.; Musser, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB), a conserved cysteine protease expressed by virtually all Streptococcus pyogenes strains, has recently been shown to be an important virulence factor (S. Lukomski, S. Sreevatsan, C. Amberg, W. Reichardt, M. Woischnik, A. Podbielski, and J. M. Musser, J. Clin. Invest. 99:2574–2580, 1997). Genetic inactivation of SpeB significantly decreased the lethality of a serotype M49 strain for mice and abolished the lethality of a serotype M3 strain after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. In the present study, a wild-type M3 isolate and an M3 speB mutant derivative were used to investigate the mechanism responsible for altered virulence. Following i.p. injection, the mutant and wild-type strains induced virtually identical cellular inflammatory responses, characterized largely by an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In addition, the mutant and wild-type strains rapidly entered the blood and were recovered from all organs examined. However, significantly fewer (P < 0.05) CFUs of the isogenic mutant derivative than of the wild-type parent strain were recovered from blood and organs. PMNs effectively cleared the M3 speB mutant from the peritoneum by 22 h, thereby sparing the host. In contrast, the wild-type M3 strain continued to replicate intraperitoneally and had the ability to kill phagocytes. This process allowed the wild-type strain to continuously disseminate, resulting in host death. Our results indicate that genetic inactivation of the cysteine protease decreased the resistance of the mutant to phagocytosis and impaired its subsequent dissemination to organs. These results provide insight into the detrimental effect of SpeB inactivation on virulence. PMID:9453640

  1. Purification and characterization of a serine protease with fibrinolytic activity from Tenodera sinensis (praying mantis).

    PubMed

    Hahn, B S; Cho, S Y; Wu, S J; Chang, I M; Baek, K; Kim, Y C; Kim, Y S

    1999-03-19

    Mantis egg fibrolase (MEF) was purified from the egg cases of Tenodera sinensis using ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-60 and affinity chromatography on DEAE Affi-Gel blue gel. The protease was assessed homogeneous by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and has a molecular mass of 31500 Da. An isoelectric point of 6.1 was determined by isoelectric focusing. Amino acid sequencing of the N-terminal region established a primary structure composed of Ala-Asp-Val-Val-Gln-Gly-Asp-Ala-Pro-Ser. MEF readily digested the Aalpha- and Bbeta-chains of fibrinogen and more slowly the gamma-chain. The nonspecific action of the enzyme results in extensive hydrolysis of fibrinogen and fibrin releasing a variety of fibrinopeptide. The enzyme is inactivated by Cu2+ and Zn2+ and inhibited by PMSF and chymostatin, yet elastinal, aprotinin, TLCK, TPCK, EDTA, EGTA, cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol, iodoacetate, E64, benzamidine and soybean trypsin inhibitor do not affect activity. Antiplasmin was not sensitive to MEF but antithrombin III inhibited the enzymatic activity of MEF. Among chromogenic protease substrates, the most sensitive to MEF hydrolysis was benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide with maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C. MEF preferentially cleaved the oxidized B-chain of insulin between Leu15 and Tyr16. D-Dimer concentrations increased on incubation of cross-linked fibrin with MEF, indicating the enzyme has a strong fibrinolytic activity. PMID:10082965

  2. Serine substitution for cysteine residues in levansucrase selectively abolishes levan forming activity.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Velusamy; Busby, Stephen J W; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Senthikumar, Velusamy; Bushby, Stephen J W

    2003-10-01

    Levansucrase is responsible for levan formation during sucrose fermentation of Zymomonas mobilis, and this decreases the efficiency of ethanol production. As thiol modifying agents decrease levan formation, a role for cysteine residues in levansucrase activity has been examined using derivatives of Z. mobilis levansucrase that carry serine substitutions of cysteine at positions 121, 151 or 244. These substitutions abolished the levan forming activity of levansucrase whilst only halving its activity in sucrose hydrolysis. Thus, polymerase and hydrolase activities of Z. mobilis levansucrase are separate and have different requirements for the enzyme's cysteine residues. PMID:14584923

  3. The IRC7 gene encodes cysteine desulphydrase activity and confers on yeast the ability to grow on cysteine as a nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Margarita; Gardner, Richard C

    2015-07-01

    Although cysteine desulphydrase activity has been purified and characterized from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene encoding this activity in vivo has never been defined. We show that the full-length IRC7 gene, encoded by the YFR055W open reading frame, encodes a protein with cysteine desulphydrase activity. Irc7p purified to homogeneity is able to utilize l-cysteine as a substrate, producing pyruvate and hydrogen sulphide as products of the reaction. Purified Irc7p also utilized l-cystine and some other cysteine conjugates, but not l-cystathionine or l-methionine, as substrates. We further show that, in vivo, the IRC7 gene is both necessary and sufficient for yeast to grow on l-cysteine as a nitrogen source, and that overexpression of the gene results in increased H2 S production. Strains overexpressing IRC7 are also hypersensitive to a toxic analogue, S-ethyl-l-cysteine. While IRC7 has been identified as playing a critical role in converting cysteine conjugates to volatile thiols that are important in wine aroma, its biological role in yeast cells is likely to involve regulation of cysteine and redox homeostasis. PMID:25871637

  4. Modification of calcite crystal morphology by designed phosphopeptides and primary structures and substrate specifities of the cysteine proteases mexicain and chymomexicain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Zhirui

    In order to better understand the mechanism of biomineralization, we have undertaken to synthesize polypeptide model compounds of well-defined structure that can interact with specific faces of calcite and alter its crystal morphology. These peptides were designed based on the structure of alpha-helical winter flounder antifreeze polypeptide HPLC-6. In these peptides, from one to three of the threonine residues in HPLC-6 were substituted by phosphoserine or phosphotyrosine. CD spectra show that all the peptides have virtually the same alpha-helicity, i.e., about 90% at 4°C and 50% at 25°C. However, only peptides which contain at least two phosphate groups spaced 16.8-A apart can modify the crystal morphology of the calcite. The newly developed surface has been tentatively identified as the (001) basal face. Molecular modeling indicates that the spacing of phosphate groups allows for a good match with crystal lattice ions on the (001) plane. Another peptide, CBP-3D, in which the three threonine residues in HPLC-6 were substituted by aspartic acids, appears to bind only to {104} rhombohedral faces of calcite. These experiments suggest that conformation and orientation of the binding ligands in the peptide are important factors governing the mutual recognition of crystal surface and proteins. The complete amino acid sequences of the cysteine proteases mexicain and chymomexicain, isolated from the latex of the plant Pileus mexicanus , were determined by Edman degradation of proteolytic fragments. Mexicain and chymomexicain show-high sequence homology to the papain family of cysteine protease. Mexicain and chymomexicain are monomeric polypeptides, with molecular masses of 23,762 Da and 23,694 Da, respectively, and both contain three deduced disulfide bonds. The proteolytic substrate specificities of mexicain and chymomexicain were studied by digesting a series of synthetic peptides and analyzing the fragments by mass spectrometry. The two proteases showed virtually

  5. Fas activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway requires ICE/CED-3 family proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Juo, P; Kuo, C J; Reynolds, S E; Konz, R F; Raingeaud, J; Davis, R J; Biemann, H P; Blenis, J

    1997-01-01

    The Fas receptor mediates a signalling cascade resulting in programmed cell death (apoptosis) within hours of receptor cross-linking. In this study Fas activated the stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, p38 and JNK, within 2 h in Jurkat T lymphocytes but not the mitogen-responsive kinase ERK1 or pp70S6k. Fas activation of p38 correlated temporally with the onset of apoptosis, and transfection of constitutively active MKK3 (glu), an upstream regulator of p38, potentiated Fas-induced cell death, suggesting a potential involvement of the MKK3/p38 activation pathway in Fas-mediated apoptosis. Fas has been shown to require ICE (interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme) family proteases to induce apoptosis from studies utilizing the cowpox ICE inhibitor protein CrmA, the synthetic tetrapeptide ICE inhibitor YVAD-CMK, and the tripeptide pan-ICE inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. In this study, crmA antagonized, and YVAD-CMK and Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited, Fas activation of p38 kinase activity, demonstrating that Fas-dependent activation of p38 requires ICE/CED-3 family members and conversely that the MKK3/p38 activation cascade represents a downstream target for the ICE/CED-3 family proteases. Intriguingly, p38 activation by sorbitol and etoposide was resistant to YVAD-CMK and Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting the existence of an additional mechanism(s) of p38 regulation. The ICE/CED-3 family-p38 regulatory relationship described in the current work indicates that in addition to the previously described destructive cleavage of substrates such as poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, lamins, and topoisomerase, the apoptotic cysteine proteases also function to regulate stress kinase signalling cascades. PMID:8972182

  6. Differential in vitro and in vivo effect of barley cysteine and serine protease inhibitors on phytopathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Laura; Herrero, Ignacio; Cambra, Inés; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Protease inhibitors from plants have been involved in defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. Phytocystatins and trypsin/α-amylase inhibitors are two of the best characterized protease inhibitor families in plants. In barley, thirteen cystatins (HvCPI-1 to 13) and the BTI-CMe trypsin inhibitor have been previously studied. Their capacity to inhibit pest digestive proteases, and the negative in vivo effect caused by plants expressing these inhibitors on pests support the defence function of these proteins. Barley cystatins are also able to inhibit in vitro fungal growth. However, the antifungal effect of these inhibitors in vivo had not been previously tested. Moreover, their in vitro and in vivo effect on plant pathogenous bacteria is still unknown. In order to obtain new insights on this feature, in vitro assays were made against different bacterial and fungal pathogens of plants using the trypsin inhibitor BTI-CMe and the thirteen barley cystatins. Most barley cystatins and the BTI-CMe inhibitor were able to inhibit mycelial growth but no bacterial growth. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants independently expressing the BTI-CMe inhibitor and the cystatin HvCPI-6 were tested against the same bacterial and fungal pathogens. Neither the HvCPI-6 expressing transgenic plants nor the BTI-CMe ones were more resistant to plant pathogen fungi and bacteria than control Arabidopsis plants. The differences observed between the in vitro and in planta assays against phytopathogenic fungi are discussed. PMID:21482127

  7. Pathogen-Secreted Proteases Activate a Novel Plant Immune Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Li, Jian-Feng; Niu, Yajie; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Woody, Owen Z.; Xiong, Yan; Djonović, Slavica; Millet, Yves; Bush, Jenifer; McConkey, Brendan J.; Sheen, Jen; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascades play central roles in innate immune signaling networks in plants and animals1,2. In plants, however, the molecular mechanisms of how signal perception is transduced to MAPK activation remain elusive1. We report that pathogen-secreted proteases activate a previously unknown signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana involving the Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes, which function upstream of a MAPK cascade. In this pathway, Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) functions as a novel scaffold that binds to the Gβ subunit as well as to all three tiers of the MAPK cascade, thereby linking upstream G protein signaling to downstream activation of a MAPK cascade. The protease-G protein-RACK1-MAPK cascade modules identified in these studies are distinct from previously described plant immune signaling pathways such as the one elicited by bacterial flagellin, in which G proteins function downstream of or in parallel to a MAPK cascade without the involvement of the RACK1 scaffolding protein. The discovery of the novel protease-mediated immune signaling pathway described here was facilitated by the use of the broad host range, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ability of P. aeruginosa to infect both plants and animals makes it an excellent model to identify novel types of immunoregulatory strategies that account for its niche adaptation to diverse host tissues and immune systems. PMID:25731164

  8. Extracellular proteases as targets for drug development.

    PubMed

    Cudic, Mare; Fields, Gregg B

    2009-08-01

    Proteases constitute one of the primary targets in drug discovery. In the present review, we focus on extracellular proteases (ECPs) because of their differential expression in many pathophysiological processes, including cancer, cardiovascular conditions, and inflammatory, pulmonary, and periodontal diseases. Many new ECP inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation and a significant increase in new therapies based on protease inhibition can be expected in the coming years. In addition to directly blocking the activity of a targeted protease, one can take advantage of differential expression in disease states to selectively deliver therapeutic or imaging agents. Recent studies in targeted drug development for the metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinases, adamalysins, pappalysins, neprilysin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, metallocarboxypeptidases, and glutamate carboxypeptidase II), serine proteases (elastase, coagulation factors, tissue/urokinase plasminogen activator system, kallikreins, tryptase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV) and cysteine proteases (cathepsin B) are discussed herein. PMID:19689354

  9. Formation scheme and antioxidant activity of a novel Maillard pigment, pyrrolothiazolate, formed from cysteine and glucose.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kyoko; Terasawa, Naoko; Murata, Masatsune

    2016-06-15

    We recently identified 6-hydroxy-3[R],7a[S]-dimethyl-7-oxo-2,3-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole-3-calboxylic acid, a novel pyrrolothiazole derivative carrying a carboxy group and named pyrrolothiazolate, as a Mallard pigment formed from l-cysteine and d-glucose. Here we described the formation of its enantiomer, the plausible formation scheme of pyrrolothiazolate, and its antioxidant activity. When d-cysteine was used instead of l-cysteine in the reaction mixture, the enantiomer of pyrrolothiazolate was obtained. The carbon at position 1 of glucose was incorporated into two methyl groups of pyrrolothiazolate. The pigment was considered to be formed through 1-deoxyglucosone (1-DG). The dehydrated isomer of 1-DG would be condensed with the thiol and amino groups of cysteine. This condensate was dehydrated and cyclized to form pyrrolothiazolate. This compound was an antioxidant showing radical scavenging activity. PMID:26987433

  10. Tooth Bleaching Increases Dentinal Protease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sato, C.; Rodrigues, F.A.; Garcia, D.M.; Vidal, C.M.P.; Pashley, D.H.; Tjäderhane, L.; Carrilho, M.R.; Nascimento, F.D.; Tersariol, I.L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidative agent commonly used for dental bleaching procedures. The structural and biochemical responses of enamel, dentin, and pulp tissues to the in vivo bleaching of human (n = 20) premolars were investigated in this study. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe enamel nanostructure. The chemical composition of enamel and dentin was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The enzymatic activities of dental cathepsin B and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were monitored with fluorogenic substrates. The amount of collagen in dentin was measured by emission of collagen autofluorescence with confocal fluorescence microscopy. The presence of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the pulp was evaluated with a fluorogenic 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) probe. Vital bleaching of teeth significantly altered all tested parameters: AFM images revealed a corrosion of surface enamel nanostructure; FTIR analysis showed a loss of carbonate and proteins from enamel and dentin, along with an increase in the proteolytic activity of cathepsin-B and MMPs; and there was a reduction in the autofluorescence of collagen and an increase in both cathepsin-B activity and ROS in pulp tissues. Together, these results indicate that 35% hydrogen peroxide used in clinical bleaching protocols dramatically alters the structural and biochemical properties of dental hard and soft pulp tissue. PMID:23242228

  11. Dispersal of Group A Streptococcal Biofilms by the Cysteine Protease SpeB Leads to Increased Disease Severity in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Kristie L.; Roberts, Amity L.; Holder, Robert C.; Reid, Sean D.

    2011-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive human pathogen best known for causing pharyngeal and mild skin infections. However, in the 1980's there was an increase in severe GAS infections including cellulitis and deeper tissue infections like necrotizing fasciitis. Particularly striking about this elevation in the incidence of severe disease was that those most often affected were previously healthy individuals. Several groups have shown that changes in gene content or regulation, as with proteases, may contribute to severe disease; yet strains harboring these proteases continue to cause mild disease as well. We and others have shown that group A streptococci (MGAS5005) reside within biofilms both in vitro and in vivo. That is to say that the organism colonizes a host surface and forms a 3-dimensional community encased in a protective matrix of extracellular protein, DNA and polysaccharide(s). However, the mechanism of assembly or dispersal of these structures is unclear, as is the relationship of these structures to disease outcome. Recently we reported that allelic replacement of the streptococcal regulator srv resulted in constitutive production of the streptococcal cysteine protease SpeB. We further showed that the constitutive production of SpeB significantly decreased MGAS5005Δsrv biofilm formation in vitro. Here we show that mice infected with MGAS5005Δsrv had significantly larger lesion development than wild-type infected animals. Histopathology, Gram-staining and immunofluorescence link the increased lesion development with lack of disease containment, lack of biofilm formation, and readily detectable levels of SpeB in the tissue. Treatment of MGAS5005Δsrv infected lesions with a chemical inhibitor of SpeB significantly reduced lesion formation and disease spread to wild-type levels. Furthermore, inactivation of speB in the MGAS5005Δsrv background reduced lesion formation to wild-type levels. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism by which

  12. Dispersal of Group A streptococcal biofilms by the cysteine protease SpeB leads to increased disease severity in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Kristie L; Roberts, Amity L; Holder, Robert C; Reid, Sean D

    2011-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive human pathogen best known for causing pharyngeal and mild skin infections. However, in the 1980's there was an increase in severe GAS infections including cellulitis and deeper tissue infections like necrotizing fasciitis. Particularly striking about this elevation in the incidence of severe disease was that those most often affected were previously healthy individuals. Several groups have shown that changes in gene content or regulation, as with proteases, may contribute to severe disease; yet strains harboring these proteases continue to cause mild disease as well. We and others have shown that group A streptococci (MGAS5005) reside within biofilms both in vitro and in vivo. That is to say that the organism colonizes a host surface and forms a 3-dimensional community encased in a protective matrix of extracellular protein, DNA and polysaccharide(s). However, the mechanism of assembly or dispersal of these structures is unclear, as is the relationship of these structures to disease outcome. Recently we reported that allelic replacement of the streptococcal regulator srv resulted in constitutive production of the streptococcal cysteine protease SpeB. We further showed that the constitutive production of SpeB significantly decreased MGAS5005Δsrv biofilm formation in vitro. Here we show that mice infected with MGAS5005Δsrv had significantly larger lesion development than wild-type infected animals. Histopathology, Gram-staining and immunofluorescence link the increased lesion development with lack of disease containment, lack of biofilm formation, and readily detectable levels of SpeB in the tissue. Treatment of MGAS5005Δsrv infected lesions with a chemical inhibitor of SpeB significantly reduced lesion formation and disease spread to wild-type levels. Furthermore, inactivation of speB in the MGAS5005Δsrv background reduced lesion formation to wild-type levels. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism by which

  13. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    PubMed Central

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing. PMID:22224061

  14. Evolution of the protease-activated receptor family in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    JIN, MIN; YANG, HAI-WEI; TAO, AI-LIN; WEI, JI-FU

    2016-01-01

    Belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPcr) family, the protease-activated receptors (Pars) consist of 4 members, PAR1-4. PARs mediate the activation of cells via thrombin, serine and other proteases. Such protease-triggered signaling events are thought to be critical for hemostasis, thrombosis and other normal pathological processes. In the present study, we examined the evolution of PARs by analyzing phylogenetic trees, chromosome location, selective pressure and functional divergence based on the 169 functional gene alignment sequences from 57 vertebrate gene sequences. We found that the 4 PARs originated from 4 invertebrate ancestors by phylogenetic trees analysis. The selective pressure results revealed that only PAR1 appeared by positive selection during its evolution, while the other PAR members did not. In addition, we noticed that although these PARs evolved separately, the results of functional divergence indicated that their evolutional rates were similar and their functions did not significantly diverge. The findings of our study provide valuable insight into the evolutionary history of the vertebrate PAR family. PMID:26820116

  15. Mammalian EGF receptor activation by the rhomboid protease RHBDL2.

    PubMed

    Adrain, Colin; Strisovsky, Kvido; Zettl, Markus; Hu, Landian; Lemberg, Marius K; Freeman, Matthew

    2011-05-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has several functions in mammalian development and disease, particularly cancer. Most EGF ligands are synthesized as membrane-tethered precursors, and their proteolytic release activates signalling. In Drosophila, rhomboid intramembrane proteases catalyse the release of EGF-family ligands; however, in mammals this seems to be primarily achieved by ADAM-family metalloproteases. We report here that EGF is an efficient substrate of the mammalian rhomboid RHBDL2. RHBDL2 cleaves EGF just outside its transmembrane domain, thereby facilitating its secretion and triggering activation of the EGFR. We have identified endogenous RHBDL2 activity in several tumour cell lines. PMID:21494248

  16. Mammalian EGF receptor activation by the rhomboid protease RHBDL2

    PubMed Central

    Adrain, Colin; Strisovsky, Kvido; Zettl, Markus; Hu, Landian; Lemberg, Marius K; Freeman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has several functions in mammalian development and disease, particularly cancer. Most EGF ligands are synthesized as membrane-tethered precursors, and their proteolytic release activates signalling. In Drosophila, rhomboid intramembrane proteases catalyse the release of EGF-family ligands; however, in mammals this seems to be primarily achieved by ADAM-family metalloproteases. We report here that EGF is an efficient substrate of the mammalian rhomboid RHBDL2. RHBDL2 cleaves EGF just outside its transmembrane domain, thereby facilitating its secretion and triggering activation of the EGFR. We have identified endogenous RHBDL2 activity in several tumour cell lines. PMID:21494248

  17. Localization of eimeripain, an Eimeria tenella cathepsin B-like cysteine protease, during asexual and sexual intracellular development in chicken ceca.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Hatta, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Anisuzzaman; Sasai, Kazumi; Yamaji, Kayoko; Shimura, Kameo; Isobe, Takashi; Kita, Kiyoshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2014-04-01

    Hemorrhagic diarrhea in poultry is caused by Eimeria tenella, the most pathogenic avian coccidian parasite, and new approaches to treat the disease are continually being sought. Although eimeripain, a cathepsin B-like cysteine protease from E. tenella, has recently been identified as a novel anticoccidial drug target, its localization during the intracellular development of parasites remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate the expression of eimeripain during asexual and sexual development of E. tenella in vivo. Promature eimeripain was detected only in the early immature second generation of schizonts. In contrast, the mature eimeripain was most strongly detected in the middle-sized immature second generation of schizonts. Both promature and mature eimeripain disappeared depending on the maturation level of second generation of schizonts, but were strongly expressed again in the third generation of schizonts. In the sexual stage, both promature and mature eimeripain were detected in the cytoplasm of micro- and macro-gametocytes and zygotes, but expression became weak in zoites forming oocysts. Collectively, our findings suggest that eimeripain might play a key role in the differentiation of intracellular zoites in the ceca and could be an interesting candidate to develop a novel, effective anti-coccidian drug. PMID:24366155

  18. NMR characterization and conformational analysis of a potent papain-family cathepsin L-like cysteine protease inhibitor with different behaviour in polar and apolar media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotondo, Archimede; Ettari, Roberta; Zappalà, Maria; De Micheli, Carlo; Rotondo, Enrico

    2014-11-01

    We recently reported the synthesis, of a potent papain-family cathepsin L-like cysteine protease inhibitor, as new lead compound for the development of new drugs that can be used as antiprotozoal agents. The investigation of its conformational profile is crucial for the in-depth understanding of its biological behaviour. Our careful NMR analysis has been based on the complete and total assignment of 1H, 13C, 15N and 19F signals of the molecule in both CDCl3 and CD3OH, which could reproduce in some way a scenario of polar and not polar phases into the biological environment. In this way it has been unveiled a different behaviour of the molecule in polar and apolar media. In CDCl3 it is possible to define stable conformational arrangements on the basis of the detected through space contacts, whereas, in CD3OH a greater conformational freedom is envisaged: (a) by the overlap of any of the CH2 diastereotopic resonances (unable to distinguish asymmetric molecular sides because of the free rotation about the single bonded chains), (b) by the less definite measured vicinities not consistent with just one conformation and (c) by the evident loss or switching of key intramolecular hydrogen interactions.

  19. Protease-induced immunoregulatory activity of platelet factor 4.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, I R; Thorbecke, G J; Bell, M K; Yin, J Z; Clarke, D; Zucker, M B

    1986-01-01

    Intravenous injection of human or mouse serum or platelet material secreted from appropriately stimulated platelets ("releasate") together with antigen alleviates the immunosuppression in SJL/J mice induced by injection of irradiated lymphoma cells or in (CB6)F1 mice induced by injection of concanavalin A. We now report that injection of releasate from 10(6) human platelets restores plaque-forming cells to the unsuppressed number; greater amounts increase responses further. Immunoregulatory activity is released from platelets exposed to thrombin in parallel with other alpha-granule components. Heparin-agarose absorbs activity. Purified platelet factor 4 (PF4) has activity; beta-thromboglobulin and platelet-derived growth factor have little or none. Activity in serum is neutralized by goat anti-human PF4. An enzymatic step is necessary for production of immunoregulatory activity. Releasates boiled immediately after platelet aggregation with 250 nM A23187 or those produced by adding A23187 in the presence of 100 microM serine protease inhibitor (p-amidinophenyl)methanesulfonyl fluoride (APMSF) are ineffective, whereas releasates boiled or mixed with APMSF after incubation for 60 min are active. Activity is generated by incubating a mixture of heparin-absorbed releasate (as enzyme source) and heparin-agarose eluate of releasate made in the presence of APMSF (as substrate source). The enzymatic step does not alter the heparin-neutralizing activity of PF4. Apparently a secreted platelet protease converts PF4 to a form with immunoregulatory activity. PMID:3517862

  20. Analysis of non-peptidic compounds as potential malarial inhibitors against Plasmodial cysteine proteases via integrated virtual screening workflow.

    PubMed

    Musyoka, Thommas M; Kanzi, Aquillah M; Lobb, Kevin A; Tastan Bishop, Özlem

    2016-10-01

    Falcipain-2 (FP-2) and falcipain-3 (FP-3), haemoglobin-degrading enzymes in Plasmodium falciparum, are validated drug targets for the development of effective inhibitors against malaria. However, no commercial drug-targeting falcipains has been developed despite their central role in the life cycle of the parasites. In this work, in silico approaches are used to identify key structural elements that control the binding and selectivity of a diverse set of non-peptidic compounds onto FP-2, FP-3 and homologues from other Plasmodium species as well as human cathepsins. Hotspot residues and the underlying non-covalent interactions, important for the binding of ligands, are identified by interaction fingerprint analysis between the proteases and 2-cyanopyridine derivatives (best hits). It is observed that the size and chemical type of substituent groups within 2-cyanopyridine derivatives determine the strength of protein-ligand interactions. This research presents novel results that can further be exploited in the structure-based molecular-guided design of more potent antimalarial drugs. PMID:26471975

  1. Identification of active-site residues in protease 3C of hepatitis A virus by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Gosert, R; Dollenmaier, G; Weitz, M

    1997-01-01

    Picornavirus 3C proteases (3Cpro) are cysteine proteases related by amino acid sequence to trypsin-like serine proteases. Comparisons of 3Cpro of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to those of other picornaviruses have resulted in prediction of active-site residues: histidine at position 44 (H44), aspartic acid (D98), and cysteine (C172). To test whether these residues are key members of a putative catalytic triad, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was targeted to 3Cpro in the context of natural polypeptide precursor P3. Autocatalytic processing of the polyprotein containing wild-type or variant 3Cpro was tested by in vivo expression of vaccinia virus-HAV chimeras in an animal cell-T7 hybrid system and by in vitro translation of corresponding RNAs. Comparison with proteins present in HAV-infected cells showed that both expression systems mimicked authentic polyprotein processing. Individual substitutions of H44 by tyrosine and of C172 by glycine or serine resulted in complete loss of the virus-specific proteolytic cascade. In contrast, a P3 polyprotein in which D98 was substituted by asparagine underwent only slightly delayed processing, while an additional substitution of valine (V47) by glycine within putative protein 3A caused a more pronounced loss of processing. Therefore, apparently H44 and C172 are active-site constituents whereas D98 is not. The results, furthermore, suggest that substitution of amino acid residues distant from polyprotein cleavage sites may reduce proteolytic activity, presumably by altering substrate conformation. PMID:9060667

  2. Expression and activation of proteases in co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2011-01-01

    The present study concerned the expression and activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPA/uPAR) system in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids (HT29, LS180, SW948) with human normal colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr), myofibroblasts (CCD-18Co) and endothelial cells (HUVEC). Additionally, the influence of monensin on the production and function of the proteases was tested. Tumor cells expressed small amounts of MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA. Normal cells generally produced proportionally higher concentrations of these proteases (especially MMP-2, compared with significantly smaller yields of MMP-9 and significantly lower amounts of uPAR than tumors. In co-cultures of tumor spheroids with normal cell monolayers, the concentration of the proteases was equal to the sum of the enzymes produced in monocultures of both types of cells. The highest activity of uPA, measured as the reduction of the chromogenic substrate (S-2444), was detected in supernatants and lysates of endothelial cells. Interestingly, in normal cells, the higher expression of proteases, mainly uPA, measured as the level of protein concentration, was closely linked with their lower activity and inversely, in tumor cells, the low level of the expression of the enzymes correlated with their high enzymatic activity. In zymography analysis, mainly pro-MMPs were detected both in culture supernatants and cell lysates. The highest amounts of active forms of the MMPs were detected in tumor spheroids co-cultured with endothelial cells. Monensin inhibited MMPs and uPA secretion but significantly increased uPAR release, mainly from normal cells. In conclusion, during direct interactions of tumor cells with normal cells, MMPs and the uPA/uPAR system play an important role in the degradation of ECM and tumor development, but as we found, there is a reverse relationship between the concentration and the

  3. In vivo activation and functions of the protease factor XII.

    PubMed

    Björkqvist, Jenny; Nickel, Katrin F; Stavrou, Evi; Renné, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Combinations of proinflammatory and procoagulant reactions are the unifying principle for a variety of disorders affecting the cardiovascular system. Factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) is a plasma protease that initiates the contact system. The biochemistry of the contact system in vitro is well understood; however, its in vivo functions are just beginning to emerge. The current review concentrates on activators and functions of the FXII-driven contact system in vivo. Elucidating its physiologic activities offers the exciting opportunity to develop strategies for the safe interference with both thrombotic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25187064

  4. Use of flow cytometry for the adhesion analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes mutant strains to epithelial cells: investigation of the possible role of surface pullulanase and cysteine protease, and the transcriptional regulator Rgg

    PubMed Central

    Hytönen, Jukka; Haataja, Sauli; Finne, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry based adherence assay is a potentially powerful but little used method in the study of bacterial binding to host structures. We have previously characterized a glycoprotein-binding activity in Streptococcus pyogenes called 'strepadhesin' binding to thyroglobulin, submaxillar mucin, fetuin and asialofetuin. We have identified surface-associated pullulanase (PulA) and cysteine protease (SpeB) as carriers of strepadhesin activity. In the present paper, we investigated the use of flow cytometry as a method to study the binding of Rgg, SpeB and PulA knock-out strains to cultured human epithelial cells. Results Streptococcal mutants were readily labelled with CFDA-SE and their binding to epithelial cells could be effectively studied by flow cytometry. A strain deficient in Rgg expression showed increased binding to the analyzed epithelial cell lines of various origin. Inactivation of SpeB had no effect on the adhesion, while PulA knock-out strains displayed decreased binding to the cell lines. Conclusion These results suggest that the flow cytometric assay is a valuable tool in the analysis of S. pyogenes adherence to host cells. It appears to be an efficient and sensitive tool for the characterization of interactions between the bacteria and the host at the molecular level. The results also suggest a role for Rgg regulated surface molecules, like PulA, in the adhesion of S. pyogenes to host cells. PMID:16504124

  5. Protease-activated receptors mediate crosstalk between coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    McEachron, Troy A; Pawlinski, Rafal; Richards, Kristy L; Church, Frank C; Mackman, Nigel

    2010-12-01

    The coagulation and fibrinolytic systems contribute to malignancy by increasing angiogenesis, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor metastasis. Oncogenic transformation increases the expression of tissue factor (TF) that results in local generation of coagulation proteases and activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2. We compared the PAR-dependent expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in 2 murine mammary adencocarcinoma cell lines: metastatic 4T1 cells and nonmetastatic 67NR cells. 4T1 cells expressed TF, PAR-1 and PAR-2 whereas 67NR cells expressed TF and PAR-1. We also silenced PAR-1 or PAR-2 expression in the 4T1 cells. We discovered 2 distinct mechanisms for PAR-dependent expression of uPA and PAI-1. First, we found that factor Xa or thrombin activation of PAR-1 led to a rapid release of stored intracellular uPA into the culture supernatant. Second, thrombin transactivation of a PAR-1/PAR-2 complex resulted in increases in PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression. Cells lacking PAR-2 failed to express PAI-1 in response to thrombin and factor Xa did not activate the PAR-1/PAR-2 complex. Our results reveal how PAR-1 and PAR-2 on tumor cells mediate crosstalk between coagulation and fibrinolysis. PMID:20736455

  6. Protease-activated receptors mediate crosstalk between coagulation and fibrinolysis

    PubMed Central

    McEachron, Troy A.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Richards, Kristy L.; Church, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    The coagulation and fibrinolytic systems contribute to malignancy by increasing angiogenesis, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor metastasis. Oncogenic transformation increases the expression of tissue factor (TF) that results in local generation of coagulation proteases and activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2. We compared the PAR-dependent expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in 2 murine mammary adencocarcinoma cell lines: metastatic 4T1 cells and nonmetastatic 67NR cells. 4T1 cells expressed TF, PAR-1 and PAR-2 whereas 67NR cells expressed TF and PAR-1. We also silenced PAR-1 or PAR-2 expression in the 4T1 cells. We discovered 2 distinct mechanisms for PAR-dependent expression of uPA and PAI-1. First, we found that factor Xa or thrombin activation of PAR-1 led to a rapid release of stored intracellular uPA into the culture supernatant. Second, thrombin transactivation of a PAR-1/PAR-2 complex resulted in increases in PAI-1 mRNA and protein expression. Cells lacking PAR-2 failed to express PAI-1 in response to thrombin and factor Xa did not activate the PAR-1/PAR-2 complex. Our results reveal how PAR-1 and PAR-2 on tumor cells mediate crosstalk between coagulation and fibrinolysis. PMID:20736455

  7. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  8. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. Methods We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Results Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen® and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (UK, Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the USA, Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. Conclusion These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen® and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. Résumé Objectif Chez l'homme, le processus de perte de cheveux, désigné comme exog

  9. Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

    2011-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and α-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 μmo l min−1 g−1) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally. PMID:21909232

  10. Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Holmes, Shaletha

    2011-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and α-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 μmo l min(-1) g(-1)) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally. PMID:21909232

  11. MOFzyme: Intrinsic protease-like activity of Cu-MOF.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Chen, Daomei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Yan, Zhiying; Jiang, Liang; Deliang Duan; He, Jiao; Luo, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jinping; Yuan, Fagui

    2014-01-01

    The construction of efficient enzyme mimetics for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins is challenging due to the high stability of peptide bonds and the importance of proteases in biology and industry. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of infinite crystalline lattices with metal clusters and organic linkers may provide opportunities for protease mimic which has remained unknown. Herein, we report that Cu₂(C₉H₃O₆)₄/₃ MOF (which is well known as HKUST-1 and denoted as Cu-MOF here), possesses an intrinsic enzyme mimicking activity similar to that found in natural trypsin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and casein. The Michaelis constant (Km) of Cu-MOF is about 26,000-fold smaller than that of free trypsin indicating a much higher affinity of BSA for Cu-MOF surface. Cu-MOF also exhibited significantly higher catalytic efficiency than homogeneous artificial metalloprotease Cu(II) complexes and could be reused for ten times without losing in its activity. Moreover, Cu-MOF was successfully used to simulate trypsinization in cell culture since it dissociated cells in culture even without EDTA. PMID:25342169

  12. MOFzyme: Intrinsic protease-like activity of Cu-MOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Chen, Daomei; Wang, Jiaqiang; Yan, Zhiying; Jiang, Liang; Deliang Duan; He, Jiao; Luo, Zhongrui; Zhang, Jinping; Yuan, Fagui

    2014-10-01

    The construction of efficient enzyme mimetics for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins is challenging due to the high stability of peptide bonds and the importance of proteases in biology and industry. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) consisting of infinite crystalline lattices with metal clusters and organic linkers may provide opportunities for protease mimic which has remained unknown. Herein, we report that Cu2(C9H3O6)4/3 MOF (which is well known as HKUST-1 and denoted as Cu-MOF here), possesses an intrinsic enzyme mimicking activity similar to that found in natural trypsin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and casein. The Michaelis constant (Km) of Cu-MOF is about 26,000-fold smaller than that of free trypsin indicating a much higher affinity of BSA for Cu-MOF surface. Cu-MOF also exhibited significantly higher catalytic efficiency than homogeneous artificial metalloprotease Cu(II) complexes and could be reused for ten times without losing in its activity. Moreover, Cu-MOF was successfully used to simulate trypsinization in cell culture since it dissociated cells in culture even without EDTA.

  13. Antimalarial activity of HIV-1 protease inhibitor in chromone series.

    PubMed

    Lerdsirisuk, Pradith; Maicheen, Chirattikan; Ungwitayatorn, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Increasing parasite resistance to nearly all available antimalarial drugs becomes a serious problem to human health and necessitates the need to continue the search for new effective drugs. Recent studies have shown that clinically utilized HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitors can inhibit the in vitro and in vivo growth of Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, a series of chromone derivatives possessing HIV-1 PR inhibitory activity has been tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum (K1 multi-drug resistant strain). Chromone 15, the potent HIV-1 PR inhibitor (IC50=0.65μM), was found to be the most potent antimalarial compound with IC50=0.95μM while primaquine and tafenoquine showed IC50=2.41 and 1.95μM, respectively. Molecular docking study of chromone compounds against plasmepsin II, an aspartic protease enzyme important in hemoglobin degradation, revealed that chromone 15 exhibited the higher binding affinity (binding energy=-13.24kcal/mol) than the known PM II inhibitors. Thus, HIV-1 PR inhibitor in chromone series has the potential to be a new class of antimalarial agent. PMID:25462990

  14. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  15. Comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among fruits and vegetable resources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Qiao-Juan; Jiang, Zheng-Qiang

    2016-12-15

    In this study, a comparative analysis on the distribution of protease activities among 90 plant resources, including fruits and vegetables, has been performed. Protease activities of plant extracts were assayed at different pH values (pH 3.0, pH 7.5 and pH 10.5) using casein as a substrate. Ten fruits and thirteen vegetables show protease activities above 10U/g. Pineapple, fig and papaya, which are used for commercial protease production, exhibited high protease activities. Additionally, high protease activities were detected in kiwifruit (28.8U/g), broccoli (16.9U/g), ginger (16.6U/g), leek (32.7U/g) and red pepper (15.8U/g) at different pH values. SDS-PAGE and zymograms confirmed that various types of proteases existed in the five plant extracts and might be explored. Furthermore, five plant extracts were treated by different protease inhibitors. These results show that there are still many plant resources unexplored, which may be promising candidates for plant-derived protease production. PMID:27451238

  16. Role of conserved cysteine residues in Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA activity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marco A S; Baura, Valter A; Aquino, Bruno; Huergo, Luciano F; Kadowaki, Marco A S; Chubatsu, Leda S; Souza, Emanuel M; Dixon, Ray; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Wassem, Roseli; Monteiro, Rose A

    2009-01-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that associates with economically important crops. NifA protein, the transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, binds to nif promoters and, together with RNA polymerase-sigma(54) holoenzyme, catalyzes the formation of open complexes to allow transcription initiation. The activity of H. seropedicae NifA is controlled by ammonium and oxygen levels, but the mechanisms of such control are unknown. Oxygen sensitivity is attributed to a conserved motif of cysteine residues in NifA that spans the central AAA+ domain and the interdomain linker that connects the AAA+ domain to the C-terminal DNA binding domain. Here we mutagenized this conserved motif of cysteines and assayed the activity of mutant proteins in vivo. We also purified the mutant variants of NifA and tested their capacity to bind to the nifB promoter region. Chimeric proteins between H. seropedicae NifA, an oxygen-sensitive protein, and Azotobacter vinelandii NifA, an oxygen-tolerant protein, were constructed and showed that the oxygen response is conferred by the central AAA+ and C-terminal DNA binding domains of H. seropedicae NifA. We conclude that the conserved cysteine motif is essential for NifA activity, although single cysteine-to-serine mutants are still competent at binding DNA. PMID:19573596

  17. HIGH-THROUGHPUT IDENTIFICATION OF CATALYTIC REDOX-ACTIVE CYSTEINE RESIDUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cysteine (Cys) residues often play critical roles in proteins; however, identification of their specific functions has been limited to case-by-case experimental approaches. We developed a procedure for high-throughput identification of catalytic redox-active Cys in proteins by se...

  18. Coupling of epithelial Na+ and Cl− channels by direct and indirect activation by serine proteases

    PubMed Central

    Gondzik, Veronika; Weber, Wolf Michael

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian collecting duct (CD) is continuously exposed to urinary proteases. The CD expresses an epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) that is activated after cleavage by serine proteases. ENaC also exists at the plasma membrane in the uncleaved form, rendering activation by extracellular proteases an important mechanism for regulating Na+ transport. Many exogenous and a small number of endogenous extracellular serine proteases have been shown to activate the channel. Recently, kallikrein 1 (KLK1) was shown to increase γENaC cleavage in the native CD indicating a possible direct role of this endogenous protease in Na+ homeostasis. To explore this process, we examined the coordinated effect of this protease on Na+ and Cl− transport in a polarized renal epithelial cell line (Madin-Darby canine kidney). We also examined the role of native urinary proteases in this process. Short-circuit current (Isc) was used to measure transport of these ions. The Isc exhibited an ENaC-dependent Na+ component that was amiloride blockable and a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent Cl− component that was blocked by inhibitor 172. Apical application of trypsin, an exogenous S1 serine protease, activated IENaC but was without effects on ICFTR. Subtilisin an exogenous S8 protease that mimics endogenous furin-type proteases activated both currents. A similar activation was also observed with KLK1 and native rat urinary proteases. Activation with urinary proteases occurred within minutes and at protease concentrations similar to those in the CD indicating physiological significance of this process. ENaC activation was irreversible and mediated by enhanced cleavage of γENaC. The activation of CFTR was indirect and likely dependent on activation of an endogenous apical membrane protease receptor. Collectively, these data demonstrate coordinated stimulation of separate Na+ and Cl− transport pathways in renal epithelia by extracellular luminal proteases. They

  19. Kallikrein Promotes Inflammation in Human Dental Pulp Cells Via Protease-Activated Receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Tomomi; Kamio, Naoto; Okabe, Tatsu; Muromachi, Koichiro; Matsushima, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Plasma kallikrein (KLKB1), a serine protease, cleaves high-molecular weight kininogen to produce bradykinin, a potent vasodilator and pro-inflammatory peptide. In addition, KLKB1 activates plasminogen and other leukocyte and blood coagulation factors and processes pro-enkephalin, prorenin, and C3. KLKB1 has also been shown to cleave protease-activated receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells to regulate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. In this study, we investigated KLKB1-dependent inflammation and activation of protease-activated receptor-1 in human dental pulp cells. These cells responded to KLKB1 stimulation by increasing intracellular Ca(2+) , upregulating cyclooxygenase-2, and secreting prostaglandin E2 . Remarkably, SCH79797, an antagonist of protease-activated receptor-1, blocked these effects. Thus, these data indicate that KLKB1 induces inflammatory reactions in human dental tissues via protease-activated receptor 1. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1522-1528, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26566265

  20. Design of Protease Activated Optical Contrast Agents That Exploit a Latent Lysosomotropic Effect for Use in Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new molecular-guided contrast agents to enhance surgical procedures such as tumor resection that require a high degree of precision. Cysteine cathepsins are highly up-regulated in a wide variety of cancers, both in tumor cells and in the tumor-supporting cells of the surrounding stroma. Therefore, tools that can be used to dynamically monitor their activity in vivo could be used as imaging contrast agents for intraoperative fluorescence image guided surgery (FGS). Although multiple classes of cathepsin-targeted substrate probes have been reported, most suffer from overall fast clearance from sites of protease activation, leading to reduced signal intensity and duration in vivo. Here we describe the design and synthesis of a series of near-infrared fluorogenic probes that exploit a latent cationic lysosomotropic effect (LLE) to promote cellular retention upon protease activation. These probes show tumor-specific retention, fast activation kinetics, and rapid systemic distribution. We demonstrate that they are suitable for detection of diverse cancer types including breast, colon and lung tumors. Most importantly, the agents are compatible with the existing, FDA approved, da Vinci surgical system for fluorescence guided tumor resection. Therefore, our data suggest that the probes reported here can be used with existing clinical instrumentation to detect tumors and potentially other types of inflammatory lesions to guide surgical decision making in real time. PMID:26039341

  1. Brain Pyroglutamate Amyloid-Beta is Produced by Cathepsin B and is Reduced by the Cysteine Protease Inhibitor E64d, Representing a Potential Alzheimer’s Disease Therapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Gregory; Yu, Jin; Toneff, Thomas; Kindy, Mark; Hook, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Pyroglutamate amyloid-β peptides (pGlu-Aβ) are particularly pernicious forms of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) present in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains. pGlu-Aβ peptides are N-terminally truncated forms of full-length Aβ peptides (flAβ(1-40/42)) in which the N-terminal glutamate is cyclized to pyroglutamate to generate pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42). β-secretase cleavage of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) produces flAβ(1-40/42), but it is not yet known whether the β-secretase BACE1 or the alternative β-secretase cathepsin B (CatB) participate in the production of pGlu-Aβ. Therefore, this study examined the effects of gene knockout of these proteases on brain pGlu-Aβ levels in transgenic AβPPLon mice, which express AβPP isoform 695 and have the wild-type (wt) β-secretase activity found in most AD patients. Knockout or overexpression of the CatB gene reduced or increased, respectively, pGlu-Aβ(3-40/42), flAβ(1-40/42), and pGlu-Aβ plaque load, but knockout of the BACE1 gene had no effect on those parameters in the transgenic mice. Treatment of AβPPLon mice with E64d, a cysteine protease inhibitor of CatB, also reduced brain pGlu-Aβ(3-42), flAβ(1-40/42), and pGlu-Aβ plaque load. Treatment of neuronal-like chromaffin cells with CA074Me, an inhibitor of CatB, resulted in reduced levels of pGlu-Aβ(3-40) released from the activity-dependent, regulated secretory pathway. Moreover, CatB knockout and E64d treatment has been previously shown to improve memory deficits in the AβPPLon mice. These data illustrate the role of CatB in producing pGlu-Aβ and flAβ that participate as key factors in the development of AD. The advantages of CatB inhibitors, especially E64d and its derivatives, as alternatives to BACE1 inhibitors in treating AD patients are discussed. PMID:24595198

  2. Protease inhibitors decrease IgG shedding from Staphylococcus aureus, increasing complement activation and phagocytosis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Falcon, Maria F; Echague, Charlene G; Hair, Pamela S; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Cunnion, Kenji M

    2011-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen for immunologically intact humans and its pathogenesis is a model system for evasion of host defences. Antibodies and complement are essential elements of the humoral immune system for prevention and control of S. aureus infections. The specific hypothesis for the proposed research is that S. aureus modifies humoral host defences by cleaving IgG that has bound to the bacterial surface, thereby inhibiting opsonophagocytosis. S. aureus was coated with pooled, purified human IgG and assayed for the shedding of cleaved IgG fragments using ELISA and Western blot analysis. Surface-bound IgG was shed efficiently from S. aureus in the absence of host blood proteins. Broad-spectrum protease inhibitors prevented cleavage of IgG from the S. aureus surface, suggesting that staphylococcal proteases are responsible for IgG cleavage. Serine protease inhibitors and cysteine protease inhibitors decreased the cleavage of surface-bound IgG; however, a metalloprotease inhibitor had no effect. Using protease inhibitors to prevent the cleavage of surface-bound IgG increased the binding of complement C3 fragments on the surface of S. aureus, increased the association with human neutrophils and increased phagocytosis by human neutrophils. PMID:21636671

  3. Proteinaceous protease inhibitor from Lawsonia inermis: purification, characterization and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Dabhade, Arvind; Patel, Priti; Pati, Ulhas

    2013-10-01

    A thermo-stable, proteinaceous protease inhibitor (LPI) from Lawsonia inermis is reported. The LPI was purified from Lawsonia inermis seeds by subsequent ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Cellulose) and gel permeation chromatography (Sephadex-50). The purified protease inhibitor is effective against a wide range of proteases viz. papain, trypsin, pepsin and metallo-protease. The apparent molecular weight of the protease inhibitor is 19 kDa, determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The protease inhibitor was found to be stable at 70 degrees C for 30 min. It was also examined for antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7926 and Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 2079; the IC50 values of the purified LPI were 11.4 microg/mL and 16.6 microg/mL respectively. PMID:24354203

  4. The group A streptococcal dipeptide permease (Dpp) is involved in the uptake of essential amino acids and affects the expression of cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Podbielski, A; Leonard, B A

    1998-06-01

    The majority of characterized bacterial dipeptide permeases (Dpp) are membrane-associated complexes of five proteins belonging to the ABC-transporter family. They have been found to be involved in the uptake of essential amino acids, haem production, chemotaxis and sporulation. A 5.8 kb genomic DNA fragment of the serotype M49 group A streptococcal (GAS) strain CS101 was sequenced and found to contain five putative GAS Dpp genes (dppA to dppE). Deduced amino acid sequences exhibited 17-54% similarity to corresponding ABC-transporter sequences. The operon organization of the five genes was confirmed by transcriptional analysis, and a shorter, more abundant, dppA-only transcript was detected similar to that found in the GAS oligopeptide permease (Opp) system. Insertional inactivation was used to create serotype M2 and M49 strains that did not express the dppD and dppEATPase genes or nearly the entire operon. In feeding experiments with di- to hexapeptides, the wild-type strain grew with each peptide tested. The dpp mutants were unable to grow on dipeptides, whereas hexapeptides did not sustain the growth of opp mutants. Expression of the dpp operon was induced approximately fourfold in late exponential growth phase. In addition, a striking increase in the dppA to dppA-E ratio from 5:1 to more than 20:1 occurred during late exponential growth phase in complex medium. Growth in chemically defined medium (CDM) supplemented with various dipeptides specifically induced the expression of dpp and reduced both the dppA to dppA-E and oppA to oppA-F mRNA ratios. Expression of the virulence factor SpeB (major cysteine protease) was reduced eightfold in dpp mutants, whereas dpp expression was decreased about fourfold in a Mga virulence regulator mutant. Taken together, these data indicate a correlation between levels of intracellular essential amino acids and the regulation of virulence factor expression. PMID:9680220

  5. Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Leishmania infantum in canine leishmaniasis based on cysteine protease B genes.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Melek; Mhadhbi, Moez; Adams, Emily R; Schoone, Gerard J; Limam, Sassi; Gharbi, Zyneb; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz; Guizani, Ikram; BenAbderrazak, Souha

    2013-11-15

    We developed a Leishmania infantum specific LAMP assay that was carried out using a set of, six primers targeting the cysteine protease B multi copy gene of L. infantum. Our result shows that we, successfully detect the L. infantum DNA and that amplification is specific as no cross reaction was seen, with L. major, L. tropica, L. turanica, L. aethiopica, L. tarentolae, L. gerbilii, Trypanosoma cruzi or, human genomic DNA. When compared to conventional cpb based PCR, the sensitivity of LAMP assay, was higher with a detection limit of 50 fg/μl of genomic L. infantum parasite DNA. Accurate and rapid, diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is an important issue that allows early treatment and, prevents transmission. Our developed LAMP assay was used to evaluate occurrences of Leishmania infantum in seventy five (75) dogs from the field. Blood samples were used to perform LAMP assay, classical PCR, IFAT and microscopy that was used as gold standard. The IFAT in addition to, microscopy, are the basic techniques used for CanL diagnosis at the School of Veterinary Medicine, where we obtained our samples. Compared to molecular methods, the serology (IFAT) test shows the, best sensitivity (88.57%) with, however, a much lower specificity (52.5%) due to a relatively high, number of false-positive results (22 animals). The PCR assay shows a low sensitivity (37.14%) and, specificity around (82.5%). Our LAMP assay shows a suitable sensitivity (54%) and a good specificity, (80%), with however, positive (70%) and negative (66%) predictive values. Furthermore, the best, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was obtained by LAMP assay (2.7). This technique presents the highest, kappa value (with a fair agreement of 0.34). Moreover, the relative stability of the reagents indicates, that LAMP may be a good alternative to a conventional PCR, especially under field conditions. Finally in, a brief cost evaluation, the LAMP assay compares favorably with other molecular diagnostic tests. This

  6. Delay of Iris flower senescence by protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pak, Caroline; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2005-02-01

    Visible senescence of the flag tepals in Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) was preceded by a large increase in endoprotease activity. Just before visible senescence about half of total endoprotease activity was apparently due to cysteine proteases, somewhat less than half to serine proteases, with a minor role of metalloproteases. Treatment of isolated tepals with the purported serine protease inhibitors AEBSF [4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride] or DFP (diisopropyl-fluorophosphate) prevented the increase in endoprotease activity and considerably delayed or prevented the normal senescence symptoms. The specific cysteine protease-specific E-64d reduced maximum endoprotease activity by 30%, but had no effect on the time to visible senescence. Zinc chloride and aprotinin reduced maximum endoprotease activity by c. 50 and 40%, respectively, and slightly delayed visible senescence. A proteasome inhibitor (Z-leu-leu-Nva-H) slightly delayed tepal senescence, which indicates that protein degradation in the proteasome may play a role in induction of the visible senescence symptoms. It is concluded that visible senescence is preceded by large-scale protein degradation, which is apparently mainly due to cysteine- and serine protease activity, and that two (unspecific) inhibitors of serine proteases considerably delay the senescence symptoms. PMID:15720658

  7. The role of cysteine in the alteration of bovine liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 3 activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nanjo, H; Adachi, H; Aketa, M; Mizoguchi, T; Nishihara, T; Terada, T

    1995-01-01

    Bovine liver NADP(+)-dependent dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD3) is extremely sensitive to SH reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). NEM produced time- and concentration-dependent inactivation of DD3 in a pseudo-first-order reaction manner. This inactivation was prevented by NADP+, 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, 2',5'-ADP and 2'-AMP but not by substrates, NAD+, nicotinamide mononucleotide or 5'-ADP.DD3 was absorbed by an affinity column of thiopropyl-Sepharose 6B, but enzyme incubated with both NEM and NADP+ was not. Moreover, one [14C]NEM molecule was incorporated into a cysteine of DD3 in the presence, and two cysteines of DD3 in the absence, of NADP+. These results suggested that two cysteine residues were modified per enzyme molecule by NEM, one was protected by NADP+ and the other had no significant function for the enzyme activity. Two radiolabelled peptides (P1 and P2) produced by the digestion with lysyl endopeptidase of [14C]NEM-modified DD3 could be separated by reverse-phase HPLC. P1, which was radiolabelled by [14C]NEM only in the absence of NADP+, showed the following sequence; H2N-Tyr-Lys-Pro-Val-Xaa-Asn-Gln-Val-Glu- NEM.Cys-His-Pro-Tyr-Phe-Asn-Gln-Ser-Lys-COOH (Xaa indicates a possible cysteine residue). This sequence was very similar to that of rat liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (3 alpha-HSD/DD) (residues 184 to 201) and was also highly conserved in the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. The sequence of P2, which had radioactivity in both the absence and presence of NADP+, also contained an NEM-modified cysteine and was similar in sequence to the regions located in loop A of rat 3 alpha-HSD/DD. The present study suggests that P1, which may have a cysteine residue corresponding to Cys-193 of rat 3 alpha-HSD/DD, functions in the alteration of DD3 activity depending on the modulation of NADP(+)-binding ability through a thiol/disulphide exchange reaction similar to that of

  8. Protease inhibitors targeting coronavirus and filovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H; Renslo, Adam R; Simmons, Graham

    2015-04-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  9. Insecticidal Activity of a Basement Membrane-Degrading Protease against Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease derived from the flesh fly Sarcophaga peregrina that functions in basement membrane (BM) remodeling during insect development. A recombinant baculovirus expressing ScathL (AcMLF9.ScathL) kills larvae of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, signific...

  10. Protease inhibitor from Moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative

    PubMed Central

    Bijina, B.; Chellappan, Sreeja; Krishna, Jissa G.; Basheer, Soorej M.; Elyas, K.K.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. Several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. In this study plants belonging to different families of Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Graminae and Moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. Among them Moringa oleifera, belonging to the family Moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. M. oleifera, which grows throughout most of the tropics and having several industrial and medicinal uses, was selected as a source of protease inhibitor since so far no reports were made on isolation of the protease inhibitor. Among the different parts of M. oleifera tested, the crude extract isolated from the mature leaves and seeds showed the highest level of inhibition against trypsin. Among the various extraction media evaluated, the crude extract prepared in phosphate buffer showed maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitor recorded high inhibitory activity toward the serine proteases thrombin, elastase, chymotrypsin and the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and papain which have more importance in pharmaceutical industry. The protease inhibitor also showed complete inhibition of activities of the commercially available proteases of Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. However, inhibitory activities toward subtilisin, esperase, pronase E and proteinase K were negligible. Further, it was found that the protease inhibitor could prevent proteolysis in a commercially valuable shrimp Penaeus monodon during storage indicating the scope for its application as a seafood preservative. This is the first report on isolation of a protease inhibitor from M. oleifera. PMID:23961135

  11. Role of cysteine-58 and cysteine-95 residues in the thiol di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nikhil; Hoti, S L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is the first human cytokine reported and was thought to have a central role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Homologs of this molecule have been reported in bacteria, invertebrates and plants. Apart from cytokine activity, it also has two catalytic activities viz., tautomerase and di-sulfide oxidoreductase, which appear to be involved in immunological functions. The CXXC catalytic site is responsible for di-sulfide oxidoreductase activity of MIF. We have recently reported thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor-2 of Wuchereria bancrofti (Wba-MIF-2), although it lacks the CXXC motif. We hypothesized that three conserved cysteine residues might be involved in the formation of di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic site. Homology modeling of Wba-MIF-2 showed that among the three cysteine residues, Cys58 and Cys95 residues came in close proximity (3.23Å) in the tertiary structure with pKa value 9, indicating that these residues might play a role in the di-sulfide oxidoreductase catalytic activity. We carried out site directed mutagenesis of these residues (Cys58Ser & Cys95Ser) and expressed mutant proteins in Escherichia coli. The mutant proteins did not show any oxidoreductase activity in the insulin reduction assay, thus indicating that these two cysteine residues are vital for the catalytic activity of Wba-MIF-2. PMID:26432350

  12. Cysteine redox sensor in PKGIa enables oxidant-induced activation.

    PubMed

    Burgoyne, Joseph R; Madhani, Melanie; Cuello, Friederike; Charles, Rebecca L; Brennan, Jonathan P; Schröder, Ewald; Browning, Darren D; Eaton, Philip

    2007-09-01

    Changes in the concentration of oxidants in cells can regulate biochemical signaling mechanisms that control cell function. We have found that guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) functions directly as a redox sensor. The Ialpha isoform, PKGIalpha, formed an interprotein disulfide linking its two subunits in cells exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide. This oxidation directly activated the kinase in vitro, and in rat cells and tissues. The affinity of the kinase for substrates it phosphorylates was enhanced by disulfide formation. This oxidation-induced activation represents an alternate mechanism for regulation along with the classical activation involving nitric oxide and cGMP. This mechanism underlies cGMP-independent vasorelaxation in response to oxidants in the cardiovascular system and provides a molecular explantion for how hydrogen peroxide can operate as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. PMID:17717153

  13. Intestinal Protease-Activated Receptor-2 and Fecal Serine Protease Activity are Increased in Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease and May Contribute to Intestinal Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    MAEDA, Shingo; OHNO, Koichi; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; IGARASHI, Hirotaka; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; FUJINO, Yasuhito; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serine proteases elicit cellular responses via protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) which is known to regulate inflammation and the immune response. Although the gastrointestinal tract is exposed to large amounts of proteolytic enzymes, the role of PAR-2 in canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PAR-2 activation on inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in canine intestine and the expression of intestinal PAR-2 and fecal serine protease activity in dogs with IBD. Duodenal biopsies from healthy dogs were cultured and treated ex vivo with trypsin or PAR-2 agonist peptide, and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in the tissues was then quantified by real-time PCR. PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the duodenal mucosa were examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Fecal serine protease activity was determined by azocasein assay. In ex vivo-cultured duodenum, trypsin and PAR-2 agonist peptide induced significant up-regulation of mRNA expression levels of interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-8, mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC) and fractalkine, and this up-regulation was inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor. Duodenal PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were higher in dogs with IBD than in healthy control dogs. Fecal serine protease activity was significantly elevated in dogs with IBD, and the level of activity correlated positively with the clinical severity score. These results suggest that PAR-2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of canine IBD by inducing expression of inflammatory mediators in response to luminal serine proteases. PMID:24829081

  14. Protease inhibitor in scorpion (Mesobuthus eupeus) venom prolongs the biological activities of the crude venom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hakim; Xiao-Peng, Tang; Yang, Shi-Long; Lu, Qiu-Min; Lai, Ren

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that protease inhibitors play an essential role in survival of venomous animals through protecting peptide/protein toxins from degradation by proteases in their prey or predators. However, the biological function of protease inhibitors in scorpion venoms remains unknown. In the present study, a trypsin inhibitor was purified and characterized from the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which enhanced the biological activities of crude venom components in mice when injected in combination with crude venom. This protease inhibitor, named MeKTT-1, belonged to Kunitz-type toxins subfamily. Native MeKTT-1 selectively inhibited trypsin with a Kivalue of 130 nmol·L(-1). Furthermore, MeKTT-1 was shown to be a thermo-stable peptide. In animal behavioral tests, MeKTT-1 prolonged the pain behavior induced by scorpion crude venom, suggesting that protease inhibitors in scorpion venom inhibited proteases and protect the functionally important peptide/protein toxins from degradation, consequently keeping them active longer. In conclusion, this was the first experimental evidence about the natural existence of serine protease inhibitor in the venom of scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus, which preserved the activity of venom components, suggests that scorpions may use protease inhibitors for survival. PMID:27608950

  15. Nitrated Fatty Acids Reverse Cigarette Smoke-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Inhibit Protease Activity via Electrophilic S-Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aravind T.; Lakshmi, Sowmya P.; Muchumarri, Ramamohan R.; Reddy, Raju C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), endogenous products of nonenzymatic reactions of NO-derived reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit substantial anti-inflammatory activities. They are both reversible electrophiles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, but the physiological implications of their electrophilic activity are poorly understood. We tested their effects on inflammatory and emphysema-related biomarkers in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of smoke-exposed mice. NFA (10-nitro-oleic acid or 12-nitrolinoleic acid) treatment downregulated expression and activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB while upregulating those of PPARγ. It also downregulated production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and of the protease cathepsin S (Cat S), a key mediator of emphysematous septal destruction. Cat S downregulation was accompanied by decreased AM elastolytic activity, a major mechanism of septal destruction. NFAs downregulated both Cat S expression and activity in AMs of wild-type mice, but only inhibited its activity in AMs of PPARγ knockout mice, pointing to a PPARγ-independent mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We hypothesized that this mechanism was electrophilic S-alkylation of target Cat S cysteines, and found that NFAs bind directly to Cat S following treatment of intact AMs and, as suggested by in silico modeling and calculation of relevant parameters, elicit S-alkylation of Cys25 when incubated with purified Cat S. These results demonstrate that NFAs’ electrophilic activity, in addition to their role as PPARγ agonists, underlies their protective effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and support their therapeutic potential in this disease. PMID:27119365

  16. Cystalysin, a 46-kilodalton cysteine desulfhydrase from Treponema denticola, with hemolytic and hemoxidative activities.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, L; Ebersole, J L; Kurzban, G P; Holt, S C

    1997-01-01

    A 46-kDa hemolytic protein, referred to as cystalysin, from Treponema denticola ATCC 35404 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli LC-67. Both the native and recombinant 46-kDa proteins were purified to homogeneity. Both proteins expressed identical biological and functional characteristics. In addition to its biological function of lysing erythrocytes and hemoxidizing the hemoglobin to methemoglobin, cystalysin was also capable of removing the sulfhydryl and amino groups from selected S-containing compounds (e.g., cysteine) producing H2S, NH3, and pyruvate. This cysteine desulfhydrase resulted in the following Michaelis-Menten kinetics: Km = 3.6 mM and k(cat) = 12 s(-1). Cystathionine and S-aminoethyl-L-cysteine were also substrates for the protein. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the end products revealed NH3, pyruvate, homocysteine (from cystathionine), and cysteamine (from S-aminoethyl-L-cysteine). The enzyme was active over a broad pH range, with highest activity at pH 7.8 to 8.0. The enzymatic activity was increased by beta-mercaptoethanol. It was not inhibited by the proteinase inhibitor TLCK (N alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone), pronase, or proteinase K, suggesting that the functional site was physically protected or located in a small fragment of the polypeptide. We hypothesize that cystalysin is a pyridoxal-5-phosphate-containing enzyme, with activity of an alphaC-N and betaC-S lyase (cystathionase) type. Since large amounts of H2S have been reported in deep periodontal pockets, cystalysin may also function in vivo as an important virulence molecule. PMID:9234780

  17. Thrombin stimulates insulin secretion via protease-activated receptor-3

    PubMed Central

    Hänzelmann, Sonja; Wang, Jinling; Güney, Emre; Tang, Yunzhao; Zhang, Enming; Axelsson, Annika S; Nenonen, Hannah; Salehi, Albert S; Wollheim, Claes B; Zetterberg, Eva; Berntorp, Erik; Costa, Ivan G; Castelo, Robert; Rosengren, Anders H

    2015-01-01

    The disease mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain poorly defined. Here we aimed to explore the pathophysiology of T2D by analyzing gene co-expression networks in human islets. Using partial correlation networks we identified a group of co-expressed genes (‘module’) including F2RL2 that was associated with glycated hemoglobin. F2Rl2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that encodes protease-activated receptor-3 (PAR3). PAR3 is cleaved by thrombin, which exposes a 6-amino acid sequence that acts as a ‘tethered ligand’ to regulate cellular signaling. We have characterized the effect of PAR3 activation on insulin secretion by static insulin secretion measurements, capacitance measurements, studies of diabetic animal models and patient samples. We demonstrate that thrombin stimulates insulin secretion, an effect that was prevented by an antibody that blocks the thrombin cleavage site of PAR3. Treatment with a peptide corresponding to the PAR3 tethered ligand stimulated islet insulin secretion and single β-cell exocytosis by a mechanism that involves activation of phospholipase C and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Moreover, we observed that the expression of tissue factor, which regulates thrombin generation, was increased in human islets from T2D donors and associated with enhanced β-cell exocytosis. Finally, we demonstrate that thrombin generation potential in patients with T2D was associated with increased fasting insulin and insulinogenic index. The findings provide a previously unrecognized link between hypercoagulability and hyperinsulinemia and suggest that reducing thrombin activity or blocking PAR3 cleavage could potentially counteract the exaggerated insulin secretion that drives insulin resistance and β-cell exhaustion in T2D. PMID:26742564

  18. A Covalent Cysteine-Targeting Kinase Inhibitor of Ire1 Permits Allosteric Control of Endoribonuclease Activity.

    PubMed

    Waller, Daniel D; Jansen, Gregor; Golizeh, Makan; Martel-Lorion, Chloe; Dejgaard, Kurt; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Mancuso, John; Tsantrizos, Youla S; Roy, René; Sebag, Michael; Sleno, Lekha; Thomas, David Y

    2016-05-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) initiated by the transmembrane kinase/ribonuclease Ire1 has been implicated in a variety of diseases. Ire1, with its unique position in the UPR, is an ideal target for the development of therapies; however, the identification of specific kinase inhibitors is challenging. Recently, the development of covalent inhibitors has gained great momentum because of the irreversible deactivation of the target. We identified and determined the mechanism of action of the Ire1-inhibitory compound UPRM8. MS analysis revealed that UPRM8 inhibition occurs by covalent adduct formation at a conserved cysteine at the regulatory DFG+2 position in the Ire1 kinase activation loop. Mutational analysis of the target cysteine residue identified both UPRM8-resistant and catalytically inactive Ire1 mutants. We describe a novel covalent inhibition mechanism of UPRM8, which can serve as a lead for the rational design and optimization of inhibitors of human Ire1. PMID:26792008

  19. Cysteine Sulfenylation Directs IRE-1 to Activate the SKN-1/Nrf2 Antioxidant Response.

    PubMed

    Hourihan, John M; Moronetti Mazzeo, Lorenza E; Fernández-Cárdenas, L Paulette; Blackwell, T Keith

    2016-08-18

    Emerging evidence suggests that many proteins may be regulated through cysteine modification, but the extent and functions of this signaling remain largely unclear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein IRE-1 maintains ER homeostasis by initiating the unfolded protein response (UPR(ER)). Here we show in C. elegans and human cells that IRE-1 has a distinct redox-regulated function in cytoplasmic homeostasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated at the ER or by mitochondria sulfenylate a cysteine within the IRE-1 kinase activation loop. This inhibits the IRE-1-mediated UPR(ER) and initiates the p38/SKN-1(Nrf2) antioxidant response, thereby increasing stress resistance and lifespan. Many AGC-family kinases (AKT, p70S6K, PKC, ROCK1) seem to be regulated similarly. The data reveal that IRE-1 has an ancient function as a cytoplasmic sentinel that activates p38 and SKN-1(Nrf2) and indicate that cysteine modifications induced by ROS signals can direct proteins to adopt unexpected functions and may coordinate many cellular processes. PMID:27540856

  20. S-Nitrosation of Conserved Cysteines Modulates Activity and Stability of S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase (GSNOR).

    PubMed

    Guerra, Damian; Ballard, Keith; Truebridge, Ian; Vierling, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The free radical nitric oxide (NO(•)) regulates diverse physiological processes from vasodilation in humans to gas exchange in plants. S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is considered a principal nitroso reservoir due to its chemical stability. GSNO accumulation is attenuated by GSNO reductase (GSNOR), a cysteine-rich cytosolic enzyme. Regulation of protein nitrosation is not well understood since NO(•)-dependent events proceed without discernible changes in GSNOR expression. Because GSNORs contain evolutionarily conserved cysteines that could serve as nitrosation sites, we examined the effects of treating plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), mammalian (human), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) GSNORs with nitrosating agents in vitro. Enzyme activity was sensitive to nitroso donors, whereas the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) restored activity, suggesting that catalytic impairment was due to S-nitrosation. Protein nitrosation was confirmed by mass spectrometry, by which mono-, di-, and trinitrosation were observed, and these signals were sensitive to DTT. GSNOR mutants in specific non-zinc-coordinating cysteines were less sensitive to catalytic inhibition by nitroso donors and exhibited reduced nitrosation signals by mass spectrometry. Nitrosation also coincided with decreased tryptophan fluorescence, increased thermal aggregation propensity, and increased polydispersity-properties reflected by differential solvent accessibility of amino acids important for dimerization and the shape of the substrate and coenzyme binding pockets as assessed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Collectively, these data suggest a mechanism for NO(•) signal transduction in which GSNOR nitrosation and inhibition transiently permit GSNO accumulation. PMID:27064847

  1. CS-AMPPred: An Updated SVM Model for Antimicrobial Activity Prediction in Cysteine-Stabilized Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Porto, William F.; Pires, Állan S.; Franco, Octavio L.

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been proposed as an alternative to control resistant pathogens. However, due to multifunctional properties of several AMP classes, until now there has been no way to perform efficient AMP identification, except through in vitro and in vivo tests. Nevertheless, an indication of activity can be provided by prediction methods. In order to contribute to the AMP prediction field, the CS-AMPPred (Cysteine-Stabilized Antimicrobial Peptides Predictor) is presented here, consisting of an updated version of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) model for antimicrobial activity prediction in cysteine-stabilized peptides. The CS-AMPPred is based on five sequence descriptors: indexes of (i) α-helix and (ii) loop formation; and averages of (iii) net charge, (iv) hydrophobicity and (v) flexibility. CS-AMPPred was based on 310 cysteine-stabilized AMPs and 310 sequences extracted from PDB. The polynomial kernel achieves the best accuracy on 5-fold cross validation (85.81%), while the radial and linear kernels achieve 84.19%. Testing in a blind data set, the polynomial and radial kernels achieve an accuracy of 90.00%, while the linear model achieves 89.33%. The three models reach higher accuracies than previously described methods. A standalone version of CS-AMPPred is available for download at and runs on any Linux machine. PMID:23240023

  2. S-nitrosation of conserved cysteines modulates activity and stability of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR)

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Damian; Ballard, Keith; Truebridge, Ian; Vierling, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The free radical nitric oxide (NO•) regulates diverse physiological processes from vasodilation in humans to gas exchange in plants. S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is considered a principal nitroso reservoir due to its chemical stability. GSNO accumulation is attenuated by GSNO reductase (GSNOR), a cysteine-rich cytosolic enzyme. Regulation of protein nitrosation is not well understood since NO•-dependent events proceed without discernible changes in GSNOR expression. Because GSNORs contain evolutionarily-conserved cysteines that could serve as nitrosation sites, we examined the effects of treating plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), mammalian (human), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) GSNORs with nitrosating agents in vitro. Enzyme activity was sensitive to nitroso donors, while the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) restored activity, suggesting catalytic impairment was due to S-nitrosation. Protein nitrosation was confirmed by mass spectrometry, by which mono-, di-, and tri-nitrosation were observed, and these signals were sensitive to DTT. GSNOR mutants in specific non-zinc coordinating cysteines were less sensitive to catalytic inhibition by nitroso donors and exhibited reduced nitrosation signals by mass spectrometry. Nitrosation also coincided with decreased tryptophan fluorescence, increased thermal aggregation propensity, and increased polydispersity—properties reflected by differential solvent accessibility of amino acids important for dimerization and the shape of the substrate and coenzyme binding pockets as assessed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Collectively, these data suggest a mechanism for NO• signal transduction in which GSNOR nitrosation and inhibition transiently permit GSNO accumulation. PMID:27064847

  3. Determination of the protease cleavage site repertoire—The RNase H but not the RT domain is essential for foamy viral protease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Spannaus, Ralf; Bodem, Jochen

    2014-04-15

    In contrast to orthoretroviruses, the foamy virus protease is only active as a protease-reverse transcriptase fusion protein and requires viral RNA for activation. Maturation of foamy viral proteins seems to be restricted to a single cleavage site in Gag and Pol. We provide evidence that unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity, which is unique among retroviruses. Analyses of the cleavage site sequences of the Gag and Pol cleavage sites revealed a high similarity compared to those of Lentiviruses. We show that positions P2' and P2 are invariant and that Gag and Pol cleavage sites are processed with similar efficiencies. The RNase H domain is essential for protease activity, but can functionally be substituted by RNase H domains of other retroviruses. Thus, the RNase H domain might be involved in the stabilization of the protease dimer, while the RT domain is essential for RNA dependent protease activation. - Highlights: • Unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity of foamy viruses. • Positions P2 and P2' are invariant in the foamy viral cleavage sites. • The RNaseH domain is essential for protease activity. • The RNaseH domains of other retroviruses support foamy viral protease activity.

  4. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease. PMID

  5. Copper inhibits the HIV-1 protease by both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstroem, A.R.; Levine, R.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The protease encoded by HIV-1 is essential for the processing of the viral polyproteins encoded by the gag and pol genes into mature viral proteins. Mutation or deletion of the protease gene blocks replication of the virus, making the protease an attractive target for antiviral therapy. The authors found that the HIV-1 protease is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of Cu{sup 2+}. Protease was 50% inhibited by exposure to 5 {mu}M copper for 5 min while exposure to 25 {mu}M caused complete inhibition. This inhibition was not oxygen-dependent and was not reversed by treatment with EDTA, presumably due to the slow off-rate of copper from the protease. Consistent with this interpretation, enzyme activity was recovered after denaturation and refolding of the copper exposed protease. Titration of the inactivated enzyme with Ellman's reagent demonstrated a loss of one of the two sulfhydryl groups present in the molecule, suggesting that copper inhibition was mediated through binding to a cysteine. This was confirmed in studies with a chemically synthesize, mutant protease in which the two cysteine residues were replaced by {alpha}-amino butyrate: The mutant protease was not inhibited by copper. However, both the wild-type and mutant protease were inactivated when exposed to copper, oxygen, and dithiothreitol. This inactivation required oxygen. Thus, the protease can also be inactivated by metal catalyzed oxidation (MCO), a presumably irreversible covalent modification.

  6. Selection of suitable detergents for obtaining an active dengue protease in its natural form from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liew, Lynette Sin Yee; Lee, Michelle Yueqi; Wong, Ying Lei; Cheng, Jinting; Li, Qingxin; Kang, CongBao

    2016-05-01

    Dengue protease is a two-component enzyme and is an important drug target against dengue virus. The protease activity and protein stability of dengue nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) require a co-factor region from a four-span membrane protein NS2B. A natural form of dengue protease containing full-length NS2B and NS3 protease domain NS2BFL-NS3pro will be useful for dengue drug discovery. In current study, detergents that can be used for protease purification were tested. Using a water soluble protease construct, 39 detergents were selected for both NS2B and NS2BFL-NS3pro purification. The results showed that 18 detergents were able to sustain the activity of the natural dengue protease and 11 detergents could be used for NS2B purification. The results obtained in this study will be useful for biochemical and biophysical studies on dengue protease. PMID:26849963

  7. Streptococcal cysteine proteinase releases biologically active fragments of streptococcal surface proteins.

    PubMed

    Berge, A; Björck, L

    1995-04-28

    Streptococcus pyogenes are important pathogenic bacteria which produce an extracellular cysteine proteinase contributing to their virulence and pathogenicity. S. pyogenes also express surface molecules, M proteins, that are major virulence determinants due to their antiphagocytic property. In the present work live S. pyogenes bacteria of the M1 serotype were incubated with purified cysteine proteinase. Several peptides were solubilized, and analysis of their protein-binding properties and amino acid sequences revealed two internal fibrinogen-binding fragments of M1 protein (17 and 21 kDa, respectively), and a 36-kDa IgG-binding NH2-terminal fragment of protein H, an IgGFc-binding surface molecule. M protein also plays a role in streptococcal adherence, and removal of this and other surface proteins could promote bacterial dissemination, whereas the generation of soluble complexes between immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin-binding streptococcal surface proteins could be an etiological factor in the development of glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Thus, in these serious complications to S. pyogenes infections immune complexes are found in affected organs. The cysteine proteinase also solubilized a 116-kDa internal fragment of C5a peptidase, another streptococcal surface protein. Activation of the complement system generates C5a, a peptide stimulating leukocyte chemotaxis. C5a-mediated granulocyte migration was blocked by the 116-kDa fragment. This mechanism, by which phagocytes could be prevented from reaching the site of infection, may also contribute to the pathogenicity and virulence of S. pyogenes. PMID:7730368

  8. Preliminary crystallographic studies of an anti-HIV-1 protease antibody that inhibits enzyme activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lescar, J.; Stouracova, R.; Riottot, M. M.; Chitarra, V.; Brynda, J.; Fabry, M.; Horejsi, M.; Sedlacek, J.; Bentley, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    F11.2.32, a monoclonal antibody directed against the HIV-1 protease, displays strong inhibitory effects toward the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The antibody cross-reacts with peptides 36-46 and 36-57 from the protease. Crystals of the Fab have been obtained both in the free state and as complexes formed with the protease peptide fragments, 36-46 and 36-57. Diffraction data have been collected for the free and complexed forms of Fab F11.2.32 and preliminary models for the crystal structures were obtained by molecular replacement. PMID:8732768

  9. Antithrombotic and Antioxidant Activity of Amaranth Hydrolysate Obtained by Activation of an Endogenous Protease.

    PubMed

    Sabbione, Ana Clara; Ibañez, Sabrina M; Martínez, E Nora; Añón, María Cristina; Scilingo, Adriana A

    2016-06-01

    Ingestion of diets with antithrombotic and antioxidant components offer a convenient and effective way to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present work was to obtain an amaranth hydrolysate by the activation of an endogenous aspartic protease, to establish adequate experimental conditions, and to evaluate its antithrombotic and antioxidant activity in order to assess its potential application as an ingredient in functional foods. The results obtained not only confirmed the presence of an endogenous protease in the amaranth isolate, but also allowed us to select an adequate incubation conditions (pH 2, 40 °C, 16 h). The hydrolysate obtained (degree of hydrolysis 5.3 ± 0.4 %) showed potential antithrombotic activity (IC50 = 5.9 ± 0.1 mg soluble protein/mL) and had more antioxidant activity than the isolate, indicating that the activation of the protease released bioactive peptides from amaranth proteins. Decreasing the pH is a simple and cheap process and is another way to obtain potential functional ingredients with bioactive compounds. PMID:27023251

  10. Purification of a 24-kD protease from apoptotic tumor cells that activates DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Wright, S C; Wei, Q S; Zhong, J; Zheng, H; Kinder, D H; Larrick, J W

    1994-12-01

    We report the purification of a protease from tumor cells undergoing apoptosis that is involved in activating DNA fragmentation. Initial studies revealed that two inhibitors of serine proteases, N-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethylchloromethyl ketone and carbobenzoxy-Ala-Ala-borophe (DK120), suppressed tumor necrosis factor or ultraviolet (UV) light-induced DNA fragmentation in the U937 histiocytic lymphoma as well as UV light-induced DNA fragmentation in the BT-20 breast carcinoma, HL-60 myelocytic leukemia, and 3T3 fibroblasts. The protease was purified by affinity chromatography with DK120 as ligand and showed high activity on a synthetic substrate preferred by elastase-like enzymes (Ala-Ala-Pro-Val p-nitroanilide), but was inactive on the trypsin substrate, N-alpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester, or the chymotrypsin substrate, Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide. The activity of the DK120-binding protease purified from U937 cells undergoing apoptosis was increased approximately 10-fold over that recovered from normal cells. Further purification to homogeneity by heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed a single band of 24 kD on a silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate gel. In addition to protease activity, the purified enzyme induced DNA fragmentation into multiples of 180 basepairs in isolated U937 nuclei. These findings suggest the 24-kD protease is a novel enzyme that activates DNA fragmentation in U937 cells undergoing apoptosis. PMID:7964487

  11. Purification and characterization of a prothrombin-activating protease from Nephila clavata.

    PubMed

    Joo, Han-Seung; Park, Gun-Chun; Cho, Woo Ri; Tak, Eunsik; Paik, Seung R; Chang, Chung-Soon

    2002-03-01

    We report upon the purification and characterization of a novel prothrombin-activating enzyme from the body fluid (total homogenates of isolated digestive tract without eggs, spinnerets and silk glands) of the spider, Nephila clavata by a combination of acetone fractionation, ion exchange, and Soybean trypsin inhibitor-Sepharose chromatography. Analysis of the purified enzyme with SDS-PAGE and gel filtration revealed a single polypeptide chain with an apparent molecular weight of 24kDa. The proteolytic activity of the enzyme was stable up to 50 degrees C, however, it became unstable over 55 degrees C. The enzyme had an optimum pH of 8, and Ca(2+) was not required for the enzyme activity. According to inhibition profiles obtained with several serine protease inhibitors such as PMSF and benzamidine, the purified protease is a member of the serine proteases. Bz-Ile-Glu(gamma-OR)- Gly-Arg-pNA and Z-Arg-Gly-Arg-pNA which are known as substrates for factor Xa, were hydrolyzed favorably by the enzyme. And the Nephila protease could produce thrombin from prothrombin at nM range, and form the turbid ring using fibrinogen-agarose plate. The results obtained confirmed that the purified protease is a potent prothrombin-activating activity belonging to the family of serine protease. PMID:11711126

  12. Strategies for detection and quantification of cysteine cathepsins-evolution from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Caroline S; Burden, Roberta E; Gilmore, Brendan F; Scott, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    The cysteine cathepsins are a family of closely related thiol proteases, normally found in the endosomal and lysosomal compartments of cells. A growing body of evidence has clearly linked the dysregulated activity of these proteases with many diseases and pathological conditions, offering therapeutic, prognostic and diagnostic potential. However, these proteases are synthesised as inactive precursors and once activated, are controlled by factors such as pH and presence of endogenous inhibitors, meaning that overall protein and activity levels do not necessarily correlate. In order to fully appreciate the role and potential of these proteases, tools are required that can detect and quantify overall cathepsin activity. Two main strategies have evolved; synthetic substrates and protease-labelling with affinity-binding probes (or activity-based probes). This review examines recent innovations in these approaches as the field moves towards developing tools that could ultimately be used in patients for diagnostic or prognostic applications. PMID:26253694

  13. Design, synthesis, and activity of nanocellulosic protease sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we contrast the molecular assembly, and biochemical utility of nanocellulosic materials prepared from cotton and wood as protease sensors. The cotton-based nanocellulosic substrates were prepared in a variety of ways to produce nanocrystals, films and aerogels, which were derivatized with eithe...

  14. Cathepsin B Activity Initiates Apoptosis via Digestive Protease Activation in Pancreatic Acinar Cells and Experimental Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sendler, Matthias; Maertin, Sandrina; John, Daniel; Persike, Maria; Weiss, F Ulrich; Krüger, Burkhard; Wartmann, Thomas; Wagh, Preshit; Halangk, Walter; Schaschke, Norbert; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatitis is associated with premature activation of digestive proteases in the pancreas. The lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin B (CTSB) is a known activator of trypsinogen, and its deletion reduces disease severity in experimental pancreatitis. Here we studied the activation mechanism and subcellular compartment in which CTSB regulates protease activation and cellular injury. Cholecystokinin (CCK) increased the activity of CTSB, cathepsin L, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and caspase 3 in vivo and in vitro and induced redistribution of CTSB to a secretory vesicle-enriched fraction. Neither CTSB protein nor activity redistributed to the cytosol, where the CTSB inhibitors cystatin-B/C were abundantly present. Deletion of CTSB reduced and deletion of cathepsin L increased intracellular trypsin activation. CTSB deletion also abolished CCK-induced caspase 3 activation, apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein degradation, but these depended on trypsinogen activation via CTSB. Raising the vesicular pH, but not trypsin inhibition, reduced CTSB activity. Trypsin inhibition did not affect apoptosis in hepatocytes. Deletion of CTSB affected apoptotic but not necrotic acinar cell death. In summary, CTSB in pancreatitis undergoes activation in a secretory, vesicular, and acidic compartment where it activates trypsinogen. Its deletion or inhibition regulates acinar cell apoptosis but not necrosis in two models of pancreatitis. Caspase 3-mediated apoptosis depends on intravesicular trypsinogen activation induced by CTSB, not CTSB activity directly, and this mechanism is pancreas-specific. PMID:27226576

  15. Evaluation on Potential Contributions of Protease Activated Receptors Related Mediators in Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiyun; Zeng, Xiaoning; He, Shaoheng

    2014-01-01

    Protease activated receptors (PARs) have been recognized as a distinctive four-member family of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be cleaved by certain serine proteases. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the role of PARs in allergic inflammation, the fundamental pathologic changes of allergy, but the potential roles of PARs in allergy remain obscure. Since many of these proteases are produced and actively involved in the pathologic process of inflammation including exudation of plasma components, inflammatory cell infiltration, and tissue damage and repair, PARs appear to make important contribution to allergy. The aim of the present review is to summarize the expression of PARs in inflammatory and structural cells, the influence of agonists or antagonists of PARs on cell behavior, and the involvement of PARs in allergic disorders, which will help us to better understand the roles of serine proteases and PARs in allergy. PMID:24876677

  16. Ginkgolic acid inhibits HIV protease activity and HIV infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Yan, Shaoyu; Jamaluddin, Saha; Weakley, Sarah M.; Liang, Zhengdong; Siwak, Edward B.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Several HIV protease mutations, which are resistant to clinical HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), have been identified. There is a great need for second-generation PIs with different chemical structures and/or with an alternative mode of inhibition. Ginkgolic acid is a natural herbal substance and a major component of the lipid fraction in the nutshells of the Ginkgo biloba tree. The objective of this study was to determine whether ginkgolic acid could inhibit HIV protease activity in a cell free system and HIV infection in human cells. Material/Methods Purified ginkgolic acid and recombinant HIV-1 HXB2 KIIA protease were used for the HIV protease activity assay. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used for HIV infection (HIV-1SF162 virus), determined by a p24gag ELISA. Cytotoxicity was also determined. Results Ginkgolic acid (31.2 μg/ml) inhibited HIV protease activity by 60%, compared with the negative control, and the effect was concentration-dependent. In addition, ginkgolic acid treatment (50 and 100 μg/ml) effectively inhibited the HIV infection at day 7 in a concentration-dependent manner. Ginkgolic acid at a concentration of up to 150 μg/ml demonstrated very limited cytotoxicity. Conclusions Ginkgolic acid effectively inhibits HIV protease activity in a cell free system and HIV infection in PBMCs without significant cytotoxicity. Ginkgolic acid may inhibit HIV protease through different mechanisms than current FDA-approved HIV PI drugs. These properties of ginkgolic acid make it a promising therapy for HIV infection, especially as the clinical problem of viral resistance to HIV PIs continues to grow. PMID:22847190

  17. Sclerostin binds and regulates the activity of cysteine-rich protein 61

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Theodore A.; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Kumar, Rajiv

    2010-01-29

    Sclerostin, a secreted glycoprotein, regulates osteoblast function. Using yeast two-hybrid and direct protein interaction analyses, we demonstrate that sclerostin binds the Wnt-modulating and Wnt-modulated, extracellular matrix protein, cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61, CCN1), which regulates mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation, osteoblast and osteoclast function, and angiogenesis. Sclerostin was shown to inhibit Cyr61-mediated fibroblast attachment, and Cyr61 together with sclerostin increases vascular endothelial cell migration and increases osteoblast cell division. The data show that sclerostin binds to and influences the activity of Cyr61.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a new serine protease with thrombin-like activity (TLBm) from the venom of the snake Bothrops marajoensis.

    PubMed

    Vilca-Quispe, Augusto; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Winck, Flavia Vischi; Marangoni, Sergio

    2010-04-01

    The thrombin-like serine protease TLBm from Bothrops marajoensis was isolated in one chromatographic step in reverse phase HPLC. Its molecular mass was 33239.95 Da, as based on the determined primary structure and confirmed experimentally by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (33332.5 Da) and it contains 12 half-cysteine residues. This TLBm exhibited high specificity for BArhoNA, Michaelis-Menten behavior with K(m) 2.3x10(-1)M and the V(max) 0.52x10(-1) nmoles rho-NA/lt/min for this substrate. TLBm also showed ability to coagulate bovine fibrinogen and was inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, EDTA and S(Dm) from the serum of the species Didelphis marsupialis. The primary structure of TLBm showed the presence of His(45), Asp(103) and Ser(228) residues in the corresponding positions of the catalytic triad established in the serine proteases and Ser(228) are inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Amino acid analysis showed a high content of Asp, Glu, Gly, Ser, Ala and Pro as well as 12 half-cysteine residues and calculated pI of 6.47; TLBm presented 285 amino acid residues. In this work, we investigated the ability of TLBm to degrade fibrinogen and we observed that it is able to cause alpha- and beta-chain cleavage. Enzymatic as well as the platelet aggregation activities were strongly inhibited when incubated with PMSF, a specific inhibitor of serine protease. Also, TLBm induced platelet aggregation in washed and platelet-rich plasma, and in both cases, PMSF inhibited its activity. PMID:19931298

  19. Characterization of the Protease Activity of Detergents: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Protease Profile and Activity of Various Commercial Detergents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-01-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body…

  20. In vivo imaging and biochemical characterization of protease function using fluorescent activity-based probes

    PubMed Central

    Edgington, Laura E.; Bogyo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Activity-based probes (ABPs) are reactive small molecules that covalently bind to active enzymes. When tagged with a fluorophore, ABPs serve as powerful tools to investigate enzymatic activity across a wide variety of applications. In this article, we will provide detailed protocols for using fluorescent ABPs to biochemically characterize the activity of proteases in vitro. Furthermore, we will describe how these probes can be applied to image protease activity in live animals and tissues along with subsequent analysis by histology, flow cytometry, and SDS-PAGE. PMID:23788323

  1. Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

    1986-04-01

    A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

  2. Effect of Insect Larval Midgut Proteases on the Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Toxins▿

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Mélanie; Vachon, Vincent; Frutos, Roger; Schwartz, Jean-Louis; Laprade, Raynald

    2007-01-01

    To test the possibility that proteolytic cleavage by midgut juice enzymes could enhance or inhibit the activity of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins, once activated, the effects of different toxins on the membrane potential of the epithelial cells of isolated Manduca sexta midguts in the presence and absence of midgut juice were measured. While midgut juice had little effect on the activity of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Cry1Ea, and R233A, a mutant of Cry1Aa from which one of the four salt bridges linking domains I and II of the toxin was eliminated, it greatly increased the activity of Cry1Ab. In addition, when tested in the presence of a cocktail of protease inhibitors or when boiled, midgut juice retained almost completely its capacity to enhance Cry1Ab activity, suggesting that proteases were not responsible for the stimulation. On the other hand, in the absence of midgut juice, the cocktail of protease inhibitors also enhanced the activity of Cry1Ab, suggesting that proteolytic cleavage by membrane proteases could render the toxin less effective. The lower toxicity of R233A, despite a similar in vitro pore-forming ability, compared with Cry1Aa, cannot be accounted for by an increased susceptibility to midgut proteases. Although these assays were performed under conditions approaching those found in the larval midgut, the depolarizing activities of the toxins correlated only partially with their toxicities. PMID:17693568

  3. Chemical modification studies on arginine kinase: essential cysteine and arginine residues at the active site.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Jing; Li, Miao; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2007-12-01

    Chemical modification was used to elucidate the essential amino acids in the catalytic activity of arginine kinase (AK) from Migratoria manilensis. Among six cysteine (Cys) residues only one Cys residue was determined to be essential in the active site by Tsou's method. Furthermore, the AK modified by DTNB can be fully reactivated by dithiothreitol (DTT) in a monophasic kinetic course. At the same time, this reactivation can be slowed down in the presence of ATP, suggesting that the essential Cys is located near the ATP binding site. The ionizing groups at the AK active site were studied and the standard dissociation enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ) was 12.38kcal/mol, showing that the dissociation group may be the guanidino of arginine (Arg). Using the specific chemical modifier phenylglyoxal (PG) demonstrated that only one Arg, located near the ATP binding site, is essential for the activity of AK. PMID:17765964

  4. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of the catalytic residues of the papain family protease bleomycin hydrolase: new insights into active-site structure

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, Paul A.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2006-01-01

    Bleomycin hydrolase (BH) is a hexameric papain family cysteine protease which is involved in preparing peptides for antigen presentation and has been implicated in tumour cell resistance to bleomycin chemotherapy. Structures of active-site mutants of yeast BH yielded unexpected results. Replacement of the active-site asparagine with alanine, valine or leucine results in the destabilization of the histidine side chain, demonstrating unambiguously the role of the asparagine residue in correctly positioning the histidine for catalysis. Replacement of the histidine with alanine or leucine destabilizes the asparagine position, indicating a delicate arrangement of the active-site residues. In all of the mutants, the C-terminus of the protein, which lies in the active site, protrudes further into the active site. All mutants were compromised in their catalytic activity. The structures also revealed the importance of a tightly bound water molecule which stabilizes a loop near the active site and which is conserved throughout the papain family. It is displaced in a number of the mutants, causing destabilization of this loop and a nearby loop, resulting in a large movement of the active-site cysteine. The results imply that this water molecule plays a key structural role in this family of enzymes. PMID:17007609

  5. MALT1 Protease Activity Controls the Expression of Inflammatory Genes in Keratinocytes upon Zymosan Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Anja; Grondona, Paula; Maier, Tabea; Brändle, Marc; Schönfeld, Caroline; Jäger, Günter; Kosnopfel, Corinna; Eberle, Franziska C; Schittek, Birgit; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Yazdi, Amir S; Hailfinger, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) plays an important role in antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation by controlling the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and is thus essential for the expression of inflammatory target genes. MALT1 is not only present in cells of the hematopoietic lineage, but is ubiquitously expressed. Here we report that stimulation with zymosan or Staphylococcus aureus induced MALT1 protease activity in human primary keratinocytes. Inhibition of the Src family of kinases or novel protein kinase C isoforms as well as silencing of CARMA2 or BCL10 interfered with activation of MALT1 protease. Silencing or inhibition of MALT1 protease strongly decreased the expression of important inflammatory genes such as TNFα, IL-17C, CXCL8 and HBD-2. MALT1-inhibited cells were unable to mount an antimicrobial response upon zymosan stimulation or phorbolester/ionomycin treatment, demonstrating a central role of MALT1 protease activity in keratinocyte immunity and suggesting MALT1 as a potential target in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:26767426

  6. Production, characterization, gene cloning, and nematocidal activity of the extracellular protease from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N4.

    PubMed

    Jankiewicz, Urszula; Larkowska, Ewa; Swiontek Brzezinska, Maria

    2016-06-01

    A rhizosphere strain of the bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N4 secretes the serine protease PN4, whose molecular mass is approximately 42 kDa. The optimal temperature for the enzyme activity of the 11-fold purified protein was 50°C and the optimal pH was 10.5. The activity of the enzyme was strongly inhibited by specific serine protease inhibitors, which allowed for its classification as an alkaline serine protease family. Ca(2+) ions stimulated the activity of the protease PN4, while Mg(2+) ions stabilized its activity, and Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions strongly inhibited its activity. The enzyme has broad substrate specificity. For example, it is able to hydrolyse casein, keratin, albumin, haemoglobin, and gelatin, as well as the insoluble modified substrates azure keratin and azocoll. The gene that encodes the 1740 bp precursor form of the enzyme (accession number: LC031815) was cloned. We then deduced that its amino acid sequence includes the region of the conserved domain of the S8 family of peptidases as well as the catalytic triad Asp/His/Ser. The bacterial culture fluid as well as the purified protease PN4 demonstrated biocidal activity with regard to the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus spp. PMID:26896861

  7. Periodontal Treatment Downregulates Protease-Activated Receptor 2 in Human Gingival Crevicular Fluid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Euzebio Alves, Vanessa Tubero; Bueno da Silva, Henrique Aparecido; de França, Bruno Nunes; Eichler, Rosangela Santos; Saraiva, Luciana; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli

    2013-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis; it can be activated by gingipain and produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and by neutrophil protease 3 (P3). PAR2 activation plays a relevant role in inflammatory processes by inducing the release of important inflammatory mediators associated with periodontal breakdown. The effects of periodontal treatment on PAR2 expression and its association with levels of proinflammatory mediators and activating proteases were investigated in chronic periodontitis patients. Positive staining for PAR2 was observed in gingival crevicular fluid cells and was reflective of tissue destruction. Overexpression of PAR2 was positively associated with inflammatory clinical parameters and with the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2), MMP-8, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Elevated levels of gingipain and P3 and decreased levels of dentilisin and the protease inhibitors secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor and elafin were also associated with PAR2 overexpression. Healthy periodontal sites from individuals with chronic periodontitis showed diminished expression of PAR2 mRNA and the PAR2 protein (P < 0.05). Furthermore, periodontal treatment resulted in decreased PAR2 expression and correlated with decreased expression of inflammatory mediators and activating proteases. We concluded that periodontal treatment resulted in decreased levels of proteases and that proinflammatory mediators are associated with decreased PAR2 expression, suggesting that PAR2 expression is influenced by the presence of periodontal infection and is not a constitutive characteristic favoring periodontal inflammation. PMID:24042113

  8. A conserved activation cluster is required for allosteric communication in HtrA-family proteases.

    PubMed

    de Regt, Anna K; Kim, Seokhee; Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2015-03-01

    In E. coli, outer-membrane stress causes a transcriptional response through a signaling cascade initiated by DegS cleavage of a transmembrane antisigma factor. Each subunit of DegS, an HtrA-family protease, contains a protease domain and a PDZ domain. The trimeric protease domain is autoinhibited by the unliganded PDZ domains. Allosteric activation requires binding of unassembled outer-membrane proteins (OMPs) to the PDZ domains and protein substrate binding. Here, we identify a set of DegS residues that cluster together at subunit-subunit interfaces in the trimer, link the active sites and substrate binding sites, and are crucial for stabilizing the active enzyme conformation in response to OMP signaling. These residues are conserved across the HtrA-protease family, including orthologs linked to human disease, supporting a common mechanism of allosteric activation. Indeed, mutation of residues at homologous positions in the DegP quality-control protease also eliminates allosteric activation. PMID:25703375

  9. Quantum dot-based concentric FRET configuration for the parallel detection of protease activity and concentration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Miao; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Algar, W Russ

    2014-11-18

    Protease expression, activity, and inhibition play crucial roles in a multitude of biological processes; however, these three aspects of their function are difficult for any one bioanalytical probe to measure. To help address this challenge, we report a multifunctional concentric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) configuration that combines two modes of biorecognition using aptamers and peptide substrates coassembled to a central semiconductor quantum dot (QD). The aptamer is sensitive to the concentration of protease and the peptide is sensitive to its hydrolytic activity. The role of the QD is to serve as a nanoscale scaffold and initial donor for energy transfer with both Cyanine 3 (Cy3) and Alexa Fluor 647 (A647) fluorescent dyes associated with the aptamer and peptide, respectively. Using thrombin as a model protease, we show that a ratiometric analysis of the emission from the QD, Cy3, and A647 permits discrimination between thrombin and thrombin-like activity, and distinguishes between active, reversibly inhibited, and irreversibly inhibited thrombin. Reliable quantitative results were obtained from a kinetic analysis of the changes in FRET. This concentric FRET format, which capitalizes on both the physical and optical properties of QDs, should be adaptable to other protease targets for which both peptide substrates and binding aptamers are known. It is thus expected to become valuable a tool for the real-time analysis of protease activity and regulation. PMID:25361050

  10. Rapid Detection of Thrombin and Other Protease Activity Directly in Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Johnson Chung Sing

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in the clotting cascade to promote hemostasis following injury to the endothelium. From a clinical diagnostic perspective, in-vivo thrombin activity is linked to various blood clotting disorders, as well as cardiovascular disease (DVT, arteriosclerosis, etc). Thus, the ability to rapidly measure protease activity directly in whole blood will provide important new diagnostics, and clinical researchers with a powerful tool to further elucidate the relationship between circulating protease levels and disease. The ultimate goal is to design novel point of care (POC) diagnostic devices that are capable of monitoring protease activities directly in whole blood and biological sample. A charge-changing substrate specific to the thrombin enzyme was engineered and its functionality was confirmed by a series of experiments. This led to the preliminary design, construction, and testing of two device platforms deemed fully functional for the electrophoretic separation and focusing of charged peptide fragments. The concept of using the existing charge-changing substrate platform for bacterial protease detection was also investigated. Certain strains of E coli are associated with severe symptoms such as abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. The OmpT protease is expressed on the outer membrane of E coli and plays a role in the cleavage of antimicrobial peptides, the degradation of recombinant heterologous proteins, and the activation of plasminogen in the host. Thus, a synthetic peptide substrate specific to the OmpT protease was designed and modeled for the purpose of detecting E coli in biological sample.

  11. Deficient activity of von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease in chronic relapsing thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Furlan, M; Robles, R; Solenthaler, M; Wassmer, M; Sandoz, P; Lämmle, B

    1997-05-01

    In patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), excessive intravascular platelet aggregation has been associated with appearance in plasma of unusually large von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers. These extremely adhesive vWF multimers may arise due to deficiency of a "depolymerase" cleaving vWF to smaller molecular forms, either by reducing the interdimeric disulfide bridges or by proteolytic degradation. We studied the activity of a recently described vWF-cleaving protease in four patients with chronic relapsing TTP. Diluted plasma samples of TTP patients were incubated with purified normal human vWF in the presence of a serine protease inhibitor, at low ionic strength, and in the presence of urea and barium ions. The extent of vWF degradation was assayed by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gels and immunoblotting. Four patients, that included two brothers, with chronic relapsing TTP displayed either substantially reduced levels or a complete absence of vWF-cleaving protease activity. In none of these patient plasmas was an inhibitor of or an antibody against the vWF-cleaving protease established. Our data suggest that the unusually large vWF multimers found in TTP patients may be caused by deficient vWF-cleaving protease activity. Deficiency of this protease may be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and seems to predispose to chronic relapsing TTP. The assay of the vWF-cleaving protease activity may be used as a sensitive diagnostic tool for identification of subjects with a latent TTP tendency. PMID:9129011

  12. Cadmium-induced changes of gypsy moth larval mass and protease activity.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Ilijin, Larisa; Lazarević, Jelica; Mrdaković, Marija; Gavrilović, Anja; Matić, Dragana; Mataruga, Vesna Perić

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium uptake takes place mainly through food. Lymantria dispar larvae were exposed to dietary cadmium in concentrations of 10 and 30μg Cd/g dry food (NOEC, no-observed-effect and LOEC, lowest-observed-effect concentration, respectively) for acute and chronic treatment and recovery. We established that metal contamination decreased mass only during the chronic treatment at 30μg Cd/dry food with no recovery on removal of cadmium for 3days. Significant reduction of protease activity was detected at LOEC after the acute and chronic treatments. Protease showed enhanced plasticity with regard to the fitness trait (mass) during environmental stress and the higher cadmium load, when it changed. The statistically significant higher index of phenotypic plasticity for protease correlated with lower variability. Protease isoforms at the same cadmium treatments differed between genotypes, while some protease isoforms from one egg-mass differed between cadmium treatments. Owing to the low sensitivity and plasticity of mass change during exposure to cadmium, as well as its small influence, we concluded that larval mass is not a good indicator of cadmium presence in food. We suggest that proteases, with further research, might be a suitable indicator of dietary cadmium contamination, as well as nutriment utilization during heavy metal stress. PMID:24230976

  13. Epicutaneous Allergic Sensitization by Cooperation between Allergen Protease Activity and Mechanical Skin Barrier Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Sakiko; Takai, Toshiro; Iida, Hideo; Maruyama, Natsuko; Ochi, Hirono; Kamijo, Seiji; Nishioka, Izumi; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2016-07-01

    Allergen sources such as mites, insects, fungi, and pollen contain proteases. Airway exposure to proteases induces allergic airway inflammation and IgE/IgG1 responses via IL-33-dependent mechanisms in mice. We examined the epicutaneous sensitization of mice to a model protease allergen, papain; the effects of tape stripping, which induces epidermal barrier dysfunction; and the atopic march upon a subsequent airway challenge. Papain painting on ear skin and tape stripping cooperatively promoted dermatitis, the skin gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, up-regulation of serum total IgE, and papain-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Epicutaneous sensitization induced T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 differentiation in draining lymph nodes. Ovalbumin and protease inhibitor-treated papain induced no or weak responses, whereas the co-administration of ovalbumin and papain promoted ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Wild-type and IL-33-deficient mice showed similar responses in the epicutaneous sensitization phase. The subsequent airway papain challenge induced airway eosinophilia and maintained high papain-specific IgE levels in an IL-33-dependent manner. These results suggest that allergen source-derived protease activity and mechanical barrier damage such as that caused by scratching cooperatively promote epicutaneous sensitization and skin inflammation and that IL-33 is dispensable for epicutaneous sensitization but is crucial in the atopic march upon a subsequent airway low-dose encounter with protease allergens. PMID:26987428

  14. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator-like Proteases in Teleosts Lack Genuine Receptor-binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Bager, René; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Jensen, Jan K.; Szczur, Agnieszka; Christensen, Anni; Andersen, Lisbeth M.; Johansen, Jesper S.; Larsen, Niels; Baatrup, Erik; Huang, Mingdong; Ploug, Michael; Andreasen, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Plasminogen activation catalyzed by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays an important role in normal and pathological tissue remodeling processes. Since its discovery in the mid-1980s, the cell membrane-anchored urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been believed to be central to the functions of uPA, as uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation activity appeared to be confined to cell surfaces through the binding of uPA to uPAR. However, a functional uPAR has so far only been identified in mammals. We have now cloned, recombinantly produced, and characterized two zebrafish proteases, zfuPA-a and zfuPA-b, which by several criteria are the fish orthologs of mammalian uPA. Thus, both proteases catalyze the activation of fish plasminogen efficiently and both proteases are inhibited rapidly by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). But zfuPA-a differs from mammalian uPA by lacking the exon encoding the uPAR-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain; zfuPA-b differs from mammalian uPA by lacking two cysteines of the epidermal growth factor-like domain and a uPAR-binding sequence comparable with that found in mammalian uPA. Accordingly, no zfuPA-b binding activity could be found in fish white blood cells or fish cell lines. We therefore propose that the current consensus of uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation taking place on cell surfaces, derived from observations with mammals, is too narrow. Fish uPAs appear incapable of receptor binding in the manner known from mammals and uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation in fish may occur mainly in solution. Studies with nonmammalian vertebrate species are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of plasminogen activation. PMID:22733817

  15. Supermarket Proteases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  16. A new fusion protein platform for quantitatively measuring activity of multiple proteases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recombinant proteins fused with specific cleavage sequences are widely used as substrate for quantitatively analyzing the activity of proteases. Here we propose a new fusion platform for multiple proteases, by using diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase (DAL) as the fusion protein. It was based on the finding that a fused His6-tag could significantly decreases the activities of DAL from E. coli (eDAL) and Salmonella typhimurium (sDAL). Previously, we have shown that His6GST-tagged eDAL could be used to determine the activity of tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) under different temperatures or in the denaturant at different concentrations. In this report, we will assay different tags and cleavage sequences on DAL for expressing yield in E. coli, stability of the fused proteins and performance of substrate of other common proteases. Results We tested seven different protease cleavage sequences (rhinovirus 3C, TEV protease, factor Xa, Ssp DnaB intein, Sce VMA1 intein, thrombin and enterokinase), three different tags (His6, GST, CBD and MBP) and two different DALs (eDAL and sDAL), for their performance as substrate to the seven corresponding proteases. Among them, we found four active DAL-fusion substrates suitable for TEVp, factor Xa, thrombin and DnaB intein. Enterokinase cleaved eDAL at undesired positions and did not process sDAL. Substitution of GST with MBP increase the expression level of the fused eDAL and this fusion protein was suitable as a substrate for analyzing activity of rhinovirus 3C. We demonstrated that SUMO protease Ulp1 with a N-terminal His6-tag or MBP tag displayed different activity using the designed His6SUMO-eDAL as substrate. Finally, owing to the high level of the DAL-fusion protein in E. coli, these protein substrates can also be detected directly from the crude extract. Conclusion The results show that our designed DAL-fusion proteins can be used to quantify the activities of both sequence- and conformational-specific proteases, with

  17. Impact of cysteine variants on the structure, activity, and stability of recombinant human α-galactosidase A.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huawei; Honey, Denise M; Kingsbury, Jonathan S; Park, Anna; Boudanova, Ekaterina; Wei, Ronnie R; Pan, Clark Q; Edmunds, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Recombinant human α-galactosidase A (rhαGal) is a homodimeric glycoprotein deficient in Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. In this study, each cysteine residue in rhαGal was replaced with serine to understand the role each cysteine plays in the enzyme structure, function, and stability. Conditioned media from transfected HEK293 cells were assayed for rhαGal expression and enzymatic activity. Activity was only detected in the wild type control and in mutants substituting the free cysteine residues (C90S, C174S, and the C90S/C174S). Cysteine-to-serine substitutions at the other sites lead to the loss of expression and/or activity, consistent with their involvement in the disulfide bonds found in the crystal structure. Purification and further characterization confirmed that the C90S, C174S, and the C90S/C174S mutants are enzymatically active, structurally intact and thermodynamically stable as measured by circular dichroism and thermal denaturation. The purified inactive C142S mutant appeared to have lost part of its alpha-helix secondary structure and had a lower apparent melting temperature. Saturation mutagenesis study on Cys90 and Cys174 resulted in partial loss of activity for Cys174 mutants but multiple mutants at Cys90 with up to 87% higher enzymatic activity (C90T) compared to wild type, suggesting that the two free cysteines play differential roles and that the activity of the enzyme can be modulated by side chain interactions of the free Cys residues. These results enhanced our understanding of rhαGal structure and function, particularly the critical roles that cysteines play in structure, stability, and enzymatic activity. PMID:26044846

  18. Proteases from Canavalia ensiformis: Active and Thermostable Enzymes with Potential of Application in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Rayane Natshe; Gozzini Barbosa, Suellen Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of leaves, seeds, roots, and stem from a tropical legume, C. ensiformis, were prepared employing buffers and detergent in aqueous solution. Leaf extracts had the highest protein content and the most pronounced peptidase activity with optimal pH in the neutral to alkaline range. All extracts exhibited peaks of activity at various pH values, suggesting the presence of distinctive classes of proteases. N-α-Tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester hydrolysis was maximal at 30°C to 60°C and peptidase activity from all extracts presented very good thermal stability after 24 h incubation at 70°C. C. ensiformis proteases exhibited molecular masses of about 200–57, 40–37, and 20–15 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. These enzymes cleaved hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin at different levels. Serine and metalloproteases are the major proteases in C. ensiformis extracts, modulated by divalent cations, stable at 1% of surfactant Triton X-100 and at different concentrations of the reducing agent β-mercaptoethanol. Thus, C. ensiformis expresses a particular set of proteases in distinctive organs with high activity and stability, making this legume an important source of proteases with biotechnological potential.

  19. Cysteine dioxygenase type 1 promotes adipogenesis via interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Peng; Chen, Yi; Ji, Ning; Lin, Yunfeng; Yuan, Quan; Ye, Ling; Chen, Qianming

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1) is an essential enzyme for taurine biosynthesis and the biodegradation of toxic cysteine. As previously suggested, Cdo1 may be a marker of liposarcoma progression and adipogenic differentiation, but the role of Cdo1 in adipogenesis has yet been reported. In this study, we found that the expression of Cdo1 is dramatically elevated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs). Conversely, knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 cells and mBMSCs. Mechanistically, we found Cdo1 interacted with Pparγ in response to adipogenic stimulus. Further, depletion of Cdo1 reduced the recruitment of Pparγ to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4. Collectively, our finding indicates that Cdo1 may be a co-activator of Pparγ in adipogenesis, and may contribute to the development of disease associated with excessive adipose tissue. - Highlights: • Cdo1expression is highly up-regulated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 and mBMSCs. • Depletion of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation. • Cdo1interacts with Pparγ during adipogenesis. • Knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited Pparγ binding to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4.

  20. A potential Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor involves in kinetics of protease inhibition and bacteriostatic activity.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-02-01

    Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor (KSPI) is a pancreatic secretary trypsin inhibitor which involves in various cellular component regulations including development and defense process. In this study, we have characterized a KSPI cDNA sequence of freshwater striped murrel fish Channa striatus (Cs) at molecular level. Cellular location analysis predicted that the CsKSPI was an extracellular protein. The domain analysis showed that the CsKSPI contains a Kazal domain at 47-103 along with its family signature between 61 and 83. Phylogenetically, CsKSPI is closely related to KSPI from Maylandia zebra and formed a sister group with mammals. The 2D structure of CsKSPI showed three α-helical regions which are connected with random coils, one helix at signal sequence and two at the Kazal domain region. The relative gene expression showed that the CsKSPI was highly expressed in gills and its expression was induced upon fungus (Aphanomyces invadans), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and poly I:C (a viral analogue) challenge. The CsKSPI recombinant protein was produced to characterize and study the CsKSPI gene specific functions. The recombinant CsKSPI strongly inhibited trypsin compared to other tested proteases. The results of the kinetic activity of CsKSPI against trypsin was V(max)s = 1.62 nmol/min, K(M)s = 0.21 mM and K(i)s = 15.37 nM. Moreover, the recombinant CsKSPI inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria A. hydrophila at 20 μM and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis at the MIC50 of 15 μM. Overall, the study indicated that the CsKSPI was a potential trypsin inhibitor which involves in antimicrobial activity. PMID:25433138

  1. Purified and Recombinant Hemopexin: Protease Activity and Effect on Neutrophil Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tian; Liu, Jialin; Huang, Feng; van Engelen, Tjitske SR; Thundivalappil, Sujatha R; Riley, Frank E; Super, Michael; Watters, Alexander L; Smith, Ann; Brinkman, Nathan; Ingber, Donald E; Warren, H Shaw

    2016-01-01

    Infusion of the heme-binding protein hemopexin has been proposed as a novel approach to decrease heme-induced inflammation in settings of red blood cell breakdown, but questions have been raised as to possible side effects related to protease activity and inhibition of chemotaxis. We evaluated protease activity and effects on chemotaxis of purified plasma hemopexin obtained from multiple sources as well as a novel recombinant fusion protein Fc-hemopexin. Amidolytic assay was performed to measure the protease activity of several plasma-derived hemopexin and recombinant Fc-hemopexin. Hemopexin was added to the human monocyte culture in the presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and also injected into mice intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before inducing neutrophil migration via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of thioglycolate. Control groups received the same amount of albumin. Protease activity varied widely between hemopexins. Recombinant Fc-hemopexin bound heme, inhibited the synergy of heme with LPS on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production from monocytes, and had minor but detectable protease activity. There was no effect of any hemopexin preparation on chemotaxis, and purified hemopexin did not alter the migration of neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity of mice. Heme and LPS synergistically induced the release of LTB4 from human monocytes, and hemopexin blocked this release, as well as chemotaxis of neutrophils in response to activated monocyte supernatants. These results suggest that hemopexin does not directly affect chemotaxis through protease activity, but may decrease heme-driven chemotaxis and secondary inflammation by attenuating the induction of chemoattractants from monocytes. This property could be beneficial in some settings to control potentially damaging inflammation induced by heme. PMID:26772775

  2. Proteases in renal cell death: calpains mediate cell death produced by diverse toxicants.

    PubMed

    Schnellmann, R G; Williams, S W

    1998-09-01

    The role of proteases in renal cell death has received limited investigation. Calpains are non-lysosomal cysteine proteases that are Ca+2 activated. Calpain inhibitors that block the active site of calpains (calpain inhibitor 1 and 2) or the Ca+2 binding domain of calpains (PD150606) decreased calpain activity in rabbit renal proximal tubule (RPT) suspensions. The inhibition of calpain activity decreased cell death produced by the diverse toxicants antimycin A (mitochondrial inhibitor), tetrafluroethyl-L-cysteine (nephrotoxic halocarbon), bromohydroquinone (nephro-toxic quinone), t-butylhydroperoxide (model oxidant) and ionomycin (Ca+2 ionophore). In summary, calpains appear to play a common and critical role in cell injury produced by diverse toxicants with different mechanisms of action. The general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido (4-guanidino)-butane (E-64) decreased antimycin A- and tetrafluoroethyl-L-cysteine-induced cell death but had no effect on bromohydroquinone- or t-butylhydroperoxide-induced cell death. Serine/cysteine protease inhibitors (antipain, leupeptin) were not cytoprotective to RPT exposed to any of the toxicants. The cytoprotection associated with E-64 correlated with inhibition of lysosomal cathepsins and E-64 was only cytoprotective after some cell death had occurred. Since some cell death occurred prior to the E-64 cytoprotective effect, lysosomal cathepsins may be released from dying cells and subsequently target the remaining viable cells. PMID:9768434

  3. Marek's disease virus (MDV) ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) performs critical functions beyond its enzymatic activity during virus replication.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Inês B; Jarosinski, Keith W; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-03-15

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) encodes an ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) within its UL36 gene. USP is highly conserved among herpesviruses and was shown to be important for MDV replication and pathogenesis in MDV's natural host, the chicken. To further investigate the role of MDV USP, several recombinant (r) MDVs were generated and their in vitro phenotypes were evaluated using plaque size and growth kinetics assays. We discovered that the N-terminus of pUL36 is essential for MDV replication and could not be complemented by ectopic expression of MDV USP. In addition, we demonstrated that the region located between the conserved glutamine (Q85) and leucine (L106) residues comprising the active site cysteine (C98) is also essential for MDV replication. Based on the analyses of the rMDVs generated here, we concluded that MDV USP likely contributes to the structure and/or stability of pUL36 and affects replication and oncogenesis of MDV beyond its enzymatic activity. PMID:23399034

  4. cDNA Cloning and Molecular Modeling of Procerain B, a Novel Cysteine Endopeptidase Isolated from Calotropis procera

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay Narayan; Yadav, Prity; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Procerain B, a novel cysteine protease (endopeptidase) isolated from Calotropis procera belongs to Asclepiadaceae family. Purification of the enzyme, biochemical characterization and potential applications are already published by our group. Here, we report cDNA cloning, complete amino acid sequencing and molecular modeling of procerain B. The derived amino acid sequence showed high sequence homology with other papain like plant cysteine proteases of peptidase C1A superfamily. The three dimensional structure of active procerain B was modeled by homology modeling using X-ray crystal structure of actinidin (PDB ID: 3P5U), a cysteine protease from the fruits of Actinidia arguta. The structural aspect of the enzyme is also discussed. PMID:23527269

  5. A novel protease activity assay method based on an engineered autoinhibited protein using an enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun Kyung; Yoo, Tae Hyeon

    2013-12-01

    Proteases are involved in various biological phenomena, and their aberrant activity can be an important indicator of disease. Thus, various methods have been developed to analyze the activities of proteases, but their wide application has been hampered because each method has drawbacks. In this report, we propose a new protease assay method based on an engineered autoinhibited protein and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) in which a protease of interest activates the autoinhibited protein and the signal is amplified via ELISA. Using this concept a sensitive assay method for MMP2 and caspase-3 was developed. The limit of detection for the two proteases was as low as 7 pM for MMP2 and 0.1 pM for caspase-3. The autoinhibited protein is designed modularly, and the new platform is general enough for the development of assay methods for other proteases with minimal modification. PMID:24106734

  6. Extracellular granzyme K mediates endothelial activation through the cleavage of protease-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mehul; Merkulova, Yulia; Raithatha, Sheetal; Parkinson, Leigh G; Shen, Yue; Cooper, Dawn; Granville, David J

    2016-05-01

    Granzymes are a family of serine proteases that were once thought to function exclusively as mediators of cytotoxic lymphocyte-induced target cell death. However, non-apoptotic roles for granzymes, including granzyme K (GzK), have been proposed. As recent studies have observed elevated levels of GzK in the plasma of patients diagnosed with clinical sepsis, we hypothesized that extracellular GzK induces a proinflammatory response in endothelial cells. In the present study, extracellular GzK proteolytically activated protease-activated receptor-1 leading to increased interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 production in endothelial cells. Enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 along with an increased capacity for adherence of THP-1 cells was also observed. Characterization of downstream pathways implicated the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway for intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression, and both the p38 and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 pathways in cytokine production. GzK also increased tumour necrosis factor α-induced inflammatory adhesion molecule expression. Furthermore, the physiological inhibitor of GzK, inter-α-inhibitor protein, significantly inhibited GzK activity in vitro. In summary, extracellular GzK promotes a proinflammatory response in endothelial cells. PMID:26936634

  7. Interdomain Contacts and the Stability of Serralysin Protease from Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Morrison, Anneliese J.; Thibodeau, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    The serralysin family of bacterial metalloproteases is associated with virulence in multiple modes of infection. These extracellular proteases are members of the Repeats-in-ToXin (RTX) family of toxins and virulence factors, which mediated virulence in E. coli, B. pertussis, and P. aeruginosa, as well as other animal and plant pathogens. The serralysin proteases are structurally dynamic and their folding is regulated by calcium binding to a C-terminal domain that defines the RTX family of proteins. Previous studies have suggested that interactions between N-terminal sequences and this C-terminal domain are important for the high thermal and chemical stabilities of the RTX proteases. Extending from this, stabilization of these interactions in the native structure may lead to hyperstabilization of the folded protein. To test this hypothesis, cysteine pairs were introduced into the N-terminal helix and the RTX domain and protease folding and activity were assessed. Under stringent pH and temperature conditions, the disulfide-bonded mutant showed increased protease activity and stability. This activity was dependent on the redox environment of the refolding reaction and could be blocked by selective modification of the cysteine residues before protease refolding. These data demonstrate that the thermal and chemical stability of these proteases is, in part, mediated by binding between the RTX domain and the N-terminal helix and demonstrate that stabilization of this interaction can further stabilize the active protease, leading to additional pH and thermal tolerance. PMID:26378460

  8. Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin(HA)/protease: An extracellular metalloprotease with multiple pathogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Jorge A; Silva, Anisia J

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae of serogroup O1 and O139, the etiological agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, expresses the extracellular Zn-dependent metalloprotease hemagglutinin (HA)/protease also reported as vibriolysin. This enzyme is also produced by non-O1/O139 (non-cholera) strains that cause mild, sporadic illness (i.e. gastroenteritis, wound or ear infections). Orthologs of HA/protease are present in other members of the Vibrionaceae family pathogenic to humans and fish. HA/protease belongs to the M4 neutral peptidase family and displays significant amino acid sequence homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (LasB) and Bacillus thermoproteolyticus thermolysin. It exhibits a broad range of potentially pathogenic activities in cell culture and animal models. These activities range from the covalent modification of other toxins, the degradation of the protective mucus barrier and disruption of intestinal tight junctions. Here we review (i) the structure and regulation of HA/protease expression, (ii) its interaction with other toxins and the intestinal mucosa and (iii) discuss the possible role(s) of HA/protease in the pathogenesis of cholera. PMID:26952544

  9. The identification, characterization and optimization of small molecule probes of cysteine proteases: experiences of the Penn Center for Molecular Discovery with cathepsin B and cathepsin L.

    PubMed

    Huryn, Donna M; Smith, Amos B

    2009-01-01

    During the pilot phase of the NIH Molecular Library Screening Network, the Penn Center for Molecular Discovery focused on a series of projects aimed at high throughput screening and the development of probes of a variety of protease targets. This review provides our medicinal chemistry experience with two such targets--cathepsin B and cathepsin L. We describe our approach for hit validation, characterization and triage that led to a critical understanding of the nature of hits from the cathepsin B project. In addition, we detail our experience at hit identification and optimization that led to the development of a novel thiocarbazate probe of cathepsin L. PMID:19807666

  10. Novel mechanisms for activated protein C cytoprotective activities involving noncanonical activation of protease-activated receptor 3

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The direct cytoprotective activities of activated protein C (APC) on cells convey therapeutic, relevant, beneficial effects in injury and disease models in vivo and require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Thrombin also activates PAR1, but its effects on cells contrast APC’s cytoprotective effects. To gain insights into mechanisms for these contrasting cellular effects, protease activated receptor 3 (PAR3) activation by APC and thrombin was studied. APC cleaved PAR3 on transfected and endothelial cells in the presence of EPCR. Remarkably, APC cleaved a synthetic PAR3 N-terminal peptide at Arg41, whereas thrombin cleaved at Lys38. On cells, APC failed to cleave R41Q-PAR3, whereas K38Q-PAR3 was still cleaved by APC but not by thrombin. PAR3 tethered-ligand peptides beginning at amino acid 42, but not those beginning at amino acid 39, conveyed endothelial barrier-protective effects. In vivo, the APC-derived PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide, but not the thrombin-derived PAR3 peptide, blunted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability. These data indicate that PAR3 cleavage by APC at Arg41 can initiate distinctive APC-like cytoprotective effects. These novel insights help explain the differentiation of APC’s cytoprotective versus thrombin’s proinflammatory effects on cells and suggest a unique contributory role for PAR3 in the complex mechanisms underlying APC cytoprotective effects. PMID:23788139

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Rossana; Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes. PMID:26090464

  12. Real-time fluorometric turn-on assay for protease activity and inhibitor screening with a benzoperylene probe.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuibei; Li, Wenying; Chen, Jian; Yang, Meiding; Li, Yang; Zhu, Jintao; Yu, Cong

    2014-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence turn-on strategy for protease activity and inhibitor screening has been developed. A negatively charged benzo[ghi]perylene derivative (probe 1) was employed. Protamine is a cationic protein which can induce aggregation of probe 1 via strong electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The fluorescence of probe 1 was efficiently quenched. In the presence of a protease, protamine was enzymatically hydrolyzed and probe 1 de-aggregated. The recovery of the probe 1 monomer fluorescence could be detected. The protease activity could be monitored in real-time. In addition, upon addition of a protease inhibitor, the protease-catalyzed hydrolysis was inhibited, which led to a decreased fluorescence recovery. The fluorometric assay thus could also be employed for screening protease inhibitors. PMID:24427771

  13. Activity of calcium activated protease in skeletal muscles and its changes in atrophy and stretch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Nagainis, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The reduction of protein content in skeletal muscle undergoing disuse-induced atrophy is correlated with accelerated rates of protein degradation and reduced rates of protein synthesis (Goldspink, 1977). It is not known in what manner myofibers are partially disassembled during disuse atrophy to fibers of smaller diameter; nor is it known which proteases are responsible for this morphological change in contractile protein mass. Dayton and colleagues (1975) have suggested that the Ca(2+)-activated protease (CaP) may initiate myofibril degradation. The discovery of a form of CaP that is activatable by nano-molar concentrations of Ca(2+) indicates that CaP activity may be regulated by physiological concentrations of Ca(2+) (Mellgren, 1980). The enhancement of proteolysis by the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187, reported by Etlinger (1979), is consistent with a significant role for CaP in protein degradation. It was of interest, therefore, to measure the levels of CaP activity and the CaP inhibitor in extracts obtained from skeletal muscles of rat and chicken limbs undergoing disuse atrophy or stretch hypertrophy, respectively.

  14. Thrombin stimulates fibroblast procollagen production via proteolytic activation of protease-activated receptor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, R C; Dabbagh, K; McAnulty, R J; Gray, A J; Blanc-Brude, O P; Laurent, G J

    1998-01-01

    Thrombin is a multifunctional serine protease that has a crucial role in blood coagulation. It is also a potent mesenchymal cell mitogen and chemoattractant and might therefore have an important role in the recruitment and local proliferation of mesenchymal cells at sites of tissue injury. We hypothesized that thrombin might also affect the deposition of connective tissue proteins at these sites by directly stimulating fibroblast procollagen production. To address this hypothesis, the effect of thrombin on procollagen production and gene expression by human foetal lung fibroblasts was assessed over 48 h. Thrombin stimulated procollagen production at concentrations of 1 nM and above, with maximal increases of between 60% and 117% at 10 nM thrombin. These effects of thrombin were, at least in part, due to increased steady-state levels of alpha1(I) procollagen mRNA. They could furthermore be reproduced with thrombin receptor-activating peptides for the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) and were completely abolished when thrombin was rendered proteolytically inactive with the specific inhibitors d-Phe-Pro-ArgCH2Cl and hirudin, indicating that thrombin is mediating these effects via the proteolytic activation of PAR-1. These results suggest that thrombin might influence the deposition of connective tissue proteins during normal wound healing and the development of tissue fibrosis by stimulating fibroblast procollagen production. PMID:9639571

  15. Cyanohydrin as an Anchoring Group for Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Enterovirus 71 3C Protease.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yangyang; Zhao, Xiangshuai; Cui, Zhengjie; Wang, Man; Wang, Yaxin; Li, Linfeng; Sun, Qi; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Debin; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuna; Lou, Zhiyong; Shang, Luqing; Yin, Zheng

    2015-12-10

    Cyanohydrin derivatives as enterovirus 71 (EV71) 3C protease (3C(pro)) inhibitors have been synthesized and assayed for their biochemical and antiviral activities. Compared with the reported inhibitors, cyanohydrins (1S,2S,2'S,5S)-16 and (1R,2S,2'S,5S)-16 exhibited significantly improved activity and attractive selectivity profiles against other proteases, which were a result of the specific interactions between the cyanohydrin moiety and the catalytic site of 3C(pro). Cyanohydrin as an anchoring group with high selectivity and excellent inhibitory activity represents a useful choice for cysteine protease inhibitors. PMID:26571192

  16. Human eosinophil innate response to Alternaria fungus through protease-activated receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Wada, Kota; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. An association between eosinophilic inflammation and infection or colonization by fungi has also been long recognized. However, the mechanisms underlying how eosinophils are activated and how they release proinflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators such as major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin remain largely unknown. We used a fungus, i.e. Alternaria, as a model microbe relevant to human asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the immune recognition of ubiquitous environmental allergens. Human eosinophils are activated by live Alternaria alternata organisms, release their granule proteins, and kill the fungi. Eosinophils, but not neutrophils, respond to secreted products from A. alternata. We found that eosinophils are equipped with innate cellular activation machinery that responds to an extracellular aspartate protease secreted by Alternaria. Aspartate protease activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 probably involves a novel mechanism different from that for serine protease activation of PAR-2. Thus, human eosinophils may recognize certain danger signals or virulence factors produced by fungi and provoke inflammatory responses against these organisms. Dysregulation of such an innate immune mechanism may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain human inflammatory diseases, including asthma and CRS. PMID:21646807

  17. An unequivocal example of cysteine proteinase activity affected by multiple electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Harris, G W; Henderson, I M; Jones, S T; Pickersgill, R W; Sumner, I G; Warwicker, J

    1994-10-01

    The role of electrostatic interactions between the ionizable Asp158 and the active site thiolate-imidazolium ion pair of some cysteine proteinases has been the subject of controversy for some time. This study reports the expression of wild type procaricain and Asp158Glu, Asp158Asn and Asp158Ala mutants from Escherichia coli. Purification of autocatalytically matured enzymes yielded sufficient fully active material for pH (kcat/Km) profiles to be obtained. Use of both uncharged and charged substrates allowed the effects of different reactive enzyme species to be separated from the complications of electrostatic effects between enzyme and substrate. At least three ionizations are detectable in the acid limb of wild type caricain and the Glu and Asn mutants. Only two pKa values, however, are detectable in the acid limb using the Ala mutant. Comparison of pH activity profiles shows that whilst an ionizable residue at position 158 is not essential for the formation of the thiolate-imidazolium ion pair, it does form a substantial part of the electrostatic field responsible for increased catalytic competence. Changing the position of this ionizable group in any way reduces activity. Complete removal of the charged group reduces catalytic competence even further. This work indicates that hydronations distant to the active site are contributing to the electrostatic effects leading to multiple active ionization states of the enzyme. PMID:7855143

  18. Two Conserved Cysteine Residues Are Required for the Masculinizing Activity of the Silkworm Masc Protein.

    PubMed

    Katsuma, Susumu; Sugano, Yudai; Kiuchi, Takashi; Shimada, Toru

    2015-10-23

    We have recently discovered that the Masculinizer (Masc) gene encodes a CCCH tandem zinc finger protein, which controls both masculinization and dosage compensation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In this study, we attempted to identify functional regions or residues that are required for the masculinizing activity of the Masc protein. We constructed a series of plasmids that expressed the Masc derivatives and transfected them into a B. mori ovary-derived cell line, BmN-4. To assess the masculinizing activity of the Masc derivatives, we investigated the splicing patterns of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx) and the expression levels of B. mori IGF-II mRNA-binding protein, a splicing regulator of Bmdsx, in Masc cDNA-transfected BmN-4 cells. We found that two zinc finger domains are not required for the masculinizing activity. We also identified that the C-terminal 288 amino acid residues are sufficient for the masculinizing activity of the Masc protein. Further detailed analyses revealed that two cysteine residues, Cys-301 and Cys-304, in the highly conserved region among lepidopteran Masc proteins are essential for the masculinizing activity in BmN-4 cells. Finally, we showed that Masc is a nuclear protein, but its nuclear localization is not tightly associated with the masculinizing activity. PMID:26342076

  19. Broad Spectrum Activity of a Lectin-Like Bacterial Serine Protease Family on Human Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ayala-Lujan, Jorge Luis; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei; Smith, Rachel; Santiago, Araceli E.; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The serine protease autotransporter from Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) family, which number more than 25 proteases with apparent diverse functions, have been phylogenetically divided into two distinct classes, designated 1 and 2. We recently demonstrated that Pic and Tsh, two members of the class-2 SPATE family produced by intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, were able to cleave a number of O-glycosylated proteins on neutrophils and lymphocytes resulting in impaired leukocyte functions. Here we show that most members of the class-2 SPATE family have lectin-like properties and exhibit differential protease activity reliant on glycoprotein type and cell lineage. Protease activity was seen in virtually all tested O-glycosylated proteins including CD34, CD55, CD164, TIM1, TIM3, TIM4 and C1-INH. We also show that although SPATE proteins bound and cleaved glycoproteins more efficiently on granulocytes and monocytes, they also targeted glycoproteins on B, T and natural killer lymphocytes. Finally, we found that the characteristic domain-2 of class-2 SPATEs is not required for glycoprotease activity, but single amino acid mutations in Pic domain-1 to those residues naturally occurring in domain-1 of SepA, were sufficient to hamper Pic glycoprotease activity. This study shows that most class-2 SPATEs have redundant activities and suggest that they may function as immunomodulators at several levels of the immune system. PMID:25251283

  20. Pressure-Enhanced Activity and Stability of a Hyperthermophilic Protease from a Deep-Sea Methanogen

    PubMed Central

    Michels, P. C.; Clark, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the properties of a hyperthermophilic, barophilic protease from Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic deep-sea methanogen. This enzyme is the first protease to be isolated from an organism adapted to a high-pressure-high-temperature environment. The partially purified enzyme has a molecular mass of 29 kDa and a narrow substrate specificity with strong preference for leucine at the P1 site of polypeptide substrates. Enzyme activity increased up to 116(deg)C and was measured up to 130(deg)C, one of the highest temperatures reported for the function of any enzyme. In addition, enzyme activity and thermostability increased with pressure: raising the pressure to 500 atm increased the reaction rate at 125(deg)C 3.4-fold and the thermostability 2.7-fold. Spin labeling of the active-site serine revealed that the active-site geometry of the M. jannaschii protease is not grossly different from that of several mesophilic proteases; however, the active-site structure may be relatively rigid at moderate temperatures. The barophilic and thermophilic behavior of the enzyme is consistent with the barophilic growth of M. jannaschii observed previously (J. F. Miller et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:3039-3042, 1988). PMID:16535711

  1. Broad spectrum activity of a lectin-like bacterial serine protease family on human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Lujan, Jorge Luis; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei; Smith, Rachel; Santiago, Araceli E; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The serine protease autotransporter from Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) family, which number more than 25 proteases with apparent diverse functions, have been phylogenetically divided into two distinct classes, designated 1 and 2. We recently demonstrated that Pic and Tsh, two members of the class-2 SPATE family produced by intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, were able to cleave a number of O-glycosylated proteins on neutrophils and lymphocytes resulting in impaired leukocyte functions. Here we show that most members of the class-2 SPATE family have lectin-like properties and exhibit differential protease activity reliant on glycoprotein type and cell lineage. Protease activity was seen in virtually all tested O-glycosylated proteins including CD34, CD55, CD164, TIM1, TIM3, TIM4 and C1-INH. We also show that although SPATE proteins bound and cleaved glycoproteins more efficiently on granulocytes and monocytes, they also targeted glycoproteins on B, T and natural killer lymphocytes. Finally, we found that the characteristic domain-2 of class-2 SPATEs is not required for glycoprotease activity, but single amino acid mutations in Pic domain-1 to those residues naturally occurring in domain-1 of SepA, were sufficient to hamper Pic glycoprotease activity. This study shows that most class-2 SPATEs have redundant activities and suggest that they may function as immunomodulators at several levels of the immune system. PMID:25251283

  2. A novel serine protease with human fibrino(geno)lytic activities from Artocarpus heterophyllus latex.

    PubMed

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Thumanu, Kanjana; Sojikul, Punchapat; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2012-07-01

    A protease was isolated and purified from Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) latex and designated as a 48-kDa antimicrobial protease (AMP48) in a previous publication. In this work, the enzyme was characterized for more biochemical and medicinal properties. Enzyme activity of AMP48 was strongly inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and soybean trypsin inhibitor, indicating that the enzyme was a plant serine protease. The N-terminal amino acid sequences (A-Q-E-G-G-K-D-D-D-G-G) of AMP48 had no sequence similarity matches with any sequence databases of BLAST search and other plant serine protease. The secondary structure of this enzyme was composed of high α-helix (51%) and low β-sheet (9%). AMP48 had fibrinogenolytic activity with maximal activity between 55 and 60°C at pH 8. The enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed α followed by partially hydrolyzed β and γ subunits of human fibrinogen. In addition, the fibrinolytic activity was observed through the degradation products by SDS-PAGE and emphasized its activity by monitoring the alteration of secondary structure of fibrin clot after enzyme digestion using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. This study presented the potential role to use AMP48 as antithrombotic for treatment thromboembolic disorders such as strokes, pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis. PMID:22579962

  3. Protease activity at invadopodial focal digestive areas is dependent on NHE1-driven acidic pHe.

    PubMed

    Greco, Maria Raffaella; Antelmi, Ester; Busco, Giovanni; Guerra, Lorenzo; Rubino, Rosa; Casavola, Valeria; Reshkin, Stephan Joel; Cardone, Rosa Angela

    2014-02-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step of tumor cell invasion and requires protease-dependent proteolysis focalized at the invadopodia where the proteolysis of the ECM occurs. Most of the extracellular proteases belong to serine- or metallo-proteases and the invadopodia is where protease activity is regulated. While recent data looking at global protease activity in the growth medium reported that their activity and role in invasion is dependent on Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1)-driven extracellular acidification, there is no data on this aspect at the invadopodia, and an open question remains whether this acid extracellular pH (pHe) activation of proteases in tumor cells occurs preferentially at invadopodia. We previously reported that the NHE1 is expressed in breast cancer invadopodia and that the NHE1‑dependent acidification of the peri-invadopodial space is critical for ECM proteolysis. In the present study, using, for the first time, in situ zymography analysis, we demonstrated a concordance between NHE1 activity, extracellular acidification and protease activity at invadopodia to finely regulate ECM digestion. We demonstrated that: (i) ECM proteolysis taking place at invadopodia is driven by acidification of the peri-invadopodia microenvironment; (ii) that the proteases have a functional pHe optimum that is acidic; (iii) more than one protease is functioning to digest the ECM at these invadopodial sites of ECM proteolysis; and (iv) lowering pHe or inhibiting the NHE1 increases protease secretion while blocking protease activity changes NHE1 expression at the invadopodia. PMID:24337203

  4. Dengue protease activity: the structural integrity and interaction of NS2B with NS3 protease and its potential as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Phong, Wai Y; Moreland, Nicole J; Lim, Siew P; Wen, Daying; Paradkar, Prasad N; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2011-10-01

    Flaviviral NS3 serine proteases require the NS2B cofactor region (cNS2B) to be active. Recent crystal structures of WNV (West Nile virus) protease in complex with inhibitors revealed that cNS2B participates in the formation of the protease active site. No crystal structures of ternary complexes are currently available for DENV (dengue virus) to validate the role of cNS2B in active site formation. In the present study, a GST (glutathione transferase) fusion protein of DENV-2 cNS2B49-95 was used as a bait to pull down DENV-2 protease domain (NS3pro). The affinity of NS3pro for cNS2B was strong (equilibrium-binding constant <200 nM) and the heterodimeric complex displayed a catalytic efficiency similar to that of single-chain DENV-2 cNS2B/NS3pro. Various truncations and mutations in the cNS2B sequence showed that conformational integrity of the entire 47 amino acids is critical for protease activity. Furthermore, DENV-2 NS3 protease can be pulled down and transactivated by cNS2B cofactors from DENV-1, -3, -4 and WNV, suggesting that mechanisms for activation are conserved across the flavivirus genus. To validate NS2B as a potential target in allosteric inhibitor development, a cNS2B-specific human monoclonal antibody (3F10) was utilized. 3F10 disrupted the interaction between cNS2B and NS3 in vitro and reduced DENV viral replication in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. This provides proof-of-concept for developing assays to find inhibitors that block the interaction between NS2B and NS3 during viral translation. PMID:21329491

  5. Role of a cysteine residue in the active site of ERK and the MAPKK family

    SciTech Connect

    Ohori, Makoto; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Yoshimura, Seiji; Warizaya, Masaichi; Nakajima, Hidenori . E-mail: hidenori.nakajima@jp.astellas.com; Miyake, Hiroshi

    2007-02-16

    Kinases of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), represent likely targets for pharmacological intervention in proliferative diseases. Here, we report that FR148083 inhibits ERK2 enzyme activity and TGF{beta}-induced AP-1-dependent luciferase expression with respective IC{sub 50} values of 0.08 and 0.05 {mu}M. FR265083 (1'-2' dihydro form) and FR263574 (1'-2' and 7'-8' tetrahydro form) exhibited 5.5-fold less and no activity, respectively, indicating that both the {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketone and the conformation of the lactone ring contribute to this inhibitory activity. The X-ray crystal structure of the ERK2/FR148083 complex revealed that the compound binds to the ATP binding site of ERK2, involving a covalent bond to S{gamma} of ERK2 Cys166, hydrogen bonds with the backbone NH of Met108, N{zeta} of Lys114, backbone C=O of Ser153, N{delta}2 of Asn154, and hydrophobic interactions with the side chains of Ile31, Val39, Ala52, and Leu156. The covalent bond motif in the ERK2/FR148083 complex assures that the inhibitor has high activity for ERK2 and no activity for other MAPKs such as JNK1 and p38MAPK{alpha}/{beta}/{gamma}/{delta} which have leucine residues at the site corresponding to Cys166 in ERK2. On the other hand, MEK1 and MKK7, kinases of the MAPKK family which also can be inhibited by FR148083, contain a cysteine residue corresponding to Cys166 of ERK2. The covalent binding to the common cysteine residue in the ATP-binding site is therefore likely to play a crucial role in the inhibitory activity for these MAP kinases. These findings on the molecular recognition mechanisms of FR148083 for kinases with Cys166 should provide a novel strategy for the pharmacological intervention of MAPK cascades.

  6. Quantitative Measurement of Protease-Activity with Correction of Probe Delivery and Tissue Absorption Effects

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Fred; Tam, Jenny M.; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar

    2009-01-01

    Proteases play important roles in a variety of pathologies from heart disease to cancer. Quantitative measurement of protease activity is possible using a novel spectrally matched dual fluorophore probe and a small animal lifetime imager. The recorded fluorescence from an activatable fluorophore, one that changes its fluorescent amplitude after biological target interaction, is also influenced by other factors including imaging probe delivery and optical tissue absorption of excitation and emission light. Fluorescence from a second spectrally matched constant (non-activatable) fluorophore on each nanoparticle platform can be used to correct for both probe delivery and tissue absorption. The fluorescence from each fluorophore is separated using fluorescence lifetime methods. PMID:20161242

  7. Design of a Selective Substrate and Activity Based Probe for Human Neutrophil Serine Protease 4.

    PubMed

    Kasperkiewicz, Paulina; Poreba, Marcin; Snipas, Scott J; Lin, S Jack; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Human neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4), also known as PRSS57, is a recently discovered fourth member of the neutrophil serine proteases family. Although its biological function is not precisely defined, it is suggested to regulate neutrophil response and innate immune reactions. To create optimal substrates and visualization probes for NSP4 that distinguish it from other NSPs we have employed a Hybrid Combinatorial Substrate Library approach that utilizes natural and unnatural amino acids to explore protease subsite preferences. Library results were validated by synthesizing individual substrates, leading to the identification of an optimal substrate peptide. This substrate was converted to a covalent diphenyl phosphonate probe with an embedded biotin tag. This probe demonstrated high inhibitory activity and stringent specificity and may be suitable for visualizing NSP4 in the background of other NSPs. PMID:26172376

  8. A natural variant of the cysteine protease virulence factor of group A Streptococcus with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif preferentially binds human integrins alphavbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3.

    PubMed

    Stockbauer, K E; Magoun, L; Liu, M; Burns, E H; Gubba, S; Renish, S; Pan, X; Bodary, S C; Baker, E; Coburn, J; Leong, J M; Musser, J M

    1999-01-01

    The human pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus produces an extracellular cysteine protease [streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB)] that is a critical virulence factor for invasive disease episodes. Sequence analysis of the speB gene from 200 group A Streptococcus isolates collected worldwide identified three main mature SpeB (mSpeB) variants. One of these variants (mSpeB2) contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, a tripeptide motif that is commonly recognized by integrin receptors. mSpeB2 is made by all isolates of the unusually virulent serotype M1 and several other geographically widespread clones that frequently cause invasive infections. Only the mSpeB2 variant bound to transfected cells expressing integrin alphavbeta3 (also known as the vitronectin receptor) or alphaIIbbeta3 (platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa), and binding was blocked by a mAb that recognizes the streptococcal protease RGD motif region. In addition, mSpeB2 bound purified platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3. Defined beta3 mutants that are altered for fibrinogen binding were defective for SpeB binding. Synthetic peptides with the mSpeB2 RGD motif, but not the RSD sequence present in other mSpeB variants, blocked binding of mSpeB2 to transfected cells expressing alphavbeta3 and caused detachment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results (i) identify a Gram-positive virulence factor that directly binds integrins, (ii) identify naturally occurring variants of a documented Gram-positive virulence factor with biomedically relevant differences in their interactions with host cells, and (iii) add to the theme that subtle natural variation in microbial virulence factor structure alters the character of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:9874803

  9. A natural variant of the cysteine protease virulence factor of group A Streptococcus with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif preferentially binds human integrins αvβ3 and αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Stockbauer, Kathryn E.; Magoun, Loranne; Liu, Mengyao; Burns, Eugene H.; Gubba, Siddeswar; Renish, Sarah; Pan, Xi; Bodary, Sarah C.; Baker, Elizabeth; Coburn, Jenifer; Leong, John M.; Musser, James M.

    1999-01-01

    The human pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus produces an extracellular cysteine protease [streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB)] that is a critical virulence factor for invasive disease episodes. Sequence analysis of the speB gene from 200 group A Streptococcus isolates collected worldwide identified three main mature SpeB (mSpeB) variants. One of these variants (mSpeB2) contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, a tripeptide motif that is commonly recognized by integrin receptors. mSpeB2 is made by all isolates of the unusually virulent serotype M1 and several other geographically widespread clones that frequently cause invasive infections. Only the mSpeB2 variant bound to transfected cells expressing integrin αvβ3 (also known as the vitronectin receptor) or αIIbβ3 (platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa), and binding was blocked by a mAb that recognizes the streptococcal protease RGD motif region. In addition, mSpeB2 bound purified platelet integrin αIIbβ3. Defined β3 mutants that are altered for fibrinogen binding were defective for SpeB binding. Synthetic peptides with the mSpeB2 RGD motif, but not the RSD sequence present in other mSpeB variants, blocked binding of mSpeB2 to transfected cells expressing αvβ3 and caused detachment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results (i) identify a Gram-positive virulence factor that directly binds integrins, (ii) identify naturally occurring variants of a documented Gram-positive virulence factor with biomedically relevant differences in their interactions with host cells, and (iii) add to the theme that subtle natural variation in microbial virulence factor structure alters the character of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:9874803

  10. Comparative analysis of immunoglobulin A1 protease activity among bacteria representing different genera, species, and strains.

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    1997-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving human IgA1 in the hinge region are produced constitutively by a number of pathogens, including Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as by some members of the resident oropharyngeal flora. Whereas IgA1 proteases have been shown to interfere with the functions of IgA antibodies in vitro, the exact role of these enzymes in the relationship of bacteria to a human host capable of responding with enzyme-neutralizing antibodies is not clear. Conceivably, the role of IgA1 proteases may depend on the quantity of IgA1 protease generated as well as on the balance between secreted and cell-associated forms of the enzyme. Therefore, we have compared levels of IgA1 protease activity in cultures of 38 bacterial strains representing different genera and species as well as strains of different pathogenic potential. Wide variation in activity generation rate was found overall and within some species. High activity was not an exclusive property of bacteria with documented pathogenicity. Almost all activity of H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, and N. gonorrhoeae strains was present in the supernatant. In contrast, large proportions of the activity in Streptococcus, Prevotella, and Capnocytophaga species was cell associated at early stationary phase, suggesting that the enzyme may play the role of a surface antigen. Partial release of cell-associated activity occurred during stationary phase. Within some taxa, the degree of activity variation correlated with degree of antigenic diversity of the enzyme as determined previously. This finding may indicate that the variation observed is of biological significance. PMID:9353019

  11. HvPap-1 C1A protease actively participates in barley proteolysis mediated by abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Arroyo, Blanca; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Gandullo, Jacinto; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Santamaria, M Estrella; Dominguez-Figueroa, Jose D; Hensel, Goetz; Martinez, Manuel; Kumlehn, Jochen; Diaz, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Protein breakdown and mobilization from old or stressed tissues to growing and sink organs are some of the metabolic features associated with abiotic/biotic stresses, essential for nutrient recycling. The massive degradation of proteins implies numerous proteolytic events in which cysteine-proteases are the most abundant key players. Analysing the role of barley C1A proteases in response to abiotic stresses is crucial due to their impact on plant growth and grain yield and quality. In this study, dark and nitrogen starvation treatments were selected to induce stress in barley. Results show that C1A proteases participate in the proteolytic processes triggered in leaves by both abiotic treatments, which strongly induce the expression of the HvPap-1 gene encoding a cathepsin F-like protease. Differences in biochemical parameters and C1A gene expression were found when comparing transgenic barley plants overexpressing or silencing the HvPap-1 gene and wild-type dark-treated leaves. These findings associated with morphological changes evidence a lifespan-delayed phenotype of HvPap-1 silenced lines. All these data elucidate on the role of this protease family in response to abiotic stresses and the potential of their biotechnological manipulation to control the timing of plant growth. PMID:27217548

  12. rlk/TXK Encodes Two Forms of a Novel Cysteine String Tyrosine Kinase Activated by Src Family Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Jayantha; Chamorro, Mario; Czar, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Lenardo, Michael J.; Varmus, Harold E.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.

    1999-01-01

    Rlk/Txk is a member of the BTK/Tec family of tyrosine kinases and is primarily expressed in T lymphocytes. Unlike other members of this kinase family, Rlk lacks a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain near the amino terminus and instead contains a distinctive cysteine string motif. We demonstrate here that Rlk protein consists of two isoforms that arise by alternative initiation of translation from the same cDNA. The shorter, internally initiated protein species lacks the cysteine string motif and is located in the nucleus when expressed in the absence of the larger form. In contrast, the larger form is cytoplasmic. We show that the larger form is palmitoylated and that mutation of its cysteine string motif both abolishes palmitoylation and allows the protein to migrate to the nucleus. The cysteine string, therefore, is a critical determinant of both fatty acid modification and protein localization for the larger isoform of Rlk, suggesting that Rlk regulation is distinct from the other Btk family kinases. We further show that Rlk is phosphorylated and changes localization in response to T-cell-receptor (TCR) activation and, like the other Btk family kinases, can be phosphorylated and activated by Src family kinases. However, unlike the other Btk family members, Rlk is activated independently of the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, consistent with its lack of a PH domain. Thus, Rlk has two distinct isoforms, each of which may have unique properties in signaling downstream from the TCR. PMID:9891083

  13. Activation of protease-activated receptor 2 reduces glioblastoma cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of glioma is unclear. The disturbance of the apoptosis process plays a critical role in glioma growth. Factors regulating the apoptosis process are to be further understood. This study aims to investigate the role of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in regulation the apoptosis process in glioma cells. Results The results showed that U87 cells and human glioma tissue expressed PAR2. Exposure to tryptase, or the PAR2 active peptide, increased STAT3 phosphorylation in the radiated U87 cells, reduced U87 cell apoptosis, suppressed the expression of p53 in U87 cells. Conclusions Activation of PAR2 can reduce the radiated U87 cell apoptosis via modulating the expression of p53. The results implicate that PAR2 may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of glioma. PMID:24670244

  14. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous nepenthes plants.

    PubMed

    Buch, Franziska; Kaman, Wendy E; Bikker, Floris J; Yilamujiang, Ayufu; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep). Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster) prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory. PMID:25750992

  15. Characterization of a serine protease-mediated cell death program activated in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, A.R.; Holohan, C.; Torriglia, A.; Lee, B.F.; Stenson-Cox, C. . E-mail: catherine.stenson@nuigalway.ie

    2006-01-01

    Tightly controlled proteolysis is a defining feature of apoptosis and caspases are critical in this regard. Significant roles for non-caspase proteases in cell death have been highlighted. Staurosporine causes a rapid induction of apoptosis in virtually all mammalian cell types. Numerous studies demonstrate that staurosporine can activate cell death under caspase-inhibiting circumstances. The aim of this study was to investigate the proteolytic mechanisms responsible for cell death under these conditions. To that end, we show that inhibitors of serine proteases can delay cell death in one such system. Furthermore, through profiling of proteolytic activation, we demonstrate, for the first time, that staurosporine activates a chymotrypsin-like serine protease-dependent cell death in HL-60 cells independently, but in parallel with the caspase controlled systems. Features of the serine protease-mediated system include cell shrinkage and apoptotic morphology, regulation of caspase-3, altered nuclear morphology, generation of an endonuclease and DNA degradation. We also demonstrate a staurosporine-induced activation of a putative 16 kDa chymotrypsin-like protein during apoptosis.

  16. Nepenthesin Protease Activity Indicates Digestive Fluid Dynamics in Carnivorous Nepenthes Plants

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Franziska; Kaman, Wendy E.; Bikker, Floris J.; Yilamujiang, Ayufu; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep). Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer)-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster) prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory. PMID:25750992

  17. Overexpression of a cuticle-degrading protease Ver112 increases the nematicidal activity of Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinkui; Zhao, Xuna; Liang, Lianming; Xia, Zhenyuan; Lei, Liping; Niu, Xuemei; Zou, Chenggang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-03-01

    Due to their ability to degrade the proteins in nematode cuticle, serine proteases play an important role in the pathogenicity of nematophagous fungi against nematodes. The serine protease Ver112 was identified from the nematophagous fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae capable of degrading the nematode cuticle and killing nematodes effectively. In this study, the gene ver112 was introduced into the commercial biocontrol fungal agent Paecilomyces lilacinus by the restriction enzyme-mediated integration transformation. Compared to the wild strain, the transformant P. lilacinus 112 showed significantly greater protease activity, with nematicidal activities increased by 79% and 96% to Panagrellus redivivus and Caenorhabditis elegans at the second day, respectively. The crude protein extract isolated from the culture filtrate of P. lilacinus 112 also showed 20-25% higher nematicidal activity than that of the wild-type strain. Reverse transcription PCR results showed that the expression of gene ver112 in P. lilacinus 112 was correlated to protease activity of the culture filtrate. Our results demonstrated the first successful transfer of a virulence gene from one nematophagous fungus to another nematophagous fungus, and improved the pathogenicity of the recipient fungus against pest nematodes. PMID:21110018

  18. Decolorization of crude latex by activated charcoal, purification and physico-chemical characterization of religiosin, a milk-clotting serine protease from the latex of Ficus religiosa.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Moni; Sharma, Anurag; Jagannadham, M V

    2010-07-14

    The crude latex of Ficus religiosa is decolorized by activated charcoal. Decolorization follows the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. A serine protease, named religiosin, has been purified to homogeneity from the decolorized latex using anion exchange chromatography. Religiosin is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 43.4 kDa by MALDI-TOF. Religiosin is an acidic protein with a pI value of 3.8 and acts optimally at pH 8.0-8.5 and temperature 50 degrees C. The proteolytic activity of religiosin is strongly inhibited by PMSF and chymostatin indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The extinction coefficient (epsilon(1%)(280)) of religiosin is 29.47 M(-1) cm(-1)with 16 tryptophan, 26 tyrosine, and 11 cysteine residues per molecule. The enzyme shows broad substrate specificity against natural as well as synthetic substrates with an apparent K(m) of 0.066 mM and 6.25 mM using casein and Leu-pNA, respectively. MS/MS analysis confirms the novelty of the enzyme. Religiosin is highly stable against denaturants, metal ions, and detergents as well as over a wide range of pH and temperature. In addition, the enzyme exhibits milk-clotting as well as detergent activity. PMID:20560603

  19. Alternaria-derived serine protease activity drives IL-33–mediated asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Snelgrove, Robert J.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Peiró, Teresa; Akthar, Samia; Campbell, Gaynor A.; Walker, Simone A.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is implicated in severe asthma and rapid onset life-threatening exacerbations of disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie this severe pathogenicity remain unclear. Objective We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby Alternaria was capable of initiating severe, rapid onset allergic inflammation. Methods IL-33 levels were quantified in wild-type and ST2−/− mice that lacked the IL-33 receptor given inhaled house dust mite, cat dander, or Alternaria, and the effect of inhibiting allergen-specific protease activities on IL-33 levels was assessed. An exacerbation model of allergic airway disease was established whereby mice were sensitized with house dust mite before subsequently being challenged with Alternaria (with or without serine protease activity), and inflammation, remodeling, and lung function assessed 24 hours later. Results Alternaria, but not other common aeroallergens, possessed intrinsic serine protease activity that elicited the rapid release of IL-33 into the airways of mice through a mechanism that was dependent upon the activation of protease activated receptor-2 and adenosine triphosphate signaling. The unique capacity of Alternaria to drive this early IL-33 release resulted in a greater pulmonary inflammation by 24 hours after challenge relative to the common aeroallergen house dust mite. Furthermore, this Alternaria serine protease–IL-33 axis triggered a rapid, augmented inflammation, mucus release, and loss of lung function in our exacerbation model. Conclusion Alternaria-specific serine protease activity causes rapid IL-33 release, which underlies the development of a robust TH2 inflammation and exacerbation of allergic airway disease. PMID:24636086

  20. Active site conformational changes of prostasin provide a new mechanism of protease regulation by divalent cations

    SciTech Connect

    Spraggon, Glen; Hornsby, Michael; Shipway, Aaron; Tully, David C.; Bursulaya, Badry; Danahay, Henry; Harris, Jennifer L.; Lesley, Scott A.

    2010-01-12

    Prostasin or human channel-activating protease 1 has been reported to play a critical role in the regulation of extracellular sodium ion transport via its activation of the epithelial cell sodium channel. Here, the structure of the extracellular portion of the membrane associated serine protease has been solved to high resolution in complex with a nonselective d-FFR chloromethyl ketone inhibitor, in an apo form, in a form where the apo crystal has been soaked with the covalent inhibitor camostat and in complex with the protein inhibitor aprotinin. It was also crystallized in the presence of the divalent cation Ca{sup +2}. Comparison of the structures with each other and with other members of the trypsin-like serine protease family reveals unique structural features of prostasin and a large degree of conformational variation within specificity determining loops. Of particular interest is the S1 subsite loop which opens and closes in response to basic residues or divalent ions, directly binding Ca{sup +2} cations. This induced fit active site provides a new possible mode of regulation of trypsin-like proteases adapted in particular to extracellular regions with variable ionic concentrations such as the outer membrane layer of the epithelial cell.

  1. The Race against Protease Activation Defines the Role of ESCRTs in HIV Budding

    PubMed Central

    Bendjennat, Mourad; Saffarian, Saveez

    2016-01-01

    HIV virions assemble on the plasma membrane and bud out of infected cells using interactions with endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). HIV protease activation is essential for maturation and infectivity of progeny virions, however, the precise timing of protease activation and its relationship to budding has not been well defined. We show that compromised interactions with ESCRTs result in delayed budding of virions from host cells. Specifically, we show that Gag mutants with compromised interactions with ALIX and Tsg101, two early ESCRT factors, have an average budding delay of ~75 minutes and ~10 hours, respectively. Virions with inactive proteases incorporated the full Gag-Pol and had ~60 minutes delay in budding. We demonstrate that during budding delay, activated proteases release critical HIV enzymes back to host cytosol leading to production of non-infectious progeny virions. To explain the molecular mechanism of the observed budding delay, we modulated the Pol size artificially and show that virion release delays are size-dependent and also show size-dependency in requirements for Tsg101 and ALIX. We highlight the sensitivity of HIV to budding “on-time” and suggest that budding delay is a potent mechanism for inhibition of infectious retroviral release. PMID:27280284

  2. Redox-Active Sensing by Bacterial DksA Transcription Factors Is Determined by Cysteine and Zinc Content

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Matthew A.; Tapscott, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Liam F.; Liu, Lin; Reyes, Aníbal M.; Libby, Stephen J.; Trujillo, Madia; Fang, Ferric C.; Radi, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The four-cysteine zinc finger motif of the bacterial RNA polymerase regulator DksA is essential for protein structure, canonical control of the stringent response to nutritional limitation, and thiol-based sensing of oxidative and nitrosative stress. This interdependent relationship has limited our understanding of DksA-mediated functions in bacterial pathogenesis. Here, we have addressed this challenge by complementing ΔdksA Salmonella with Pseudomonas aeruginosa dksA paralogues that encode proteins differing in cysteine and zinc content. We find that four-cysteine, zinc-bound (C4) and two-cysteine, zinc-free (C2) DksA proteins are able to mediate appropriate stringent control in Salmonella and that thiol-based sensing of reactive species is conserved among C2 and C4 orthologues. However, variations in cysteine and zinc content determine the threshold at which individual DksA proteins sense and respond to reactive species. In particular, zinc acts as an antioxidant, dampening cysteine reactivity and raising the threshold of posttranslational thiol modification with reactive species. Consequently, C2 DksA triggers transcriptional responses in Salmonella at levels of oxidative or nitrosative stress normally tolerated by Salmonella expressing C4 orthologues. Inappropriate transcriptional regulation by C2 DksA increases the susceptibility of Salmonella to the antimicrobial effects of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, and attenuates virulence in macrophages and mice. Our findings suggest that the redox-active sensory function of DksA proteins is finely tuned to optimize bacterial fitness according to the levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress encountered by bacterial species in their natural and host environments. PMID:27094335

  3. Antagonism of protease-activated receptor 2 protects against experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Rink-Jan; Cotterell, Adam J; Suen, Jacky; Liu, Ligong; Do, Anh T; Vesey, David A; Fairlie, David P

    2012-02-01

    Many trypsin-like serine proteases such as β-tryptase are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Inhibitors of individual proteases show limited efficacy in treating such conditions, but also probably disrupt digestive and defensive functions of proteases. Here, we investigate whether masking their common target, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), is an effective therapeutic strategy for treating acute and chronic experimental colitis in rats. A novel PAR2 antagonist (5-isoxazoyl-Cha-Ile-spiro[indene-1,4'-piperidine]; GB88) was evaluated for the blockade of intracellular calcium release in colonocytes and anti-inflammatory activity in acute (PAR2 agonist-induced) versus chronic [2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced] models of colitis in Wistar rats. Disease progression (disease activity index, weight loss, and mortality) and postmortem colonic histopathology (inflammation, bowel wall thickness, and myeloperoxidase) were measured. PAR2 and tryptase colocalization were investigated by using immunohistochemistry. GB88 was a more potent antagonist of PAR2 activation in colonocytes than another reported compound, N¹-3-methylbutyryl-N⁴-6-aminohexanoyl-piperazine (ENMD-1068) (IC₅₀ 8 μM versus 5 mM). Acute colonic inflammation induced in rats by the PAR2 agonist SLIGRL-NH₂ was inhibited by oral administration of GB88 (10 mg/kg) with markedly reduced edema, mucin depletion, PAR2 receptor internalization, and mastocytosis. Chronic TNBS-induced colitis in rats was ameliorated by GB88 (10 mg/kg/day p.o.), which reduced mortality and pathology (including colon obstruction, ulceration, wall thickness, and myeloperoxidase release) more effectively than the clinically used drug sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg/day p.o.). These disease-modifying properties for the PAR2 antagonist in both acute and chronic experimental colitis strongly support a pathogenic role for PAR2 and PAR2-activating proteases and therapeutic potential for

  4. Characterization of a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor from Solanum tuberosum having lectin activity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kunal R; Patel, Dhaval K; Pappachan, Anju; Prabha, C Ratna; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2016-02-01

    Plant lectins and protease inhibitors constitute a class of proteins which plays a crucial role in plant defense. In our continuing investigations on lectins from plants, we have isolated, purified and characterized a protein of about 20 kDa, named PotHg, showing hemagglutination activity from tubers of Indian potato, Solanum tuberosum. De novo sequencing and MS/MS analysis confirmed that the purified protein was a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor having two chains (15 kDa and 5 kDa). SDS and native PAGE analysis showed that the protein was glycosylated and was a heterodimer of about 15 and 5 kDa subunits. PotHg agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes with specific activity of 640 H.U./mg which was inhibited by complex sugars like fetuin. PotHg retained hemagglutination activity over a pH range 4-9 and up to 80°C. Mannose and galactose interacted with the PotHg with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.5×10(-3) M and 2.8×10(-3) M, respectively as determined through fluorescence studies. Fluorescence studies suggested the involvement of a tryptophan in sugar binding which was further confirmed through modification of tryptophan residues using N-bromosuccinimide. Circular dichroism (CD) studies showed that PotHg contains mostly β sheets (∼45%) and loops which is in line with previously characterized protease inhibitors and modeling studies. There are previous reports of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors showing lectin like activity from Peltophorum dubium and Labramia bojeri. This is the first report of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor showing lectin like activity from a major crop plant and this makes PotHg an interesting candidate for further investigation. PMID:26645142

  5. Plasminogen activator and serine protease inhibitor-E2 (protease nexin-1) expression by bovine granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingju; Sahmi, Malha; Lussier, Jacques G; Price, Christopher A

    2004-09-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs during antral follicle growth, and the plasminogen activators (PA) have been implicated in this process in rodents. In the present study, we measured the expression and secretion of PA and the PA inhibitor protease nexin-1 (SerpinE2) in antral and basal bovine granulosa cells from small (<6 mm), medium (6-8 mm), and large follicles (>8 mm) during 6 days of culture in serum-free medium. Casein zymography revealed that the cells secreted predominantly tissue-type PA (tPA) with urokinase (uPA) being associated mainly with cell lysates, and Western blot demonstrated that the cells secreted SerpinE2. Overall, secreted tPA activity was higher in cultures of cells from small follicles compared with large follicles, and secreted SerpinE2 levels were higher in cultures of cells from large follicles. In cultures of cells from small follicles, secreted tPA levels increased with time of culture for antral but not basal cells, and SerpinE2 levels increased with time for basal but not antral cells. In cultures of granulosa cells from large follicles, tPA activity increased significantly with time of culture, whereas SerpinE2 levels decreased. Cell-associated uPA activity decreased with time in cells from medium and large follicles. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis showed that SerpinE2 secretion was regulated largely at the transcriptional level, whereas tPA secretion was not. The data suggest stage-dependent regulation of granulosa cell PA and SerpinE2 production, consistent with a role in ECM remodeling during follicle growth. PMID:15128599

  6. The Protease Inhibitor HAI-2, but Not HAI-1, Regulates Matriptase Activation and Shedding through Prostasin*

    PubMed Central

    Friis, Stine; Sales, Katiuchia Uzzun; Schafer, Jeffrey Martin; Vogel, Lotte K.; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-anchored serine proteases, matriptase and prostasin, and the membrane-anchored serine protease inhibitors, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 and HAI-2, are critical effectors of epithelial development and postnatal epithelial homeostasis. Matriptase and prostasin form a reciprocal zymogen activation complex that results in the formation of active matriptase and prostasin that are targets for inhibition by HAI-1 and HAI-2. Conflicting data, however, have accumulated as to the existence of auxiliary functions for both HAI-1 and HAI-2 in regulating the intracellular trafficking and activation of matriptase. In this study, we, therefore, used genetically engineered mice to determine the effect of ablation of endogenous HAI-1 and endogenous HAI-2 on endogenous matriptase expression, subcellular localization, and activation in polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Whereas ablation of HAI-1 did not affect matriptase in epithelial cells of the small or large intestine, ablation of HAI-2 resulted in the loss of matriptase from both tissues. Gene silencing studies in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers revealed that this loss of cell-associated matriptase was mechanistically linked to accelerated activation and shedding of the protease caused by loss of prostasin regulation by HAI-2. Taken together, these data indicate that HAI-1 regulates the activity of activated matriptase, whereas HAI-2 has an essential role in regulating prostasin-dependent matriptase zymogen activation. PMID:24962579

  7. Keap1 Cysteine 288 as a Potential Target for Diallyl Trisulfide-Induced Nrf2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghyun; Lee, Hee-Geum; Park, Sin-Aye; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Keum, Young-Sam; Cha, Young-Nam; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, and daillyl trisulfide (DATS) are major volatile components of garlic oil. In this study, we assessed their relative potency in inducing antioxidant enzyme expression. Among the three organosulfur compounds, DATS was found to be most potent in inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) in human gastric epithelial (AGS) cells. Furthermore, DATS administration by gavage increased the expression of HO-1 and NQO1 in C57BL/6 mouse stomach. Treatment with DATS increased the accumulation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the nucleus of cultured AGS cells and in mouse stomach in vivo. The DATS-induced expression of HO-1 and NQO1 was abrogated in the cells transiently transfected with Nrf2-siRNA or in the embryonic fibroblasts from Nrf2-null mice, indicating that Nrf2 is a key mediator of the cytoprotective effects of DATS. Pretreatment of AGS cells with N-acetylcysteine or dithiothreitol attenuated DATS-induced nuclear localization of Nrf2 and the expression of HO-1 and NQO1. Cysteine-151, -273 and -288 of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), a cytosolic repressor of Nrf2, have been considered to act as a redox sensor and play a role in Nrf2 activation. To determine whether DATS could inactivate Keap1 through thiol modification, we established cell lines constitutively expressing wild type-Keap1 or three different mutant constructs in which cysteine-151, -273, or -288 of Keap1 was replaced with serine by retroviral gene transfer. DATS failed to activate Nrf2, and to induce expression of HO-1 and NQO1 only in Keap1-C288S mutant cells. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of recombinant Keap1 treated with DATS revealed that the peptide fragment containing Cys288 gained a molecular mass of 72.1 Da equivalent to the molecular weight of mono-allyl mono-sulfide. Taken together, these findings suggest that DATS may directly interact with the Cys288 residue of Keap1, which partly accounts for its

  8. Characterization and gene cloning of a novel serine protease with nematicidal activity from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei-Lei; Liu, Li-Jun; Shi, Mei; Song, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Chang-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2 is a biocontrol fungus with inhibitory ability against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, a crude extract of strain SMF2 in a solid ferment exhibited strong nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita, and a novel serine protease SprT with nematicidal activity was purified from the crude extract. Protease SprT has a molecular mass of 31 kDa, a pH optimum of 8.5, and a temperature optimum of 60-65 degrees C. It had good thermostability, and was stable in an alkaline environment. SprT could degrade bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, and gelatin, and its activity was enhanced by many metal ions. The cuticles of nematodes treated by protease SprT obviously crimpled. Purified protease SprT could kill juveniles of M. incognita and inhibit egg hatch, suggesting that it is involved in the nematicidal process of T. pseudokoningii SMF2. The full-length cDNA gene-encoding protease SprT was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Sequence analysis showed that SprT is a monodomain subtilase containing 284 amino acid residues. It had higher identities and a closer relation to the nematicidal serine proteases (59-69%) from nematode parasitic fungi than to the serine proteases (<50%) from Trichoderma. Protease SprT represents the first well-characterized subtilase with nematicidal activity from Trichoderma. PMID:19702879

  9. Role of enteric nerves in immune-mediated changes in protease activated receptor 2 effects on gut function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protease activated receptors (PARs) are expressed on structural cells and immune cells. Control of the initiation, duration, and magnitude of the PAR effects are linked to the level of receptor expression, the availability of proteases, and the intracellular signal transduction machinery. We inve...

  10. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27093053

  11. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Raheem; Shah, Majid Ali; Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27093053

  12. Detection of Plasma Protease Activity Using Microsphere-Cytometry Assays with E. coli Derived Substrates: VWF Proteolysis by ADAMTS13.

    PubMed

    Gogia, Shobhit; Lo, Chi Y; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Protease levels in human blood are often prognostic indicators of inflammatory, thrombotic or oncogenic disorders. The measurement of such enzyme activities in substrate-based assays is complicated due to the low prevalence of these enzymes and steric hindrance of the substrates by the more abundant blood proteins. To address these limitations, we developed a molecular construct that is suitable for microsphere-cytometer based assays in the milieu of human blood plasma. In this proof of principle study, we demonstrate the utility of this substrate to measure metalloprotease ADAMTS13 activity. The substrate, expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein, contains the partial A2-domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF amino acids 1594-1670) that is mutated to include a single primary amine at the N-terminus and free cysteines at the C-terminus. N-terminus fluorescence conjugation was possible using NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry. Maleimide-PEG(Polyethylene glycol)n-biotin coupling at the C-terminus allowed biotinylation with variable PEG spacer lengths. Once bound to streptavidin-bearing microspheres, the substrate fluorescence signal decreased in proportion with ADAMTS13 concentration. Whereas recombinant ADAMTS13 activity could be quantified using substrates with all PEG repeat-lengths, only the construct with the longer 77 PEG-unit could quantify proteolysis in blood plasma. Using this longer substrate, plasma ADAMTS13 down to 5% of normal levels could be detected within 30 min. Such measurements could also be readily performed under conditions resembling hyperbilirubinemia. Enzyme catalytic activity was tuned by varying buffer calcium, with lower divalent ion concentrations enhancing cleavage. Overall, the study highlights the substrate design features important for the creation of efficient proteolysis assays in the setting of human plasma. In particular, it emphasizes the need to introduce PEG spacers in plasma-based experiments, a design attribute commonly

  13. Detection of Plasma Protease Activity Using Microsphere-Cytometry Assays with E. coli Derived Substrates: VWF Proteolysis by ADAMTS13

    PubMed Central

    Gogia, Shobhit; Lo, Chi Y.; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Protease levels in human blood are often prognostic indicators of inflammatory, thrombotic or oncogenic disorders. The measurement of such enzyme activities in substrate-based assays is complicated due to the low prevalence of these enzymes and steric hindrance of the substrates by the more abundant blood proteins. To address these limitations, we developed a molecular construct that is suitable for microsphere-cytometer based assays in the milieu of human blood plasma. In this proof of principle study, we demonstrate the utility of this substrate to measure metalloprotease ADAMTS13 activity. The substrate, expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein, contains the partial A2-domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF amino acids 1594–1670) that is mutated to include a single primary amine at the N-terminus and free cysteines at the C-terminus. N-terminus fluorescence conjugation was possible using NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry. Maleimide-PEG(Polyethylene glycol)n-biotin coupling at the C-terminus allowed biotinylation with variable PEG spacer lengths. Once bound to streptavidin-bearing microspheres, the substrate fluorescence signal decreased in proportion with ADAMTS13 concentration. Whereas recombinant ADAMTS13 activity could be quantified using substrates with all PEG repeat-lengths, only the construct with the longer 77 PEG-unit could quantify proteolysis in blood plasma. Using this longer substrate, plasma ADAMTS13 down to 5% of normal levels could be detected within 30 min. Such measurements could also be readily performed under conditions resembling hyperbilirubinemia. Enzyme catalytic activity was tuned by varying buffer calcium, with lower divalent ion concentrations enhancing cleavage. Overall, the study highlights the substrate design features important for the creation of efficient proteolysis assays in the setting of human plasma. In particular, it emphasizes the need to introduce PEG spacers in plasma-based experiments, a design attribute commonly

  14. Structural characterization reveals the keratinolytic activity of an arthrobacter nicotinovorans protease.

    PubMed

    Sone, Teruo; Haraguchi, Yumiko; Kuwahara, Aki; Ose, Toyoyuki; Takano, Megumi; Abe, Ayumi; Tanaka, Michiko; Tanaka, Isao; Asano, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Elevated cadmium (Cd) concentrations in fishery byproducts are an environmental concern, that might be reduced by enzymatic removal and adsorption of the contaminants during recycling the byproducts as animal food. We cloned the gene for Arthrobacter nicotinovorans serine protease (ANISEP), which was isolated from the hepatopancreas of the Japanese scallop (Patiopecten yessoensis) and has been found to be an effective enzyme for Cd(II) removal. The gene is 993 bp in length and encodes 330 amino acids, including the pre (1-30) and pro (31-111) sequences. The catalytic triad consists of His, Asp, and Ser. Sequence similarities indicate that ANISEP is a extracellular serine protease. X-ray crystallography revealed structural similarities between ANISEP and the trypsin-like serine protease NAALP from Nesterenkonia sp. Site-directed mutagenesis identified Ser171 as catalytic residue. The keratinolytic activity of ANISEP was 10-fold greater than that of trypsin. ANISEP digested Cd(II)-bound recombinant metallothionein MT-10a from Laternula elliptica, but did not release Cd. These results further suggest ANISEP is a trypsin-like serine protease that can release Cd from the Japanese scallop hepatopancreas because of its strong keratinolytic activity. PMID:25256266

  15. Collagenolytic activity related to metalloproteases (and serine proteases) in the fish parasite Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Malagón, David; Adroher, Francisco Javier; Díaz-López, Manuel; Benítez, Rocío

    2010-06-11

    Proteases play a vital role in both the life cycle of parasites and the parasite-host relationship and are considered important virulence factors. In the present study, the presence of proteases with collagenolytic activity was investigated in the fish nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum during in vitro development. Collagenolytic activity was found in all studied developmental stages of the nematode (third [L3] and fourth [L4] larval stages and adults). In L3, the activity was maximum at pH 6.5 and, in the other stages, at 7.0. Pepsin is known to favour in vitro development of the worm, but, in this study, collagenolytic activity was shown to be significantly greater when no pepsin was added to the culture medium (at pH 6.5, p = 0.011). At pH 7.0, most activity was observed in the immature adult, after the final moult, suggesting that the collagenolytic activity may be involved in remodelling of the cuticle and in sexual maturity. On the other hand, at pH 6.5, activity may be related to tissue migration by L3 within the host. Using specific inhibitors, it was demonstrated that most of the collagenolytic activity detected in all the developmental stages was due to metalloproteases (40 to 100%), although serine proteases were also detected in L4 and adults (10 to 30%). PMID:20662369

  16. Effects of urine composition on epithelial Na+ channel-targeted protease activity.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jonathan M; Awayda, Ryan G; Awayda, Mouhamed S

    2015-11-01

    We examined human urinary proteolytic activity toward the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC). We focused on two sites in each of alpha and gamma ENaC that are targets of endogenous and exogenous proteases. We examined the effects of ionic strength, pH and urinary H(+)-buffers, metabolic intermediates, redox molecules, and large urinary proteins. Monoatomic cations caused the largest effect, with sodium inhibiting activity in the 15-515 mEq range. Multivalent cations zinc and copper inhibited urinary proteolytic activity at concentrations below 100 μmol/L. Similar to sodium, urea caused a 30% inhibition in the 0-500 mmol/L range. This was not observed with acetone and ethanol. Modulating urinary redox status modified activity with H2O2 stimulated and ascorbate inhibited activity. Minimal effects (<10%) were observed with caffeine, glucose, several TCA cycle intermediates, salicylic acid, inorganic phosphate, albumin, creatinine, and Tamm-Horsfall protein. The cumulative activity of ENaC-cleaving proteases was highest at neutral pH, however, alpha and gamma proteases exhibited an inverse dependence with alpha stimulated at acidic and gamma stimulated at alkaline pH. These data indicate that ENaC-targeting urinary proteolytic activity is sensitive to sodium, urea and pH and changes in these components can modify channel cleavage and activation status, and likely downstream sodium absorption unrelated to changes in protein or channel density. PMID:26564065

  17. Investigations with Protease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents two simple and reliable ways for measuring protease activity that can be used for a variety of investigations in a range of biology class levels. The investigations use protease from a variety of sources. (DDR)

  18. Cysteine cathepsins S and L modulate anti-angiogenic activities of human endostatin.

    PubMed

    Veillard, Florian; Saidi, Ahlame; Burden, Roberta E; Scott, Christopher J; Gillet, Ludovic; Lecaille, Fabien; Lalmanach, Gilles

    2011-10-28

    Human endostatin, a potent anti-angiogenic protein, is generated by release of the C terminus of collagen XVIII. Here, we propose that cysteine cathepsins are involved in both the liberation and activation of bioactive endostatin fragments, thus regulating their anti-angiogenic properties. Cathepsins B, S, and L efficiently cleaved in vitro FRET peptides that encompass the hinge region corresponding to the N terminus of endostatin. However, in human umbilical vein endothelial cell-based assays, silencing of cathepsins S and L, but not cathepsin B, impaired the generation of the ∼22-kDa endostatin species. Moreover, cathepsins L and S released two peptides from endostatin with increased angiostatic properties and both encompassing the NGR sequence, a vasculature homing motif. The G10T peptide (residues 1455-1464: collagen XVIII numbering) displayed compelling anti-proliferative (EC(50) = 0.23 nm) and proapoptotic properties. G10T inhibited aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) and reduced tube formation of endothelial cells in a manner similar to bestatin. Combination of G10T with bestatin resulted in no further increase in anti-angiogenic activity. Taken together, these data suggest that endostatin-derived peptides may represent novel molecular links between cathepsins and APN/CD13 in the regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:21896479

  19. Cleavage and activation of a Toll-like receptor by microbial proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bouwman, Lieneke I.; Keestra, A. Marijke; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that show high conservation throughout the animal kingdom. Most TLRs can be clustered into phylogenetic groups that respond to similar types of ligands. One exception is avian TLR15. This receptor does not categorize into one of the existing groups of TLRs and its ligand is still unknown. Here we report that TLR15 is a sensor for secreted virulence-associated fungal and bacterial proteases. Activation of TLR15 involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor ectodomain and stimulation of NF-κB–dependent gene transcription. Receptor activation can be mimicked by the expression of a truncated TLR15 of which the entire ectodomain is removed, suggesting that receptor cleavage alleviates receptor inhibition by the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results indicate TLR15 as a unique type of innate immune receptor that combines TLR characteristics with an activation mechanism typical for the evolutionary distinct protease-activated receptors. PMID:21383168

  20. Cleavage and activation of a Toll-like receptor by microbial proteases.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Marcel R; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Keestra, A Marijke; van Putten, Jos P M

    2011-03-22

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that show high conservation throughout the animal kingdom. Most TLRs can be clustered into phylogenetic groups that respond to similar types of ligands. One exception is avian TLR15. This receptor does not categorize into one of the existing groups of TLRs and its ligand is still unknown. Here we report that TLR15 is a sensor for secreted virulence-associated fungal and bacterial proteases. Activation of TLR15 involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor ectodomain and stimulation of NF-κB-dependent gene transcription. Receptor activation can be mimicked by the expression of a truncated TLR15 of which the entire ectodomain is removed, suggesting that receptor cleavage alleviates receptor inhibition by the leucine-rich repeat domain. Our results indicate TLR15 as a unique type of innate immune receptor that combines TLR characteristics with an activation mechanism typical for the evolutionary distinct protease-activated receptors. PMID:21383168

  1. Structure of the catalytic domain of the hepatitis C virus NS2-3 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz,I.; Marcotrigiano, J.; Dentzer, T.; Rice, C.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major global health problem affecting an estimated 170 million people worldwide. Chronic infection is common and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. There is no vaccine available and current therapies have met with limited success. The viral RNA genome encodes a polyprotein that includes two proteases essential for virus replication. The NS2-3 protease mediates a single cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, whereas the NS3-4A protease cleaves at four downstream sites in the polyprotein. NS3-4A is characterized as a serine protease with a chymotrypsin-like fold, but the enzymatic mechanism of the NS2-3 protease remains unresolved. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the NS2-3 protease at 2.3 Angstroms resolution. The structure reveals a dimeric cysteine protease with two composite active sites. For each active site, the catalytic histidine and glutamate residues are contributed by one monomer, and the nucleophilic cysteine by the other. The carboxy-terminal residues remain coordinated in the two active sites, predicting an inactive post-cleavage form. Proteolysis through formation of a composite active site occurs in the context of the viral polyprotein expressed in mammalian cells. These features offer unexpected insights into polyprotein processing by hepatitis C virus and new opportunities for antiviral drug design.

  2. [Physiology of protease-activated receptors (PARs): involvement of PARs in digestive functions].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, A; Kuroda, R; Hollenberg, M D

    1999-10-01

    The protease-activated receptor (PAR), a G protein-coupled receptor present on cell surface, mediates cellular actions of extracellular proteases. Proteases cleave the extracellular N-terminal of PAR molecules at a specific site, unmasking and exposing a novel N-terminal, a tethered ligand, that binds to the body of receptor molecules resulting in receptor activation. Amongst four distinct PARs that have been cloned, PARs 1, 3 and 4 are activated by thrombin, but PAR-2 is activated by trypsin or mast cell tryptase. Human platelets express two distinct thrombin receptors, PAR-1 and PAR-4, while murine platelets express PAR-3 and PAR-4. Apart from roles of PARs in platelet activation, PARs are distributed to a number of organs in various species, predicting their physiological importance. We have been evaluating agonists specific for each PAR, using multiple procedures including a HEK cell calcium signal receptor desensitization assay. Using specific agonists that we developed, we found the following: 1) the salivary glands express PAR-2 mRNA and secret saliva in response to PAR-2 activation; 2) pancreatic juice secretion occurs following in vivo PAR-2 activation; 3) PAR-1 and PAR-2 modulate duodenal motility. Collectively, PAR plays various physiological and/or pathophysiological roles, especially in the digestive systems, and could be a novel target for drug development. PMID:10629876

  3. Analysis of prepro-alpha-lytic protease expression in Escherichia coli reveals that the pro region is required for activity.

    PubMed Central

    Silen, J L; Frank, D; Fujishige, A; Bone, R; Agard, D A

    1989-01-01

    The alpha-lytic protease of Lysobacter enzymogenes was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli by fusing the promoter and signal sequence of the E. coli phoA gene to the proenzyme portion of the alpha-lytic protease gene. Following induction, active enzyme was found both within cells and in the extracellular medium, where it slowly accumulated to high levels. Use of a similar gene fusion to express the protease domain alone produced inactive enzyme, indicating that the large amino-terminal pro region is necessary for activity. The implications for protein folding are discussed. Furthermore, inactivation of the protease by mutation of the catalytic serine residue resulted in the production of a higher-molecular-weight form of the alpha-lytic protease, suggesting that the enzyme is self-processing in E. coli. Images PMID:2646278

  4. Oxidative stress is required for mechanical ventilation-induced protease activation in the diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Smuder, Ashley J.; Wu, Min; Hudson, Matthew B.; Nelson, W. Bradley; Powers, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) results in diaphragmatic weakness due to fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Recent work reveals that activation of the proteases calpain and caspase-3 is required for MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for activation of these proteases remains unknown. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress is essential for the activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm during MV. Cause-and-effect was established by prevention of MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress using the antioxidant Trolox. Treatment of animals with Trolox prevented MV-induced protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the diaphragm. Importantly, the Trolox-mediated protection from MV-induced oxidative stress prevented the activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm during MV. Furthermore, the avoidance of MV-induced oxidative stress not only averted the activation of these proteases but also rescued the diaphragm from MV-induced diaphragmatic myofiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Collectively, these findings support the prediction that oxidative stress is required for MV-induced activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm and are consistent with the concept that antioxidant therapy can retard MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness. PMID:20203072

  5. Characterization of protease from Alcaligens faecalis and its antibacterial activity on fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, N; Kumar, Arun; Saravanakumar, A; Vijaylakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T

    2011-11-01

    Alcaligens faecalis AU01 isolated from seafood industry effluent produced an alkaline protease. The optimum culture conditions for growth as well as enzyme production were 37 degrees C and pH 8. The partially purified protease had specific activity of 9.66 with 17.77% recovery with the molecular weight of 33 kDa and it was active between 30-70 degrees C and optimum being at 55 degrees C and pH 9. The enzyme retains more than 85% activity at 70 degrees C and 78% even at pH 10. The enzyme inhibited the growth of fish pathogens such as Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio harveyi, Proteus sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. From the present study it can be concluded that Alcaligens faecalis AU01 has the potential for aquaculture as probiotic agent and other several applications. PMID:22471216

  6. Differential Expression of Extracellular Lipase and Protease Activities of Mycelial and Yeast Forms in Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Juntachai, Weerapong; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    Malassezia furfur is a dimorphic yeast that is part of the human skin microflora. This fungus is a pathogen of a certain skin diseases, such as pityriasis versicolor, and in rare cases causes systemic infection in neonates. However, the role of dimorphism in the pathogenicity remains unclear. A modified induction medium (IM) was successfully able to induce mycelial growth of M. furfur under both solid and liquid condition. Filamentous elements with branching hyphae were observed when cultured in the IM. Furthermore, addition of bovine fetus serum into the liquid IM did not promote hyphal formation; on the contrary, it retrograded hyphae to the yeast form. Plate-washing assay showed that M. furfur hyphae did not possess the ability of invasive growth. Secretory proteins from both yeast and hyphal forms were isolated, and lipase and protease activities were analyzed. Intriguingly, the hyphal form showed higher activities than those of the yeast form, particularly the protease activity. PMID:26173769

  7. Mutational anatomy of an HIV-1 protease variant conferring cross-resistance to protease inhibitors in clinical trials. Compensatory modulations of binding and activity.

    PubMed

    Schock, H B; Garsky, V M; Kuo, L C

    1996-12-13

    Site-specific substitutions of as few as four amino acids (M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease engenders cross-resistance to a panel of protease inhibitors that are either in clinical trials or have recently been approved for HIV therapy (Condra, J. H., Schleif, W. A., Blahy, O. M. , Gadryelski, L. J., Graham, D. J., Quintero, J. C., Rhodes, A., Robbins, H. L., Roth, E., Shivaprakash, M., Titus, D., Yang, T., Teppler, H., Squires, K. E., Deutsch, P. J., and Emini, E. A. (1995) Nature 374, 569-571). These four substitutions are among the prominent mutations found in primary HIV isolates obtained from patients undergoing therapy with several protease inhibitors. Two of these mutations (V82T/I84V) are located in, while the other two (M46I/L63P) are away from, the binding cleft of the enzyme. The functional role of these mutations has now been delineated in terms of their influence on the binding affinity and catalytic efficiency of the protease. We have found that the double substitutions of M46I and L63P do not affect binding but instead endow the enzyme with a catalytic efficiency significantly exceeding (110-360%) that of the wild-type enzyme. In contrast, the double substitutions of V82T and I84V are detrimental to the ability of the protease to bind and, thereby, to catalyze. When combined, the four amino acid replacements institute in the protease resistance against inhibitors and a significantly higher catalytic activity than one containing only mutations in its active site. The results suggest that in raising drug resistance, these four site-specific mutations of the protease are compensatory in function; those in the active site diminish equilibrium binding (by increasing Ki), and those away from the active site enhance catalysis (by increasing kcat/KM). This conclusion is further supported by energy estimates in that the Gibbs free energies of binding and catalysis for the quadruple mutant are quantitatively

  8. ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Halasi, Marianna; Wang, Ming; Chavan, Tanmay S; Gaponenko, Vadim; Hay, Nissim; Gartel, Andrei L

    2013-09-01

    NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) is commonly used to identify and test ROS (reactive oxygen species) inducers, and to inhibit ROS. In the present study, we identified inhibition of proteasome inhibitors as a novel activity of NAC. Both NAC and catalase, another known scavenger of ROS, similarly inhibited ROS levels and apoptosis associated with H₂O₂. However, only NAC, and not catalase or another ROS scavenger Trolox, was able to prevent effects linked to proteasome inhibition, such as protein stabilization, apoptosis and accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. These observations suggest that NAC has a dual activity as an inhibitor of ROS and proteasome inhibitors. Recently, NAC was used as a ROS inhibitor to functionally characterize a novel anticancer compound, piperlongumine, leading to its description as a ROS inducer. In contrast, our own experiments showed that this compound depicts features of proteasome inhibitors including suppression of FOXM1 (Forkhead box protein M1), stabilization of cellular proteins, induction of ROS-independent apoptosis and enhanced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates. In addition, NAC, but not catalase or Trolox, interfered with the activity of piperlongumine, further supporting that piperlongumine is a proteasome inhibitor. Most importantly, we showed that NAC, but not other ROS scavengers, directly binds to proteasome inhibitors. To our knowledge, NAC is the first known compound that directly interacts with and antagonizes the activity of proteasome inhibitors. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that, as a result of the dual nature of NAC, data interpretation might not be straightforward when NAC is utilized as an antioxidant to demonstrate ROS involvement in drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:23772801

  9. Electrophilic Nitro-fatty Acids Activate NRF2 by a KEAP1 Cysteine 151-independent Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Kansanen, Emilia; Bonacci, Gustavo; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Kuosmanen, Suvi M.; Tong, Kit I.; Leinonen, Hanna; Woodcock, Steven R.; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Carlberg, Carsten; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Freeman, Bruce A.; Levonen, Anna-Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Nitro-fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are electrophilic signaling mediators formed in vivo via nitric oxide (NO)- and nitrite (NO2−)-dependent reactions. Nitro-fatty acids modulate signaling cascades via reversible covalent post-translational modification of nucleophilic amino acids in regulatory proteins and enzymes, thus altering downstream signaling events, such as Keap1-Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated gene expression. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which 9- and 10-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid (OA-NO2) activate the transcription factor Nrf2, focusing on the post-translational modifications of cysteines in the Nrf2 inhibitor Keap1 by nitroalkylation and its downstream responses. Of the two regioisomers, 9-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid was a more potent ARE inducer than 10-nitro-octadec-9-enoic acid. The most OA-NO2-reactive Cys residues in Keap1 were Cys38, Cys226, Cys257, Cys273, Cys288, and Cys489. Of these, Cys273 and Cys288 accounted for ∼50% of OA-NO2 reactions in a cellular milieu. Notably, Cys151 was among the least OA-NO2-reactive of the Keap1 Cys residues, with mutation of Cys151 having no effect on net OA-NO2 reaction with Keap1 or on ARE activation. Unlike many other Nrf2-activating electrophiles, OA-NO2 enhanced rather than diminished the binding between Keap1 and the Cul3 subunit of the E3 ligase for Nrf2. OA-NO2 can therefore be categorized as a Cys151-independent Nrf2 activator, which in turn can influence the pattern of gene expression and therapeutic actions of nitroalkenes. PMID:21357422

  10. Activation of caspase 3 (CPP32)-like proteases is essential for TNF-alpha-induced hepatic parenchymal cell apoptosis and neutrophil-mediated necrosis in a murine endotoxin shock model.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, H; Fisher, M A; Lawson, J A; Simmons, C A; Farhood, A; Jones, D A

    1998-04-01

    Endotoxin (ET)-induced liver failure is characterized by parenchymal cell apoptosis and inflammation leading to liver cell necrosis. Members of the caspase family have been implicated in the signal transduction pathway of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to characterize ET-induced hepatic caspase activation and apoptosis and to investigate their effect on neutrophil-mediated liver injury. Treatment of C3Heb/FeJ mice with 700 mg/kg galactosamine (Gal) and 100 microg/kg Salmonella abortus equi ET increased caspase 3-like protease activity (Asp-Val-Glu-Asp-substrate) by 1730 +/- 140% at 6 h. There was a parallel enhancement of apoptosis (assessed by DNA fragmentation ELISA and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay). In contrast, activity of caspase 1 (IL-1beta-converting enzyme)-like proteases (Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-substrate) did not change throughout the experiment. Caspase 3-like protease activity and apoptosis was not induced by Gal/ET in ET-resistant mice (C3H/HeJ). Furthermore, only murine TNF-alpha but not IL-1alphabeta increased caspase activity and apoptosis. Gal/ET caused neutrophil-dependent hepatocellular necrosis at 7 h (area of necrosis, 45 +/- 3%). Delayed treatment with the caspase 3-like protease inhibitor Z-Val-Ala-Asp-CH2F (Z-VAD) (10 mg/kg at 3 h) attenuated apoptosis by 81 to 88% and prevented liver cell necrosis (< or = 5%). Z-VAD had no effect on the initial inflammatory response, including the sequestration of neutrophils in sinusoids. However, Z-VAD prevented neutrophil transmigration and necrosis. Our data indicate that activation of the caspase 3 subfamily of cysteine proteases is critical for the development of parenchymal cell apoptosis. In addition, excessive hepatocellular apoptosis can be an important signal for transmigration of primed neutrophils sequestered in sinusoids. PMID:9531309

  11. Identification of proteases from periodontopathogenic bacteria as activators of latent human neutrophil and fibroblast-type interstitial collagenases.

    PubMed Central

    Sorsa, T; Ingman, T; Suomalainen, K; Haapasalo, M; Konttinen, Y T; Lindy, O; Saari, H; Uitto, V J

    1992-01-01

    Activation of latent human fibroblast-type and neutrophil interstitial procollagenases as well as degradation of native type I collagen by supra- and subgingival dental plaque extracts, an 80-kDa trypsinlike protease from Porphyromas gingivalis (ATCC 33277), a 95-kDa chymotrypsinlike protease from Treponema denticola (ATCC 29522), and selected bacterial species commonly isolated in periodontitis was studied. The bacteria included were Prevotella intermedia (ATCC 25261), Prevotella buccae (ES 57), Prevotella oris (ATCC 33573), Porphyromonas endodontalis (ES 54b), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 295222), Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 10953), Mitsuokella dentalis (DSM 3688), and Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 15909). None of the bacteria activated latent procollagenases; however, both sub- and supragingival dental plaque extracts (neutral salt extraction) and proteases isolated from cell extracts from potentially periodontopathogenic bacteria P. gingivalis and T. denticola were found to activate latent human fibroblast-type and neutrophil interstitial procollagenases. The fibroblast-type interstitial collagenase was more efficiently activated by bacterial proteases than the neutrophil counterpart, which instead preferred nonproteolytic activation by the oxidative agent hypochlorous acid. The proteases were not able to convert collagenase tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) complexes into active form or to change the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit interstitial collagenase. None of the studied bacteria, proteases from P. gingivalis and T. denticola, or extracts of supra- and subgingival dental plaque showed any significant collagenolytic activity. However, the proteases degraded native and denatured collagen fragments after cleavage by interstitial collagenase and gelatinase. Our results indicate that proteases from periodontopathogenic bacteria can act as direct proteolytic activators of human procollagenases and degrade collagen fragments. Thus, in

  12. Influence of Cysteine and Tryptophan Substitution on DNA-Binding Activity on Maize α-Hairpinin Antimicrobial Peptide.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Daniel A; Porto, William F; Silva, Maria Z; da Silva, Tatiane R; Franco, Octávio L

    2016-01-01

    For almost four decades, antimicrobial peptides have been studied, and new classes are being discovered. However, for therapeutic use of these molecules, issues related to the mechanism of action must be answered. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of the hairpinin MBP-1 was studied by the synthesis of two variants, one replacing cysteines and one tryptophan with alanine. Antibacterial activity was abolished in both variants. No membrane disturbance, even in concentrations higher than those required to inhibit the bacteria, was observed in SEM microscopy. The gel retardation assay showed that MBP-1 possesses a higher DNA-binding ability than variants. Finally, molecular modelling showed that the lack of cysteines resulted in structure destabilization and lack of tryptophan resulted in a less flexible peptide, with less solvent assessable surface area, both characteristics that could contribute to absence of activity. In summary, the data here reported add more information about the multiple mechanisms of action of α-hairpinins. PMID:27529210

  13. Delivery of a Protease-Activated Cytolytic Peptide Prodrug by Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jallouk, Andrew P; Palekar, Rohun U; Marsh, Jon N; Pan, Hua; Pham, Christine T N; Schlesinger, Paul H; Wickline, Samuel A

    2015-08-19

    Melittin is a cytolytic peptide derived from bee venom that inserts into lipid membranes and oligomerizes to form membrane pores. Although this peptide is an attractive candidate for treatment of cancers and infectious processes, its nonspecific cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity have limited its therapeutic applications. Several groups have reported the development of cytolytic peptide prodrugs that only exhibit cytotoxicity following activation by site-specific proteases. However, systemic administration of these constructs has proven difficult because of their poor pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we present a platform for the design of protease-activated melittin derivatives that may be used in conjunction with a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle delivery system. Although native melittin was substantially hemolytic (HD50: 1.9 μM) and cytotoxic (IC50: 2.4 μM), the prodrug exhibited 2 orders of magnitude less hemolytic activity (HD50: > 100 μM) and cytotoxicity (IC50: > 100 μM). Incubation with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) led to cleavage of the prodrug at the expected site and restoration of hemolytic activity (HD50: 3.4 μM) and cytotoxicity (IC50: 8.1 μM). Incubation of the prodrug with perfluorocarbon nanoparticles led to stable loading of 10,250 peptides per nanoparticle. Nanoparticle-bound prodrug was also cleaved and activated by MMP-9, albeit at a fourfold slower rate. Intravenous administration of prodrug-loaded nanoparticles in a mouse model of melanoma significantly decreased tumor growth rate (p = 0.01). Because MMPs and other proteases play a key role in cancer invasion and metastasis, this platform holds promise for the development of personalized cancer therapies directed toward a patient's individual protease expression profile. PMID:26083278

  14. Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor from leaves of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

    PubMed

    Satheesh, L Shilpa; Murugan, K

    2011-05-01

    Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor isolated from Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt. has been reported. A 14.3 kDa protease inhibitor (PI) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation (20-85% saturation), sephadex G-75, DEAE sepharose column and trypsin-sepharose affinity chromatography from the leaves of C. grandis. The purity was checked by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. PI exhibited marked growth inhibitory effects on colon cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PI was thermostable and showed antimicrobial activity without hemolytic activity. PI strongly inhibited pathogenic microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Eschershia coli, Bacillus subtilis and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, Mucor indicus, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Examination by bright field microscopy showed inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation. Morphologically, PI treated fungus showed a significant shrinkage of hyphal tips. Reduced PI completely lost its activity indicating that disulfide bridge is essential for its protease inhibitory and antifungal activity. Results reported in this study suggested that PI may be an excellent candidate for development of novel oral or other anti-infective agents. PMID:21615062

  15. Protease-Activated Pore-Forming Peptides for the Treatment and Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    LeBeau, Aaron M.; Denmeade, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    A common hallmark of cancers with highly aggressive phenotypes is increased proteolysis in the tumor and the surrounding microenvironment. Prostate cancer has a number of proteases uniquely associated with it that may play various important roles in disease progression. In this report, we utilize the peritumoral proteolytic activity of prostate cancer to activate engineered peptide constructs for the treatment and noninvasive imaging of prostate cancer. Using a modular "propeptide" approach, a cationic diastereomeric pore-forming peptide domain was linked to an inactivating acidic peptide domain. The inactivating acidic peptide domain was engineered to be a cleavable substrate for the secreted serine protease prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or the transmembrane metalloprotease prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). The propeptides were then evaluated in a direct comparison study. Both the PSA and PSMA activated propeptides were found to be cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In vivo, however, treatment of LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 xenografts with the PSMA propeptide resulted in a pronounced cytostatic effect when compared with xenografts treated with the PSA propeptide or the cationic diastereomeric peptide alone. The PSMA activated propeptide also proved to be an effective optical imaging probe in vivo when labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore. These data suggest that protease-activated pore-forming peptides could potentially be used for both imaging and treating prostate cancer. PMID:25537662

  16. Crystal Structure and Activity Studies of the C11 Cysteine Peptidase from Parabacteroides merdae in the Human Gut Microbiome*

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debanu; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Coombs, Graham H.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    Clan CD cysteine peptidases, a structurally related group of peptidases that include mammalian caspases, exhibit a wide range of important functions, along with a variety of specificities and activation mechanisms. However, for the clostripain family (denoted C11), little is currently known. Here, we describe the first crystal structure of a C11 protein from the human gut bacterium, Parabacteroides merdae (PmC11), determined to 1.7-Å resolution. PmC11 is a monomeric cysteine peptidase that comprises an extended caspase-like α/β/α sandwich and an unusual C-terminal domain. It shares core structural elements with clan CD cysteine peptidases but otherwise structurally differs from the other families in the clan. These studies also revealed a well ordered break in the polypeptide chain at Lys147, resulting in a large conformational rearrangement close to the active site. Biochemical and kinetic analysis revealed Lys147 to be an intramolecular processing site at which cleavage is required for full activation of the enzyme, suggesting an autoinhibitory mechanism for self-preservation. PmC11 has an acidic binding pocket and a preference for basic substrates, and accepts substrates with Arg and Lys in P1 and does not require Ca2+ for activity. Collectively, these data provide insights into the mechanism and activity of PmC11 and a detailed framework for studies on C11 peptidases from other phylogenetic kingdoms. PMID:26940874

  17. Crystal Structure and Activity Studies of the C11 Cysteine Peptidase from Parabacteroides merdae in the Human Gut Microbiome.

    PubMed

    McLuskey, Karen; Grewal, Jaspreet S; Das, Debanu; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Deacon, Ashley M; Coombs, Graham H; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A; Mottram, Jeremy C

    2016-04-29

    Clan CD cysteine peptidases, a structurally related group of peptidases that include mammalian caspases, exhibit a wide range of important functions, along with a variety of specificities and activation mechanisms. However, for the clostripain family (denoted C11), little is currently known. Here, we describe the first crystal structure of a C11 protein from the human gut bacterium, Parabacteroides merdae (PmC11), determined to 1.7-Å resolution. PmC11 is a monomeric cysteine peptidase that comprises an extended caspase-like α/β/α sandwich and an unusual C-terminal domain. It shares core structural elements with clan CD cysteine peptidases but otherwise structurally differs from the other families in the clan. These studies also revealed a well ordered break in the polypeptide chain at Lys(147), resulting in a large conformational rearrangement close to the active site. Biochemical and kinetic analysis revealed Lys(147) to be an intramolecular processing site at which cleavage is required for full activation of the enzyme, suggesting an autoinhibitory mechanism for self-preservation. PmC11 has an acidic binding pocket and a preference for basic substrates, and accepts substrates with Arg and Lys in P1 and does not require Ca(2+) for activity. Collectively, these data provide insights into the mechanism and activity of PmC11 and a detailed framework for studies on C11 peptidases from other phylogenetic kingdoms. PMID:26940874

  18. Crystal structure and activity studies of the C11 cysteine peptidase from Parabacteroides merdae in the human gut microbiome

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McLuskey, Karen; Grewal, Jaspreet S.; Das, Debanu; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Coombs, Graham H.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Mottram, Jeremy C.

    2016-03-03

    Clan CD cysteine peptidases, a structurally related group of peptidases that include mammalian caspases, exhibit a wide range of important functions, along with a variety of specificities and activation mechanisms. However, for the clostripain family (denoted C11), little is currently known. Here, we describe the first crystal structure of a C11 protein from the human gut bacterium, Parabacteroides merdae (PmC11), determined to 1.7-Å resolution. PmC11 is a monomeric cysteine peptidase that comprises an extended caspase-like α/β/α sandwich and an unusual C-terminal domain. It shares core structural elements with clan CD cysteine peptidases but otherwise structurally differs from the other familiesmore » in the clan. These studies also revealed a well ordered break in the polypeptide chain at Lys147, resulting in a large conformational rearrangement close to the active site. Biochemical and kinetic analysis revealed Lys147 to be an intramolecular processing site at which cleavage is required for full activation of the enzyme, suggesting an autoinhibitory mechanism for self-preservation. PmC11 has an acidic binding pocket and a preference for basic substrates, and accepts substrates with Arg and Lys in P1 and does not require Ca2+ for activity. Altogether, these data provide insights into the mechanism and activity of PmC11 and a detailed framework for studies on C11 peptidases from other phylogenetic kingdoms.« less

  19. Peptide-Modulated Activity Enhancement of Acidic Protease Cathepsin E at Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Masayuki; Biyani, Madhu; Ghimire Gautam, Sunita; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes are regulated by their activation and inhibition. Enzyme activators can often be effective tools for scientific and medical purposes, although they are more difficult to obtain than inhibitors. Here, using the paired peptide method, we report on protease-cathepsin-E-activating peptides that are obtained at neutral pH. These selected peptides also underwent molecular evolution, after which their cathepsin E activation capability improved. Thus, the activators we obtained could enhance cathepsin-E-induced cancer cell apoptosis, which indicated their potential as cancer drug precursors. PMID:23365585

  20. IgA Protease Activity in Haemophilus parasuis in the Absence of a Recognizable IgA Protease Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Haemophilus parasuis, the bacterium responsible for Glasser’s disease, is a pathogen of significant concern in modern high-health swine production systems. Little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of H. parasuis infection. In some Pasteurellaceae species, IgA proteases aid in d...

  1. Is dihydrolipoic acid among the reductive activators of parasite CysHis proteases?

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Thomas D

    2008-04-01

    Activities of mature CysHis proteases depend upon relative rates of oxidations vs. reductions of catalytic sulfur by multiple enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. CysHis peptidolysis is inhibited by Fe3+ but not Fe2+. Others report the paradox that malarial parasites require exogenous free lipoic acid (LA) from human host, although the apicoplast organelle produces it. Extra-cellular LA disulfide can be taken up and reduced to dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) by reductases of any cell type. Here, the opposing effects of DHLA vs. Fe3+ on the falcipain-2 hemoglobinase were investigated employing Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrate. Despite limited solubility, non-regenerated DHLA (10 microM, threshold 2 microM) was found to be the most potent activator of the air-inactivated (sulfoxygenated) protease discovered thus far. Activation was preemptively opposed by Fe3+, but not Fe2+. However, cruzain from T. cruzi, and cathepsin B from mammal were indistinguishable in their responsiveness to DHLA and Fe redox. Thus, DHLA activation vs. Fe3+ inhibition is not unique to falcipain-2 or apicomplexans but is rather a primordial feature of CysHis peptidolysis. Free LA and/or unassociated lipoylated enzyme subunits could be among multiple pathways shuttling reducing equivalents to reduction of proteins, including CysHis proteases. It is discussed that opposing DHLA-Fe3+ modification of plasmodial proteolysis might be a specialized adaptation to intra-erythrocytic growth. PMID:18068706

  2. Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Diar; Hirata, Kazumasa; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2014-01-23

    In order to overcome the skin's excellent barrier function formulation scientists often employ skin penetration enhancers (SPEs) in topical and transdermal formulations. The effects of these compounds on skin health is still not well understood at the molecular level. The aim of the present work was to probe the effects of some common SPEs on desquamatory protease activity in healthy skin. The SPEs studied were isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol, (PG), propylene glycol laurate (PGL) and Transcutol™ (TC). Occluded infinite doses of each SPE were applied to human volunteers for 24 h. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements were taken before and after application of SPEs. Tape strips were collected from the treated sites to determine protein content and the activity of two desquamatory proteases kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and kallikrein 7 (KLK7). TEWL values were also measured after tape stripping. PG was found to elevate both TEWL values and KLK7 activity to a significant extent (p<0.05). No significant effects were observed for the other SPEs. The ability of PG to alter the skin barrier at the macroscopic level and the influence of the molecule on protease activity reported here may have implications for its use in topical formulations used for the management of impaired skin barrier function such as atopic eczema or psoriasis. PMID:24063883

  3. Differential Signaling by Protease-Activated Receptors: Implications for Therapeutic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Tejminder S.; French, Shauna L.; Hamilton, Justin R.

    2014-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of four G protein-coupled receptors that exhibit increasingly appreciated differences in signaling and regulation both within and between the receptor class. By nature of their proteolytic self-activation mechanism, PARs have unique processes of receptor activation, “ligand” binding, and desensitization/resensitization. These distinctive aspects have presented both challenges and opportunities in the targeting of PARs for therapeutic benefit—the most notable example of which is inhibition of PAR1 on platelets for the prevention of arterial thrombosis. However, more recent studies have uncovered further distinguishing features of PAR-mediated signaling, revealing mechanisms by which identical proteases elicit distinct effects in the same cell, as well as how distinct proteases produce different cellular consequences via the same receptor. Here we review this differential signaling by PARs, highlight how important distinctions between PAR1 and PAR4 are impacting on the progress of a new class of anti-thrombotic drugs, and discuss how these more recent insights into PAR signaling may present further opportunities for manipulating PAR activation and signaling in the development of novel therapies. PMID:24733067

  4. The fibrinolytic activity of a novel protease derived from a tempeh producing fungus, Fusarium sp. BLB.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fujii, Tadashi; Morimiya, Tatsuo; Johdo, Osamu; Nakamura, Takumi

    2007-09-01

    Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian soybean-fermented food produced by filamentous fungi, Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. We isolated and sequenced the genomic gene and a cDNA clone encoding a novel protease (FP) from Fusarium sp. BLB. The genomic gene was 856 bp in length and contained two introns. An isolated cDNA clone encoded a protein of 250 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence of FP showed highest homology, of 76%, with that of trypsin from Fusarium oxysporum. The hydrolysis activity of FP toward synthetic peptide was higher than that of any other protease tested, including Nattokinases. Furthermore, the thrombolytic activity of FP was about 2.1-fold higher than that of Nattokinase when the concentration of plasminogen was 24 units/ml. These results suggest that FP is superior to Nattokinases in dissolving fibrin when absorbed into the blood. PMID:17827689

  5. The death enzyme CP14 is a unique papain-like cysteine proteinase with a pronounced S2 subsite selectivity.

    PubMed

    Paireder, Melanie; Mehofer, Ulrich; Tholen, Stefan; Porodko, Andreas; Schähs, Philipp; Maresch, Daniel; Biniossek, Martin L; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Lenarcic, Brigita; Novinec, Marko; Schilling, Oliver; Mach, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    The cysteine protease CP14 has been identified as a central component of a molecular module regulating programmed cell death in plant embryos. CP14 belongs to a distinct subfamily of papain-like cysteine proteinases of which no representative has been characterized thoroughly to date. However, it has been proposed that CP14 is a cathepsin H-like protease. We have now produced recombinant Nicotiana benthamiana CP14 (NbCP14) lacking the C-terminal granulin domain. As typical for papain-like cysteine proteinases, NbCP14 undergoes rapid autocatalytic activation when incubated at low pH. The mature protease is capable of hydrolysing several synthetic endopeptidase substrates, but cathepsin H-like aminopeptidase activity could not be detected. NbCP14 displays a strong preference for aliphatic over aromatic amino acids in the specificity-determining P2 position. This subsite selectivity was also observed upon digestion of proteome-derived peptide libraries. Notably, the specificity profile of NbCP14 differs from that of aleurain-like protease, the N. benthamiana orthologue of cathepsin H. We conclude that CP14 is a papain-like cysteine proteinase with unusual enzymatic properties which may prove of central importance for the execution of programmed cell death during plant development. PMID:27246477

  6. The Effect of Clade-Specific Sequence Polymorphisms on HIV-1 Protease Activity and Inhibitor Resistance Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaranayake, Rajintha M.; Kolli, Madhavi; King, Nancy M.; Nalivaika, Ellen A.; Heroux, Annie; Kakizawa, Junko; Sugiura, Wataru; Schiffer, Celia A.

    2010-09-08

    The majority of HIV-1 infections around the world result from non-B clade HIV-1 strains. The CRF01{_}AE (AE) strain is seen principally in Southeast Asia. AE protease differs by {approx}10% in amino acid sequence from clade B protease and carries several naturally occurring polymorphisms that are associated with drug resistance in clade B. AE protease has been observed to develop resistance through a nonactive-site N88S mutation in response to nelfinavir (NFV) therapy, whereas clade B protease develops both the active-site mutation D30N and the nonactive-site mutation N88D. Structural and biochemical studies were carried out with wild-type and NFV-resistant clade B and AE protease variants. The relationship between clade-specific sequence variations and pathways to inhibitor resistance was also assessed. AE protease has a lower catalytic turnover rate than clade B protease, and it also has weaker affinity for both NFV and darunavir (DRV). This weaker affinity may lead to the nonactive-site N88S variant in AE, which exhibits significantly decreased affinity for both NFV and DRV. The D30N/N88D mutations in clade B resulted in a significant loss of affinity for NFV and, to a lesser extent, for DRV. A comparison of crystal structures of AE protease shows significant structural rearrangement in the flap hinge region compared with those of clade B protease and suggests insights into the alternative pathways to NFV resistance. In combination, our studies show that sequence polymorphisms within clades can alter protease activity and inhibitor binding and are capable of altering the pathway to inhibitor resistance.

  7. NS2 Proteins of GB Virus B and Hepatitis C Virus Share Common Protease Activities and Membrane Topologies

    PubMed Central

    Boukadida, Célia; Marnata, Caroline; Montserret, Roland; Cohen, Lisette; Blumen, Brigitte; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Moradpour, Darius; Penin, François

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT GB virus B (GBV-B), which is hepatotropic in experimentally infected small New World primates, is a member of the Hepacivirus genus but phylogenetically relatively distant from hepatitis C virus (HCV). To gain insights into the role and specificity of hepaciviral nonstructural protein 2 (NS2), which is required for HCV polyprotein processing and particle morphogenesis, we investigated whether NS2 structural and functional features are conserved between HCV and GBV-B. We found that GBV-B NS2, like HCV NS2, has cysteine protease activity responsible for cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, and we experimentally confirmed the location of this junction within the viral polyprotein. A model for GBV-B NS2 membrane topology was experimentally established by determining the membrane association properties of NS2 segments fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their nuclear magnetic resonance structures using synthetic peptides as well as by applying an N-glycosylation scanning approach. Similar glycosylation studies confirmed the HCV NS2 organization. Together, our data show that despite limited amino acid sequence similarity, GBV-B and HCV NS2 proteins share a membrane topology with 3 N-terminal transmembrane segments, which is also predicted to apply to other recently discovered hepaciviruses. Based on these data and using trans-complementation systems, we found that intragenotypic hybrid NS2 proteins with heterologous N-terminal membrane segments were able to efficiently trans-complement an assembly-deficient HCV mutant with a point mutation in the NS2 C-terminal domain, while GBV-B/HCV or intergenotypic NS2 chimeras were not. These studies indicate that virus- and genotype-specific intramolecular interactions between N- and C-terminal domains of NS2 are critically involved in HCV morphogenesis. IMPORTANCE Nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a multifunctional protein critically involved in polyprotein processing and virion

  8. Structural Basis for the Magnesium-Dependent Activation and Hexamerization of the Lon AAA+ Protease.

    PubMed

    Su, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Chu; Tai, Hui-Chung; Chang, Mu-Yueh; Ho, Meng-Ru; Babu, C Satheesan; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lim, Carmay; Chang, Chung-I

    2016-05-01

    The Lon AAA+ protease (LonA) plays important roles in protein homeostasis and regulation of diverse biological processes. LonA behaves as a homomeric hexamer in the presence of magnesium (Mg(2+)) and performs ATP-dependent proteolysis. However, it is also found that LonA can carry out Mg(2+)-dependent degradation of unfolded protein substrate in an ATP-independent manner. Here we show that in the presence of Mg(2+) LonA forms a non-secluded hexameric barrel with prominent openings, which explains why Mg(2+)-activated LonA can operate as a diffusion-based chambered protease to degrade unstructured protein and peptide substrates efficiently in the absence of ATP. A 1.85 Å crystal structure of Mg(2+)-activated protease domain reveals Mg(2+)-dependent remodeling of a substrate-binding loop and a potential metal-binding site near the Ser-Lys catalytic dyad, supported by biophysical binding assays and molecular dynamics simulations. Together, these findings reveal the specific roles of Mg(2+) in the molecular assembly and activation of LonA. PMID:27041593

  9. Cordysobin, a novel alkaline serine protease with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sobolifera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Xian; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Feng; Geng, Xiao-Li; Wang, He-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel serine protease, designated as cordysobin, was purified from dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Cordyceps sobolifera. The isolation procedure utilized ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sepharose followed by gel filtration on Superdex 75. The protease did not adsorb on DEAE-cellulose but bound to SP-Sepharose. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the protease resolved as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa. Its optimal pH was 10.0, and the optimal temperature was 65°C. The protease displayed a K(m) value of 0.41 μM and 13.44 μM·min⁻¹ using Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-MCA as substrate at pH 10.0 and 37°C. Protease activity was enhanced by the Fe²⁺ ion at low concentration range of 1.25-10 mM and was strongly inhibited by Hg²⁺ up to 1.25 mM. The protease was strongly inhibited by chymostatin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), suggesting that it is a serine protease. It manifested significant inhibitory activity toward HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) with an IC₅₀ value of 8.2×10⁻³ μM, which is the highest anti-HIV-1 RT activity of reported mushroom proteins. PMID:22014786

  10. An 11-kDa form of human immunodeficiency virus protease expressed in Escherichia coli is sufficient for enzymatic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Graves, M C; Lim, J J; Heimer, E P; Kramer, R A

    1988-01-01

    In order to define the protease domain of human immunodeficiency virus 1, various regions of the pol open reading frame were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Antiserum directed against the conserved retroviral protease active site was used to identify pol precursor and processed species containing the presumed protease domain. The smallest product that accumulates is about 11 kDa as measured by NaDodSO4/PAGE. This size agrees with that predicted from the presence in this region of two Phe-Pro sequences, which is one of the cleavage sites recognized by HIV protease. DNA encoding only the predicted 11-kDa protein was cloned, bypassing the need for autoprocessing, and the protein was expressed to a high level in E. coli. This form is active as demonstrated by its ability to specifically cleave protease-deficient pol protein in vivo in E. coli. Extracts of E. coli containing the 11-kDa protease also process human immunodeficiency virus gag substrates in vitro. These results demonstrate that the 11-kDa protease is sufficient for enzymatic activity and are consistent with a major role for this form in virus maturation. Images PMID:3282230

  11. Biocontrol activity of an alkaline serine protease from Aureobasidium pullulans expressed in Pichia pastoris against four postharvest pathogens on apple.

    PubMed

    Banani, Houda; Spadaro, Davide; Zhang, Dianpeng; Matic, Slavica; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2014-07-16

    The yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans PL5 is a microbial antagonist against postharvest pathogens of fruits. The strain is able to produce hydrolases, including glucanases, chitinases and proteases. The alkaline serine protease gene ALP5 from A. pullulans was cloned, inserted into the vector pPIC9 to construct pPIC9/ALP5, and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strain KM71. ALP5 had a molecular mass of 42.9kDa after 5days growth with 1% methanol induction at 28°C. The recombinant protease expressed in P. pastoris showed its highest activity under alkaline conditions (at pH10) and a temperature of 50°C. The antifungal activity of the recombinant protease was investigated against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola and Alternaria alternata in vitro and on apple. The recombinant protease reduced significantly the spore germination and the germ tube length of the tested pathogens in PDB medium. The highest level of protease efficacy was observed against M. fructicola and B. cinerea, whereas a lower efficacy was observed against P. expansum and A. alternata indicating a possible effect of the pathogen cell wall composition on the proteolytic activity of the recombinant protease. The presence of protease was able to cause the swelling of the hyphae of B. cinerea, under an optical microscope. The recombinant protease expressed in P. pastoris was more active against the pathogens in vitro than the same enzyme expressed in E. coli in previous studies. The efficacy of ALP5 was also evaluated against the pathogens in vivo on cv Golden Delicious apples. The protease was more efficient in controlling M. fructicola, B. cinerea and P. expansum than A. alternata. However, the extent of the activity was dependent on the enzyme concentration and the length of fruit storage. This study demonstrated the capacity of the alkaline serine protease to keep its enzymatic activity for some days in the unfavorable environment of the fruit wounds. The alkaline

  12. The Zinc-Dependent Protease Activity of the Botulinum Neurotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Lebeda, Frank J.; Cer, Regina Z.; Mudunuri, Uma; Stephens, Robert; Singh, Bal Ram; Adler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT, serotypes A-G) are some of the most toxic proteins known and are the causative agents of botulism. Following exposure, the neurotoxin binds and enters peripheral cholinergic nerve endings and specifically and selectively cleaves one or more SNARE proteins to produce flaccid paralysis. This review centers on the kinetics of the Zn-dependent proteolytic activities of these neurotoxins, and briefly describes inhibitors, activators and factors underlying persistence of toxin action. Some of the structural, enzymatic and inhibitor data that are discussed here are available at the botulinum neurotoxin resource, BotDB (http://botdb.abcc.ncifcrf.gov). PMID:22069621

  13. Antiviral activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors in a single cycle of infection: evidence for a role of protease in the early phase.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, K; Young, M; Baboonian, C; Merson, J; Whittle, P; Oroszlan, S

    1994-01-01

    The antiviral activities of two substrate-based inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease, UK-88,947 and Ro 31-8959, were studied in acute infections. H9 and HeLaCD4-LTR/beta-gal cells were infected either with HIV-1IIIB or a replication-defective virus, HIV-gpt(HXB-2). Both inhibitors were capable of blocking early steps of HIV-1 replication if added to cells prior to infection. Partial inhibition was also obtained by addition of inhibitor at the time of or as late as 15 min after infection. The inhibitors were ineffective if added 30 min postinfection. The inhibitory effects were studied by cDNA analysis with PCR followed by Southern blot hybridization and by infectivity assays allowing quantitation of HIV-1 in a single cycle of replication. When UK-88,947-treated H9 cells were coinfected with HIV-1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type I only the replication of HIV-1 was inhibited, demonstrating viral specificity. Pretreating the infectious virus stocks with the inhibitors also prevented replication, indicating that the inhibitors block the action of the viral protease and not a cellular protease. A panel of primer sets was used to analyze cDNA from cell lysates by PCR amplification at 4 and 18 h postinfection. Four hours after infection, viral specific cDNA was detected with all of the four primer pairs used: R/U5, nef/U3, 5' gag, and long terminal repeat (LTR)/gag. However, after 18 h, only the R/U5 and nef/U3 primer pairs and not the 5' gag or LTR/gag primer pair were able to allow amplification of cDNA. The results suggest a crucial role of HIV-1 protease in the early phase of viral replication. Although it is not clear what early steps are affected by the protease, it is likely that the target is the NC protein, as referred from our previous reports of the in situ cleavage of the nucleocapsid (NC) protein by the viral protease inside lentiviral capsids. The results suggest that it is not the inhibition of initiation and progression

  14. A conformationally mobile cysteine residue (Cys-561) modulates Na+ and H+ activation of human CNT3.

    PubMed

    Slugoski, Melissa D; Smith, Kyla M; Mulinta, Ras; Ng, Amy M L; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Morrison, Ellen L; Lee, Queenie O T; Zhang, Jing; Karpinski, Edward; Cass, Carol E; Baldwin, Stephen A; Young, James D

    2008-09-01

    In humans, the SLC28 concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) protein family is represented by three Na+-coupled members; human CNT1 (hCNT1) and hCNT2 are pyrimidine and purine nucleoside-selective, respectively, whereas hCNT3 transports both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleoside drugs. Belonging to a phylogenetic CNT subfamily distinct from hCNT1/2, hCNT3 also mediates H+/nucleoside cotransport. Using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes, we have characterized a cysteineless version of hCNT3 (hCNT3C-). Processed normally to the cell surface, hCNT3C- exhibited hCNT3-like transport properties, but displayed a decrease in apparent affinity specific for Na+ and not H+. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments in wild-type and hCNT3C- backgrounds identified intramembranous Cys-561 as the residue responsible for this altered Na+-binding phenotype. Alanine at this position restored Na+ binding affinity, whereas substitution with larger neutral amino acids (threonine, valine, and isoleucine) abolished hCNT3 H+-dependent nucleoside transport activity. Independent of these findings, we have established that Cys-561 is located in a mobile region of the hCNT3 translocation pore adjacent to the nucleoside binding pocket and that access of p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate to this residue reports a specific H+-induced conformational state of the protein ( Slugoski, M. D., Ng, A. M. L., Yao, S. Y. M., Smith, K. M., Lin, C. C., Zhang, J., Karpinski, E., Cass, C. E., Baldwin, S. A., and Young, J. D. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 8496-8507 ). The present investigation validates hCNT3C- as a template for substituted cysteine accessibility method studies of CNTs and reveals a pivotal functional role for Cys-561 in Na+- as well as H+-coupled modes of hCNT3 nucleoside transport. PMID:18621735

  15. 7-hydroxycalamenene Effects on Secreted Aspartic Proteases Activity and Biofilm Formation of Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Almeida, Catia A.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 7-hydroxycalamenenene-rich essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of Croton cajucara (red morphotype) have been described as active against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi species. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 7-hydroxycalamenenene against Candida albicans and nonalbicans species. Materials and Methods: C. cajucara EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and its major compound, 7-hydroxycalamenene, was purified using preparative column chromatography. The anti-candidal activity was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and secreted aspartic proteases (SAP) and biofilm inhibition assays. Results: 7-hydroxycalamenene (98% purity) displayed anti-candidal activity against all Candida species tested. Higher activity was observed against Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans, showing MIC values ranging from 39.06 μg/ml to 78.12 μg/ml. The purified 7-hydroxycalamenene was able to inhibit 58% of C. albicans ATCC 36801 SAP activity at MIC concentration (pH 7.0). However, 7-hydroxycalamenene demonstrated poor inhibitory activity on C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm formation even at the highest concentration tested (2500 μg/ml). Conclusion: The bioactive potential of 7-hydroxycalamenene against planktonic Candida spp. further supports its use for the development of antimicrobials with anti-candidal activity. SUMMARY Croton cajucara Benth. essential oil provides high amounts of 7-hydroxycalamenene7-Hydroxycalameneneisolated from C. cajucarais active against Candida spp7-Hydroxycalameneneinhibits C. albicans aspartic protease activity7-Hydroxycalamenene was not active against C. albicans biofilm formation. Figure PMID:27019560

  16. A biosensor for the protease TACE reveals actin damage induced TACE activation

    PubMed Central

    Chapnick, Douglas A.; Bunker, Eric; Liu, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    Ligand shedding has gained increased attention as a major posttranslational modification mechanism used by cells to respond to diverse environmental conditions. The TACEadam17 protease is a critical mediator of such ligand shedding, regulating the maturation and release of an impressive range of extracellular substrates that drive diverse cellular responses. Exactly how this protease is itself activated remains unclear, in part due to the lack of available tools to measure TACE activity with temporal and spatial resolution in live cells. We have developed a FRET based biosensor for TACE activity (TSen), which is capable of reporting TACE activation kinetics in live cells with a high degree of specificity. TSen was used in combination with chemical biology to probe the dependence of various means of TACE activation on p38 and Erk kinase activities, as well as to identify a novel connection between actin cytoskeletal disruption and TACE activation. Such cytoskeletal disruption leads to rapid and robust TACE activation in some cell types and accumulation of TACE at the plasma membrane, allowing for increased cleavage of endogenous substrates. Our study highlights both the versatility of TSen as a tool to understand the mechanisms of TACE activation in live cells and the importance of actin cytoskeletal integrity as a modulator of TACE activity. PMID:25714465

  17. β-Amyloid induces nuclear protease-mediated lamin fragmentation independent of caspase activation.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Vijay Sankar; Islam, Md Imamul; Haque, Md Aminul; Shin, Song Yub; Park, Il-Seon

    2016-06-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ), a hallmark peptide of Alzheimer's disease, induces both caspase-dependent apoptosis and non-apoptotic cell death. In this study, we examined caspase-independent non-apoptotic cell death preceding caspase activation in Aβ42-treated cells. We first determined the optimal treatment conditions for inducing cell death without caspase activation and selected a double-treatment method involving the incubation of cells with Aβ42 for 4 and 6h (4+6h sample). We observed that levels of lamin A (LA) and lamin B (LB) were reduced in the 4+6h samples. This reduction was decreased by treatment with suc-AAPF-CMK, an inhibitor of nuclear scaffold (NS) protease, but not by treatment with z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. In addition, suc-AAPF-CMK decreased the changes in nuclear morphology observed in cells in the 4+6h samples, which were different from nuclear fragmentation observed in STS-treated cells. Furthermore, suc-AAPF-CMK inhibited cell death in the 4+6h samples. LA and LB fragmentation occurred in the isolated nuclei and was also inhibited by suc-AAPF-CMK. Together, these data indicated that the fragmentation of LA and LB in the Aβ42-treated cells was induced by an NS protease, whose identity is not clearly determined yet. A correlation between Aβ42 toxicity and the lamin fragmentation by NS protease suggests that inhibition of the protease could be an effective method for controlling the pathological process of AD. PMID:26876308

  18. Measuring Chitinase and Protease Activity in Cultures of Fungal Entomopathogens.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Peter; Glare, Travis R; Rostás, Michael; Haines, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi produce a variety of destructive enzymes and metabolites to overcome the unique defense mechanisms of insects. In a first step, fungal chitinases and proteinases need to break down the insect's cuticle. Both enzyme classes support the infection process by weakening the chitin barrier and by producing nutritional cleavage products for the fungus. In a second step, the pathogen can now mechanically penetrate the weakened cuticle and reach the insect's hemolymph where it starts proliferating. The critical enzymes chitinase and proteinase are also excreted into the supernatants of fungal cultures and can be used as indicators of virulence. Chromogenic assays adapted for 96-well microtiter plates that measure these enzymes provide a sensitive, fast, and easy screening method for evaluating the potential biocontrol activity of fungal isolates and may be considered as an alternative to laborious and time-consuming bioassays. Furthermore, monitoring fungal enzyme production in dependence of time, nutrient sources, or other factors can facilitate in establishing optimal growth and harvesting conditions for selected isolates with the aim of achieving maximum biocontrol activity. PMID:27565500

  19. Activation of Protease Activated Receptor 2 by Exogenous Agonist Exacerbates Early Radiation Injury in Rat Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junru; Boerma, Marjan; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR{sub 2}) is highly expressed throughout the gut and regulates the inflammatory, mitogenic, fibroproliferative, and nociceptive responses to injury. PAR{sub 2} is strikingly upregulated and exhibits increased activation in response to intestinal irradiation. We examined the mechanistic significance of radiation enteropathy development by assessing the effect of exogenous PAR{sub 2} activation. Methods and Materials: Rat small bowel was exposed to localized single-dose radiation (16.5 Gy). The PAR{sub 2} agonist (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH{sub 2}) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally daily for 3 days before irradiation (before), for 7 days after irradiation (after), or both 3 days before and 7 days after irradiation (before-after). Early and delayed radiation enteropathy was assessed at 2 and 26 weeks after irradiation using quantitative histologic examination, morphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The PAR{sub 2} agonist did not elicit changes in the unirradiated (shielded) intestine. In contrast, in the irradiated intestine procured 2 weeks after irradiation, administration of the PAR{sub 2} agonist was associated with more severe mucosal injury and increased intestinal wall thickness in all three treatment groups (p <.05) compared with the vehicle-treated controls. The PAR{sub 2} agonist also exacerbated the radiation injury score, serosal thickening, and mucosal inflammation (p <.05) in the before and before-after groups. The short-term exogenous activation of PAR{sub 2} did not affect radiation-induced intestinal injury at 26 weeks. Conclusion: The results of the present study support a role for PAR{sub 2} activation in the pathogenesis of early radiation-induced intestinal injury. Pharmacologic PAR{sub 2} antagonists might have the potential to reduce the intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and/or as countermeasures in radiologic accidents or terrorism scenarios.

  20. Activity, abundance and expression of Ca²⁺-activated proteases in skeletal muscle of the aestivating frog, Cyclorana alboguttata.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Beau D; Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E

    2015-02-01

    In most mammals, prolonged muscle disuse (e.g. bed-rest, limb casting or spaceflight) results in atrophy of muscle fibres which is largely due to unregulated proteolysis. Although numerous proteolytic pathways are known to participate in muscle disuse atrophy, recent evidence suggests that activation of Ca²⁺-dependent cysteine proteases (calpains) is required for disuse atrophy in limb skeletal muscles. In contrast to typical models of muscle disuse (humans and rodents), animals that experience natural bouts of chronic muscle inactivity, such as hibernating mammals and aestivating frogs, consistently exhibit limited or no change in skeletal muscle size. In the current study, we examined enzyme activity, protein abundance and gene expression levels of calpain isoforms in gastrocnemius muscle of the aestivating frog, Cyclorana alboguttata. We predicted that in aestivating C. alboguttata there would be a downregulation of the abundance, activity and gene expression of calpain 1 and calpain 2. In contrast to our hypothesis, there was no significant decrease in the enzyme activity levels or the relative protein abundances of calpain 1 and calpain 2. Similarly, gene expression assays (both qRT-PCR and RNA Seq data) indicated that calpains were unaffected by aestivation. Western blotting of 'muscle-specific' calpain 3, which is consistently downregulated during atrophic conditions, indicated that this isoform is present in C. alboguttata muscle where it appears to be in its autolysed state. The absence of any increase in enzyme activity, protein and mRNA abundance of calpains in aestivators is consistent with the protection of gastrocnemius muscle against uncontrolled proteolysis throughout aestivation. PMID:25502658

  1. Assessing the impact of long term frozen storage of faecal samples on protein concentration and protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Laura S.; Marchesi, Julian R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The proteome is the second axis of the microbiome:host interactome and proteases are a significant aspect in this interaction. They interact with a large variety of host proteins and structures and in many situations are implicated in pathogenesis. Furthermore faecal samples are commonly collected and stored frozen so they can be analysed at a later date. So we were interested to know whether long term storage affected the integrity of proteases and total protein and whether historical native faecal samples were still a viable option for answering research questions around the functional proteome. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 3 healthy volunteers (3 biological replicates) and processed in order to be stored at both − 20 °C and − 80 °C and in a variety of storage buffers. Protein extraction, protein content and protease activity were assessed at the time of collection, after 24 h, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months 6 months and finally 1 year. Results Beadbeating impacted the quantity of protein extracted, while sodium azide did not impact protease assays. Long term storage of extracted proteins showed that both total protein and protease activity were affected when they were stored as extracted protein. Intact faecal samples were shown to maintain both protein levels and protease activity regardless of time and temperature. Conclusions Beadbeating increases the protein and protease activity when extracting from a faecal sample, however, the extracted protein is not stable and activity is lost, even with a suitable storage buffer. The most robust solution is to store the proteins in an intact frozen native faecal matrix and extract at the time of assay or analysis, this approach was shown to be suitable for samples in which, there are low levels of protease activity and which had been frozen for a year. PMID:26853125

  2. Intracellular Activation of Tenofovir Alafenamide and the Effect of Viral and Host Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Birkus, Gabriel; Bam, Rujuta A; Willkom, Madeleine; Frey, Christian R; Tsai, Luong; Stray, Kirsten M; Yant, Stephen R; Cihlar, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) is an oral phosphonoamidate prodrug of the HIV reverse transcriptase nucleotide inhibitor tenofovir (TFV). Previous studies suggested a principal role for the lysosomal serine protease cathepsin A (CatA) in the intracellular activation of TAF. Here we further investigated the role of CatA and other human hydrolases in the metabolism of TAF. Overexpression of CatA or liver carboxylesterase 1 (Ces1) in HEK293T cells increased intracellular TAF hydrolysis 2- and 5-fold, respectively. Knockdown of CatA expression with RNA interference (RNAi) in HeLa cells reduced intracellular TAF metabolism 5-fold. Additionally, the anti-HIV activity and the rate of CatA hydrolysis showed good correlation within a large set of TFV phosphonoamidate prodrugs. The covalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors (PIs) telaprevir and boceprevir potently inhibited CatA-mediated TAF activation (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 0.27 and 0.16 μM, respectively) in vitro and also reduced its anti-HIV activity in primary human CD4(+) T lymphocytes (21- and 3-fold, respectively) at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. In contrast, there was no inhibition of CatA or any significant effect on anti-HIV activity of TAF observed with cobicistat, noncovalent HIV and HCV PIs, or various prescribed inhibitors of host serine proteases. Collectively, these studies confirm that CatA plays a pivotal role in the intracellular metabolism of TAF, whereas the liver esterase Ces1 likely contributes to the hepatic activation of TAF. Moreover, this work demonstrates that a wide range of viral and host PIs, with the exception of telaprevir and boceprevir, do not interfere with the antiretroviral activity of TAF. PMID:26503655

  3. Staphylococcal SplB serine protease utilizes a novel molecular mechanism of activation.

    PubMed

    Pustelny, Katarzyna; Zdzalik, Michal; Stach, Natalia; Stec-Niemczyk, Justyna; Cichon, Przemyslaw; Czarna, Anna; Popowicz, Grzegorz; Mak, Pawel; Drag, Marcin; Salvesen, Guy S; Wladyka, Benedykt; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Adam; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2014-05-30

    Staphylococcal SplB protease belongs to the chymotrypsin family. Chymotrypsin zymogen is activated by proteolytic processing at the N terminus, resulting in significant structural rearrangement at the active