Science.gov

Sample records for cytopathic bovine viral

  1. CYTOPLASMIC VACUOLIZATION RESPONSES TO CYTOPATHIC BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Birk, Alexander V.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Donis, Ruben; Szeto, Hazel. H.

    2008-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus which exhibits two biotypes in standard cell culture systems. The cytopathic strains of this virus (cpBVDV) induce dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolization in cell cultures, while infection with the non-cytopathic (NCP-BVDV) strains produces no overt changes in the host cells. Our results show that extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization is the earliest morphological change in response to cpBVDV infection in MDBK cells. Cells with extensive vacuolization showed no co-existing chromatin condensation, caspase activation, or loss of membrane integrity. In addition, the caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk), although improving cell viability of infected cells from 6.7±2.2% to 18.8±2.2%, did not prevent vacuolization. On the ultrastructural level, the virus-induced cytoplasmic vacuoles are single membrane structures containing organelles and cellular debris, which appear capable of fusing with other vacuoles and engulfing surrounding cytoplasmic materials. LysoTracker Red which marks lysosomes did not stain the virus-induced cytoplasmic vacuoles. In addition, this lysosomal dye could be observed in the cytoplasm of vacuolized cells, suggesting a lysosomal abnormality. Our data demonstrate that cpBVDV induced a novel cell death pathway in MDBK cells that is primarily associated with lysosomal dysfunction and the formation of phagocytic cytoplasmic vacuoles, and this mode of cell death is different from apoptosis and necrosis. PMID:18054406

  2. Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses doomed to extinction.

    PubMed

    Peterhans, Ernst; Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Flaviviridae pestivirus, is arguably one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. Each of its two genotypes has two biotypes, non-cytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp). Only the ncp biotype of BVDV may establish persistent infection in the fetus when infecting a dam early in gestation, a time point which predates maturity of the adaptive immune system. Such fetuses may develop and be born healthy but remain infected for life. Due to this early initiation of fetal infection and to the expression of interferon antagonistic proteins, persistently infected (PI) animals remain immunotolerant to the infecting viral strain. Although only accounting for some 1% of all animals in regions where BVDV is endemic, PI animals ensure the viral persistence in the host population. These animals may, however, develop the fatal mucosal disease, which is characterized by widespread lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Cp BVD virus, in addition to the persisting ncp biotype, can be isolated from such animals. The cp viruses are characterized by unrestrained genome replication, and their emergence from the persisting ncp ones is due to mutations that are unique in each virus analyzed. They include recombinations with host cell mRNA, gene translocations and duplications, and point mutations. Cytopathic BVD viruses fail to establish chains of infection and are unable to cause persistent infection. Hence, these viruses illustrate a case of "viral emergence to extinction" - irrelevant for BVDV evolution, but fatal for the PI host. PMID:20197026

  3. Typing of cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus reference and Canadian field strains using a neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Magar, R; Minocha, H C; Montpetit, C; Carman, P S; Lecomte, J

    1988-01-01

    Cytopathic and noncytopathic reference strains as well as Canadian field isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus were analyzed by neutralization and immunofluorescence tests using a bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Results on reference strains indicated three major antigenic groups: I) NADL-like, II) New York 1-like and III) Oregon C24V-like. Field isolates could be segregated into groups I and II and none could be typed into the group III. It appears that most bovine viral diarrhea virus strains share a common antigen which carries a major neutralization epitope. These characteristics would make this monoclonal antibody a useful reagent for taxonomic and epizootiological studies. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2450629

  4. Increase in proto-oncogene mRNA transcript levels in bovine cells infected with a cytopathic type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of susceptible animals with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can result in an array of disease symptoms that are dependent on the strain of infecting virus and the physiological status of the host. Cytopathic BVDV kill cells outright while noncytopathic strains can readily establish p...

  5. Experimental infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 in mice induces inflammatory cell infiltration in the spleen.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Jung; Kwon, Young-Je; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Previously, our study showed that oral inoculation of mice with cytopathic (cp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) led to lymphocyte depletion and increased numbers of megakaryocytes in the spleen as well as thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. In the present study, to investigate the possible differences in the detection of viral antigen, histopathological lesions, and hematologic changes between non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 and cp BVDV1, mice were orally administered low and high doses of ncp BVDV1 and were necropsied at days 0, 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). None of the ncp BVDV1-infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness, unlike those infected with cp BVDV1. Statistically significant thrombocytopenia was observed during ncp BVDV1 infection, and lymphopenia was found only in mice infected with a high dose at day 9 pi. Interestingly, ncp BVDV1 infection increased the numbers of basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes in some infected mice. Viral antigen was detected in the lymphocytes of the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and bone marrow by immunohistochemistry. Lymphoid depletion was evident in the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice infected with a high dose and also found in the Peyer's patches of some infected mice. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and monocytes, and an increased number of megakaryocytes were seen in the spleen. These results suggest that the distribution of viral antigens is not associated with the presence of histopathological lesions. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the spleens as a result of viral replication and may be attributable to the host reaction to ncp BVDV1 infection. Together, these findings support the possibility that mice can be used as an animal model for BVDV infection. PMID:27376375

  6. Experimental infection with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice induces megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we infected mice with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (cp BVDV1) by oral inoculation and investigated the effects of infection by histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC), hematological methods. Twelve mice were infected, and samples were obtained at day 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). Most of the infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness such as reduced movement, crouching, loose feces, loss of appetite, and reduced water intake. Blood samples from six mice were positive for BVDV based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Blood analysis also revealed thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. Viral antigens were detected in the spleen (12/12), bone marrow (12/12), and/or mesenteric lymph nodes (4/12) of all infected mice by IHC analysis. The spleens showed significant histopathological changes including (i) substantially increased numbers of megakaryocytes, (ii) lymphocyte depletion, and (iii) hemorrhages. The bone marrow also had an increased number of megakaryocytes, although this increase was not as strong as it was in the spleen. Severe lymphoid depletion was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Viral infections were present in the lymphocytes but not detected in megakaryocytes of the spleen, bone marrow, or mesenteric lymph nodes. These results suggest that the increased numbers of megakaryocytes may be a direct result of BVDV infection. BVDV infection in mice following oral inoculation of cp BVDV1 leads to megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow to replenish the platelets. PMID:26526150

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of responses to cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1) infection in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Melina; Fredericksen, Fernanda; Otth, Carola; Olavarría, Víctor

    2016-03-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant economic losses in the dairy and cattle industry; however, little is known about the protective and pathological responses of hosts to infection. The present study determined the principal molecular markers implicated in viral infection through meta-transcriptomic analysis using MDBK cells infected for two hours with a field isolate of BVDV-1. While several immune regulator genes were induced, genes involved in cell signaling, metabolic processes, development, and integrity were down-regulated, suggesting an isolation of infected cells from cell-to-cell interactions and responses to external signals. Analysis through RT-qPCR confirmed the expression of more than one hundred markers. Interestingly, there was a significant up-regulation of two negative NF-κB regulators, IER3 and TNFAIP3, indicating a possible blocking of this signaling pathway mediated by BVDV-1 infection. Additionally, several genes involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species were down-regulated, suggesting increased oxidative stress. Notably, a number of genes involved in cellular growth and development were also regulated during infection, including MTHFD1L, TGIF1, and Brachyury. Moreover, there was an increased expression of the genes β-catenin, caprin-2, GSK3β, and MMP-7, all of which are crucial to the Wnt signaling pathway that is implicated in the embryonic development of a variety of organisms. This meta-transcriptomic analysis provides the first data towards understanding the infection mechanisms of cytopathic BVDV-1 and the putative molecular relationship between viral and host components. PMID:26919728

  8. Morphological changes and virus distribution in the ileum of colostrum-deprived calves inoculated with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype-1.

    PubMed

    Pedrera, M; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Trevejo, J L; Risalde, M A; Greiser-Wilke, I; Núñez, A; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2009-07-01

    Eight colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated intranasally with a non-cytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) genotype-1 and killed in batches of two at 3, 6, 9 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi). Two non-inoculated animals with similar background served as controls. All infected calves developed mild pyrexia and transient leucopenia due primarily to lymphopenia. Viraemia was correlated with body temperature and inversely related to leucocyte count. Ileal Peyer's patches developed mild follicular lymphoid depletion from 3dpi. This change was accompanied by cellular fragmentation and pyknosis, characteristic of apoptosis, which was most prominent from 6dpi. Lymphocyte apoptosis was confirmed by ultrastructural examination. Stellate cells and macrophages located in the lymphoid follicles were identified as infected by virus from 3dpi and the number of these infected cells increased until 9dpi. Fewer lymphocytes expressed BVDV antigen. Macrophages had morphological features consistent with activation of secretory and phagocytic function from 3dpi. These findings suggest that BVDV is only directly responsible for the destruction of a small number of lymphocytes. Although lymphocyte infection coincided with the onset of apoptosis, the intensity of infection was disproportionate to the marked depletion of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, particularly during the early stages of this process. Characterization of the indirect pathogenic mechanisms involved in the lymphoid depletion associated with BVDV infection will require additional study. PMID:19406434

  9. Masking of two in vitro immunological assays for Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) in calves acutely infected with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Charleston, B; Hope, J C; Carr, B V; Howard, C J

    2001-10-20

    Acute infection of calves, previously vaccinated with bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), with non-cytopathic viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) resulted in the temporary suppression of two in vitro assays used to monitor Mycobacterium bovis infection. Lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-gamma production by whole blood cultures containing purified protein derivatives prepared from Mycobacterium avium (PPD-A) and M bovis (PPD-B) were markedly suppressed. The implication is that acute infections of cattle with non-cytopathic BVDV may temporarily compromise diagnostic tests for M. bovis infections and result in a failure to identify cattle with tuberculosis. PMID:11700926

  10. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection alters global transcription profiles in bovine endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are significant pathogens of cattle worldwide. These viruses exist in both non-cytopathic and cytopathic biotypes. Non-cytopathic BVDV can establish persistent lifelong infections in cattle and are a frequent contaminant of biological reagents such as cell cultur...

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  13. Cytopathic BVDV-1 strain induces immune marker production in bovine cells through the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Carrasco, Gonzalo; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2015-12-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1) is a pathogen responsible for high economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. This virus has the capacity to modulate the immune system of several higher vertebrates, but there is little information available on the cell infection mechanism. To further investigate the effects of BVDV-1 on the activation of the immune response, the Madin-Darby bovine kidney cell line was infected with the cytopathic CH001 field isolate of BVDV-1, and the proinflammatory and antiviral cytokine expression profiles were analyzed. The results showed that BVDV-1 was able to induce the production of BCL3, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-15, IL-18, Mx-1, IRF-1, and IRF-7 in a way similar to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. Interestingly, all BVDV-1 activities were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results, together with in silico analyses showing the presence of several regulatory consensus target motifs, suggest that BVDV-1 regulates gene expression in bovines through the activation of several key transcription factors. Collectively, these data identified BVDV-1 as a viral regulator of immune marker expression, even from early infection. Additionally, this is the first report to find BVDV-1 modulating the activation of cytokine production and transcriptions factors mainly through the NF-κB pathway in vertebrates. PMID:26330089

  14. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 impairs macrophage responsiveness to toll-like receptor ligation with the exception of toll-like receptor 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviradae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. In addition, BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2...

  15. Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 infection activates the unfolded protein response in MDBK cells, leading to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kouji; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Harasawa, Ryô

    2009-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains are divided into cytopathic and non-cytopathic biotypes based on the ablity to induce cytopathic effects in cultured cells. The mechanism of cytopathogenicity of BVDV-2 is not well understood. We examined cytopathogenesis in MDBK cells resulting from BVDV-2 infections by microscopic examinations and microarray analysis. We found that BVDV-2 activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways that contribute to apoptosis of infected cells. We also monitored the expression of ER stress marker gene by RT-PCR during BVDV-2 infection and demonstrated that infection of MDBK cells with a cytopathic strain of BVDV-2 induces glucose-regulated protein 78 expression. Infection with BVDV-2 also induces DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 expression and downregulates the lectin-galactoside-binding soluble 1 level. These results show that cytopathic strains of BVDV-2 induce an ER stress response resulting in apoptosis. PMID:19578292

  16. Activation of cell signaling pathways is dependant on the biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is an economically important cattle pathogen with a world wide distribution. Besides the segregation into two distinct species (BVDV1 / BVDV2) two different biotypes, a cytopathic (cp) and a noncytopathic (ncp) biotype, are...

  17. Induction of interferon-gamma and downstream pathways during establishment of fetal persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of transplacental infection depends on the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and replicate within the fetus while counteracting maternal and fetal immune responses.Unfortunately, little is known about this complex process. Non-cytopathic (ncp) strains of bovine viral diarrhea vi...

  18. A Serum Neutralization Test for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Based on Colour Reaction and Cytopathic effects in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Greig, A. S.

    1969-01-01

    A serum neutralization (SN) test based on a combination of indicator colour change in medium and cytopathic (CP) effect in cells has been devised for the detection of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies. Serum dilutions of 1:6, 1:18 and 1:54 are made in a medium containing phenol red and are mixed in equal quantities with a suspension of virus containing 100 cell culture infectious doses (CCID50) per volume of mixture. The serum-virus mixtures are held in small glass tubes and are covered with a layer of mineral oil. Following a two hour period of incubation at 37°C a quantity of bovine fetal kidney cells is added to each tube to detect the presence of unneutralized virus. After four to six days incubation the results of the SN test may be read by microscopic examination for CP effect by means of an inverted microscope, or by observing the colour of the phenol red. PMID:4305762

  19. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  20. [Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD): from biology to control].

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Wegmüller, Michael; Schweizer, Matthias; Zanoni, Reto; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is endemic worldwide. Together with classical swine fever and border disease viruses, it belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Most infections with BVDV take a transient, acute, course. Only rarely BVDV persists in its hosts. Due to the early time point of infection in utero, persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the infecting non-cytopathic BVDV. In such animals the virus may mutate to a cytopathic biotype, causing lethal mucosal disease. In BVD-endemic regions, approximately 1% of the animals are PI. Removal of all PI animals leads to extinction of BVD. This approach to BVD eradication has been vindicated in Scandinavia. Following the same principles, regional and country-wide eradication programs are run in different parts of the world. These programs differ in the way PI animals are detected and in the role of vaccines. The Scandinavian two-step method of detecting PI animals is based on (i) the high level of seroprevalence in herds where PI animals are present and (ii) on testing all animals for virus in such herds. However, the high average herd seroprevalence in Switzerland made it impossible to define a reasonable threshold for virus testing. Therefore, all animals were directly tested for virus in the year 2008 and all newborn calves until the end of 2012, when the PI prevalence had dropped to 0.02%. Vaccination remains prohibited. Since 2013, surveillance for BVD is accomplished by serology. As a unique consequence of eradication, over 7500 viral strains are available to us for genetic studies. PMID:24511819

  1. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Variability and Prevalence of BVDV Subtypes in Persistently Infected Cattle Entering Feedlots: BVDV1b as Predominant Subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are a diverse group of viruses causing infections and disease in domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. BVDV biotypes are based on presence or absence of cytopathology in infected cultures: CP (cytopathic) or NCP (noncytopathic). BVDV are genetically diverse...

  2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Global Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections with this diverse group of viruses remain a source of economic loss for producers worldwide. There is a wide range of variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype (BVDV1 and BVDV2), biot...

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  4. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  5. BVD virus infection alters global transcription profiles in bovine endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are a significant pathogens of cattle worldwide. These viruses exist in both non-cytopathic or cytopathic biotypes. Non-cytopathic BVDV can establish persistent lifelong infections in cattle and are a frequent contaminant of biological reagents such as cell cul...

  6. The C-Terminal Domain of Chikungunya Virus nsP2 Independently Governs Viral RNA Replication, Cytopathicity, and Inhibition of Interferon Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fros, Jelke J.; van der Maten, Erika; Vlak, Just M.

    2013-01-01

    Alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) has pivotal roles in viral RNA replication, host cell shutoff, and inhibition of antiviral responses. Mutations that individually rendered other alphaviruses noncytopathic were introduced into chikungunya virus nsP2. Results show that (i) nsP2 mutation P718S only in combination with KR649AA or adaptive mutation D711G allowed noncytopathic replicon RNA replication, (ii) prohibiting nsP2 nuclear localization abrogates inhibition of antiviral interferon-induced JAK-STAT signaling, and (iii) nsP2 independently affects RNA replication, cytopathicity, and JAK-STAT signaling. PMID:23864632

  7. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: global status.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2010-03-01

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections remain a source of economic loss for producers. The wide variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype, biotype, virulence, and types of infections. BVDV infect a range of domestic and wild ruminants. Clinical presentation varies depending on strain of virus, species of host, immune status of host, reproductive status of host, age of host, and concurrent infections. Recent advances in BVDV research and diagnostics have led to the development of regional eradication/control programs, the most efficacious of which focus on biosecurity, surveillance, and control. PMID:20117546

  8. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Zoos: A Perspective from the Veterinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Kottwitz, Jack J.; Ortiz, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease (MD) and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persistently infected (PI) animals. PI individuals may show vague clinical signs, including abortion. Management of BVDV in zoos should focus on identification of PI individuals and prevention of infection of other animals of the collection. Variability makes serological testing as the sole method of screening for BVDV infection undesirable in exotic ruminants. Combination testing provides a definitive answer, especially in sensitive wildlife. Use of a combination of antigen-capture ELISA (ACE) with haired skin, Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR) on whole blood, and antibody detection via serum neutralization has the greatest potential to identify PI animals. An animal that is positive on both ACE and RT-PCR, but is negative on serology should be considered highly suspicious of being a PI, and should be isolated and undergo repeat testing 4–6 weeks later to confirm positive status. This testing methodology also allows screening of pregnant and newborn animals. Isolation or culling may need to be considered in animals determined to be positive via combination testing. These decisions should only be made after careful consideration and evaluation, especially with endangered species. PMID:26779151

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  10. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Modulation of Monocyte Derived Macrophage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense virus of the Flaviviridae family and is the causative agent of the disease known as Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, s...

  11. Infectious Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Strain NADL) RNA from Stable cDNA Clones: a Cellular Insert Determines NS3 Production and Viral Cytopathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Ernesto; Ruggli, Nicolas; Collett, Marc S.; Rice, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), strain NADL, was originally isolated from an animal with fatal mucosal disease. This isolate is cytopathic in cell culture and produces two forms of NS3-containing proteins: uncleaved NS2-3 and mature NS3. For BVDV NADL, the production of NS3, a characteristic of cytopathic BVDV strains, is believed to be a consequence of an in-frame insertion of a 270-nucleotide cellular mRNA sequence (called cIns) in the NS2 coding region. In this study, we constructed a stable full-length cDNA copy of BVDV NADL in a low-copy-number plasmid vector. As assayed by transfection of MDBK cells, uncapped RNAs transcribed from this template were highly infectious (>105 PFU/μg). The recovered virus was similar in plaque morphology, growth properties, polyprotein processing, and cytopathogenicity to the BVDV NADL parent. Deletion of cIns abolished processing at the NS2/NS3 site and produced a virus that was no longer cytopathic for MDBK cells. This deletion did not affect the efficiency of infectious virus production or viral protein production, but it reduced the level of virus-specific RNA synthesis and accumulation. Thus, cIns not only modulates NS3 production but also upregulates RNA replication relative to an isogenic noncytopathic derivative lacking the insert. These results raise the possibility of a linkage between enhanced BVDV NADL RNA replication and virus-induced cytopathogenicity. PMID:9573238

  12. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus genome in leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by RNA-cDNA hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, J; Aiken, J; Schultz, R D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) cDNA library was constructed. One cloned complementary DNA sequence was used as a probe to detect BVDV RNA by hybridization in infected cell cultures and in mononuclear leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by dot blot and in situ hybridization. The cDNA probe hybridized with all cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV isolates tested. The hybridization results were consistent with results obtained using conventional subculturing and immunofluorescent staining methods and by inoculation of seronegative test cattle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2162729

  13. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves.

    PubMed

    Glotov, Alexander G; Glotova, Tatyana I; Koteneva, Svetlana V; Semenova, Olga V; Sergeev, Alexander A; Titova, Ksenya A; Morozova, Anastasia A; Sergeev, Artemiy A

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4-6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3-5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm(3)), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4-1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  14. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    PubMed Central

    Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Sergeev, Alexander A.; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  15. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  16. Complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 from commercial fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-09-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2. PMID:22923795

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  18. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with /sup 32/P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus.

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

  1. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  2. Clinical bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Alqawasmeh, D M

    2010-12-01

    A 1-year-old Holstein Friesian heifer was presented for anorexia and acute diarrhoea. The heifer was born and raised at the farm. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection was diagnosed using clinical signs and RT-PCR. Clinical BVDV infection has never been reported in Jordan. PMID:21117287

  3. The effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains on bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) phenotype and capacity to produce BVDV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DC) are important antigen presentation cells that monitor, process, and present antigen to T cells. Viruses that infect DC can have a devastating impact on the immune system. In this study, the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to replicate and produce infectious virus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) and monocytes was studied. The study also examined the effect of BVDV infection on Mo-DC expression of cell surface markers, including MHCI, MHCII, and CD86, which are critical for DC function in immune response. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from bovine blood through gradient centrifugation. The adherent monocytes were isolated from PBMCs and differentiated into Mo-DC using bovine recombinant interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF). To determine the effect of BVDV on Mo-DC, four strains of BVDV were used including the severe acute non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV2a-1373; moderate acute ncp BVDV2a 28508-5; and a homologous virus pair [i.e., cytopathic (cp) BVDV1b TGAC and ncp BVDV1b TGAN]. The Cooper strain of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) was used as the control virus. Mo-DC were infected with one of the BVDV strains or BHV-1 and were subsequently examined for virus replication, virus production, and the effect on MHCI, MHCII, and CD86 expression. Results The ability of monocytes to produce infectious virus reduced as monocytes differentiated to Mo-DC, and was completely lost at 120 hours of maturation. Interestingly, viral RNA increased throughout the course of infection in Mo-DC, and the viral non-structural (NS5A) and envelope (E2) proteins were expressed. The ncp strains of BVDV down-regulated while cp strain up-regulated the expression of the MHCI, MHCII, and CD86 on Mo-DC. Conclusions The study revealed that the ability of Mo-DC to produce infectious virus was reduced with its differentiation from monocytes to Mo-DC. The inability to produce

  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765

  5. A pyrazolotriazolopyrimidinamine inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus replication that targets the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Letellier, Carine; Froeyen, Matheus; Dutartre, Hélène; Vrancken, Robert; Canard, Bruno; De Clercq, Erik; Gueiffier, Alain; Teulade, Jean-Claude; Herdewijn, Piet; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Koenen, Frank; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Neyts, Johan

    2009-06-01

    [7-[3-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)propyl]-2-(2-furyl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] (LZ37) was identified as a selective inhibitor of in vitro bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) replication. The EC(50) values for inhibition of BVDV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) formation, viral RNA synthesis and production of infectious virus were 4.3+/-0.7microM, 12.9+/-1microM and 5.8+/-0.6microM, respectively. LZ37 proved inactive against the hepatitis C virus and the flavivirus yellow fever. LZ37 inhibits BVDV replication at a time point that coincides with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis. Drug-resistant mutants carried the F224Y mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). LZ37 showed cross-resistance with the imidazopyrrolopyridine AG110 [which selects for the E291G drug resistance mutation] as well as with the imidazopyridine BPIP [which selects for the F224S drug-resistant mutation]. LZ37 did not inhibit the in vitro activity of purified recombinant BVDV RdRp. Molecular modelling revealed that F224 is located near the tip of the finger domain of the RdRp. Docking of LZ37 in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed several potential contacts including: (i) hydrophobic contacts of LZ37 with A221, A222, G223, F224 and A392; (ii) a stacking interaction between F224 side chain and the ring system of LZ37 and (iii) a hydrogen bond between the amino function of LZ37 and the O backbone atom of A392. It is concluded that LZ37 interacts with the same binding site as BPIP or VP32947 at the top of the finger domain of the polymerase that is a "hot spot" for inhibition of pestivirus replication. PMID:19428605

  6. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert G; Ridpath, Julia F; Sacco, Randy E

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs). Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp), noncytopathic (ncp), high (hv) or low virulence (lv) BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections. PMID:27420479

  7. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    Schaut, Robert G.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs). Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp), noncytopathic (ncp), high (hv) or low virulence (lv) BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections. PMID:27420479

  8. Rapid detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, O J; Osorio, F A; Donis, R O

    1991-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect genomic sequences of the positive-stranded RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the family Togaviridae. Using a set of 20-bp primers located within the conserved 3' region of the BVDV genome, we were able to consistently amplify a 205-bp target sequence from BVDV cDNA. BVDV RNAs from cell culture-propagated BVDV reference strains, diverse unrelated cytopathic and noncytopathic field isolates, and clinical serum samples were transcribed to cDNA by using avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase and further specifically amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction assay. The amplification assay was sensitive enough to detect one molecule of cloned BVDV cDNA. Reconstitution experiments conducted by adding decreasing amounts of BVDV (NADL strain) to BVDV-free serum indicated that the threshold of sensitivity of the assay was less than or equal to 1 50% tissue culture infective dose. These results show that the polymerase chain reaction may be used for the rapid detection of diverse strains of BVDV in cell cultures, biological products, and clinical specimens from cattle. Images PMID:1709950

  9. Genomic sequencing and characterization of a Chinese isolate of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Lin, Y Q; Ding, X Y; Ren, M; Tao, J; Wang, J Y; Zhang, G P; Zhu, G Q

    2009-01-01

    The complete genomic sequencing and characterization of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate XJ-04 originated from cattle in China was described. The genomic RNA of the isolate was 12,284 nt long and contained short 5'- untranslated region (UTR), 3'-non-coding regions (NCR), and one open reading frame (ORF) encoding a large polyprotein of 3,895 amino acids with 20 potential N-glycosylation sites. The identity of the isolate XJ-04 with reference strains NADL (BVDV-1) and 890 (BVDV-2) in autoprotease (N(pro)) gene and structural genes (C, E(rns), E1, E2) was analyzed. The percentage of nt and aa identity in analyzed genes indicated that the isolate XJ-04 was closer to the reference strain 890 (BVDV-2) than to NADL (BVDV-1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate belonged to BVDV-2a subtype. Furthermore, comparison analysis indicated that the isolate XJ-04 did not contain any genomic insertions that can be directly related to the cytopathic phenotype. PMID:19941402

  10. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-10-01

    Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on the lack of persistence of high titres of anti-gp51 antibodies compared with unvaccinated BLV infected controls, on the enhanced CD4 proliferative responses to specific BLV gp51 synthetic peptides in the vaccinated sheep, and on the inability to detect BLV pro-virus by polymerase chain reaction in the vaccinated sheep after 4 months following challenge infection compared with continual detection in unvaccinated sheep over a 16 month trial period. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immune responses may be an important aspect of protective immunity against BLV infection and it has been reported that large tracts of amino acid sequences within the env and pol genes are highly conserved in different isolates from different countries which is of importance in designing peptide derived vaccines. PMID:8270269

  11. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Costantini, V; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V; Schiappacassi, G; Maliandi, F; Leunda, M; Odeón, A

    2009-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig) which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines. PMID:19623897

  12. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 impairs virus control in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Shin, Seung-Uk; Yoon, Ji Young; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen that causes development of mild to severe clinical signs in wild and domesticated ruminants. We previously showed that mice could be infected by BVDV. In the present study, we infected mice intraperitoneally with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 or ncp BVDV2, harvested the blood and organs of the infected mice at days 4, 7, 10 and 14 postinfection (pi), and performed immunohistochemical analyses to confirm BVDV infection. Viral antigens were detected in the spleens of all infected mice from days 4 through 14 and were also found in the mesenteric lymph nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), heart, kidney, intestine, and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of some infected mice. In ncp BVDV2-infected mice, flow cytometric analysis revealed markedly fewer CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and lower expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (I-A/I-E) than those in ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 was higher in the plasma of ncp BVDV2-infected mice than that in that of ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Our results demonstrate that ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 interact differently with the host innate immune response in vivo. These findings highlight an important distinction between ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 and suggest that ncp BVDV2 impairs the host's ability to control the infection and enhances virus dissemination. PMID:26586332

  13. Proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization, biotype-specific differences, and immunological properties

    SciTech Connect

    Donis, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Virus-specific polypeptides in bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) virus-infected bovine cells were studied by radiolabeling. A total of 12 polypeptides with apparent Mr of 165, 135, 118, 80, 75, 62, 56-58, 48, 37, 32, 25 and 19 kilodaltons (k) were identified in infected cells. Five glycoproteins were detected in infected cells. Two abundant species had apparent Mr of 48 k and 56-58 k while the minor species had masses of 118, 75 and 65 k. When cells were radiolabeled with L-(/sup 35/S)-methionine in the presence of tunicamycin the 56-58 k migrated with apparent masses of 54 k and 48-50 K in PAGE. Endoglycosidase F digestion of virus-induced polypeptides caused a 4-6 K reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the 56-58 k yielding a 52 k digested product. Tunicamycin caused a drastic reduction in the yield of infectious virus indicating that the carbohydrate moieties serve a vital role in the infection cycle of BVD virus. The noncytopathic biotype BVD (NCB-BVD) virus isolates can be consistently differentiated from cytopathic biotype BVD (CB-BVD) isolates on the basis of unique polypeptide profiles they induce in the infected cell: the most abundant polypeptide in CB-BVD infected cells is the 80 kD polypeptide while NCB-BVD lack this polypeptide and induce a predominant 118 k polypeptide. A panel of 25 murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the two major glycoproteins of BVD virus was produced. Based on their viral polypeptide specificity and on their ability to neutralize viral infectivity the Mabs in the panel were divided into 3 classes: Class 1 Mabs reacted with the 56-58 k glycoprotein and neutralized the virus, Class 2 Mabs recognized the 56-58 k glycoprotein but were not neutralizing and Class 3 Mabs reacted with the 48 k glycoprotein and did not neutralize the virus. These results identify the 56-58 k as one of the envelope glycoproteins of BVD virus.

  14. Epidemiology of prolonged testicular infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Walz, Paul H; Gard, Julie A; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-10-20

    Previously, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) had been found in prolonged testicular infections following acute infection of immunocompetent bulls. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate the production and maintenance of prolonged testicular infections after exposure to BVDV of seronegative bulls in varying circumstances. The secondary objective was to initiate assessment of the potential for transmission of BVDV via semen of bulls exhibiting a prolonged testicular infection. In total, 10 research trials were conducted. The first trial examined the duration of detectable virus in semen after intranasal inoculation of peri-pubertal bulls. The second to fifth trials examined the potential for prolonged testicular infections resulting from natural exposure of seronegative bulls to persistently infected heifers. In the last five trials, the potential for viral transmission from bulls exhibiting prolonged testicular infections to a small number of exposed animals (n=28) was evaluated. Results of this research demonstrated that prolonged testicular infections could result in detection of viral RNA in semen for 2.75 years with infectious virus grown from testicular tissue 12.5 months after viral exposure. A type 1b strain of BVDV caused prolonged testicular infection after natural exposure of seronegative bulls to a persistently infected heifer. However, transmission of BVDV to susceptible animals was not detected in the final five trials of this research. In conclusion, BVDV can persist in testicular tissue after acute infection for several years, but the potential for viral transmission from these prolonged testicular infections appears to be low. PMID:19473788

  15. Prevalence and antigenic differences of bovine viral diarrhea virus subgenotypes isolated from cattle in the U.S. and Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses are segregated into two different species within the pestivirus genus, bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 1 (BVDV1) and bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 2 (BVDV2). While this segregation was first based on phylogenetic analysis, subsequent characterization of viral s...

  16. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of Korean bovine viral diarrhea viruses.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Cha, Sang-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2009-11-18

    Thirty-six bovine viral disease viruses (BVDVs) were identified in bovine feces (n=16), brains (n=2), and aborted fetuses (n=18) in Korea. To reveal the genetic diversity and characteristics of these Korean strains, the sequences of their 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) were determined and then compared with published reference sequences. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Korean viruses were of the BVDV subtypes 1a (n=17) or 2a (n=17). The remaining strains were of subtypes 1b (n=1) and 1n (n=1). This analysis indicates that the 1a and 2a BVDV subtypes are predominant and widespread in Korea. In addition, the prevalence of BVDV-2 was markedly higher in aborted fetuses than in other samples and was more often associated with reproductive problems and significant mortality in cattle. PMID:19589650

  17. The Amino-Terminal Domain of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Npro Protein Is Necessary for Alpha/Beta Interferon Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Ansari, Israrul H.; Vassilev, Ventzislav; Liang, Delin; Lai, Vicky C. H.; Zhong, Weidong; Hong, Zhi; Dubovi, Edward J.; Donis, Ruben O.

    2006-01-01

    The alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) system is the first line of defense against viral infection and a critical link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. IFN-α/β secretion is the hallmark of cellular responses to acute RNA virus infections. As part of their survival strategy, many viruses have evolved mechanisms to counteract the host IFN-α/β response. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (genus Pestivirus) was reported to trigger interferon production in infected cultured cells under certain circumstances or to suppress it under others. Our studies with various cultured fibroblasts and epithelial bovine cells indicated that cytopathic (cp) BVDV induces IFN-α/β very inefficiently. Using a set of engineered cp BVDVs expressing mutant Npro and appropriate controls, we found that the IFN-α/β response to infection was dependent on Npro expression and independent of viral replication efficiency. In order to investigate whether the protease activity of Npro is required for IFN-α/β antagonism, we engineered Npro mutants lacking protease activity by replacement of amino acid E22, H49, or C69. We found that E22 and H49 substitutions abolished the ability of Npro to suppress IFN, whereas C69 had no effect, suggesting that the structural integrity of the N terminus of Npro was more important than its catalytic activity for IFN-α/β suppression. A catalytically active mutant with a change at a conserved Npro region near the N terminus (L8P) in both BVDV biotypes did not antagonize IFN-α/β production, confirming its involvement in this process. Taken together, these results not only provide direct evidence for the role of Npro in blocking IFN-α/β induction, but also implicate the amino-terminal domain of the protein in this function. PMID:16378992

  18. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China) using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE), indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX) and electron microscopy(EM). The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV) in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer. PMID:21352530

  19. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  20. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 nucleic acid in fetal bovine samples stored under different conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of pregnant cattle with bovine viral diarrhea viruses can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, still births, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive and immune systems and the birth of calves persistently infected w...

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type subgenotypes isolated from cattle in the U.S. and Australia: prevalence and antigenic differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses are segregated into two different species within the pestivirus genus, bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 1 (BVDV1) and bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 2 (BVDV2). While this segregation was first based on phylogenetic analysis, subsequent characterization of v...

  2. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    PubMed Central

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FBS, and the BVDV antibody was detected in 44 (1.60%) FBS. The survey on 139 sets of paired sera of a dam and her fetus revealed that neither the BVDV antibody nor BVDV was detected in all FBS from BVDV antibody-positive dams. PMID:26074250

  3. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26895887

  4. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    PubMed

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs. PMID:26597189

  5. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  6. Fine mapping of loci on BTA2 and BTA26 associated with bovine viral diarrhea persistent infection and linked with bovine respiratory disease in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf...

  7. Regeneration and characterization of a recombinant bovine viral diarrhea virus and determination of its efficacy to cross the bovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2009-02-01

    The capacity of different bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains to cause transplacental infection is variable. BVDV strain SD-1 was isolated from a persistently infected heifer. Its genome represents the only reported nucleotide sequence of a noncytopathic viral isolate determined without cell culture passage in the laboratory. Thus, SD-1 might possess biological advantages over other NCP BVDV strains to be used as a model virus for investigation of viral transplacental transmission. To evaluate if a molecularly generated BVDV SD-1 is capable of crossing the bovine placenta efficiently, a full-length cDNA clone of SD-1 was constructed using RT-PCR amplification and standard molecular techniques. In vitro transcripts synthesized from the cDNA template directed the generation of infectious virus in MDBK cells with a transfection efficiency as high as 4.7 x 10(5) FFU/mug RNA. The recovered virus termed ASD1 harbored five silent point mutations engineered as genetic markers and was similar to wild type (wt) SD-1 in viral growth kinetics. As evaluated in the pregnant heifers, ASD1 was capable of crossing the bovine placenta efficiently, suggesting that NCP BVDV SD-1 is a suitable viral backbone for investigation of the role of viral genetic element(s) in viral transplacental transmission by allowing for evaluation of newly created viral mutants. PMID:19067148

  8. [Genome sequencing and analysis of the bovine viral diarrhea virus-2 strain JZ05-1 isolated in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-chao; Miao, Li-guang; Li, Hai-tao; Liu, Yan-huan; Zhang, Guang-lei; Xiao, Jia-mei

    2010-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, which is a widespread problem for beef and dairy herds, and has given rise to a significant loss in the livestock industry all over the world. The BVDV strain JZ05-1 isolated from cattle in Jilin, China generated cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDBK cells. Eight overlapped gene fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced, the complete genom sequence of BVDV strain JZ05-1 was assembled. According to the results, the JZ05-1 genome was composed of 12285 nucleotides in length (GenBank accession No. GQ888686), which could be divided into three regions: a 387 nt 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 11694 nt single large open reading frame encoding a polyprotein, and a 204 nt 3'-UTR. The 5'-UTR and genome sequences were analyzed by sequence alignment and construction of phylogenetic trees. The strain JZ05-1 was classified as BVDV type 2a. The BVDV-2 strain JZ05-1 genome showed high similarity to the p11Q isolated in Canada and the XJ-04 isolated in China, with 90% and 91% identity in nucleotide sequence, respectively. Compared with the similarity within the BVDV-2 genotype (96%), the JZ05-1 had low sequence similarity to other BVDV-2 strains. PMID:20572347

  9. Experimental infection of mice with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to infect mice. Two mice each were either mock infected or inoculated with one of three BVDV strains by the intraperitoneal (IP) (n = 8) or intranasal (IN) (n = 8) route. All mice were euthanized at day 7 postinfection (p.i.). None of the infected mice exhibited any clinical signs of illness; however, the tissues harvested after BVDV challenge showed significant histopathological changes. Blood samples from five mice that were injected IP and one mouse that was inoculated IN were positive for BVDV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the presence of viral antigen in the organs of mice infected with three BVDV strains. In IP-injected mice, BVDV antigen was detected in the spleen (5/6), mesenteric lymph nodes (4/6), lymphatic tissue of the lung (3/6), lung (1/6), and stomach (1/6) of the infected mice; however, it was not detected in the liver (0/6) or kidney (0/6). In IN-inoculated mice, BVDV antigen was detected in the lung and mesenteric lymph nodes of one BVDV-infected mouse but was not detected in other tissues. The results of this study suggest that the spleen is the most reliable tissue for BVDV antigen detection using IHC in the IP-injected group. Our study demonstrates that mice can be infected by BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV infection in mice. PMID:25850760

  10. Identification of Genetic Regions Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea-Persistently Infected Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the etiologies involved in bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BVDV infection can also cause reproductive disorders and acute fatal hemorrhagic disease resulting in poor performance and economic losses to the cattle industry. Infection with BVDV can be tra...

  11. Development of fetal and placental innate immune responses during establishment of persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Morarie, Susan E; Hansen, Thomas R

    2012-08-01

    Transplacental viral infections are dependent upon complex interactions between feto-placental and maternal immune responses and the stage of fetal development at which the infection occurs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has the ability to cross the placenta and infect the fetus. Infection early in gestation with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV leads to persistent infection. Establishment of fetal persistent infection results in life-long viremia, virus-specific immunotolerance, and may have detrimental developmental consequences. We have previously shown that heifers infected experimentally with ncp BVDV type 2 on d. 75 of gestation had transient robust up-regulation of the type I interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) 3-15 days after viral inoculation. Blood from persistently infected (PI) fetuses, collected 115 days post maternal infection, demonstrated moderate chronic up-regulation of ISGs. This infection model was used to delineate timing of the development of innate immune responses in the fetus and placenta during establishment of persistent infection. It was hypothesized that: (i) chronic stimulation of innate immune responses occurs following infection of the fetus and (ii) placental production of the type I IFN contributes to up-regulation of ISGs in PI fetuses. PI fetuses, generated by intranasal inoculation of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV, and control fetuses from uninfected heifers, were collected via Cesarean sections on d. 82, 89, 97, 192, and 245 of gestation. Fetal viremia was confirmed starting on d. 89. Significant up-regulation of mRNA encoding cytosolic dsRNA sensors -RIG-I and MDA5 - was detected on d. 82-192. Detection of viral dsRNA by cytosolic sensors leads to the stimulation of ISGs, which was reflected in significant up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in fetal blood on d. 89, 97, and 192. No difference in IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA concentration was found in fetal blood or caruncular tissue, while a significant increase in both IFN-α and IFN

  12. Impact of species and subgenotypes of bovine viral diarrhea virus on control by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are diverse genetically and antigenically. This diversity impacts both diagnostic testing and vaccination. In North America, there are two BVDV species, 1 and 2 with 3 subgenotypes, BVDV1a, BVDV1b and BVDV2a. Initially, US vaccines contained BVDV1a cytopathic strains. With the reporting of BVDV2 severe disease in Canada and the USA there was focus on protection by BVDV1a vaccines on BVDV2 disease. There was also emphasis of controlling persistently infected (PI) cattle resulted in studies for fetal protection afforded by BVDV1a vaccines. Initially, studies indicated that some BVDV1a vaccines gave less than 100% protection against BVDV2 challenge for fetal infection. Eventually vaccines in North America added BVDV2a to modified live virus (MLV) and killed BVDV1a vaccines. Ideally, vaccines should stimulate complete immunity providing 100% protection against disease, viremias, shedding, and 100% fetal protection in vaccinates when challenged with a range of diverse antigenic viruses (subgenotypes). There should be a long duration of immunity stimulated by vaccines, especially for fetal protection. MLV vaccines should be safe when given according to the label and free of other pathogens. While vaccines have now included BVDV1a and BVDV2a, with the discovery of the predominate subgenotype of BVDV in the USA to be BVDV1b, approximately 75% or greater in prevalence, protection in acute challenge and fetal protection studies became more apparent for BVDV1b. Thus many published studies examined protection by BVDV1a and BVDV2a vaccines against BVDV1b in acute challenge and fetal protection studies. There are no current BVDV1b vaccines in the USA. There are now more regulations on BVDV reproductive effects by the USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) regarding label claims for protection against abortion, PI calves, and fetal infections, including expectations for studies regarding those claims. Also, the USDA CVB has a memorandum

  13. A bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a strain in China: isolation, identification, and experimental infection in calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important pathogens in cattle. Previously, BVDV sub-genotypes of 1b, 1c, 1d, and 1 m were detected in China. However, isolation of BVDV type 1a from cattle has not been reported in China. In 2010, twenty nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from the cattle suspected BVDV infection in Henan province, China. A BVDV isolate was isolated using cell culture, and the pathogenesis of the virus isolate was studied. Methods Virus isolation was performed on MDBK cells. The virus identification was conducted by RT-PCR, neutralization test and immunofluorescence assay. In order to determine the genotype of the newly isolated virus, the 5′ un-translated region (5′UTR) of the virus isolate was cloned, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. To evaluate the virulence of the virus isolate, four BVDV sero-negative calves were intranasally inoculated with the virus suspension. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for changes in white blood cell counts, and tissue samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Results A new isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), named HN01, was isolated from the nasal swabs using MDBK cell culture. The HN01 strain caused cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDBK cell cultures after two passages. The virus specifically reacted to BVDV1-specific monoclonal antibody in an immunofluorescence assay. A fragment of 288 bp of genome from this isolate was amplified by the RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5′UTR indicated that the virus was BVDV 1a. In the pathogenesis study, four calves experimentally infected with the BVDV strain developed depression, cough and other clinical signs. Calves showed high temperature over 40°C, and white blood cell counts dropped more than 40%. Conclusions A new subgenotype 1a strain of BVDV was firstly isolated from dairy cattle in China. The experimental infection showed that the virus was

  14. Surveillance for persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in four artificial insemination centers.

    PubMed

    Howard, T H; Bean, B; Hillman, R; Monke, D R

    1990-06-15

    Four large bovine artificial insemination centers implemented a program of surveillance of resident and newly acquired bulls for persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection. Infection was identified in 12 of 1,538 bulls. Several clinical abnormalities, including acute and chronic mucosal disease, were evident among the persistently infected bulls. Semen produced by such bulls consistently contained bovine viral diarrhea virus, and such contamination was not always accompanied by diminished seminal quality. Infected bulls were detected by means of virus isolation tests performed on blood specimens, but not by use of serologic testing. Ten of the 12 persistently infected bulls were results of embryo transfer. Virologic surveillance of breeding herds, artificial insemination and embryo transfer centers, and the cattle trade is necessary to prevent spread of this virus by modern cattle breeding practices. Attention is also necessary to prevent contamination by this virus of the fluids used for recovery, in vitro manipulation, and transfer of bovine embryos. PMID:2163996

  15. Molecular detection and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Mongolian cattle and yaks.

    PubMed

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs. PMID:27206573

  16. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings. PMID:24026447

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in postweaned calves in a feedlot after vaccination and from fatal respiratory cases: isolation and differentiation of MLV BVDV and field strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral infections are important etiologies in BRD cases. Calves at stocker/feedlot entry usually receive modified live viral (MLV) vaccines containing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). In...

  18. Bovine viral diarrhea virus outbreak in a beef cow herd in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to describe the outcome of natural bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in a herd of 136 bred heifers. This outbreak was notable in that a total of 36 PI calves were generated. Of the 136 bred heifers, 8 failed to deliver a calf. Eight calves died shortly a...

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: impact of the virus on cattle performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper details the impact that infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has on cattle performance. Published studies are reviewed that suggest that BVDV infections can alter the normal production of cytokines and free radicals, thus resulting in more severe inflammation and tissue dam...

  20. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)1 or 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...

  1. Knowledge Gaps Impacting the Development of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Control Programs in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper identifies knowledge gaps that impact on the design of programs to control and or eradicate bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in the United States. Currently there are several voluntary regional BVDV control programs in place. These control programs are aimed at the removal of animals ...

  2. Genetic diversity and frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detected in cattle in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid detection and culling of persistently infected animals and efficacious vaccination are key factors to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency of detection of persistently infected cattle and examine the diversity of bo...

  3. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  4. Resolving bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected US beef calves with complete genome sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic differences. Currently, three major subtypes circulate in the United States: BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a. In addition, a single case of BVDV-2b infection ...

  5. Periparturient infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 causes hemorrhagic proctocolitis in a cow

    PubMed Central

    Laureyns, Jozef; Pardon, Bart; Letellier, Carine; Deprez, Piet

    2011-01-01

    After 3 cows of a dairy herd had died from severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, a 4th sick cow was transported to the clinic. Blood analyses revealed the complete absence of white blood cells, the presence of a type 1b strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and seroconversion to BVDV. PMID:22467972

  6. Fatal trichuris spp. infection in a Holstein heifer persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Greg N

    2004-06-01

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) were identified in the colon of a recently purchased, 10-month-old dairy heifer that died suddenly. A skin test was positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Signs of BVDV occurred in other heifers in the group, but fecal flotations were negative for whipworm eggs. PMID:15283522

  7. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...

  8. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...

  9. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  10. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  11. Evidence for persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants, and there is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-ranging and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that ar...

  12. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS IN CAMELIDS: AN EMERGING PATHOGEN AND WAYS TO MONITOR HERD INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The subject of this report will attempt to tie in several aspects of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and its most recent incursion into the camelid family, namely llamas and alpacas. We have known that both llamas and alpacas are susceptible to BVDV infections for over 20 years. In some cases, ...

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of diagnostic testing methods for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NVSL, in collaboration with ARS, developed a proficiency panel for bovine viral diarrhea virus testing. Twenty-eight participants used the panel for virus detection by antigen ELISA, virus isolation, or PCR. The panel consisted of 15 or 16 diluted serum and buffy coat samples from known negati...

  14. Genetic characterization of a noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2b isolated from cattle in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Chen, Chaoyang; Wu, Hua

    2014-10-01

    In January 2013, several clinical signs of cattle with diarrhea, cough, nasal discharge, and fever were reported in Jilin province, China. One virus named SD1301 was isolated and identified. Complete genome of the virus is 12258nt in length and contains a 5'UTR, one open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,897 amino acids and a 3'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'UTR, N(pro), E1 and E2 gene demonstrated the virus belonged to BVDV 2b, and genetically related to the BVDV strain Hokudai-Lab/09 from Japan in 2010. This bovine viral diarrhea virus displays a unique genetic signature with 27-nucleotide deletion in the 5'UTR, which is similar to the bovine viral diarrhea virus C413 (AF002227). This was the first confirmed isolation of ncp BVDV2b circulating in bovine herd of China. PMID:24811746

  15. Variation in E**rns viral glycoprotein associated with failure of immunohistochemistry and commercial antigen capture ELISA to detect a field strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) effects cattle populations causing clinical signs that range from subclinical immunosuppression to severe reproductive and respiratory problems. Detection and removal of persistently infected (PI) calves is the single most important factor for control and eradicat...

  16. Effects of Preinfection With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus on Immune Cells From the Lungs of Calves Inoculated With Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1.

    PubMed

    Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interstitial aggregates of immune cells observed in pulmonary parenchyma of calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and challenged later with bovine herpesvirus 1. In addition, the intent of this research was to clarify the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus in local cell-mediated immunity and potentially in predisposing animals to bovine respiratory disease complex. Twelve Friesian calves, aged 8 to 9 months, were inoculated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1. Ten were subsequently challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days postinoculation. The other 2 calves were euthanized prior to the second inoculation. Another cohort of 10 calves was inoculated only with bovine herpesvirus 1 and then were euthanized at the same time points. Two calves were not inoculated with any agent and were used as negative controls. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated in all animals, while quantitative and biosynthetic changes in immune cells were concurrently examined immunohistochemically to compare coinfected calves and calves challenged only with bovine herpesvirus 1. Calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus demonstrated moderate respiratory clinical signs and histopathologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia with aggregates of mononuclear cells, which predominated at 4 days postinoculation. Furthermore, this group of animals was noted to have a suppression of interleukin-10 and associated alterations in the Th1-driven cytokine response in the lungs, as well as inhibition of the response of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes against bovine herpesvirus 1. These findings suggest that bovine viral diarrhea virus preinfection could affect the regulation of the immune response as modulated by regulatory T cells, as well as impair local cell-mediated immunity to secondary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25322747

  17. Inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro by xanthohumol: comparisons with ribavirin and interferon-alpha and implications for the development of anti-hepatitis C virus agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ni; Liu, Zhengwen; Han, Qunying; Chen, Jinghong; Lou, Sai; Qiu, Jianming; Zhang, Guoyu

    2009-11-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) is a natural compound with potential antiviral activity. In this study, the ability of XN to inhibit bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a surrogate model of hepatitis C virus (HCV), was investigated. The antiviral activity of XN was compared with that of ribavirin (RBV) and interferon (IFN)-alpha. The results showed that XN could inhibit BVDV induced cytopathic effects (CPE). At 1000 TCID(50) and 100 TCID(50), the values of 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) were 3.24+/-0.02 mg/l and 2.77+/-0.19 mg/l, respectively, and the therapeutic indices were >7.72 and >9.03, respectively. XN inhibited BVDV E2 expression and viral RNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. At 6.25mg/l, XN decreased the viral RNA from released virus by 3.83 log 10 at 1000 TCID(50) and to an undetectable level at 100 TCID(50), and decreased the viral RNA level in whole cell culture by 3.36 log 10 and 2.88 log 10 at 1000 TCID(50) and 100 TCID(50), respectively. The inhibitory activity of XN on CPE, BVDV E2 expression and viral RNA levels was stronger than that of RBV and weaker than that of IFN-alpha. These results indicate the need to investigate the anti-HCV potential of XN. PMID:19720145

  18. Loci on Bos taurus chromosome 2 and Bos taurus chromosome 26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify loci linked with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and subsequently to determine if these same loci were associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus persistent infection (BVD-PI) in BVD-PI calves or their dams. A genome-wide linkage study using 312 microsa...

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties) The prevalence of PI3 viral antibodies among Saskatchewan cattle was not affected by district of origin, breed, sex, age, or vaccination practices, though BRS viral antibodies appeared less frequent in young, male, and unvaccinated animals. Antibodies to IBR and BVD viruses were less prevalent in the Prince Albert/Tisdale districts and in young, male, and unvaccinated animals, but were more common in Holstein cattle. Antibodies to IBR virus appeared less frequent in Herefords. Antibodies were more prevalent in cattle which had been vaccinated against IBR, BRS, and BVD virus infections. The relatively small number of cattle sampled from Alberta had a similar prevalence of antibodies to PI3 and BRS viruses to that seen in cattle in Saskatchewan, though IBR and BVD prevalence rates were lower. PMID:17423704

  20. Comparison of stability of viral nucleic acid in different tissues and under different conditions in samples collected from fetuses infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induced reproductive disease is important to herd health management and BVDV control programs. Diagnosing BVDV, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as a cause of reproductive disease may be problematic because viral nucleic acid may be degrade...

  1. Establishment, differentiation, electroporation, viral transduction, and nuclear transfer of bovine and porcine mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Colleoni, S; Donofrio, G; Lagutina, I; Duchi, R; Galli, C; Lazzari, G

    2005-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in the bone marrow and have the potential for multilineage differentiation, into bone, cartilage, and fat, for example. In this study, bovine and porcine MSCs were isolated, cultured to determine their replication ability, and differentiated with osteogenic medium and 5-azacytine. Both bovine and porcine undifferentiated MSCs were electroporated and virally transduced to test the efficiency of genetic modification and the maintainance of differentiation ability thereafter. Nuclear transfer experiments were carried out with bovine and porcine MSCs, both at the undifferentiated state and following differentiation. Our results indicate that bovine and porcine MSCs have limited lifespans in vitro--approximately 50 population doublings. They can be efficiently differentiated and characterized along the osteogenic lineage by morphology, alkaline phosphatase, Von Kossa, oil red stainings, and RT-PCR. Electroporation and selection induce high levels of EGFP expression in porcine but not in bovine MSCs. Following genetic modification, MSCs retain their pluridifferentiation ability as parental cells. Cloned embryos derived from bovine and porcine undifferentiated MSCs and their derivatives along the osteogenic lineage give rise to consistently high preimplantation development comparable to adult fibroblasts. PMID:16176125

  2. A genome-wide association study for the incidence of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is diverse group of viruses causing disease in ruminants. It is controlled with vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected animals. The objective was to determine whether genomic regions harbored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated ...

  3. First report of bovine viral diarrhoea virus-2 infection in cattle in Poland.

    PubMed

    Polak, Mirosław P; Kuta, Aleksandra; Rybałtowski, Wiesław; Rola, Jerzy; Larska, Magdalena; Zmudziński, Jan F

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first identification in Poland of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)-2 in a dairy herd where severe clinical disease with losses of young animals was observed. The virus was readily cultivated in cell culture and a phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences and secondary structures of the viral genomic 5' untranslated region confirmed virus identity. The economic impact of the infection was significant compared to the previously prevalent BVDV-1 infections confirming that this genotype of BVDV can cause severe sickness in affected herds. The use of BVDV-1 vaccine did not prevent the infection with the BVDV-2 genotype. PMID:25457262

  4. Complete Genome Sequencing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1, Subgenotypes 1n and 1o.

    PubMed

    Sato, Asuka; Tateishi, Kentaro; Shinohara, Minami; Naoi, Yuki; Shiokawa, Mai; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Keitaro; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Nagai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    To gain further insight into the genomic features of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) subgenotypes, we sequenced the complete genome of BVDV-1n Shitara/02/06 and BVDV-1o IS26NCP/01. The complete genome of Shitara/02/06 and IS26NCP/01 shared 77.7 to 79.3% and 78.0 to 85.7% sequence identities with other BVDV-1 subgenotype strains, respectively. PMID:26893426

  5. Diverse outcomes of bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in a herd naturally infected during pregnancy - a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A beef producer purchased Angus crossbred cattle that were pregnant with nursing calves. The purchased cattle, their nursing calves, and subsequent born calves were not initially tested for BVDV. Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 2a (BVDV2a) was isolated from an aborted bovine fetus, 6.5 months,...

  6. Histophathologic and Immunohistochemical Findings in Two White-tail Deer Fawns Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of domestic cattle. Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine speci...

  7. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity. PMID:24388627

  8. Induction of interferon-gamma and downstream pathways during establishment of fetal persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; McGill, Jodi L; Schaut, Robert G; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Sacco, Randy E; Hansen, Thomas R

    2014-04-01

    Development of transplacental infection depends on the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and replicate within the fetus while counteracting maternal and fetal immune responses. Unfortunately, little is known about this complex process. Non-cytopathic (ncp) strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family, cause persistent infection in early gestational fetuses (<150 days; persistently infected, PI), but are cleared by immunocompetent animals and late gestational fetuses (>150 days; transiently infected, TI). Evasion of innate immune response and development of immunotolerance to ncp BVDV have been suggested as possible mechanisms for the establishment of the persistent infection. Previously we have observed a robust temporal induction of interferon (IFN) type I (innate immune response) and upregulation of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) in BVDV TI fetuses. Modest chronic upregulation of ISGs in PI fetuses and calves reflects a stimulated innate immune response during persistent BVDV infection. We hypothesized that establishing persistent fetal BVDV infection is also accompanied by the induction of IFN-gamma (IFN-γ). The aims of the present study were to determine IFN-γ concentration in blood and amniotic fluid from control, TI and PI fetuses during BVDV infection and analyze induction of the IFN-γ downstream pathways in fetal lymphoid tissues. Two experiments with in vivo BVDV infections were completed. In Experiment 1, pregnant heifers were infected with ncp BVDV type 2 on day 75 or 175 of gestation or kept naïve to generate PI, TI and control fetuses, respectively. Fetuses were collected by Cesarean section on day 190. In Experiment 2, fetuses were collected on days 82, 89, 97, 192 and 245 following infection of pregnant heifers on day 75 of gestation. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that ncp BVDV infection induces IFN-γ secretion during acute infection in both TI and PI fetuses and that lymphoid

  9. Unbiased analysis by high throughput sequencing of the viral diversity in fetal bovine serum and trypsin used in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Gagnieur, Léa; Cheval, Justine; Gratigny, Marlène; Hébert, Charles; Muth, Erika; Dumarest, Marine; Eloit, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and trypsin are reagents used in cell culture and have been the source of viral contamination of pharmaceutical products. We performed high throughput sequencing (HTS) of two pools of commercial batches of FBS and three commercial batches of trypsin. Taxonomies were assigned by comparing sequences of contigs and singletons to the entire NCBI nucleic acid and protein databases. The same major viral species were evidenced between batches of a given reagent but the proportion of viral reads among total reads varied markedly between samples (from 0.002% to 22.7%). In FBS, the sequences found were mainly from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 to 3 and bovine parvovirus 3 (BPV3). The BVDV sequences derived from FBS showed only minor discrepancies with primers generally used for the screening of BVDV. Viral sequences in trypsin were mainly from porcine circovirus type 2. Other known viral sequences at lower read counts and potential new viral species (bovine parvovirus and bovine pegivirus) were evidenced. The load of some known and new viruses detected by HTS could be quantified by qPCR. Results of HTS provide a framework for evaluating the pertinence of control measures including the design of PCRs, bioassays and inactivation procedures. PMID:24661556

  10. Intrauterine inoculation of seronegative heifers with bovine viral diarrhea virus concurrent with transfer of in vivo-derived bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Gard, J A; Givens, M D; Marley, M S D; Galik, P K; Riddell, K P; Edmondson, M A; Rodning, S P

    2010-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been shown to be associated with single transferable in vivo-derived bovine embryos despite washing and trypsin treatment. Hence, the primary objective was to evaluate the potential of BVDV to be transmitted via the intrauterine route at the time of embryo transfer. In vivo-derived bovine embryos (n=10) were nonsurgically collected from a single Bos tarus donor cow negative for BVDV. After collection and washing, embryos were placed into transfer media containing BVDV (SD-1; Type 1a). Each of the 10 embryos was individually loaded into an 0.25-mL straw, which was then nonsurgically transferred into the uterus of 1 of the 10 seronegative recipients on Day 0. The total quantity of virus transferred into the uterus of each of the 10 Bos tarus recipients was 878 cell culture infective doses to the 50% end point (CCID(50))/mL. Additionally, control heifers received 1.5 x 10(6) CCID(50) BVDV/.5 mL without an embryo (positive) or heat-inactivated BVDV (negative). The positive control heifer and all 10 recipients of virus-exposed embryos exhibited viremia by Day 6 and seroconverted by Day 15 after transfer. The negative control heifer did not exhibit a viremia or seroconvert. At 30 d after embryo transfer, 6 of 10 heifers in the treatment group were pregnant; however, 30 d later, only one was still pregnant. This fetus was nonviable and was positive for BVDV. In conclusion, the quantity of BVDV associated with bovine embryos after in vitro exposure can result in viremia and seroconversion of seronegative recipients after transfer into the uterus during diestrus. PMID:20129656

  11. Latex immunoagglutination assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus utilizing forward light scattering in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Brian C.; Song, Jae-Young; Han, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated the utilization of particle agglutination assays using forward light scattering measurements in a microfluidic device towards detecting viral particles. The model viral target was bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Highly carboxylated polystyrene microspheres (510 nm) were coated with anti-BVDV monoclonal antibodies. This solution was in turn used to detect live modified BVDV. This assay was first performed in a two well slide for proof of concept and then in a simple y-channel microfluidic device with optical fibers arranged in a close proximity setup. Particle immunoagglutination was detected through static light scattering measurements taken at 45° to incident light. In the microfluidic device, modified live BVDV was detected with a detection limit of 0.5 TCID 50 mL -1.

  12. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. PMID:20381643

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura-Correa, J C; Zapata-Campos, C C; Jasso-Obregón, J O; Martinez-Burnes, J; López-Zavala, R

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  15. Diagnostic dilemma encountered when detecting bovine viral diarrhea virus in IVF embryo production.

    PubMed

    Given, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia K; Stringfellow, David A; Brock, Kenny V; Loskutoff, Naida M

    2002-10-15

    Routine quality controls in production of bovine embryos by in vitro fertilization (IVF) should include screening all materials of animal origin for the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Using a reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) assay, we detected BVDV in primary cultures of uterine tubal cells (UTC) that had been used during IVF procedures. The goal of our ensuing investigation was to determine its source and assess risks associated with the identified contaminant. Sequencing of the amplified 5' nontranslated region (NTR) of the viral genome confirmed a Genotype I BVDV contaminant. This viral contaminant was also identified by RT-nPCR in multiple samples of the same lot of fetal bovine serum (FBS) that was used in transport media by the laboratory that harvested the UTC. Both routine and enhanced roller bottle methods for virus isolation failed to detect BVDV in the FBS. Furthermore, virus neutralization assays did identify antibodies to Genotype I strains of BVDV in the FBS. After 7 days of co-incubation, neither cultured, washed UTC nor exposed, washed embryos were RT-nPCR positive for BVDV. Eight embryos produced in the contaminated system were nonsurgically transferred into eight seronegative cows. None of the embryo recipients seroconverted to BVDV. Thus, contamination of cell culture medium with BVDV did not result in transmission of the virus when IVF embryos were transferred. Failure to transmit disease was likely aided by serendipitous control from anti-BVDV antibodies in the FBS. However, a diagnostic dilemma was created when the RT-nPCR assays used to screen for BVDV were positive, yet attempts to isolate the virus were negative. This case study illustrates that if molecular assays are to be used to confirm the pathogen-free status of IVF embryo production systems, media components of animal origin (e.g. FBS) should be screened with molecular assays for BVDV as well as traditional virus isolation techniques

  16. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 nucleic acid in fetal bovine samples stored under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F; Neill, John D; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Waldbillig, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Infection of pregnant cattle with both species of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, stillbirths, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive, and immune systems, and the birth of calves persistently infected with BVDV. Accurate diagnosis of BVDV-associated reproductive disease is important to control BVDV at the production unit level and assessment of the cost of BVDV infections in support of BVDV control programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the stability of viral nucleic acid in fetal tissues exposed to different conditions, as measured by detection by polymerase chain reaction. Five different types of fetal tissue, including brain, skin and muscle, ear, and 2 different pooled organ samples, were subjected to conditions that mimicked those that might exist for samples collected after abortions in production settings or possible storage conditions after collection and prior to testing. In addition, tissues were archived for 36 months at -20°C and then retested, to mimic conditions that might occur in the case of retrospective surveillance studies. Brain tissue showed the highest stability under the conditions tested. The impact of fecal contamination was increased following archiving in all tissue types suggesting that, for long-term storage, effort should be made to reduce environmental contaminants before archiving. PMID:24352225

  17. Immune response to bovine viral diarrhea virus--looking at newly defined targets.

    PubMed

    Chase, Christopher C L; Thakur, Neelu; Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Morarie-Kane, Susan E; Rajput, Mrigendra K

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has long been associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes and immune dysregulation, many which result in secondary bacterial infections. Current understanding of immune cell interactions that result in activation and tolerance are explored in light of BVDV infection including: depletion of lymphocytes, effects on neutrophils, natural killer cells, and the role of receptors and cytokines. In addition, we review some new information on the effect of BVDV on immune development in the fetal liver, the role of resident macrophages, and greater implications for persistent infection. PMID:26050567

  18. Stability of the resistance to the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone, a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eliana F; Campos, Rodolfo H; Cavallaro, Lucía V

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1-5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1-5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1-5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs. PMID:24950191

  19. Stability of the Resistance to the Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone, a Non-Nucleoside Polymerase Inhibitor of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eliana F.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1–5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1–5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1–5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs. PMID:24950191

  20. Prevalence Study and Genetic Typing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Four Bovine Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Mingliang; Ji, Sukun; Fei, Wentao; Raza, Sohail; He, Chenfei; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

    2015-01-01

    To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens), and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab) and antigen (Ag) detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5’-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379), 1.39% (14/1010), and 22.64% (146/645), respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333), 63.27% (248/392), 45.38% (236/520), and 14.18% (19/134), respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116), 0.77% (3/392), 0.82% (3/368), and 5.97% (8/134), respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131), 13.00% (26/200), 28.89% (52/180), and 19.40% (26/134), respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5’-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5’-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%), BVDV-1m (49.19%), or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%). Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health. PMID:25849315

  1. Characterization of the cytopathic BVDV strains isolated from 13 mucosal disease cases arising in a cattle herd.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Rajput, Mrigendra K S; Braun, Lyle J; Ridpath, Julia F; Neill, John D; Chase, Christopher C L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a positive single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has a wide host range that includes most ruminants. Noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV may establish lifelong persistent infections in calves following infection of the fetus between 40 and 120 days of gestation. Cytopathic (cp) BVDV strains arise from ncp strains via mutations. The most common cp mutations are insertions of RNA derived from either host or a duplication of viral sequences into the region of the genome coding for the NS2/3 protein. Superinfection of a persistently infected animal with a cp virus can give rise to mucosal disease, a condition that is invariably fatal. A herd of 136 bred 3-year old cows was studied. These cows gave birth to 41 PI animals of which 23 succumbed to mucosal disease. In this study, we characterized the ncp and cp viruses isolated from 13 of these animals. All viruses belonged to the BVDV type 2a genotype and were highly similar. All the cp viruses contained an insertion in the NS2/3 coding region consisting of the sequences derived from the transcript encoding a DnaJ protein named Jiv90. Comparison of the inserted DnaJ regions along with the flanking viral sequences in the insertion 3' end of the 13 cp isolates revealed sequence identities ranging from 96% to 99% with common borders. This suggested that one animal likely developed a cp virus that then progressively spread to the other 12 animals. Interestingly, when the inserted mammalian gene replicated within viral genome, it showed conservation of the same conserved motifs between the different species, which may indicate a role for these motifs in the insertion function within the virus genome. This is the first characterization of multiple cp bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates that spread in a herd under natural conditions. PMID:25300803

  2. Characterization of viral replication and the immune response in bison peripheral blood mononuclear cells following in vitro bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae that has significant negative economic impact on beef and dairy production worldwide. In recent years, the North American bison industry has grown considerably with increases in the numbers of both wild and private herds. ...

  3. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS PERSISTENTLY INFECTED AND ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES: ASSAYS FOR VIRAL INFECTIVITY, POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ANALYSIS, AND ANTIGEN DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detecting infectious virus, nucleic material, and antigen. Persistently infected (PI) and acutely/transiently infected calves with BVDV represent two different manifestations. Diagnostic test results impact on differentiation of PI o...

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2-induced meningoencephalitis in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Blas-Machado, U; Saliki, J T; Duffy, J C; Caseltine, S L

    2004-03-01

    The brain from a 15-month-old, black female Angus, with a 48-hour history of central nervous system disease, was submitted to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. Microscopic findings consisted of acute, multifocal meningoencephalitis, with neuronal degeneration and necrosis and gliosis. Viral isolation yielded noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Virus genotyping classified the virus as BVDV type 2. Immunohistochemical labeling for BVDV antigens with BVD MAb 3.12F1 clone was prominent in the cytoplasm of neurons, glial cells, ependymal epithelium, perivascular macrophages and spindle cells, smooth muscle cells, and intravascular monocytes of the cerebrum and brain stem. Laboratory results support that tissue alterations occurred as a result of BVDV type 2 infection. In the absence of other clinical signs related to BVDV infection and using the microscopic and laboratory evidence presented, we propose that the BVDV type 2 isolated from this case may represent a neurovirulent strain of the virus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brain lesions and neuronal viral antigen localization in BVDV genotype 2 viral infection, acquired either congenitally or postnatally. PMID:15017036

  5. Crystal structure of glycoprotein E2 from bovine viral diarrhea virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Wang, Jimin; Kanai, Ryuta; Modis, Yorgo

    2013-01-01

    Pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, are important animal pathogens and are closely related to hepatitis C virus, which remains a major global health threat. They have an outer lipid envelope bearing two glycoproteins, E1 and E2, required for cell entry. They deliver their genome into the host cell cytoplasm by fusion of their envelope with a cellular membrane. The crystal structure of bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 reveals a unique protein architecture consisting of two Ig-like domains followed by an elongated β-stranded domain with a new fold. E2 forms end-to-end homodimers with a conserved C-terminal motif rich in aromatic residues at the contact. A disulfide bond across the interface explains the acid resistance of pestiviruses and their requirement for a redox activation step to initiate fusion. From the structure of E2, we propose alternative possible membrane fusion mechanisms. We expect the pestivirus fusion apparatus to be conserved in hepatitis C virus. PMID:23569276

  6. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infected and noninfected cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B

    2013-02-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic. PMID:22858000

  7. Evaluation of Three Experimental Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Killed Vaccines Adjuvanted with Combinations of QuilA Cholesterol and Dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) Bromide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause respiratory, reproductive, and enteric disease in cattle. Vaccination raises herd resistance and then limits the spread of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) among cattle. The goal of this research was to evaluate new adjuvants, consisting of c...

  8. Change in Predominance of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotypes Among Samples Submitted to a Diagnostic Laboratory Over a 20-Year Time Span

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea was initially categorized as one species, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses belong to two different species, bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV1) and BVDV2, with 2 to 11 subgenotypes within each species. Distribution of species...

  9. Change in Predominance of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotypes Among Samples Submitted to a Diagnostic Laboratory Over a 20-Year Time Span

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea was initially categorized as one species, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses belong to two different species, bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV1) and BVDV2. Further analysis led to the recognition of multiple subgenotypes withi...

  10. Characterization of bovine A20 gene: Expression mediated by NF-κB pathway in MDBK cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus-1.

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2016-05-01

    Cytokine production for immunological process is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The NF-κB signaling pathway maintains immune homeostasis in the cell through the participation of molecules such as A20 (TNFAIP3), which is a key regulatory factor in the immune response, hematopoietic differentiation, and immunomodulation. Although A20 has been identified in mammals, and despite recent efforts to identify A20 members in other higher vertebrates, relatively little is known about the composition of this regulator in other classes of vertebrates, particularly for bovines. In this study, the genetic context of bovine A20 was explored and compared against homologous genes in the human, mouse, chicken, dog, and zebrafish chromosomes. Through in silico analysis, several regions of interest were found conserved between even phylogenetically distant species. Additionally, a protein-deduced sequence of bovine A20 evidenced many conserved domains in humans and mice. Furthermore, all potential amino acid residues implicated in the active site of A20 were conserved. Finally, bovine A20 mRNA expression as mediated by the bovine viral diarrhea virus and poly (I:C) was evaluated. These analyses evidenced a strong fold increase in A20 expression following virus exposure, a phenomenon blocked by a pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 117085). Interestingly, A20 mRNA had a half-life of only 32min, likely due to adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Collectively, these data identify bovine A20 as a regulator of immune marker expression. Finally, this is the first report to find the bovine viral diarrhea virus modulating bovine A20 activation through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26809100

  11. Development of a duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Marley, Mylissa S D; Givens, M Daniel; Galik, Patricia K; Riddell, Kay P; Stringfellow, David A

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for simultaneous detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type I and type II. Follicular fluid was collected from a BoHV-1 acutely infected heifer, a BVDV I persistently infected heifer, and from 10 ovaries recovered from an abattoir. Both the BoHV-1 and BVDV contaminated follicular fluid were diluted 1:5 to 1:10(7) using the pooled, abattoir-origin follicular fluid. Each dilution sample was analyzed using the duplex qPCR, virus isolation, reverse transcription-nested PCR (RT-nPCR), and BoHV-1 qPCR. The duplex qPCR was able to simultaneously detect BoHV-1 and BVDV I in the fluid diluted to 1:100 and 1:1000, respectively. These results corresponded with the reverse transcription-nested PCR and BoHV-1 qPCR. Therefore, the duplex qPCR might be used for quality assurance testing to identify these two viruses in cells, fluids and tissues collected from donor animals and used in reproductive technologies. PMID:18452983

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea viral infections in feeder calves with respiratory disease: interactions with Pasteurella spp., parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, R W; Purdy, C W; Confer, A W; Saliki, J T; Loan, R W; Briggs, R E; Burge, L J

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections was determined in a group of stocker calves suffering from acute respiratory disease. The calves were assembled after purchase from Tennessee auctions and transported to western Texas. Of the 120 calves, 105 (87.5%) were treated for respiratory disease. Sixteen calves died during the study (13.3%). The calves received a modified live virus BHV-1 vaccine on day 0 of the study. During the study, approximately 5 wk in duration, sera from the cattle, collected at weekly intervals, were tested for BVDV by cell culture. Sera were also tested for neutralizing antibodies to BVDV types 1 and 2, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). The lungs from the 16 calves that died during the study were collected and examined by histopathology, and lung homogenates were inoculated onto cell cultures for virus isolation. There were no calves persistently infected with BVDV detected in the study, as no animals were viremic on day 0, nor were any animals viremic at the 2 subsequent serum collections. There were, however, 4 animals with BVDV type 1 noncytopathic (NCP) strains in the sera from subsequent collections. Viruses were isolated from 9 lungs: 7 with PI-3V, 1 with NCP BVDV type 1, and 1 with both BVHV-1 and BVDV. The predominant bacterial species isolated from these lungs was Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1. There was serologic evidence of infection with BVDV types 1 and 2, PI-3V, and BRSV, as noted by seroconversion (> or = 4-fold rise in antibody titer) in day 0 to day 34 samples collected from the 104 survivors: 40/104 (38.5%) to BVDV type 1; 29/104 (27.9%) to BVDV type 2; 71/104 (68.3%) to PI-3V; and 81/104 (77.9%) to BRSV. In several cases, the BVDV type 2 antibody titers may have been due to crossreacting BVDV type 1 antibodies; however, in 7 calves the BVDV type 2 antibodies were higher, indicating BVDV type 2 infection. At the outset of

  14. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus titers,

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation that may have health and growth consequences; however, effects may differ in low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) cattle. Our objective was to compare health...

  15. Fetal Protection in Heifers Vaccinated with a Modified-Live Virus Vaccine Containing Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subtypes 1a and 2a and Exposed During Gestation to Cattle Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine efficacy of a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 1a (BVDV1a) and subtype 2a (BVDV2a) in preventing fetal infection. To this end, seronegative and PI negative heifers were vaccinated by either the SC (10 heifers...

  16. Identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in Saanen goats in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of livestock and causes substantial economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. BVDV is not necessarily species specific and is known to infect domesticated and wild ruminants. In the present study, BVDV infection was identified in two Saanen goats from one farm, and two different viral subtypes were found, BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a. Each isolate was closely related to cattle isolates identified in the Republic of Korea. The two sequences obtained in this study were not consistent with border disease virus (BDV). The incidence of BVDV in this farm apparently occurred in the absence of contact with cattle and may be associated with grazing. This study demonstrates that BVDV infection may be possible to transmit among goats without exposure to cattle. Therefore, this result indicates that Saanen goats may act as natural reservoirs for BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV-1a infection in a Saanen goat. PMID:26992733

  17. Transmission of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Acutely Infected White Tailed Deer to Cattle via Indirect Contact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are found worldwide, and acute infections in cattle results in enteric, respiratory, and reproductive diseases of varying severity, depending on the BVDV strain, the immune and reproductive status of the host and the presence of secondary pathogens. While most c...

  18. Comparison of the immune response between a pair of NCP and CP bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle causing severe respiratory and reproductive disease. BVDV vaccines remain an important part of the control strategy. Previous work has described higher antibody responses in animals infected with a noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV when compa...

  19. Comparison of the Immune Response Between a Pair of NCP and CP Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Type 1 Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle causing severe respiratory and reproductive disease. BVDV vaccines remain an important part of the control strategy. Previous work has described higher antibody responses in animals infected with a noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV when ...

  20. Investigation of a dual fetal infection model with bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV)-1 and BVDV-2.

    PubMed

    Makoschey, B; Janssen, M G J

    2011-10-01

    Two studies were performed in pregnant heifers to determine whether inoculation with two bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV), one BVDV-1 and one BVDV-2, inoculated separately into either nostril, results in fetal infection with both viruses. Dual transplacental infection of the fetus with BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 was observed in one case, but not consistently. PMID:21597952

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Contaminating a High-Passage RK-13 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bora; Li, Ganwu; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Jianqiang; Shuck, Kathleen M.; Timoney, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    A high-passage rabbit kidney RK-13 cell line (HP-RK-13[KY], originally derived from the ATCC CCL-37 cell line) used in certain laboratories worldwide is contaminated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV). On complete genome sequence analysis, the virus strain was found to belong to BVDV group 1b. PMID:26430037

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-1 Strain Egy/Ismailia/2014, Subtype 1b.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Elsheery, Mohamed N; Elhaig, Mahmoud M; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. The virus genome is composed of 12,217 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This report will assist efforts in diagnostics, studying molecular epidemiology, and control of BVDV in Egypt. PMID:26701085

  3. A genome-wide association study for the incidence of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses (BVDV) comprise a diverse group of viruses that cause disease in cattle. BVDV may establish both, transient and persistent infections depending on the developmental stage of the animal at exposure. The objective was to determine if genomic regions harboring single nucle...

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection across whole cattle hides using two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle substantial quantities of known positive and negative samp...

  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus multi-organ infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of wild ruminants especially cervids in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game ...

  6. Acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, a northwest Texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease causing high morbidity and mortality involving two lots of calves (Lots A and B). Severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx and esophagus. Mucosal lesions vari...

  7. Multiple Diagnostic Tests to Identify Cattle with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Duration of Positive Tests in Persistently Infected Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected from twelve cattle persistently infected (PI) with BVDV subtypes common to the U.S.: BVDV1a, BVDV1b, and BVDV2a. These collections were made monthly from December 20, 2005 through November 7, 2006 (day 0 to day 3...

  8. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution. PMID:26607578

  9. Identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 isolated from cattle in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Ren, M; Lin, Y Q; Ding, X Y; Zhang, G P; Zhao, X; Zhu, G Q

    2009-01-01

    The identification and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strain SD-06 isolated from cattle in China is reported. We performed sequence analysis of 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and E2 sequences and the identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level indicated that the isolate was closely related to BVDV-2. The BVDV-2 strain New York'93 showed the highest sequence homology with the isolate SD-06. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate SD-06 belonged to BVDV-2a subtype. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay with the monoclonal antibody specific for BVDV-2 glycoprotein E2 confirmed this identification. Thus, the strain SD-06 was the first isolate of BVDV-2 identified in China. PMID:19537915

  10. Epidemiological observations of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Korean indigenous calves.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Song, Moo-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important worldwide disease in the livestock industry. To date, little research has been done on BVDV circulating in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The cases outlined in our research originated from rectal swabs taken from calves up to 80 days of age. Twenty-two of 99 Korean indigenous calves with diarrhea were identified as BVDV positive and 3 different 5'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences were determined. The results indicated that BVDV infections in the ROK were found mostly in winter and when calves were less than 20 days old. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5'-UTR revealed that our cases from Korean indigenous calves belonged to BVDV-2a. Therefore, the result of this study will be useful to understand epidemiology and allow producers in the ROK to better protect their livestock. PMID:20978931

  11. Analysis of Pan-European attitudes to the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, C; Misturelli, F; Nielsen, L; Gunn, G J; Yu, J

    2009-02-01

    At present, national-level policies concerning the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) differ widely across Europe. Some Scandinavian countries have enacted strong regulatory frameworks to eradicate the disease, whereas other countries have few formal policies. To examine these differences, the attitudes of stakeholders and policy makers in 17 European countries were investigated. A web-based questionnaire was sent to policy makers, government and private sector veterinarians, and representatives of farmers' organisations. In total, 131 individuals responded to the questionnaire and their responses were analysed by applying a method used in sociolinguistics: frame analysis. The results showed that the different attitudes of countries that applied compulsory or voluntary frameworks were associated with different views about the attribution or blame for BVD and the roles ascribed to farmers and other stakeholders in its eradication and control. PMID:19202168

  12. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary. PMID:27342097

  13. Hypomyelination associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection in a longhorn calf.

    PubMed

    Porter, B F; Ridpath, J F; Calise, D V; Payne, H R; Janke, J J; Baxter, D G; Edwards, J F

    2010-07-01

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, no gross central nervous system lesions were observed. Histologically, the brain and spinal cord had mild to moderate diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis, minimal nonsuppurative encephalitis, and decreased myelin staining. Ultrastructural examination revealed thinning and absence of myelin sheaths. Various cell types were immunohistochemically positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Noncytopathogenic BVDV was isolated from the brain and identified as BVDV type 2 by phylogenetic analysis. BVDV-induced hypomyelination is rare and analogous to lesions in neonates infected with border disease and classical swine fever viruses. This is the first documented case of hypomyelination in a calf specifically attributed to BVDV type 2 and the first description of the ultrastructural appearance of BVDV-induced hypomyelination. PMID:20448278

  14. Pathogenicity of an Indian isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b in experimentally infected calves.

    PubMed

    Galav, V; Mishra, N; Dubey, R; Rajukumar, K; Pitale, S S; Shrivastav, A B; Pradhan, H K

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of an Indian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1b isolate in 7-9-months-old male calves. Infected (four) and control (two) calves were bled at three days interval for hematological, virological and serological studies until day 27. All infected calves developed respiratory illness, biphasic pyrexia, mild diarrhea, leucopenia and mild thrombocytopenia. Viraemia was demonstrated between 3 and 15dpi and the infected calves seroconverted by 15dpi. Prominent kidney lesions were endothelial cell swelling, proliferation of mesangial cells and podocytes leading to glomerular space obliteration. Degeneration and desquamation of cells lining seminiferous tubules were observed in two infected calves. Consolidation of lungs with interstitial pneumonia, mild gastroenteritis and systemic spread were also evident. It was concluded that Indian BVDV isolate induced moderate clinical disease in calves and glomerulonephritis resulting from acute BVDV infection was observed for the first time. PMID:17383693

  15. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 on risk of bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J

    2016-04-01

    Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk

  16. The Role of Viral Population Diversity in Adaptation of Bovine Coronavirus to New Host Environments

    PubMed Central

    Borucki, Monica K.; Allen, Jonathan E.; Chen-Harris, Haiyin; Zemla, Adam; Vanier, Gilda; Mabery, Shalini; Torres, Clinton; Hullinger, Pamela; Slezak, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The high mutation rate of RNA viruses enables a diverse genetic population of viral genotypes to exist within a single infected host. In-host genetic diversity could better position the virus population to respond and adapt to a diverse array of selective pressures such as host-switching events. Multiple new coronaviruses, including SARS, have been identified in human samples just within the last ten years, demonstrating the potential of coronaviruses as emergent human pathogens. Deep sequencing was used to characterize genomic changes in coronavirus quasispecies during simulated host-switching. Three bovine nasal samples infected with bovine coronavirus were used to infect human and bovine macrophage and lung cell lines. The virus reproduced relatively well in macrophages, but the lung cell lines were not infected efficiently enough to allow passage of non lab-adapted samples. Approximately 12 kb of the genome was amplified before and after passage and sequenced at average coverages of nearly 950×(454 sequencing) and 38,000×(Illumina). The consensus sequence of many of the passaged samples had a 12 nucleotide insert in the consensus sequence of the spike gene, and multiple point mutations were associated with the presence of the insert. Deep sequencing revealed that the insert was present but very rare in the unpassaged samples and could quickly shift to dominate the population when placed in a different environment. The insert coded for three arginine residues, occurred in a region associated with fusion entry into host cells, and may allow infection of new cell types via heparin sulfate binding. Analysis of the deep sequencing data indicated that two distinct genotypes circulated at different frequency levels in each sample, and support the hypothesis that the mutations present in passaged strains were “selected” from a pre-existing pool rather than through de novo mutation and subsequent population fixation. PMID:23308119

  17. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  18. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Manuel F.; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P.; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  19. Molecular investigation of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in yaks (Bos gruniens) from Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus which infects both domestic animals and wildlife species worldwide. In China, cattle are often infected with BVDV of different genotypes, but there is very limited knowledge regarding BVDV infection in Chinese yaks and the genetic diversity of the virus. The objectives of this study were to detect viral infection in yaks in Qinghai, China and to determine the genotypes of BVDV based on analysis of the 5′untranslated region (5′UTR) and N-terminal protease (Npro) region. Results Between 2010 and 2012, 407 blood samples were collected from yaks with or without clinical signs in six counties of Qinghai Province. Ninety-eight samples (24%) were found to be positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting a conserved region of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. The nucleotide sequences of the 5′UTR and complete Npro region were determined for 16 positive samples. Phylogenetic reconstructions demonstrated that all 16 samples belong to subgenotypes BVDV-1b, BVDV-1d and BVDV-1q. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence for BVDV infection in yaks in Qinghai involving multiple subgenotypes of BVDV-1. This may have occurred under three possible scenarios: interspecies transmission, natural infection, and the use of vaccines contaminated with BVDV. The results have important implications for yak production and management in China, and specifically indicate that unscientific vaccination practices should be stopped and bio-security increased. PMID:24524442

  20. Identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in Korean native goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Joong; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Shin, Jin-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Kang, Mun-Il

    2006-10-01

    In the genus Pestivirus, four genetically distinct viral species are currently recognized: bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus (BDV). BVDV-1 and BDV infections have been described in goat species. Since 1998, border disease (BD) like symptoms in goats have been reported repeatedly in two southern-most provinces of Korea, which until then had been regarded as being free from BD. As a result of retrospective investigations of BD-like syndrome in goat reported between 1998 and 2004, a pestivirus was identified from intestinal content of an affected kid submitted in 1999. Both sequences of 5'-non-coding region and complete N(pro) gene from the isolate were analyzed to identify the genotype. Interestingly, the results revealed that the isolate belonged to BVDV-2 that is rarely reported even in cattle. The isolate showed close relationship to North American and European strains rather than the geographically closer Japanese strains. To authors' knowledge, this is the first identification of BVDV-2 in goat species. PMID:16766076

  1. First detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 in cattle in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Aduriz, Gorka; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Cortabarria, Nekane

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. BVDV is found worldwide in cattle population and causes significant economic losses to the dairy and beef industries. Two distinct genotypes of BVDV exist: BVDV type 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV type 2 (BVDV-2). Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate retrospectively the presence of BVDV-2 in Spain. Results With this objective, 47 blood samples that had tested positive in an ELISA for BVDV antigen were selected. Samples had been submitted by practitioners to the Diagnostic Service of NEIKER. The 18 herds of origin were all located in the northern half of Spain. BVDV positive samples were genotyped by reverse transcription-PCR. BVDV-1 was detected with the highest frequency (46/47), in contrast to BVDV-2 (2/47). In one blood sample, both pestivirus genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, were detected. Sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5′ untranslated region, confirmed the identity of the BVDV-2 isolate. Conclusions So far as the authors know, this is the first reported presence of BVDV-2 in cattle herds in Spain. This finding may have important implications for the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of BVDV infection in the country. PMID:26392905

  2. Differences in virulence between two noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in calves.

    PubMed

    Bolin, S R; Ridpath, J F

    1992-11-01

    A noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), BVDV-890, isolated from a yearling heifer that died with extensive internal hemorrhages, was compared for virulence in calves with noncytopathic BVDV-TGAN, isolated from an apparently healthy persistently infected calf. After challenge exposure with BVDV-890, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C, diarrhea, leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Most calves (n = 6) died or were euthanatized by 19 days after challenge exposure. Challenge exposure with BVDV-890 did not induce disease in 2 calves that had congenital persistent infection with BVDV or in 3 calves that had neutralizing antibody titer > 4 against BVDV-890. After challenge exposure with BVDV-TGAN, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C and, rarely, diarrhea or lymphopenia. All of those calves survived challenge exposure. The average maximal titer of BVDV-890 isolated from serum was 1,000 times that of BVDV-TGAN. In calves infected with BVDV-890, the average maximal percentages of lymphocytes and platelets associated with virus were greater than those found in calves infected with BVDV-TGAN. Additional findings of epidemiologic significance were prolonged shedding of virus and delayed production of viral-neutralizing antibody in 1 calf challenge-exposed with BVDV-890. Also, after production of neutralizing antibody, mutant virus that was refractory to neutralization was isolated from calves challenge-exposed with BVDV-TGAN. PMID:1334641

  3. Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection. PMID:19922743

  4. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    ABE, Yuri; TAMURA, Tomokazu; TORII, Shiho; WAKAMORI, Shiho; NAGAI, Makoto; MITSUHASHI, Kazuya; MINE, Junki; FUJIMOTO, Yuri; NAGASHIMA, Naofumi; YOSHINO, Fumi; SUGITA, Yukihiko; NOMURA, Takushi; OKAMATSU, Masatoshi; KIDA, Hiroshi; SAKODA, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5′-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years. PMID:26400674

  5. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Torii, Shiho; Wakamori, Shiho; Nagai, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Mine, Junki; Fujimoto, Yuri; Nagashima, Naofumi; Yoshino, Fumi; Sugita, Yukihiko; Nomura, Takushi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years. PMID:26400674

  6. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    PubMed

    Callens, Nathalie; Brügger, Britta; Bonnafous, Pierre; Drobecq, Hervé; Gerl, Mathias J; Krey, Thomas; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Till; Lambert, Olivier; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2016-03-01

    The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family. PMID:26939061

  7. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Callens, Nathalie; Brügger, Britta; Bonnafous, Pierre; Drobecq, Hervé; Gerl, Mathias J.; Krey, Thomas; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Till; Lambert, Olivier; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family. PMID:26939061

  8. Co-existence of genetically and antigenically diverse bovine viral diarrhoea viruses in an endemic situation.

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Braun, Ueli; Hilbe, Monika; Ehrensperger, Felix; Peterhans, Ernst

    2008-09-18

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important cattle pathogen that causes acute or persistent infections. These are associated with immunotolerance to the viral strain persisting in animals that became infected early in their intrauterine development. To this date, the epidemiology of BVD in Switzerland runs virtually undisturbed by control measures such as restrictions on animal traffic or vaccination. Here, we analysed the viral genetics of 169 Swiss isolates and carried out crossed serum neutralisation tests to assess the antigenic spectrum of BVDV strains present in the cattle population. Besides confirming the presence of BVDV type 1 subgroups b, e, h and k, a single "orphan" BVDV-1 virus was detected that does not belong to any known BVDV-1 subgroup. No BVDV type 2 viruses were detected, suggesting that they are rare or not present in the cattle population. Antigenic comparison revealed significant differences between the different subgroups, with anti-1k immune serum having up to tenfold lower neutralising activity against 1b, 1e and 1h subgroup viruses, which however may still suffice to protect 1k-immune animals against superinfection by viruses of those other subgroups. Serum from routinely vaccinated animals revealed generally low titres but good cross-neutralisation. A geographic information system revealed that the viruses of the different subgroups are distributed in an apparently randomised fashion in the cattle population. This geographic distribution pattern may reflect peculiarities of the management practice in the Swiss cattle industry that, especially through annual transhumance of up to 25% of the entire population in the alpine region, tend to optimise the spread of BVDV. PMID:18424020

  9. Biochemical analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus polypeptides and studies of strain variation

    SciTech Connect

    Raisch, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    Intracellular viral-specific polypeptides from the National Animal Disease Laboratory (NADL) strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus were studied by biosynthesis labelling, radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP), hypertonic initiation block (HIB) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Eighteen virus-specific proteins were identified; thirteen were glycosylated (gp170, p135, p130, gp118, gp82, p80, gp74, gp63, gp60, p59, gp53, gp50, gp45, gp42, p37, gp32, gp25 and p22). When glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin, five {sup 35}S-methionine labelled proteins displayed increased electrophoretic mobility (gp170 to p165, gp74 to p66, gp53 to p45, gp50 to p42 and gp25 to p20) and four could not be identified. Similar shifts in mobility were observed following in vitro deglycosylation with endoglycosidases H and F indicating that the nine glycoproteins contained N-linked simple or high mannose containing moieties. Biosynthetic labelling in the presence of the ionophore, monensin, or in vitro deglycosylation with the endoglycosidase, O-glycanase, had no effect, which is consistent with the absence of O-linked carbohydrates in BVDV-specific proteins. N-linked glycosylation of BVDV proteins is critical for infectivity, because the virus from cells treated with tunicamycin was devoid of infectivity, whereas the virus from monensin-treated cells was fully infective. Partitioning of p130, p59, gp53-50, and p37 into solutions of Triton X-114 tentatively identified these molecules as partially hydrophobic transmembrane proteins. Biosynthesis in the presence of {sup 3}H-myristate and {sup 3}H-palmitate did not result in specifically labelled viral proteins indicating predominantly noncovalent nature of putative interactions of these proteins with membranes. Partial proteolytic peptide mapping revealed similarities among gp170, p130 and p80 and between gp53 and gp50.

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection across whole cattle hides using two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Vander Ley, Brian L; Ridpath, Julia F; Sweiger, Shaun H

    2012-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle requires substantial quantities of known positive- and negative-sample material. The objective of this study was to determine what sections of bovine skin contained Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen. Two commercially available antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunoassays were used to test subsamples representing the entire skin of 3 persistently infected calves. Both assays detected Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in the samples indicated for use by assay protocol. However, one assay identified all subsamples as positive, while the second assay identified 64.4% of subsamples as positive. These results show that use of samples other than those specified by the assay protocol must be validated for each individual assay. In this study, alternative sample sites and use of the entire hide for proficiency testing would be acceptable for only one of the assays tested. PMID:22529122

  11. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. PMID:25929158

  12. Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positive for presence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed significant differences between ELISA and RT-PCR for detection of virus in aborted fetuses. These results indicate a high presence of this pathogen in Iran and that RT- PCR is considerably faster and more accurate than ELISA for identification of Bovine viral diarrhea virus. To our knowledge the Camels and Bovine are the most resistant and sensitive to Bovine viral diarrhea's abortions respectively and the prevalence of virus in Caprine is more than Ovine aborted fetuses. This study is the first prevalence report of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses by evaluation of ELISA and RT-PCR in Iran. PMID:22018096

  13. Bovine Mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B

    2016-03-01

    Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA. PMID:26982472

  14. Genetic diversity and frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detected in cattle in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Huseyin; Altan, Eda; Ridpath, Julia; Turan, Nuri

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and diversity of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) infecting cattle in Turkey. A total of 1124 bovine blood samples from 19 farms in 4 different Turkish regions were tested by antigen capture ELISA (ACE). BVDV antigen was found in 26 samples from 13 farms. Only 20 of the 26 initial test positive cattle were available for retesting. Of these, 6 of 20 tested positive for BVDV, by ACE and real-time RT-PCR, one month after initial testing. Phylogenetic analysis, based on comparison of the E2 or the 5'UTR coding regions, from 19 of the 26 initial positive samples, indicated that 17 belonged to the BVDV-1 genotype and 2 to the BVDV-2 genotype. Comparison of 5'UTR sequences segregated 8 BVDV-1 strains (strains 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 19) to the BVDV1f, 1 strain (strain 8) to the BVDV1i and 1 strain (strain 14) to the BVDV1d subgenotypes. One strain (strain 4) did not group with other subgenotypes but was closer to the BVDV1f. The remaining 6 BVDV-1 strains (strains 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, and 18) segregated to a novel subgenotype. The E2 sequence comparison results were similar, with the exception that strain 5 grouped with the novel subgenotype rather than BVDV1f subgenotype. It appears that among the diverse BVDV strains in circulation there may be a subgenotype that is unique to Turkey. This should be considered in the design of diagnostics and vaccines to be used in Turkey. PMID:22537480

  15. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

  16. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). PMID:25962538

  17. Distribution of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antigen in persistently infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Passler, T; Walz, H L; Ditchkoff, S S; van Santen, E; Brock, K V; Walz, P H

    2012-11-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), analogous to that occurring in cattle, is reported rarely in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This study evaluated the distribution of BVDV antigen in persistently infected (PI) white-tailed deer and compared the findings with those from PI cattle. Six PI fawns (four live-born and two stillborn) from does exposed experimentally to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were evaluated. Distribution and intensity of antigen expression in tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed in binary fashion with a proportional odds model. Viral antigen was distributed widely and was present in all 11 organ systems. Hepatobiliary, integumentary and reproductive systems were respectively 11.8, 15.4 and 21.6 times more likely to have higher antigen scores than the musculoskeletal system. Pronounced labelling occurred in epithelial tissues, which were 1.9-3.0 times likelier than other tissues to contain BVDV antigen. Antigen was present in >90% of samples of liver and skin, suggesting that skin biopsy samples are appropriate for BVDV diagnosis. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion was detected and may hamper reliable detection of BVDV in lymphoid organs. Muscle tissue contained little antigen, except for in the cardiovascular system. Antigen was present infrequently in connective tissues. In nervous tissues, antigen expression frequency was 0.3-0.67. In the central nervous system (CNS), antigen was present in neurons and non-neuronal cells, including microglia, emphasizing that the CNS is a primary target for fetal BVDV infection. BVDV antigen distribution in PI white-tailed deer is similar to that in PI cattle. PMID:22520818

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 Japanese Reference and Vaccine Strain KZ-91CP

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Asuka; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tateishi, Kentaro; Ohmori, Keitaro; Todaka, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shirai, Junsuke

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Japanese reference strain KZ-91CP. The complete genome comprises 12,654 nucleotides and one open reading frame with 4,020 amino acids. A 369-nucleotide-long insertion encoding the chaperone protein DnaJ is found in the nonstructural 2 (NS2) coding region. PMID:25676770

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 Japanese Reference and Vaccine Strain KZ-91CP.

    PubMed

    Sato, Asuka; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Nagai, Makoto; Tateishi, Kentaro; Ohmori, Keitaro; Todaka, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shirai, Junsuke

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Japanese reference strain KZ-91CP. The complete genome comprises 12,654 nucleotides and one open reading frame with 4,020 amino acids. A 369-nucleotide-long insertion encoding the chaperone protein DnaJ is found in the nonstructural 2 (NS2) coding region. PMID:25676770

  20. Evaluation of viral inactivation of pseudorabies virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and porcine parvovirus in pancreatin of porcine origin.

    PubMed

    Caruso, C; Gobbi, E; Biosa, T; Andra', M; Cavallazzi, U; Masoero, L

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatin is a substance containing enzymes, principally amylase, lipase, and protease. It is obtained from bovine or porcine pancreas and used in the treatment of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency in humans. Regulations and safety concerns mandate viral clearance (virus removal or inactivation) in biopharmaceuticals such as pancreatin. A virus validation study was performed to evaluate virus clearance achieved in the final step of drying under vacuum by testing a panel of four animal viruses: Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Porcine parvovirus (PPV). Because of the product's virucidal effect and high cytotoxicity, the starting material was diluted to a ratio of 0.67 g of dried pancreatin resuspended in 13.5 mL of cell culture medium followed by a 50-fold dilution in cell culture medium before spiking. After heating at 60±1°C for 5 h, the samples were diluted about 5-fold in cell culture medium and titered by the plaque assay method. The virus reduction factor ranged from 5.59 (for PPV) to 7.07 (for EMCV) and no viral plaque was observed, indicating that the process step was effective in the reduction and removal of virus contamination. Though no virus contamination events in pancreatin have been reported to date, evaluation of the production process for its ability to inactivate and/or remove virus contamination, particularly from zoonotic viral agents such as hepatitis E virus and Norovirus considered emerging pathogens, is necessary to ensure the viral safety of animal-derived biopharmaceuticals. PMID:25110118

  1. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle. PMID:22142412

  2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Walz, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV. PMID:27379074

  3. Effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on the fertility of cows.

    PubMed

    Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Gulay, Mehmet Sukru; Yapici, Orhan; Bulut, Oya; Ata, Ayhan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the possible relationship between bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus infection and the appearance of cervical mucous discharge (CMD) and the reproductive performance of cows in oestrus. For this purpose, CMD from 97 Holstein cows in oestrus was evaluated visually before artificial insemination (AI). Cows in oestrus were inseminated with frozen semen free from BVD virus (BVDV). Blood samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for antigen (Ag) and antibodies (Ab) of BVDV. The presence of the BVDV genome in cervical mucus samples was tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of BVDV Ab, Ag or genome was not associated with abnormal cervical mucous discharge (A-CMD). However, the presence of BVDV Ag (but not of the BVDV Ab) in blood samples was associated with a lower first service conception rate (FSCR; 27.8 vs. 70.9%; P < 0.01), indicating that BVDV viraemia at the time of AI has a negative effect on the fertility of cows. PMID:23661395

  4. Eradication programme for bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Orkney 2001 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Truyers, I G R; Mellor, D J; Norquay, R; Gunn, G J; Ellis, K A

    2010-10-01

    The strategies used and the results obtained in Orkney's bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication programme over eight years (2001 to 2008) are presented and discussed. The venture was undertaken by local veterinary practices and the Orkney Livestock Association (OLA) with the financial support of the Orkney Islands Council. Participation is voluntary; the programme comprises screening of youngstock, a whole-herd test if required, elimination of persistently infected animals and strict biosecurity measures and/or vaccination. BVDV-free herds are certified, and certification is updated annually by retesting the youngstock. The programme aims to minimise economic losses, thereby increasing the competitiveness of the Orcadian cattle industry and to improve animal health and welfare by eliminating virus circulation. Information from databases of the Scottish Agricultural College, Biobest Laboratories and OLA show that despite a significant reduction in the overall prevalence of BVDV on Orkney during the initial stages of the eradication programme, there has been little progress made since 2006 and that some difficulties have been encountered, with herd BVDV breakdowns following initial eradication. These results highlight the need for continued motivation of farmers, strict application of biosecurity measures and/or systematic vaccination of all seronegative breeding animals. PMID:21257418

  5. Virulence comparison and quantification of horizontal bovine viral diarrhoea virus transmission following experimental infection in calves.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, S; Dewulf, J; Mathijs, E; Laureyns, J; Mostin, L; Cay, A B

    2014-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes persistent infections by infecting the fetus of susceptible animals during gestation. These persistently infected (PI) animals are important sources of infection. On the contrary, transiently infected (TI) animals are believed to be less important, but transient infections with a severe BVDV-2 strain can spread explosively. To assess the importance of TI cattle in the epidemiology of BVDV, two experimental infections were performed to determine basic reproduction ratios (R0). In each experiment three calves were infected via intranasal inoculation and housed together with seven susceptible animals. Two strains isolated in Belgium were used, a virulent BVDV-1b and a virulent BVDV-2a field isolate, resulting in an R0 of 0.25 (95% CI 0.01; 1.95) and 0.24 (95% CI 0.01; 2.11), respectively. A PI animal was then introduced to the remaining uninfected animals and produced an R of +∞ (95% CI 1.88; +∞). These results support the suggestion that TI animals, compared to PI animals, contribute only a limited amount to BVDV spread. Additionally, the severe clinical symptoms observed in the field with these isolates could not be reproduced during these experiments, suggesting that other factors besides strain virulence influence the clinical manifestations evoked by BVDV. PMID:25201251

  6. Immunogenicity of recombinant BCGs expressing predicted antigenic epitopes of bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongxu; Lu, Huijun; Shi, Kun; Su, Fengyan; Li, Jianming; Du, Rui

    2014-10-01

    To develop a vaccine to prevent diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) simultaneously, recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccines expressing different regions of the BVDV E2 gene were constructed. Using DNASTAR 6.0 software, potential antigenic epitopes were predicted, and six regions were chosen to generate recombinant plasmids with the pMV361 vector (pMV361-E2-1, pMV361-E2-2, pMV361-E2-3, pMV361-E2-4, pMV361-E2-5 and pMV361-E2-6, respectively). The recombinant plasmids were transformed into BCG, and protein expression was thermally induced at 45 °C. Mice were immunized with 5 × 10(6) CFU/200 µL of each rBCG strain. Compared with other groups, BVDV E2 specific antibody titers were higher in mice immunized with rBCG-E2-6. Ratios and numbers of CD4+, CD8+ and IL-12 expressing spleen lymphocytes of the rBCG-E2-6 group also were higher than those of other groups. Thus, the rBCG-E2-6 vaccine showed the highest immunogenicity of all groups based on the humoral and cellular responses to vaccination. PMID:25135492

  7. Modelling the spread of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in a managed metapopulation of cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Courcoul, Aurélie; Ezanno, Pauline

    2010-04-21

    In numerous epidemiological models developed within a metapopulation framework, it is assumed that a single infected individual introduced into a patch infects the whole patch and that the proportion of infected individuals into infected patches is consistent over time and among patches. If this approach is relevant for rapidly spreading pathogens, it is less appropriate for moderately spreading pathogens, like the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), characterized by a variability in within-patch prevalence. Our objective is to study the respective influence of neighbouring relationships and animal movements on the spread of BVDV in a managed metapopulation of 100 cattle herds. Infection dynamics is represented by two coupled stochastic compartmental models in discrete-time: a within-herd and a between-herd models. Animal movements are mechanistically modelled. They largely influence the BVDV persistence, the prevalence in infected herds and the epidemic size. Neighbouring relationships only influence epidemic size. Whatever the neighbouring relationships, the infection does not persist in the metapopulation without animal movement between herds. The proposed model can be easily adapted for different herd contact structures. PMID:19875250

  8. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 isolated from cattle in India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Vilcek, Stefan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Kalaiyarasu, S; Dubey, Shiv Chandra

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b is predominantly circulating in Indian cattle. During testing for exotic pestiviruses between 2007 and 2010, BVDV-2 was identified by real time RT-PCR in two of 1446 cattle blood samples originating from thirteen states of India. The genetic analysis of the isolated virus in 5' UTR, N(pro), entire structural genes (C, E(rns), E1 and E2), nonstructural genes NS2-3 besides 3' UTR demonstrated that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed highest similarity with BVDV-2. The entire 5' and 3' UTR consisted of 387 and 204 nucleotides, respectively, and an eight nucleotide repeat motif was found twice within the variable part of 3' UTR that may be considered as a characteristic of BVDV-2. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cattle isolate and earlier reported goat BVDV-2 isolate fall into separate clades within BVDV-2a subtype. Antigenic typing with monoclonal antibodies verified the cattle isolate also as BVDV-2. In addition, cross-neutralization tests using antisera raised against Indian BVDV strains circulating in ruminants (cattle, sheep, goat and yak) displayed significant antigenic differences only between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. This is the first identification of BVDV-2 in Indian cattle that may have important implications for immunization strategies and molecular epidemiology of BVD. PMID:21112633

  9. Difficulties arising from the variety of testing schemes used for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV).

    PubMed

    Duncan, A J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2016-03-19

    Globally, the eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is still in its infancy, but eradication has been, or is being, adopted by several countries or regions. Comparisons between countries' schemes allow others to assess best practice, and aggregating published results from eradication schemes provides greater statistical power when analysing data. Aggregating data requires that results derived from different testing schemes be calibrated against one another. The authors aimed to evaluate whether relationships between published BVDV test results could be created and present the outcome of a systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The results are tabulated, providing a summary of papers where there is potential cross-calibration and a summary of the obstacles preventing such data aggregation. Although differences in measuring BVDV present barriers to academic progress, they may also affect progress within individual eradication schemes. The authors examined the time taken to retest following an initial antibody BVDV test in the Scottish eradication scheme. The authors demonstrate that retesting occurred quicker if the initial not negative test was from blood rather than milk samples. Such differences in the response of farmers/veterinarians to tests may be of interest to the design of future schemes. PMID:26867641

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infections: manifestations of infection and recent advances in understanding pathogenesis and control.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, B W

    2014-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to be of economic significance to the livestock industry in terms of acute disease and fetal loss. Many of the lesions relating to BVDV infection have been well described previously. The virus is perpetuated in herds through the presence of calves that are persistently infected. Relationships between various species and biotypes of BVDV and host defenses are increasingly understood. Understanding of the host defense mechanisms of innate immunity and adaptive immunity continues to improve, and the effects of the virus on these immune mechanisms are being used to explain how persistent infection develops. The noncytopathic biotype of BVDV plays the major role in its effects on the host defenses by inhibiting various aspects of the innate immune system and creation of immunotolerance in the fetus during early gestation. Recent advances have allowed for development of affordable test strategies to identify and remove persistently infected animals. With these improved tests and removal strategies, the livestock industry can begin more widespread effective control programs. PMID:24476940

  11. Effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on fertility of dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia A; Thurmond, Mark C; Hietala, Sharon K

    2004-04-15

    A prospective field study in heifers from birth to first breeding was undertaken on two commercial dairies to assess the effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) congenital and post-natal infection (PNI) on fertility. A high BVDV Type 2 antibody titer (1:4096) at 10 months of age was associated with 32 more days to conceive, compared with a low titer (1:128). Conversely, infection with BVDV by 5-6 months of age and high BVDV Type 2 titers 1 month before conception or breeding was associated with improved fertility. Heifers with evidence of congenital BVDV infection had lower fertility than non-infected heifers (15-42 days longer time-to-first AI), which depended on BVDV Type 2 titers at 10 months of age. Neospora caninum infection was associated with additional services per conception (SPC) and Leptospira interrogans infection was associated with a delay in the time-to-first breeding. It appears that under field conditions, the effect of subclinical BVDV infection on subsequent heifer fertility may be due to a complex of interrelationships among multiple BVDV infections that depend on the type and timing of infection relative to reproductive development and events. PMID:15036997

  12. Reproductive performance of apparently healthy cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    McClurkin, A W; Coria, M F; Cutlip, R C

    1979-05-15

    A Holstein-Friesian bull and three Holstein-Friesian cows were seronegative for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus but were persistently infected with the virus. Virus was isolated from buffy coat cells and nasal and lacrimal secretions during their lifetime, and they remained free of clinical signs of BVD. The three cows were pregnant when purchased, and they gave birth to full-term calves. One calf lived only a few hours, one calf became ill and died within a few days, and one calf became ill and was euthanatized within a few weeks. One cow was then bred and became pregnant but aborted a 7-month fetus. A second cow was bred approximately 5 months after parturition but did not conceive. The third cow was necropsied 6 weeks after calving, because of loss of weight. Although the bull's semen contained BVD virus when seropositive cows were bred, normal calves were born. When seronegative heifers were bred, they became seropositive to BVD virus within two weeks, with higher titers in six weeks. On heifer conceived after one service but aborted a 6-month fetus. Three others continued to have estrous cycles until their titers rose to 1:128, then they conceived and gave birth to normal calves. Another heifer conceived on the first service, had a titer of 1:128 two weeks after breeding, and gave birth to a normal calf. PMID:220208

  13. Changes in ovarian follicles following acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Grooms, D L; Brock, K V; Pate, J L; Day, M L

    1998-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with several reproductive problems in cattle, including poor fertility, early embryonic deaths, abortion and congenital anomalies. Little is known about the cause of poor fertility in cows acutely infected with BVDV. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ovarian function following acute infection with noncytopathic BVDV. The ovaries of 5 BVDV sero-negative and virus-negative pubertal heifers were monitored daily for 4 consecutive estrous cycles. The position and diameter of all follicles (> 5 mm) and luteal structures were recorded. Daily plasma samples were collected to measure peripheral progesterone and estradiol levels. Each heifer was infected intranasally with noncytopathic BVDV following ovulation of the second estrous cycle. The maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant anovulatory and ovulatory follicles were significantly reduced following acute BVDV infection. Similarly, the number of subordinate follicles associated with both the anovulatory and ovulatory follicle was reduced following infection. There were no significant differences in other follicle or luteal dynamic parameters or in peripheral progesterone or estradiol levels. Ovarian follicular growth was different during the first 2 estrous cycles following acute infection with BVDV when compared with the 2 estrous cycles preceding infection. These differences may be important in explaining reduced fertility in herds with acute BVDV infection. PMID:10732038

  14. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Walz, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV. PMID:27379074

  15. Repression of bovine papilloma virus replication is mediated by a virally encoded trans-acting factor.

    PubMed

    Berg, L; Lusky, M; Stenlund, A; Botchan, M R

    1986-08-29

    Cells transformed with bovine papilloma virus type 1 mutants in the E6 or E6/7 genes are resistant to high-copy-number amplification of wild-type DNA after supertransfection. Transient and stable replication assays demonstrate this effect. If the supertransfected DNA has a mutation in a newly defined gene (M), this cellular immunity to high-copy-number replication is overcome, resulting in transient replication of the input DNA. In contrast, the resident plasmid does not participate in amplification and is maintained at a constant low copy number. Cotransformation of M- mutants and wild-type DNA into these cells leads to shutoff of replication of both genomes. Thus, M- mutants define a trans-acting negative modulator that regulates viral replication. This function is distinct from the positive factors required for replication. We propose a model that explains why the loss of E6 and E6/7 function leads to immunity of the infected cell. PMID:3017567

  16. Bovine viral diarrhea virus structural protein E2 as a complement regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Ostachuk, Agustín

    2016-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is one of the most widely distributed viruses in cattle worldwide. Approximately 60 % of cattle in endemic areas without control measures are infected with BVDV during their lifetime. This wide prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations results in significant economic losses. BVDV is capable of establishing persistent infections in its host due to its ability to infect fetuses, causing immune tolerance. However, this cannot explain how the virus evades the innate immune system. The objective of the present work was to test the potential activity of E2 as a complement regulatory protein. E2 glycoprotein, produced both in soluble and transmembrane forms in stable CHO-K1 cell lines, was able to reduce complement-mediated cell lysis up to 40 % and complement-mediated DNA fragmentation by 50 %, in comparison with cell lines not expressing the glycoprotein. This work provides the first evidence of E2 as a complement regulatory protein and, thus, the finding of a mechanism of immune evasion by BVDV. Furthermore, it is postulated that E2 acts as a self-associated molecular pattern (SAMP), enabling the virus to avoid being targeted by the immune system and to be recognized as self. PMID:27038454

  17. Transient viral DNA replication and repression of viral transcription are supported by the C-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein.

    PubMed

    Ferran, M C; McBride, A A

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein is important for viral DNA replication and transcriptional repression. It has been proposed that the full-length E1 protein consists of a small N-terminal and a larger C-terminal domain. In this study, it is shown that an E1 polypeptide containing residues 132 to 605 (which represents the C-terminal domain) is able to support transient viral DNA replication, although at a level lower than that supported by the wild-type protein. This domain can also repress E2-mediated transactivation from the P89 promoter as well as the wild-type E1 protein can. PMID:9420289

  18. Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating...

  19. A Multiepitope Fusion Antigen Elicits Neutralizing Antibodies against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Homologous Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hashish, Emad A.; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E.; Chase, Christopher C.; Isaacson, Richard E.; Zhou, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens. PMID:23697572

  20. A multiepitope fusion antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and homologous bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Emad A; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Chase, Christopher C; Isaacson, Richard E; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-07-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens. PMID:23697572

  1. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Chamorro, Manuel F; Neill, John D; Brodersen, Bruce W; Walz, Heather L; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Walz, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25-35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam's acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  2. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25–35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam’s acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus cyclically impairs long bone trabecular modeling in experimental persistently infected fetuses.

    PubMed

    Webb, B T; Norrdin, R W; Smirnova, N P; Van Campen, H; Weiner, C M; Antoniazzi, A Q; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Hansen, T R

    2012-11-01

    Persistent infection (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with osteopetrosis and other long bone lesions, most commonly characterized as transverse zones of unmodeled metaphyseal trabeculae in fetuses and calves. This study was undertaken to characterize the morphogenesis of fetal long bone lesions. Forty-six BVDV-naïve pregnant Hereford heifers of approximately 18 months of age were inoculated with noncytopathic BVDV type 2 containing media or media alone on day 75 of gestation to produce PI and control fetuses, respectively, which were collected via cesarean section on days 82, 89, 97, 192, and 245 of gestation. Radiographic and histomorphometric abnormalities were first detected on day 192, at which age PI fetal long bone metaphyses contained focal densities (4 of 7 fetuses) and multiple alternating transverse radiodense bands (3 of 7 fetuses). Day 245 fetuses were similarly affected. Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibial metaphyses from day 192 fetuses revealed transverse zones with increased calcified cartilage core (Cg.V/BV, %) and trabecular bone (BV/TV, %) volumes in regions corresponding to radiodense bands (P < .05). Numbers of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclasts (N.Oc/BS, #/mm(2)) and bone perimeter occupied (Oc.S/BS, %) were both decreased (P < .05). Mineralizing surface (MS/BS, %), a measure of tissue level bone formation activity, was reduced in PI fetuses (P < .05). It is concluded that PI with BVDV induces cyclic abnormal trabecular modeling, which is secondary to reduced numbers of osteoclasts. The factors responsible for these temporal changes are unknown but may be related to the time required for osteoclast differentiation from precursor cells. PMID:22362966

  4. A model of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus within a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Viet, Anne-France; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri; Jacob, Christine; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal

    2004-05-14

    Wet BVDSim (a stochastic simulation model) was developed to study the dynamics of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd. This model took into account herd-management factors (common in several countries), which influence BVDV spread. BVDSim was designed as a discrete-entity and discrete-event simulation model. It relied on two processes defined at the individual-animal level, with interactions. The first process was a semi-Markov process and modelled the herd structure and dynamics (demography, herd management). The second process was a Markov process and modelled horizontal and vertical virus transmission. Because the horizontal transmission occurs by contacts (nose-to-nose) and indirectly, transmission varied with the separation of animals into subgroups. Vertical transmission resulted in birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. Other possible consequences of a BVDV infection during the pregnancy period were considered (pregnancy loss, immunity of calves). The outcomes of infection were modelled according to the stage of pregnancy at time of infection. BVDV pregnancy loss was followed either by culling or by a new artificial insemination depending on the modelled farmer's decision. Consistency of the herd dynamics in the absence of any BVDV infection was verified. To explore the model behaviour, the virus spread was simulated over 10 years after the introduction of a near-calving PI heifer into a susceptible 38 cow herd. Different dynamics of the virus spread were simulated, from early clearance to persistence of the virus 10 years after its introduction. Sensitivity of the model to the uncertainty on transmission coefficient was analysed. Qualitative validation consisted in comparing the bulk-milk ELISA results over time in a sample of herds detected with a new infection with the ones derived from simulations. PMID:15158572

  5. The cytopathicity of a simian immunodeficiency virus Mne variant is determined by mutations in Gag and Env.

    PubMed Central

    Kimata, J T; Overbaugh, J

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the rapidly replicating, highly cytopathic, syncytium-inducing (rapid-high/SI) phenotype of simian immunodeficiency virus Mne variants that evolved in macaques inoculated with a slowly replicating, minimally cytopathic, non-syncytium-inducing (slow-low/NSI) molecular clone was not solely the result of changes in the envelope surface protein (Env SU). To define the viral determinants responsible for the change in phenotype, we molecularly cloned a rapid-high/SI variant (designated SIVMne170) derived from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a pig-tailed macaque that was inoculated with a slow-low/NSI molecular clone, SIVMneCL8. SIVMne170 was SI and replicated with faster kinetics and was more cytopathic than the parent SIVMneCL8 in CEMx174 cells. Additionally, SIVMne170 was more cytopathic for the CD4+ T-cell population than SIVMneCL8 in macaque PBMCs. An analysis of chimeric viruses constructed between the variant SIVMne170 and the parent virus SIVMneCL8 demonstrated that there are determinants encoded within both the 5' and 3' halves of SIVMne170 that independently contribute to its rapid-high/SI phenotype. As we previously observed with other SIVMne variants, the Env SU of SIVMne170 was important for syncytium induction but was not a key determinant of cytopathicity. By contrast, the intracellular domain of the envelope transmembrane protein (Env TM) contributed to both the SI and cytopathic properties of SIVMne170. We also found that the minimal determinant within the 5' half of SIVMne170 that conferred its rapid replication kinetics and cytopathicity mapped to the capsid- and nucleocapsid-encoding regions of gag. Together, these data demonstrate that mutations selected in Gag and Env TM intracytoplasmic tail influence the replication and cytopathicity of SIVMne variants that evolve in the host. PMID:9311845

  6. In vitro permissivity of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bovine viral diarrhoea virus is dependent on the animal specific immune status.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Barbara; Ponti, Wilma; Turin, Lauretta; Bronzo, Valerio; Scaccabarozzi, Licia; Luzzago, Camilla

    2012-04-01

    The in vitro permissivity to infection with homologous and heterologous bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strains of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from eight naïve and eight BVDV-1b immune animals was studied. Four reference strains (BVDV-1a NADL, BVDV-1b NY-1, BVDV-2 125 and BVDV-2 890) were selected, based on genotype, prevalence and biotype. Virus neutralizing antibody titres were determined at bleeding and the viral loads were measured in PBMCs by end point titration in cell culture and by real-time PCR. PBMCs from both naïve and immune animals became infected by all BVDV strains tested, although virus titres were lower for immune heifers than naïve ones; the differences were significant for NADL (P<0.05) and 890 (P<0.001) strains. The in vitro model used in this study showed that PBMCs from immune animals are susceptible to re-infection with both homologous and heterologous BVDV strains, albeit at a lower extent than naïve cattle. PMID:21689960

  7. Pathogenetic differences after experimental infection of calves with Korean non-cytopathic BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 isolates.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and virological differences between non-cytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1 and ncp BVDV-2 isolated from Korean field cases. Each five naïve calves were experimentally infected with Korean ncp BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 isolates. Two additional age-matched animals were used as uninfected controls. Leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts declined in all infected calves, but were significantly lower and remained decreased longer in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2 isolate. The number of monocytes was greater in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. Flow cytometric assay showed that lymphocyte apoptosis occurred with an increase of annexin-V positive cells in all infected calves by day 6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentration in all infected calves was lower than in control calves. In ncp BVDV-1 infected calves, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels in the serum were increased by day 6 compared to calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. These results demonstrated that the Korean ncp BVDV-2 isolate shows a reduced IFN-γ production, indicating prevention of the antiviral activity, and therefore promotes the development of pathological effects. PMID:24140265

  8. In vivo delivery of bovine viral diahorrea virus, E2 protein using hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, D.; Cavallaro, A. S.; Mody, K. T.; Xiong, L.; Mahony, T. J.; Qiao, S. Z.; Mitter, N.

    2014-05-01

    Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). BVDV infection occurs in the target species of cattle and sheep herds worldwide and is therefore of economic importance. E2 is a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV and is an ideal candidate for the development of a subunit based nanovaccine using mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (termed HMSA) were characterised and assessed for adsorption and desorption of E2. A codon-optimised version of the E2 protein (termed Opti-E2) was produced in Escherichia coli. HMSA (120 nm) had an adsorption capacity of 80 μg Opti-E2 per mg HMSA and once bound E2 did not dissociate from the HMSA. Immunisation studies in mice with a 20 μg dose of E2 adsorbed to 250 μg HMSA was compared to immunisation with Opti-E2 (50 μg) together with the traditional adjuvant Quillaja saponaria Molina tree saponins (QuilA, 10 μg). The humoral responses with the Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine although slightly lower than those obtained for the Opti-E2 + QuilA group demonstrated that HMSA particles are an effective adjuvant that stimulated E2-specific antibody responses. Importantly the cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all mice immunised with Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation. Therefore we have shown the Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulation acts as an excellent adjuvant that gives both T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 mediated responses in a small animal model. This study has provided proof-of-concept towards the development of an E2 subunit nanoparticle based vaccine.Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral

  9. A review of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever pneumonia and viral-bacterial synergism in respiratory disease of cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W D

    1982-01-01

    Unanswered questions on the etiology and prevention of shipping fever pneumonia have allowed this disease to remain one of the most costly to the North American cattle industry. Research in this area has indirected that while Pasteurella haemolytica and, to a lesser extent, P. multocida are involved in most cases, they seem to require additional factors to help initiate the disease process. Bovine herpes virus 1 has been shown experimentally to be one such factor. This review examines in some detail the topics of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever, and viral-bacterial interactions in the production of respiratory disease in various species. It deals with history, definitions, etiologies, clinical signs and lesions, and considers exposure levels, transmission and various pathogenetic mechanisms that are postulated or known to occur. PMID:6290011

  10. Expression and In Silico Analysis of the Recombinant Bovine Papillomavirus E6 Protein as a Model for Viral Oncoproteins Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J.; Carvalho, R. F.; Ruiz, R. M.; Melo, T. C.; Araldi, R. P.; Carvalho, E.; Thompson, C. E.; Sircili, M. P.; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins. PMID:23878806

  11. Quantifying the risk of spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) between contiguous herds in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; Thulke, H-H; O'Sullivan, P; McGrath, G; More, S J

    2016-04-01

    The control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) mainly focuses on the identification and restriction of persistently infected (PI) animals. However, other transmission pathways can also result in new breakdowns, including the movement of animals pregnant with PI calves (Trojan animals) and the spread of infection between contiguous farms. Contiguous spread is likely an important problem in the BVD eradication programme in Ireland, given the spatial distribution of residual infection, and the highly fragmented nature of land holdings on many Irish farms. In this study, we seek to quantify the risk of BVD spread between contiguous herds in Ireland. Multivariable logistic models were used to estimate the risk of a herd having BVD positive calves in January to June 2014 (the study period) when contiguous to a herd that had at least one BVD positive calf born in 2013. The models included risk factors relating to the study herd and to neighbouring herds. Separate multivariable models were built for each of four "PI-neighbour" factors relating to the presence of BVD+ animals and/or the presence of offspring of PI breeding animals. In total, 58,483 study herds were enrolled. The final model contained the province, the log of the number of calf births born during the study period, the number of cattle purchased between January 2013 and January 2014, and with a two-way interaction between the number of animals of unknown BVD status in the study herd and the PI-neighbour risk factor. When the number of PI-neighbour herds was used as the PI-neighbour risk factor, the odds ratio (OR) associated with the number of PI-neighbour herds ranged from 1.07 to 3.02, depending on the number of unknown animals present. To further explore the risk associated with PI-neighbour factors, the models were repeated using a subset of the study herds (n=7440) that contained no animals of unknown status. The best fitting model including "any PI-neighbour" as the PI-neighbour factor and also

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P < 0.01); farms that provided milk to other industries previously (OR = 4.13; CI 95% = 1.17-14.49; P = 0.02); and isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P < 0.01); isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations. PMID:24661884

  13. Acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial feedlot.

    PubMed

    Hessman, Bill E; Sjeklocha, David B; Fulton, Robert W; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; McElroy, Diana R

    2012-03-01

    In 2008, a northwest Texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causing high morbidity and mortality involving 2 lots of calves (lots A and B). Severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus. Mucosal lesions varied from small (1-3 mm) infrequent mucosal ulcerations to large (5 mm to 1 cm) and coalescing ulcerations. Necrotic debris was present in ulcerations of some mortalities with some having plaque-like debris, but other mortalities presented more proliferative lesions. A calf persistently infected with BVDV arrived with one lot and the isolated virus was genotyped as BVDV-1b. Identical BVDV-1b strains were isolated from 2 other mortalities. A BVDV-2a genotype was also isolated in this outbreak. This genotype was identical to all BVDV-2a strains isolated in both lots. Serum samples were collected from exposed and unexposed animals and tested for antibodies for multiple viral pathogens. Seropositivity ranged from zero percent for calicivirus to 100% positive to Pseudocowpox virusx. At the end of the feeding period, the morbidity and mortality for the 2 lots involved was 76.2% and 30.8%, respectively, for lot A, and 49.0% and 5.6%, respectively, for lot B. Differential diagnoses included vesicular stomatitis viruses, Bovine papular stomatitis virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Based on the present case, acute BVDV should be considered when mucosal lesions are observed grossly. PMID:22379057

  14. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  15. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 genome in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Karikalan, M; Rajukumar, K; Mishra, N; Kumar, M; Kalaiyarasu, S; Rajesh, K; Gavade, V; Behera, S P; Dubey, S C

    2016-06-01

    In this study, cellular localization and the distribution pattern of BVDV genome in lymphoid tissues during the course of experimental acute BVDV-1 infection of sheep was investigated. Tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were collected on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post infection (dpi) from twenty 4-month-old lambs, experimentally inoculated intra-nasally with 5 × 10(5) TCID50 of a non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-1 isolate, Ind-17555. Tissues collected from ten mock-infected lambs served as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out in paraformaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections using digoxigenin labelled riboprobe targeting 5'-UTR of BVDV-1. BVDV genome was detected at all the intervals from 3 dpi to 15 dpi in the lymphoid tissues with variations between the intervals and also amongst the infected sheep. During the early phase of acute infection, presence of viral genome was more in tonsils than MLN and spleen, whereas the distribution was higher in MLN during later stages. BVDV-1 genome positive cells included lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, reticular cells and sometimes crypt epithelial cells. Genome distribution was frequently observed in the lymphoid follicles of tonsils, MLN and spleen, besides the crypt epithelium in tonsils, paracortex and medullary sinus and cords of MLN. Most abundant and widespread distribution of BVDV-1 genome was observed on 6 dpi while there was a reduction in number and intensity of positive signals by 15 dpi in most of the infected animals. This is the first attempt made to study the localisation of BVDV-1 in lymphoid tissues of acutely infected sheep by in situ hybridization. The results show that the kinetics of BVDV-1 distribution in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected non-pregnant sheep follows almost a similar pattern to that demonstrated in BVDV infected cattle. PMID:26996785

  16. Global transcriptomic profiling of bovine endometrial immune response in vitro. II. Effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus on the endometrial response to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Oguejiofor, Chike F; Cheng, Zhangrui; Abudureyimu, Ayimuguli; Anstaett, Olivia L; Brownlie, Joe; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Wathes, D Claire

    2015-10-01

    Infection with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) is associated with uterine disease and infertility. This study investigated the influence of ncpBVDV on immune functions of the bovine endometrium by testing the response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Primary cultures of mixed epithelial and stromal cells were divided into four treatment groups (control [CONT], BVDV, CONT+LPS, and BVDV+LPS) and infected with ncpBVDV for 4 days followed by treatment with LPS for 6 h. Whole-transcriptomic gene expression was measured followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Differential expression of 184 genes was found between CONT and BVDV treatments, showing interplay between induction and inhibition of responses. Up-regulation of TLR3, complement, and chemotactic and TRIM factors by ncpBVDV all suggested an ongoing immune response to viral infection. Down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, CXCR4, and serine proteinase inhibitors suggested mechanisms by which ncpBVDV may simultaneously counter the host response. Comparison between BVDV+LPS and CONT+LPS treatments showed 218 differentially expressed genes. Canonical pathway analysis identified the key importance of interferon signaling. Top down-regulated genes were RSAD2, ISG15, BST2, MX2, OAS1, USP18, IFIT3, IFI27, SAMD9, IFIT1, and DDX58, whereas TRIM56, C3, and OLFML1 were most up-regulated. Many of these genes are also regulated by IFNT during maternal recognition of pregnancy. Many innate immune genes that typically respond to LPS were inhibited by ncpBVDV, including those involved in pathogen recognition, inflammation, interferon response, chemokines, tissue remodeling, cell migration, and cell death/survival. Infection with ncpBVDV can thus compromise immune function and pregnancy recognition, thereby potentially predisposing infected cows to postpartum bacterial endometritis and reduced fertility. PMID:26353892

  17. Intraherd correlation coefficients and design effects for bovine viral diarrhoea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in cow-calf system herds in North-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura-Correa, J C; Domínguez-Díaz, D; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Argaez-Sosa, J

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the intraherd correlation coefficient (ICC) and design (D) effect for infectious diseases could be of interest in sample size calculation and to provide the correct standard errors of prevalence estimates in cluster or two-stage samplings surveys. Information on 813 animals from 48 non-vaccinated cow-calf herds from North-eastern Mexico was used. The ICC for the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), leptospirosis and neosporosis diseases were calculated using a Bayesian approach adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests. The ICC and D values for BVD, IBR, leptospirosis and neosporosis were 0.31 and 5.91, 0.18 and 3.88, 0.22 and 4.53, and 0.11 and 2.68, respectively. The ICC and D values were different from 0 and D greater than 1, therefore large sample sizes are required to obtain the same precision in prevalence estimates than for a random simple sampling design. The report of ICC and D values is of great help in planning and designing two-stage sampling studies. PMID:20691486

  18. Seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in maritime Canada dairy cattle.

    PubMed Central

    VanLeeuwen, J A; Keefe, G P; Tremblay, R; Power, C; Wichtel, J J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of infection with the agents of production-limiting diseases in dairy cattle in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. In 30 randomly selected herds per province, 30 cattle per herd were randomly selected and tested for antibodies to bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), while 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 months of age were tested for antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). For BLV, 20.8% (15.8% to 27.0%) of cows were positive, and 70.0% (60.3% to 79.7%) of herds had at least one positive cow. In BLV-positive herds, the average BLV prevalence was 30.9% (24.8% to 37.2%). For M. paratuberculosis, 2.6% (1.8% to 3.9%) of cows were positive, and 16.7% (8.8% to 24.5%) of herds had at least 2 M. paratuberculosis-positive cows. In M. paratuberculosis-positive herds, the average M. paratuberculosis prevalence was 8.5% (6.9% to 10.1%). For BVDV, 46.1% (35.5% to 56.7%) of herds had at least 1 BVDV-positive animal with a titer greater than or equal to 1:64. PMID:11265187

  19. Respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma bovis is enhanced by exposure to bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) but not to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2.

    PubMed

    Prysliak, Tracy; van der Merwe, Jacques; Lawman, Zoe; Wilson, Donald; Townsend, Hugh; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Perez-Casal, José

    2011-11-01

    To determine if previous exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) type 2 affects the onset of disease caused by Mycoplasma bovis, 6- to 8-month-old beef calves were exposed to BVDV or BHV-1 4 d prior to challenge with a suspension of 3 clinical isolates of M. bovis. Animals were observed for clinical signs of disease and at necropsy, percent abnormal lung tissue and presence of M. bovis were determined. Most animals pre-exposed to BHV-1 type 2 but not BVDV developed M. bovis-related respiratory illness. In a second trial, we determined that a 100-fold reduction in the number of M. bovis bacteria administered to BHV-1 exposed animals reduced the percentage of abnormal lung tissue but not the severity of clinical signs. We conclude that previous exposure to BHV-1 but not BVDV type 2 was a necessary cause of M. bovis-related respiratory diseases in our disease model. PMID:22547839

  20. Direct production losses and treatment costs from bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Chi, Junwook; VanLeeuwen, John A; Weersink, Alfons; Keefe, Gregory P

    2002-09-30

    Our purpose was to determine direct production losses (milk loss, premature voluntary culling and reduced slaughter value, mortaliy loss, and abortion and reproductive loss) and treatmetn costs (veterinary services, medication cost, and extra farm labour cost) due to four infectious diseases in the maritime provinces of Canada: bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), Johne's Disease (JD), and neosporosis. We used a partial-budget model, and incorporated risk and sensitivity analyses to identify the effects of uncertainty on costs. Total annual costs for an average, infected, 50 cow herd were: JD$ 2472; BVD$ 2421; neosporosis $ 2304; EBL$ 806. The stochastic nature of the proportion of infected herds and prevalence of infection within a herd were used to estimate probability distributions for these ex post costs. For all diseases, these distributions were right skewed. A sensitivity analysis showed the largest effect on costs was due to milk yield effects. For example, changing milk production loss from 0 to 5% for BVD increased the costs for the disease by 266%. PMID:12350317

  1. Comparative evaluation of the fluorescent antibody test and microtiter immunoperoxidase assay for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from bull semen.

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Dubuc, C; Howard, T H

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase staining technique (IP) is described for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in bovine semen. The performance of the IP was compared to the reference immunofluorescent staining test in its ability to detect BVDV in 23 coded field semen samples. The IP assay which can be applied with ease to a large number of samples and does not require expensive fluorescence microscope equipment, appears to be an alternative method for BVDV detection. The IP assay can be strongly recommended for certification of BVDV-free bovine semen for artificial insemination and trading purposes and for laboratories which are not equipped for performing the immunofluorescent test. PMID:1653102

  2. Fine Mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The objective of this study was to refine the loci associated with BVD-PI and linked with BRD. Association testing for BVD-PI was performed on a population of 65 BVD-PI calves, 51 of their dams, and 60 unaffected calves (controls) with 142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BTA2 and 173 SNPs on BTA26. Comparisons were made between BVD-PI calves and controls calves and the dams of BVD-PI calves and controls calves. For the linkage analysis of BRD, the same markers were used to genotype two half-sib families consisting of the sires and 72 BRD positive and 148 BRD negative offspring. Using an allelic chi-square test, 11 loci on BTA2 and 8 loci on BTA26 were associated with the dams of the BVD-PI calves (P < 0.05) and 4 loci on BTA2 and 11 loci on BTA26 were associated with BVD-PI calves. This demonstrates that although some of the loci on BTA2 and BTA26 are jointly involved in the fetal and dam response to BVD-PI infection, there are loci that are solely associated with the maternal or fetal susceptibility to disease. One locus on BTA2 and two loci on BTA26 were found to be linked (P < 0.05) with BRD. The regions linked with BRD were also associated with BVD-PI demonstrating that both the broad (BRD) and narrow (BVD-PI) definition of disease identified shared genomic regions as important in disease susceptibility. These results further refined the loci associated with BVD-PI and linked with BRD. PMID:22303376

  3. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from field cattle immune to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are permissive in vitro to BVDV.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Mishra, N; Pateriya, A; Behera, S P; Rajukumar, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro permissivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-immune field cattle to homologous and heterologous BVDVs. PBMCs from seventeen BVDV-naïve and sixteen BVDV-immune animals were infected with noncytopathic BVDV-1 or BVDV-2. The immune status of cattle was indicated by the presence of virus neutralizing antibodies, while viral load of PBMCs was determined by real-time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the PBMCs from naïve or immune animals were permissive to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2, but the viral load was significantly higher for the naïve than for the immune animals. Furthermore, the load of homologous virus in PBMCs from immune animals was lower than that of heterologous virus. Our results provide evidence that the PBMCs from BVDV-immune cattle in field are susceptible to reinfection with homologous or heterologous BVDV, albeit to a lower extent in the former case. PMID:24957715

  5. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Kubiça, Thaís F.; Alves, Sydney H.; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T.

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL−1) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL−1) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  6. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: Life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-10 during a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 ...

  7. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Experimental Live Virus (BVDV1b and BVDV2b) Vaccines in Cattle: Immunogenicity Studies with Antibody Response to Multiple BVDV Subgenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are a diverse group of viruses causing infection and diseases in cattle worldwide. There are two major types of BVDV, BVDV1 and BVDV2. There are currently reported 12 different BVDV1 subgenotypes (BVDV1a-BVDV1l) and two BVDV2 subgenotypes (BVDV2a and BVDV2b)....

  8. Full-length coding sequence for 12 bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates from persistently infected cattle in a feedyard in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here the full-length coding sequence of 12 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from persistently infected cattle from a feedyard in southwest Kansas, USA. These 12 genomes represent the three major genotypes (BVDV 1a, 1b, and 2a) of BVDV currently circulating in the United States....

  9. HoBi-like virus challenge of pregnant cows that had previously given birth to calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to establish persistent infection (PI) following fetal infection is central to keeping these viruses circulating. Similarly, an emerging species of pestivirus, HoBi-like viruses, is also able to establish PIs. Dams that are not PI, but carrying PI ...

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) and their cousins the HoBi-like viruses: Multi symptom, multi host, multi tasking pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a diverse collection of clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive symptoms accompanied by immunosuppression. While the majority of cases are subclinical in nature two forms exist, mucosal disease and hemorrhag...

  11. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) may result in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections are the consequence of in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. The resulting persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the virus. Clinical presen...

  12. Correlation between circulating white blood cell counts and level of protective immune response against bovine viral diarrhea virus elicited by a modified live vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials (T1 and T2) were conducted to examine the range of responses elicited against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by vaccination with modified live vaccine and to determine the level of response required for prevention of clinical disease. For T1, BVDV neutralizing (BVDV VN) titers were de...

  13. Utilization of multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with bovine viral diarrhea virus infections and persistence of positive tests in persistently infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections have a significant impact on the cattle population and production. Persistently infected (PI) cattle represent the principal reservoir of infection. Identification and removal of PI animals are critical to the control of BVDV. There are numerous assays f...

  14. Prevalence and Antigenic Differences Observed between Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotypes Isolated from Cattle in Australia and Feedlots in the Southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are divided into two different species within the pestivirus genus, BVDV type 1 (BVDV1) and BVDV type 2 (BVDV2). Further phylogenetic analysis has revealed subgenotype groupings within the BVDV1 and BVDV2 species. Thus far twelve BVDV1 subgenotypes (BVDV1a throu...

  15. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  16. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated Myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...

  18. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains circulating in domestic livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucle...

  19. An Outbreak of Late-Term Abortions, Premature Births, and Congenital Deformities Associated with a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Subtype b that Induces Thrombocytopenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 subtype b caused an outbreak of premature births, late term abortions, brachygnathism, growth retardation, brain deformities and rare other skeletal deformities in Holstein calves born to first calf heifers on one dairy. Experimental challenge of three,...

  20. CHALLENGE WITH BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS BY EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENTLY INFECTED CALVES: PROTECTION BY VACCINATION AND NEGATIVE RESULTS OF ANTIGEN TESTING IN NONVACCINATED ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) represent an important source of infection for susceptible cattle. We evaluated vaccine efficacy using calves PI with noncytopathic BVDV2a for the challenge and compared tests to detect BVDV in acutely or transiently infected ...

  1. Functional Characterization of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Nonstructural Protein 5A by Reverse Genetic Analysis and Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Isken, Olaf; Langerwisch, Ulrike; Schönherr, Robert; Lamp, Benjamin; Schröder, Kristin; Duden, Rainer; Rümenapf, Tillmann H.

    2014-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a hydrophilic phosphoprotein with RNA binding activity and a critical component of the viral replicase. In silico analysis suggests that NS5A encompasses three domains interconnected by two low-complexity sequences (LCSs). While domain I harbors two functional determinants, an N-terminal amphipathic helix important for membrane association, and a Zn-binding site essential for RNA replication, the structure and function of the C-terminal half of NS5A are still ill defined. In this study, we introduced a panel of 10 amino acid deletions covering the C-terminal half of NS5A. In the context of a highly efficient monocistronic replicon, deletions in LCS I and the N-terminal part of domain II, as well as in domain III, were tolerated with regard to RNA replication. When introduced into a bicistronic replicon, only deletions in LCS I and the N-terminal part of domain II were tolerated. In the context of the viral full-length genome, these mutations allowed residual virion morphogenesis. Based on these data, a functional monocistronic BVDV replicon coding for an NS5A variant with an insertion of the fluorescent protein mCherry was constructed. Live cell imaging demonstrated that a fraction of NS5A-mCherry localizes to the surface of lipid droplets. Taken together, this study provides novel insights into the functions of BVDV NS5A. Moreover, we established the first pestiviral replicon expressing fluorescent NS5A-mCherry to directly visualize functional viral replication complexes by live cell imaging. PMID:24131714

  2. The bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 protein formulated with a novel adjuvant induces strong, balanced immune responses and provides protection from viral challenge in cattle.

    PubMed

    Snider, Marlene; Garg, Ravendra; Brownlie, Robert; van den Hurk, Jan V; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2014-11-28

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is still one of the most serious pathogens in cattle, meriting the development of improved vaccines. Recently, we developed a new adjuvant consisting of poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP), either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), and an immune defense regulator (IDR) peptide. As this adjuvant has been shown to mediate the induction of robust, balanced immune responses, it was evaluated in an E2 subunit vaccine against BVDV in lambs and calves. The BVDV type 2 E2 protein was produced at high levels in a mammalian expression system and purified. When formulated with either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), together with IDR and PCEP, the E2 protein elicited high antibody titers and production of IFN-γ secreting cells in lambs. As the immune responses were stronger when poly(I:C) was used, the E2 protein with poly(I:C), IDR and PCEP was subsequently tested in cattle. Robust virus neutralizing antibodies as well as cell-mediated immune responses, including CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, were induced. The fact that CTL responses were demonstrated in calves vaccinated with an E2 protein subunit vaccine indicates that this adjuvant formulation promotes cross-presentation. Furthermore, upon challenge with a high dose of virulent BVDV-2, the vaccinated calves showed almost no temperature response, weight loss, leukopenia or virus replication, in contrast to the control animals, which had severe clinical disease. These data suggest that this E2 subunit formulation induces significant protection from BVDV-2 challenge, and thus is a promising BVDV vaccine candidate; in addition, the adjuvant platform has applications in bovine vaccines in general. PMID:25454860

  3. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  4. Development of a novel diagnostic test for detection of bovine viral diarrhea persistently infected animals using hair.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuldeep; Miller, Myrna M; Kohrt, Laura J; Scherba, Gail; Garrett, Edgar F; Fredrickson, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether manually plucked hairs might serve as an alternative sample for a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing. Twenty three, 1~3 week old, non-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccinated calves, found to be positive for BVDV by immunohistochemical staining, were selected and hairs were manually plucked from the ear. qRT-PCR was performed on samples consisting of more than 30 hairs (30~100) and whole blood. All 23 animals were positive for the virus by qRT-PCR performed on the whole blood and when samples of more than 30 hairs were assayed. Additionally, qRT-PCR was performed on groups of 10 and 20 hairs harvested from 7 out of 23 immunohistochemical staining-positive calves. When groups of 20 and 10 hairs were tested, 6 and 4 animals, respectively, were positive for the virus. PMID:21897105

  5. Production of Monoclonal Antibody Against Recombinant Polypeptide From the Erns Coding Region of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masood Reza; Ekhtelat, Maryam; Ghorbanpoor Najaf Abadi, Masood; Mahmoodi Koohi, Pezhman; Lotfi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important cattle disease with a worldwide distribution. Detection and elimination of animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is essential for the control of BVD and eradication of BVDV. There are usually no pathognomonic clinical signs of BVDV infection. Diagnostic investigations therefore rely on laboratory-based detection of the virus, or virus-induced antigens or antibodies. Objectives: Erns as an immunogenic protein of BVDV, is genetically and antigenically conserved among different isolates and therefore, is a candidate antigen for development of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological studies or identification of PI animals. The aim of this study was to produce a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against recombinant Erns. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, recombinant maltose-binding protein (MBP)-Erns protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using amylose resin chromatography column and used as an antigen in MAb production. Spleen cells of the immunized mice with the recombinant antigen were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. Next, culture supernatants of primary clones of fused cells were screened by indirect ELISA. After three rounds of cloning, the reactivity of the MAbs with recombinant and natural antigen was established by Western blotting. Results: Based on our results, MAb against recombinant Erns was produced and reacted successfully with recombinant and natural antigens. Conclusions: With regards to the role of Erns in the identification of PI animals, it appears that Erns recombinant antigen and the specific monoclonal antibodies produced against it may be suitable for developing BVDV laboratory diagnostic assays. PMID:26870309

  6. Clinical response and immunomodulation following experimental challenge of calves with type 2 noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Archambault, D; Béliveau, C; Couture, Y; Carman, S

    2000-01-01

    Eight calves between 16 and 18 weeks of age that were seronegative to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine leucosis virus and bovine immunodeficiency-like virus were infected (day 0) intranasally with the type 2 noncytopathogenic Canadian 24515 field isolate of BVDV in order to evaluate the effect of BVDV infection on certain clinical, hematological and immunological parameters. All virus-exposed animals developed fever and showed a significant (P < 0.05, 0.01 or 0.001) drop in the number of circulating leucocytes (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) by day 3 or 5 post-exposure (PE), which continued to the end of the experiment at day 12 PE. BVDV was consistently isolated from the peripheral blood buffy coat cells from day 5 PE, and also from selected tissues (spleen, thymus, mesenteric and submaxillary lymph nodes, small intestine, lungs and thyroid gland) that were collected at the time of euthanasia of the animals at day 12 PE. Diminished significant (P < 0.05) percentages of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) expressing at their surface either B7 and MHC II molecules were observed in virus-exposed calves at days 7, 10 and/or 12 PE, when compared to virus-nonexposed control calves (n = 5). However, no changes in the percentages of PBMCs expressing either B4 or MHC I molecules were observed throughout the experiment. Finally, a significant (P < 0.05 or 0.01) enhanced phagocytic capability of the PBMCs, as analyzed by flow cytometry, was observed in virus-exposed animals at days 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 PE, when compared to control calves. These results demonstrated the virulence of the 24515 isolate of BVDV in 4 to 4.5 month-old calves, and suggest that type 2 BVDV infection in calves is associated with dysregulation of certain immunological functions. PMID:10779200

  7. Genetic change in the open reading frame of bovine viral diarrhea virus is introduced more rapidly during the establishment of a single persistent infection than by multiple acute infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are ubiquitous viral pathogens of cattle. There is a high degree of sequence diversity between strains circulating in livestock herds. The driving force behind change in sequence is not known but the inaccurate replication of the genomic RNA by a viral RNA polyme...

  8. An evaluation of circulating bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 maternal antibody level and response to vaccination in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Downey, E D; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against viruses has been shown to help prevent bovine respiratory disease in cattle. However, both passively acquired maternal antibody concentration and calf age have been shown to impact the ability of the immune system of a calf to respond to vaccination. The objectives of this study were to identify and evaluate environmental and management factors that affect 1) passively acquired bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2 antibody level, 2) decay rate of passively acquired BVDV type 2 antibody level, and 3) responses to BVDV type 2 vaccinations. A 2-shot modified live vaccine was administered to 1,004 Angus calves that were weaned at either the initial vaccination (n = 508) or the booster vaccination (n = 496). Calves weaned at the initial vaccination averaged 139 d whereas calves weaned at booster vaccination averaged 128 d of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 antibodies were measured in 3 approximately 21-d intervals, serially collected serum samples to quantify antibody levels at initiation and end of vaccination protocol in addition to responses to initial, booster, and overall vaccination protocol. Amount of passively transferred antibody in the calf increased as dam age increased from 2 to 6 yr (P < 0.05) with no differences after dams reached 6 yr (P > 0.05). Calf age nested within birth year-season and dam age affected both initial and final antibody level, initial response, booster response, and overall antibody response to vaccination. The level of circulating, passively acquired maternal antibodies present at the time of vaccination had a significant (P < 0.05) negative effect on antibody responses to vaccination (initial response, booster response, and overall response). Calves that were weaned at the time of initial vaccination had significantly (P < 0.05) greater final antibody level, initial response, and overall response to vaccination than animals weaned at booster vaccination. In order for a calf to mount an overall antibody

  9. Host response to bovine viral diarrhea virus and interactions with infectious agents in the feedlot and breeding herd.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) have significant impact on beef and dairy production worldwide. The infections are widespread in the cattle populations, and in many production systems, vaccinations are utilized. BVDV strains have the hallmark of adversely affecting the immune system's many components, both the innate and acquired systems. While BVDV do cause primary infections and disease, their role in the pathogenesis of other agents underscores the complexity of viral-bacterial synergy. A greater understanding of the role of the persistently infected (PI) animal resulting from susceptible females infected at a critical stage of pregnancy has permitted acknowledgment of a major source of infection to susceptible animals. Not only do we understand the role of the PI in transmitting infections and complicating other infections, but we now focus attempts to better diagnose and remove the PI animal. Vaccinations now address the need to have an immune population, especially the breeding females in the herd. Biosecurity, detection and removal of the PI, and effective vaccinations are tools for potential successful BVDV control. PMID:22890128

  10. Laboratory diagnosis and transmissibility of bovine viral diarrhea virus from a bull with a persistent testicular infection.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy; Zhang, Yan; Brodersen, Bruce W; Marley, M Shonda; Joiner, Kellye S; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Riddell, Kay P; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Recently, in the United States, a dairy bull was diagnosed as the second confirmed case of persistent testicular infection (PTI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The first objective of this study was to evaluate the testing methodologies currently used by the artificial insemination industry in order to improve the detection of bulls with PTI. This study evaluated the impact of multiple factors ([1] sample tested, [2] sample handling, [3] assay used, and [4] assay methodology) on the sensitivity of detection of BVDV. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the transmissibility of BVDV from the bull through casual or sexual contact. Results from this study indicate that straws of semen should be transported to the diagnostic laboratory in liquid nitrogen dry shippers. PCR proved to be a more sensitive assay than virus isolation; however, certain PCR protocols exhibited greater diagnostic sensitivity than others. Insemination with cryopreserved semen from this infected bull caused viral transmission to a seronegative heifer resulting in viremia and seroconversion. After 42 months of age, the bull appeared to clear the infection. In conclusion, this bull validates that natural exposure to a 1a strain of BVDV can result in a unique PTI causing contamination of semen with detectable infectious virus. Appropriate handling and testing of samples is necessary in order to detect bulls exhibiting PTI. Additionally, PTI with BVDV may potentially be cleared after an extended duration. PMID:24656648

  11. Replication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in the bovine reproductive tract and excretion of virus in semen during acute and chronic infections.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, P D; Richards, S G; Rothwell, J T; Stanley, D F

    1991-06-22

    Five mature bulls were studied during an acute transient infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The bulls had been infected experimentally by the intranasal instillation of blood and serum from a cow which was a persistent carrier of the virus. Infection was confirmed by the demonstration of a low titred viraemia in four of the five animals and by the seroconversion of all five. Semen samples were collected from each bull on four occasions between seven and 14 days after infection. The virus was isolated from the semen of three of the five bulls and from nine of 12 batches of semen from them. In contrast to other studies of the infection of semen, BVDV was isolated with similar efficiency from raw, unprocessed semen and from diluted, extended semen. The titres of virus in the semen ranged from 5 to 75 TCID50/ml. The infection did not appear to affect the quality of the semen. Shedding of virus continued after the end of the period of viraemia and appeared to be a consequence of the replication of the virus in the reproductive tract and its subsequent excretion in the seminal fluid. Virological studies of the reproductive tracts of these bulls suggested that the most productive sites of virus replication were the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland. Concurrent studies in a persistently infected bull supported these findings. PMID:1654660

  12. Antigenic differences between bovine viral diarrhea viruses and HoBi virus: Possible impacts on diagnosis and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compare antigenic differences between HoBi virus and BVDV strains that might impact on diagnostics and control. Eighteen non-cytopathic isolates of pestiviruses including the 5 genotypic groups (BVDV1a-c, BVDV2, BDV) and HoBi virus, were tested using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...

  13. Inhibition of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus RNA Synthesis by Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone▿

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eliana F.; Fabian, Lucas E.; Caputto, María E.; Gagey, Dolores; Finkielsztein, Liliana M.; Moltrasio, Graciela Y.; Moglioni, Albertina G.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we described the activity of the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC), which we previously characterized as a new compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. We showed that TSC acts at a point of time that coincides with the onset of viral RNA synthesis and that it inhibits the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Moreover, we have selected five BVDV mutants that turned out to be highly resistant to TSC but still susceptible to ribavirin (RBV). Four of these resistant mutants carried an N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The remaining mutant showed an A392E mutation within the same protein. Some of these mutants replicated slower than the wild-type (wt) virus in the absence of TSC, whereas others showed a partial reversion to the wt phenotype over several passages in the absence of the compound. The docking of TSC in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed a close contact between the indane ring of the compound and several residues within the fingers domain of the enzyme, some hydrophobic contacts, and hydrogen bonds with the thiosemicarbazone group. Finally, in the mutated RdRp from resistant BVDV, these interactions with TSC could not be achieved. Interestingly, TSC inhibited BVDV replication in cell culture synergistically with RBV. In conclusion, TSC emerges as a new nonnucleoside inhibitor of BVDV RdRp that is synergistic with RBV, a feature that turns it into a potential compound to be evaluated against hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:21430053

  14. Inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA synthesis by thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eliana F; Fabian, Lucas E; Caputto, María E; Gagey, Dolores; Finkielsztein, Liliana M; Moltrasio, Graciela Y; Moglioni, Albertina G; Campos, Rodolfo H; Cavallaro, Lucía V

    2011-06-01

    In the present work, we described the activity of the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC), which we previously characterized as a new compound that inhibits bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection. We showed that TSC acts at a point of time that coincides with the onset of viral RNA synthesis and that it inhibits the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Moreover, we have selected five BVDV mutants that turned out to be highly resistant to TSC but still susceptible to ribavirin (RBV). Four of these resistant mutants carried an N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The remaining mutant showed an A392E mutation within the same protein. Some of these mutants replicated slower than the wild-type (wt) virus in the absence of TSC, whereas others showed a partial reversion to the wt phenotype over several passages in the absence of the compound. The docking of TSC in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed a close contact between the indane ring of the compound and several residues within the fingers domain of the enzyme, some hydrophobic contacts, and hydrogen bonds with the thiosemicarbazone group. Finally, in the mutated RdRp from resistant BVDV, these interactions with TSC could not be achieved. Interestingly, TSC inhibited BVDV replication in cell culture synergistically with RBV. In conclusion, TSC emerges as a new nonnucleoside inhibitor of BVDV RdRp that is synergistic with RBV, a feature that turns it into a potential compound to be evaluated against hepatitis C virus (HCV). PMID:21430053

  15. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 in Parana State, Brazil: case report, viral isolation, and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Ernesto Renato; Penha, Tania Regina; Stoffelo, Daura Regina Eira; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Ribeiro, Magda Costa; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a member of Gammaherpesvirinae sub-family and belongs to genus Rhadinovirus . This virus has been associated with different clinical manifestations and research activity has put forward a strong correlation among virus infection, postpartum metritis, and abortion. The goal of this work was to characterize a virus strain isolate from a cow's uterine outflow. From swabs drawn of uterine secretion, a virus strain was isolated and characterized by its cytopathology, morphology, and molecular biology approaches. In culture there was CPE development, characterized mainly by long strands with several small balloons along them, radiated from infected cells. Electron microscopy analysis revealed virus particles that had icosahedrical capsid symmetry surrounded by a loose envelope, typical of a herpesvirus. A 2,571 bp PCR product after Hind III digestion generated four fragments, whose base pair composition were 403, 420, 535, and 1,125 bp. Restriction enzymes Hind III and Bam HI generated the expected diagnostic bands as well as a 2,350 bp hypermolar fragment as a result of Bam HI treatment to demonstrate that agent was a bovine herpesvirus 4, appertaining to DN-599 group. PMID:26221118

  16. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 in Parana State, Brazil: case report, viral isolation, and molecular identification

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Ernesto Renato; Penha, Tania Regina; Stoffelo, Daura Regina Eira; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Ribeiro, Magda Costa; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a member of Gammaherpesvirinae sub-family and belongs to genus Rhadinovirus . This virus has been associated with different clinical manifestations and research activity has put forward a strong correlation among virus infection, postpartum metritis, and abortion. The goal of this work was to characterize a virus strain isolate from a cow’s uterine outflow. From swabs drawn of uterine secretion, a virus strain was isolated and characterized by its cytopathology, morphology, and molecular biology approaches. In culture there was CPE development, characterized mainly by long strands with several small balloons along them, radiated from infected cells. Electron microscopy analysis revealed virus particles that had icosahedrical capsid symmetry surrounded by a loose envelope, typical of a herpesvirus. A 2,571 bp PCR product after Hind III digestion generated four fragments, whose base pair composition were 403, 420, 535, and 1,125 bp. Restriction enzymes Hind III and Bam HI generated the expected diagnostic bands as well as a 2,350 bp hypermolar fragment as a result of Bam HI treatment to demonstrate that agent was a bovine herpesvirus 4, appertaining to DN-599 group. PMID:26221118

  17. A Systems Immunology Approach to Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Function in Cytopathic Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bocharov, Gennady; Züst, Roland; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Luzyanina, Tatyana; Chiglintsev, Egor; Chereshnev, Valery A.; Thiel, Volker; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-mediated protection against cytopathic virus infection involves various molecular, cellular, tissue-scale, and organism-scale events. In order to better understand such multiscale interactions, we have implemented a systems immunology approach focusing on the analysis of the structure, dynamics and operating principles of virus-host interactions which constrain the initial spread of the pathogen. Using high-resolution experimental data sets coming from the well-described mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) model, we first calibrated basic modules including MHV infection of its primary target cells, i.e. pDCs and macrophages (Mφs). These basic building blocks were used to generate and validate an integrative mathematical model for in vivo infection dynamics. Parameter estimation for the system indicated that on a per capita basis, one infected pDC secretes sufficient type I IFN to protect 103 to 104 Mφs from cytopathic viral infection. This extremely high protective capacity of pDCs secures the spleen's capability to function as a ‘sink’ for the virus produced in peripheral organs such as the liver. Furthermore, our results suggest that the pDC population in spleen ensures a robust protection against virus variants which substantially down-modulate IFN secretion. However, the ability of pDCs to protect against severe disease caused by virus variants exhibiting an enhanced liver tropism and higher replication rates appears to be rather limited. Taken together, this systems immunology analysis suggests that antiviral therapy against cytopathic viruses should primarily limit viral replication within peripheral target organs. PMID:20661432

  18. New Concepts in the Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Control of Diseases Caused by the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Radostits, Otto M.; Littlejohns, Ian R.

    1988-01-01

    The new information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of mucosal disease of cattle is reviewed. It is now known that clinical mucosal disease occurs only in cattle which were infected with a pestivirus in early gestation and were born with persistent viral infection and specific immunotolerance. These animals may be clinically normal at birth but may develop fatal mucosal disease, perhaps following superinfection with another pestivirus, usually between 6 and 24 months of age. They may also remain clinically normal indefinitely and breed successfully. The progeny from persistently infected females will similarly be persistently viremic, and maternal families of such animals may be established. Congenital defects may occur when infection of the fetus occurs in mid-gestation. Although fetuses may be infected in utero in late gestation, the infections do not persist, the fetuses develop antibodies, and they appear to suffer no ill-effects. Postnatal infection can result in subclinical disease (bovine viral diarrhea) with a normal immune response; the virus may also be responsible for enhanced susceptibility to other infections, diarrhea in newborn calves, and reproductive failure. Prevention of the economically important diseases caused by the virus is dependent upon the identification and elimination of persistently viremic animals, which are reservoirs of infection, and the vaccination of immunocompetent females at least three weeks before breeding. However, because of serotypic differences between strains, there is some doubt whether vaccination will reliably provide protection against the transplacental fetal infections that are important in the pathogenesis of this disease. There is no substantial evidence to warrant the vaccination of feedlot cattle. PMID:17423063

  19. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b calf: Effects on health, performance, BVDV type 1a titers, and circulating leukocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major culprit in the development of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) either directly via acute clinical illness or indirect effects of immunosuppression. Calves born persistently infected (PI) with BVDV are the primary transmission source of the virus; however...

  20. Resolving Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected U.S. beef calves with complete genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Workman, Aspen M; Heaton, Michael P; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Grotelueschen, Dale M; Sjeklocha, David; Brodersen, Bruce; Petersen, Jessica L; Chitko-McKown, Carol G

    2016-09-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic variation. To effectively control BVDV by vaccination, it is important to know which subtypes of the virus are circulating and how their prevalence is changing over time. Accordingly, the purpose of our study was to estimate the current prevalence and diversity of BVDV subtypes from persistently infected (PI) beef calves in the central United States. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR (5' untranslated region) for 119 virus strains revealed that a majority (82%) belonged to genotype 1b, and the remaining strains were distributed between genotypes 1a (9%) and 2 (8%); however, BVDV-2 subtypes could not be confidently resolved. Therefore, to better define the variability of U.S. BVDV isolates and further investigate the division of BVDV-2 isolates into subtypes, complete genome sequences were obtained for these isolates as well as representatives of BVDV-1a and -1b. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete coding sequence provided more conclusive genetic classification and revealed that U.S. BVDV-2 isolates belong to at least 3 distinct genetic groups that are statistically supported by both complete and individual coding gene analyses. These results show that a more complex set of BVDV-2 subtypes has been circulating in this region than was previously thought. PMID:27400958

  1. Generation of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus E0 Protein in Transgenic Astragalus and Its Immunogenicity in Sika Deer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yugang; Zang, Pu; Liu, Qun; Wei, Gongqing

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer. The presence of pBI121-E0 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription was verified by reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Deer that were immunized subcutaneously with the transgenic plant vaccine developed specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against BVDV. This study provides a new method for a protein with weak immunogenicity to be used as part of a transgenic plant vaccine. PMID:24963321

  2. Evaluation of producer and consumer benefits resulting from eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in Scotland, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Weldegebriel, Habtu T; Gunn, George J; Stott, Alistair W

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluated the distributional effects on actors in the milk market of a hypothetical programme to eradicate bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) from the Scottish dairy herd. With this in mind, we applied an economic welfare methodology which utilizes data on price, on output quantity, on elasticities of supply and demand and on simulated cost and yield effects of an eradication programme. Our analysis is based on Markov-chain Monte Carlo simulation of BVD spread in the dairy herd. We found that consequent upon the eradication of the disease milk yield per cow increased for all herd sizes in Scotland whereas milk price received by farmers fell. Consequently, milk consumers gained around pound11 million in discounted economic surplus and producers with infected herds gained around pound39 million whereas producers with un-infected herds lost around pound2 million in discounted surplus. On balance, however, the eradication programme generated around pound 47 million in discounted economic gain for Scotland. We found that the results are sensitive to changes in yield gains made by owners of the infected herd. PMID:18937987

  3. Single dilution Avidity-Blocking ELISA as an alternative to the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus neutralization test.

    PubMed

    Franco Mahecha, O L; Ogas Castells, M L; Combessies, G; Lavoria, M A; Wilda, M; Mansilla, F C; Seki, C; Grigera, P R; Capozzo, A V

    2011-08-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a blocking ELISA that measures avidity of BVDV-specific immunoglobulins (Igs) as an alternative to the classic virus neutralization test. The assay comprises a recombinant soluble E2 glycoprotein as target antigen, a neutralizing serum as detector antibody and a washing-step with a chaotropic agent to determine BVDV-specific Igs avidity. Avidity-Blocking ELISA was validated with 100 negative and 87 positive BVDV-neutralization serum samples from either infected or vaccinated bovines (inactivated commercial vaccines). Specificity and sensitivity of the Avidity-Blocking ELISA were 100% and 98.8%, respectively. The assay was standardized to use a single dilution, so that 90 samples can be tested per plate. Results expressed as Avidity Index (AI) correlated with BVDV neutralizing titers (r=0.94). Unlike the virus neutralization test, the Avidity-Blocking ELISA could discriminate between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), suggesting that avidity measurement can be a valuable tool to achieve DIVA compliances. The data show that the avidity of anti BVDV antibodies is related to their capacity to block viral infection in vitro. PMID:21621555

  4. Identification and genetic characterization of new bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 2 strains in pigs isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jie; Wang, Yin; Wang, Juan; Wang, Jian-ye; Zhu, Guo-qiang

    2013-02-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF)-like symptoms in pigs regarded as free from CSF has been reported previously. From sick pigs with CSF-like symptoms, and who had been inoculated with the hog cholera vaccine, samples were collected and subjected to RT-PCR using specific primers. Twelve bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains were screened and isolated. Homology comparison showed that the E2 genes of the twelve isolates were highly conserved. The genome of the one of the BVDV-2 isolates (named as SH-28) from the sick pigs, which showed a noncytopathic effect in MDBK cell cultures and strong reactivity with monoclonal antibody (MAb) Bz-53 raised against BVDV-2, was sequenced. The genome of SH-28 comprises 12,279 nucleotides and contains a large open reading frame beginning at nucleotide 386 and ending at nucleotide 12,073. Genomic comparison and phylogenetic analyzes showed that SH-28 fall into BVDV-2 subtype and was most similar to XJ-04 (nucleotide and amino acid homologies were 89.9-93.8 % and 91.1-96.9 %, respectively), but was genetically divergent from ZM-95 (pig BVDV-1). PMID:23085884

  5. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Marina Aiello; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Martini, Matheus Cavalheiro; Barnabé, Ana Caroline de Souza; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Bomfim, Getúlio Freitas; Afonso, Rafael Sanches; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP) equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s) responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s) that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection. PMID:26579205

  6. Generation of the bovine viral diarrhea virus e0 protein in transgenic astragalus and its immunogenicity in sika deer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yugang; Zhao, Xueliang; Zang, Pu; Liu, Qun; Wei, Gongqing; Zhang, Lianxue

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a single-stranded RNA virus, can cause fatal diarrhea syndrome, respiratory problems, and reproductive disorders in herds. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the BVDV infection rates are increasing and it is likely that an effective vaccine for BVDV will be needed. In this study, transgenic Astragalus was used as an alternative productive platform for the expression of glycoprotein E0. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein E0 expressed in transgenic Astragalus was detected in deer. The presence of pBI121-E0 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription was verified by reverse transcription- (RT-) PCR, and recombinant protein expression was confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Deer that were immunized subcutaneously with the transgenic plant vaccine developed specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against BVDV. This study provides a new method for a protein with weak immunogenicity to be used as part of a transgenic plant vaccine. PMID:24963321

  7. Distribution of viral antigen in uterus, placenta and foetus of cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, B; Press, C M; Løken, T; Odegaard, S A

    1999-01-01

    The tissue distribution and cellular localisation of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was investigated in the uterus, placentomes, intercotyledonary foetal membranes and foetal organs of three persistently infected (PI) pregnant heifers. The uterus and ovaries of a non-pregnant PI heifer were also included in the study. Cryostat sections were examined using immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies against BVDV. A double immunofluorescence technique was used to identify BVDV positive cells that also showed staining for either the leukocyte common antigen CD45 or the cytoskeletal filament vimentin. BVDV antigen was detected in all the organs examined, and was present in both epithelial and non-epithelial cells. In all organs many of the virus-positive cells also showed reactivity for vimentin. In the foetal liver and spleen a small, scattered population of virus-positive cells showed reactivity for CD45. A few cells showed reactivity both for BVDV antigen and for CD45 in the placentomes and intercotyledonary foetal membranes. In contrast to earlier reports, only scattered cells in the foetal part of the placentomes, the cotyledons, showed reactivity for BVDV antigen. However, in the chorion of the intercotyledonary foetal membranes, a larger proportion of the trophoblast cells showed reactivity for BVDV, especially the binuclear trophoblast cells. In the uterus, pregnancy appeared to favour virus replication, as the section from the pregnant heifers showed much stronger staining and a higher proportion of viral antigen-positive cells than sections from the non-pregnant PI heifer. PMID:10028166

  8. Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce robust humoral and cellular responses in a bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-04-01

    A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant. PMID:27012913

  9. Computational Study Exploring the Interaction Mechanism of Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potent Cattle Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-07-27

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are prevailing in cattle populations on a worldwide scale. The BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as a promising target for new anti-BVDV drug development, has attracted increasing attention. To explore the interaction mechanism of 65 benzimidazole scaffold-based derivatives as BVDV inhibitors, presently, a computational study was performed based on a combination of 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The resultant optimum CoMFA and CoMSIA models present proper reliabilities and strong predictive abilities (with Q(2) = 0. 64, R(2)ncv = 0.93, R(2)pred = 0.80 and Q(2) = 0. 65, R(2)ncv = 0.98, R(2)pred = 0.86, respectively). In addition, there was good concordance between these models, molecular docking, and MD results. Moreover, the MM-PBSA energy analysis reveals that the major driving force for ligand binding is the polar solvation contribution term. Hopefully, these models and the obtained findings could offer better understanding of the interaction mechanism of BVDV inhibitors as well as benefit the new discovery of more potent BVDV inhibitors. PMID:27355875

  10. The effects of reference genes in qRT-PCR assays for determining the immune response of bovine cells (MDBK) infected with the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 (BVDV-1).

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Delgado, Fredy; Cabrera, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro; Gonzalo, Carrasco; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2015-09-10

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide, and understanding its infection mechanisms would be extremely useful in designing new and efficient treatments. Due to the limited number of specific antibodies against bovine proteins, differential gene expression analyses are vital for researching host immune responses to viral infection. qRT-PCR provides a sensitive platform to conduct such gene expression analyses, but suitable housekeeping genes are needed for accurate transcript normalization. The present study assessed nine reference genes in bovine kidney cells under conditions of BVDV-1 infection, incubation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and co-incubation with BAY117085, a pharmacological inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Analyses of Ct values using the BestKeeper and Normfinder programs ranked CD81, RPL4, and GAPDH as the most reliable reference genes. This determination of a stable set of reference genes in this culture system will facilitate analyses of expression levels for genes of interest. PMID:26004977

  11. Management factors related to seroprevalences to bovine viral-diarrhoea virus, bovine-leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy herds in the Canadian Maritimes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Junwook; VanLeeuwen, John A; Weersink, Alfons; Keefe, Gregory P

    2002-09-10

    Bovine viral-diarrhoea (BVD), enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), Johne's disease (JD), and neosporosis lower on-farm productivity, reduce export competitiveness, and increase consumer concerns regarding safety. Our purpose was to examine the relationship between 27 control practices and the estimated true seroprevalences for these four diseases for 2604 cattle in 90 dairy herds in the Maritimes provinces of Canada. Overall, 37.8, 20.4, 3.4, and 19.2% of all sampled cattle were truly exposed to the agents of BVD, EBL, JD, and neosporosis, respectively. The median within-herd true prevalences were 0, 9.3, 0, and 12.3%, respectively. Factor analysis reduced the 27 control practices to two highly correlated factors. Tobit-regression analyses determined that vaccination practices were associated with reduced prevalence of exposure for Bovine viral-diarrhoea and EBL. Also, farms that tended to purchase their dairy animals were associated with higher seroprevalence for Johnes' disease. Neither of these two factors was associated with the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection. The few routine biosecurity measures that were investigated in this study were generally not related to the seroprevalences of these farms. PMID:12324207

  12. Effects of noncytopathic type 2 Bovine viral diarrhea virus on the proliferation of bone marrow progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isolates of noncytopathic type 2 Bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV-2) of high and low virulence on the proliferation of bone marrow progenitor cells. Holstein calves 6 to 7 mo old and BVDV-naïve were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV isolate of high virulence (HV24515), a BVDV isolate of low virulence (LV11Q), or uninfected cell culture medium. Serial bone marrow and peripheral blood samples were collected before and after inoculation. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) were isolated and cultured for 5 d, and the mean number of colony-forming unit-granulocyte- macrophage (CFU-GM) colonies was determined. Tritiated (3H)-thymidine uptake by BMMCs was determined to indicate overall proliferative capacity. Virus isolation was done on concurrent samples of BMMCs and peripheral blood. Virus was isolated from BMMCs and peripheral blood buffy-coat cells as early as day 2 or 3 after inoculation. Neutropenia developed in both groups inoculated with a BVDV isolate. However, in the calves given LV11Q, neutrophil counts rebounded earlier in response to increased proliferation of BMMCs, whereas the response was delayed in calves given HV24515. Thymidine uptake was significantly increased (P = 0.0047) in BMMCs after inoculation compared with before inoculation in the calves given LV11Q but not in those given HV24515 or in the control calves. The median number of CFU-GM colonies was significantly decreased (P = 0.0164) after inoculation compared with before inoculation in the calves given HV24515, whereas there was no significant difference in the calves given LV11Q or in the control calves. The data support the hypothesis that the prolonged neutropenia observed in calves given HV24515 results at least in part from decreased proliferative capacity of bone marrow progenitor cells. PMID:16548328

  13. Use of three-dimensional accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Jenna E; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E; van Santen, Edzard

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 10(6) TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day -7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days -7 to -1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers. RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation. PMID:27227496

  14. Concurrent bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 infection in a group of pregnant dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Penny, C D; Low, J C; Nettleton, P F; Scott, P R; Sargison, N D; Strachan, W D; Honeyman, P C

    1996-05-18

    Two days after being imported into the United Kingdom one of a group of 30 pregnant dairy heifers showed clinical signs of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection and subsequently died. Before it died the heifer was BVDV antigen-positive and antibody-negative. The gross post mortem findings were suggestive of mucosal disease but in addition to noncytopathic BVD virus, Salmonella typhimurium DT104 was cultured from tissues and gut contents. The other heifers were screened for S typhimurium by culturing faeces, and serology showed that 13 (45 per cent) of the group seroconverted to BVDV in the three weeks between samplings and the remainder were seropositive, indicating previous exposure. During this period four heifers showed clinical signs of acute BVDV infection but recovered uneventfully. Four animals (14 per cent) were positive for S typhimurium DT104 on faecal culture, and three of these excretors concurrently seroconverted to BVDV. Of the 29 heifers remaining in the group, one aborted in late gestation, 26 bore live calves and two delivered stillborn calves. Pre-colostral blood samples from the calves showed that their dams' pre-existing antibody titres correlated well with in utero fetal protection. In non-immune dams, exposure to BVDV between 69 and 120 days of gestation led to the birth of live persistently viraemic calves. Infection between 120 and 140 days of gestation led to the birth of live calves with evidence of congenital damage to the central nervous system, and infection later than 140 days of gestation led to the birth of live, normal calves with high pre-colostral antibody titres to BVDV. One calf which sucked colostrum was antibody and virus antigen-positive when sampled at 12 hours old but regular blood sampling failed to detect viraemia again until the calf was seven weeks old when it became persistently viraemic. PMID:8736500

  15. Seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 in non-vaccinated cattle herds in the Pacific Region of Central Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Raizman, Eran A; Pogranichniy, Roman; Negron, Maria; Schnur, Megan; Tobar-Lopez, Diego E

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to estimate the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a population of non-vaccinated, double purpose, dairy and beef herds in the Pacific Region of Central Costa Rica. Blood samples were collected from a total of 496 animals from 35 herds. Sera were tested for antibodies against BHV-1(IBR) and BVDV types 1 and 2 using serum neutralization test. The average number of animals tested in each herd for each of the viruses was 14. Overall individual seroprevalence was 48%, 27%, and 19% for IBR, BVDV type 1, and BVDV type 2, respectively. Median within-herd seroprevalence for IBR, BVDV type 1 and type 2 were 43%, 27%, and 24%, respectively. PMID:21128116

  16. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1, type 2 and HoBi-like pestivirus.

    PubMed

    Mari, Viviana; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    HoBi-like pestiviruses are emerging pestiviruses that infect cattle causing clinical forms overlapping to those induced by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2. As a consequence of their widespread distribution reported in recent years, molecular tools for rapid discrimination among pestiviruses infecting cattle are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, based on the TaqMan technology, for the rapid and unambiguous characterisation of all bovine pestiviruses, including the emerging HoBi-like strains. The assay was found to be sensitive, specific and repeatable, ensuring detection of as few as 10(0)-10(1) viral RNA copies. No cross-reactions between different pestiviral species were observed even in samples artificially contaminated with more than one pestivirus. Analysis of field samples tested positive for BVDV-1, BVDV-2 or HoBi-like virus by a nested PCR protocol revealed that the developed TaqMan assay had equal or higher sensitivity and was able to discriminate correctly the viral species in all tested samples, whereas a real-time RT-PCR assay previously developed for HoBi-like pestivirus detection showed cross-reactivity with few high-titre BVDV-2 samples. PMID:26709100

  17. Genetic Variability of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Evidence for a Possible Genetic Bottleneck during Vertical Transmission in Persistently Infected Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Orsel, Karin; van Marle, Guido; van der Meer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. The primary propagators of the virus are immunotolerant persistently infected (PI) cattle, which shed large quantities of virus throughout life. Despite the absence of an acquired immunity against BVDV in these PI cattle there are strong indications of viral variability that are of clinical and epidemiological importance. In this study the variability of E2 and NS5B sequences in multiple body compartments of PI cattle were characterized using clonal sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BVDV exists as a quasispecies within PI cattle. Viral variants were clustered by tissue compartment significantly more often than expected by chance alone with the central nervous system appearing to be a particularly important viral reservoir. We also found strong indications for a genetic bottleneck during vertical transmission from PI animals to their offspring. These quasispecies analyses within PI cattle exemplify the role of the PI host in viral propagation and highlight the complex dynamics of BVDV pathogenesis, transmission and evolution. PMID:26132819

  18. One year duration of immunity of the modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 and bovine herpesvirus-1 fractions of Vista® Once SQ vaccine.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Lisa; Mattick, Debra; Schneider, Corey; Smith, Linda; Xue, Wenzhi; Trigo, Emilio

    2016-03-18

    Three studies were performed to determine the duration of immunity of the bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) fractions of a commercially prepared modified-live vaccine. Vista® Once SQ (Vista®) vaccine contains five modified-live viruses, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, and two modified-live bacteria, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica. For all three studies, calves were administered a single dose of vaccine or placebo vaccine subcutaneously, and were challenged with one of the three virulent viruses at least one year following vaccination. Calves were evaluated daily following challenge for clinical signs of disease associated with viral infection, nasal swab samples were evaluated for virus shedding, and serum was tested for neutralizing antibodies. Following the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 challenges, whole blood was evaluated for white blood cell counts, and for the BVDV-2 study, whole blood was also evaluated for platelet counts. Calves vaccinated with BVDV type 1a, were protected from challenge with BVDV type 1b, and had significant reductions in clinical disease, fever, leukopenia, and virus shedding compared to control calves. Vaccinated calves in the BVDV-2 study were protected from clinical disease, mortality, fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and virus shedding compared to controls. Vaccinated calves in the BHV-1 study were protected from clinical disease and fever, and had significantly reduced duration of nasal virus shedding. These three studies demonstrated that a single administration of the Vista® vaccine to healthy calves induces protective immunity against BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BHV-1 that lasts at least one year following vaccination. PMID:26859238

  19. Simple Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Detect Antibodies Against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Based on Prokaryotically Expressed Recombinant MBP-NS3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodi, Pezhman; Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masoud Reza; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohammad Rahim; Lotfi, Mohsen; Pourmahdi Boroujeni, Mahdi; Daghari, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important disease of cattle distributed worldwide. Diagnosis of BVD relies on laboratory-based detection of its viral causing agent or virus specific antibodies and the most common laboratory method for this purpose is Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Objectives: The current study was aimed to develop a simple indirect ELISA to detect antibodies against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in the sera of infected cattle. Materials and Methods: A new simple indirect ELISA method was developed to detect BVDV infection by prokaryotically (Escherichia coli, BL21 strain) expressed recombinant whole nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of BVDV (NADL strain). Four hundred bovine serum samples were evaluated by the newly developed NS3-ELISA and virus neutralization test (VNT) as the gold standard method to diagnose BVD. Among these samples, 289 sera had been previously tested by a commercial ELISA kit. Results: Statistical analyses showed a very high correlation between the results of the developed NS3-ELISA and VNT (kappa coefficient = 0.935, P < 0.001), with the relative sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 98.8%, respectively. There was also a high correlation between the results of NS3-ELISA and the commercial ELISA kit (kappa coefficient = 0.802, P < 0.001) with the relative sensitivity and specificity of 90.72% and 91.15%, respectively. Conclusions: The newly developed simple indirect ELISA showed high sensitivity and specificity with respect to VNT. Developing such a simple, sensitive, and specific ELISA which is much less expensive than the available commercial ELISA kits can improve the detection of BVDV infections, help to eliminate the disease from herds, and decrease economic losses caused by this disease. PMID:25964844

  20. Antiviral Activity of Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Marine Sponge Petromica citrina against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Juliana Cristina Santiago; Kohn, Luciana Konecny; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Padilla, Marina Aiello; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; de Menezes, Cláudia Beatriz Afonso; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2013-01-01

    The Hepatitis C virus causes chronic infections in humans, which can develop to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Bovine viral diarrhea virus is used as a surrogate model for antiviral assays for the HCV. From marine invertebrates and microorganisms isolated from them, extracts were prepared for assessment of their possible antiviral activity. Of the 128 tested, 2 were considered active and 1 was considered promising. The best result was obtained from the extracts produced from the Bacillus sp. isolated from the sponge Petromica citrina. The extracts 555 (500 µg/mL, SI>18) and 584 (150 µg/mL, SI 27) showed a percentage of protection of 98% against BVDV, and the extract 616, 90% of protection. All of them showed activity during the viral adsorption. Thus, various substances are active on these studied organisms and may lead to the development of drugs which ensure an alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C. PMID:23628828

  1. Measuring bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine response: using a commercially available ELISA as a surrogate for serum neutralization assays.

    PubMed

    Gonda, M G; Fang, X; Perry, G A; Maltecca, C

    2012-10-12

    Genetic selection in livestock offers the opportunity to improve bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine response, but first we must define how vaccine response should be measured. For measuring humoral vaccine response, serum neutralization (SN) measures antibodies that can neutralize BVDV, but relative to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is time consuming, technically demanding, and expensive. The ELISA, however, measures total BVDV-specific antibodies, regardless of whether the antibodies can neutralize BVDV. Our objective was to test whether a commercially available BVDV antibody ELISA could be used as a surrogate (or indicator trait) for neutralizing antibodies as measured by SN. Angus and Angus-cross calves (n=193) from two South Dakota research herds were vaccinated for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. Sera and plasma samples (n=406) were collected from these calves at the time of vaccination and post-vaccination (20-72 days post-vaccination). The BVDV-specific antibody concentration was measured on each serum and plasma sample by (1) a commercially available total antibody ELISA, (2) BVDV-1 SN, and (3) BVDV-2 SN. Correlation between the ELISA and SN tests was estimated with a Spearman correlation coefficient. Higher BVDV ELISA sample-to-positive (S/P) ratios were positively correlated with higher BVDV-1 (ρ=0.809) and BVDV-2 (ρ=0.638) SN titers (P<0.0001), although the relationship was weaker when SN titers were <1:64. Higher BVDV-1 SN titers were also positively correlated with higher BVDV-2 SN titers (ρ=0.708; P<0.0001). The correlation between ELISA S/P ratios and SN titers was lower when calves were ≤2 months of age (ρ=0.344-0.566). Our results suggest that increased ELISA S/P ratios were associated with higher SN titers. We conclude that this BVDV antibody ELISA can be used as a surrogate for BVDV-1 and -2 SN titers when investigating genetic determinants of vaccine response, as long as samples are collected at 2 months of age or older. PMID

  2. Silica Vesicle Nanovaccine Formulations Stimulate Long-Term Immune Responses to the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Karishma T.; Mahony, Donna; Cavallaro, Antonino S.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bing; Mahony, Timothy J.; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogen, which causes tremendous economic loss to the cattle industry worldwide, meriting the development of improved subunit vaccines. Structural glycoprotein E2 is reported to be a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV virion. We have developed a novel hollow silica vesicles (SV) based platform to administer BVDV-1 Escherichia coli-expressed optimised E2 (oE2) antigen as a nanovaccine formulation. The SV-140 vesicles (diameter 50 nm, wall thickness 6 nm, perforated by pores of entrance size 16 nm and total pore volume of 0.934 cm3g-1) have proven to be ideal candidates to load oE2 antigen and generate immune response. The current study for the first time demonstrates the ability of freeze-dried (FD) as well as non-FD oE2/SV140 nanovaccine formulation to induce long-term balanced antibody and cell mediated memory responses for at least 6 months with a shortened dosing regimen of two doses in small animal model. The in vivo ability of oE2 (100 μg)/SV-140 (500 μg) and FD oE2 (100 μg)/SV-140 (500 μg) to induce long-term immunity was compared to immunisation with oE2 (100 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A from the Quillaja saponira (10 μg) in mice. The oE2/SV-140 as well as the FD oE2/SV-140 nanovaccine generated oE2-specific antibody and cell mediated responses for up to six months post the final second immunisation. Significantly, the cell-mediated responses were consistently high in mice immunised with oE2/SV-140 (1,500 SFU/million cells) at the six-month time point. Histopathology studies showed no morphological changes at the site of injection or in the different organs harvested from the mice immunised with 500 μg SV-140 nanovaccine compared to the unimmunised control. The platform has the potential for developing single dose vaccines without the requirement of cold chain storage for veterinary and human applications. PMID:26630001

  3. Silica Vesicle Nanovaccine Formulations Stimulate Long-Term Immune Responses to the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 Protein.

    PubMed

    Mody, Karishma T; Mahony, Donna; Cavallaro, Antonino S; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bing; Mahony, Timothy J; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogen, which causes tremendous economic loss to the cattle industry worldwide, meriting the development of improved subunit vaccines. Structural glycoprotein E2 is reported to be a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV virion. We have developed a novel hollow silica vesicles (SV) based platform to administer BVDV-1 Escherichia coli-expressed optimised E2 (oE2) antigen as a nanovaccine formulation. The SV-140 vesicles (diameter 50 nm, wall thickness 6 nm, perforated by pores of entrance size 16 nm and total pore volume of 0.934 cm3 g(-1)) have proven to be ideal candidates to load oE2 antigen and generate immune response. The current study for the first time demonstrates the ability of freeze-dried (FD) as well as non-FD oE2/SV140 nanovaccine formulation to induce long-term balanced antibody and cell mediated memory responses for at least 6 months with a shortened dosing regimen of two doses in small animal model. The in vivo ability of oE2 (100 μg)/SV-140 (500 μg) and FD oE2 (100 μg)/SV-140 (500 μg) to induce long-term immunity was compared to immunisation with oE2 (100 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A from the Quillaja saponira (10 μg) in mice. The oE2/SV-140 as well as the FD oE2/SV-140 nanovaccine generated oE2-specific antibody and cell mediated responses for up to six months post the final second immunisation. Significantly, the cell-mediated responses were consistently high in mice immunised with oE2/SV-140 (1,500 SFU/million cells) at the six-month time point. Histopathology studies showed no morphological changes at the site of injection or in the different organs harvested from the mice immunised with 500 μg SV-140 nanovaccine compared to the unimmunised control. The platform has the potential for developing single dose vaccines without the requirement of cold chain storage for veterinary and human applications. PMID:26630001

  4. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes two forms of a transcriptional repressor: structural and functional analysis of new viral cDNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Choe, J; Vaillancourt, P; Stenlund, A; Botchan, M

    1989-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence has established that the E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes at least two different site-specific DNA-binding proteins, one which activates and the other which represses expression from a viral promoter (P. F. Lambert, B. A. Spalholz, and P. M. Howley, Cell 50:69-78, 1987). We have obtained data which show that a second form of the repressor gene is expressed in transformed cells harboring stable viral plasmids. The structural details of this gene have been discerned by cDNA cloning, by RNase protection, and by primer extension analysis of in vivo RNA. Moreover, data from in vitro transcription experiments support the notion that this form of the E2 repressor is expressed from a novel viral promoter and that a small exon from another ORF is linked to an active repressor domain in E2. Thus, two different forms of the repressor are expressed from different promoters and might be independently regulated either in the cell cycle or in different tissue types. We show by functional in vivo assays utilizing a cDNA vector encoding this gene that the trans-acting factor has in vivo activities similar to those of the known repressor. Our screen of a cDNA library for cDNA clones representing bovine papillomavirus transcripts has also revealed a number of other novel structures defining new donor and acceptor RNA-processing sites. Notably, clones which conceptually can be translated to yield an E7 protein, the viral M gene, and the entire E2 ORF have been characterized. Finally, truncated versions of putative E8 cDNAs were also obtained. Images PMID:2538655

  5. Bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes two forms of a transcriptional repressor: structural and functional analysis of new viral cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Choe, J; Vaillancourt, P; Stenlund, A; Botchan, M

    1989-04-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence has established that the E2 open reading frame (ORF) of bovine papillomavirus type 1 encodes at least two different site-specific DNA-binding proteins, one which activates and the other which represses expression from a viral promoter (P. F. Lambert, B. A. Spalholz, and P. M. Howley, Cell 50:69-78, 1987). We have obtained data which show that a second form of the repressor gene is expressed in transformed cells harboring stable viral plasmids. The structural details of this gene have been discerned by cDNA cloning, by RNase protection, and by primer extension analysis of in vivo RNA. Moreover, data from in vitro transcription experiments support the notion that this form of the E2 repressor is expressed from a novel viral promoter and that a small exon from another ORF is linked to an active repressor domain in E2. Thus, two different forms of the repressor are expressed from different promoters and might be independently regulated either in the cell cycle or in different tissue types. We show by functional in vivo assays utilizing a cDNA vector encoding this gene that the trans-acting factor has in vivo activities similar to those of the known repressor. Our screen of a cDNA library for cDNA clones representing bovine papillomavirus transcripts has also revealed a number of other novel structures defining new donor and acceptor RNA-processing sites. Notably, clones which conceptually can be translated to yield an E7 protein, the viral M gene, and the entire E2 ORF have been characterized. Finally, truncated versions of putative E8 cDNAs were also obtained. PMID:2538655

  6. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected cattle and BVDV subtypes in affected cattle in beef herds in south central United States.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Whitley, Evan M; Johnson, Bill J; Ridpath, Julia F; Kapil, Sanjay; Burge, Lurinda J; Cook, Billy J; Confer, Anthony W

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined using 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples were collected by ear notches and tested for BVDV antigens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE). Animals with initial positives on both IHC and ACE were sampled again using both tests and serums were collected for viral propagation and sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) for viral subtyping. Samples were also collected from the dams of PI calves. There were 25 PI calves from 4530 samples (0.55%) and these PI calves were from 5 of the 30 herds (16.7%). Two herds had multiple PI calves and 3 herds had only 1 PI calf. Only 1 of the 25 dams with a PI calf was also PI (4.0%). The subtype of all the PI isolates was BVDV1b. Histories of the ranches indicated 23 out of 30 had herd additions of untested breeding females. Twenty-four of the 30 herds had adult cowherd vaccinations against BVDV, primarily using killed BVDV vaccines at pregnancy examination. PMID:20046630

  7. Induction of bovine papillomavirus E2 gene expression and early region transcription by cell growth arrest: correlation with viral DNA amplification and evidence for differential promoter induction.

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, S; Ström, A C; Jareborg, N; Alderborn, A; Dillner, J; Moreno-Lopez, J; Pettersson, U; Kiessling, U

    1990-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) genome replicates as a latent plasmid in mouse C127 cells transformed in vitro by the virus. However, we have recently shown that BPV-1 DNA amplification can be induced in a subpopulation of cells under culture conditions which suppress cell proliferation, a finding which led us to hypothesize that expression of a viral replication factor was regulated by cell growth stage. In this report, we describe the detection in these cells of abundant BPV-1 nuclear E2 antigen by immunofluorescence analysis. Expression of E2 antigen in fibropapilloma tissue was similarly localized to nonproliferating epidermal cells of the lower spinous layers--the natural site of induction of vegetative viral DNA replication. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the previously characterized 48-kilodalton (transactivator) and 31-kilodalton (repressor) E2 proteins were both induced in growth-arrested cell cultures. In parallel with E2 antigen synthesis under conditions of serum-deprivation in vitro, we observed a significant increase in levels of BPV-1 early region mRNAs. Furthermore, we present evidence for preferential induction of the P2443 promoter, in addition to specific induction of the P7940 promoter in response to serum deprivation. These observations indicate a central role for E2 transcription factors in the induction of viral DNA amplification in division-arrested cells in vitro and in vivo and suggest that this process is associated with a qualitative switch in the expression of viral early region genes. Images PMID:2170685

  8. Competitive binding of viral E2 protein and mammalian core-binding factor to transcriptional control sequences of human papillomavirus type 8 and bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, H M; Steger, G; Pfister, H

    1997-01-01

    The promoter P7535 of human papillomavirus type 8 and the promoter P7185 of bovine papillomavirus type 1 are negatively regulated by viral E2 proteins via the promoter proximal binding sites P2 and BS1, respectively. Mutations of these E2 binding sites can reduce basal promoter activity. This suggests binding of a transcription-stimulating factor and may indicate that repression by E2 is due to competitive binding of viral and cellular proteins. A computer search revealed putative binding sites for core-binding factor (CBF; also referred to as PEA2, PEBP2, or AML), overlapping with P2 and BS1. Binding of recombinant CBF proteins to these sites was confirmed by band shift analysis. Competition of CBF and E2 protein for DNA binding was shown for both human papillomavirus type 8 and bovine papillomavirus type 1. The importance of CBF-E2 competition in E2-mediated repression could be demonstrated by comparing the E2 effect on P7185 activity in two cell lines containing different amounts of endogenous CBF. In cells with large amounts of CBF, E2 repressed P7185 wild-type constructs to the basal promoter activity of a mutant (50%) that could not bind this protein any more. In contrast, in a cell line containing small amounts of CBF, the promoter activities of constructs with wild-type and mutated CBF binding sites hardly differed and specific repression by E2 was not detectable. PMID:9311900

  9. Retrospective epidemiological evaluation of molecular and animal husbandry data within the bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria during 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Karl; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Steinrigl, Adolf; Fuchs, Reinhard; Sailer, Andreas; Weikel, Joachim; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological investigation of molecular and animal husbandry data collected over an observation period of five years (2009-2014) within the compulsory bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) control programme in Western Austria, covering the federal provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg is presented in this study. Samples collected from 232 infected calves were phylogenetically classified based on the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). All but 13 samples, which were typed as border disease virus subtype 3 (BDV-3), belonged to the bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1) and clustered within six different subtypes (1b, 1e, 1f, 1h, 1d and 1k). Movement data and survival times from infected individual animals were analysed because of their potential of passing on infection to naive herds. From the moment of submission of the laboratory results, 180 animals were culled within the first month, 13 lived longer than two but not longer than six months and seven infected animals lived longer than one year. 13 of the infected animals were born on alpine pastures and eleven infected animals were grazed on mountain pastures during summer. The movement of infected animals and the role of trade in alpine areas are a possible source for spreading the infection, thus hampering the progress of eradication. PMID:27344911

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert G; McGill, Jodi L; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F; Sacco, Randy E

    2015-10-01

    Symptoms of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence. Several in vitro studies showed BVDV infection impaired leukocyte function. Fewer studies have examined the effects of in vivo BVDV infection on monocyte/macrophage function, especially with strains of differing virulence. We characterized cytokine production by bovine myeloid cells isolated early or late in high (HV) or low virulence (LV) BVDV2 infection. Given BVDV infection may enhance susceptibility to secondary bacterial infection, LPS responses were examined as well. Monocytes from HV and LV infected calves produced higher levels of cytokines compared to cells from controls. In contrast, monocyte-derived macrophage cytokine levels were generally reduced. Modulated cytokine expression in HV BVDV2 macrophages was associated with decreased MyD88 expression, likely due to its interaction with viral NS5A. These data and those of others, suggest that certain Flaviviridae may have evolved strategies for subverting receptor signaling pathways involving MyD88. PMID:26043978

  11. Mixed Triple: Allied Viruses in Unique Recent Isolates of Highly Virulent Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Detected by Deep Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Jenckel, Maria; Höper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Reimann, Ilona; Goller, Katja V.; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In February 2013, very severe acute clinical symptoms were observed in calves, heifers, and dairy cattle in several farms in North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony, Germany. Deep sequencing revealed the coexistence of three distinct genome variants within recent highly virulent bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) isolates. While the major portion (ca. 95%) of the population harbored a duplication of a 222-nucleotide (nt) segment within the p7-NS2-encoding region, the minority reflected the standard structure of a BVDV-2 genome. Additionally, unusual mutations were found in both variants, within the highly conserved p7 protein and close to the p7-NS2 cleavage site. Using a reverse genetic system with a BVDV-2a strain harboring a similar duplication, it could be demonstrated that during replication, genomes without duplication are generated de novo from genomes with duplication. The major variant with duplication is compulsorily escorted by the minor variant without duplication. RNA secondary structure prediction allowed the analysis of the unique but stable mixture of three BVDV variants and also provided the explanation for their generation. Finally, our results suggest that the variant with duplication plays the major role in the highly virulent phenotype. IMPORTANCE This study emphasizes the importance of full-genome deep sequencing in combination with manual in-depth data analysis for the investigation of viruses in basic research and diagnostics. Here we investigated recent highly virulent bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates from a 2013 series of outbreaks. We discovered a unique special feature of the viral genome, an unstable duplication of 222 nucleotides which is eventually deleted by viral polymerase activity, leading to an unexpectedly mixed population of viral genomes for all investigated isolates. Our study is of high importance to the field because we demonstrate that these insertion/deletion events allow another level of genome

  12. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: effects on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus titers, and peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Richeson, J T; Kegley, E B; Powell, J G; Beck, P A; Ley, B L Vander; Ridpath, J F

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation of cohorts that may have health and growth consequences; however, effects may differ in low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) beef cattle. Our objective was to compare health and performance of PC or AM management systems with (PI) or without (CON) presence of a PI-BVDV pen mate using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four shipment blocks of crossbred PC steers (n = 236) from 3 ranch-origins were weaned, dewormed, vaccinated, tested for PI-BVDV, and kept on the ranch for ≥42 d. Subsequently, PC steers were transported to a stocker receiving unit (RU), weighed (251 ± 2 kg), blood sampled, stratified by d -1 BW, and assigned randomly to treatment (PCPI or PCCON) with no additional processing. Simultaneously, 4 blocks of crossbred AM calves (n = 292) were assembled from regional auction markets and transported to the RU ± 36 h from PC arrival. The AM calves were weighed (245 ± 1.3 kg), stratified by gender and d -1 BW, processed under the same regimen used for PC steers at their origin ranch except bull calves were castrated, and then assigned randomly to treatment (AMPI or AMCON). Treatment pens (0.45 ha) were arranged spatially such that PI did not have fence-line or water source contact with CON. Calves were fed identically and followed the same antibiotic treatment protocol. Daily BW gain for the entire 42-d receiving trial was greater (P < 0.001) for PC (1.2 kg) compared with AM (0.85 kg). There was an exposure effect (P = 0.002) on ADG from d 28 to 42; CON gained 1.12 kg vs. 0.90 kg BW for PI cohort. Morbidity was markedly greater (P < 0.001) in AM (70%) vs. PC (7%), resulting in (P < 0.001) an antibiotic treatment cost of $20.52 and $2.48/animal, respectively. Treatment with a third antibiotic occurred more often (P = 0.04) for PI cohort, and the percentage of chronically ill cattle was greatest (P = 0.06) for AMPI

  13. A nationwide database linking information on the hosts with sequence data of their virus strains: A useful tool for the eradication of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Hanspeter; Hug, Corinne; Zanoni, Reto; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Peterhans, Ernst; Schweizer, Matthias; Bachofen, Claudia

    2016-06-15

    Pestiviruses infect a wide variety of animals of the order Artiodactyla, with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) being an economically important pathogen of livestock globally. BVDV is maintained in the cattle population by infecting fetuses early in gestation and, thus, by generating persistently infected (PI) animals that efficiently transmit the virus throughout their lifetime. In 2008, Switzerland started a national control campaign with the aim to eradicate BVDV from all bovines in the country by searching for and eliminating every PI cattle. Different from previous eradication programs, all animals of the entire population were tested for virus within one year, followed by testing each newborn calf in the subsequent four years. Overall, 3,855,814 animals were tested from 2008 through 2011, 20,553 of which returned an initial BVDV-positive result. We were able to obtain samples from at least 36% of all initially positive tested animals. We sequenced the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of more than 7400 pestiviral strains and compiled the sequence data in a database together with an array of information on the PI animals, among others, the location of the farm in which they were born, their dams, and the locations where the animals had lived. To our knowledge, this is the largest database combining viral sequences with animal data of an endemic viral disease. Using unique identification tags, the different datasets within the database were connected to run diverse molecular epidemiological analyses. The large sets of animal and sequence data made it possible to run analyses in both directions, i.e., starting from a likely epidemiological link, or starting from related sequences. We present the results of three epidemiological investigations in detail and a compilation of 122 individual investigations that show the usefulness of such a database in a country-wide BVD eradication program. PMID:26403669

  14. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased. PMID:26072370

  15. A bovine herpesvirus 1 pUL51 deletion mutant shows impaired viral growth in vitro and reduced virulence in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Sohail; Deng, Mingliang; Shahin, Farzana; Yang, Kui; Hu, Changmin; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) UL51 protein (pUL51) is a tegument protein of BoHV-1 whose function is currently unknown. Here, we aimed to illustrate the specific role of pUL51 in virion morphogenesis and its importance in BoHV-1 virulence. To do so, we constructed a BoHV-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). We used recombinant BAC and transgenic techniques to delete a major part of the UL51 open reading frame. Deletion of pUL51 resulted in severe viral growth defects, as evidenced by lower single and multi-step growth kinetics, reduced plaque size, and the accumulation of non-enveloped capsids in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Using tagged BoHV-1 recombinant viruses, it was determined that the pUL51 protein completely co-localized with the cis-Golgi marker protein GM-130. Taken altogether, pUL51 was demonstrated to play a critical role in BoHV-1 growth and it is involved in viral maturation and egress. Moreover, an in vivo analysis showed that the pUL51 mutant exhibited reduced virulence in rabbits, with no clinical signs, no nasal shedding of the virus, and no detectable serum neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we conclude that the BoHV-1 pUL51 is indispensable for efficient viral growth in vitro and is essential for virulence in vivo. PMID:26934330

  16. Overlapping CRE and E Box Motifs in the Enhancer Sequences of the Bovine Leukemia Virus 5′ Long Terminal Repeat Are Critical for Basal and Acetylation-Dependent Transcriptional Activity of the Viral Promoter: Implications for Viral Latency

    PubMed Central

    Calomme, Claire; Dekoninck, Ann; Nizet, Séverine; Adam, Emmanuelle; Nguyên, Thi Liên-Anh; Van Den Broeke, Anne; Willems, Luc; Kettmann, Richard; Burny, Arsène; Lint, Carine Van

    2004-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is characterized by viral latency in a large proportion of cells containing an integrated provirus. In this study, we postulated that mechanisms directing the recruitment of deacetylases to the BLV 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR) could explain the transcriptional repression of viral expression in vivo. Accordingly, we showed that BLV promoter activity was induced by several deacetylase inhibitors (such as trichostatin A [TSA]) in the context of episomal LTR constructs and in the context of an integrated BLV provirus. Moreover, treatment of BLV-infected cells with TSA increased H4 acetylation at the viral promoter, showing a close correlation between the level of histone acetylation and transcriptional activation of the BLV LTR. Among the known cis-regulatory DNA elements located in the 5′ LTR, three E box motifs overlapping cyclic AMP responsive elements (CREs) in U3 were shown to be involved in transcriptional repression of BLV basal gene expression. Importantly, the combined mutations of these three E box motifs markedly reduced the inducibility of the BLV promoter by TSA. E boxes are susceptible to recognition by transcriptional repressors such as Max-Mad-mSin3 complexes that repress transcription by recruiting deacetylases. However, our in vitro binding studies failed to reveal the presence of Mad-Max proteins in the BLV LTR E box-specific complexes. Remarkably, TSA increased the occupancy of the CREs by CREB/ATF. Therefore, we postulated that the E box-specific complexes exerted their negative cooperative effect on BLV transcription by steric hindrance with the activators CREB/ATF and/or their transcriptional coactivators possessing acetyltransferase activities. Our results thus suggest that the overlapping CRE and E box elements in the BLV LTR were selected during evolution as a novel strategy for BLV to allow better silencing of viral transcription and to escape from the host immune response. PMID:15564493

  17. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on rectal temperature and serum proinflammatory cytokine and haptog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) beef cattle. Our objective was to compare immun...

  18. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on rectal temperature, peripheral blood leukocytes and serum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation in cohorts. It is hypothesized that the extent of modulation differs for preconditioned (PC) vs. auction market (AM) cattle. Our objective was to compare immune responses of PC or AM ca...

  19. Evaluation of the health, performance and economic effects on the general population from exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus from persistently infected animals in the starter phase of the feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects on health and performance in beef cattle resulting from exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) animals in a commercial feedlot. The study focused on economic effects associated with PI exposure during the ...

  20. In vitro neutralization against HoBi-like viruses by antiobodies in serum of cattle immunized with inactivated or modified live vaccines of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses with genetic and antigenic similarities to bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2). These viruses have been detected associated with respiratory and/or reproductive disease in cattle in Italy and Brazil. Vaccines for HoBi-like...

  1. Pre-Arrival Management of Newly Received Beef Calves With or Without Exposure to a Persistently Infected Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type I Calf Affects Health, Performance, BVDV Type I Titers, and Circulating Leukocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major culprit in the development of BRD either directly via acute clinical disease or through indirect effects of immunosuppression. Calves born persistently infected (PI) with BVDV are the primary vector for introduction of the virus into herds or productio...

  2. Evaluation of immunological and physiological parameters associated with an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral challenge in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) has on immunological and physiological parameters of cattle; 12 Angus crossbred steers (228.82 ± 22.15 kg) were randomly assigned to either a Control group or an IBRV challenged group. Prior to the challenge, steers were fitted w...

  3. Lesions and distribution of viral antigen following an experimental infection of young seronegative calves with virulent bovine virus diarrhea virus-type II.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M

    1998-01-01

    During the past several years, acute infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have been causally linked to hemorrhagic and acute mucosal disease-like syndromes with high mortality. The majority of BVDVs isolated in such cases have been classified as type II on the basis of genetic and antigenic characteristics. It was our objective to examine clinical disease, lesions and potential sites of viral replication, following experimental BVDV type II infection in young calves. On approximately day 35 after birth, calves that had received BVDV-antibody-negative colostrum were infected by intranasal inoculation of 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of BVDV type II isolate 24,515 in 5 mL of tissue culture fluid (2.5 mL/nostril). Calves were monitored twice daily for signs of clinical disease. Approximately 48-72 h after infection, all calves developed transient pyrexia (39.4-40.5 degrees C) and leukopenia. Beginning on approximately day 7 after infection, all calves developed watery diarrhea, pyrexia (40.5-41.6 degrees C), marked leukopenia (> or = 75% drop from preinoculation values), variable thrombocytopenia, and moderate to severe depression. Calves were euthanized on days 10, 11, or 12 after infection due to severe disease. Gross and histological lesions consisted of multifocal bronchointerstitial pneumonia (involving 10%-25% of affected lungs), bone marrow hypoplasia and necrosis, and minimal erosive lesions in the alimentary tract. Immunohistochemical staining for BVDV revealed widespread viral antigen usually within epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mononuclear phagocytes in multiple organs, including lung, Peyer's patches, gastric mucosa, thymus, adrenal gland, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin. This BVDV type II isolate caused rapidly progressive, severe multisystemic disease in seronegative calves that was associated with widespread distribution of viral antigen and few gross or histological inflammatory lesions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3

  4. A study of the effectiveness of a needle-free injection device compared with a needle and syringe used to vaccinate calves against bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Rey, Michel R; Undi, Michael; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan C; Joseph, Tomy; Morrison, Jason; Yitbarek, Alexander; Wittenberg, Karin; Tremblay, Robert; Crow, Gary H; Ominski, Kim H

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a needle-free injection device (NF) with a needle and syringe (NS) when used to vaccinate calves against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). The study was conducted in two independent phases. Ninety-six crossbred beef calves were vaccinated in the spring and 98 beef calves in the autumn. The calves were vaccinated using a NF or NS at 2 months of age (day 0) and again on day 119, with a modified-live virus vaccine containing IBRV, BVDV (types 1 and 2), parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. In each herd 10 calves were left unvaccinated to determine whether exposure to either BVDV or IBRV occurred. Visible vaccine residue at the surface of the skin/hair was apparent immediately following vaccination with NF in 30% of the spring-born calves following both the primary and booster vaccination. In the autumn, visible vaccine residues occurred in 19% and 8% of NF-vaccinated calves following the primary and booster vaccination. Post-vaccination skin reactions recorded on days 21, 42, 119 and 140 occurred with greater frequency in NF-vaccinated calves than NS-vaccinated ones. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 21, 42, 119, and 140 and tested for antibodies to BVDV and IBRV. Vaccination technique had no significant effect on BVDV or IBRV antibody concentrations at any time point. NF was as effective as NS vaccination in eliciting BVDV and IBRV antibody responses. PMID:24011475

  5. The YXXL signalling motifs of the bovine leukemia virus transmembrane protein are required for in vivo infection and maintenance of high viral loads.

    PubMed Central

    Willems, L; Gatot, J S; Mammerickx, M; Portetelle, D; Burny, A; Kerkhofs, P; Kettmann, R

    1995-01-01

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transmembrane protein (gp30) contains three YXXL motifs at its carboxyterminal end. Two of these motifs have been implicated in vitro in signal transduction pathways from the external to the intracellular compartment. In order to analyze the biological relevance of these motifs in vivo, recombinant BLV proviruses were constructed. A mutation of the tyrosine residue of the second YXXL motif completely destroyed the infectious potential of the virus in sheep. In contrast, the tyrosine of the first motif appeared to be dispensable for infectivity. However, the propagation of the recombinant virus within the animal was greatly impaired (as demonstrated by PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). These recombinant BLVs thus exhibit an attenuated phenotype. Altogether, our data demonstrate the importance of the YXXL motifs of the BLV transmembrane protein for in vivo infection and viral propagation. PMID:7769672

  6. Fetal protection following exposure to calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 sixteen months after primary vaccination of the dams.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, Michael A; Fairbanks, Kris K; Behan, Stephen; Jackson, James A; Goodyear, Mark; Oien, Nancee L; Meinert, Todd R; Leyh, Randy D

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrated that the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV; types 1 and 2) fractions of a multivalent vaccine protected pregnant heifers and their fetuses at 149 to 217 days of gestation against exposure to calves persistently infected with BVDV type 2a. Eighty percent (eight of 10) of the control heifers were viremic at least 1 day following challenge, whereas all (20 of 20) BVDV-vaccinated heifers were virus isolation-negative on all postchallenge assessment days. Ninety percent (nine of 10) of the calves born to control heifers but only 5% (one of 20) of calves born to BVDV-vaccinated heifers seroconverted to BVDV type 2 before ingesting colostrum. One calf born to a control heifer was persistently infected. No calves from BVDV-vaccinated heifers were persistently infected. PMID:17039452

  7. Immunocompetent truncated E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) expressed in Nicotiana tabacum plants: a candidate antigen for new generation of veterinary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Guillermo; Marconi, Patricia; Periolo, Osvaldo; La Torre, José; Alvarez, María Alejandra

    2012-06-22

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the etiological agent responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases in cattle. The glycoprotein E2 is the major envelope protein of this virus and the strongest inductor of the immune response. There are several available commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), which show irregular performances. Here, we report the use of tobacco plants as an alternative productive platform for the expression of the truncated version of E2 glycoprotein (tE2) from the BVDV. The tE2 sequence, lacking the transmembrane domain, was cloned into the pK7WG2 Agrobacterium binary vector. The construct also carried the 2S2 Arabidopsis thaliana signal for directing the protein into the plant secretory pathway, the Kozak sequence, an hexa-histidine tag to facilitate protein purification and the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. The resulting plasmid (pK-2S2-tE2-His-KDEL) was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 by electroporation. The transformed A. tumefaciens was then used to express tE2 in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum plants. Western blot and ELISA using specific monoclonal antibodies confirmed the presence of the recombinant tE2 protein in plant extracts. An estimated amount of 20 μg of tE2 per gram of fresh leaves was regularly obtained with this plant system. Injection of guinea pigs with plant extracts containing 20 μg of rtE2 induced the production of BVDV specific antibodies at equal or higher levels than those induced by whole virus vaccines. This is the first report of the production of an immunocompetent tE2 in N. tabacum plants, having the advantage to be free of any eventual animal contaminant. PMID:22554468

  8. Change in predominance of Bovine viral diarrhea virus subgenotypes among samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory over a 20-year time span.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F; Lovell, Gayla; Neill, John D; Hairgrove, Thomas B; Velayudhan, Binu; Mock, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Although the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea was initially categorized as 1 species, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses belong to 2 different species, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2, with 2-11 subgenotypes within each species. Distribution of species and subgenotypes has been shown to vary with geographic region. Whether distribution shifts over time is not known. Surveys conducted between 1994 and 2008 reported 3 subgenotypes circulating among cattle in the United States: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The average percent prevalence of BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a strains reported in surveys before 2001 were 21%, 43%, and 36%, respectively. Surveys conducted on viruses isolated after 2001 reported decreasing percentages of BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a strains, with BVDV-1b strains accounting for 75-100% of samples. Comparison of these surveys is confounded by differences in geographic location, collection methods, and sample type used in the survey. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the prevalence of BVDV subgenotypes shifted in samples collected from the same geographic region and by the same laboratory over time. BVDV strains isolated in years 1988, 1998, and 2008, at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, Amarillo, Texas, were genotyped, and the prevalence of BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a strains were determined. Typing, on the basis of phylogenetic analysis, was done on 148 samples. The strongest trend detected among these samples was a pronounced decrease in the number of BVDV-1a strains over time. PMID:21398436

  9. Entry of bovine viral diarrhea virus into ovine cells occurs through clathrin-dependent endocytosis and low pH-dependent fusion.

    PubMed

    Mathapati, Basavaraj Shrishail; Mishra, Niranjan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Dubey, Shiv Chandra

    2010-05-01

    Although mechanisms of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) entry into bovine cells have been elucidated, little is known concerning pestivirus entry and receptor usage in ovine cells. In this study, we determined the entry mechanisms of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in sheep fetal thymus cells. Both BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections were inhibited completely by chlorpromazine, beta-methyl cyclodextrin, sucrose, bafilomycin A1, chloroquine, and ammonium chloride. Simultaneous presence of reducing agent and low pH resulted in marked loss of BVDV infectivity. Moreover, BVDV was unable to fuse with ovine cell membrane by the presence of reducing agent or low pH alone, while combination of both led to fusion at low efficiency. Furthermore, sheep fetal thymus cells acutely infected with BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were found protected from heterologous BVDV infection. Taken together, our results showed for the first time that entry of both BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 into ovine cells occurred through clathrin-dependent endocytosis, endosomal acidification, and low pH-dependent fusion following an activation step, besides suggesting the involvement of a common ovine cellular receptor during attachment and entry. PMID:19997866

  10. Development of an enhanced bovine viral diarrhea virus subunit vaccine based on E2 glycoprotein fused to a single chain antibody which targets to antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Pecora, Andrea; Malacari, Darío A; Pérez Aguirreburualde, María S; Bellido, Demian; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María J; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important cause of economic losses worldwide. E2 is an immunodominant protein and a promising candidate to develop subunit vaccines. To improve its immunogenicity, a truncated E2 (tE2) was fused to a single chain antibody named APCH, which targets to antigen-presenting cells. APCH-tE2 and tE2 proteins were expressed in the baculovirus system and their immunogenicity was firstly compared in guinea pigs. APCH-tE2 vaccine was the best one to evoke a humoral response, and for this reason, it was selected for a cattle vaccination experiment. All the bovines immunized with 1.5 μg of APCH-tE2 developed high levels of neutralizing antibodies against BVDV up to a year post-immunization, demonstrating its significant potential as a subunit vaccine. This novel vaccine is undergoing scale-up and was transferred to the private sector. Nowadays, it is being evaluated for registration as the first Argentinean subunit vaccine for cattle. PMID:25697468

  11. A monoclonal antibody-based immunoperoxidase monolayer (micro-isolation) assay for detection of type 1 and type 2 bovine viral diarrhea viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Deregt, D; Prins, S

    1998-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was developed and compared with an existing bovine polyclonal antibody (pAb)-based IPMA. A pool of 5 mAbs, 4 mAbs produced to a type 1 BVDV and 1 mAb produced to a type 2 BVDV, was utilized in the mAb-IPMA. The mAbs were chosen for inclusion in the pool because of their broad cross-reactivities with type 1 and/or type 2 BVDV, their apparent avidities for antigen, their reactivity to different BVDV proteins, and their lack of competition for binding sites or their binding to unusual BVDV isolates. The mAb-IPMA outperformed the pAb-IPMA in staining, ease of reading test results, and relative sensitivity with a panel of known BVDV positive and negative sera. The relative sensitivities of the mAb-IPMA and pAb-IPMA were 100% and 93.5%, respectively, for 62 positive samples including several that were known to contain type 2 BVDV. With retesting, the pAb-IPMA gave a similar level of sensitivity as that of the mAb-IPMA. Both tests gave a specificity of 100% for 40 negative serum samples obtained from a BVDV-free herd. PMID:9553717

  12. Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

  13. Risk and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using oocytes from persistently infected donors.

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Riddell, K P; Chen, S H; Galik, P K; Xiang, T; Guerra, T; Marley, M S; Polejaeva, I; Givens, M D

    2010-07-01

    The objective was to assess the risk of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) through embryo production via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), with oocytes obtained from persistently infected (PI) donors. Using ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration following superstimulation, oocytes were obtained from five female beef cattle, including three that were PI and two that were negative for BVDV. In the three PI cattle, seven aspirations yielded 32 oocytes (PI-1: three aspirations yielding six oocytes; PI-2: two aspirations yielding 14 oocytes; and PI-3: two aspirations yielding 12 oocytes). The oocyte recovery rate was better in negative control cattle, with 32 oocytes obtained from the two cattle in a single superstimulation and aspiration session. Oocytes were processed individually for SCNT, evaluated, and tested for BVDV. Nearly all (31/32) oocytes from the three PI donors were positive for BVDV by PCR, with detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 1 to 1.1 x 10(5). The proportion of oocytes acceptable for SCNT embryo production (based on oocyte quality and maturation status) was only 16 to 35% from PI donors, but was 81% from control donors. Therefore, routine testing of unacceptable (discarded) oocytes could be an effective approach to identify batches that might contain infected oocytes from PI donors. Identification and removal of high-risk batches of oocytes would minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through SCNT embryo production. PMID:20188405

  14. Evidence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus Infection in Three Species of Sympatric Wild Ungulates in Nevada: Life History Strategies May Maintain Endemic Infections in Wild Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Peregrine L.; Schroeder, Cody; McAdoo, Caleb; Cox, Mike; Nelson, Danielle D.; Evermann, James F.; Ridpath, Julia F.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009–2010 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N = 32) in the bighorns and 100% (N = 3) in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), indicated a prevalence of 72% (N = 45), 45% (N = 51), and 51% (N = 342) respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N = 96) sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on a single ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species. PMID:27014215

  15. XRN1 Stalling in the 5’ UTR of Hepatitis C Virus and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Is Associated with Dysregulated Host mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Stephanie L.; Blackinton, Jeffrey G.; Anderson, John R.; Dozier, Mary K.; Dodd, Benjamin J. T.; Keene, Jack D.; Wilusz, Carol J.; Bradrick, Shelton S.; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that both Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDV) contain regions in their 5’ UTRs that stall and repress the enzymatic activity of the cellular 5’-3’ exoribonuclease XRN1, resulting in dramatic changes in the stability of cellular mRNAs. We used biochemical assays, virus infections, and transfection of the HCV and BVDV 5’ untranslated regions in the absence of other viral gene products to directly demonstrate the existence and mechanism of this novel host-virus interaction. In the context of HCV infection, we observed globally increased stability of mRNAs resulting in significant increases in abundance of normally short-lived mRNAs encoding a variety of relevant oncogenes and angiogenesis factors. These findings suggest that non-coding regions from multiple genera of the Flaviviridae interfere with XRN1 and impact post-transcriptional processes, causing global dysregulation of cellular gene expression which may promote cell growth and pathogenesis. PMID:25747802

  16. Efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing procedure for rendering oocytes matured in vitro free of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

    PubMed

    Lalonde, A; Bielanski, A

    2011-07-15

    To ensure the freedom of embryos from pathogenic agents prior to embryo transfer (ET), a specific sanitary washing procedure has been recommended by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS). In the present study, the efficacy of removing the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from cumulus-free matured oocytes at the stage of extruded first polar body (N = 240) was evaluated, using the IETS-recommended 10 sequential wash procedure, after exposure in vitro to BVDV type 2 (strain PA-131, 1 × 10(5.2) TCID(50)/mL for 1 h). In general, the percentage of contaminated oocytes was reduced (P < 0.03) after the first two washes. Nevertheless, after 10 washes, approximately 20% of oocytes still remained infectious or contaminated with virus, as detected by the virus isolation test (VI) and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) of viral RNA (on average 13 copies/oocyte). Similarly, a higher percentage of positive washing fluid samples were detected in the first three washes (50-100%). The six subsequent washes had lower but variable proportions of fluid samples contaminated with infectious virus. We concluded that the standard washing procedure may not render all oocytes free from the infectious virus adhered to the zona pellucida (ZP), and application of an additional method of oocyte disinfection was warranted to ensure nontransmission of BVDV to recipients by embryos derived from infected oocytes. PMID:21497387

  17. Evidence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus Infection in Three Species of Sympatric Wild Ungulates in Nevada: Life History Strategies May Maintain Endemic Infections in Wild Populations.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Peregrine L; Schroeder, Cody; McAdoo, Caleb; Cox, Mike; Nelson, Danielle D; Evermann, James F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-2010 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N = 32) in the bighorns and 100% (N = 3) in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), indicated a prevalence of 72% (N = 45), 45% (N = 51), and 51% (N = 342) respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N = 96) sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on a single ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species. PMID:27014215

  18. Bovine viral diarrhea virus NS3 serine proteinase: polyprotein cleavage sites, cofactor requirements, and molecular model of an enzyme essential for pestivirus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Mendez, E; Caron, P R; Lin, C; Murcko, M A; Collett, M S; Rice, C M

    1997-01-01

    Members of the Flaviviridae encode a serine proteinase termed NS3 that is responsible for processing at several sites in the viral polyproteins. In this report, we show that the NS3 proteinase of the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (NADL strain) is required for processing at nonstructural (NS) protein sites 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B but not for cleavage at the junction between NS2 and NS3. Cleavage sites of the proteinase were determined by amino-terminal sequence analysis of the NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B proteins. A conserved leucine residue is found at the P1 position of all four cleavage sites, followed by either serine (3/4A, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B sites) or alanine (4A/4B site) at the P1' position. Consistent with this cleavage site preference, a structural model of the pestivirus NS3 proteinase predicts a highly hydrophobic P1 specificity pocket. trans-Processing experiments implicate the 64-residue NS4A protein as an NS3 proteinase cofactor required for cleavage at the 4B/5A and 5A/5B sites. Finally, using a full-length functional BVDV cDNA clone, we demonstrate that a catalytically active NS3 serine proteinase is essential for pestivirus replication. PMID:9188600

  19. Protection from persistent infection with a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1b strain by a modified-live vaccine containing BVDV types 1a and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda

    2011-06-24

    Recent studies showed that BVDV-1b subgenotype is dominant in North and South American field BVDV isolates. However, nearly all commercially available BVDV-1 vaccines contain BVDV-1a strains. In order to study the efficacy of BVDV-1a vaccine against BVDV-1b infection, this study was designed to evaluate a modified-live vaccine (MLV) containing BVDV-1a and BVDV-2 strains for its efficacy in prevention of persistent infection of fetuses against BVDV-1b strain, when the heifers were vaccinated prior to breeding. Heifers were vaccinated subcutaneously with a single dose of the MLV and bred four weeks after vaccination. The pregnant heifers were challenged with a non-cytopathic BVDV-1b strain at approximately 80 days of gestation. Vaccinated heifers were protected from clinical disease and viremia caused by the BVDV-1b virus. At approximately 155 days of gestation, the fetuses were harvested and tissue samples of thymus, lungs, spleen, kidney and intestines were collected for virus isolation. BVDV was isolated from 100% of the fetuses in the non-vaccinated control group, and from only one fetus (4.3%) from the vaccinated group. Results demonstrated that the MLV containing BVDV-1a and BVDV-2 strains provided 96% protection from fetal persistent infection caused by the BVDV-1b strain. PMID:21596076

  20. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound obtained from persistently infected calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize isolates resistant to a novel antiviral compound (DB772) isolated from persistently infected (PI) calves treated with the compound. Viral isolates were obtained from four Angus-cross beef calves (A,B,C,D) persistently infected with BVDV type 1 or 2 ...

  1. Risk assessment of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in abattoir-derived in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Perry, G H

    2007-07-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of the bovine reproductive system causing reduced conception rates, abortions and persistently infected calves. Most if not all strains of BVDV are transmissible by natural mating and AI. For international trade, it is recommended that in vitro fertilized embryos be washed according to the IETS Manual. However, BVDV may not be entirely washed out, resulting in possible transmission risks to recipients. Donor cows, donor bulls and biological agents are all possible sources of contamination. The process for producing in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is complex and non-standard, and some procedures can contribute to spread of BVDV to uninfected embryos. The structure of the zone pellucida (ZP) of IVP embryos permits adherence of BVDV to the ZP. To estimate the risk of producing infected recipients and persistently infected calves from abattoir-derived IVP embryos, a quantitative risk assessment model using Microsoft Excel and Palisade @Risk was developed. Assumptions simplified some of the complexities of the IVP process. Uncertainties due to incomplete or variable data were addressed by incorporating probability distributions in the model. Model variables included: disease prevalence; the number of donor cows slaughtered for ovaries; the number of oocytes collected, selected and cultured; the BVDV status of ovaries, semen, biological compounds and its behavior in the IVP embryo process. The model used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the IVP process. When co-culture cells derived from donor cows of unknown health status were used for in vitro culture (IVC), the probability of a recipient cow at risk of infection to BVDV per oocyte selected for IVP processing averaged 0.0006. However, when co-culture free from BVDV was used, the probability was 1.2 x 10(-5). Thus, for safe international trade in bovine IVP embryos (i.e. negligible risks of transmission of BVDV), co-culture cells, if used during IVC for producing IVP

  2. Effect of viral dose on experimental pneumonia caused by aerosol exposure of calves to bovine herpesvirus 1 and Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W D; Jericho, K W; Doige, C E

    1983-01-01

    The effect of various aerosol doses of bovine herpesvirus 1, followed four days later by aerosol exposure to a constant level of Pasteurella haemolytica, was studied in 16 crossbred Hereford range calves. A Collision nebulizer was used to generate aerosols from virus suspensions with concentrations of 10(8.2) (high), 10(5.2) (moderate) or 10(2.2) (low) TCID50/mL. The bacterial suspension contained 10(7) colony forming units/mL. Control calves exposed only to P. haemolytica developed no pulmonary lesions. Calves in the low, moderate and high virus exposure groups developed lobular areas of atelectasis; in addition, one calf in the moderate and all four in the high virus exposure group developed fibrinous pneumonia. One of the latter calves died. The 50% effective dose for fibrinous pneumonia under these experimental conditions was 10(6.0) TCID50 bovine herpesvirus 1/mL of suspension in the nebulizer reservoir, and approximately 10(4.0) infectious units inhaled per calf. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6299485

  3. Interleukin-8 selectively enhances cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by positive-strand RNA viruses in the human WISH cell line.

    PubMed

    Khabar, K S; Al-Zoghaibi, F; Murayama, T; Matsushima, K; Mukaida, N; Siddiqui, Y; Dhalla, M; Al-Ahdal, M N

    1997-06-27

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory chemokine, is induced by viruses and appears in circulation during viral infections. We found that IL-8 enhanced cytopathic effect induced by the positive strand RNA virus, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), in the human WISH cell line. The enhancement was dependent on IL-8 dose and virus dose and was reversible by specific monoclonal antibodies to IL-8. The chemokine was also able to increase EMC viral RNA synthesis and infectious virus yield. This IL-8 enhancing action was not observed in the case of the negative strand RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), in WISH cells. We examined the activity of constitutive 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), a pathway that was implicated in protection from EMCV but not VSV. The IL-8 action in EMCV-infected cells, unlike VSV-infected cells, was associated with decreased OAS activity in a manner that was independent of OAS gene expression. Understanding mechanisms of cytokine enhancement of viral activity may lead to novel ways to control viral infections. PMID:9207237

  4. Selective depletion of stored calcium by thapsigargin blocks rotavirus maturation but not the cytopathic effect.

    PubMed Central

    Michelangeli, F; Liprandi, F; Chemello, M E; Ciarlet, M; Ruiz, M C

    1995-01-01

    Rotavirus matures inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a site of intracellular calcium storage. Total cell Ca2+ depletion has been shown to impair virus maturation, arresting this process at the membrane-enveloped intermediate form following its budding into the ER. On the other hand, rotavirus infection leads to an increase in the internal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and sequestered Ca2+ pools. We have used thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the Ca(2+)-ATPase of the ER, to release stored Ca2+ and to study its role in rotavirus morphogenesis and cytopathic effect. Thapsigargin (0.1 to 1 microM) released stored Ca2+ from MA-104 cells, as measured by chlorotetracycline fluorescence. The concentration of cytoplasmic Ca2+, measured with fura2, increased in infected cells whether treated or not with thapsigargin. Infectivity was decreased dose dependently by thapsigargin (3 log units at 0.25 to 1 microM). In infected cells treated with thapsigargin, glycosylation of VP7 and NS28 was inhibited. Electron microscopy of infected cells treated with thapsigargin showed normal synthesis of viroplasm. However, only membrane-enveloped, not double-shelled, particles could be observed within the ER. The conformation of VP7 in infected cells treated with thapsigargin appeared to be altered, as suggested by decreased immunofluorescence reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to highly conformation-dependent VP7 epitopes. The progression of cell death in infected cells, as measured by penetration of ethidium bromide, was not affected by thapsigargin. These results indicate that rotavirus maturation depends on a high sequestered [Ca2+], specifically in the ER. Cell death is the result of the accumulation of a viral product and is not related to the production of infective particles. This viral product(s) may be responsible for the increase in [Ca2+]i, which in turn leads to cell death. PMID:7745732

  5. Construction and immunogenicity of the recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuelan; Jiang, Lufeng; Liu, Teng; Wang, Min; Cao, Wenbo; Bao, Yongzhan; Qin, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD) is an infectious disease of cattle with a worldwide distribution, creating a substantial economic impact. It is caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). This research was conducted to construct the recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) pMG36e-E0-LA-5 of BVDV E0 gene and to test its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against BVDV infection in the mice model. The BVDV E0 gene was sub-cloned into the expression vector and then transformed into the L. acidophilus LA-5 strain by electroporation. The recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 was confirmed by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. The mice were immunized orally with the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The serum IgG antibody and fecal sIgA antibody responses, expression levels of interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were detected respectively. On the 7th day after the last-immunization, the mice were inoculated with BVDV to evaluate the protective efficiency of the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5. The results showed that the expressed products protein E0 in the L. acidophilus LA-5 resulted in single band of 27kDa by SDS-PAGE and its strong reactivity with BVDV antibody was confirmed by Western blotting. The IgG and sIgA antibodies responses, IL-12 and IFN-γ expression levels in the vaccinated mice with recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 were significantly higher than those in the control mice. The protective rate of the vaccinated mice against BVDV increased significantly, and a 90.00% protection rate in virulent challenge was observed. These results indicated that the recombinant L. acidophilus pMG36e-E0-LA-5 strain was successfully constructed and it could effectively improve the immune response in mice and might provide protection against BVDV. PMID:26386184

  6. Characterization of the cytopathic BVDV strains isolated from 13 mucosal disease cases arising in a cattle herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a positive single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has a wide host range that includes most ruminants. Noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV may establish lifelong persistent infections in calves following infection of t...

  7. The occurrence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in hunter-harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the state of Georgia, southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ilha, Marcia R S; Coarsey, Michele; Whittington, Lisa; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Ramamoorthy, Sheela

    2012-11-01

    The prevalence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD, Odocoileus virginianus) in the state of Georgia was evaluated using ear notches collected from hunter-harvested deer during the hunting season of 2010-2011. From September to December 2010, 367 ear samples from WTD were collected from 37 counties in Georgia. The samples were from 178 (48.5%) female deer, 187 (51%) male deer, and 2 (0.5%) of unknown sex. The age of the animals varied from 6 months to 6.5 years. The age was not recorded in 34 animals (9.3%). Of the animals with known ages, 42% were under 2 years. Screening of 367 samples for BVDV using an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AgELISA) resulted in 364 negative samples and 3 suspect samples. The 3 suspect samples were negative for BVDV reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), virus isolation, and immunohistochemistry. A subpopulation of samples (n = 89) selected from various geographical regions also tested negative for BVDV RT-PCR. In conclusion, although a few of the samples were suspect for the presence of BVDV by AgELISA, the presence of the virus within the deer population studied could not be confirmed further. PMID:23019244

  8. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV. PMID:26119170

  9. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Prevention of Persistent Fetal Infection by a Combination of Two Mutations Affecting Erns RNase and Npro Protease▿

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Gregor; Ege, Andreas; Fetzer, Christiane; von Freyburg, Martina; Elbers, Knut; Carr, Veronica; Prentice, Helen; Charleston, Bryan; Schürmann, Eva-Maria

    2007-01-01

    Different genetically engineered mutants of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were analyzed for the ability to establish infection in the fetuses of pregnant heifers. The virus mutants exhibited either a deletion of the overwhelming part of the genomic region coding for the N-terminal protease Npro, a deletion of codon 349, which abrogates the RNase activity of the structural glycoprotein Erns, or a combination of both mutations. Two months after infection of pregnant cattle with wild-type virus or either of the single mutants, the majority of the fetuses contained virus or were aborted or found dead in the uterus. In contrast, the double mutant was not recovered from fetal tissues after a similar challenge, and no dead fetuses were found. This result was verified with a nonrelated BVDV containing similar mutations. After intrauterine challenge with wild-type virus, mutated viruses, and cytopathogenic BVDV, all viruses could be detected in fetal tissue after 5, 7, and 14 days. Type 1 interferon (IFN) could be detected in fetal serum after challenge, except with wild-type noncytopathogenic BVDV. On days 7 and 14 after challenge, the largest quantities of IFN in fetal serum were induced by the Npro and RNase-negative double mutant virus. The longer duration of fetal infection with the double mutant resulted in abortion. Therefore, for the first time, we have demonstrated the essential role of both Npro and Erns RNase in blocking interferon induction and establishing persistent infection by a pestivirus in the natural host. PMID:17215285

  10. The effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on fertility in dairy cows: two case-control studies in the province of Styria, Austria.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Kuchling, Sabrina; Kopacka, Ian; Pinior, Beate; Köfer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) leads to substantial economic losses in beef and dairy herds worldwide. Two case-control studies were carried out using production data from 1996 to 2012 to analyse the impact of BVD virus (BVDV) on fertility in dairy herds in the province of Styria during an eradication programme. In study 1, herds in which at least one persistently BVDV-infected (PI) animal was detected (case herds) were compared to a group of control herds proven free from BVDV infection (contro herds). In study 2, within BVD infected herds the period during which P animals were present (exposed period) was compared to the period after successful BVD eradication (unexposed period). Calving interval (CAl) and the probability of a first service conception (FSC) were used as indicators in a mixed regression model to investigate the impact of BVD on reproductive performance. The model results indicated that BVD had a significant influence on CAl and FSC. Cows from control herds were 1.1 times more likely to conceive at first service compared to cows from case herds and cows served during the BVDV unexposed period were 1.3 times more likely to conceive at first service than those inseminated during the exposed period. In BVD-infected herds the CAI averaged seven days shorter in unexposed periods than in exposed periods. Besides BVD the animal breed and the parity substantially impact the analysed fertility indicators. PMID:27169147

  11. Extended genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus and frequency of genotypes and subtypes in cattle in Italy between 1995 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Luzzago, Camilla; Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Giammarioli, Monica; Moreno, Ana; Cannella, Vincenza; Masoero, Loretta; Canelli, Elena; Guercio, Annalisa; Caruso, Claudio; Ciccozzi, Massimo; De Mia, Gian Mario; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Peletto, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has distinguished BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 species and an emerging putative third species (HoBi-like virus), recently detected in southern Italy, signaling the occurrence of natural infection in Europe. Recognizing the need to update the data on BVDV genetic variability in Italy for mounting local and European alerts, a wide collection of 5' UTR sequences (n = 371) was selected to identify the frequency of genotypes and subtypes at the herd level. BVDV-1 had the highest frequency, followed by sporadic BVDV-2. No novel HoBi-like viruses were identified. Four distribution patterns of BVDV-1 subtypes were observed: highly prevalent subtypes with a wide temporal-spatial distribution (1b and 1e), low prevalent subtypes with a widespread geographic distribution (1a, 1d, 1g, 1h, and 1k) or a restricted geographic distribution (1f), and sporadic subtypes detected only in single herds (1c, 1j, and 1l). BVDV-1c, k, and l are reported for the first time in Italy. A unique genetic variant was detected in the majority of herds, but cocirculation of genetic variants was also observed. Northern Italy ranked first for BVDV introduction, prevalence, and dispersion. Nevertheless, the presence of sporadic variants in other restricted areas suggests the risk of different routes of BVDV introduction. PMID:25045658

  12. Extended Genetic Diversity of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Frequency of Genotypes and Subtypes in Cattle in Italy between 1995 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Lauzi, Stefania; Ebranati, Erika; Giammarioli, Monica; Cannella, Vincenza; Masoero, Loretta; Canelli, Elena; Guercio, Annalisa; Caruso, Claudio; Ciccozzi, Massimo; De Mia, Gian Mario; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has distinguished BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 species and an emerging putative third species (HoBi-like virus), recently detected in southern Italy, signaling the occurrence of natural infection in Europe. Recognizing the need to update the data on BVDV genetic variability in Italy for mounting local and European alerts, a wide collection of 5′ UTR sequences (n = 371) was selected to identify the frequency of genotypes and subtypes at the herd level. BVDV-1 had the highest frequency, followed by sporadic BVDV-2. No novel HoBi-like viruses were identified. Four distribution patterns of BVDV-1 subtypes were observed: highly prevalent subtypes with a wide temporal-spatial distribution (1b and 1e), low prevalent subtypes with a widespread geographic distribution (1a, 1d, 1g, 1h, and 1k) or a restricted geographic distribution (1f), and sporadic subtypes detected only in single herds (1c, 1j, and 1l). BVDV-1c, k, and l are reported for the first time in Italy. A unique genetic variant was detected in the majority of herds, but cocirculation of genetic variants was also observed. Northern Italy ranked first for BVDV introduction, prevalence, and dispersion. Nevertheless, the presence of sporadic variants in other restricted areas suggests the risk of different routes of BVDV introduction. PMID:25045658

  13. Preliminary mapping of non-conserved epitopes on envelope glycoprotein E2 of Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Jelsma, H; Loeffen, W L A; van Beuningen, A; van Rijn, P A

    2013-09-27

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs together with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV) to the genus Pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has been subdivided into two different species, BVDV1 and BVDV2 based on phylogenetic analysis. Subsequent characterization of both strains revealed major antigenic differences. Because the envelope glycoprotein E2 is the most immunodominant protein for all pestiviruses, the present study focused on epitope mapping by constructing chimeric BVDV type 1 and 2 E2 genes in expression plasmids. These plasmids with chimeric E2-genes were transfected in SK6 cells and transient expression was studied by immunostaining with a panel of MAbs specific for E2 of BVDV1 or BVDV2, resulting in the localization of type-specific antigenic domains at similar regions. These results indicate that E2 glycoproteins of both BVDV types exhibit a comparable antigenic structure, but with type specific epitopes. In addition, the antigenic resemblance with envelope glycoprotein E2 of Classical swine fever virus is discussed. PMID:23838147

  14. Electroporation enhances immune responses and protection induced by a bovine viral diarrhea virus DNA vaccine in newborn calves with maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Lawman, Zoe; Wilson, Don; Luxembourg, Alain; Ellefsen, Barry; van den Hurk, Jan V; Hannaman, Drew

    2010-09-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the major pathogens in cattle. In this study, newborn calves with maternal antibodies were vaccinated with a BVDV DNA vaccine, either by conventional intramuscular (IM) injection or with the TriGrid™ Delivery System for IM delivery (TDS-IM). The calves vaccinated with the TDS-IM developed more rapidly and effectively BVDV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in the presence of maternal antibodies. Overall, the immune responses induced by delivery with the TDS-IM remained stronger than those elicited by conventional IM injection of the BVDV DNA vaccine. Accordingly, electroporation-mediated delivery of the BVDV DNA vaccine resulted in close to complete protection from clinical signs of disease, while conventional IM administration did not fully prevent morbidity and mortality following challenge with BVDV-2. These results demonstrate the TDS-IM to be effective as a delivery system for a BVDV DNA vaccine in newborn calves in the presence of maternal antibodies, which supports the potential of electroporation as a delivery method for prophylactic DNA vaccines. PMID:20670907

  15. Pretreatment of serum samples to reduce interference of colostrum-derived specific antibodies with detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by ELISA in young calves.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Reichel, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    Antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected (BVDV PI) cattle; however, colostrum-derived antibodies may interfere with antigen detection in serum from young PI calves. Our study aimed to assess serum pretreatment methods for reducing such interference. Dilution of PI serum with serum containing specific antibody showed that antibody levels equivalent to those observed in colostrum-fed calves were able to eliminate all antigen signals in a serum sample. Serum was treated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid at pH 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5, then boiled, centrifuged, and the supernatant-recovered. BVDV antibody was undetectable by ELISA in supernatants from treated samples, and the antigen ELISA signal was improved. Maximum antigen signal recovery of >90% was achieved at pH 5 ± 0.5. When this optimal treatment method was applied to field samples from 3 PI calves (which were negative in the antigen-capture ELISA without treatment), the antigen signal improved and gave a positive result in each case. Pretreatment may provide an improvement in the detection of young PI calves. PMID:27016723

  16. Influence of herd structure and type of virus introduction on the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ezanno, Pauline; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri

    2008-01-01

    A herd is a population structured into groups not all equally in contact, which may influence within-herd spread of pathogens. Herd structure varies among cattle herds. However, published models of the spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) assume no herd structure or a unique structure chosen as a representative. Our objective was to identify--for different index cases introduced into an initially BVDV--free dairy herd - risky (favourable) herd structures, which increased (decreased) BVDV spread and persistence compared to a reference structure. Classically, dairy herds are divided into calves, young heifers, bred heifers, lactating cows and dry cows. In the reference scenario, groups are all equally in contact. We evaluated the effect of isolating or merging groups. Three index cases were tested: an open persistently-infected (PI) heifer, an open transiently-infected heifer, an immune heifer carrying a PI foetus. Merging all groups and merging calves and lactating cows were risky scenarios. Isolating each group, isolating lactating cows from other groups, and merging calves and young heifers were favourable scenarios. In most structures, the most risky index cases were the following: first, the entry of a PI heifer; second, the birth of a PI calf; last, the entry of a transiently-infected heifer. Recommendations for dairy herds are to raise young animals together before breeding and to isolate lactating cows from others as much as possible. These recommendations will be less efficient if a PI adult enters into the herd. PMID:18346451

  17. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    PubMed

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests. PMID:24648561

  18. Comparison of conventional RT-PCR, reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR in the rapid detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleotide in contaminated commercial bovine sera batches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Qin; Tan, Bin; Li, Peng; Wang, Feng-Xue; Guo, Li; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Wen, Yong-Jun; Cheng, Shi-Peng

    2014-10-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can contaminate biological products produced in bovine or porcine cells or manufactured using bovine sera. A rapid, specific, sensitive, and practical method of detecting BVDV in bio-products is needed. The purpose of this study was to compare three assays with respect to their ability to accurately detect BVDV in biological samples, namely reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR, and conventional RT-PCR. All assays detected BVDV nucleotide and differentiated between BVDV-free and -contaminated bovine sera successfully. In addition, the results were specific to BVDV: the amplification of samples containing the closely related classical swine fever virus or other pathogenic bovine viruses yielded negative results. The lowest detection threshold, 10(1) copies, was displayed by the SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR and RT-LAMP assay. This assay was also the most effective in the detection of BVDV contamination in a set of commercially available bovine sera. The field conditions suggest that RT-LAMP is specific and sensitive to detecting BVDV in biological samples and may be used for quality control of biomaterials. PMID:25019170

  19. Fusion of the BCL9 HD2 domain to E1A increases the cytopathic effect of an oncolytic adenovirus that targets colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuerer, Christophe; Homicsko, Krisztian; Lukashev, Alexander N; Pittet, Anne-Laure; Iggo, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Background The Wnt signaling pathway is activated by mutations in the APC and β-catenin genes in many types of human cancer. β-catenin is stabilized by these mutations and activates transcription in part by acting as a bridge between Tcf/LEF proteins and the HD2 domain of the BCL9 coactivator. We have previously described oncolytic adenoviruses with binding sites for Tcf/LEF transcription factors inserted into the early viral promoters. These viruses replicate selectively in cells with activation of the Wnt pathway. To increase the activity of these viruses we have fused the viral transactivator E1A to the BCL9 HD2 domain. Methods Luciferase assays, co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, immunofluorescent cell staining and cytopathic effect assays were used to characterize the E1A-HD2 fusion protein and virus in vitro. Growth curves of subcutaneous SW620 colon cancer xenografts were used to characterize the virus in vivo. Results The E1A-HD2 fusion protein binds to β-catenin in vivo and activates a Tcf-regulated luciferase reporter better than wild-type E1A in cells with activated Wnt signaling. Expression of the E1A-HD2 protein promotes nuclear import of β-catenin, mediated by the strong nuclear localization signal in E1A. Tcf-regulated viruses expressing the fusion protein show increased expression of viral proteins and a five-fold increase in cytopathic effect (CPE) in colorectal cancer cell lines. There was no change in viral protein expression or CPE in HeLa cells, indicating that E1A-HD2 viruses retain selectivity for cells with activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Despite increasing the cytopathic effect of the virus in vitro, fusion of the HD2 domain to E1A did not increase the burst size of the virus in vitro or the anti-tumor effect of the virus in an SW620 xenograft model in vivo. Conclusion Despite an increase in the nuclear pool of β-catenin, the effects on viral activity in colon cancer cells were small, suggesting that factors acting

  20. Immunisation of Sheep with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, E2 Protein Using a Freeze-Dried Hollow Silica Mesoporous Nanoparticle Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, Donna; Mody, Karishma T.; Cavallaro, Antonino S.; Hu, Qiuhong; Mahony, Timothy J.; Qiao, Shizhang; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is arguably the most important viral disease of cattle. It is associated with reproductive, respiratory and chronic diseases in cattle across the world. In this study we have investigated the capacity of the major immunological determinant of BVDV-1, the E2 protein combined with hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (HMSA), to stimulate immune responses in sheep. The current work also investigated the immunogenicity of the E2 nanoformulation before and after freeze-drying processes. The optimal excipient formulation for freeze-drying of the E2 nanoformulation was determined to be 5% trehalose and 1% glycine. This excipient formulation preserved both the E2 protein integrity and HMSA particle structure. Sheep were immunised three times at three week intervals by subcutaneous injection with 500 μg E2 adsorbed to 6.2 mg HMSA as either a non-freeze-dried or freeze-dried nanoformulation. The capacity of both nanovaccine formulations to generate humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated responses in sheep were compared to the responses in sheep immunisation with Opti-E2 (500 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A (1 mg), a saponin from the Molina tree (Quillaja saponira). The level of the antibody responses detected to both the non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulations were similar to those obtained for Opti-E2 plus Quil-A, demonstrating the E2 nanoformulations were immunogenic in a large animal, and freeze-drying did not affect the immunogenicity of the E2 antigen. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the long term cell-mediated immune responses were detectable up to four months after immunisation. The cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all sheep immunised with the freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation (>2,290 SFU/million cells) compared to the non-freeze-dried nanovaccine formulation (213–500 SFU/million cells). This

  1. Efficacy of Suvaxyn CSF Marker (CP7_E2alf) in the presence of pre-existing antibodies against Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Dräger, Carolin; Schröder, Charlotte; König, Patricia; Tegtmeyer, Birthe; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is still one of the most important viral diseases of pigs worldwide and outbreaks are notifiable to the OIE. The different control options also include (emergency) vaccination, preferably with a vaccine that allows differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). Recently, the chimeric pestivirus "CP7_E2alf" (Suvaxyn® CSF Marker, Zoetis) was licensed as live attenuated marker vaccine by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In the context of risk assessments for an emergency vaccination scenario, the question has been raised whether pre-existing anti-pestivirus antibodies, especially against the vaccine backbone Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), would interfere with "CP7_E2alf" vaccination and the accompanying DIVA diagnostics. To answer this question, a vaccination-challenge-trial was conducted with Suvaxyn® CSF Marker and the "gold-standard" of live-modified CSF vaccines C-strain (RIEMSER® Schweinepestvakzine) as comparator. Pre-existing antibodies against BVDV-1 were provoked in a subset of animals through intramuscular inoculation of a recent field isolate from Germany (two injections with an interval of 2weeks). Twenty-seven days after the first injection, intramuscular vaccination of pre-exposed and naïve animals with either "CP7_E2alf" or C-strain "Riems" was performed. Seven days later, all vaccinated animals and two additional controls were oro-nasally challenged with highly virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strain Koslov. It was demonstrated that pre-existing BVDV-1 antibodies do not impact on the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines against CSF. Both C-strain "Riems" and marker vaccine "CP7_E2alf" were able to confer full protection against highly virulent challenge seven days after vaccination. However, slight interference was seen with serological DIVA diagnostics accompanying the vaccination with CP7_E2alf. Amended sample preparation and combination of test systems was able to resolve most cases

  2. Immunisation of Sheep with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, E2 Protein Using a Freeze-Dried Hollow Silica Mesoporous Nanoparticle Formulation.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Donna; Mody, Karishma T; Cavallaro, Antonino S; Hu, Qiuhong; Mahony, Timothy J; Qiao, Shizhang; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is arguably the most important viral disease of cattle. It is associated with reproductive, respiratory and chronic diseases in cattle across the world. In this study we have investigated the capacity of the major immunological determinant of BVDV-1, the E2 protein combined with hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (HMSA), to stimulate immune responses in sheep. The current work also investigated the immunogenicity of the E2 nanoformulation before and after freeze-drying processes. The optimal excipient formulation for freeze-drying of the E2 nanoformulation was determined to be 5% trehalose and 1% glycine. This excipient formulation preserved both the E2 protein integrity and HMSA particle structure. Sheep were immunised three times at three week intervals by subcutaneous injection with 500 μg E2 adsorbed to 6.2 mg HMSA as either a non-freeze-dried or freeze-dried nanoformulation. The capacity of both nanovaccine formulations to generate humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated responses in sheep were compared to the responses in sheep immunisation with Opti-E2 (500 μg) together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A (1 mg), a saponin from the Molina tree (Quillaja saponira). The level of the antibody responses detected to both the non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulations were similar to those obtained for Opti-E2 plus Quil-A, demonstrating the E2 nanoformulations were immunogenic in a large animal, and freeze-drying did not affect the immunogenicity of the E2 antigen. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the long term cell-mediated immune responses were detectable up to four months after immunisation. The cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all sheep immunised with the freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation (>2,290 SFU/million cells) compared to the non-freeze-dried nanovaccine formulation (213-500 SFU/million cells). This study

  3. Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves

  4. Fetal protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2 after the use of a modified-live virus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenzhi; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Maxwell, Jon

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in protecting fetuses from infection with type 1 or type 2 Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) when pregnant heifers were challenged at approximately 170 d of gestation with noncytopathic field isolates. The 83 pregnant heifers had been bred naturally 4 wk after vaccination. Fetuses were collected 60 d after BVDV type 2 challenge, and newborn calves were collected before colostrum intake after BVDV type 1 challenge. Protection was determined by measuring the serum neutralizing (SN) antibody response in the fetus or calf and by virus isolation from thymus, lung, spleen, and kidney tissue samples. There was a measurable SN antibody response to BVDV in all the fetuses and calves of the control heifers, which had received a placebo vaccine. However, only 4 of 22 calves and 7 of the 28 fetuses of the MLV-vaccinated heifers demonstrated SN antibody after BVDV challenge. Type 1 BVDV was isolated from tissue samples of 5 of the 12 calves of control heifers and none of 22 calves of the MLV-vaccinated heifers challenged with type 1 BVDV. Type 2 BVDV was isolated from tissue samples of 17 of the 18 fetuses of the control heifers and 2 of the 28 fetuses of the MLV-vaccinated heifers challenged with type 2 BVDV. The results of this study demonstrate that the MLV vaccine reduces the fetal infection rate by at least 82% for BVDV type 1 and by 75% for BVDV type 2 when heifers are exposed to highly fetotrophic BVDV at 170 d of gestation. PMID:20046631

  5. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  6. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-04-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study. PMID:19436580

  7. Fetal protection against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2 after the use of a modified-live virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Maxwell, Jon

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in protecting fetuses from infection with type 1 or type 2 Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) when pregnant heifers were challenged at approximately 170 d of gestation with noncytopathic field isolates. The 83 pregnant heifers had been bred naturally 4 wk after vaccination. Fetuses were collected 60 d after BVDV type 2 challenge, and newborn calves were collected before colostrum intake after BVDV type 1 challenge. Protection was determined by measuring the serum neutralizing (SN) antibody response in the fetus or calf and by virus isolation from thymus, lung, spleen, and kidney tissue samples. There was a measurable SN antibody response to BVDV in all the fetuses and calves of the control heifers, which had received a placebo vaccine. However, only 4 of 22 calves and 7 of the 28 fetuses of the MLV-vaccinated heifers demonstrated SN antibody after BVDV challenge. Type 1 BVDV was isolated from tissue samples of 5 of the 12 calves of control heifers and none of 22 calves of the MLV-vaccinated heifers challenged with type 1 BVDV. Type 2 BVDV was isolated from tissue samples of 17 of the 18 fetuses of the control heifers and 2 of the 28 fetuses of the MLV-vaccinated heifers challenged with type 2 BVDV. The results of this study demonstrate that the MLV vaccine reduces the fetal infection rate by at least 82% for BVDV type 1 and by 75% for BVDV type 2 when heifers are exposed to highly fetotrophic BVDV at 170 d of gestation. PMID:20046631

  8. Antigenic relationships between Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 and HoBi virus: possible impacts on diagnosis and control.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, Fernando V; Flores, Eduardo F; Ridpath, Julia F

    2012-03-01

    The emergence of a newly recognized group of pestiviruses in cattle, the HoBi-like viruses, requires an evaluation of the available diagnostic tools and vaccines. The present study compared antigenic characteristics of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2) strains and HoBi virus. This comparison was based on detection of HoBi virus and antibodies against it by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and the level of cross-neutralizing antibodies present in sera from animals vaccinated with BVDV. Reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) revealed greater cross-reactivity between BVDV species (BVDV-1, -2) and HoBi epitopes within E(rns) and NS2/3 proteins than between epitopes located in the E2 glycoprotein. The results suggest that a diagnostic test designed to detect both BVDV species and HoBi could be based on E(rns) or NS2/3 epitopes, while variation among E2 epitopes could be exploited in tests for differentiation of pestivirus species. The threshold of detection of HoBi virus by an antigen-capture ELISA kit based on detection of E(rns) was statistically similar to that for BVDV. In contrast, 2 commercial ELISA kits designed to detect antibodies against BVDV missed 22.2% and 77.7%, respectively, of serum samples harboring HoBi virus-neutralizing antibodies. In addition, sera of calves vaccinated with BVDV-1 and -2 presented low neutralizing activity against HoBi virus. The results demonstrate that in spite of antigenic similarities, HoBi virus is antigenically distinct from both BVDV species. Detection and control of HoBi virus infections in cattle would thus require the development of new diagnostic reagents and reformulation of current vaccines. PMID:22379042

  9. Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Steinmann, Jochen; Rabenau, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Background A procedure for including activity against enveloped viruses in the post-contamination treatment of hands has been recommended, but so far no European standard is available to implement it. In 2004, the German Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) and the German Association for the Control of Virus Disease (DVV) suggested that vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) should be used as test viruses in a quantitative suspension test to determine the activity of a disinfectant against all enveloped viruses. Methods We have studied the activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs (hand rub A, based on 45% propan-2-ol, 30% propan-1-ol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulfate; hand rub B, based on 80% ethanol; hand rub C, based on 95% ethanol) against vaccinia virus and BVDV, and in addition against four other clinically relevant enveloped viruses: herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, and human and avian influenza A virus. The hand rubs were challenged with different organic loads at exposure time of 15, 30 and 60 s. According to the guidelines of both BGA/RKI and DVV, and EN 14476:2005, the reduction of infectivity of each test virus was measured on appropriate cell lines using a quantitative suspension test. Results All three alcohol-based hand rubs reduced the infectivity of vaccinia virus and BVDV by ≥ 4 log10-steps within 15 s, irrespective of the type of organic load. Similar reductions of infectivity were seen against the other four enveloped viruses within 15 s in the presence of different types of organic load. Conclusion Commonly used alcohol-based hand rubs with a total alcohol concentration ≥ 75% can be assumed to be active against clinically relevant enveloped viruses if they effectively reduce the infectivities of vaccinia virus and BVDV in a quantitative suspension test. PMID:17291338

  10. Use of molecular and milk production information for the cost-effective diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhoea infection in New Zealand dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, F I; Reichel, M P; Tisdall, D J

    2010-04-21

    An increase in veterinary and farmer interest in bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) in New Zealand over recent years led to requests for cost-effective identification of BVD virus (BVDV) infected herds and individuals. This study was undertaken to determine if the use of real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology and dairy cow production data could identify persistently infected (PI) animals in milking herds. Milk samples were collected from the vats of dairy herds and tested for the presence of BVDV by RT-PCR till four herds were found containing PI animals. Individual serum samples were then collected from every cow in the herd and tested by both RT-PCR and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ACE) to identify the PI animals. Individual animal testing found 1/223, 1/130, 2/800 and 1/275 PI's respectively in the four herds. Based on these results a maximum pool size of 400 cows contributing to the bulk tank milk was selected. After removal of the PI from the herds, further bulk milk samples were shown to be BVDV negative by RT-PCR. All the PI animals identified by this method were found in the lowest producing 10-20% of herd. This approach of targeted testing of dairy herds using PCR technology, in conjunction with animal production information, markedly reduced the cost of diagnostic testing for BVDV in dairy herds in New Zealand. Questionnaire follow-up on 81 BVDV-positive herds (15% of those tested) indicated the stratification approach identified milking PIs successfully over 90% of the time and reduced the number of individual tests to 12% of the milking herd. PMID:19837521

  11. Application of peroxidase labelled antibody assays for detection of porcine IgG antibodies to hog cholera and bovine viral diarrhea viruses.

    PubMed

    Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Bouffard, A

    1989-03-01

    Rapid, sensitive peroxidase labelled antibody (PLA) assays using microtiter systems, were developed for detection of hog cholera virus (HCV) and cross-reacting bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies in pig sera. HCV-infected pig kidney cell line (PK 15) prepared in microtiter plates were fixed and used in PLA assays. After inoculation with test serum, bound antibodies (HCV/BVDV) were reacted with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated anti-porcine immunoglobulin (H & L) or biotinylated protein A (BPA) and subsequent HRP labelled avidin (A). Positive reactions were easily visualized under an inverted light microscope as foci of brown colored cells after enzyme degradation of hydrogen peroxidase in the presence of amino-ethylcarbazole (AEC). The PLA assays were superior to the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test in detecting anti-HCV antibodies in porcine sera collected early after inoculation of pigs with a lapinized HCV vaccine. The performances of the PLA, IFA and FA neutralization (FAN) tests in measuring the immune response in the vaccinated pigs were comparable. Cross-reacting anti-BVDV antibody, as measured by a microtiter serum neutralization (MTSN) test, was not demonstrable in vaccinated pigs until they were challenged with a virulent HCV, 13 weeks later. The PLA assays relative to the IFA test detected more reactive samples among porcine field sera collected from HC-free pigs in Canada. Of 795 samples, 24 (3.01%) were reactive in the PLA employing HRP anti-porcine IgG, and 21 (2.6%) in the PLA, using BPA-HRP-A. When 324 of these sera were screened by the IFA test (using HC antigen), only one sample (0.30%) was found reactive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2541152

  12. Increase of cells expressing PD-L1 in bovine leukemia virus infection and enhancement of anti-viral immune responses in vitro via PD-L1 blockade

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) are involved in immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway restores anti-virus immune responses, with concomitant reduction in viral load. In a previous report, we showed that, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, the expression of bovine PD-1 is closely associated with disease progression. However, the functions of bovine PD-L1 are still unknown. To investigate the role of PD-L1 in BLV infection, we identified the bovine PD-L1 gene, and examined PD-L1 expression in BLV-infected cattle in comparison with uninfected cattle. The deduced amino acid sequence of bovine PD-L1 shows high homology to the human and mouse PD-L1. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells, especially among B cells, was upregulated in cattle with the late stage of the disease compared to cattle at the aleukemic infection stage or uninfected cattle. The proportion of PD-L1 positive cells correlated positively with prediction markers for the progression of the disease such as leukocyte number, virus load and virus titer whilst on the contrary, it inversely correlated with the degree of interferon-gamma expression. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in vitro by PD-L1-specific antibody upregulated the production of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma, and correspondingly, downregulated the BLV provirus load and the proportion of BLV-gp51 expressing cells. These data suggest that PD-L1 induces immunoinhibition in disease progressed cattle during chronic BLV infection. Therefore, PD-L1 would be a potential target for developing immunotherapies against BLV infection. PMID:21943148

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in free-ranging wild ruminants in Switzerland: low prevalence of infection despite regular interactions with domestic livestock

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the frame of an eradication program for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) in Swiss livestock, the question was raised whether free-ranging wildlife could threaten the success of this sanitary measure. Therefore, we conducted serological and virological investigations on BVD virus (BVDV) infections in the four indigenous wild ruminant species (roe deer, red deer, Alpine chamois and Alpine ibex) from 2009 to 2011, and gathered information on interactions between wild and domestic ruminants in an alpine environment by questionnaire survey. Results Thirty-two sera out of 1’877 (1.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.4) were seropositive for BVDV, and a BVDV1 sub genotype h virus was found in a seropositive chamois (0.05%, 95% CI 0.001-0.3). The seropositive animals originated from sub-alpine or alpine regions and significantly more seropositive red deer, chamois and ibex than roe deer were found. There were no statistically significant differences between sampling units, age classes, genders, and sampling years. The obtained prevalences were significantly lower than those documented in livestock, and most positive wild ruminants were found in proximity of domestic outbreaks. Additionally, BVDV seroprevalence in ibex was significantly lower than previously reported from Switzerland. The survey on interspecific interactions revealed that interactions expected to allow BVDV transmission, from physical contacts to non-simultaneous use of the same areas, regularly occur on pastures among all investigated ruminant species. Interactions involving cervids were more often observed with cattle than with small ruminants, chamois were observed with all three domestic species, and ibex interacted mostly with small ruminants. Interactions related to the use of anthropogenic food sources were frequently observed, especially between red deer and cattle in wintertime. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of BVDV RNA isolated from an Alpine chamois

  14. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Dawn M.; Dagleish, Mark P.; Bachofen, Claudia; Boag, Brian; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Russell, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ∼260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected. PMID:26441927

  15. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for

  16. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds. PMID:26498460

  17. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring.

    PubMed

    Grant, Dawn M; Dagleish, Mark P; Bachofen, Claudia; Boag, Brian; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Zadoks, Ruth N; Russell, George C

    2015-01-01

    Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ∼260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected. PMID:26441927

  18. Silica vesicles as nanocarriers and adjuvants for generating both antibody and T-cell mediated immune resposes to Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Mody, Karishma T; Mahony, Donna; Zhang, Jun; Cavallaro, Antonino S; Zhang, Bing; Popat, Amirali; Mahony, Timothy J; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena

    2014-12-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is widely distributed in cattle industries and causes significant economic losses worldwide annually. A limiting factor in the development of subunit vaccines for BVDV is the need to elicit both antibody and T-cell-mediated immunity as well as addressing the toxicity of adjuvants. In this study, we have prepared novel silica vesicles (SV) as the new generation antigen carriers and adjuvants. With small particle size of 50 nm, thin wall (~6 nm), large cavity (~40 nm) and large entrance size (5.9 nm for SV-100 and 16 nm for SV-140), the SV showed high loading capacity (∼ 250 μg/mg) and controlled release of codon-optimised E2 (oE2) protein, a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV. The in vivo functionality of the system was validated in mice immunisation trials comparing oE2 plus Quil A (50 μg of oE2 plus 10 μg of Quil A, a conventional adjuvant) to the oE2/SV-140 (50 μg of oE2 adsorbed to 250 μg of SV-140) or oE2/SV-140 together with 10 μg of Quil A. Compared to the oE2 plus Quil A, which generated BVDV specific antibody responses at a titre of 10(4), the oE2/SV-140 group induced a 10 times higher antibody response. In addition, the cell-mediated response, which is essential to recognise and eliminate the invading pathogens, was also found to be higher [1954-2628 spot forming units (SFU)/million cells] in mice immunised with oE2/SV-140 in comparison to oE2 plus Quil A (512-1369 SFU/million cells). Our study has demonstrated that SV can be used as the next-generation nanocarriers and adjuvants for enhanced veterinary vaccine delivery. PMID:25239045

  19. Comparison of acute infection of calves exposed to a high-virulence or low-virulence bovine viral diarrhea virus or a HoBi-like virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to compare clinical presentation following acute infection of cattle with either a high virulence (HV) BVDV or a low virulence (LV) BVDV to clinical presentation following infection with a viral strain that belongs to an emerging species of pestivirus. The viral st...

  20. An infectious molecular clone of an unusual macrophage-tropic and highly cytopathic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Collman, R; Balliet, J W; Gregory, S A; Friedman, H; Kolson, D L; Nathanson, N; Srinivasan, A

    1992-01-01

    We isolated and molecularly cloned a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain (89.6) which is unusual because it is both macrophage-tropic and extremely cytopathic in lymphocytes. Moreover, this is the first well-characterized infectious molecularly cloned macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain derived from peripheral blood. HIV-1 89.6 differs markedly from other macrophage-tropic isolates within the envelope V3 region, which is important in determining cell tropism and cytopathicity. HIV-1 89.6 may thus represent a transitional isolate between noncytopathic macrophage-tropic viruses and cytopathic lymphocyte-tropic viruses. Images PMID:1433527

  1. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China. PMID:26231838

  2. Epizootiological survey of parainfluenza-3, reovirus-3, respiratory syncytial and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antibodies in sheep and goat flocks in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, L; Descôteaux, J P; Roy, R

    1985-01-01

    A serological survey was conducted in an attempt to detect antibodies against bovine respiratory viruses in sheep and goats from seven geographical areas of Quebec. Sera from 10% of the animals in 182 sheep flocks and 40 goat flocks were collected and specific antibodies against parainfluenza-3, reovirus type 3, respiratory syncytial and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses were detected by hemagglutination-inhibition tests for the former viruses and complement fixation and seroneutralization assays for the latter viruses. Results showed prevalence rates of serological reaction to parainfluenza-3, reovirus type 3 and respiratory syncytial viruses of 28, 72 and 35% in sheep and 26, 64 and 36% in goats, respectively. No antibodies in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were detected in sheep or goats tested. Prevalence rates varied according to the geographical area. No relationships were detected between age, sex, breed, size of flock and prevalence rates of different antibodies except that parainfluenza-3 antibodies were more common in large goat flocks and in sheep flocks with total confinement housing. A relationship between presence of clinical signs in the flocks and prevalence rates of antibodies was only demonstrated for parainfluenza-3 infection in goat flocks. PMID:3000551

  3. Epizootiological survey of parainfluenza-3, reovirus-3, respiratory syncytial and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antibodies in sheep and goat flocks in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, L; Descôteaux, J P; Roy, R

    1985-10-01

    A serological survey was conducted in an attempt to detect antibodies against bovine respiratory viruses in sheep and goats from seven geographical areas of Quebec. Sera from 10% of the animals in 182 sheep flocks and 40 goat flocks were collected and specific antibodies against parainfluenza-3, reovirus type 3, respiratory syncytial and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses were detected by hemagglutination-inhibition tests for the former viruses and complement fixation and seroneutralization assays for the latter viruses. Results showed prevalence rates of serological reaction to parainfluenza-3, reovirus type 3 and respiratory syncytial viruses of 28, 72 and 35% in sheep and 26, 64 and 36% in goats, respectively. No antibodies in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were detected in sheep or goats tested. Prevalence rates varied according to the geographical area. No relationships were detected between age, sex, breed, size of flock and prevalence rates of different antibodies except that parainfluenza-3 antibodies were more common in large goat flocks and in sheep flocks with total confinement housing. A relationship between presence of clinical signs in the flocks and prevalence rates of antibodies was only demonstrated for parainfluenza-3 infection in goat flocks. PMID:3000551

  4. Analysis of a pair of END+ and END− viruses derived from the same bovine viral diarrhea virus stock reveals the amino acid determinants in Npro responsible for inhibition of type I interferon production

    PubMed Central

    KOZASA, Takashi; ABE, Yuri; MITSUHASHI, Kazuya; TAMURA, Tomokazu; AOKI, Hiroshi; ISHIMARU, Masatoshi; NAKAMURA, Shigeyuki; OKAMATSU, Masatoshi; KIDA, Hiroshi; SAKODA, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The Exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon is induced by the inhibition of type I interferon in pestivirus-infected cells in vitro, via proteasomal degradation of cellular interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 with the property of the viral autoprotease protein Npro. Reportedly, the amino acid residues in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of Npro determine the difference in characteristics between END-phenomenon-positive (END+) and END-phenomenon-negative (END−) classical swine fever viruses (CSFVs). However, the basic mechanism underlying this function in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has not been elucidated from the genomic differences between END+ and END− viruses using reverse genetics till date. In the present study, comparison of complete genome sequences of a pair of END+ and END− viruses isolated from the same virus stock revealed that there were only four amino acid substitutions (D136G, I2623V, D3148G and D3502Y) between two viruses. Based on these differences, viruses with and without mutations at these positions were generated using reverse genetics. The END assay, measurements of induced type I interferon and IRF-3 detection in cells infected with these viruses revealed that the aspartic acid at position 136 in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of Npro was required to inhibit the production of type I interferon via the degradation of cellular IRF-3, consistently with CSFV. PMID:25648277

  5. Analysis of a pair of END+ and END- viruses derived from the same bovine viral diarrhea virus stock reveals the amino acid determinants in Npro responsible for inhibition of type I interferon production.

    PubMed

    Kozasa, Takashi; Abe, Yuri; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Tamura, Tomokazu; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ishimaru, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Shigeyuki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-01

    The Exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon is induced by the inhibition of type I interferon in pestivirus-infected cells in vitro, via proteasomal degradation of cellular interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 with the property of the viral autoprotease protein N(pro). Reportedly, the amino acid residues in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of N(pro) determine the difference in characteristics between END-phenomenon-positive (END(+)) and END-phenomenon-negative (END(-)) classical swine fever viruses (CSFVs). However, the basic mechanism underlying this function in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has not been elucidated from the genomic differences between END(+) and END(-) viruses using reverse genetics till date. In the present study, comparison of complete genome sequences of a pair of END(+) and END(-) viruses isolated from the same virus stock revealed that there were only four amino acid substitutions (D136G, I2623V, D3148G and D3502Y) between two viruses. Based on these differences, viruses with and without mutations at these positions were generated using reverse genetics. The END assay, measurements of induced type I interferon and IRF-3 detection in cells infected with these viruses revealed that the aspartic acid at position 136 in the zinc-binding TRASH motif of N(pro) was required to inhibit the production of type I interferon via the degradation of cellular IRF-3, consistently with CSFV. PMID:25648277

  6. Analysis of mRNA expression for genes associated with regulatory T lymphocytes (CD25, FoxP3, CTLA4, and IDO) after experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus of low or high virulence in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Roberto A; Hurley, David J; Woolums, Amelia R; Parrish, Jacqueline E; Brock, Kenny V

    2014-12-01

    Immunosuppression caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with lymphocyte depletion, leukopenia and impairment of leukocyte function; however, no work has been done on the relationship between BVDV and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs). The objective of this study was to compare the mRNA expression of genes associated with Tregs (CD25, FoxP3, CTLA4, and IDO), after experimental infection of beef calves with low (LV) or high (HV) virulence BVDV. Thirty BVDV-naïve calves were randomly assigned to three groups. Calves were intra-nasally inoculated with LV (n=10, strain SD-1) or HV (n=10, strain 1373) BVDV or BVDV-free cell culture medium (control, n=10). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of target genes in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes and spleen on day 5 post-infection. The mRNA expression of CD25 was up-regulated in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of LV (P<0.05), but not in HV compared to the control group. The expression of FoxP3 and CTLA4 was not increased in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of either of the BVDV-inoculated groups. A dramatic up-regulation of IDO mRNA was observed in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of LV (P<0.05), but not HV compared to the control calves. In conclusion, experimental infection with BVDV did not provide evidence of Treg activation based on expression of FoxP3 and CTL4. Differential expression of CD25 and IDO mRNA on day 5 post-infection with HV or LV BVDV might reflect temporal differences in transcription occurring during the immune response elicited by these viral strains, or differences in viral infectivity of the host cells. PMID:25456194

  7. Bacterial Infection of endometrial stromal cells influences bovine herpersvirus 4 immediate early gene activation: a new insight into bacterial and viral interaction for uterine disease

    PubMed Central

    Donofrio, Gaetano; Ravanetti, Lara; Cavirani, Sandro; Herath, Shan; Capocefalo, Antonio; Sheldon, Iain Martin

    2009-01-01

    Experimental infection with the gammaherpesvirus Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) rarely establishes disease, yet BoHV-4 is commonly associated with uterine disease in cattle. Uterine disease involves co-infection with bacteria such as Escherichia coli, which stimulate the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by endometrial cells. BoHV-4 replication depends on Immediate Early 2 (IE2) gene transactivation, and in the present study, PGE2, E. coli or its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), up-regulated the IE2 gene promoter in uterine cells. Bacterial co-infection is important for BoHV-4 uterine disease. PMID:18577555

  8. Host range, replicative, and cytopathic properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are determined by very few amino acid changes in tat and gp120.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng-Mayer, C; Shioda, T; Levy, J A

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates display differences in a variety of in vitro biological properties, including the ability to infect different cell types, the kinetics of replication, and cytopathicity in the infected cells. Studies with isolates obtained from the same individual over time have shown that these in vitro properties of the viral isolates correlate with pathogenicity in the host. The later isolates, recovered when disease has developed, display a wider cellular host range, replicate rapidly and to high titers in the infected cells, and induce syncytia in these cells. In the present studies, the genomic determinants of these biological properties were defined with recombinant viruses generated between two HIV-1 isolates recovered sequentially from the same individual. The results show that the rate of HIV-1 replication in the HUT 78 T-cell line is controlled by the first coding exon of tat. Infection of T-cell and monocytic cell lines is determined by two specific regions in the envelope gp120, one of which also confers the ability of an isolate to induce syncytia. Amino acid sequence comparison of the regions identified revealed minor differences between the two viral isolates: 2 amino acids in the tat gene product and 10 and 12 amino acids in the two regions of envelope gp120. These data suggest that small changes in the tat and env proteins can have dramatic effects on the pathogenic potential of HIV-1. Images PMID:1658383

  9. Effects of long- or short-term exposure to a calf identified as persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus on feedlot performance of freshly weaned, transport-stressed beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Elam, N A; Thomson, D U; Gleghorn, J F

    2008-08-01

    A single experiment with a completely randomized design was conducted to evaluate the effects of long- or short-term exposure to a calf identified as persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (PI-BVD) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of freshly weaned, transport-stressed beef heifers. Two hundred eighty-eight heifers that had been vaccinated for BVD before weaning and transport were processed and given a metaphylactic antibiotic treatment at arrival and were fed common receiving, growing, and finishing diets for a 215-d period. Treatments were designed to directly or adjacently expose the cattle to a PI-BVD heifer. Directly exposed treatments were 1) negative control with no PI-BVD calf exposure (control), 2) PI-BVD calf commingled in the pen for 60 h and then removed (short-term exposure), and 3) PI-BVD calf commingled in the pen for the duration of the study (long-term exposure); and spatially exposed treatments were 1) negative control with no PI-BVD calf exposure (adjacent pen control), 2) PI-BVD calf commingled in the adjacent pen for 60 h and then removed (adjacent pen short-term exposure), and 3) PI-BVD calf commingled in the adjacent pen for the duration of the study (adjacent pen long-term exposure). Exposure to a PI calf transiently (60 h) or for the duration of the feeding period (215 d) did not affect (P > or = 0.25) final BW compared with heifers that were not exposed. Neither period nor overall DMI was affected (P > or = 0.37) by PI-BVD calf exposure, and no differences (P > or = 0.44) were observed between short- and long-term exposed heifers in the direct or spatially exposed groups. Likewise, total trial ADG was not affected (P > or = 0.36) and overall efficiency of gain (P > or = 0.19) was unaffected by PI-BVD calf exposure in the direct or spatially exposed groups. The results from this study suggest that exposing previously vaccinated, freshly weaned, transport- stressed beef calves to a calf that is persistently

  10. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus can persist in testicular tissue after vaccination of peri-pubertal bulls but prevents subsequent infection.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Walz, Paul H; Rhoades, Jim; Harland, Richard; Zhang, YiJing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Cochran, Anna M; Brock, Kenny V; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2007-01-15

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the risk of prolonged testicular infection as a consequence of vaccination of peri-pubertal bulls with a modified-live, noncytopathic strain of BVDV and to assess vaccine efficacy in preventing prolonged testicular infections after a subsequent acute infection. Seronegative, peri-pubertal bulls were vaccinated subcutaneously with an approximate minimum immunizing dose or a 10x standard dose of modified-live, noncytopathic BVDV or were maintained as unvaccinated controls. Forty-nine days after vaccination, all bulls were intranasally inoculated with a noncytopathic field strain of BVDV. Semen and testicular biopsies collected after vaccination and challenge were assayed for BVDV using virus isolation, reverse transcription-nested PCR, or immunohistochemistry and the identity of viral strains was determined by nucleotide sequencing of PCR products. The vaccine strain of BVDV was detected in testicular tissue of vaccinated bulls as long as 134 days after immunization. Prolonged testicular infections with the challenge strain were detected only in unvaccinated bulls as long as 85 days after challenge. Whereas vaccination caused prolonged testicular infection in some bulls, it did prevent subsequent infection of testicular tissue with the challenge strain. This research demonstrates that subcutaneous vaccination of naïve, peri-pubertal bulls with a noncytopathic, modified-live strain of BVDV can result in prolonged viral replication within testicular tissue. The risk for these prolonged testicular infections to cause venereal transmission of BVDV or subfertility is likely to be low but requires further investigation. PMID:17005300

  11. Failed detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 subgenotype a (BVDV-2a) by direct fluorescent antibody test on tissue samples due to reduced reactivity of field isolates to raw anti-BVDV antibody.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lifang; Pace, Lanny W; Baughman, Brittany; Wilson, Floyd D; Zhang, Shuping; Zhang, Michael Z

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is associated with mild or subclinical infections, whereas BVDV-2 is frequently implicated in outbreaks of severe thrombocytopenia and acute fatal disease. In the present study, the carcass of a beef breed cow and tissue samples of a beef calf were received for laboratory diagnosis. Both animals exhibited severe clinical signs compatible with thrombocytopenia or hemorrhagic syndrome. Direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) failed to detect BVDV antigen in the tissue specimens of both cases. However, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed the presence of BVDV antigen in oral and esophageal mucosa and Peyer patches of the beef breed cow. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) detected BVDV-2 in selected tissues of both animals. Subsequently, BVDV was isolated from both cases and subjected to genetic and serologic characterizations. Mutations in the 5'-untranslated genomic region (5'-UTR) primer and probe binding sites and the E2 gene were associated with reduced efficiency of an established real-time RT-PCR assay and amino acid alterations in the E2 glycoprotein, respectively. Both viral isolates were classified by real-time RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis as BVDV-2 subgenotype a. Unlike BVDV reference strains Singer and 125c, the isolates cross-reacted with anti-BVDV-1 and anti-BVDV-2 reference sera, indicating antigenic variations in field isolates. The isolates also showed reduced reactivity to porcine anti-BVDV antiserum (the raw serum used to produce BVDV DFA conjugate). In summary, data from the present investigation indicated that genetic and antigenic variations affected the performance of detection assays, especially DFAT, highlighting the need for regular evaluation and modification of BVDV tests. PMID:26965235

  12. Potential of bovine herpesvirus 4 as a gene delivery vector.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, Gaetano; Cavirani, Sandro; Simone, Taddei; van Santen, Vicky L

    2002-03-01

    A cloning system was developed for construction of BHV-4 recombinants and recombinant virus BHV-4EGFPDeltaTK containing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was constructed. The host range of BHV-4EGFPDeltaTK was characterized in vitro. When cell lines from various species and tissues were infected, most of the non-bovine cell lines exhibited neither cytopathic effect (CPE) nor supported viral replication, but EGFP expression was clearly observed. Next, embryonic stem cells were infected and induced to either non-specific or neural differentiation to determine whether they could survive and differentiate after BHV-4EGFPDeltaTK infection. Embryonic stem cells were infected successfully, as indicated by EGFP expression prior to differentiation, and EGFP expression could be detected in many differentiated cells. No CPE was noted. Therefore, BHV-4EGFPDeltaTK infection caused neither cell death nor interfered with non-specific or neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Finally, to assess the capability of BHV-4EGFPDeltaTK to infect post-mitotic neurons, cultures from brains of 2-weeks old mice were infected. No death of neuronal cells due to infection was observed and EGFP expression persisted for at least 15 days. Several biological characteristics of BHV-4 demonstrated previously make it a good candidate for a gene delivery vector. These include: little or no pathogenicity, unlikely oncogenicity, ability to establish persistent infection, and capability of herpesviruses to accommodate large amounts of foreign genetic material. These findings add the ability to infect several cell types coming from different animal species, usually without CPE, lack of interference with differentiation, and ability to maintain transgene expression in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. PMID:11849683

  13. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  14. Genetic change in the open reading frame of bovine viral diarrhea virus is introduced more rapidly during the establishment of a single persistent infection than from multiple acute infections.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Marley, Shonda D; Ridpath, Julia F; Givens, M Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are ubiquitous viral pathogens of cattle with a high degree of sequence diversity amongst strains circulating in livestock herds. The driving force behind change in sequence is not well established but the inaccurate replication of the genomic RNA by a viral RNA polymerase without proof-reading capabilities as well as immune pressure on immunodominant proteins are thought to play major roles. Additionally, it is not clear when the majority of changes are introduced, whether during acute infections with exposure to innate and adaptive immune responses or in establishment of persistent infections (PI) in utero. To examine which generates greater sequence diversity, two groups of viruses were compared. The first was six isolates of a single strain of BVDV-2 that were isolated over greater than a year's time. These viruses caused a series of severe acute (SA) BVD outbreaks over a large geographic area. Changes in nucleotide sequence were determined by comparison of the sequence of each strain to the six virus consensus sequence. The second group was composed of six BVDV strains isolated from PI calves whose dams were exposed to PI cattle. Changes were identified by comparison of the sequence of the progenitor PI virus to that of the progeny viruses from the single in vivo 'passage'. The open reading frames (ORF) of the six SA isolates were >99% identical at the nucleotide level with 30% of the changes being nonsynonymous changes. The amount of genetic change increased with time and distance from the original outbreak. Similarly, the PI viruses isolated from single passage PI calves had >99% identity with the progenitor virus. The number of nucleotide changes in these viruses was equal to or greater than that observed in the SA viruses. The majority of the nonsynonymous changes were found in the structural proteins, with 65% of these occurring in the immunodominant E2 protein. Antigenic mapping studies using a monoclonal antibody

  15. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » For Veterans and the Public Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... the Public Veterans and Public Home How is Hepatitis C Treated? Find the facts about the newest ...

  16. Induction of cytopathic effect and cytokines in coxsackievirus B3-infected murine astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coxsackievirus commonly infects children and occasionally causes severe meningitis and/or encephalitis in the newborn. The underlying mechanism(s) behind the central nervous system pathology is poorly defined. Methods It is hypothesized that astrocytes may be involved in inflammatory response induced by CVB3 infection. Here we discuss this hypothesis in the context of CVB3 infection and associated inflammatory response in primary mouse astrocytes. Results The results showed that coxsackievirus receptor (CAR) was distributed homogeneously on the astrocytes, and that CVB3 could infect and replicate in astrocytes, with release of infectious virus particles. CVB3 induced cytopathic effect and production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and chemokine CXCL10 from astrocytes. Conclusion These data suggest that direct astrocyte damage and cytokines induction could be a mechanism of virus-induced meningitis and/or encephalitis. PMID:23693026

  17. Biological, molecular, and structural analysis of a cytopathic variant from a molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    LaBranche, C C; Sauter, M M; Haggarty, B S; Vance, P J; Romano, J; Hart, T K; Bugelski, P J; Hoxie, J A

    1994-01-01

    Some isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have been shown to infect Sup-T1 cells with slow kinetics and in the absence of cytopathic effects, including cell fusion or CD4 down-modulation (J. A. Hoxie, B. S. Haggarty, S. Bonser, J. Rackowski, H. Shan, and P. Kanki, J. Virol. 62:2557-2568, 1988). In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a SIVmac variant, derived from the BK28 infectious molecular clone, that became highly cytopathic for Sup-T1 cells. This variant, termed CP-MAC, exhibited a number of differences from BK28, including (i) an altered tropism which largely restricted its host range to Sup-T1 cells, (ii) the ability to induce cell fusion and CD4 down-modulation, and (iii) a highly stable interaction of its external (SU) and transmembrane (TM) envelope glycoproteins. In addition, a marked increase in the level of surface envelope glycoproteins was observed both on CP-MAC-infected cells and on virions. The CP-MAC env gene was PCR amplified from infected cells, and sequence analysis identified five amino acid changes in SU and six in TM compared with BK28. The introduction of these changes into BK28 was shown to fully reconstitute the biological and morphological properties of CP-MAC. The limited number of mutations in CP-MAC should enable the molecular determinants to be more precisely defined and help to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for the striking biological and structural alterations exhibited by this virus. Images PMID:8057433

  18. Effect of copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation on the performance, clinical signs, and mineral status of calves following exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b and subsequent infection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B K; Vazquez-Anon, M; Step, D L; Moyer, K D; Haviland, C L; Maxwell, C L; O'Neill, C F; Gifford, C A; Krehbiel, C R; Richards, C J

    2016-03-01

    Research has indicated that trace mineral (TM) supplementation may alter immune function and reduce morbidity associated with bovine respiratory disease. The objective of this experiment was to determine the influence of dietary Cu, Mn, and Zn supplementation on the performance, clinical signs, and TM balance of calves following a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and (MH) combination respiratory pathogen challenge. Steers ( = 16; 225 ± 20 kg BW) from a single ranch were processed, weaned, and randomly pairwise assigned to either the TM-supplemented (MIN) or the control (CON) experimental treatments. The MIN calves received an additional 150 mg of Cu, 130 mg of Mn, and 320 mg of Zn daily and the CON calves received the basal diet with no additional Cu, Mn, or Zn supplementation. The basal diet contained sufficient Mn and Zn but inadequate Cu based on published nutrient requirements. After 46 d on the experimental treatments, all calves were naturally exposed to a heifer persistently infected with BVDV type 1b for 4 d and then subsequently intratracheally challenged with MH. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with sampling time serving as a repeated measure and calf serving as the experimental unit. The respiratory challenge was validated via increased BVDV type 1b antibody concentrations, MH whole cell and leukotoxin antibody concentrations, rectal temperatures (TEMP), and subjective clinical severity scores (CS). Calf performance ( ≥ 0.48) was not affected by TM supplementation. Mineral supplementation also did not impact the CS or TEMP of calves ( ≥ 0.53). There was a treatment × time ( < 0.001) interaction observed for liver Cu concentrations. The concentrations of Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe within the liver; Cu, Mn, and Zn within the muscle; and Cu, Zn, and Fe within the serum were all impacted by time ( ≤ 0.03). Calves receiving the MIN treatment had greater ( < 0.01) liver Cu and Mn concentrations compared with CON calves. In contrast

  19. Combination of reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of animals persistently infected with Bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lifang; Zhang, Shuping; Pace, Lanny; Wilson, Floyd; Wan, Henry; Zhang, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle. A successful control program requires early detection and removal of persistently infected (PI) animals. The objective of the current study was to develop, validate, and apply a cost-effective testing scheme for the detection of BVDV PI animals in exposed herds. Pooled samples were screened by using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), and individual positives were identified with an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE). The detection limits of the optimized real-time RT-PCR were 10 and 100 RNA copies per reaction for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, respectively. The semiquantitative results of real-time RT-PCR and ACE or real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were moderately correlated. The threshold cycle of real-time RT-PCR performed on pooled samples was significantly correlated with the pool size (R(2)  =  0.993). The least-cost pool sizes were 50 at a prevalence of 0.25-0.5% and 25 at a prevalence of 0.75-2.0%. By using the combined real-time RT-PCR and ACE procedure, 111 of 27,932 samples (0.4%) tested positive for BVDV. At this prevalence, cost reduction associated with the application of real-time RT-PCR and ACE ranged from 61% to 94%, compared with testing individual samples by ACE, immunohistochemistry, or real-time RT-PCR. Real-time RT-PCR screening also indicated that 92.94% of PI animals were infected with BVDV-1, 3.53% with BVDV-2, and 3.53% with both BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. Analysis of the 5'-untranslated region of 22 isolates revealed the predominance of BVDV-1b followed by BVDV-2a. PMID:21217023

  20. In vitro neutralization of HoBi-like viruses by antibodies in serum of cattle immunized with inactivated or modified live vaccines of bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Bauermann, Fernando V; Harmon, Aaron; Flores, Eduardo F; Falkenberg, Shollie M; Reecy, James M; Ridpath, Julia F

    2013-09-27

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses with genetic and antigenic similarities to bovine viral diarrhea viruses 1 and 2 (BVDV1 and BVDV2). Vaccines for HoBi-like viruses are not yet available. However, both modified live virus (MLV) and killed virus (KV) vaccines against BVDV are widely used worldwide. This study evaluated the cross reactive antibody response against HoBi-like pestiviruses in sera of cattle immunized with BVDV1 and BVDV2 vaccines. Groups "KV" and "MLV", with 25 calves each, received killed or modified live vaccines, respectively, containing both BVDV1 and BVDV2 antigens. The antibody response was evaluated by virus neutralization test. The average of geometric mean titers (GMTs) of neutralizing antibodies in serum against HoBi-like viruses in the MLV group was 12.9, whereas GMTs to BVDV1, BVDV2 and border disease virus (BDV) were 51.1, 23.5, and 12.4, respectively. In this group, neutralizing antibodies against BVDV1, BVDV2, HoBi-like viruses and BDV were detected in 100%, 94%, 68% and 68% of calves, respectively. The GMT of neutralizing antibodies in serum against BVDV1, BVDV2, HoBi-like viruses and BDV in the KV group were 24.7, 14.5, 10.4 and 11, respectively. Similarly, the percentage of animals with neutralizing antibodies against BVDV1, BVDV2, HoBi-like viruses and BDV were 84%, 56%, 34% and 44%, respectively. These results indicate that MLV or killed BVDV1 and BVDV2 vaccines induce a cross reactive antibody response comparatively weak to HoBi-like viruses, and this response would likely not suffice to confer protection. PMID:23764273

  1. Expression of type I interferon-induced antiviral state and pro-apoptosis markers during experimental infection with low or high virulence bovine viral diarrhea virus in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Roberto A; Walz, Heather G; Brock, Kenny V

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mRNA expression of host genes involved in type-I interferon-induced antiviral state (IFN-α, IFN-β, Mx-1, PKR, OAS-1 and ISG-15), and apoptosis (caspase-3, -8, and -9), after experimental infection of beef calves with low or high virulence noncytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains. Thirty BVDV-naïve, clinically normal calves were randomly assigned to three groups. Calves were intranasally inoculated with low (LV; n=10, strain SD-1) or high (HV; n=10, strain 1373) virulence ncp BVDV or BVDV-free cell culture medium (Control, n=10). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the target gene expression in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes and spleen 5 days after infection. Interferon-α and -β mRNA levels were up-regulated in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes (P<0.05) in the HV group, but not in the LV group, compared with the control group. There was an up-regulation of type I interferon-induced genes in spleen and tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of HV and LV groups, compared with the control group (P<0.01). mRNA levels of OAS-1 and ISG-15 were significantly higher in LV than HV calves (P<0.05). A significant up-regulation of caspase-8 and -9 was observed in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes in the LV group (P=0.01), but not in the HV group. In conclusion, experimental infection with either high or low virulence BVDV strains induced a significant expression of the type I interferon-induced genes in beef calves. There was a differential expression of some interferon-induced genes (OAS-1 and ISG-15) and pro-apoptosis markers based on BVDV virulence and genotype. PMID:23458997

  2. Viral Phylodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Erik M.; Koelle, Katia; Bedford, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Viral phylodynamics is defined as the study of how epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes act and potentially interact to shape viral phylogenies. Since the coining of the term in 2004, research on viral phylodynamics has focused on transmission dynamics in an effort to shed light on how these dynamics impact viral genetic variation. Transmission dynamics can be considered at the level of cells within an infected host, individual hosts within a population, or entire populations of hosts. Many viruses, especially RNA viruses, rapidly accumulate genetic variation because of short generation times and high mutation rates. Patterns of viral genetic variation are therefore heavily influenced by how quickly transmission occurs and by which entities transmit to one another. Patterns of viral genetic variation will also be affected by selection acting on viral phenotypes. Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. These include virulence phenotypes, phenotypes associated with viral transmissibility, cell or tissue tropism phenotypes, and antigenic phenotypes that can facilitate escape from host immunity. Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread [2], spatio-temporal dynamics including metapopulation dynamics [3], zoonotic transmission, tissue tropism [4], and antigenic drift [5]. The quantitative investigation of these processes through the consideration of viral phylogenies is the central aim of viral phylodynamics. PMID:23555203

  3. Rapid Cytopathic Effects of Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin on Porcine Endothelial Cells▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gurtner, Corinne; Popescu, Francesca; Wyder, Marianne; Sutter, Esther; Zeeh, Friederike; Frey, Joachim; von Schubert, Conrad; Posthaus, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens type C isolates cause fatal, segmental necro-hemorrhagic enteritis in animals and humans. Typically, acute intestinal lesions result from extensive mucosal necrosis and hemorrhage in the proximal jejunum. These lesions are frequently accompanied by microvascular thrombosis in affected intestinal segments. In previous studies we demonstrated that there is endothelial localization of C. perfringens type C β-toxin (CPB) in acute lesions of necrotizing enteritis. This led us to hypothesize that CPB contributes to vascular necrosis by directly damaging endothelial cells. By performing additional immunohistochemical studies using spontaneously diseased piglets, we confirmed that CPB binds to the endothelial lining of vessels showing early signs of thrombosis. To investigate whether CPB can disrupt the endothelium, we exposed primary porcine aortic endothelial cells to C. perfringens type C culture supernatants and recombinant CPB. Both treatments rapidly induced disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, cell border retraction, and cell shrinkage, leading to destruction of the endothelial monolayer in vitro. These effects were followed by cell death. Cytopathic and cytotoxic effects were inhibited by neutralization of CPB. Taken together, our results suggest that CPB-induced disruption of endothelial cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type C enteritis. PMID:20404076

  4. Bacterial Macroscopic Rope-like Fibers with Cytopathic and Adhesive Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Saldaña, Zeus; Deng, Wanyin; Castañeda, Elsa; Freer, Enrique; Tarr, Phil I.; Finlay, B. Brett; Puente, José Luis; Girón, Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a body of ultrastructural, biochemical, and genetic evidence that demonstrates the oligomerization of virulence-associated autotransporter proteins EspC or EspP produced by deadly human pathogens enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli into novel macroscopic rope-like structures (>1 cm long). The rope-like structures showed high aggregation and insolubility, stability to anionic detergents and high temperature, and binding to Congo Red and thioflavin T dyes. These are properties also exhibited by human amyloidogenic proteins. These macroscopic ropes were not observed in cultures of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli or isogenic espP or espC deletion mutants of enterohemorrhagic or enteropathogenic Escherichia coli but were produced by an Escherichia coli K-12 strain carrying a plasmid expressing espP. Purified recombinant EspP monomers were able to self-assemble into macroscopic ropes upon incubation, suggesting that no other protein was required for assembly. The ropes bound to and showed cytopathic effects on cultured epithelial cells, served as a substratum for bacterial adherence and biofilm formation, and protected bacteria from antimicrobial compounds. We hypothesize that these ropes play a biologically significant role in the survival and pathogenic scheme of these organisms. PMID:20688909

  5. Viral pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Pneumonia - viral; "Walking pneumonia" - viral Images Lungs Respiratory system References Lee FE, Treanor J. Viral infections. In: Mason RJ, VC Broaddus, Martin TR, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2010: ...

  6. An inhibitory factor for cell-free protein synthesis from Salmonella enteritidis exhibits cytopathic activity against Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Iwamaru, Y; Miyake, M; Arii, J; Tanabe, Y; Noda, M

    2001-12-01

    A factor inhibiting cell-free protein synthesis was purified from Salmonella enteritidis cell lysate by sequential ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction columns, and polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. The purified factor, which was named SIPS (Salmonella inhibitor of protein synthesis), inhibited in vitro protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and had a molecular mass of 38 kDa, estimated by PAGE under denaturing conditions. SIPS was also cytopathic for Chinese hamster ovary cells. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (20 residues) of SIPS was found to be identical to that of mature L-asparaginase II of Escherichia coli. Indeed, the purified SIPS exhibited asparaginase activity, E. coli L-asparaginase II had cytopathic activity and inhibited in vitro protein synthesis. The results suggest that at least a part of cytotoxicity and inhibition of cell-free protein synthesis caused by S. enteritidis is a property of the bacterial L-asparaginase. PMID:11747376

  7. Differential chemokine and cytokine production by neonatal bovine gamma delta T-cell subsets in response to viral toll-like receptor agonists and in vivo respiratory syncytial virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamma delta T cells have recently been shown to respond to stimulation via toll like receptors (TLR). Bovine gamma delta T cells express TLR3 and TLR7, endosomal receptors that are key for the recognition of viruses such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV); however, responses of gamma delta...

  8. In vitro effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on Trichomonas foetus-induced cytopathic changes in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, M Katherine; Brand, Mabre D; Gould, Emily N

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of specific cysteine protease (CP) inhibitors on cytopathic changes to porcine intestinal epithelial cells induced by Tritrichomonas foetus isolated from naturally infected cats. SAMPLE T foetus isolates from 4 naturally infected cats and nontransformed porcine intestinal epithelial cells. PROCEDURES T foetus isolates were treated with or without 0.1 to 1.0mM of the CP inhibitors antipain, cystatin, leupeptin, and chymostatin and the vinyl sulfone inhibitors WRR-483 and K11777. In-gel gelatin zymography was performed to evaluate the effects of these inhibitors on CP activity of T foetus isolates. Each treated or untreated isolate was also cocultured with monolayers of porcine intestinal epithelial cells for 24 hours, and cytopathic effects of T foetus were evaluated by light microscopy and crystal violet spectrophotometry. RESULTS Results of in-gel gelatin zymography suggested an ability of WRR-483, K11777, and cystatin to target specific zones of CP activity of the T foetus isolates. These inhibitors had no effect on T foetus growth, and the cytopathic changes to the intestinal epithelium induced by all 4 T foetus isolates were significantly inhibited. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study revealed that certain protease inhibitors were capable of inhibiting regions of CP activity (which has been suggested to cause intestinal cell damage in cats) in T foetus organisms and of ameliorating T foetus-induced cytopathic changes to porcine intestinal epithelium in vitro. Although additional research is needed, these inhibitors might be useful in the treatment of cats with trichomonosis. PMID:27463553

  9. Viral susceptibility of a cell line derived from the pig oviduct.

    PubMed Central

    Bouillant, A M; Dulac, G C; Willis, N; Girard, A; Greig, A S; Boulanger, P

    1975-01-01

    Seventeen of 24 RNA viruses and eight of nine DNA viruses replicated in a cell line derived from a pig fallopian tube. The following RNA viruses grew poorly in it: the virus of transmissible gastroenteritis of pig and the swine-influenza, Sendai and bovine para-influenza type 3 viruses. Among other RNA viruses an untyped swine para-myxovirus and some picornaviruses, rhabdoviruses and togaviruses attained high titers and produced an extensive cytopathic effect. Among the DNA viruses a porcine adeno, equine rhinopneumonitis, infectious bovine rhinotraceheitis, pseudorabies and porcine cytomegalo viruses replicated in pig fallopian tube cells as well as in other cells generally used to grow them. PMID:169971

  10. Host Range of Small-Ruminant Lentivirus Cytopathic Variants Determined with a Selectable Caprine Arthritis- Encephalitis Virus Pseudotype System

    PubMed Central

    Hötzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P.

    2001-01-01

    The small-ruminant lentiviruses ovine maedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) cause encephalitis, progressive pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in sheep and goats. Icelandic MVV strains, which are lytic in tissue culture, have a wide species distribution of functional receptors, which includes human cells. In contrast, functional receptors for the nonlytic CAEV CO are absent from human cells. To determine if the wide species distribution of functional receptors is a common property of MVV strains or related to cytopathic phenotype, we tested the infectivity of viruses pseudotyped with the envelope glycoproteins of MVV K1514, CAEV CO, and lytic and nonlytic North American MVV strains to cells of different species. Replication-defective CAEV proviral constructs lacking the env, tat, and vif genes and carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase gene in the vif-tat region were developed for the infectivity assays. Cotransfection of human 293T cells with these proviral constructs and plasmids expressing CAEV, MVV, or vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoproteins produced infectious pseudotyped virus which induced resistance of infected cells to G418. Using these pseudotypes, we confirmed the wide species distribution of Icelandic MVV receptors and the narrow host range of CAEV. However, functional receptors for the two North American MVV strains tested, unlike the Icelandic MVV and similar to CAEV, were limited to cells of ruminant species, regardless of cytopathic phenotype. The results indicate a differential receptor recognition by MVV strains which is unrelated to cytopathic phenotype. PMID:11462010

  11. Caspase Activation and Specific Cleavage of Substrates after Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Cytopathic Effect in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Carthy, Christopher M.; Granville, David J.; Watson, Kathleen A.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Wilson, Janet E.; Yang, Decheng; Hunt, David W. C.; McManus, Bruce M.

    1998-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), an enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae, induces cytopathic changes in cell culture systems and directly injures multiple susceptible organs and tissues in vivo, including the myocardium, early after infection. Biochemical analysis of the cell death pathway in CVB3-infected HeLa cells demonstrated that the 32-kDa proform of caspase 3 is cleaved subsequent to the degenerative morphological changes seen in infected HeLa cells. Caspase activation assays confirm that the cleaved caspase 3 is proteolytically active. The caspase 3 substrates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a DNA repair enzyme, and DNA fragmentation factor, a cytoplasmic inhibitor of an endonuclease responsible for DNA fragmentation, were degraded at 9 h following infection, yielding their characteristic cleavage fragments. Inhibition of caspase activation by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (ZVAD.fmk) did not inhibit the virus-induced cytopathic effect, while inhibition of caspase activation by ZVAD.fmk in control apoptotic cells induced by treatment with the porphyrin photosensitizer benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A and visible light inhibited the apoptotic phenotype. Caspase activation and cleavage of substrates may not be responsible for the characteristic cytopathic effect produced by picornavirus infection yet may be related to late-stage alterations of cellular homeostatic processes and structural integrity. PMID:9696873

  12. Distinct inflammatory and cytopathic characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Brynskov, Jørn; Krogfelt, Karen A; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Brix, Susanne

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as implied from a higher prevalence of mucosa-associated E. coli in the gut of IBD-affected individuals. However, it is unclear whether different non-diarrheagenic E. coli spp. segregate from each other in their ability to promote intestinal inflammation. Herein we compared the inflammation-inducing properties of non-diarrheagenic LF82, 691-04A, E. coli Nissle 1917 (ECN) and eleven new intestinal isolates from different locations in five IBD patients and one healthy control. Viable E. coli were cultured with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), followed by analysis of secreted cytokines, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and cellular death. The IBD-associated E. coli LF82 induced the same dose-dependent inflammatory cytokine profile as ECN and ten of the new E. coli isolates displayed as high level IL-12p70, IL-1β, IL-23 and TNF-α from moDCs irrespective of their site of isolation (ileum/colon/faeces), disease origin (diseased/non-diseased) or known virulence factors. Contrarily, 691-04A and one new IBD E. coli isolate induced a different cellular phenotype with enhanced killing of moDCs and IECs, coupled to elevated IL-18. The cytopathic nature of 691-04A and one other IBD E. coli isolate suggests that colonization with specific non-diarrheagenic E. coli could promote intestinal barrier leakage and profound intestinal inflammation, while LF82, ECN and the remaining non-diarrheagenic E. coli isolates hold notorious pro-inflammatory characteristics that can progress inflammation in case of intestinal barrier leakage. PMID:26522075

  13. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  14. Viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, David R

    2005-01-01

    Viruses probably account for most cases of acute meningitis. Viral meningitis is often assumed to be a largely benign disease. For the commonest pathogens causing meningitis, enteroviruses, this is usually the case; however, for many of the other pathogens causing viral meningitis, and for common pathogens in the immunocompromised or infants, viral meningitis is frequently associated with substantial neurological complications and a significant mortality. Diagnostic methods for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens have improved over recent years, permitting more precise and earlier diagnoses. There have been fewer developments in therapies for viral meningitis, and there remain no effective therapies for most pathogens, emphasising the importance of prevention and early diagnosis. This review focuses on the presentation, diagnosis and management of viral meningitis and also covers the prevention of meningitis for pathogens where effective vaccines are available. PMID:16474042

  15. The Imidazopyrrolopyridine Analogue AG110 Is a Novel, Highly Selective Inhibitor of Pestiviruses That Targets the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase at a Hot Spot for Inhibition of Viral Replication▿

    PubMed Central

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Froeyen, Matheus; Leyssen, Pieter; Dutartre, Hélène; Vrancken, Robert; Canard, Bruno; Letellier, Carine; Li, Tong; Mittendorfer, Harald; Koenen, Frank; Kerkhofs, Pierre; De Clercq, Erik; Herdewijn, Piet; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Gueiffier, Alain; Chavignon, Olivier; Teulade, Jean-Claude; Neyts, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Ethyl 2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridin-8-carboxylate (AG110) was identified as a potent inhibitor of pestivirus replication. The 50% effective concentration values for inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-induced cytopathic effect, viral RNA synthesis, and production of infectious virus were 1.2 ± 0.5 μM, 5 ± 1 μM, and 2.3 ± 0.3 μM, respectively. AG110 proved inactive against the hepatitis C virus and a flavivirus. AG110 inhibits BVDV replication at a time point that coincides with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis. Drug-resistant mutants carry the E291G mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). AG110-resistant virus is cross-resistant to the cyclic urea compound 1453 which also selects for the E291G drug resistance mutation. Moreover, BVDV that carries the F224S mutation (because of resistance to the imidazopyridine 5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-2-phenyl-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine [BPIP]and VP32947) is also resistant to AG110. AG110 did not inhibit the in vitro activity of recombinant BVDV RdRp but inhibited the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). Molecular modeling revealed that E291 is located in a small cavity near the tip of the finger domain of the RdRp about 7 Å away from F224. Docking of AG110 in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed several potential contacts including with Y257. The E291G mutation might enable the free rotation of Y257, which might in turn destabilize the backbone of the loop formed by residues 223 to 226, rendering more mobility to F224 and, hence, reducing the affinity for BPIP and VP32947. It is concluded that a single drug-binding pocket exists within the finger domain region of the BVDV RdRp that consists of two separate but potentially overlapping binding sites rather than two distinct drug-binding pockets. PMID:17686854

  16. Western Zika Virus in Human Fetal Neural Progenitors Persists Long Term with Partial Cytopathic and Limited Immunogenic Effects.

    PubMed

    Hanners, Natasha W; Eitson, Jennifer L; Usui, Noriyoshi; Richardson, R Blake; Wexler, Eric M; Konopka, Genevieve; Schoggins, John W

    2016-06-14

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Western hemisphere is associated with severe pathology in newborns, including microcephaly and brain damage. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are under intense investigation. Here, we show that a 2015 ZIKV isolate replicates in multiple cell types, including primary human fetal neural progenitors (hNPs). In immortalized cells, ZIKV is cytopathic and grossly rearranges endoplasmic reticulum membranes similar to other flaviviruses. In hNPs, ZIKV infection has a partial cytopathic phase characterized by cell rounding, pyknosis, and activation of caspase 3. Despite notable cell death, ZIKV did not activate a cytokine response in hNPs. This lack of cell intrinsic immunity to ZIKV is consistent with our observation that virus replication persists in hNPs for at least 28 days. These findings, supported by published fetal neuropathology, establish a proof-of-concept that neural progenitors in the developing human fetus can be direct targets of detrimental ZIKV-induced pathology. PMID:27268504

  17. Viral pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    More serious infections can result in respiratory failure, liver failure, and heart failure. Sometimes, bacterial infections occur during or just after viral pneumonia, which may lead to more serious forms ...

  18. Viral arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.

  19. Viral Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... much smaller than bacteria. Viruses cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu and warts. ... can help prevent you from getting many viral diseases. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  20. Viral Gastroenteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Several different viruses can cause viral gastroenteritis, which is highly contagious ... and last for 1 to 3 days. Some viruses cause symptoms that last longer. [ Top ] What are ...

  1. Pharyngitis - viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001392.htm Pharyngitis - viral To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pharyngitis , or sore throat, is swelling, discomfort, pain, or ...

  2. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs. PMID:20003649

  3. Tamoxifen improves cytopathic effect of oncolytic adenovirus in primary glioblastoma cells mediated through autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Ulasov, Ilya V.; Shah, Nameeta; Kaverina, Natalya V.; Lee, Hwahyang; Lin, Biaoyang; Lieber, Andre; Kadagidze, Zaira G.; Yoon, Jae-Guen; Schroeder, Brett; Hothi, Parvinder; Ghosh, Dhimankrishna; Baryshnikov, Anatoly Y.; Cobbs, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic gene therapy using viral vectors may provide an attractive therapeutic option for malignant gliomas. These viral vectors are designed in a way to selectively target tumor cells and spare healthy cells. To determine the translational impact, it is imperative to assess the factors that interfere with the anti-glioma effects of the oncolytic adenoviral vectors. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of survivin-driven oncolytic adenoviruses pseudotyping with adenoviral fiber knob belonging to the adenoviral serotype 3, 11 and 35 in their ability to kill glioblastoma (GBM) cells selectively without affecting normal cells. Our results indicate that all recombinant vectors used in the study can effectively target GBM in vitro with high specificity, especially the 3 knob-modified vector. Using intracranial U87 and U251 GBM xenograft models we have also demonstrated that treatment with Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus (CRAd-S-5/3) vectors can effectively regress tumor. However, in several patient-derived GBM cell lines, cells exhibited resistance to the CRAd infection as evident from the diminishing effects of autophagy. To improve therapeutic response, tumor cells were pretreated with tamoxifen. Our preliminary data suggest that tamoxifen sensitizes glioblastoma cells towards oncolytic treatment with CRAd-S-5/3, which may prove useful for GBM in future experimental therapy. PMID:25738357

  4. Viral arthritis.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Marks, Jonathan L

    2016-04-01

    Acute-onset arthritis is a common clinical problem facing both the general clinician and the rheumatologist. A viral aetiology is though to be responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of acute arthritis with a wide range of causal agents recognised. The epidemiology of acute viral arthritis continues to evolve, with some aetiologies, such as rubella, becoming less common due to vaccination, while some vector-borne viruses have become more widespread. A travel history therefore forms an important part of the assessment of patients presenting with an acute arthritis. Worldwide, parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and the alphaviruses are among the most important causes of virally mediated arthritis. Targeted serological testing may be of value in establishing a diagnosis, and clinicians must also be aware that low-titre autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, can occur in the context of acute viral arthritis. A careful consideration of epidemiological, clinical and serological features is therefore required to guide clinicians in making diagnostic and treatment decisions. While most virally mediated arthritides are self-limiting some warrant the initiation of specific antiviral therapy. PMID:27037381

  5. Viral quasispecies

    PubMed Central

    Andino, Raul; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    New generation sequencing is greatly expanding the capacity to examine the composition of mutant spectra of viral quasispecies in infected cells and host organisms. Here we review recent progress in the understanding of quasispecies dynamics, notably the occurrence of intra-mutant spectrum interactions, and implications of fitness landscapes for virus adaptation and de-adaptation. Complementation or interference can be established among components of the same mutant spectrum, dependent on the mutational status of the ensemble. Replicative fitness relates to an optimal mutant spectrum that provides the molecular basis for phenotypic flexibility, with implications for antiviral therapy. The biological impact of viral fitness renders particularly relevant the capacity of new generation sequencing to establish viral fitness landscapes. Progress with experimental model systems is becoming an important asset to understand virus behavior in the more complex environments faced during natural infections. PMID:25824477

  6. A Novel, Highly Selective Inhibitor of Pestivirus Replication That Targets the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Leyssen, Pieter; Mabery, Eric; Boddeker, Nina; Vrancken, Robert; Froeyen, Matheus; Ansari, Israrul H.; Dutartre, Hélène; Rozenski, Jef; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Letellier, Carine; Lanford, Robert; Canard, Bruno; Koenen, Frank; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Donis, Ruben O.; Herdewijn, Piet; Watson, Julia; De Clercq, Erik; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Neyts, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We report on the highly potent and selective antipestivirus activity of 5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-2-phenyl-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (BPIP). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) for inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-induced cytopathic effect formation was 0.04 ± 0.01 μM. Comparable reduction of viral RNA synthesis (EC50 = 0.12 ± 0.02 μM) and production of infectious virus (EC50 = 0.074 ± 0.003 μM) were observed. The selectivity index (ratio of 50% cytostatic concentration/EC50) of BPIP was ∼2,000. BPIP was inactive against the hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon and yellow fever virus but demonstrated weak activity against GB virus. Drug-resistant mutants were at least 300-fold less susceptible to BPIP than wild-type virus; showed cross-resistance to N-propyl-N-[2-(2H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indol-3-ylthio)ethyl]-1-propanamine (VP32947), and carried the F224S mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). When the F224S mutation was introduced into an infectious clone, the drug-resistant phenotype was obtained. BPIP did not inhibit the in vitro activity of recombinant BVDV RdRp, but did inhibit the activity of replication complexes (RCs). Computational docking revealed that F224 is located at the top of the finger domain of the polymerase. Docking of BPIP in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed aromatic ring stacking, some hydrophobic contacts, and a hydrogen bond. Since two structurally unrelated compounds, i.e., BPIP and VP32947, target the same region of the BVDV RdRp, this position may be expected to be critical in the functioning of the polymerase or assembly of the RC. The potential of BPIP for the treatment of pestivirus and hepacivirus infections is discussed. PMID:16352539

  7. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two virus types have been clearly shown to have epidemiologic importance in viral gastroenteritis, i.e., rotavirus and Norwalk virus. Four other virus types have been associated with gastroenteritis but their epidemiologic importance is not yet known, i.e., enteric adenovirus, ca...

  8. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  9. Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bovine parainfluenza 3 viruses (BPI3V) are respiratory pathogens of cattle that cause disease singly but are often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in conjunction with other viral and bacterial agents. Bovine vaccines currently contain BPI3V to provide protection...

  10. [Viral safety of biological medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Stühler, A; Blümel, J

    2014-10-01

    Viral safety of blood donations, plasma products, viral vaccines and gene therapy medicinal products, biotechnical-derived products and tissue and cell therapy products is a particular challenge. These products are manufactured using a variety of human or animal-derived starting materials and reagents; therefore, extensive testing of donors and of cell banks established for production is required. Furthermore, the viral safety of reagents, such as bovine sera, porcine trypsin and human transferrin or albumin needs to be considered. Whenever possible, manufacturing steps for inactivation or removal of viruses should be introduced; however, sometimes it is not possible to introduce such steps for tissues or cell-based medicinal products as the activity and viability of cells will be compromised. It might be possible to implement steps for inactivation or removal of potential contaminating enveloped viruses only for production of small and stable non-enveloped viral gene vectors. PMID:25123140

  11. PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC MARKERS FOR VIRULENCE IN TYPE 2 BVDV (5TH PESTIVIRUS SYMPOSIUM, ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, UK, 8/26-29/02)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains can belong to one of two biotypes, cytopathic (cp) and noncytopathic (ncp). Biotypic differentiation is based upon activity in cultured epithelial cells. The cytopathic biotype is commonly associated with genomic insertions in the NS2/3 coding region. Bi...

  12. The interaction between bovine herpesvirus type 1 and activated bovine T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Griebel, P J; Ohmann, H B; Lawman, M J; Babiuk, L A

    1990-02-01

    The interaction between activated bovine T lymphocytes (BTLs) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) was investigated. BHV-1 infection of BTLs reduced the amplitude of recombinant bovine interleukin 2-induced proliferative responses. This decreased proliferation was caused by a virus-induced lymphocytolysis which was dependent on viable virus and was not inhibited by recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1. Furthermore, lymphocytolysis was not associated with virus replication or with the synthesis of detectable levels of viral proteins. Electron microscopic examination of virus-infected cells revealed that lymphocytolysis was characterized by early nuclear disintegration resembling apoptosis. These observations suggest that activated T cells, localized at the site of BHV-1 infection, may be susceptible to virus-induced cytolysis. PMID:2155290

  13. Induced autoprocessing of the cytopathic Makes caterpillars floppy-like effector domain of the Vibrio vulnificus MARTX toxin.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shivangi; Agarwal, Shivani; Biancucci, Marco; Satchell, Karla J F

    2015-10-01

    The multifunctional-autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX(Vv)) toxin that harbours a varied repertoire of effector domains is the primary virulence factor of Vibrio vulnificus. Although ubiquitously present among Biotype I toxin variants, the 'Makes caterpillars floppy-like' effector domain (MCF(Vv)) is previously unstudied. Using transient expression and protein delivery, MCF(Vv) and MCF(Ah) from the Aeromonas hydrophila MARTX(Ah)) toxin are shown for the first time to induce cell rounding. Alanine mutagenesis across the C-terminal subdomain of MCF(Vv) identified an Arg-Cys-Asp (RCD) tripeptide motif shown to comprise a cysteine protease catalytic site essential for autoprocessing of MCF(Vv). The autoprocessing could be recapitulated in vitro by the addition of host cell lysate to recombinant MCF(Vv), indicating induced autoprocessing by cellular factors. The RCD motif is also essential for cytopathicity, suggesting autoprocessing is essential first to activate the toxin and then to process a cellular target protein resulting in cell rounding. Sequence homology places MCF(Vv) within the C58 cysteine protease family that includes the type III secretion effectors YopT from Yersinia spp. and AvrPphB from Pseudomonas syringae. However, the catalytic site RCD motif is unique compared with other C58 peptidases and is here proposed to represent a new subgroup of autopeptidase found within a number of putative large bacterial toxins. PMID:25912102

  14. [Zonal centrifuge purification of human rabies vaccine obtained on bovine foetal kidney cells (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Atanasiu, P; Tsiang, H; Lavergne, M; Chermann, J C

    1977-01-01

    A human rabies vaccine is prepared on bovine foetal kidney cells in absence of serum. This vaccine is concentrated and purified by zonal centrifugation. An immunogenic vaccine is obtained from the purified viral particles. Preliminary results are reported. PMID:563208

  15. Evaluation of the Human Host Range of Bovine and Porcine Viruses that may Contaminate Bovine Serum and Porcine Trypsin Used in the Manufacture of Biological Products

    PubMed Central

    Marcus-Sekura, Carol; Richardson, James C.; Harston, Rebecca K.; Sane, Nandini; Sheets, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    Current U.S. requirements for testing cell substrates used in production of human biological products for contamination with bovine and porcine viruses are U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 9CFR tests for bovine serum or porcine trypsin. 9CFR requires testing of bovine serum for seven specific viruses in six families (immunofluorescence) and at least 2 additional families non-specifically (cytopathicity and hemadsorption). 9CFR testing of porcine trypsin is for porcine parvovirus. Recent contaminations suggest these tests may not be sufficient. Assay sensitivity was not the issue for these contaminations that were caused by viruses/virus families not represented in the 9CFR screen. A detailed literature search was undertaken to determine which viruses that infect cattle or swine or bovine or porcine cells in culture also have human host range [ability to infect humans or human cells in culture] and to predict their detection by the currently used 9CFR procedures. There are more viruses of potential risk to biological products manufactured using bovine or porcine raw materials than are likely to be detected by 9CFR testing procedures; even within families, not all members would necessarily be detected. Testing gaps and alternative methodologies should be evaluated to continue to ensure safe, high quality human biologicals. PMID:22000165

  16. Bovine ephemeral fever: a review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Negi, B S

    1999-04-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever is a viral disease of cattle and buffaloes besides subclinical involvement of a variety of ruminant species. The subtropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia and Australia have experienced the major epidemic of the bovine ephemeral fever but the occurrence in the tropics can not be overlooked. Although the substantial role played by the vectors viz., mosquitoes and culicoides in bovine ephemeral fever perpetuation and dissemination, other vector involvement if any should be extensively studied. The clinical severity of the disease is not apparent and the mortality is low. However, high morbidity, enormous economic losses in terms of significant reduction in production, disruption of national and international trade and finally a variety of complications resulting from the disease have drawn appreciable attention from the researchers around the world to resolve the unsolved questions in this area. In this review, detailed informations of all the aspects of the disease has been provided in a simple, lucid and easily understandable manner. PMID:10051179

  17. MicroRNA expression profiling in tonsils of calves challenged with a laboratory strain or field isolates of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a leading cause of bovine respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. MicroRNAs have been suggested to play a role in viral infections via their regulation of cellular molecules involved in either viral replication or in host innate immunity to infection. Th...

  18. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored CD4 supports human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication, but not cytopathic effect, in T-cell transfectants.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W L; Mittler, E S; Avery, P; Lawrence, J P; Finberg, R W

    1994-01-01

    Despite equivalent p24 antigen production, HSB-2 T cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPi)-linked CD4 were productively infected without cell death or syncytium formation, unlike HSB-2 transfectants expressing wild-type CD4 (wtCD4). HSB-2 transfectants dually expressing wtCD4 and GPi-linked CD4 formed syncytia and died. Thus, wtCD4 expression is critical for human immunodeficiency virus cytopathic effect in HSB-2 transfectants. Images PMID:8189539

  19. BVDV strain variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for a group of viruses within the pestivirus genus of the flavivirus family. Actually the term should be bovine viral diarrhea viruses rather than virus, as there are two different species (BVDV1 and BVDV2), two different biotypes (cytopathic a...

  20. Viral diseases and pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It includes classification of viral infection. It describes common ways of virus entry, replication, and transmission. It introduces the routes of viral invasion and molecular basis for viral pathogenesis....

  1. Viral evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Explaining the origin of viruses remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. Previous explanatory frameworks described viruses as founders of cellular life, as parasitic reductive products of ancient cellular organisms or as escapees of modern genomes. Each of these frameworks endow viruses with distinct molecular, cellular, dynamic and emergent properties that carry broad and important implications for many disciplines, including biology, ecology and epidemiology. In a recent genome-wide structural phylogenomic analysis, we have shown that large-to-medium-sized viruses coevolved with cellular ancestors and have chosen the evolutionary reductive route. Here we interpret these results and provide a parsimonious hypothesis for the origin of viruses that is supported by molecular data and objective evolutionary bioinformatic approaches. Results suggest two important phases in the evolution of viruses: (1) origin from primordial cells and coexistence with cellular ancestors, and (2) prolonged pressure of genome reduction and relatively late adaptation to the parasitic lifestyle once virions and diversified cellular life took over the planet. Under this evolutionary model, new viral lineages can evolve from existing cellular parasites and enhance the diversity of the world’s virosphere. PMID:23550145

  2. Viral Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Haeman; Boltz, David A.; Webster, Robert G.; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized that affects 1-2% of the adult population over 55 years of age. For the vast majority of cases, the etiology of this disorder is unknown, although it is generally accepted that there is a genetic susceptibility to any number of environmental agents. One such agent may be viruses. It has been shown that numerous viruses can enter the nervous system, i.e. they are neurotropic, and induce a number of encephalopathies. One of the secondary consequences of these encephalopathies can be parkinsonism, that is both transient as well as permanent. One of the most highlighted and controversial cases of viral parkinsonism is that which followed the 1918 influenza outbreak and the subsequent induction of von Economo's encephalopathy. In this review, we discuss the neurological sequelae of infection by influenza virus as well as that of other viruses known to induce parkinsonism including Coxsackie, Japanese encephalitis B, St. Louis, West Nile and HIV viruses. PMID:18760350

  3. Bovine Fetal Inoculations with Calf Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Schlafer, D. H.; Schultz, R. D.; Scott, F. W.; Duncan, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The serological and histopathological responses of bovine fetuses to in utero inoculation with virulent and attenuated strains of the calf rotavirus (reovirus-like agent of neonatal calf diarrhea) are described. Thirteen bovine fetuses, 63 to 190 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with attenuated (three fetuses) or field strain virus (nine fetuses) or both (one fetus). Serum-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to > 1:256 were detected in six of eight fetuses tested, demonstrating the ability of the bovine fetus to respond immunologically to this agent. The youngest fetus in the series was inoculated at 63 days of gestation and developed a titer of 128 in 64 days. This represents the earliest stage of gestation at which a bovine fetus has been inoculated with a bovine virus and found to produce antibody to it. Serum neutralizing titers in six of the eight dams tested increased significantly following the inoculations of their fetuses in utero. Histological changes associated with viral replication and antigenic stimulation of the lymphoreticular system were observed. Pneumonic lesions consisting of both local and diffuse lymphoreticular proliferation were present in five of the nine fetuses that were alive at slaughter. Gliosis and perivascular cuffing were noted in the brains of two of these fetuses and meningitis was seen in one. No evidence of teratogenic change was found. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:232853

  4. EVALUATING STABILITY, SIZE REQUIREMENTS, VIRAL LOAD AND POOLING OF EAR NOTCH SAMPLES IN BVDV TESTING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are a major source of economic loss for the U.S. cattle industry. BVDV control efforts in the U.S. are geared towards identifying and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Several tests based on detection of either antigen or viral RNA...

  5. Eicosanoids mediate Galaleria mellonella cellular immune response to viral infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nodulation is the predominant insect cellular immune response to bacterial and fungal infections and it can also be induced by viral infection. Treating seventh instar larvae of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella with Bovine herpes simplex virus-1 (BHSV-1) induced nodulation reactions in a dose-d...

  6. Malignant transformation of hamster cells following infection with bovine herpesvirus (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Michalski, F; Hsiung, G D

    1975-03-01

    Hamster embryo cells, following infection with IBR virus, showed malignant transformation. Hamsters of all ages, inbred or random bred, inoculated with two of the transformed cell lines developed solid tumors. Preliminary characterization of the tumors induced by one of the cell lines has indicated undifferentiated sarcomas. Viral specific antigen was detected in about 5% of the transformed cells and 10% of primary tumor cells in culture. Viral specific antibody was detected in the serum of tumor-bearing hamsters by the indirect immunofluorescent method, but no neutralizing antibodies were found. Infectious virus has not been recovered from either the transformed or tumor cells by cocultivation with bovine embryonic kidney cells. PMID:165538

  7. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 13 DNA in Equine Sarcoids

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Michele; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Rodrigues, Wagner Borges; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Equine sarcoids are locally aggressive fibroblastic neoplasms considered to be the most common skin tumors of horses worldwide. Bovine papillomavirus types 1 and 2 have typically been associated with sarcoids in equids. Investigations aiming to identify papillomavirus strains, aside from bovine papillomaviruses 1 and 2, which might be associated with sarcoid lesions, have been lacking. The aim of this article is to report the identification of a third bovine papillomavirus type, bovine papillomavirus 13, associated with equine sarcoids. Six sarcoid lesions were collected from diverse anatomical sites on two horses from southern Brazil. To detect a broad spectrum of papillomavirus strains, eight degenerate primer pairs designed to detect conserved regions on the L1 and E1 genes were tested on the DNA samples. Direct sequencing was then performed on the obtained amplicons, and sequence identities were compared with sequences from all bovine papillomavirus types. The FAP59/FAP64, MY09/MY11, and AR-E1F2/AR-E1R4 sequences generated from the sarcoids were shown to present 99 to 100% identity with bovine papillomavirus 13, a new bovine papillomavirus type previously described in cattle. The results from this study suggest that there is a need to identify bovine papillomavirus type 13 and other papillomavirus strains that might be associated with sarcoids in diverse geographical areas; such investigations might establish the frequency of occurrence of this viral type in these common tumors of equids. PMID:23637294

  8. Is there a genetic solution to bovine respiratory disease complex?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a complex multi-factor disease, which increases costs and reduces revenue from feedlot cattle. Multiple stressors and pathogens (viral and bacterial) have been implicated in the etiology of BRDC, therefore multiple approaches will be needed to evaluate a...

  9. [Serological survey of antibodies against viral diseases of public health interest in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Elena S; Rodríguez, Daniela V; Marin, Raúl E; Setti, Walter; Romero, Sandra; Barrandeguy, María; Parreño, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Llama population from Argentina is mainly concentrated in the Andean Puna, Jujuy. Llamas represent an important economic resource for the Andean communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against viral antigens associated to viral diseases of economic impact (neonatal diarrhea, reproductive and respiratory syndromes). A total of 349 serum samples from adult llamas were analyzed. The obtained antibody prevalence was 100 % for Rotavirus A and 70 % for Bovine parainfluenza virus 3. In contrast, no reactors were detected to Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, Human influenza A virus (H1N1) and Equine influenza virus (H3N8). These results confirm the wide circulation of rotavirus and parainfluenza virus in Argentinean llamas and suggest that susceptibility to infection with bovine herpesvirus, pestivirus and influenza A viruses is low. This serologic survey provides novel information regarding the epidemiology of viral diseases affecting llamas from the Argentinean Andean Puna. PMID:24721276

  10. Immune suppression in calves with bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Wood, C; Xue, W; Krukenberg, S M; Chen, Q; Minocha, H C

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) infection on immune functions and possible interactions between BIV and other bovine viruses in calves. Ten calves were inoculated intravenously with BIV, and five served as controls. An increased lymphocyte proliferation to BIV gag protein was demonstrated 2 to 6 weeks after BIV inoculation (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte subset differentiation revealed a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio (P < 0.05) during weeks 2 to 7, suggesting a possible immune dysfunction in BIV-infected calves. When the calves were inoculated with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), the antibody response to BHV-1 in BIV-infected calves was delayed and the antibody titers were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Injection of bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine also elicited a lower neutralizing antibody response in BIV-infected calves. The results indicated that immune suppression occurred in BIV-infected calves. PMID:9067663

  11. Molecular and biological aspects of the bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Andrea G; St-Louis, Marie-Claude; Archambault, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome suggesting bovine leucosis. The virus, first designated bovine visna-like virus, remained unstudied until HIV was discovered in 1983. Then, it was demonstrated in 1987 that the bovine R-29 isolate was a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, BIV has the most complex genomic structure among all identified lentiviruses shown by several regulatory/accessory genes encoding proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins which are involved in virus expression. PMID:20210777

  12. [Viral superantigens].

    PubMed

    Us, Dürdal

    2016-07-01

    , expression of endogenous SAgs leads to thymic deletion of responding T cells (bearing Vβ6-9+ TCR) due to self-tolerance induction during the fetal life, and protects the host against future exogenous MMTV infections. The SAg of rabies virus is the N protein found in nucleocapsid structure and stimulates Vβ8+TCR-bearing T cells. The SAg-induced polyclonal activation of T cells leads to turn-off the specific immune response, to enhance the immunopathogenesis and facilitates viral transmission from the initial site of infection (the muscle tissue) to the nerve endings. In case of EBV-associated SAg that activates Vβ13+TCR-bearing T cells, it was detected that the SAg activity was not encoded by EBV itself, but instead was due to the transactivation of HERV-K18 by EBV latent membrane proteins, whose env gene encodes the SAg (Sutkowski, et al. 2001). It has been denoted that EBV-induced SAg expression plays a role in the long-term persistence and latency of virus in memory B cells, in the development of autoimmune diseases and in the oncogenesis mechanisms. The proteins which are identified as SAgs of HIV are Nef and gp120. It is believed that, the massive activation of CD4+ T cells (selectively with Vβ-12+, Vβ-5.3+ and Vβ-18+ TCRs) in early stages of infection and clonal deletion, anergy and apoptosis of bystander T cells in the late stages may be due to SAg property of Nef protein, as well as the other mechanisms. However there are some studies indicating that Nef does not act as a SAg (Lapatschek, et al. 2001). HIV gp120 glycoprotein is a B-cell SAg that binds to VH3-expressing B cell receptors and causes polyclonal B cell activation. In addition, binding of gp120 to IgE on the surface of basophiles and mast cells causes activation of those cells, secretion of high level proinflammatory mediators leading to allergic reactions and tissue damage. In a recent study, the depletion (anergy or deletion) of T cell populations bearing Vβ12+, Vβ13+ and Vβ17+ TCR have been

  13. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  14. Intracellular distribution of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus and its role in the production of cytopathic effect in CD4+ and CD4- human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Y; Sasaki, M; Nakamura, K; Kimura, G; Nomoto, K

    1990-01-01

    Human CD4+ and CD4- monocytoid cell lines were transfected with a constructed plasmid that has the envelope gene of human immunodeficiency virus under the transcriptional control of human metallothionein IIA promoter; the transfected cells were then cloned. These CD4+ and CD4- transfectant cell clones, both of which expressed almost the same amount of gp160 after induction with metal ions, were used for ultrastructural analysis of the distribution of the envelope glycoprotein in the cytoplasm. Immunofluorescence microscopy with an anti-envelope glycoprotein monoclonal antibody showed localized distribution of gp160 in the CD4+ cell clone and diffuse distribution of gp160 in the CD4- cell clone. These observations were substantiated by immunoelectron microscopy, in which the aggregated form of gp160 was observed in the cytoplasm of CD4+ cells but was scarce in that of CD4- cells. A notable finding was that the sites corresponding to the nuclear pores were occupied with aggregates of gp160 in CD4+ cells, exhibiting cytopathic effects. Both freeze-fracture and transmission electron microscopy also showed abnormal morphology around the nuclear pores and perinuclear space. These results support the possibility that such gp160 complexes accumulated around the nuclear pores primarily disturb the transportation of many molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, resulting in a cytopathic effect in the CD4+ cell clone. Images PMID:2204721

  15. Anti-Viral Evaluation of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula assa-foetida against HSV-1

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadi, Alireza; Fattahian, Khadijeh; Shokoohinia, Yalda; Behbahani, Mandana; Shahnoush, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Several complications attributed with Herpes virus related infections and the emergence of drug resistant viruses prompt scientists to search for new drugs. Several terpenoids and coumarins have shown anti HSV effects while no sesquiterpene coumarins have been previously tested for HSV treatment. Three sesquiterpene coumarins badrakemin acetate (1), kellerin (2) and samarcandin diastereomer (3) were isolated from the gum resin of Ferula assa-foetida, a herbal medicine with antimicrobial, antiprotozoal and antiviral effects. Compounds were identified by 1D and 2D- NMR spectroscopies and comparison with literature data. A comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity and antiviral activity showed that kellerin (2) could significantly inhibit the cytopathic effects and reduce the viral titre of the herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA viral strain KOS at concentrations of 10, 5 and 2.5 µg/mL. PMID:25237347

  16. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  17. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  18. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  19. Ontogeny of the Bovine Immune Response 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R. D.; Dunne, H. W.; Heist, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the bovine immune response was studied in three embryos (<40 days) and 106 fetuses of various ages. In the absence of overt antigenic stimulation, fetuses had lymphoid development of the thymus at 42 days of gestation, the spleen was structurally present at 55 days, and certain peripheral lymph nodes were present at 60 days. Mesenteric lymph nodes were structurally present by 100 days of gestation, and lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the lower ileum, was observed in histologic sections of a 175-day fetus with a bacterial infection. Pyroninophilic cells, plasma cells, and germinal centers were present in lymph node sections of antigenically stimulated fetuses. Lymphoid tissue developed more rapidly in fetuses with bacteria, viral antigens, or apparent maternal red-blood-cell antigens than in the normal fetus. Thymic and splenic indices reached maximal values in the 205- to 220-day fetal age group. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)-containing cells were first observed, by immunofluorescence, in a single fetus at 59 days of gestation. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing cells were observed at 145 days of gestation in one fetus with a bacterial and viral infection. IgM-containing cells were observed in 36 fetuses and IgM and IgG cells were present in seven fetuses. Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, and liver of one fetus from a dam with lymphosarcoma had immunoglobulin-containing cells. Hemal lymph nodes, blood (buffy coat), Peyer patches, and heart and lung sections from fetuses with immunoglobulin-containing cells in spleen or lymph node did not have immunoglobulin-containing cells. Antigens of the virus of bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) were detected in one fetus, and antigens of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were detected in three fetuses; however, viruses were not isolated in primary bovine embryonic kidney cells. Two of the three fetuses with IBR virus antigens had neutralizing serum antibody

  20. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow. PMID:26025155

  1. Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Ratta, Barkha; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Viral diagnosis in Indian livestock using customized microarray chips is gaining momentum in recent years. Hence, it is possible to design customized microarray chip for viruses infecting livestock in India. Customized microarray chips identified Bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), Canine Adeno Virus-1 (CAV-1), and Canine Parvo Virus-2 (CPV-2) in clinical samples. Microarray identified specific probes were further confirmed using RT-PCR in all clinical and known samples. Therefore, the application of microarray chips during viral disease outbreaks in Indian livestock is possible where conventional methods are unsuitable. It should be noted that customized application requires a detailed cost efficiency calculation. PMID:26912948

  2. Bovine Papillomavirus Clastogenic Effect Analyzed in Comet Assay

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, R. P.; Melo, T. C.; Diniz, N.; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J.; Carvalho, R. F.; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus related to serious livestock diseases. Oncoproteins encoded by BPV are involved in several steps of cellular transformation and have been reported as presenting clastogenic effects in peripheral lymphocytes and primary culture cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clastogenic potential of BPV types 1, 2, and 4 by comet assay. Peripheral blood was collected from 37 bovines, 32 infected with different levels of papillomatosis (12 animals have no affection) and five calves, virus free (negative control). The viral identification showed presence of more than one virus type in 59.375% of the infected animals. Comet assay was performed according to alkaline technique. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed statistical difference between the negative control group and infected animals (P = 0.0015). The Dunn post hoc test showed difference comparing the infected animals with calves. Mann-Whitney U test verified no difference between animals infected with only one viral type and animals presenting more than one viral type. The comet assay is considered an efficient tool for assessment of damage in the host chromatin due to viral action, specifically highlighting viral activity in blood cells. PMID:23956996

  3. Genome analysis of an atypical bovine pestivirus from fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-08-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a bovine pestivirus LVRI/cont-1 originated from a commercial batch of fetal bovine serum. Its complete genome consists of 12,282 nucleotides (nt), which contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 11,700 bp flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (383 and 199 bp). The size of the 5'UTR and the individual protein coding region of LVRI/cont-1 are identical to those of the reference virus Th/04_KhonKaen, but it has a deletion of the first 56 nt in the 3'UTR. Alignment of the complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this viral isolate belongs to atypical pestiviruses. PMID:27052733

  4. HCV-Mediated Apoptosis of Hepatocytes in Culture and Viral Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Erica; Ulitzky, Laura; Lima, Livia Alves; Cehan, Nicoleta; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Roingeard, Philippe; Taylor, Deborah R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is associated with progressive liver injury and subsequent development of fibrosis and cirrhosis. The death of hepatocytes results in the release of cytokines that induce inflammatory and fibrotic responses. The mechanism of liver damage is still under investigation but both apoptosis and immune-mediated processes may play roles. By observing the changes in gene expression patterns in HCV-infected cells, both markers and the causes of HCV-associated liver injury may be elucidated. HCV genotype 1b virus from persistently infected VeroE6 cells induced a strong cytopathic effect when used to infect Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. To determine if this cytopathic effect was a result of apoptosis, ultrastructural changes were observed by electron microscopy and markers of programmed cell death were surveyed. Screening of a human PCR array demonstrated a gene expression profile that contained upregulated markers of apoptosis, including tumor necrosis factor, caspases and caspase activators, Fas, Bcl2-interacting killer (BIK) and tumor suppressor protein, p53, as a result of HCV genotype 1b infection. The genes identified in this study should provide new insights into understanding viral pathogenesis in liver cells and may possibly help to identify novel antiviral and antifibrotic targets. PMID:27280444

  5. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Neibergs, Holly L.; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  6. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Anderson, Mark L; McEligot, Heather A; Shao, Matt X; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F; Neibergs, Holly L; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  7. Exosomes in Viral Disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Monique R; Kashanchi, Fatah; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Viruses have evolved many mechanisms by which to evade and subvert the immune system to ensure survival and persistence. However, for each method undertaken by the immune system for pathogen removal, there is a counteracting mechanism utilized by pathogens. The new and emerging role of microvesicles in immune intercellular communication and function is no different. Viruses across many different families have evolved to insert viral components in exosomes, a subtype of microvesicle, with many varying downstream effects. When assessed cumulatively, viral antigens in exosomes increase persistence through cloaking viral genomes, decoying the immune system, and even by increasing viral infection in uninfected cells. Exosomes therefore represent a source of viral antigen that can be used as a biomarker for disease and targeted for therapy in the control and eradication of these disorders. With the rise in the persistence of new and reemerging viruses like Ebola and Zika, exploring the role of exosomes become more important than ever. PMID:27324390

  8. Unraveling the Structure of Viral Replication Complexes at Super-Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Linnik, Olga; Liesche, Johannes; Tilsner, Jens; Oparka, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    During infection, many RNA viruses produce characteristic inclusion bodies that contain both viral and host components. These structures were first described over a century ago and originally termed “X-bodies,” as their function was not immediately appreciated. Whilst some inclusion bodies may represent cytopathic by-products of viral protein over-accumulation, X-bodies have emerged as virus “factories,” quasi-organelles that coordinate diverse viral infection processes such as replication, protein expression, evasion of host defenses, virion assembly, and intercellular transport. Accordingly, they are now generally referred to as viral replication complexes (VRCs). We previously used confocal fluorescence microscopy to unravel the complex structure of X-bodies produced by Potato virus X (PVX). Here we used 3D-structured illumination (3D-SIM) super-resolution microscopy to map the PVX X-body at a finer scale. We identify a previously unrecognized membrane structure induced by the PVX “triple gene block” (TGB) proteins, providing new insights into the complex interplay between virus and host within the X-body. PMID:23386855

  9. Unraveling the structure of viral replication complexes at super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Linnik, Olga; Liesche, Johannes; Tilsner, Jens; Oparka, Karl J

    2013-01-01

    During infection, many RNA viruses produce characteristic inclusion bodies that contain both viral and host components. These structures were first described over a century ago and originally termed "X-bodies," as their function was not immediately appreciated. Whilst some inclusion bodies may represent cytopathic by-products of viral protein over-accumulation, X-bodies have emerged as virus "factories," quasi-organelles that coordinate diverse viral infection processes such as replication, protein expression, evasion of host defenses, virion assembly, and intercellular transport. Accordingly, they are now generally referred to as viral replication complexes (VRCs). We previously used confocal fluorescence microscopy to unravel the complex structure of X-bodies produced by Potato virus X (PVX). Here we used 3D-structured illumination (3D-SIM) super-resolution microscopy to map the PVX X-body at a finer scale. We identify a previously unrecognized membrane structure induced by the PVX "triple gene block" (TGB) proteins, providing new insights into the complex interplay between virus and host within the X-body. PMID:23386855

  10. Stability of bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in ear punch samples collected from bovine fetuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen first calf heifers were tested free of BVDV antibodies by serum neutralization and free of BVDV by PCR. Twelve of the heifers were exposed to BVDV1b strain CA0401186a between 84-86 days of gestation. Two of the heifers were exposed to mock inoculum and served as negative controls. Fetuse...

  11. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  12. The sigA Gene Which Is Borne on the she Pathogenicity Island of Shigella flexneri 2a Encodes an Exported Cytopathic Protease Involved in Intestinal Fluid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasani, Keith; Henderson, Ian R.; Sakellaris, Harry; Rajakumar, Kumar; Grant, Travis; Nataro, James P.; Robins-Browne, Roy; Adler, Ben

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the sigA gene situated on the she pathogenicity island of Shigella flexneri 2a was cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis showed that sigA encodes a 139.6-kDa protein which belongs to the SPATE (serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae) subfamily of autotransporter proteins. The demonstration that SigA is autonomously secreted from the cell to yield a 103-kDa processed form and possesses a conserved C-terminal domain for export from the cell were consistent with the autotransporter pathway of secretion. Functional analysis showed that SigA is a secreted temperature-regulated serine protease capable of degrading casein. SigA was cytopathic for HEp-2 cells, suggesting that it may be a cell-altering toxin with a role in the pathogenesis of Shigella infections. SigA was at least partly responsible for the ability of S. flexneri to stimulate fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops. PMID:10768931

  13. Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy enabled recognition of necrosis as the mechanism of cancer cells death after exposure to cytopathic turbid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Collakova, Jana; Krizova, Aneta; Kollarova, Vera; Dostal, Zbynek; Slaba, Michala; Vesely, Pavel; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) in low-coherence mode possesses a pronounced coherence gate effect. This offers an option to investigate the details of cellular events leading to cell death caused by cytopathic turbid emulsions. CCHM capacity was first assessed in model situations that showed clear images obtained with low coherence of illumination but not with high coherence of illumination. Then, the form of death of human cancer cells induced by treatment with biologically active phospholipids (BAPs) preparation was investigated. The observed overall retraction of cell colony was apparently caused by the release of cell-to-substratum contacts. This was followed by the accumulation of granules decorating the nuclear membrane. Then, the occurrence of nuclear membrane indentations signaled the start of damage to the integrity of the cell nucleus. In the final stage, cells shrunk and disintegrated. This indicated that BAPs cause cell death by necrosis and not apoptosis. An intriguing option of checking the fate of cancer cells caused by the anticipated cooperative effect after adding another tested substance sodium dichloroacetate to turbid emulsion is discussed on grounds of pilot experiments. Such observations should reveal the impact and mechanism of action of the interacting drugs on cell behavior and fate that would otherwise remain hidden in turbid milieu. PMID:26334859

  14. Characterization of the Rana grylio virus 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and its novel role in suppressing virus-induced cytopathic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Wei; Huang Youhua; Zhao Zhe; Gui Jianfang; Zhang Qiya . E-mail: zhangqy@ihb.ac.cn

    2006-12-08

    The 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) isoenzymes play a key role in cellular steroid hormone synthesis. Here, a 3{beta}-HSD gene homolog was cloned from Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of family Iridoviridae. RGV 3{beta}-HSD gene has 1068 bp, encoding a 355 aa predicted protein. Transcription analyses showed that RGV 3{beta}-HSD gene was transcribed immediate-early during infection from an initiation site 19 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site. Confocal microscopy revealed that the 3{beta}-HSD-EGFP fusion protein was exclusively colocalized with the mitochondria marker (pDsRed2-Mito) in EPC cells. Upon morphological observation and MTT assay, it was revealed that overexpression of RGV 3{beta}-HSD in EPC cells could apparently suppress RGV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE). The present studies indicate that the RGV immediate-early 3{beta}-HSD gene encodes a mitochondria-localized protein, which has a novel role in suppressing virus-induced CPE. All these suggest that RGV 3{beta}-HSD might be a protein involved in host-virus interaction.

  15. Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy enabled recognition of necrosis as the mechanism of cancer cells death after exposure to cytopathic turbid emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collakova, Jana; Krizova, Aneta; Kollarova, Vera; Dostal, Zbynek; Slaba, Michala; Vesely, Pavel; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-11-01

    Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) in low-coherence mode possesses a pronounced coherence gate effect. This offers an option to investigate the details of cellular events leading to cell death caused by cytopathic turbid emulsions. CCHM capacity was first assessed in model situations that showed clear images obtained with low coherence of illumination but not with high coherence of illumination. Then, the form of death of human cancer cells induced by treatment with biologically active phospholipids (BAPs) preparation was investigated. The observed overall retraction of cell colony was apparently caused by the release of cell-to-substratum contacts. This was followed by the accumulation of granules decorating the nuclear membrane. Then, the occurrence of nuclear membrane indentations signaled the start of damage to the integrity of the cell nucleus. In the final stage, cells shrunk and disintegrated. This indicated that BAPs cause cell death by necrosis and not apoptosis. An intriguing option of checking the fate of cancer cells caused by the anticipated cooperative effect after adding another tested substance sodium dichloroacetate to turbid emulsion is discussed on grounds of pilot experiments. Such observations should reveal the impact and mechanism of action of the interacting drugs on cell behavior and fate that would otherwise remain hidden in turbid milieu.

  16. VIRAL INFECTIONS DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Silasi, Michelle; Cardenas, Ingrid; Racicot, Karen; Kwon, Ja-Young; Aldo, Paula; Mor, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be “immunosuppressed”, the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus. When this protection is breached, as in a viral infection, this security is weakened and infection with other microorganisms can then propagate and lead to outcomes, such as preterm labor. In this manuscript, we review the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy, and offer potential mechanisms for the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25582523

  17. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links About VSPB (Viral Special Pathogens Branch) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  18. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevalent among blacks as among whites. Viral Hepatitis Transmission People can be infected with the three most ... risk for HAV. • • New data suggest that sexual transmission of HCV among MSM with HIV occurs more ...

  19. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed. PMID:27060566

  20. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on bovine tendon collagen, bovine pulp, and bovine gingiva.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Asai, K; Fujita, H; Nakazato, H; Nishimura, Y; Furuse, Y; Sahashi, E

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution required to dissolve bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. The 10% concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution at 37 degrees C was found to be most effective in dissolving bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. Sodium hypochlorite solution was more effective in dissolving bovine pulp or tendon collagen than in dissolving bovine gingiva. PMID:3862046

  1. Bovine Papillomavirus: New Insights into an Old Disease.

    PubMed

    Bocaneti, F; Altamura, G; Corteggio, A; Velescu, E; Roperto, F; Borzacchiello, G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are small DNA tumoral viruses able to induce benign cutaneous and/or mucosal epithelial lesions. Generally, the benign tumours affecting the skin or mucosa spontaneously regress, but under special circumstances, the defence system may be overwhelmed, thus leading to cancer, especially in the presence of immunosuppressant and mutagen agents from bracken fern. To date, thirteen different BPV genotypes have been associated with skin and mucosal tumours in cattle, and out of these, only four types (BPV-1, -2, -5 and -13) cross-infect other species. Recent investigations in vivo have revealed new insights into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this viral infection. This review briefly discusses viral epidemiology, will give data on BPV genome structure and viral genes and will describe the cellular events and new aspects of both cutaneous and mucosal tumours in large ruminants. Finally, some aspects of active immunization will be described. PMID:24661978

  2. A Metagenomics and Case-Control Study To Identify Viruses Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kondov, Nikola O.; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common health problem for both dairy and beef cattle, resulting in significant economic loses. In order to identify viruses associated with BRD, we used a metagenomics approach to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of 50 young dairy cattle with symptoms of BRD. Following deep sequencing, de novo assembly, and translated protein sequence similarity searches, numerous known and previously uncharacterized viruses were identified. Bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adeno-associated virus, bovine influenza D virus, bovine parvovirus 2, bovine herpesvirus 6, bovine rhinitis A virus, and multiple genotypes of bovine rhinitis B virus were identified. The genomes of a previously uncharacterized astrovirus and picobirnaviruses were also partially or fully sequenced. Using real-time PCR, the rates of detection of the eight viruses that generated the most reads were compared for the nasal secretions of 50 animals with BRD versus 50 location-matched healthy control animals. Viruses were detected in 68% of BRD-affected animals versus 16% of healthy control animals. Thirty-eight percent of sick animals versus 8% of controls were infected with multiple respiratory viruses. Significantly associated with BRD were bovine adenovirus 3 (P < 0.0001), bovine rhinitis A virus (P = 0.005), and the recently described bovine influenza D virus (P = 0.006), which were detected either alone or in combination in 62% of animals with BRD. A metagenomics and real-time PCR detection approach in carefully matched cases and controls can provide a rapid means to identify viruses associated with a complex disease, paving the way for further confirmatory tests and ultimately to effective intervention strategies. IMPORTANCE Bovine respiratory disease is the most economically important disease affecting the cattle industry, whose complex root causes include environmental, genetics, and infectious factors. Using an unbiased metagenomics

  3. Viral miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Plaisance-Bonstaff, Karlie; Renne, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, more than 200 microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered in double-stranded DNA viruses, mainly herpesviruses and polyomaviruses (Nucleic Acids Res 32:D109-D111, 2004). miRNAs are short 22  ±  3 nt RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTR) of target mRNAs, thereby inducing translational silencing and/or transcript degradation (Nature 431:350-355, 2004; Cell 116:281-297, 2004). Since miRNAs require only limited complementarity for binding, miRNA targets are difficult to determine (Mol Cell 27:91-105, 2007). To date, targets have only been experimentally verified for relatively few viral miRNAs, which either target viral or host cellular gene expression: For example, SV40 and related polyomaviruses encode miRNAs which target viral large T antigen expression (Nature 435:682-686, 2005; J Virol 79:13094-13104, 2005; Virology 383:183-187, 2009; J Virol 82:9823-9828, 2008) and miRNAs of α-, β-, and γ-herpesviruses have been implicated in regulating the transition from latent to lytic gene expression, a key step in the herpesvirus life cycle. Viral miRNAs have also been shown to target various host cellular genes. Although this field is just beginning to unravel the multiple roles of viral miRNA in biology and pathogenesis, the current data strongly suggest that virally encoded miRNAs are able to regulate fundamental biological processes such as immune recognition, promotion of cell survival, angiogenesis, proliferation, and cell differentiation. This chapter aims to summarize our current knowledge of viral miRNAs, their targets and function, and the challenges lying ahead to decipher their role in viral biology, pathogenesis, and for γ-herepsvirus-encoded miRNAs, potentially tumorigenesis. PMID:21431678

  4. Eicosanoids mediate melantoic nodulation reactions to viral infection in larvae of the parasitic wasp, Pimpla turionellae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nodulation is the predominant insect cellular immune response to bacterial and fungal infections and it can also be induced by viral infection. Treating seventh instar larvae of greater wax moth Galleria mellonella with Bovine herpes simplex virus-1 (BHSV-1) induced nodulation reactions in a dose-d...

  5. Sorting out pestiviral phylogeny: A tale of viral swarms, red herrings, and sons of Bs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Initially three species, border disease virus (BDV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV), were recognized in the pestivirus genus. These three species were defined by their host of origin, and to a lesser extent by clinical presentation. Subsequently, attempts ...

  6. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  7. Genetic diversity of Brazilian bovine pestiviruses detected between 1995 and 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pestivirus infections in ruminants result in significant economic losses worldwide. The etiological agents are three species from the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, including Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, Border Disease Virus (BDV), and an atypical pestivirus named HoB...

  8. Antiviral activity of bovine type III interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interferons (IFN) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Recently a new family of IFNs, type III, has been identified in humans, mice, swine and chickens. Here we report the identification and characterization of a member of the bovine type III IFN family, boIFN-lambda3, also known...

  9. Viral suppressors of RNA-based viral immunity: Host targets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingfa; Wang, Xianbing

    2010-01-01

    Discovery of diverse plant and animal viral proteins as suppressors of RNA silencing has provided strong support for an RNA-based viral immunity (RVI), which is now known to specifically destroy viral RNAs by RNA interference in fungi, plants and invertebrates. Here we review several recent studies that have revealed new mechanistic insights into plant and insect viral suppressors of RVI or suggested a role for RNA silencing suppression during mammalian viral infection. PMID:20638637

  10. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  11. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  12. [Bovine spongiform encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    An histórical and conceptual review is made about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or mad cows disease and an epidemiological analysis as a present and future health problem. This analysis of BSE should not be negative, considering the truths that we know today. PMID:11783042

  13. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  14. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  15. Concepts in viral pathogenesis II

    SciTech Connect

    Notkins, A.L.; Oldstone, M.B.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains papers divided among 10 sections. The section titles are: Viral Structure and Function; Viral Constructs; Oncogenes, Transfection, and Differentiation; Viral Tropism and Entry into Cells; Immune Recognition of Viruses; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Plant and Animal Models; Evolving Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis Illustrated by Selected Diseases in Humans; New Trends in Diagnosis and Epidemiology; and Vaccines and Antiviral Therapy.

  16. Border disease in sheep caused by transmission of virus from cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, U

    1991-02-16

    Two outbreaks of border disease occurred on farms with sheep flocks and breeding cattle. The infection of the pregnant sheep was probably caused by transmission of virus from calves persistently infected with non-cytopathic bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) which were kept in close confinement with the ewes during mid-pregnancy. Border disease was also induced experimentally in eight lambs by exposing their dams at 38 to 78 days of gestation to a heifer persistently infected with BVDV. Both the natural and the experimental infections were characterised by typical signs such as 'hairy-shaker' lambs and high lamb mortality. The diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolations from live-born lambs, seroconversion and pathology. The study supports the assertion that cattle persistently infected with BVDV and in close contact with pregnant sheep, are an important source of strains of virus capable of causing border disease. PMID:1851350

  17. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C.; Agnes, J. T.; Behrens, N.; Tagawa, Y.; Gershwin, L. J.; Corbeil, L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS) stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2—RSAD2) and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15—ubiquitin-like modifier) were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT) upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide) but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt) does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo. PMID:26859677

  18. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Agnes, J T; Behrens, N; Shao, M; Tagawa, Y; Gershwin, L J; Corbeil, L B

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS) stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2--RSAD2) and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15--ubiquitin-like modifier) were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT) upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide) but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt) does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo. PMID:26859677

  19. Temporary protection of rainbow trout gill epithelial cells from infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus IVb.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussinee, L; Pham, P H; Russell, S; Tubbs, L; Tafalla, C; Bols, N C; Dixon, B; Lumsden, J S

    2016-09-01

    The branchial epithelium is not only a primary route of entry for viral pathogens, but is also a site of viral replication and subsequent shedding may also occur from the gill epithelium. This study investigated the potential of agents known to stimulate innate immunity to protect rainbow trout epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) from infection with VHSV IVb. RTgill-W1 cells were pretreated with poly I:C, FuGENE(®) HD + poly I:C, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + poly I:C or heat-killed VHSV IVb and then infected with VHSV IVb 4 days later. Cytopathic effect (CPE) was determined at 2, 3, 4, 7 and 11 days post-infection. Virus in cells and supernatant was detected using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All of the treatments delayed the onset of CPE (per cent of monolayer destruction), compared with untreated controls; however, killed VHSV or poly I:C combined with LPS was the most effective. Similarly, the detection of viral RNA in the supernatant was delayed, and the quantity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by all treatments with the exception of LPS alone (4 days). Unlike many of the other treatments, pretreatment of RTgill-W1 with heat-killed VHSV did not upregulate interferon 1, 2 or MX 1 gene expression. PMID:26850791

  20. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  1. Viral hepatitis: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Sandeep; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2016-07-01

    Viral hepatitis is a cause for major health care burden in India and is now equated as a threat comparable to the "big three" communicable diseases - HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus are predominantly enterically transmitted pathogens and are responsible to cause both sporadic infections and epidemics of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus are predominantly spread via parenteral route and are notorious to cause chronic hepatitis which can lead to grave complications including cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Around 400 million people all over the world suffer from chronic hepatitis and the Asia-Pacific region constitutes the epicentre of this epidemic. The present article would aim to cover the basic virologic aspects of these viruses and highlight the present scenario of viral hepatitis in India. PMID:27546957

  2. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  3. Failure of Viral Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, William S.; Bruinsma, Robijn F.; Michel, Jean-Philippe; Knobler, Charles M.; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of the structural failure of viral shells under mechanical stress. We find that discontinuities in the force-indentation curve associated with failure should appear when the so-called Föppl von Kármán (FvK) number exceeds a critical value. A nanoindentation study of a viral shell subject to a soft-mode instability, where the stiffness of the shell decreases with increasing pH, confirms the predicted onset of failure as a function of the FvK number.

  4. Automated cytopathic effect (CPE) assays.

    PubMed

    McAleer, W J; Miller, W J; Hurni, W M; Machlowitz, R A; Hilleman, M R

    1983-07-01

    An automated CPE procedure has been developed that increases the precision and ease of performing titrations of measles, mumps and rubella viruses in vaccine materials. By this procedure, additions of cell suspensions and reagents and the dilution of samples are performed automatically by a modified Dynatiter instrument, using 96-well microtitre plates. Cell monolayers are stained with carbolfuchsin dye to eliminate the need for microscopic examination. Finally, the trays are read in an optical scanner and the end points calculated automatically by a programmable calculator. The increased accuracy and precision attained by performing greater numbers of replicate assays at reasonable cost will be of particular value to vaccine manufacturers. PMID:6885830

  5. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature. PMID:15585192

  6. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zheng-Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Yun-Peng; Fan, Ming-Xia; Zhong, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Feng; Xing, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Chymosin (also known as rennin) plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen. PMID:27136529

  7. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Yun-Peng; Fan, Ming-Xia; Zhong, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Feng; Xing, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Chymosin (also known as rennin) plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen. PMID:27136529

  8. WATERBORNE VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the study of human gastroenteritis, the use of electron microscopy and related techniques has led to the identification of new viral agents which had previously escaped detection by routine cell-culture procedures. Efforts to characterize and further study these agents are cur...

  9. BIOMARKERS OF VIRAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viral and protozoan pathogens associated with raw sludge can cause encephalitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and a number of other diseases. Raw sludge that has been treated to reduce these pathogens can be used for land application according to the regulations spec...

  10. Leafhopper viral pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four newly discovered viral pathogens in leafhopper vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes, have been shown to replicate in sharpshooter leafhoppers; the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis, and Oncometopia nigricans (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The viruses were classified as memb...

  11. Transport of viral specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, F B

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of viral infections by culture relies on the collection of proper specimens, proper care to protect the virus in the specimens from environmental damage, and use of an adequate transport system to maintain virus activity. Collection of specimens with swabs that are toxic to either virus or cell culture should be avoided. A variety of transport media have been formulated, beginning with early bacteriological transport media. Certain swab-tube combinations have proven to be both effective and convenient. Of the liquid transport media, sucrose-based and broth-based media appear to be the most widely accepted and used. Studies on virus stability show that most viruses tested are sufficiently stable in transport media to withstand a transport time of 1 to 3 days. Some viruses may withstand longer transport times. In many cases, it is not necessary to store virus specimens in a refrigerator or send them to the laboratory on wet ice or frozen on dry ice. However, the specimen should not be exposed to environmental extremes. Modern viral transport media allow for more effective use of viral culture and culture enhancement techniques for the diagnosis of human viral infections. PMID:2187591

  12. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Aswathy N.; Epperson, William B.; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  13. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  14. Pathogens of Bovine Respiratory Disease in North American Feedlots Conferring Multidrug Resistance via Integrative Conjugative Elements

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Cassidy L.; Zaheer, Rahat; Cook, Shaun R.; Booker, Calvin W.; Hendrick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of bovine respiratory disease (BRD)-associated viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and characterized the genetic profiles, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and nature of antimicrobial resistance determinants in collected bacteria. Nasopharyngeal swab and lung tissue samples from 68 BRD mortalities in Alberta, Canada (n = 42), Texas (n = 6), and Nebraska (n = 20) were screened using PCR for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, parainfluenza type 3 virus, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Excepting bovine herpesvirus 1, all agents were detected. M. haemolytica (91%) and BVDV (69%) were the most prevalent, with cooccurrence in 63% of the cattle. Isolates of M. haemolytica (n = 55), P. multocida (n = 8), and H. somni (n = 10) from lungs were also collected. Among M. haemolytica isolates, a clonal subpopulation (n = 8) was obtained from a Nebraskan feedlot. All three bacterial pathogens exhibited a high rate of antimicrobial resistance, with 45% exhibiting resistance to three or more antimicrobials. M. haemolytica (n = 18), P. multocida (n = 3), and H. somni (n = 3) from Texas and Nebraska possessed integrative conjugative elements (ICE) that conferred resistance for up to seven different antimicrobial classes. ICE were shown to be transferred via conjugation from P. multocida to Escherichia coli and from M. haemolytica and H. somni to P. multocida. ICE-mediated multidrug-resistant profiles of bacterial BRD pathogens could be a major detriment to many of the therapeutic antimicrobial strategies currently used to control BRD. PMID:24478472

  15. Viral Membrane Scission

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Virus budding is a complex, multistep process in which viral proteins make specific alterations in membrane curvature. Many different viral proteins can deform the membrane and form a budding virion, but very few can mediate membrane scission to complete the budding process. As a result, enveloped viruses have developed numerous ways of facilitating membrane scission, including hijacking host cellular scission machinery and expressing their own scission proteins. These proteins mediate scission in very different ways, though the biophysical mechanics underlying their actions may be similar. In this review, we explore the mechanisms of membrane scission and the ways in which enveloped viruses use these systems to mediate the release of budding virions. PMID:24099087

  16. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  17. Bovine myocardial epithelial inclusions.

    PubMed

    Baker, D C; Schmidt, S P; Langheinrich, K A; Cannon, L; Smart, R A

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods were used to examine myocardial epithelial masses in the hearts of ten cattle. The tissues consisted of paraffin-embedded or formalin-fixed samples from eight hearts that were being inspected in slaughter houses and from two hearts from calves that died of septicemia. The ages of the cattle ranged from 4 days to 12 years; the breeds were unspecified for all but one Hereford female and the two Holstein calves; and there were three males, four females, and three steers. The masses in these cases were compared with similar appearing lesions found in other animal species. The lesions in the bovine hearts were single to multiple, well circumscribed, found in the left ventricle wall, and composed of squamous to cuboidal epithelial cells that formed tubular, ductular, and acinar structures with lumens that were void or filled with amorphous protein globules. Electron microscopic examination revealed epithelial cells that had sparse apical microvilli, tight apical intercellular junctions, perinuclear bundles of filaments, and rare cilia. Almost half of the bovine epithelial masses (4/9) had occasional diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in their cytoplasm, and few had hyaluronidase-resistant alcian blue-positive granules (2/9) or colloidal iron-positive granules (1/9). All myocardial masses had abundant collagen surrounding the tubular and acinar structures, and 2/9 had elastin fibers as well. None of the myocardial masses had Churukian-Schenk or Fontana Masson's silver staining granules in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemically, all bovine myocardial tumors stained positively for cytokeratin (8/8), and occasional masses stained positively for vimentin (3/8) or carcinoembryonic antigen (3/8). None of the masses stained positively for desmin. The myocardial epithelial tumors most likely represent endodermal rests of tissue misplaced during organogenesis. PMID:7680178

  18. Cellular Requirements for Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus Vif-Mediated Inactivation of Bovine APOBEC3 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenyan; Wang, Hong; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Harris, Reuben S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viral infectivity factor (Vif) form a CRL5 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to suppress virus restriction by host APOBEC3 (A3) proteins. The primate lentiviral Vif complex is composed of the unique cofactor core binding factor β (CBF-β) and canonical ligase components Cullin 5 (CUL5), Elongin B/C (ELOB/C), and RBX2. However, the mechanism by which the Vif protein of the related lentivirus bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) overcomes its host A3 proteins is less clear. In this study, we show that BIV Vif interacts with Cullin 2 (CUL2), ELOB/C, and RBX1, but not with CBF-β or CUL5, to form a CRL2 E3 ubiquitin ligase and degrade the restrictive bovine A3 proteins (A3Z2Z3 and A3Z3). RNA interference-mediated knockdown of ELOB or CUL2 inhibited BIV Vif-mediated degradation of these A3 proteins, whereas knockdown of CUL5 or CBF-β did not. BIV Vif with mutations in the BC box (Vif SLQ-AAA) or putative VHL box (Vif YI-AA), which cannot interact with ELOB/C or CUL2, respectively, lost the ability to counteract bovine A3 proteins. Moreover, CUL2 and UBE2M dominant negative mutants competitively inhibited the BIV Vif-mediated degradation mechanism. Thus, although the general strategy for inhibiting A3 proteins is conserved between HIV-1/SIV and BIV, the precise mechanisms can differ substantially, with only the HIV-1/SIV Vif proteins requiring CBF-β as a cofactor, HIV-1/SIV Vif using CUL5-RBX2, and BIV Vif using CUL2-RBX1. IMPORTANCE Primate lentivirus HIV-1 and SIV Vif proteins form a ubiquitin ligase complex to target host antiviral APOBEC3 proteins for degradation. However, the mechanism by which the nonprimate lentivirus BIV Vif inhibits bovine APOBEC3 proteins is unclear. In the present study, we determined the mechanism for BIV Vif-mediated degradation of bovine APOBEC3 proteins and found that it differs from the mechanism of HIV-1/SIV Vif by being CBF-β independent and

  19. Enzootic Bovine Leukosis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, V. Ivan

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasizes the significance of enzootic bovine leukosis in Canada. He describes in detail diagnostic methods, various types of the disease and methods of transmission. Various aspects of the disease in Canada are compared with those in other countries. Prevention and control are discussed in a Canadian context and include the current policies of the Government of Canada in relationship to this disease. The possibility of developing a certification program for herds free of the disease is also discussed. The paper includes incidence in various parts of Canada. PMID:6265053

  20. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.