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Sample records for cytopathic bovine viral

  1. CYTOPLASMIC VACUOLIZATION RESPONSES TO CYTOPATHIC BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Birk, Alexander V.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Donis, Ruben; Szeto, Hazel. H.

    2008-01-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus which exhibits two biotypes in standard cell culture systems. The cytopathic strains of this virus (cpBVDV) induce dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolization in cell cultures, while infection with the non-cytopathic (NCP-BVDV) strains produces no overt changes in the host cells. Our results show that extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization is the earliest morphological change in response to cpBVDV infection in MDBK cells. Cells with extensive vacuolization showed no co-existing chromatin condensation, caspase activation, or loss of membrane integrity. In addition, the caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk), although improving cell viability of infected cells from 6.7±2.2% to 18.8±2.2%, did not prevent vacuolization. On the ultrastructural level, the virus-induced cytoplasmic vacuoles are single membrane structures containing organelles and cellular debris, which appear capable of fusing with other vacuoles and engulfing surrounding cytoplasmic materials. LysoTracker Red which marks lysosomes did not stain the virus-induced cytoplasmic vacuoles. In addition, this lysosomal dye could be observed in the cytoplasm of vacuolized cells, suggesting a lysosomal abnormality. Our data demonstrate that cpBVDV induced a novel cell death pathway in MDBK cells that is primarily associated with lysosomal dysfunction and the formation of phagocytic cytoplasmic vacuoles, and this mode of cell death is different from apoptosis and necrosis. PMID:18054406

  2. Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses doomed to extinction.

    PubMed

    Peterhans, Ernst; Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Flaviviridae pestivirus, is arguably one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. Each of its two genotypes has two biotypes, non-cytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp). Only the ncp biotype of BVDV may establish persistent infection in the fetus when infecting a dam early in gestation, a time point which predates maturity of the adaptive immune system. Such fetuses may develop and be born healthy but remain infected for life. Due to this early initiation of fetal infection and to the expression of interferon antagonistic proteins, persistently infected (PI) animals remain immunotolerant to the infecting viral strain. Although only accounting for some 1% of all animals in regions where BVDV is endemic, PI animals ensure the viral persistence in the host population. These animals may, however, develop the fatal mucosal disease, which is characterized by widespread lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Cp BVD virus, in addition to the persisting ncp biotype, can be isolated from such animals. The cp viruses are characterized by unrestrained genome replication, and their emergence from the persisting ncp ones is due to mutations that are unique in each virus analyzed. They include recombinations with host cell mRNA, gene translocations and duplications, and point mutations. Cytopathic BVD viruses fail to establish chains of infection and are unable to cause persistent infection. Hence, these viruses illustrate a case of "viral emergence to extinction" - irrelevant for BVDV evolution, but fatal for the PI host. PMID:20197026

  3. Typing of cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus reference and Canadian field strains using a neutralizing monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Magar, R; Minocha, H C; Montpetit, C; Carman, P S; Lecomte, J

    1988-01-01

    Cytopathic and noncytopathic reference strains as well as Canadian field isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus were analyzed by neutralization and immunofluorescence tests using a bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Results on reference strains indicated three major antigenic groups: I) NADL-like, II) New York 1-like and III) Oregon C24V-like. Field isolates could be segregated into groups I and II and none could be typed into the group III. It appears that most bovine viral diarrhea virus strains share a common antigen which carries a major neutralization epitope. These characteristics would make this monoclonal antibody a useful reagent for taxonomic and epizootiological studies. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2450629

  4. Increase in proto-oncogene mRNA transcript levels in bovine cells infected with a cytopathic type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of susceptible animals with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can result in an array of disease symptoms that are dependent on the strain of infecting virus and the physiological status of the host. Cytopathic BVDV kill cells outright while noncytopathic strains can readily establish p...

  5. Experimental infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 in mice induces inflammatory cell infiltration in the spleen.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Jung; Kwon, Young-Je; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Previously, our study showed that oral inoculation of mice with cytopathic (cp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) led to lymphocyte depletion and increased numbers of megakaryocytes in the spleen as well as thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. In the present study, to investigate the possible differences in the detection of viral antigen, histopathological lesions, and hematologic changes between non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 and cp BVDV1, mice were orally administered low and high doses of ncp BVDV1 and were necropsied at days 0, 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). None of the ncp BVDV1-infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness, unlike those infected with cp BVDV1. Statistically significant thrombocytopenia was observed during ncp BVDV1 infection, and lymphopenia was found only in mice infected with a high dose at day 9 pi. Interestingly, ncp BVDV1 infection increased the numbers of basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes in some infected mice. Viral antigen was detected in the lymphocytes of the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and bone marrow by immunohistochemistry. Lymphoid depletion was evident in the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice infected with a high dose and also found in the Peyer's patches of some infected mice. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and monocytes, and an increased number of megakaryocytes were seen in the spleen. These results suggest that the distribution of viral antigens is not associated with the presence of histopathological lesions. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the spleens as a result of viral replication and may be attributable to the host reaction to ncp BVDV1 infection. Together, these findings support the possibility that mice can be used as an animal model for BVDV infection. PMID:27376375

  6. Experimental infection with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice induces megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we infected mice with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (cp BVDV1) by oral inoculation and investigated the effects of infection by histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC), hematological methods. Twelve mice were infected, and samples were obtained at day 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). Most of the infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness such as reduced movement, crouching, loose feces, loss of appetite, and reduced water intake. Blood samples from six mice were positive for BVDV based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Blood analysis also revealed thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. Viral antigens were detected in the spleen (12/12), bone marrow (12/12), and/or mesenteric lymph nodes (4/12) of all infected mice by IHC analysis. The spleens showed significant histopathological changes including (i) substantially increased numbers of megakaryocytes, (ii) lymphocyte depletion, and (iii) hemorrhages. The bone marrow also had an increased number of megakaryocytes, although this increase was not as strong as it was in the spleen. Severe lymphoid depletion was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Viral infections were present in the lymphocytes but not detected in megakaryocytes of the spleen, bone marrow, or mesenteric lymph nodes. These results suggest that the increased numbers of megakaryocytes may be a direct result of BVDV infection. BVDV infection in mice following oral inoculation of cp BVDV1 leads to megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow to replenish the platelets. PMID:26526150

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of responses to cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1) infection in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Melina; Fredericksen, Fernanda; Otth, Carola; Olavarría, Víctor

    2016-03-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is responsible for significant economic losses in the dairy and cattle industry; however, little is known about the protective and pathological responses of hosts to infection. The present study determined the principal molecular markers implicated in viral infection through meta-transcriptomic analysis using MDBK cells infected for two hours with a field isolate of BVDV-1. While several immune regulator genes were induced, genes involved in cell signaling, metabolic processes, development, and integrity were down-regulated, suggesting an isolation of infected cells from cell-to-cell interactions and responses to external signals. Analysis through RT-qPCR confirmed the expression of more than one hundred markers. Interestingly, there was a significant up-regulation of two negative NF-κB regulators, IER3 and TNFAIP3, indicating a possible blocking of this signaling pathway mediated by BVDV-1 infection. Additionally, several genes involved in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species were down-regulated, suggesting increased oxidative stress. Notably, a number of genes involved in cellular growth and development were also regulated during infection, including MTHFD1L, TGIF1, and Brachyury. Moreover, there was an increased expression of the genes β-catenin, caprin-2, GSK3β, and MMP-7, all of which are crucial to the Wnt signaling pathway that is implicated in the embryonic development of a variety of organisms. This meta-transcriptomic analysis provides the first data towards understanding the infection mechanisms of cytopathic BVDV-1 and the putative molecular relationship between viral and host components. PMID:26919728

  8. Morphological changes and virus distribution in the ileum of colostrum-deprived calves inoculated with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus genotype-1.

    PubMed

    Pedrera, M; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Trevejo, J L; Risalde, M A; Greiser-Wilke, I; Núñez, A; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2009-07-01

    Eight colostrum-deprived calves were inoculated intranasally with a non-cytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) genotype-1 and killed in batches of two at 3, 6, 9 and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi). Two non-inoculated animals with similar background served as controls. All infected calves developed mild pyrexia and transient leucopenia due primarily to lymphopenia. Viraemia was correlated with body temperature and inversely related to leucocyte count. Ileal Peyer's patches developed mild follicular lymphoid depletion from 3dpi. This change was accompanied by cellular fragmentation and pyknosis, characteristic of apoptosis, which was most prominent from 6dpi. Lymphocyte apoptosis was confirmed by ultrastructural examination. Stellate cells and macrophages located in the lymphoid follicles were identified as infected by virus from 3dpi and the number of these infected cells increased until 9dpi. Fewer lymphocytes expressed BVDV antigen. Macrophages had morphological features consistent with activation of secretory and phagocytic function from 3dpi. These findings suggest that BVDV is only directly responsible for the destruction of a small number of lymphocytes. Although lymphocyte infection coincided with the onset of apoptosis, the intensity of infection was disproportionate to the marked depletion of gut-associated lymphoid tissue, particularly during the early stages of this process. Characterization of the indirect pathogenic mechanisms involved in the lymphoid depletion associated with BVDV infection will require additional study. PMID:19406434

  9. Masking of two in vitro immunological assays for Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) in calves acutely infected with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Charleston, B; Hope, J C; Carr, B V; Howard, C J

    2001-10-20

    Acute infection of calves, previously vaccinated with bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), with non-cytopathic viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) resulted in the temporary suppression of two in vitro assays used to monitor Mycobacterium bovis infection. Lymphocyte proliferation and interferon-gamma production by whole blood cultures containing purified protein derivatives prepared from Mycobacterium avium (PPD-A) and M bovis (PPD-B) were markedly suppressed. The implication is that acute infections of cattle with non-cytopathic BVDV may temporarily compromise diagnostic tests for M. bovis infections and result in a failure to identify cattle with tuberculosis. PMID:11700926

  10. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection alters global transcription profiles in bovine endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are significant pathogens of cattle worldwide. These viruses exist in both non-cytopathic and cytopathic biotypes. Non-cytopathic BVDV can establish persistent lifelong infections in cattle and are a frequent contaminant of biological reagents such as cell cultur...

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  13. Cytopathic BVDV-1 strain induces immune marker production in bovine cells through the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Carrasco, Gonzalo; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2015-12-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1) is a pathogen responsible for high economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. This virus has the capacity to modulate the immune system of several higher vertebrates, but there is little information available on the cell infection mechanism. To further investigate the effects of BVDV-1 on the activation of the immune response, the Madin-Darby bovine kidney cell line was infected with the cytopathic CH001 field isolate of BVDV-1, and the proinflammatory and antiviral cytokine expression profiles were analyzed. The results showed that BVDV-1 was able to induce the production of BCL3, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-15, IL-18, Mx-1, IRF-1, and IRF-7 in a way similar to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. Interestingly, all BVDV-1 activities were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results, together with in silico analyses showing the presence of several regulatory consensus target motifs, suggest that BVDV-1 regulates gene expression in bovines through the activation of several key transcription factors. Collectively, these data identified BVDV-1 as a viral regulator of immune marker expression, even from early infection. Additionally, this is the first report to find BVDV-1 modulating the activation of cytokine production and transcriptions factors mainly through the NF-κB pathway in vertebrates. PMID:26330089

  14. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 impairs macrophage responsiveness to toll-like receptor ligation with the exception of toll-like receptor 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviradae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. In addition, BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2...

  15. Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 infection activates the unfolded protein response in MDBK cells, leading to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kouji; Fujihara, Masatoshi; Harasawa, Ryô

    2009-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains are divided into cytopathic and non-cytopathic biotypes based on the ablity to induce cytopathic effects in cultured cells. The mechanism of cytopathogenicity of BVDV-2 is not well understood. We examined cytopathogenesis in MDBK cells resulting from BVDV-2 infections by microscopic examinations and microarray analysis. We found that BVDV-2 activates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathways that contribute to apoptosis of infected cells. We also monitored the expression of ER stress marker gene by RT-PCR during BVDV-2 infection and demonstrated that infection of MDBK cells with a cytopathic strain of BVDV-2 induces glucose-regulated protein 78 expression. Infection with BVDV-2 also induces DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 expression and downregulates the lectin-galactoside-binding soluble 1 level. These results show that cytopathic strains of BVDV-2 induce an ER stress response resulting in apoptosis. PMID:19578292

  16. Activation of cell signaling pathways is dependant on the biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is an economically important cattle pathogen with a world wide distribution. Besides the segregation into two distinct species (BVDV1 / BVDV2) two different biotypes, a cytopathic (cp) and a noncytopathic (ncp) biotype, are...

  17. Induction of interferon-gamma and downstream pathways during establishment of fetal persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of transplacental infection depends on the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and replicate within the fetus while counteracting maternal and fetal immune responses.Unfortunately, little is known about this complex process. Non-cytopathic (ncp) strains of bovine viral diarrhea vi...

  18. A Serum Neutralization Test for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Based on Colour Reaction and Cytopathic effects in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Greig, A. S.

    1969-01-01

    A serum neutralization (SN) test based on a combination of indicator colour change in medium and cytopathic (CP) effect in cells has been devised for the detection of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies. Serum dilutions of 1:6, 1:18 and 1:54 are made in a medium containing phenol red and are mixed in equal quantities with a suspension of virus containing 100 cell culture infectious doses (CCID50) per volume of mixture. The serum-virus mixtures are held in small glass tubes and are covered with a layer of mineral oil. Following a two hour period of incubation at 37°C a quantity of bovine fetal kidney cells is added to each tube to detect the presence of unneutralized virus. After four to six days incubation the results of the SN test may be read by microscopic examination for CP effect by means of an inverted microscope, or by observing the colour of the phenol red. PMID:4305762

  19. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  20. [Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD): from biology to control].

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Wegmüller, Michael; Schweizer, Matthias; Zanoni, Reto; Peterhans, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is endemic worldwide. Together with classical swine fever and border disease viruses, it belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Most infections with BVDV take a transient, acute, course. Only rarely BVDV persists in its hosts. Due to the early time point of infection in utero, persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the infecting non-cytopathic BVDV. In such animals the virus may mutate to a cytopathic biotype, causing lethal mucosal disease. In BVD-endemic regions, approximately 1% of the animals are PI. Removal of all PI animals leads to extinction of BVD. This approach to BVD eradication has been vindicated in Scandinavia. Following the same principles, regional and country-wide eradication programs are run in different parts of the world. These programs differ in the way PI animals are detected and in the role of vaccines. The Scandinavian two-step method of detecting PI animals is based on (i) the high level of seroprevalence in herds where PI animals are present and (ii) on testing all animals for virus in such herds. However, the high average herd seroprevalence in Switzerland made it impossible to define a reasonable threshold for virus testing. Therefore, all animals were directly tested for virus in the year 2008 and all newborn calves until the end of 2012, when the PI prevalence had dropped to 0.02%. Vaccination remains prohibited. Since 2013, surveillance for BVD is accomplished by serology. As a unique consequence of eradication, over 7500 viral strains are available to us for genetic studies. PMID:24511819

  1. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Variability and Prevalence of BVDV Subtypes in Persistently Infected Cattle Entering Feedlots: BVDV1b as Predominant Subtype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are a diverse group of viruses causing infections and disease in domestic and wild ruminants worldwide. BVDV biotypes are based on presence or absence of cytopathology in infected cultures: CP (cytopathic) or NCP (noncytopathic). BVDV are genetically diverse...

  2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Global Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections with this diverse group of viruses remain a source of economic loss for producers worldwide. There is a wide range of variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype (BVDV1 and BVDV2), biot...

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  4. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  5. BVD virus infection alters global transcription profiles in bovine endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are a significant pathogens of cattle worldwide. These viruses exist in both non-cytopathic or cytopathic biotypes. Non-cytopathic BVDV can establish persistent lifelong infections in cattle and are a frequent contaminant of biological reagents such as cell cul...

  6. The C-Terminal Domain of Chikungunya Virus nsP2 Independently Governs Viral RNA Replication, Cytopathicity, and Inhibition of Interferon Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fros, Jelke J.; van der Maten, Erika; Vlak, Just M.

    2013-01-01

    Alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) has pivotal roles in viral RNA replication, host cell shutoff, and inhibition of antiviral responses. Mutations that individually rendered other alphaviruses noncytopathic were introduced into chikungunya virus nsP2. Results show that (i) nsP2 mutation P718S only in combination with KR649AA or adaptive mutation D711G allowed noncytopathic replicon RNA replication, (ii) prohibiting nsP2 nuclear localization abrogates inhibition of antiviral interferon-induced JAK-STAT signaling, and (iii) nsP2 independently affects RNA replication, cytopathicity, and JAK-STAT signaling. PMID:23864632

  7. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: global status.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2010-03-01

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections remain a source of economic loss for producers. The wide variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype, biotype, virulence, and types of infections. BVDV infect a range of domestic and wild ruminants. Clinical presentation varies depending on strain of virus, species of host, immune status of host, reproductive status of host, age of host, and concurrent infections. Recent advances in BVDV research and diagnostics have led to the development of regional eradication/control programs, the most efficacious of which focus on biosecurity, surveillance, and control. PMID:20117546

  8. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Zoos: A Perspective from the Veterinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Kottwitz, Jack J.; Ortiz, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The many different species in close proximity make zoological collections a unique environment for disease transmission. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is of special concern with zoos due to the numerous exotic ruminant species that this virus can infect. BVDV occurs as both a non-cytopathic and a cytopathic strain both of which are capable of infecting exotic ruminants. The cytopathic strain causes mucosal disease (MD) and death. Infection with the non-cytopathic strain may produce persistently infected (PI) animals. PI individuals may show vague clinical signs, including abortion. Management of BVDV in zoos should focus on identification of PI individuals and prevention of infection of other animals of the collection. Variability makes serological testing as the sole method of screening for BVDV infection undesirable in exotic ruminants. Combination testing provides a definitive answer, especially in sensitive wildlife. Use of a combination of antigen-capture ELISA (ACE) with haired skin, Real Time-PCR (RT-PCR) on whole blood, and antibody detection via serum neutralization has the greatest potential to identify PI animals. An animal that is positive on both ACE and RT-PCR, but is negative on serology should be considered highly suspicious of being a PI, and should be isolated and undergo repeat testing 4–6 weeks later to confirm positive status. This testing methodology also allows screening of pregnant and newborn animals. Isolation or culling may need to be considered in animals determined to be positive via combination testing. These decisions should only be made after careful consideration and evaluation, especially with endangered species. PMID:26779151

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  10. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Modulation of Monocyte Derived Macrophage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense virus of the Flaviviridae family and is the causative agent of the disease known as Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, s...

  11. Infectious Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Strain NADL) RNA from Stable cDNA Clones: a Cellular Insert Determines NS3 Production and Viral Cytopathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Ernesto; Ruggli, Nicolas; Collett, Marc S.; Rice, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), strain NADL, was originally isolated from an animal with fatal mucosal disease. This isolate is cytopathic in cell culture and produces two forms of NS3-containing proteins: uncleaved NS2-3 and mature NS3. For BVDV NADL, the production of NS3, a characteristic of cytopathic BVDV strains, is believed to be a consequence of an in-frame insertion of a 270-nucleotide cellular mRNA sequence (called cIns) in the NS2 coding region. In this study, we constructed a stable full-length cDNA copy of BVDV NADL in a low-copy-number plasmid vector. As assayed by transfection of MDBK cells, uncapped RNAs transcribed from this template were highly infectious (>105 PFU/μg). The recovered virus was similar in plaque morphology, growth properties, polyprotein processing, and cytopathogenicity to the BVDV NADL parent. Deletion of cIns abolished processing at the NS2/NS3 site and produced a virus that was no longer cytopathic for MDBK cells. This deletion did not affect the efficiency of infectious virus production or viral protein production, but it reduced the level of virus-specific RNA synthesis and accumulation. Thus, cIns not only modulates NS3 production but also upregulates RNA replication relative to an isogenic noncytopathic derivative lacking the insert. These results raise the possibility of a linkage between enhanced BVDV NADL RNA replication and virus-induced cytopathogenicity. PMID:9573238

  12. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus genome in leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by RNA-cDNA hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, J; Aiken, J; Schultz, R D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) cDNA library was constructed. One cloned complementary DNA sequence was used as a probe to detect BVDV RNA by hybridization in infected cell cultures and in mononuclear leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by dot blot and in situ hybridization. The cDNA probe hybridized with all cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV isolates tested. The hybridization results were consistent with results obtained using conventional subculturing and immunofluorescent staining methods and by inoculation of seronegative test cattle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2162729

  13. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves.

    PubMed

    Glotov, Alexander G; Glotova, Tatyana I; Koteneva, Svetlana V; Semenova, Olga V; Sergeev, Alexander A; Titova, Ksenya A; Morozova, Anastasia A; Sergeev, Artemiy A

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4-6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3-5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm(3)), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4-1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  14. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    PubMed Central

    Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Sergeev, Alexander A.; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  15. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  16. Complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 from commercial fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-09-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2. PMID:22923795

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  18. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  19. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: molecular cloning of genomic RNA and its diagnostic application

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Molecular cloning of a field isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain 72 RNA was done in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of cloned cDNA sequences in hybridization assays with various BVDV strains were determined. cDNA was synthesized from polyadenylated BVDV RNA templates with oligo-dT primers, reverse transcriptase, and DNA polymerase I. The newly synthesized double-stranded BVDV cDNA was C-tailed with terminal deoxytransferase and annealed into G-tailed, Pst-1-cut pUC9 plasmid. Escherichia coli was transformed with the recombinant plasmids and a library of approximately 200 BVDV specific cDNA clones varying in length from 0.5 to 2.6 kilobases were isolated. The sensitivity and specificity of hybridization between the labelled cDNA and BVDV target sequences were determined. Cloned BVDV sequences were isolated from pUC9 plasmid DNA and labelled with /sup 32/P by nick translation. The detection limit by dot blot hybridization assay was 20 pg of purified genomic BVDV RNA. cDNA hybridization probes were specific for all strains of BVDV tested, regardless of whether they were noncytopathic and cytopathic, but did not hybridize with heterologous bovine viruses tested. Probes did not hybridize with uninfected cell culture or cellular RNA. Hybridization probes were at least as sensitive as infectivity assays in detecting homologous virus.

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

  1. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  2. Clinical bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Alqawasmeh, D M

    2010-12-01

    A 1-year-old Holstein Friesian heifer was presented for anorexia and acute diarrhoea. The heifer was born and raised at the farm. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection was diagnosed using clinical signs and RT-PCR. Clinical BVDV infection has never been reported in Jordan. PMID:21117287

  3. The effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains on bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) phenotype and capacity to produce BVDV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DC) are important antigen presentation cells that monitor, process, and present antigen to T cells. Viruses that infect DC can have a devastating impact on the immune system. In this study, the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to replicate and produce infectious virus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) and monocytes was studied. The study also examined the effect of BVDV infection on Mo-DC expression of cell surface markers, including MHCI, MHCII, and CD86, which are critical for DC function in immune response. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from bovine blood through gradient centrifugation. The adherent monocytes were isolated from PBMCs and differentiated into Mo-DC using bovine recombinant interleukin-4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF). To determine the effect of BVDV on Mo-DC, four strains of BVDV were used including the severe acute non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV2a-1373; moderate acute ncp BVDV2a 28508-5; and a homologous virus pair [i.e., cytopathic (cp) BVDV1b TGAC and ncp BVDV1b TGAN]. The Cooper strain of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) was used as the control virus. Mo-DC were infected with one of the BVDV strains or BHV-1 and were subsequently examined for virus replication, virus production, and the effect on MHCI, MHCII, and CD86 expression. Results The ability of monocytes to produce infectious virus reduced as monocytes differentiated to Mo-DC, and was completely lost at 120 hours of maturation. Interestingly, viral RNA increased throughout the course of infection in Mo-DC, and the viral non-structural (NS5A) and envelope (E2) proteins were expressed. The ncp strains of BVDV down-regulated while cp strain up-regulated the expression of the MHCI, MHCII, and CD86 on Mo-DC. Conclusions The study revealed that the ability of Mo-DC to produce infectious virus was reduced with its differentiation from monocytes to Mo-DC. The inability to produce

  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765

  5. A pyrazolotriazolopyrimidinamine inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus replication that targets the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Letellier, Carine; Froeyen, Matheus; Dutartre, Hélène; Vrancken, Robert; Canard, Bruno; De Clercq, Erik; Gueiffier, Alain; Teulade, Jean-Claude; Herdewijn, Piet; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Koenen, Frank; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Neyts, Johan

    2009-06-01

    [7-[3-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)propyl]-2-(2-furyl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] (LZ37) was identified as a selective inhibitor of in vitro bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) replication. The EC(50) values for inhibition of BVDV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) formation, viral RNA synthesis and production of infectious virus were 4.3+/-0.7microM, 12.9+/-1microM and 5.8+/-0.6microM, respectively. LZ37 proved inactive against the hepatitis C virus and the flavivirus yellow fever. LZ37 inhibits BVDV replication at a time point that coincides with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis. Drug-resistant mutants carried the F224Y mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). LZ37 showed cross-resistance with the imidazopyrrolopyridine AG110 [which selects for the E291G drug resistance mutation] as well as with the imidazopyridine BPIP [which selects for the F224S drug-resistant mutation]. LZ37 did not inhibit the in vitro activity of purified recombinant BVDV RdRp. Molecular modelling revealed that F224 is located near the tip of the finger domain of the RdRp. Docking of LZ37 in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed several potential contacts including: (i) hydrophobic contacts of LZ37 with A221, A222, G223, F224 and A392; (ii) a stacking interaction between F224 side chain and the ring system of LZ37 and (iii) a hydrogen bond between the amino function of LZ37 and the O backbone atom of A392. It is concluded that LZ37 interacts with the same binding site as BPIP or VP32947 at the top of the finger domain of the polymerase that is a "hot spot" for inhibition of pestivirus replication. PMID:19428605

  6. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert G; Ridpath, Julia F; Sacco, Randy E

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs). Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp), noncytopathic (ncp), high (hv) or low virulence (lv) BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections. PMID:27420479

  7. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Impairs Macrophage Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor Ligation with the Exception of Toll-Like Receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    Schaut, Robert G.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV isolates are classified into two biotypes based on the development of cytopathic (cp) or non-cytopathic (ncp) effects in epithelial cell culture. BVDV isolates are further separated into species, BVDV1 and 2, based on genetic differences. Symptoms of BVDV infection range from subclinical to severe, depending on strain virulence, and may involve multiple organ systems and induction of a generalized immunosuppression. During BVDV-induced immune suppression, macrophages, critical to innate immunity, may have altered pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling, including signaling through toll-like receptors (TLRs). Comparison of BVDV 2 strains with different biotypes and virulence levels is valuable to determining if there are differences in host macrophage cellular responses between viral phenotypes. The current study demonstrates that cytopathic (cp), noncytopathic (ncp), high (hv) or low virulence (lv) BVDV2 infection of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMΦ) result in differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to uninfected MDMΦ. A hallmark of cp BVDV2 infection is IL-6 production. In response to TLR2 or 4 ligation, as might be observed during secondary bacterial infection, cytokine secretion was markedly decreased in BVDV2-infected MDMΦ, compared to non-infected MDMΦ. Macrophages were hyporesponsive to viral TLR3 or TLR8 ligation. However, TLR7 stimulation of BVDV2-infected MDMΦ induced cytokine secretion, unlike results observed for other TLRs. Together, these data suggest that BVDV2 infection modulated mRNA responses and induced a suppression of proinflammatory cytokine protein responses to TLR ligation in MDMΦ with the exception of TLR7 ligation. It is likely that there are distinct differences in TLR pathways modulated following BVDV2 infection, which have implications for macrophage responses to secondary infections. PMID:27420479

  8. Genomic sequencing and characterization of a Chinese isolate of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Lin, Y Q; Ding, X Y; Ren, M; Tao, J; Wang, J Y; Zhang, G P; Zhu, G Q

    2009-01-01

    The complete genomic sequencing and characterization of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate XJ-04 originated from cattle in China was described. The genomic RNA of the isolate was 12,284 nt long and contained short 5'- untranslated region (UTR), 3'-non-coding regions (NCR), and one open reading frame (ORF) encoding a large polyprotein of 3,895 amino acids with 20 potential N-glycosylation sites. The identity of the isolate XJ-04 with reference strains NADL (BVDV-1) and 890 (BVDV-2) in autoprotease (N(pro)) gene and structural genes (C, E(rns), E1, E2) was analyzed. The percentage of nt and aa identity in analyzed genes indicated that the isolate XJ-04 was closer to the reference strain 890 (BVDV-2) than to NADL (BVDV-1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate belonged to BVDV-2a subtype. Furthermore, comparison analysis indicated that the isolate XJ-04 did not contain any genomic insertions that can be directly related to the cytopathic phenotype. PMID:19941402

  9. Rapid detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, O J; Osorio, F A; Donis, R O

    1991-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect genomic sequences of the positive-stranded RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the family Togaviridae. Using a set of 20-bp primers located within the conserved 3' region of the BVDV genome, we were able to consistently amplify a 205-bp target sequence from BVDV cDNA. BVDV RNAs from cell culture-propagated BVDV reference strains, diverse unrelated cytopathic and noncytopathic field isolates, and clinical serum samples were transcribed to cDNA by using avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase and further specifically amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction assay. The amplification assay was sensitive enough to detect one molecule of cloned BVDV cDNA. Reconstitution experiments conducted by adding decreasing amounts of BVDV (NADL strain) to BVDV-free serum indicated that the threshold of sensitivity of the assay was less than or equal to 1 50% tissue culture infective dose. These results show that the polymerase chain reaction may be used for the rapid detection of diverse strains of BVDV in cell cultures, biological products, and clinical specimens from cattle. Images PMID:1709950

  10. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-10-01

    Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on the lack of persistence of high titres of anti-gp51 antibodies compared with unvaccinated BLV infected controls, on the enhanced CD4 proliferative responses to specific BLV gp51 synthetic peptides in the vaccinated sheep, and on the inability to detect BLV pro-virus by polymerase chain reaction in the vaccinated sheep after 4 months following challenge infection compared with continual detection in unvaccinated sheep over a 16 month trial period. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immune responses may be an important aspect of protective immunity against BLV infection and it has been reported that large tracts of amino acid sequences within the env and pol genes are highly conserved in different isolates from different countries which is of importance in designing peptide derived vaccines. PMID:8270269

  11. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Costantini, V; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V; Schiappacassi, G; Maliandi, F; Leunda, M; Odeón, A

    2009-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig) which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines. PMID:19623897

  12. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 impairs virus control in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Shin, Seung-Uk; Yoon, Ji Young; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen that causes development of mild to severe clinical signs in wild and domesticated ruminants. We previously showed that mice could be infected by BVDV. In the present study, we infected mice intraperitoneally with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 or ncp BVDV2, harvested the blood and organs of the infected mice at days 4, 7, 10 and 14 postinfection (pi), and performed immunohistochemical analyses to confirm BVDV infection. Viral antigens were detected in the spleens of all infected mice from days 4 through 14 and were also found in the mesenteric lymph nodes, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), heart, kidney, intestine, and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of some infected mice. In ncp BVDV2-infected mice, flow cytometric analysis revealed markedly fewer CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and lower expression of costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (I-A/I-E) than those in ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 was higher in the plasma of ncp BVDV2-infected mice than that in that of ncp BVDV1-infected mice. Our results demonstrate that ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 interact differently with the host innate immune response in vivo. These findings highlight an important distinction between ncp BVDV1 and ncp BVDV2 and suggest that ncp BVDV2 impairs the host's ability to control the infection and enhances virus dissemination. PMID:26586332

  13. Proteins of bovine viral diarrhea virus: characterization, biotype-specific differences, and immunological properties

    SciTech Connect

    Donis, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    Virus-specific polypeptides in bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) virus-infected bovine cells were studied by radiolabeling. A total of 12 polypeptides with apparent Mr of 165, 135, 118, 80, 75, 62, 56-58, 48, 37, 32, 25 and 19 kilodaltons (k) were identified in infected cells. Five glycoproteins were detected in infected cells. Two abundant species had apparent Mr of 48 k and 56-58 k while the minor species had masses of 118, 75 and 65 k. When cells were radiolabeled with L-(/sup 35/S)-methionine in the presence of tunicamycin the 56-58 k migrated with apparent masses of 54 k and 48-50 K in PAGE. Endoglycosidase F digestion of virus-induced polypeptides caused a 4-6 K reduction in the apparent molecular mass of the 56-58 k yielding a 52 k digested product. Tunicamycin caused a drastic reduction in the yield of infectious virus indicating that the carbohydrate moieties serve a vital role in the infection cycle of BVD virus. The noncytopathic biotype BVD (NCB-BVD) virus isolates can be consistently differentiated from cytopathic biotype BVD (CB-BVD) isolates on the basis of unique polypeptide profiles they induce in the infected cell: the most abundant polypeptide in CB-BVD infected cells is the 80 kD polypeptide while NCB-BVD lack this polypeptide and induce a predominant 118 k polypeptide. A panel of 25 murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the two major glycoproteins of BVD virus was produced. Based on their viral polypeptide specificity and on their ability to neutralize viral infectivity the Mabs in the panel were divided into 3 classes: Class 1 Mabs reacted with the 56-58 k glycoprotein and neutralized the virus, Class 2 Mabs recognized the 56-58 k glycoprotein but were not neutralizing and Class 3 Mabs reacted with the 48 k glycoprotein and did not neutralize the virus. These results identify the 56-58 k as one of the envelope glycoproteins of BVD virus.

  14. Epidemiology of prolonged testicular infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Walz, Paul H; Gard, Julie A; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-10-20

    Previously, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) had been found in prolonged testicular infections following acute infection of immunocompetent bulls. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate the production and maintenance of prolonged testicular infections after exposure to BVDV of seronegative bulls in varying circumstances. The secondary objective was to initiate assessment of the potential for transmission of BVDV via semen of bulls exhibiting a prolonged testicular infection. In total, 10 research trials were conducted. The first trial examined the duration of detectable virus in semen after intranasal inoculation of peri-pubertal bulls. The second to fifth trials examined the potential for prolonged testicular infections resulting from natural exposure of seronegative bulls to persistently infected heifers. In the last five trials, the potential for viral transmission from bulls exhibiting prolonged testicular infections to a small number of exposed animals (n=28) was evaluated. Results of this research demonstrated that prolonged testicular infections could result in detection of viral RNA in semen for 2.75 years with infectious virus grown from testicular tissue 12.5 months after viral exposure. A type 1b strain of BVDV caused prolonged testicular infection after natural exposure of seronegative bulls to a persistently infected heifer. However, transmission of BVDV to susceptible animals was not detected in the final five trials of this research. In conclusion, BVDV can persist in testicular tissue after acute infection for several years, but the potential for viral transmission from these prolonged testicular infections appears to be low. PMID:19473788

  15. Prevalence and antigenic differences of bovine viral diarrhea virus subgenotypes isolated from cattle in the U.S. and Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses are segregated into two different species within the pestivirus genus, bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 1 (BVDV1) and bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 2 (BVDV2). While this segregation was first based on phylogenetic analysis, subsequent characterization of viral s...

  16. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of Korean bovine viral diarrhea viruses.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Cha, Sang-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Park, Choi-Kyu; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2009-11-18

    Thirty-six bovine viral disease viruses (BVDVs) were identified in bovine feces (n=16), brains (n=2), and aborted fetuses (n=18) in Korea. To reveal the genetic diversity and characteristics of these Korean strains, the sequences of their 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs) were determined and then compared with published reference sequences. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Korean viruses were of the BVDV subtypes 1a (n=17) or 2a (n=17). The remaining strains were of subtypes 1b (n=1) and 1n (n=1). This analysis indicates that the 1a and 2a BVDV subtypes are predominant and widespread in Korea. In addition, the prevalence of BVDV-2 was markedly higher in aborted fetuses than in other samples and was more often associated with reproductive problems and significant mortality in cattle. PMID:19589650

  17. The Amino-Terminal Domain of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Npro Protein Is Necessary for Alpha/Beta Interferon Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Ansari, Israrul H.; Vassilev, Ventzislav; Liang, Delin; Lai, Vicky C. H.; Zhong, Weidong; Hong, Zhi; Dubovi, Edward J.; Donis, Ruben O.

    2006-01-01

    The alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) system is the first line of defense against viral infection and a critical link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. IFN-α/β secretion is the hallmark of cellular responses to acute RNA virus infections. As part of their survival strategy, many viruses have evolved mechanisms to counteract the host IFN-α/β response. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) (genus Pestivirus) was reported to trigger interferon production in infected cultured cells under certain circumstances or to suppress it under others. Our studies with various cultured fibroblasts and epithelial bovine cells indicated that cytopathic (cp) BVDV induces IFN-α/β very inefficiently. Using a set of engineered cp BVDVs expressing mutant Npro and appropriate controls, we found that the IFN-α/β response to infection was dependent on Npro expression and independent of viral replication efficiency. In order to investigate whether the protease activity of Npro is required for IFN-α/β antagonism, we engineered Npro mutants lacking protease activity by replacement of amino acid E22, H49, or C69. We found that E22 and H49 substitutions abolished the ability of Npro to suppress IFN, whereas C69 had no effect, suggesting that the structural integrity of the N terminus of Npro was more important than its catalytic activity for IFN-α/β suppression. A catalytically active mutant with a change at a conserved Npro region near the N terminus (L8P) in both BVDV biotypes did not antagonize IFN-α/β production, confirming its involvement in this process. Taken together, these results not only provide direct evidence for the role of Npro in blocking IFN-α/β induction, but also implicate the amino-terminal domain of the protein in this function. PMID:16378992

  18. Isolation and identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus from sika deer in china

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections continue to cause significantly losses in the deer population. Better isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer may contribute significantly to the development of prophylactic therapeutic, and diagnostic reagents as well as help in prevention and control of BVDV. However, isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer is seldom reported in literature. In this study, we collected some samples according to clinical sign of BVDV to isolation and identification of BVDV from sika deer. Results we isolated a suspected BVDV strain from livers of an aborted fetus from sika deer in Changchun (China) using MDBK cell lines, named as CCSYD strain, and identified it by cytopathic effect (CPE), indirect immunoperoxidase test (IPX) and electron microscopy(EM). The results indicated that this virus was BVDV by a series of identification. The structural proteins E0 gene was cloned and sequenced. The obtained E0 gene sequence has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number: FJ555203. Alignment with other 9 strains of BVDV, 7 strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and 3 strains of border disease virus(BDV) in the world, showed that the homology were 98.6%-84.8%, 76.0%-74.7%, 76.6%-77.0% for nucleotide sequence, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that new isolation and identification CCSYD strain belonged to BVDV1b. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that BVDV was isolated and identified in sika deer. This current research contributes development new BVDV vaccine to prevent and control of BVD in sika deer. PMID:21352530

  19. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  20. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 nucleic acid in fetal bovine samples stored under different conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of pregnant cattle with bovine viral diarrhea viruses can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, still births, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive and immune systems and the birth of calves persistently infected w...

  1. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type subgenotypes isolated from cattle in the U.S. and Australia: prevalence and antigenic differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses are segregated into two different species within the pestivirus genus, bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 1 (BVDV1) and bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 2 (BVDV2). While this segregation was first based on phylogenetic analysis, subsequent characterization of v...

  2. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    PubMed Central

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FBS, and the BVDV antibody was detected in 44 (1.60%) FBS. The survey on 139 sets of paired sera of a dam and her fetus revealed that neither the BVDV antibody nor BVDV was detected in all FBS from BVDV antibody-positive dams. PMID:26074250

  3. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26895887

  4. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    PubMed

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs. PMID:26597189

  5. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  6. Fine mapping of loci on BTA2 and BTA26 associated with bovine viral diarrhea persistent infection and linked with bovine respiratory disease in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf...

  7. Regeneration and characterization of a recombinant bovine viral diarrhea virus and determination of its efficacy to cross the bovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Wang, Hai-Hong

    2009-02-01

    The capacity of different bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains to cause transplacental infection is variable. BVDV strain SD-1 was isolated from a persistently infected heifer. Its genome represents the only reported nucleotide sequence of a noncytopathic viral isolate determined without cell culture passage in the laboratory. Thus, SD-1 might possess biological advantages over other NCP BVDV strains to be used as a model virus for investigation of viral transplacental transmission. To evaluate if a molecularly generated BVDV SD-1 is capable of crossing the bovine placenta efficiently, a full-length cDNA clone of SD-1 was constructed using RT-PCR amplification and standard molecular techniques. In vitro transcripts synthesized from the cDNA template directed the generation of infectious virus in MDBK cells with a transfection efficiency as high as 4.7 x 10(5) FFU/mug RNA. The recovered virus termed ASD1 harbored five silent point mutations engineered as genetic markers and was similar to wild type (wt) SD-1 in viral growth kinetics. As evaluated in the pregnant heifers, ASD1 was capable of crossing the bovine placenta efficiently, suggesting that NCP BVDV SD-1 is a suitable viral backbone for investigation of the role of viral genetic element(s) in viral transplacental transmission by allowing for evaluation of newly created viral mutants. PMID:19067148

  8. [Genome sequencing and analysis of the bovine viral diarrhea virus-2 strain JZ05-1 isolated in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-chao; Miao, Li-guang; Li, Hai-tao; Liu, Yan-huan; Zhang, Guang-lei; Xiao, Jia-mei

    2010-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, which is a widespread problem for beef and dairy herds, and has given rise to a significant loss in the livestock industry all over the world. The BVDV strain JZ05-1 isolated from cattle in Jilin, China generated cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDBK cells. Eight overlapped gene fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced, the complete genom sequence of BVDV strain JZ05-1 was assembled. According to the results, the JZ05-1 genome was composed of 12285 nucleotides in length (GenBank accession No. GQ888686), which could be divided into three regions: a 387 nt 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 11694 nt single large open reading frame encoding a polyprotein, and a 204 nt 3'-UTR. The 5'-UTR and genome sequences were analyzed by sequence alignment and construction of phylogenetic trees. The strain JZ05-1 was classified as BVDV type 2a. The BVDV-2 strain JZ05-1 genome showed high similarity to the p11Q isolated in Canada and the XJ-04 isolated in China, with 90% and 91% identity in nucleotide sequence, respectively. Compared with the similarity within the BVDV-2 genotype (96%), the JZ05-1 had low sequence similarity to other BVDV-2 strains. PMID:20572347

  9. Experimental infection of mice with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to infect mice. Two mice each were either mock infected or inoculated with one of three BVDV strains by the intraperitoneal (IP) (n = 8) or intranasal (IN) (n = 8) route. All mice were euthanized at day 7 postinfection (p.i.). None of the infected mice exhibited any clinical signs of illness; however, the tissues harvested after BVDV challenge showed significant histopathological changes. Blood samples from five mice that were injected IP and one mouse that was inoculated IN were positive for BVDV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the presence of viral antigen in the organs of mice infected with three BVDV strains. In IP-injected mice, BVDV antigen was detected in the spleen (5/6), mesenteric lymph nodes (4/6), lymphatic tissue of the lung (3/6), lung (1/6), and stomach (1/6) of the infected mice; however, it was not detected in the liver (0/6) or kidney (0/6). In IN-inoculated mice, BVDV antigen was detected in the lung and mesenteric lymph nodes of one BVDV-infected mouse but was not detected in other tissues. The results of this study suggest that the spleen is the most reliable tissue for BVDV antigen detection using IHC in the IP-injected group. Our study demonstrates that mice can be infected by BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV infection in mice. PMID:25850760

  10. Identification of Genetic Regions Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea-Persistently Infected Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the etiologies involved in bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BVDV infection can also cause reproductive disorders and acute fatal hemorrhagic disease resulting in poor performance and economic losses to the cattle industry. Infection with BVDV can be tra...

  11. Development of fetal and placental innate immune responses during establishment of persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Morarie, Susan E; Hansen, Thomas R

    2012-08-01

    Transplacental viral infections are dependent upon complex interactions between feto-placental and maternal immune responses and the stage of fetal development at which the infection occurs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has the ability to cross the placenta and infect the fetus. Infection early in gestation with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV leads to persistent infection. Establishment of fetal persistent infection results in life-long viremia, virus-specific immunotolerance, and may have detrimental developmental consequences. We have previously shown that heifers infected experimentally with ncp BVDV type 2 on d. 75 of gestation had transient robust up-regulation of the type I interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) 3-15 days after viral inoculation. Blood from persistently infected (PI) fetuses, collected 115 days post maternal infection, demonstrated moderate chronic up-regulation of ISGs. This infection model was used to delineate timing of the development of innate immune responses in the fetus and placenta during establishment of persistent infection. It was hypothesized that: (i) chronic stimulation of innate immune responses occurs following infection of the fetus and (ii) placental production of the type I IFN contributes to up-regulation of ISGs in PI fetuses. PI fetuses, generated by intranasal inoculation of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV, and control fetuses from uninfected heifers, were collected via Cesarean sections on d. 82, 89, 97, 192, and 245 of gestation. Fetal viremia was confirmed starting on d. 89. Significant up-regulation of mRNA encoding cytosolic dsRNA sensors -RIG-I and MDA5 - was detected on d. 82-192. Detection of viral dsRNA by cytosolic sensors leads to the stimulation of ISGs, which was reflected in significant up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in fetal blood on d. 89, 97, and 192. No difference in IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA concentration was found in fetal blood or caruncular tissue, while a significant increase in both IFN-α and IFN

  12. Impact of species and subgenotypes of bovine viral diarrhea virus on control by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are diverse genetically and antigenically. This diversity impacts both diagnostic testing and vaccination. In North America, there are two BVDV species, 1 and 2 with 3 subgenotypes, BVDV1a, BVDV1b and BVDV2a. Initially, US vaccines contained BVDV1a cytopathic strains. With the reporting of BVDV2 severe disease in Canada and the USA there was focus on protection by BVDV1a vaccines on BVDV2 disease. There was also emphasis of controlling persistently infected (PI) cattle resulted in studies for fetal protection afforded by BVDV1a vaccines. Initially, studies indicated that some BVDV1a vaccines gave less than 100% protection against BVDV2 challenge for fetal infection. Eventually vaccines in North America added BVDV2a to modified live virus (MLV) and killed BVDV1a vaccines. Ideally, vaccines should stimulate complete immunity providing 100% protection against disease, viremias, shedding, and 100% fetal protection in vaccinates when challenged with a range of diverse antigenic viruses (subgenotypes). There should be a long duration of immunity stimulated by vaccines, especially for fetal protection. MLV vaccines should be safe when given according to the label and free of other pathogens. While vaccines have now included BVDV1a and BVDV2a, with the discovery of the predominate subgenotype of BVDV in the USA to be BVDV1b, approximately 75% or greater in prevalence, protection in acute challenge and fetal protection studies became more apparent for BVDV1b. Thus many published studies examined protection by BVDV1a and BVDV2a vaccines against BVDV1b in acute challenge and fetal protection studies. There are no current BVDV1b vaccines in the USA. There are now more regulations on BVDV reproductive effects by the USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) regarding label claims for protection against abortion, PI calves, and fetal infections, including expectations for studies regarding those claims. Also, the USDA CVB has a memorandum

  13. A bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a strain in China: isolation, identification, and experimental infection in calves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important pathogens in cattle. Previously, BVDV sub-genotypes of 1b, 1c, 1d, and 1 m were detected in China. However, isolation of BVDV type 1a from cattle has not been reported in China. In 2010, twenty nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from the cattle suspected BVDV infection in Henan province, China. A BVDV isolate was isolated using cell culture, and the pathogenesis of the virus isolate was studied. Methods Virus isolation was performed on MDBK cells. The virus identification was conducted by RT-PCR, neutralization test and immunofluorescence assay. In order to determine the genotype of the newly isolated virus, the 5′ un-translated region (5′UTR) of the virus isolate was cloned, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. To evaluate the virulence of the virus isolate, four BVDV sero-negative calves were intranasally inoculated with the virus suspension. Rectal temperatures and clinical signs were recorded daily. Blood samples were analyzed for changes in white blood cell counts, and tissue samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Results A new isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), named HN01, was isolated from the nasal swabs using MDBK cell culture. The HN01 strain caused cytopathic effect (CPE) in MDBK cell cultures after two passages. The virus specifically reacted to BVDV1-specific monoclonal antibody in an immunofluorescence assay. A fragment of 288 bp of genome from this isolate was amplified by the RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5′UTR indicated that the virus was BVDV 1a. In the pathogenesis study, four calves experimentally infected with the BVDV strain developed depression, cough and other clinical signs. Calves showed high temperature over 40°C, and white blood cell counts dropped more than 40%. Conclusions A new subgenotype 1a strain of BVDV was firstly isolated from dairy cattle in China. The experimental infection showed that the virus was

  14. Surveillance for persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in four artificial insemination centers.

    PubMed

    Howard, T H; Bean, B; Hillman, R; Monke, D R

    1990-06-15

    Four large bovine artificial insemination centers implemented a program of surveillance of resident and newly acquired bulls for persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection. Infection was identified in 12 of 1,538 bulls. Several clinical abnormalities, including acute and chronic mucosal disease, were evident among the persistently infected bulls. Semen produced by such bulls consistently contained bovine viral diarrhea virus, and such contamination was not always accompanied by diminished seminal quality. Infected bulls were detected by means of virus isolation tests performed on blood specimens, but not by use of serologic testing. Ten of the 12 persistently infected bulls were results of embryo transfer. Virologic surveillance of breeding herds, artificial insemination and embryo transfer centers, and the cattle trade is necessary to prevent spread of this virus by modern cattle breeding practices. Attention is also necessary to prevent contamination by this virus of the fluids used for recovery, in vitro manipulation, and transfer of bovine embryos. PMID:2163996

  15. Molecular detection and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Mongolian cattle and yaks.

    PubMed

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs. PMID:27206573

  16. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings. PMID:24026447

  17. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in postweaned calves in a feedlot after vaccination and from fatal respiratory cases: isolation and differentiation of MLV BVDV and field strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral infections are important etiologies in BRD cases. Calves at stocker/feedlot entry usually receive modified live viral (MLV) vaccines containing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). In...

  18. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS IN CAMELIDS: AN EMERGING PATHOGEN AND WAYS TO MONITOR HERD INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The subject of this report will attempt to tie in several aspects of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and its most recent incursion into the camelid family, namely llamas and alpacas. We have known that both llamas and alpacas are susceptible to BVDV infections for over 20 years. In some cases, ...

  19. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)1 or 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...

  20. Knowledge Gaps Impacting the Development of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Control Programs in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper identifies knowledge gaps that impact on the design of programs to control and or eradicate bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in the United States. Currently there are several voluntary regional BVDV control programs in place. These control programs are aimed at the removal of animals ...

  1. Interlaboratory comparison of diagnostic testing methods for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NVSL, in collaboration with ARS, developed a proficiency panel for bovine viral diarrhea virus testing. Twenty-eight participants used the panel for virus detection by antigen ELISA, virus isolation, or PCR. The panel consisted of 15 or 16 diluted serum and buffy coat samples from known negati...

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus outbreak in a beef cow herd in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to describe the outcome of natural bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in a herd of 136 bred heifers. This outbreak was notable in that a total of 36 PI calves were generated. Of the 136 bred heifers, 8 failed to deliver a calf. Eight calves died shortly a...

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: impact of the virus on cattle performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper details the impact that infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has on cattle performance. Published studies are reviewed that suggest that BVDV infections can alter the normal production of cytokines and free radicals, thus resulting in more severe inflammation and tissue dam...

  4. Evidence for persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in a captive mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are pestiviruses that have been isolated from domestic and wild ruminants, and there is serologic evidence of pestiviral infection in more than 40 species of free-ranging and captive mammals. Vertical transmission can produce persistently infected animals that ar...

  5. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  6. Case Report: Emergence of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected calves in a closed herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to have significant economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide. The virus is primarily maintained in the cattle population due to persistently infected animals. Herd surveillance along with good vaccination programs and biosecurity practices are the...

  7. Genetic diversity and frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detected in cattle in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid detection and culling of persistently infected animals and efficacious vaccination are key factors to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate frequency of detection of persistently infected cattle and examine the diversity of bo...

  8. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  9. Resolving bovine viral diarrhea virus subtypes from persistently infected US beef calves with complete genome sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into 2 genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, each of which contains distinct subtypes with genetic and antigenic differences. Currently, three major subtypes circulate in the United States: BVDV-1a, 1b, and 2a. In addition, a single case of BVDV-2b infection ...

  10. Periparturient infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 causes hemorrhagic proctocolitis in a cow

    PubMed Central

    Laureyns, Jozef; Pardon, Bart; Letellier, Carine; Deprez, Piet

    2011-01-01

    After 3 cows of a dairy herd had died from severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, a 4th sick cow was transported to the clinic. Blood analyses revealed the complete absence of white blood cells, the presence of a type 1b strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and seroconversion to BVDV. PMID:22467972

  11. Fatal trichuris spp. infection in a Holstein heifer persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Greg N

    2004-06-01

    Whipworms (Trichuris spp.) were identified in the colon of a recently purchased, 10-month-old dairy heifer that died suddenly. A skin test was positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Signs of BVDV occurred in other heifers in the group, but fecal flotations were negative for whipworm eggs. PMID:15283522

  12. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...

  13. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...

  14. Genetic characterization of a noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 2b isolated from cattle in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Chen, Chaoyang; Wu, Hua

    2014-10-01

    In January 2013, several clinical signs of cattle with diarrhea, cough, nasal discharge, and fever were reported in Jilin province, China. One virus named SD1301 was isolated and identified. Complete genome of the virus is 12258nt in length and contains a 5'UTR, one open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,897 amino acids and a 3'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 5'UTR, N(pro), E1 and E2 gene demonstrated the virus belonged to BVDV 2b, and genetically related to the BVDV strain Hokudai-Lab/09 from Japan in 2010. This bovine viral diarrhea virus displays a unique genetic signature with 27-nucleotide deletion in the 5'UTR, which is similar to the bovine viral diarrhea virus C413 (AF002227). This was the first confirmed isolation of ncp BVDV2b circulating in bovine herd of China. PMID:24811746

  15. Variation in E**rns viral glycoprotein associated with failure of immunohistochemistry and commercial antigen capture ELISA to detect a field strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) effects cattle populations causing clinical signs that range from subclinical immunosuppression to severe reproductive and respiratory problems. Detection and removal of persistently infected (PI) calves is the single most important factor for control and eradicat...

  16. Effects of Preinfection With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus on Immune Cells From the Lungs of Calves Inoculated With Bovine Herpesvirus 1.1.

    PubMed

    Risalde, M A; Molina, V; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interstitial aggregates of immune cells observed in pulmonary parenchyma of calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and challenged later with bovine herpesvirus 1. In addition, the intent of this research was to clarify the role of bovine viral diarrhea virus in local cell-mediated immunity and potentially in predisposing animals to bovine respiratory disease complex. Twelve Friesian calves, aged 8 to 9 months, were inoculated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1. Ten were subsequently challenged with bovine herpesvirus 1 and euthanized at 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days postinoculation. The other 2 calves were euthanized prior to the second inoculation. Another cohort of 10 calves was inoculated only with bovine herpesvirus 1 and then were euthanized at the same time points. Two calves were not inoculated with any agent and were used as negative controls. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated in all animals, while quantitative and biosynthetic changes in immune cells were concurrently examined immunohistochemically to compare coinfected calves and calves challenged only with bovine herpesvirus 1. Calves preinfected with bovine viral diarrhea virus demonstrated moderate respiratory clinical signs and histopathologic evidence of interstitial pneumonia with aggregates of mononuclear cells, which predominated at 4 days postinoculation. Furthermore, this group of animals was noted to have a suppression of interleukin-10 and associated alterations in the Th1-driven cytokine response in the lungs, as well as inhibition of the response of CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes against bovine herpesvirus 1. These findings suggest that bovine viral diarrhea virus preinfection could affect the regulation of the immune response as modulated by regulatory T cells, as well as impair local cell-mediated immunity to secondary respiratory pathogens. PMID:25322747

  17. Inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro by xanthohumol: comparisons with ribavirin and interferon-alpha and implications for the development of anti-hepatitis C virus agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ni; Liu, Zhengwen; Han, Qunying; Chen, Jinghong; Lou, Sai; Qiu, Jianming; Zhang, Guoyu

    2009-11-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) is a natural compound with potential antiviral activity. In this study, the ability of XN to inhibit bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a surrogate model of hepatitis C virus (HCV), was investigated. The antiviral activity of XN was compared with that of ribavirin (RBV) and interferon (IFN)-alpha. The results showed that XN could inhibit BVDV induced cytopathic effects (CPE). At 1000 TCID(50) and 100 TCID(50), the values of 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) were 3.24+/-0.02 mg/l and 2.77+/-0.19 mg/l, respectively, and the therapeutic indices were >7.72 and >9.03, respectively. XN inhibited BVDV E2 expression and viral RNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. At 6.25mg/l, XN decreased the viral RNA from released virus by 3.83 log 10 at 1000 TCID(50) and to an undetectable level at 100 TCID(50), and decreased the viral RNA level in whole cell culture by 3.36 log 10 and 2.88 log 10 at 1000 TCID(50) and 100 TCID(50), respectively. The inhibitory activity of XN on CPE, BVDV E2 expression and viral RNA levels was stronger than that of RBV and weaker than that of IFN-alpha. These results indicate the need to investigate the anti-HCV potential of XN. PMID:19720145

  18. Loci on Bos taurus chromosome 2 and Bos taurus chromosome 26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify loci linked with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and subsequently to determine if these same loci were associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus persistent infection (BVD-PI) in BVD-PI calves or their dams. A genome-wide linkage study using 312 microsa...

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties) The prevalence of PI3 viral antibodies among Saskatchewan cattle was not affected by district of origin, breed, sex, age, or vaccination practices, though BRS viral antibodies appeared less frequent in young, male, and unvaccinated animals. Antibodies to IBR and BVD viruses were less prevalent in the Prince Albert/Tisdale districts and in young, male, and unvaccinated animals, but were more common in Holstein cattle. Antibodies to IBR virus appeared less frequent in Herefords. Antibodies were more prevalent in cattle which had been vaccinated against IBR, BRS, and BVD virus infections. The relatively small number of cattle sampled from Alberta had a similar prevalence of antibodies to PI3 and BRS viruses to that seen in cattle in Saskatchewan, though IBR and BVD prevalence rates were lower. PMID:17423704

  20. Comparison of stability of viral nucleic acid in different tissues and under different conditions in samples collected from fetuses infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) induced reproductive disease is important to herd health management and BVDV control programs. Diagnosing BVDV, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as a cause of reproductive disease may be problematic because viral nucleic acid may be degrade...

  1. Establishment, differentiation, electroporation, viral transduction, and nuclear transfer of bovine and porcine mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Colleoni, S; Donofrio, G; Lagutina, I; Duchi, R; Galli, C; Lazzari, G

    2005-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in the bone marrow and have the potential for multilineage differentiation, into bone, cartilage, and fat, for example. In this study, bovine and porcine MSCs were isolated, cultured to determine their replication ability, and differentiated with osteogenic medium and 5-azacytine. Both bovine and porcine undifferentiated MSCs were electroporated and virally transduced to test the efficiency of genetic modification and the maintainance of differentiation ability thereafter. Nuclear transfer experiments were carried out with bovine and porcine MSCs, both at the undifferentiated state and following differentiation. Our results indicate that bovine and porcine MSCs have limited lifespans in vitro--approximately 50 population doublings. They can be efficiently differentiated and characterized along the osteogenic lineage by morphology, alkaline phosphatase, Von Kossa, oil red stainings, and RT-PCR. Electroporation and selection induce high levels of EGFP expression in porcine but not in bovine MSCs. Following genetic modification, MSCs retain their pluridifferentiation ability as parental cells. Cloned embryos derived from bovine and porcine undifferentiated MSCs and their derivatives along the osteogenic lineage give rise to consistently high preimplantation development comparable to adult fibroblasts. PMID:16176125

  2. A genome-wide association study for the incidence of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is diverse group of viruses causing disease in ruminants. It is controlled with vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected animals. The objective was to determine whether genomic regions harbored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated ...

  3. First report of bovine viral diarrhoea virus-2 infection in cattle in Poland.

    PubMed

    Polak, Mirosław P; Kuta, Aleksandra; Rybałtowski, Wiesław; Rola, Jerzy; Larska, Magdalena; Zmudziński, Jan F

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first identification in Poland of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)-2 in a dairy herd where severe clinical disease with losses of young animals was observed. The virus was readily cultivated in cell culture and a phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences and secondary structures of the viral genomic 5' untranslated region confirmed virus identity. The economic impact of the infection was significant compared to the previously prevalent BVDV-1 infections confirming that this genotype of BVDV can cause severe sickness in affected herds. The use of BVDV-1 vaccine did not prevent the infection with the BVDV-2 genotype. PMID:25457262

  4. Complete Genome Sequencing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1, Subgenotypes 1n and 1o.

    PubMed

    Sato, Asuka; Tateishi, Kentaro; Shinohara, Minami; Naoi, Yuki; Shiokawa, Mai; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Keitaro; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Nagai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    To gain further insight into the genomic features of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) subgenotypes, we sequenced the complete genome of BVDV-1n Shitara/02/06 and BVDV-1o IS26NCP/01. The complete genome of Shitara/02/06 and IS26NCP/01 shared 77.7 to 79.3% and 78.0 to 85.7% sequence identities with other BVDV-1 subgenotype strains, respectively. PMID:26893426

  5. Histophathologic and Immunohistochemical Findings in Two White-tail Deer Fawns Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of domestic cattle. Serological, experimental and individual case studies have explored the presence and pathogenesis of the virus in wild ungulates; however there remain large gaps in knowledge regarding BVDV infection in non-bovine speci...

  6. Diverse outcomes of bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in a herd naturally infected during pregnancy - a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A beef producer purchased Angus crossbred cattle that were pregnant with nursing calves. The purchased cattle, their nursing calves, and subsequent born calves were not initially tested for BVDV. Bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 2a (BVDV2a) was isolated from an aborted bovine fetus, 6.5 months,...

  7. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity. PMID:24388627

  8. Induction of interferon-gamma and downstream pathways during establishment of fetal persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; McGill, Jodi L; Schaut, Robert G; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Sacco, Randy E; Hansen, Thomas R

    2014-04-01

    Development of transplacental infection depends on the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and replicate within the fetus while counteracting maternal and fetal immune responses. Unfortunately, little is known about this complex process. Non-cytopathic (ncp) strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family, cause persistent infection in early gestational fetuses (<150 days; persistently infected, PI), but are cleared by immunocompetent animals and late gestational fetuses (>150 days; transiently infected, TI). Evasion of innate immune response and development of immunotolerance to ncp BVDV have been suggested as possible mechanisms for the establishment of the persistent infection. Previously we have observed a robust temporal induction of interferon (IFN) type I (innate immune response) and upregulation of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) in BVDV TI fetuses. Modest chronic upregulation of ISGs in PI fetuses and calves reflects a stimulated innate immune response during persistent BVDV infection. We hypothesized that establishing persistent fetal BVDV infection is also accompanied by the induction of IFN-gamma (IFN-γ). The aims of the present study were to determine IFN-γ concentration in blood and amniotic fluid from control, TI and PI fetuses during BVDV infection and analyze induction of the IFN-γ downstream pathways in fetal lymphoid tissues. Two experiments with in vivo BVDV infections were completed. In Experiment 1, pregnant heifers were infected with ncp BVDV type 2 on day 75 or 175 of gestation or kept naïve to generate PI, TI and control fetuses, respectively. Fetuses were collected by Cesarean section on day 190. In Experiment 2, fetuses were collected on days 82, 89, 97, 192 and 245 following infection of pregnant heifers on day 75 of gestation. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that ncp BVDV infection induces IFN-γ secretion during acute infection in both TI and PI fetuses and that lymphoid

  9. Unbiased analysis by high throughput sequencing of the viral diversity in fetal bovine serum and trypsin used in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Gagnieur, Léa; Cheval, Justine; Gratigny, Marlène; Hébert, Charles; Muth, Erika; Dumarest, Marine; Eloit, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and trypsin are reagents used in cell culture and have been the source of viral contamination of pharmaceutical products. We performed high throughput sequencing (HTS) of two pools of commercial batches of FBS and three commercial batches of trypsin. Taxonomies were assigned by comparing sequences of contigs and singletons to the entire NCBI nucleic acid and protein databases. The same major viral species were evidenced between batches of a given reagent but the proportion of viral reads among total reads varied markedly between samples (from 0.002% to 22.7%). In FBS, the sequences found were mainly from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 to 3 and bovine parvovirus 3 (BPV3). The BVDV sequences derived from FBS showed only minor discrepancies with primers generally used for the screening of BVDV. Viral sequences in trypsin were mainly from porcine circovirus type 2. Other known viral sequences at lower read counts and potential new viral species (bovine parvovirus and bovine pegivirus) were evidenced. The load of some known and new viruses detected by HTS could be quantified by qPCR. Results of HTS provide a framework for evaluating the pertinence of control measures including the design of PCRs, bioassays and inactivation procedures. PMID:24661556

  10. Intrauterine inoculation of seronegative heifers with bovine viral diarrhea virus concurrent with transfer of in vivo-derived bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Gard, J A; Givens, M D; Marley, M S D; Galik, P K; Riddell, K P; Edmondson, M A; Rodning, S P

    2010-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been shown to be associated with single transferable in vivo-derived bovine embryos despite washing and trypsin treatment. Hence, the primary objective was to evaluate the potential of BVDV to be transmitted via the intrauterine route at the time of embryo transfer. In vivo-derived bovine embryos (n=10) were nonsurgically collected from a single Bos tarus donor cow negative for BVDV. After collection and washing, embryos were placed into transfer media containing BVDV (SD-1; Type 1a). Each of the 10 embryos was individually loaded into an 0.25-mL straw, which was then nonsurgically transferred into the uterus of 1 of the 10 seronegative recipients on Day 0. The total quantity of virus transferred into the uterus of each of the 10 Bos tarus recipients was 878 cell culture infective doses to the 50% end point (CCID(50))/mL. Additionally, control heifers received 1.5 x 10(6) CCID(50) BVDV/.5 mL without an embryo (positive) or heat-inactivated BVDV (negative). The positive control heifer and all 10 recipients of virus-exposed embryos exhibited viremia by Day 6 and seroconverted by Day 15 after transfer. The negative control heifer did not exhibit a viremia or seroconvert. At 30 d after embryo transfer, 6 of 10 heifers in the treatment group were pregnant; however, 30 d later, only one was still pregnant. This fetus was nonviable and was positive for BVDV. In conclusion, the quantity of BVDV associated with bovine embryos after in vitro exposure can result in viremia and seroconversion of seronegative recipients after transfer into the uterus during diestrus. PMID:20129656

  11. Latex immunoagglutination assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus utilizing forward light scattering in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Brian C.; Song, Jae-Young; Han, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated the utilization of particle agglutination assays using forward light scattering measurements in a microfluidic device towards detecting viral particles. The model viral target was bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Highly carboxylated polystyrene microspheres (510 nm) were coated with anti-BVDV monoclonal antibodies. This solution was in turn used to detect live modified BVDV. This assay was first performed in a two well slide for proof of concept and then in a simple y-channel microfluidic device with optical fibers arranged in a close proximity setup. Particle immunoagglutination was detected through static light scattering measurements taken at 45° to incident light. In the microfluidic device, modified live BVDV was detected with a detection limit of 0.5 TCID 50 mL -1.

  12. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. PMID:20381643

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Correa, J.C.; Zapata-Campos, C.C.; Jasso-Obregón, J.O.; Martinez-Burnes, J.; López-Zavala, R.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  14. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in North-Eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura-Correa, J C; Zapata-Campos, C C; Jasso-Obregón, J O; Martinez-Burnes, J; López-Zavala, R

    2016-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and the principal exporter of calf and heifer to the United States. The objectives of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and of BVDV, and to determine the effects of risk factors on these infections. Blood samples of cattle from 57 farms from rural districts of Tamaulipas were collected. The samples were tested for antibodies against BoHV-1 and BVDV using commercial ELISA kits. Data on potential risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the farmer at the time the blood samples were taken. The seroprevalences for BoHV-1 and BVDV were 64.4% and 47.8%, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, the significant risk factors were rural district, herd size and cattle introduced to the farm. This study confirms the high seroprevalence of BoHV-1 and BVDV in unvaccinated cattle in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The results of this study could be used for the development of BoHV-1 and BVDV prevention and control program in North-Eastern, Mexico. PMID:27622156

  15. Diagnostic dilemma encountered when detecting bovine viral diarrhea virus in IVF embryo production.

    PubMed

    Given, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia K; Stringfellow, David A; Brock, Kenny V; Loskutoff, Naida M

    2002-10-15

    Routine quality controls in production of bovine embryos by in vitro fertilization (IVF) should include screening all materials of animal origin for the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Using a reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) assay, we detected BVDV in primary cultures of uterine tubal cells (UTC) that had been used during IVF procedures. The goal of our ensuing investigation was to determine its source and assess risks associated with the identified contaminant. Sequencing of the amplified 5' nontranslated region (NTR) of the viral genome confirmed a Genotype I BVDV contaminant. This viral contaminant was also identified by RT-nPCR in multiple samples of the same lot of fetal bovine serum (FBS) that was used in transport media by the laboratory that harvested the UTC. Both routine and enhanced roller bottle methods for virus isolation failed to detect BVDV in the FBS. Furthermore, virus neutralization assays did identify antibodies to Genotype I strains of BVDV in the FBS. After 7 days of co-incubation, neither cultured, washed UTC nor exposed, washed embryos were RT-nPCR positive for BVDV. Eight embryos produced in the contaminated system were nonsurgically transferred into eight seronegative cows. None of the embryo recipients seroconverted to BVDV. Thus, contamination of cell culture medium with BVDV did not result in transmission of the virus when IVF embryos were transferred. Failure to transmit disease was likely aided by serendipitous control from anti-BVDV antibodies in the FBS. However, a diagnostic dilemma was created when the RT-nPCR assays used to screen for BVDV were positive, yet attempts to isolate the virus were negative. This case study illustrates that if molecular assays are to be used to confirm the pathogen-free status of IVF embryo production systems, media components of animal origin (e.g. FBS) should be screened with molecular assays for BVDV as well as traditional virus isolation techniques

  16. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 nucleic acid in fetal bovine samples stored under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F; Neill, John D; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Waldbillig, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Infection of pregnant cattle with both species of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, stillbirths, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive, and immune systems, and the birth of calves persistently infected with BVDV. Accurate diagnosis of BVDV-associated reproductive disease is important to control BVDV at the production unit level and assessment of the cost of BVDV infections in support of BVDV control programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the stability of viral nucleic acid in fetal tissues exposed to different conditions, as measured by detection by polymerase chain reaction. Five different types of fetal tissue, including brain, skin and muscle, ear, and 2 different pooled organ samples, were subjected to conditions that mimicked those that might exist for samples collected after abortions in production settings or possible storage conditions after collection and prior to testing. In addition, tissues were archived for 36 months at -20°C and then retested, to mimic conditions that might occur in the case of retrospective surveillance studies. Brain tissue showed the highest stability under the conditions tested. The impact of fecal contamination was increased following archiving in all tissue types suggesting that, for long-term storage, effort should be made to reduce environmental contaminants before archiving. PMID:24352225

  17. Immune response to bovine viral diarrhea virus--looking at newly defined targets.

    PubMed

    Chase, Christopher C L; Thakur, Neelu; Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Morarie-Kane, Susan E; Rajput, Mrigendra K

    2015-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has long been associated with a wide variety of clinical syndromes and immune dysregulation, many which result in secondary bacterial infections. Current understanding of immune cell interactions that result in activation and tolerance are explored in light of BVDV infection including: depletion of lymphocytes, effects on neutrophils, natural killer cells, and the role of receptors and cytokines. In addition, we review some new information on the effect of BVDV on immune development in the fetal liver, the role of resident macrophages, and greater implications for persistent infection. PMID:26050567

  18. Stability of the Resistance to the Thiosemicarbazone Derived from 5,6-Dimethoxy-1-Indanone, a Non-Nucleoside Polymerase Inhibitor of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Eliana F.; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1–5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1–5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1–5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs. PMID:24950191

  19. Stability of the resistance to the thiosemicarbazone derived from 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone, a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Castro, Eliana F; Campos, Rodolfo H; Cavallaro, Lucía V

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype Pestivirus. BVDV infection is distributed worldwide and causes serious problems for the livestock industry. The thiosemicarbazone of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (TSC) is a non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (NNI) of BVDV. All TSC-resistant BVDV variants (BVDV-TSCr T1-5) present an N264D mutation in the NS5B gene (RdRp) whereas the variant BVDV-TSCr T1 also presents an NS5B A392E mutation. In the present study, we carried out twenty passages of BVDV-TSCr T1-5 in MDBK cells in the absence of TSC to evaluate the stability of the resistance. The viral populations obtained (BVDV R1-5) remained resistant to the antiviral compound and conserved the mutations in NS5B associated with this phenotype. Along the passages, BVDV R2, R3 and R5 presented a delay in the production of cytopathic effect that correlated with a decrease in cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of viral RNA. The complete genome sequences that encode for NS2 to NS5B, Npro and Erns were analyzed. Additional mutations were detected in the NS5B of BVDV R1, R3 and R4. In both BVDV R2 and R3, most of the mutations found were localized in NS5A, whereas in BVDV R5, the only mutation fixed was NS5A V177A. These results suggest that mutations in NS5A could alter BVDV cytopathogenicity. In conclusion, the stability of the resistance to TSC may be due to the fixation of different compensatory mutations in each BVDV-TSCr. During their replication in a TSC-free medium, some virus populations presented a kind of interaction with the host cell that resembled a persistent infection: decreased cytopathogenicity and viral genome synthesis. This is the first report on the stability of antiviral resistance and on the evolution of NNI-resistant BVDV variants. The results obtained for BVDV-TSCr could also be applied for other NNIs. PMID:24950191

  20. Prevalence Study and Genetic Typing of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Four Bovine Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Mingliang; Ji, Sukun; Fei, Wentao; Raza, Sohail; He, Chenfei; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Huanchun; Guo, Aizhen

    2015-01-01

    To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens), and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab) and antigen (Ag) detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5’-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379), 1.39% (14/1010), and 22.64% (146/645), respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333), 63.27% (248/392), 45.38% (236/520), and 14.18% (19/134), respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116), 0.77% (3/392), 0.82% (3/368), and 5.97% (8/134), respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131), 13.00% (26/200), 28.89% (52/180), and 19.40% (26/134), respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5’-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5’-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%), BVDV-1m (49.19%), or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%). Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health. PMID:25849315

  1. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS PERSISTENTLY INFECTED AND ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES: ASSAYS FOR VIRAL INFECTIVITY, POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ANALYSIS, AND ANTIGEN DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous assays for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detecting infectious virus, nucleic material, and antigen. Persistently infected (PI) and acutely/transiently infected calves with BVDV represent two different manifestations. Diagnostic test results impact on differentiation of PI o...

  2. Characterization of viral replication and the immune response in bison peripheral blood mononuclear cells following in vitro bovine viral diarrhea virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae that has significant negative economic impact on beef and dairy production worldwide. In recent years, the North American bison industry has grown considerably with increases in the numbers of both wild and private herds. ...

  3. Characterization of the cytopathic BVDV strains isolated from 13 mucosal disease cases arising in a cattle herd.

    PubMed

    Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Rajput, Mrigendra K S; Braun, Lyle J; Ridpath, Julia F; Neill, John D; Chase, Christopher C L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a positive single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has a wide host range that includes most ruminants. Noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV may establish lifelong persistent infections in calves following infection of the fetus between 40 and 120 days of gestation. Cytopathic (cp) BVDV strains arise from ncp strains via mutations. The most common cp mutations are insertions of RNA derived from either host or a duplication of viral sequences into the region of the genome coding for the NS2/3 protein. Superinfection of a persistently infected animal with a cp virus can give rise to mucosal disease, a condition that is invariably fatal. A herd of 136 bred 3-year old cows was studied. These cows gave birth to 41 PI animals of which 23 succumbed to mucosal disease. In this study, we characterized the ncp and cp viruses isolated from 13 of these animals. All viruses belonged to the BVDV type 2a genotype and were highly similar. All the cp viruses contained an insertion in the NS2/3 coding region consisting of the sequences derived from the transcript encoding a DnaJ protein named Jiv90. Comparison of the inserted DnaJ regions along with the flanking viral sequences in the insertion 3' end of the 13 cp isolates revealed sequence identities ranging from 96% to 99% with common borders. This suggested that one animal likely developed a cp virus that then progressively spread to the other 12 animals. Interestingly, when the inserted mammalian gene replicated within viral genome, it showed conservation of the same conserved motifs between the different species, which may indicate a role for these motifs in the insertion function within the virus genome. This is the first characterization of multiple cp bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates that spread in a herd under natural conditions. PMID:25300803

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2-induced meningoencephalitis in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Blas-Machado, U; Saliki, J T; Duffy, J C; Caseltine, S L

    2004-03-01

    The brain from a 15-month-old, black female Angus, with a 48-hour history of central nervous system disease, was submitted to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory. Microscopic findings consisted of acute, multifocal meningoencephalitis, with neuronal degeneration and necrosis and gliosis. Viral isolation yielded noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Virus genotyping classified the virus as BVDV type 2. Immunohistochemical labeling for BVDV antigens with BVD MAb 3.12F1 clone was prominent in the cytoplasm of neurons, glial cells, ependymal epithelium, perivascular macrophages and spindle cells, smooth muscle cells, and intravascular monocytes of the cerebrum and brain stem. Laboratory results support that tissue alterations occurred as a result of BVDV type 2 infection. In the absence of other clinical signs related to BVDV infection and using the microscopic and laboratory evidence presented, we propose that the BVDV type 2 isolated from this case may represent a neurovirulent strain of the virus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brain lesions and neuronal viral antigen localization in BVDV genotype 2 viral infection, acquired either congenitally or postnatally. PMID:15017036

  5. Crystal structure of glycoprotein E2 from bovine viral diarrhea virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Wang, Jimin; Kanai, Ryuta; Modis, Yorgo

    2013-01-01

    Pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, are important animal pathogens and are closely related to hepatitis C virus, which remains a major global health threat. They have an outer lipid envelope bearing two glycoproteins, E1 and E2, required for cell entry. They deliver their genome into the host cell cytoplasm by fusion of their envelope with a cellular membrane. The crystal structure of bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 reveals a unique protein architecture consisting of two Ig-like domains followed by an elongated β-stranded domain with a new fold. E2 forms end-to-end homodimers with a conserved C-terminal motif rich in aromatic residues at the contact. A disulfide bond across the interface explains the acid resistance of pestiviruses and their requirement for a redox activation step to initiate fusion. From the structure of E2, we propose alternative possible membrane fusion mechanisms. We expect the pestivirus fusion apparatus to be conserved in hepatitis C virus. PMID:23569276

  6. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infected and noninfected cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B

    2013-02-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic. PMID:22858000

  7. Change in Predominance of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotypes Among Samples Submitted to a Diagnostic Laboratory Over a 20-Year Time Span

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea was initially categorized as one species, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses belong to two different species, bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV1) and BVDV2, with 2 to 11 subgenotypes within each species. Distribution of species...

  8. Evaluation of Three Experimental Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Killed Vaccines Adjuvanted with Combinations of QuilA Cholesterol and Dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) Bromide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections cause respiratory, reproductive, and enteric disease in cattle. Vaccination raises herd resistance and then limits the spread of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) among cattle. The goal of this research was to evaluate new adjuvants, consisting of c...

  9. Change in Predominance of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotypes Among Samples Submitted to a Diagnostic Laboratory Over a 20-Year Time Span

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea was initially categorized as one species, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses belong to two different species, bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV1) and BVDV2. Further analysis led to the recognition of multiple subgenotypes withi...

  10. Characterization of bovine A20 gene: Expression mediated by NF-κB pathway in MDBK cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus-1.

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2016-05-01

    Cytokine production for immunological process is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The NF-κB signaling pathway maintains immune homeostasis in the cell through the participation of molecules such as A20 (TNFAIP3), which is a key regulatory factor in the immune response, hematopoietic differentiation, and immunomodulation. Although A20 has been identified in mammals, and despite recent efforts to identify A20 members in other higher vertebrates, relatively little is known about the composition of this regulator in other classes of vertebrates, particularly for bovines. In this study, the genetic context of bovine A20 was explored and compared against homologous genes in the human, mouse, chicken, dog, and zebrafish chromosomes. Through in silico analysis, several regions of interest were found conserved between even phylogenetically distant species. Additionally, a protein-deduced sequence of bovine A20 evidenced many conserved domains in humans and mice. Furthermore, all potential amino acid residues implicated in the active site of A20 were conserved. Finally, bovine A20 mRNA expression as mediated by the bovine viral diarrhea virus and poly (I:C) was evaluated. These analyses evidenced a strong fold increase in A20 expression following virus exposure, a phenomenon blocked by a pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 117085). Interestingly, A20 mRNA had a half-life of only 32min, likely due to adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Collectively, these data identify bovine A20 as a regulator of immune marker expression. Finally, this is the first report to find the bovine viral diarrhea virus modulating bovine A20 activation through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26809100

  11. Development of a duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus in bovine follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Marley, Mylissa S D; Givens, M Daniel; Galik, Patricia K; Riddell, Kay P; Stringfellow, David A

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for simultaneous detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type I and type II. Follicular fluid was collected from a BoHV-1 acutely infected heifer, a BVDV I persistently infected heifer, and from 10 ovaries recovered from an abattoir. Both the BoHV-1 and BVDV contaminated follicular fluid were diluted 1:5 to 1:10(7) using the pooled, abattoir-origin follicular fluid. Each dilution sample was analyzed using the duplex qPCR, virus isolation, reverse transcription-nested PCR (RT-nPCR), and BoHV-1 qPCR. The duplex qPCR was able to simultaneously detect BoHV-1 and BVDV I in the fluid diluted to 1:100 and 1:1000, respectively. These results corresponded with the reverse transcription-nested PCR and BoHV-1 qPCR. Therefore, the duplex qPCR might be used for quality assurance testing to identify these two viruses in cells, fluids and tissues collected from donor animals and used in reproductive technologies. PMID:18452983

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea viral infections in feeder calves with respiratory disease: interactions with Pasteurella spp., parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, R W; Purdy, C W; Confer, A W; Saliki, J T; Loan, R W; Briggs, R E; Burge, L J

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections was determined in a group of stocker calves suffering from acute respiratory disease. The calves were assembled after purchase from Tennessee auctions and transported to western Texas. Of the 120 calves, 105 (87.5%) were treated for respiratory disease. Sixteen calves died during the study (13.3%). The calves received a modified live virus BHV-1 vaccine on day 0 of the study. During the study, approximately 5 wk in duration, sera from the cattle, collected at weekly intervals, were tested for BVDV by cell culture. Sera were also tested for neutralizing antibodies to BVDV types 1 and 2, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3V), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). The lungs from the 16 calves that died during the study were collected and examined by histopathology, and lung homogenates were inoculated onto cell cultures for virus isolation. There were no calves persistently infected with BVDV detected in the study, as no animals were viremic on day 0, nor were any animals viremic at the 2 subsequent serum collections. There were, however, 4 animals with BVDV type 1 noncytopathic (NCP) strains in the sera from subsequent collections. Viruses were isolated from 9 lungs: 7 with PI-3V, 1 with NCP BVDV type 1, and 1 with both BVHV-1 and BVDV. The predominant bacterial species isolated from these lungs was Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1. There was serologic evidence of infection with BVDV types 1 and 2, PI-3V, and BRSV, as noted by seroconversion (> or = 4-fold rise in antibody titer) in day 0 to day 34 samples collected from the 104 survivors: 40/104 (38.5%) to BVDV type 1; 29/104 (27.9%) to BVDV type 2; 71/104 (68.3%) to PI-3V; and 81/104 (77.9%) to BRSV. In several cases, the BVDV type 2 antibody titers may have been due to crossreacting BVDV type 1 antibodies; however, in 7 calves the BVDV type 2 antibodies were higher, indicating BVDV type 2 infection. At the outset of

  14. Fetal Protection in Heifers Vaccinated with a Modified-Live Virus Vaccine Containing Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subtypes 1a and 2a and Exposed During Gestation to Cattle Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine efficacy of a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus subtype 1a (BVDV1a) and subtype 2a (BVDV2a) in preventing fetal infection. To this end, seronegative and PI negative heifers were vaccinated by either the SC (10 heifers...

  15. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus titers,

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation that may have health and growth consequences; however, effects may differ in low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) cattle. Our objective was to compare health...

  16. Identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in Saanen goats in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of livestock and causes substantial economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. BVDV is not necessarily species specific and is known to infect domesticated and wild ruminants. In the present study, BVDV infection was identified in two Saanen goats from one farm, and two different viral subtypes were found, BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a. Each isolate was closely related to cattle isolates identified in the Republic of Korea. The two sequences obtained in this study were not consistent with border disease virus (BDV). The incidence of BVDV in this farm apparently occurred in the absence of contact with cattle and may be associated with grazing. This study demonstrates that BVDV infection may be possible to transmit among goats without exposure to cattle. Therefore, this result indicates that Saanen goats may act as natural reservoirs for BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV-1a infection in a Saanen goat. PMID:26992733

  17. Acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial feedlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, a northwest Texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) disease causing high morbidity and mortality involving two lots of calves (Lots A and B). Severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx and esophagus. Mucosal lesions vari...

  18. Investigation of a dual fetal infection model with bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV)-1 and BVDV-2.

    PubMed

    Makoschey, B; Janssen, M G J

    2011-10-01

    Two studies were performed in pregnant heifers to determine whether inoculation with two bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDV), one BVDV-1 and one BVDV-2, inoculated separately into either nostril, results in fetal infection with both viruses. Dual transplacental infection of the fetus with BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 was observed in one case, but not consistently. PMID:21597952

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Contaminating a High-Passage RK-13 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bora; Li, Ganwu; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Jianqiang; Shuck, Kathleen M.; Timoney, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    A high-passage rabbit kidney RK-13 cell line (HP-RK-13[KY], originally derived from the ATCC CCL-37 cell line) used in certain laboratories worldwide is contaminated with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV). On complete genome sequence analysis, the virus strain was found to belong to BVDV group 1b. PMID:26430037

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-1 Strain Egy/Ismailia/2014, Subtype 1b.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Mohamed A; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Elsheery, Mohamed N; Elhaig, Mahmoud M; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of bovine viral diarrhea virus-1b (BVDV-1b), strain Egy/Ismailia/2014. The virus genome is composed of 12,217 nucleotides organized as one open reading frame encoding 3,898 amino acids. This report will assist efforts in diagnostics, studying molecular epidemiology, and control of BVDV in Egypt. PMID:26701085

  1. A genome-wide association study for the incidence of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses (BVDV) comprise a diverse group of viruses that cause disease in cattle. BVDV may establish both, transient and persistent infections depending on the developmental stage of the animal at exposure. The objective was to determine if genomic regions harboring single nucle...

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection across whole cattle hides using two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle substantial quantities of known positive and negative samp...

  3. Transmission of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Acutely Infected White Tailed Deer to Cattle via Indirect Contact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are found worldwide, and acute infections in cattle results in enteric, respiratory, and reproductive diseases of varying severity, depending on the BVDV strain, the immune and reproductive status of the host and the presence of secondary pathogens. While most c...

  4. Comparison of the immune response between a pair of NCP and CP bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle causing severe respiratory and reproductive disease. BVDV vaccines remain an important part of the control strategy. Previous work has described higher antibody responses in animals infected with a noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV when compa...

  5. Comparison of the Immune Response Between a Pair of NCP and CP Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Type 1 Isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a major pathogen of cattle causing severe respiratory and reproductive disease. BVDV vaccines remain an important part of the control strategy. Previous work has described higher antibody responses in animals infected with a noncytopathic (NCP) BVDV when ...

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus multi-organ infection in two white-tailed deer in southeastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of wild ruminants especially cervids in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has remained an enigma. Two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were submitted to the Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) in the fall of 2003 by the South Dakota Game ...

  7. Multiple Diagnostic Tests to Identify Cattle with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Duration of Positive Tests in Persistently Infected Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected from twelve cattle persistently infected (PI) with BVDV subtypes common to the U.S.: BVDV1a, BVDV1b, and BVDV2a. These collections were made monthly from December 20, 2005 through November 7, 2006 (day 0 to day 3...

  8. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution. PMID:26607578

  9. Identification of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 isolated from cattle in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Ren, M; Lin, Y Q; Ding, X Y; Zhang, G P; Zhao, X; Zhu, G Q

    2009-01-01

    The identification and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strain SD-06 isolated from cattle in China is reported. We performed sequence analysis of 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and E2 sequences and the identity at the nucleotide and amino acid level indicated that the isolate was closely related to BVDV-2. The BVDV-2 strain New York'93 showed the highest sequence homology with the isolate SD-06. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate SD-06 belonged to BVDV-2a subtype. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay with the monoclonal antibody specific for BVDV-2 glycoprotein E2 confirmed this identification. Thus, the strain SD-06 was the first isolate of BVDV-2 identified in China. PMID:19537915

  10. Epidemiological observations of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Korean indigenous calves.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Song, Moo-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important worldwide disease in the livestock industry. To date, little research has been done on BVDV circulating in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The cases outlined in our research originated from rectal swabs taken from calves up to 80 days of age. Twenty-two of 99 Korean indigenous calves with diarrhea were identified as BVDV positive and 3 different 5'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences were determined. The results indicated that BVDV infections in the ROK were found mostly in winter and when calves were less than 20 days old. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5'-UTR revealed that our cases from Korean indigenous calves belonged to BVDV-2a. Therefore, the result of this study will be useful to understand epidemiology and allow producers in the ROK to better protect their livestock. PMID:20978931

  11. Analysis of Pan-European attitudes to the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, C; Misturelli, F; Nielsen, L; Gunn, G J; Yu, J

    2009-02-01

    At present, national-level policies concerning the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) differ widely across Europe. Some Scandinavian countries have enacted strong regulatory frameworks to eradicate the disease, whereas other countries have few formal policies. To examine these differences, the attitudes of stakeholders and policy makers in 17 European countries were investigated. A web-based questionnaire was sent to policy makers, government and private sector veterinarians, and representatives of farmers' organisations. In total, 131 individuals responded to the questionnaire and their responses were analysed by applying a method used in sociolinguistics: frame analysis. The results showed that the different attitudes of countries that applied compulsory or voluntary frameworks were associated with different views about the attribution or blame for BVD and the roles ascribed to farmers and other stakeholders in its eradication and control. PMID:19202168

  12. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary. PMID:27342097

  13. Pathogenicity of an Indian isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b in experimentally infected calves.

    PubMed

    Galav, V; Mishra, N; Dubey, R; Rajukumar, K; Pitale, S S; Shrivastav, A B; Pradhan, H K

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of an Indian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1b isolate in 7-9-months-old male calves. Infected (four) and control (two) calves were bled at three days interval for hematological, virological and serological studies until day 27. All infected calves developed respiratory illness, biphasic pyrexia, mild diarrhea, leucopenia and mild thrombocytopenia. Viraemia was demonstrated between 3 and 15dpi and the infected calves seroconverted by 15dpi. Prominent kidney lesions were endothelial cell swelling, proliferation of mesangial cells and podocytes leading to glomerular space obliteration. Degeneration and desquamation of cells lining seminiferous tubules were observed in two infected calves. Consolidation of lungs with interstitial pneumonia, mild gastroenteritis and systemic spread were also evident. It was concluded that Indian BVDV isolate induced moderate clinical disease in calves and glomerulonephritis resulting from acute BVDV infection was observed for the first time. PMID:17383693

  14. Hypomyelination associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection in a longhorn calf.

    PubMed

    Porter, B F; Ridpath, J F; Calise, D V; Payne, H R; Janke, J J; Baxter, D G; Edwards, J F

    2010-07-01

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, no gross central nervous system lesions were observed. Histologically, the brain and spinal cord had mild to moderate diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis, minimal nonsuppurative encephalitis, and decreased myelin staining. Ultrastructural examination revealed thinning and absence of myelin sheaths. Various cell types were immunohistochemically positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Noncytopathogenic BVDV was isolated from the brain and identified as BVDV type 2 by phylogenetic analysis. BVDV-induced hypomyelination is rare and analogous to lesions in neonates infected with border disease and classical swine fever viruses. This is the first documented case of hypomyelination in a calf specifically attributed to BVDV type 2 and the first description of the ultrastructural appearance of BVDV-induced hypomyelination. PMID:20448278

  15. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 on risk of bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J

    2016-04-01

    Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk

  16. The Role of Viral Population Diversity in Adaptation of Bovine Coronavirus to New Host Environments

    PubMed Central

    Borucki, Monica K.; Allen, Jonathan E.; Chen-Harris, Haiyin; Zemla, Adam; Vanier, Gilda; Mabery, Shalini; Torres, Clinton; Hullinger, Pamela; Slezak, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The high mutation rate of RNA viruses enables a diverse genetic population of viral genotypes to exist within a single infected host. In-host genetic diversity could better position the virus population to respond and adapt to a diverse array of selective pressures such as host-switching events. Multiple new coronaviruses, including SARS, have been identified in human samples just within the last ten years, demonstrating the potential of coronaviruses as emergent human pathogens. Deep sequencing was used to characterize genomic changes in coronavirus quasispecies during simulated host-switching. Three bovine nasal samples infected with bovine coronavirus were used to infect human and bovine macrophage and lung cell lines. The virus reproduced relatively well in macrophages, but the lung cell lines were not infected efficiently enough to allow passage of non lab-adapted samples. Approximately 12 kb of the genome was amplified before and after passage and sequenced at average coverages of nearly 950×(454 sequencing) and 38,000×(Illumina). The consensus sequence of many of the passaged samples had a 12 nucleotide insert in the consensus sequence of the spike gene, and multiple point mutations were associated with the presence of the insert. Deep sequencing revealed that the insert was present but very rare in the unpassaged samples and could quickly shift to dominate the population when placed in a different environment. The insert coded for three arginine residues, occurred in a region associated with fusion entry into host cells, and may allow infection of new cell types via heparin sulfate binding. Analysis of the deep sequencing data indicated that two distinct genotypes circulated at different frequency levels in each sample, and support the hypothesis that the mutations present in passaged strains were “selected” from a pre-existing pool rather than through de novo mutation and subsequent population fixation. PMID:23308119

  17. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Manuel F; Walz, Paul H; Haines, Deborah M; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  18. Comparison of levels and duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 in calves fed maternal colostrum or a colostrum-replacement product

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Manuel F.; Walz, Paul H.; Haines, Deborah M.; Passler, Thomas; Earleywine, Thomas; Palomares, Roberto A.; Riddell, Kay P.; Galik, Patricia; Zhang, Yijing; Givens, M. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum-replacement products are an alternative to provide passive immunity to neonatal calves; however, their ability to provide adequate levels of antibodies recognizing respiratory viruses has not been described. The objective of this study was to compare the serum levels of IgG at 2 d of age and the duration of detection of antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3) in calves fed maternal colostrum (MC) or a colostrum replacement (CR) at birth. Forty newborn male Holstein calves were assigned to the CR or the MC group. Group CR (n = 20) received 2 packets of colostrum replacement (100 g of IgG per 470-g packet), while group MC (n = 20) received 3.8 L of maternal colostrum. Blood samples for detection of IgG and virus antibodies were collected from each calf at birth, at 2 and 7 d, and monthly until the calves became seronegative. Calves in the MC group had greater IgG concentrations at 2 d of age. The apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG was greater in the MC group than in the CR group, although the difference was not significant. Calves in the CR group had greater concentrations of BVDV neutralizing antibodies during the first 4 mo of life. The levels of antibodies to BRSV, BHV-1, and BPIV-3 were similar in the 2 groups. The mean time to seronegativity was similar for each virus in the 2 groups; however, greater variation was observed in the antibody levels and in the duration of detection of immunity in the MC group than in the CR group. Thus, the CR product provided calves with more uniform levels and duration of antibodies to common bovine respiratory viruses. PMID:24688168

  19. First detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 in cattle in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Aduriz, Gorka; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Cortabarria, Nekane

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. BVDV is found worldwide in cattle population and causes significant economic losses to the dairy and beef industries. Two distinct genotypes of BVDV exist: BVDV type 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV type 2 (BVDV-2). Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate retrospectively the presence of BVDV-2 in Spain. Results With this objective, 47 blood samples that had tested positive in an ELISA for BVDV antigen were selected. Samples had been submitted by practitioners to the Diagnostic Service of NEIKER. The 18 herds of origin were all located in the northern half of Spain. BVDV positive samples were genotyped by reverse transcription-PCR. BVDV-1 was detected with the highest frequency (46/47), in contrast to BVDV-2 (2/47). In one blood sample, both pestivirus genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, were detected. Sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5′ untranslated region, confirmed the identity of the BVDV-2 isolate. Conclusions So far as the authors know, this is the first reported presence of BVDV-2 in cattle herds in Spain. This finding may have important implications for the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of BVDV infection in the country. PMID:26392905

  20. Molecular investigation of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in yaks (Bos gruniens) from Qinghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus which infects both domestic animals and wildlife species worldwide. In China, cattle are often infected with BVDV of different genotypes, but there is very limited knowledge regarding BVDV infection in Chinese yaks and the genetic diversity of the virus. The objectives of this study were to detect viral infection in yaks in Qinghai, China and to determine the genotypes of BVDV based on analysis of the 5′untranslated region (5′UTR) and N-terminal protease (Npro) region. Results Between 2010 and 2012, 407 blood samples were collected from yaks with or without clinical signs in six counties of Qinghai Province. Ninety-eight samples (24%) were found to be positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting a conserved region of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. The nucleotide sequences of the 5′UTR and complete Npro region were determined for 16 positive samples. Phylogenetic reconstructions demonstrated that all 16 samples belong to subgenotypes BVDV-1b, BVDV-1d and BVDV-1q. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence for BVDV infection in yaks in Qinghai involving multiple subgenotypes of BVDV-1. This may have occurred under three possible scenarios: interspecies transmission, natural infection, and the use of vaccines contaminated with BVDV. The results have important implications for yak production and management in China, and specifically indicate that unscientific vaccination practices should be stopped and bio-security increased. PMID:24524442

  1. Identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in Korean native goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Joong; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Shin, Jin-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Kang, Mun-Il

    2006-10-01

    In the genus Pestivirus, four genetically distinct viral species are currently recognized: bovine viral diarrhea viruses type 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus (BDV). BVDV-1 and BDV infections have been described in goat species. Since 1998, border disease (BD) like symptoms in goats have been reported repeatedly in two southern-most provinces of Korea, which until then had been regarded as being free from BD. As a result of retrospective investigations of BD-like syndrome in goat reported between 1998 and 2004, a pestivirus was identified from intestinal content of an affected kid submitted in 1999. Both sequences of 5'-non-coding region and complete N(pro) gene from the isolate were analyzed to identify the genotype. Interestingly, the results revealed that the isolate belonged to BVDV-2 that is rarely reported even in cattle. The isolate showed close relationship to North American and European strains rather than the geographically closer Japanese strains. To authors' knowledge, this is the first identification of BVDV-2 in goat species. PMID:16766076

  2. Transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Givens, M. Daniel; Brock, Kenny V.; DeYoung, Randy W.; Walz, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, are an important source of viral transmission to susceptible hosts. Persistent BVDV infections have been identified in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America. As PI deer shed BVDV similarly to PI cattle, maintenance of BVDV within white-tailed deer populations may be possible. To date, intraspecific transmission of BVDV in white-tailed deer has not been evaluated, which prompted this study. Six pregnant white-tailed deer were captured in the first trimester of pregnancy and cohabitated with a PI white-tailed deer. Cohabitation with the PI deer resulted in BVDV infection in all does, as indicated by seroconversion. All does gave birth to live fawns and no reproductive losses were observed. At birth, evidence of BVDV infection was identified in two singlet fawns, of which one was determined to be PI by repeated serum reverse transcription nested PCR, whole blood virus isolation and immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates for the first time that BVDV transmission may occur among white-tailed deer. The birth of a PI fawn through contact to a PI white-tailed deer indicates that under appropriate circumstances, BVDV may be maintained in white-tailed deer by congenital infection. PMID:19922743

  3. Differences in virulence between two noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in calves.

    PubMed

    Bolin, S R; Ridpath, J F

    1992-11-01

    A noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), BVDV-890, isolated from a yearling heifer that died with extensive internal hemorrhages, was compared for virulence in calves with noncytopathic BVDV-TGAN, isolated from an apparently healthy persistently infected calf. After challenge exposure with BVDV-890, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C, diarrhea, leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Most calves (n = 6) died or were euthanatized by 19 days after challenge exposure. Challenge exposure with BVDV-890 did not induce disease in 2 calves that had congenital persistent infection with BVDV or in 3 calves that had neutralizing antibody titer > 4 against BVDV-890. After challenge exposure with BVDV-TGAN, nonimmune calves (n = 7) developed fever > 40 C and, rarely, diarrhea or lymphopenia. All of those calves survived challenge exposure. The average maximal titer of BVDV-890 isolated from serum was 1,000 times that of BVDV-TGAN. In calves infected with BVDV-890, the average maximal percentages of lymphocytes and platelets associated with virus were greater than those found in calves infected with BVDV-TGAN. Additional findings of epidemiologic significance were prolonged shedding of virus and delayed production of viral-neutralizing antibody in 1 calf challenge-exposed with BVDV-890. Also, after production of neutralizing antibody, mutant virus that was refractory to neutralization was isolated from calves challenge-exposed with BVDV-TGAN. PMID:1334641

  4. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yuri; Tamura, Tomokazu; Torii, Shiho; Wakamori, Shiho; Nagai, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Kazuya; Mine, Junki; Fujimoto, Yuri; Nagashima, Naofumi; Yoshino, Fumi; Sugita, Yukihiko; Nomura, Takushi; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5'-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years. PMID:26400674

  5. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    PubMed

    Callens, Nathalie; Brügger, Britta; Bonnafous, Pierre; Drobecq, Hervé; Gerl, Mathias J; Krey, Thomas; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Till; Lambert, Olivier; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2016-03-01

    The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family. PMID:26939061

  6. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Callens, Nathalie; Brügger, Britta; Bonnafous, Pierre; Drobecq, Hervé; Gerl, Mathias J.; Krey, Thomas; Roman-Sosa, Gleyder; Rümenapf, Till; Lambert, Olivier; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family. PMID:26939061

  7. Co-existence of genetically and antigenically diverse bovine viral diarrhoea viruses in an endemic situation.

    PubMed

    Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Braun, Ueli; Hilbe, Monika; Ehrensperger, Felix; Peterhans, Ernst

    2008-09-18

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important cattle pathogen that causes acute or persistent infections. These are associated with immunotolerance to the viral strain persisting in animals that became infected early in their intrauterine development. To this date, the epidemiology of BVD in Switzerland runs virtually undisturbed by control measures such as restrictions on animal traffic or vaccination. Here, we analysed the viral genetics of 169 Swiss isolates and carried out crossed serum neutralisation tests to assess the antigenic spectrum of BVDV strains present in the cattle population. Besides confirming the presence of BVDV type 1 subgroups b, e, h and k, a single "orphan" BVDV-1 virus was detected that does not belong to any known BVDV-1 subgroup. No BVDV type 2 viruses were detected, suggesting that they are rare or not present in the cattle population. Antigenic comparison revealed significant differences between the different subgroups, with anti-1k immune serum having up to tenfold lower neutralising activity against 1b, 1e and 1h subgroup viruses, which however may still suffice to protect 1k-immune animals against superinfection by viruses of those other subgroups. Serum from routinely vaccinated animals revealed generally low titres but good cross-neutralisation. A geographic information system revealed that the viruses of the different subgroups are distributed in an apparently randomised fashion in the cattle population. This geographic distribution pattern may reflect peculiarities of the management practice in the Swiss cattle industry that, especially through annual transhumance of up to 25% of the entire population in the alpine region, tend to optimise the spread of BVDV. PMID:18424020

  8. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from cattle in Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    ABE, Yuri; TAMURA, Tomokazu; TORII, Shiho; WAKAMORI, Shiho; NAGAI, Makoto; MITSUHASHI, Kazuya; MINE, Junki; FUJIMOTO, Yuri; NAGASHIMA, Naofumi; YOSHINO, Fumi; SUGITA, Yukihiko; NOMURA, Takushi; OKAMATSU, Masatoshi; KIDA, Hiroshi; SAKODA, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we genetically analyzed bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) isolated from 2000 to 2006 in Japan and reported that subgenotype 1b viruses were predominant. In the present study, 766 BVDVs isolated from 2006 to 2014 in Hokkaido, Japan, were genetically analyzed to understand recent epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the 5′-untranslated region of viral genome revealed that 766 isolates were classified as genotype 1 (BVDV-1; 544 isolates) and genotype 2 (BVDV-2; 222). BVDV-1 isolates were further divided into BVDV-1a (93), 1b (371) and 1c (80) subgenotypes, and all BVDV-2 isolates were grouped into BVDV-2a subgenotype (222). Further comparative analysis was performed with BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a viruses isolated from 2001 to 2014. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the viral glycoprotein E2 gene, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, revealed that BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were further classified into several clusters. Cross-neutralization tests showed that BVDV-1b isolates were antigenically different from BVDV-1a isolates, and almost BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a isolates were antigenically similar among each subgenotype and each E2 cluster. Taken together, BVDV-1b viruses are still predominant, and BVDV-2a viruses have increased recently in Hokkaido, Japan. Field isolates of BVDV-1a, 1b and 2a show genetic diversity on the E2 gene with antigenic conservation among each subgenotype during the last 14 years. PMID:26400674

  9. Biochemical analysis of bovine viral diarrhea virus polypeptides and studies of strain variation

    SciTech Connect

    Raisch, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    Intracellular viral-specific polypeptides from the National Animal Disease Laboratory (NADL) strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus were studied by biosynthesis labelling, radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP), hypertonic initiation block (HIB) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Eighteen virus-specific proteins were identified; thirteen were glycosylated (gp170, p135, p130, gp118, gp82, p80, gp74, gp63, gp60, p59, gp53, gp50, gp45, gp42, p37, gp32, gp25 and p22). When glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin, five {sup 35}S-methionine labelled proteins displayed increased electrophoretic mobility (gp170 to p165, gp74 to p66, gp53 to p45, gp50 to p42 and gp25 to p20) and four could not be identified. Similar shifts in mobility were observed following in vitro deglycosylation with endoglycosidases H and F indicating that the nine glycoproteins contained N-linked simple or high mannose containing moieties. Biosynthetic labelling in the presence of the ionophore, monensin, or in vitro deglycosylation with the endoglycosidase, O-glycanase, had no effect, which is consistent with the absence of O-linked carbohydrates in BVDV-specific proteins. N-linked glycosylation of BVDV proteins is critical for infectivity, because the virus from cells treated with tunicamycin was devoid of infectivity, whereas the virus from monensin-treated cells was fully infective. Partitioning of p130, p59, gp53-50, and p37 into solutions of Triton X-114 tentatively identified these molecules as partially hydrophobic transmembrane proteins. Biosynthesis in the presence of {sup 3}H-myristate and {sup 3}H-palmitate did not result in specifically labelled viral proteins indicating predominantly noncovalent nature of putative interactions of these proteins with membranes. Partial proteolytic peptide mapping revealed similarities among gp170, p130 and p80 and between gp53 and gp50.

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen detection across whole cattle hides using two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Vander Ley, Brian L; Ridpath, Julia F; Sweiger, Shaun H

    2012-05-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle requires substantial quantities of known positive- and negative-sample material. The objective of this study was to determine what sections of bovine skin contained Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen. Two commercially available antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunoassays were used to test subsamples representing the entire skin of 3 persistently infected calves. Both assays detected Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in the samples indicated for use by assay protocol. However, one assay identified all subsamples as positive, while the second assay identified 64.4% of subsamples as positive. These results show that use of samples other than those specified by the assay protocol must be validated for each individual assay. In this study, alternative sample sites and use of the entire hide for proficiency testing would be acceptable for only one of the assays tested. PMID:22529122

  11. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. PMID:25929158

  12. Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positive for presence of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Statistical analysis of data showed significant differences between ELISA and RT-PCR for detection of virus in aborted fetuses. These results indicate a high presence of this pathogen in Iran and that RT- PCR is considerably faster and more accurate than ELISA for identification of Bovine viral diarrhea virus. To our knowledge the Camels and Bovine are the most resistant and sensitive to Bovine viral diarrhea's abortions respectively and the prevalence of virus in Caprine is more than Ovine aborted fetuses. This study is the first prevalence report of Bovine viral diarrhea virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses by evaluation of ELISA and RT-PCR in Iran. PMID:22018096

  13. Bovine Mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B

    2016-03-01

    Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA. PMID:26982472

  14. Genetic diversity and frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) detected in cattle in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Huseyin; Altan, Eda; Ridpath, Julia; Turan, Nuri

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and diversity of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) infecting cattle in Turkey. A total of 1124 bovine blood samples from 19 farms in 4 different Turkish regions were tested by antigen capture ELISA (ACE). BVDV antigen was found in 26 samples from 13 farms. Only 20 of the 26 initial test positive cattle were available for retesting. Of these, 6 of 20 tested positive for BVDV, by ACE and real-time RT-PCR, one month after initial testing. Phylogenetic analysis, based on comparison of the E2 or the 5'UTR coding regions, from 19 of the 26 initial positive samples, indicated that 17 belonged to the BVDV-1 genotype and 2 to the BVDV-2 genotype. Comparison of 5'UTR sequences segregated 8 BVDV-1 strains (strains 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, and 19) to the BVDV1f, 1 strain (strain 8) to the BVDV1i and 1 strain (strain 14) to the BVDV1d subgenotypes. One strain (strain 4) did not group with other subgenotypes but was closer to the BVDV1f. The remaining 6 BVDV-1 strains (strains 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, and 18) segregated to a novel subgenotype. The E2 sequence comparison results were similar, with the exception that strain 5 grouped with the novel subgenotype rather than BVDV1f subgenotype. It appears that among the diverse BVDV strains in circulation there may be a subgenotype that is unique to Turkey. This should be considered in the design of diagnostics and vaccines to be used in Turkey. PMID:22537480

  15. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

  16. Molecular analyses detect natural coinfection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in serologically negative animals.

    PubMed

    Craig, María I; König, Guido A; Benitez, Daniel F; Draghi, María G

    2015-01-01

    Infection of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) has been confirmed in several studies by serological and molecular techniques. In order to determine the presence of persistently infected animals and circulating species and subtypes of BVDV we conducted this study on a buffalo herd, whose habitat was shared with bovine cattle (Bossp.). Our serological results showed a high level of positivity for BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 within the buffalo herd. The molecular analyses of blood samples in serologically negative animals revealed the presence of viral nucleic acid, confirming the existence of persistent infection in the buffaloes. Cloning and sequencing of the 5' UTR of some of these samples revealed the presence of naturally mix-infected buffaloes with at least two different subtypes (1a and 1b), and also with both BVDV species (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). PMID:25962538

  17. Distribution of bovine viral diarrhoea virus antigen in persistently infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Passler, T; Walz, H L; Ditchkoff, S S; van Santen, E; Brock, K V; Walz, P H

    2012-11-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), analogous to that occurring in cattle, is reported rarely in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This study evaluated the distribution of BVDV antigen in persistently infected (PI) white-tailed deer and compared the findings with those from PI cattle. Six PI fawns (four live-born and two stillborn) from does exposed experimentally to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 were evaluated. Distribution and intensity of antigen expression in tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed in binary fashion with a proportional odds model. Viral antigen was distributed widely and was present in all 11 organ systems. Hepatobiliary, integumentary and reproductive systems were respectively 11.8, 15.4 and 21.6 times more likely to have higher antigen scores than the musculoskeletal system. Pronounced labelling occurred in epithelial tissues, which were 1.9-3.0 times likelier than other tissues to contain BVDV antigen. Antigen was present in >90% of samples of liver and skin, suggesting that skin biopsy samples are appropriate for BVDV diagnosis. Moderate to severe lymphoid depletion was detected and may hamper reliable detection of BVDV in lymphoid organs. Muscle tissue contained little antigen, except for in the cardiovascular system. Antigen was present infrequently in connective tissues. In nervous tissues, antigen expression frequency was 0.3-0.67. In the central nervous system (CNS), antigen was present in neurons and non-neuronal cells, including microglia, emphasizing that the CNS is a primary target for fetal BVDV infection. BVDV antigen distribution in PI white-tailed deer is similar to that in PI cattle. PMID:22520818

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 Japanese Reference and Vaccine Strain KZ-91CP

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Asuka; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tateishi, Kentaro; Ohmori, Keitaro; Todaka, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shirai, Junsuke

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Japanese reference strain KZ-91CP. The complete genome comprises 12,654 nucleotides and one open reading frame with 4,020 amino acids. A 369-nucleotide-long insertion encoding the chaperone protein DnaJ is found in the nonstructural 2 (NS2) coding region. PMID:25676770

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 2 Japanese Reference and Vaccine Strain KZ-91CP.

    PubMed

    Sato, Asuka; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Nagai, Makoto; Tateishi, Kentaro; Ohmori, Keitaro; Todaka, Reiko; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shirai, Junsuke

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of the bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 Japanese reference strain KZ-91CP. The complete genome comprises 12,654 nucleotides and one open reading frame with 4,020 amino acids. A 369-nucleotide-long insertion encoding the chaperone protein DnaJ is found in the nonstructural 2 (NS2) coding region. PMID:25676770

  20. Evaluation of viral inactivation of pseudorabies virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and porcine parvovirus in pancreatin of porcine origin.

    PubMed

    Caruso, C; Gobbi, E; Biosa, T; Andra', M; Cavallazzi, U; Masoero, L

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatin is a substance containing enzymes, principally amylase, lipase, and protease. It is obtained from bovine or porcine pancreas and used in the treatment of pancreatic endocrine insufficiency in humans. Regulations and safety concerns mandate viral clearance (virus removal or inactivation) in biopharmaceuticals such as pancreatin. A virus validation study was performed to evaluate virus clearance achieved in the final step of drying under vacuum by testing a panel of four animal viruses: Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Porcine parvovirus (PPV). Because of the product's virucidal effect and high cytotoxicity, the starting material was diluted to a ratio of 0.67 g of dried pancreatin resuspended in 13.5 mL of cell culture medium followed by a 50-fold dilution in cell culture medium before spiking. After heating at 60±1°C for 5 h, the samples were diluted about 5-fold in cell culture medium and titered by the plaque assay method. The virus reduction factor ranged from 5.59 (for PPV) to 7.07 (for EMCV) and no viral plaque was observed, indicating that the process step was effective in the reduction and removal of virus contamination. Though no virus contamination events in pancreatin have been reported to date, evaluation of the production process for its ability to inactivate and/or remove virus contamination, particularly from zoonotic viral agents such as hepatitis E virus and Norovirus considered emerging pathogens, is necessary to ensure the viral safety of animal-derived biopharmaceuticals. PMID:25110118

  1. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle. PMID:22142412

  2. Repression of bovine papilloma virus replication is mediated by a virally encoded trans-acting factor.

    PubMed

    Berg, L; Lusky, M; Stenlund, A; Botchan, M R

    1986-08-29

    Cells transformed with bovine papilloma virus type 1 mutants in the E6 or E6/7 genes are resistant to high-copy-number amplification of wild-type DNA after supertransfection. Transient and stable replication assays demonstrate this effect. If the supertransfected DNA has a mutation in a newly defined gene (M), this cellular immunity to high-copy-number replication is overcome, resulting in transient replication of the input DNA. In contrast, the resident plasmid does not participate in amplification and is maintained at a constant low copy number. Cotransformation of M- mutants and wild-type DNA into these cells leads to shutoff of replication of both genomes. Thus, M- mutants define a trans-acting negative modulator that regulates viral replication. This function is distinct from the positive factors required for replication. We propose a model that explains why the loss of E6 and E6/7 function leads to immunity of the infected cell. PMID:3017567

  3. Eradication programme for bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Orkney 2001 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Truyers, I G R; Mellor, D J; Norquay, R; Gunn, G J; Ellis, K A

    2010-10-01

    The strategies used and the results obtained in Orkney's bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication programme over eight years (2001 to 2008) are presented and discussed. The venture was undertaken by local veterinary practices and the Orkney Livestock Association (OLA) with the financial support of the Orkney Islands Council. Participation is voluntary; the programme comprises screening of youngstock, a whole-herd test if required, elimination of persistently infected animals and strict biosecurity measures and/or vaccination. BVDV-free herds are certified, and certification is updated annually by retesting the youngstock. The programme aims to minimise economic losses, thereby increasing the competitiveness of the Orcadian cattle industry and to improve animal health and welfare by eliminating virus circulation. Information from databases of the Scottish Agricultural College, Biobest Laboratories and OLA show that despite a significant reduction in the overall prevalence of BVDV on Orkney during the initial stages of the eradication programme, there has been little progress made since 2006 and that some difficulties have been encountered, with herd BVDV breakdowns following initial eradication. These results highlight the need for continued motivation of farmers, strict application of biosecurity measures and/or systematic vaccination of all seronegative breeding animals. PMID:21257418

  4. Virulence comparison and quantification of horizontal bovine viral diarrhoea virus transmission following experimental infection in calves.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, S; Dewulf, J; Mathijs, E; Laureyns, J; Mostin, L; Cay, A B

    2014-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes persistent infections by infecting the fetus of susceptible animals during gestation. These persistently infected (PI) animals are important sources of infection. On the contrary, transiently infected (TI) animals are believed to be less important, but transient infections with a severe BVDV-2 strain can spread explosively. To assess the importance of TI cattle in the epidemiology of BVDV, two experimental infections were performed to determine basic reproduction ratios (R0). In each experiment three calves were infected via intranasal inoculation and housed together with seven susceptible animals. Two strains isolated in Belgium were used, a virulent BVDV-1b and a virulent BVDV-2a field isolate, resulting in an R0 of 0.25 (95% CI 0.01; 1.95) and 0.24 (95% CI 0.01; 2.11), respectively. A PI animal was then introduced to the remaining uninfected animals and produced an R of +∞ (95% CI 1.88; +∞). These results support the suggestion that TI animals, compared to PI animals, contribute only a limited amount to BVDV spread. Additionally, the severe clinical symptoms observed in the field with these isolates could not be reproduced during these experiments, suggesting that other factors besides strain virulence influence the clinical manifestations evoked by BVDV. PMID:25201251

  5. Immunogenicity of recombinant BCGs expressing predicted antigenic epitopes of bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongxu; Lu, Huijun; Shi, Kun; Su, Fengyan; Li, Jianming; Du, Rui

    2014-10-01

    To develop a vaccine to prevent diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) simultaneously, recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccines expressing different regions of the BVDV E2 gene were constructed. Using DNASTAR 6.0 software, potential antigenic epitopes were predicted, and six regions were chosen to generate recombinant plasmids with the pMV361 vector (pMV361-E2-1, pMV361-E2-2, pMV361-E2-3, pMV361-E2-4, pMV361-E2-5 and pMV361-E2-6, respectively). The recombinant plasmids were transformed into BCG, and protein expression was thermally induced at 45 °C. Mice were immunized with 5 × 10(6) CFU/200 µL of each rBCG strain. Compared with other groups, BVDV E2 specific antibody titers were higher in mice immunized with rBCG-E2-6. Ratios and numbers of CD4+, CD8+ and IL-12 expressing spleen lymphocytes of the rBCG-E2-6 group also were higher than those of other groups. Thus, the rBCG-E2-6 vaccine showed the highest immunogenicity of all groups based on the humoral and cellular responses to vaccination. PMID:25135492

  6. Modelling the spread of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in a managed metapopulation of cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Courcoul, Aurélie; Ezanno, Pauline

    2010-04-21

    In numerous epidemiological models developed within a metapopulation framework, it is assumed that a single infected individual introduced into a patch infects the whole patch and that the proportion of infected individuals into infected patches is consistent over time and among patches. If this approach is relevant for rapidly spreading pathogens, it is less appropriate for moderately spreading pathogens, like the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), characterized by a variability in within-patch prevalence. Our objective is to study the respective influence of neighbouring relationships and animal movements on the spread of BVDV in a managed metapopulation of 100 cattle herds. Infection dynamics is represented by two coupled stochastic compartmental models in discrete-time: a within-herd and a between-herd models. Animal movements are mechanistically modelled. They largely influence the BVDV persistence, the prevalence in infected herds and the epidemic size. Neighbouring relationships only influence epidemic size. Whatever the neighbouring relationships, the infection does not persist in the metapopulation without animal movement between herds. The proposed model can be easily adapted for different herd contact structures. PMID:19875250

  7. Genetic and antigenic characterization of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 isolated from cattle in India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Vilcek, Stefan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Kalaiyarasu, S; Dubey, Shiv Chandra

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) subtype b is predominantly circulating in Indian cattle. During testing for exotic pestiviruses between 2007 and 2010, BVDV-2 was identified by real time RT-PCR in two of 1446 cattle blood samples originating from thirteen states of India. The genetic analysis of the isolated virus in 5' UTR, N(pro), entire structural genes (C, E(rns), E1 and E2), nonstructural genes NS2-3 besides 3' UTR demonstrated that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed highest similarity with BVDV-2. The entire 5' and 3' UTR consisted of 387 and 204 nucleotides, respectively, and an eight nucleotide repeat motif was found twice within the variable part of 3' UTR that may be considered as a characteristic of BVDV-2. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cattle isolate and earlier reported goat BVDV-2 isolate fall into separate clades within BVDV-2a subtype. Antigenic typing with monoclonal antibodies verified the cattle isolate also as BVDV-2. In addition, cross-neutralization tests using antisera raised against Indian BVDV strains circulating in ruminants (cattle, sheep, goat and yak) displayed significant antigenic differences only between BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. This is the first identification of BVDV-2 in Indian cattle that may have important implications for immunization strategies and molecular epidemiology of BVD. PMID:21112633

  8. Difficulties arising from the variety of testing schemes used for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV).

    PubMed

    Duncan, A J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2016-03-19

    Globally, the eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is still in its infancy, but eradication has been, or is being, adopted by several countries or regions. Comparisons between countries' schemes allow others to assess best practice, and aggregating published results from eradication schemes provides greater statistical power when analysing data. Aggregating data requires that results derived from different testing schemes be calibrated against one another. The authors aimed to evaluate whether relationships between published BVDV test results could be created and present the outcome of a systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The results are tabulated, providing a summary of papers where there is potential cross-calibration and a summary of the obstacles preventing such data aggregation. Although differences in measuring BVDV present barriers to academic progress, they may also affect progress within individual eradication schemes. The authors examined the time taken to retest following an initial antibody BVDV test in the Scottish eradication scheme. The authors demonstrate that retesting occurred quicker if the initial not negative test was from blood rather than milk samples. Such differences in the response of farmers/veterinarians to tests may be of interest to the design of future schemes. PMID:26867641

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infections: manifestations of infection and recent advances in understanding pathogenesis and control.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, B W

    2014-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to be of economic significance to the livestock industry in terms of acute disease and fetal loss. Many of the lesions relating to BVDV infection have been well described previously. The virus is perpetuated in herds through the presence of calves that are persistently infected. Relationships between various species and biotypes of BVDV and host defenses are increasingly understood. Understanding of the host defense mechanisms of innate immunity and adaptive immunity continues to improve, and the effects of the virus on these immune mechanisms are being used to explain how persistent infection develops. The noncytopathic biotype of BVDV plays the major role in its effects on the host defenses by inhibiting various aspects of the innate immune system and creation of immunotolerance in the fetus during early gestation. Recent advances have allowed for development of affordable test strategies to identify and remove persistently infected animals. With these improved tests and removal strategies, the livestock industry can begin more widespread effective control programs. PMID:24476940

  10. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S; Walz, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV. PMID:27379074

  11. Effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on the fertility of cows.

    PubMed

    Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Gulay, Mehmet Sukru; Yapici, Orhan; Bulut, Oya; Ata, Ayhan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the possible relationship between bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus infection and the appearance of cervical mucous discharge (CMD) and the reproductive performance of cows in oestrus. For this purpose, CMD from 97 Holstein cows in oestrus was evaluated visually before artificial insemination (AI). Cows in oestrus were inseminated with frozen semen free from BVD virus (BVDV). Blood samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for antigen (Ag) and antibodies (Ab) of BVDV. The presence of the BVDV genome in cervical mucus samples was tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of BVDV Ab, Ag or genome was not associated with abnormal cervical mucous discharge (A-CMD). However, the presence of BVDV Ag (but not of the BVDV Ab) in blood samples was associated with a lower first service conception rate (FSCR; 27.8 vs. 70.9%; P < 0.01), indicating that BVDV viraemia at the time of AI has a negative effect on the fertility of cows. PMID:23661395

  12. Bovine viral diarrhea virus structural protein E2 as a complement regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Ostachuk, Agustín

    2016-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is one of the most widely distributed viruses in cattle worldwide. Approximately 60 % of cattle in endemic areas without control measures are infected with BVDV during their lifetime. This wide prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations results in significant economic losses. BVDV is capable of establishing persistent infections in its host due to its ability to infect fetuses, causing immune tolerance. However, this cannot explain how the virus evades the innate immune system. The objective of the present work was to test the potential activity of E2 as a complement regulatory protein. E2 glycoprotein, produced both in soluble and transmembrane forms in stable CHO-K1 cell lines, was able to reduce complement-mediated cell lysis up to 40 % and complement-mediated DNA fragmentation by 50 %, in comparison with cell lines not expressing the glycoprotein. This work provides the first evidence of E2 as a complement regulatory protein and, thus, the finding of a mechanism of immune evasion by BVDV. Furthermore, it is postulated that E2 acts as a self-associated molecular pattern (SAMP), enabling the virus to avoid being targeted by the immune system and to be recognized as self. PMID:27038454

  13. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Passler, Thomas; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Walz, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Infections with BVDV cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industries, prompting various organized control programs in several countries. In North America, these control programs are focused on the identification and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle, enhancement of BVDV-specific immunity through vaccination, and the implementation of biosecure farming practices. To be successful, control measures must be based on complete knowledge of the epidemiology of BVDV, including the recognition of other potential sources of the virus. BVDV does not possess strict host-specificity, and infections of over 50 species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla have been reported. Over 50 years ago, serologic surveys first suggested the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the most abundant free-ranging ruminant in North America, to BVDV. However, susceptibility of white-tailed deer to BVDV infection does not alone imply a role in the epidemiology of the virus. To be a potential wildlife reservoir, white-tailed deer must: (1) be susceptible to BVDV, (2) shed BVDV, (3) maintain BVDV in the population, and (4) have sufficient contact with cattle that allow spillback infections. Based on the current literature, this review discusses the potential of white-tailed deer to be a reservoir for BVDV. PMID:27379074

  14. Effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection on fertility of dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia A; Thurmond, Mark C; Hietala, Sharon K

    2004-04-15

    A prospective field study in heifers from birth to first breeding was undertaken on two commercial dairies to assess the effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) congenital and post-natal infection (PNI) on fertility. A high BVDV Type 2 antibody titer (1:4096) at 10 months of age was associated with 32 more days to conceive, compared with a low titer (1:128). Conversely, infection with BVDV by 5-6 months of age and high BVDV Type 2 titers 1 month before conception or breeding was associated with improved fertility. Heifers with evidence of congenital BVDV infection had lower fertility than non-infected heifers (15-42 days longer time-to-first AI), which depended on BVDV Type 2 titers at 10 months of age. Neospora caninum infection was associated with additional services per conception (SPC) and Leptospira interrogans infection was associated with a delay in the time-to-first breeding. It appears that under field conditions, the effect of subclinical BVDV infection on subsequent heifer fertility may be due to a complex of interrelationships among multiple BVDV infections that depend on the type and timing of infection relative to reproductive development and events. PMID:15036997

  15. Reproductive performance of apparently healthy cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    McClurkin, A W; Coria, M F; Cutlip, R C

    1979-05-15

    A Holstein-Friesian bull and three Holstein-Friesian cows were seronegative for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus but were persistently infected with the virus. Virus was isolated from buffy coat cells and nasal and lacrimal secretions during their lifetime, and they remained free of clinical signs of BVD. The three cows were pregnant when purchased, and they gave birth to full-term calves. One calf lived only a few hours, one calf became ill and died within a few days, and one calf became ill and was euthanatized within a few weeks. One cow was then bred and became pregnant but aborted a 7-month fetus. A second cow was bred approximately 5 months after parturition but did not conceive. The third cow was necropsied 6 weeks after calving, because of loss of weight. Although the bull's semen contained BVD virus when seropositive cows were bred, normal calves were born. When seronegative heifers were bred, they became seropositive to BVD virus within two weeks, with higher titers in six weeks. On heifer conceived after one service but aborted a 6-month fetus. Three others continued to have estrous cycles until their titers rose to 1:128, then they conceived and gave birth to normal calves. Another heifer conceived on the first service, had a titer of 1:128 two weeks after breeding, and gave birth to a normal calf. PMID:220208

  16. Changes in ovarian follicles following acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Grooms, D L; Brock, K V; Pate, J L; Day, M L

    1998-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with several reproductive problems in cattle, including poor fertility, early embryonic deaths, abortion and congenital anomalies. Little is known about the cause of poor fertility in cows acutely infected with BVDV. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ovarian function following acute infection with noncytopathic BVDV. The ovaries of 5 BVDV sero-negative and virus-negative pubertal heifers were monitored daily for 4 consecutive estrous cycles. The position and diameter of all follicles (> 5 mm) and luteal structures were recorded. Daily plasma samples were collected to measure peripheral progesterone and estradiol levels. Each heifer was infected intranasally with noncytopathic BVDV following ovulation of the second estrous cycle. The maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant anovulatory and ovulatory follicles were significantly reduced following acute BVDV infection. Similarly, the number of subordinate follicles associated with both the anovulatory and ovulatory follicle was reduced following infection. There were no significant differences in other follicle or luteal dynamic parameters or in peripheral progesterone or estradiol levels. Ovarian follicular growth was different during the first 2 estrous cycles following acute infection with BVDV when compared with the 2 estrous cycles preceding infection. These differences may be important in explaining reduced fertility in herds with acute BVDV infection. PMID:10732038

  17. Transient viral DNA replication and repression of viral transcription are supported by the C-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein.

    PubMed

    Ferran, M C; McBride, A A

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein is important for viral DNA replication and transcriptional repression. It has been proposed that the full-length E1 protein consists of a small N-terminal and a larger C-terminal domain. In this study, it is shown that an E1 polypeptide containing residues 132 to 605 (which represents the C-terminal domain) is able to support transient viral DNA replication, although at a level lower than that supported by the wild-type protein. This domain can also repress E2-mediated transactivation from the P89 promoter as well as the wild-type E1 protein can. PMID:9420289

  18. Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating...

  19. A Multiepitope Fusion Antigen Elicits Neutralizing Antibodies against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Homologous Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hashish, Emad A.; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E.; Chase, Christopher C.; Isaacson, Richard E.; Zhou, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens. PMID:23697572

  20. A multiepitope fusion antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and homologous bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Emad A; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Chase, Christopher C; Isaacson, Richard E; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-07-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens. PMID:23697572

  1. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Chamorro, Manuel F; Neill, John D; Brodersen, Bruce W; Walz, Heather L; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Walz, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25-35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam's acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  2. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25–35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam’s acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats. PMID:24708266

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus cyclically impairs long bone trabecular modeling in experimental persistently infected fetuses.

    PubMed

    Webb, B T; Norrdin, R W; Smirnova, N P; Van Campen, H; Weiner, C M; Antoniazzi, A Q; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Hansen, T R

    2012-11-01

    Persistent infection (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with osteopetrosis and other long bone lesions, most commonly characterized as transverse zones of unmodeled metaphyseal trabeculae in fetuses and calves. This study was undertaken to characterize the morphogenesis of fetal long bone lesions. Forty-six BVDV-naïve pregnant Hereford heifers of approximately 18 months of age were inoculated with noncytopathic BVDV type 2 containing media or media alone on day 75 of gestation to produce PI and control fetuses, respectively, which were collected via cesarean section on days 82, 89, 97, 192, and 245 of gestation. Radiographic and histomorphometric abnormalities were first detected on day 192, at which age PI fetal long bone metaphyses contained focal densities (4 of 7 fetuses) and multiple alternating transverse radiodense bands (3 of 7 fetuses). Day 245 fetuses were similarly affected. Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibial metaphyses from day 192 fetuses revealed transverse zones with increased calcified cartilage core (Cg.V/BV, %) and trabecular bone (BV/TV, %) volumes in regions corresponding to radiodense bands (P < .05). Numbers of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclasts (N.Oc/BS, #/mm(2)) and bone perimeter occupied (Oc.S/BS, %) were both decreased (P < .05). Mineralizing surface (MS/BS, %), a measure of tissue level bone formation activity, was reduced in PI fetuses (P < .05). It is concluded that PI with BVDV induces cyclic abnormal trabecular modeling, which is secondary to reduced numbers of osteoclasts. The factors responsible for these temporal changes are unknown but may be related to the time required for osteoclast differentiation from precursor cells. PMID:22362966

  4. A model of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus within a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Viet, Anne-France; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri; Jacob, Christine; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal

    2004-05-14

    Wet BVDSim (a stochastic simulation model) was developed to study the dynamics of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd. This model took into account herd-management factors (common in several countries), which influence BVDV spread. BVDSim was designed as a discrete-entity and discrete-event simulation model. It relied on two processes defined at the individual-animal level, with interactions. The first process was a semi-Markov process and modelled the herd structure and dynamics (demography, herd management). The second process was a Markov process and modelled horizontal and vertical virus transmission. Because the horizontal transmission occurs by contacts (nose-to-nose) and indirectly, transmission varied with the separation of animals into subgroups. Vertical transmission resulted in birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. Other possible consequences of a BVDV infection during the pregnancy period were considered (pregnancy loss, immunity of calves). The outcomes of infection were modelled according to the stage of pregnancy at time of infection. BVDV pregnancy loss was followed either by culling or by a new artificial insemination depending on the modelled farmer's decision. Consistency of the herd dynamics in the absence of any BVDV infection was verified. To explore the model behaviour, the virus spread was simulated over 10 years after the introduction of a near-calving PI heifer into a susceptible 38 cow herd. Different dynamics of the virus spread were simulated, from early clearance to persistence of the virus 10 years after its introduction. Sensitivity of the model to the uncertainty on transmission coefficient was analysed. Qualitative validation consisted in comparing the bulk-milk ELISA results over time in a sample of herds detected with a new infection with the ones derived from simulations. PMID:15158572

  5. The cytopathicity of a simian immunodeficiency virus Mne variant is determined by mutations in Gag and Env.

    PubMed Central

    Kimata, J T; Overbaugh, J

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the rapidly replicating, highly cytopathic, syncytium-inducing (rapid-high/SI) phenotype of simian immunodeficiency virus Mne variants that evolved in macaques inoculated with a slowly replicating, minimally cytopathic, non-syncytium-inducing (slow-low/NSI) molecular clone was not solely the result of changes in the envelope surface protein (Env SU). To define the viral determinants responsible for the change in phenotype, we molecularly cloned a rapid-high/SI variant (designated SIVMne170) derived from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a pig-tailed macaque that was inoculated with a slow-low/NSI molecular clone, SIVMneCL8. SIVMne170 was SI and replicated with faster kinetics and was more cytopathic than the parent SIVMneCL8 in CEMx174 cells. Additionally, SIVMne170 was more cytopathic for the CD4+ T-cell population than SIVMneCL8 in macaque PBMCs. An analysis of chimeric viruses constructed between the variant SIVMne170 and the parent virus SIVMneCL8 demonstrated that there are determinants encoded within both the 5' and 3' halves of SIVMne170 that independently contribute to its rapid-high/SI phenotype. As we previously observed with other SIVMne variants, the Env SU of SIVMne170 was important for syncytium induction but was not a key determinant of cytopathicity. By contrast, the intracellular domain of the envelope transmembrane protein (Env TM) contributed to both the SI and cytopathic properties of SIVMne170. We also found that the minimal determinant within the 5' half of SIVMne170 that conferred its rapid replication kinetics and cytopathicity mapped to the capsid- and nucleocapsid-encoding regions of gag. Together, these data demonstrate that mutations selected in Gag and Env TM intracytoplasmic tail influence the replication and cytopathicity of SIVMne variants that evolve in the host. PMID:9311845

  6. In vitro permissivity of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bovine viral diarrhoea virus is dependent on the animal specific immune status.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Barbara; Ponti, Wilma; Turin, Lauretta; Bronzo, Valerio; Scaccabarozzi, Licia; Luzzago, Camilla

    2012-04-01

    The in vitro permissivity to infection with homologous and heterologous bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strains of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from eight naïve and eight BVDV-1b immune animals was studied. Four reference strains (BVDV-1a NADL, BVDV-1b NY-1, BVDV-2 125 and BVDV-2 890) were selected, based on genotype, prevalence and biotype. Virus neutralizing antibody titres were determined at bleeding and the viral loads were measured in PBMCs by end point titration in cell culture and by real-time PCR. PBMCs from both naïve and immune animals became infected by all BVDV strains tested, although virus titres were lower for immune heifers than naïve ones; the differences were significant for NADL (P<0.05) and 890 (P<0.001) strains. The in vitro model used in this study showed that PBMCs from immune animals are susceptible to re-infection with both homologous and heterologous BVDV strains, albeit at a lower extent than naïve cattle. PMID:21689960

  7. In vivo delivery of bovine viral diahorrea virus, E2 protein using hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahony, D.; Cavallaro, A. S.; Mody, K. T.; Xiong, L.; Mahony, T. J.; Qiao, S. Z.; Mitter, N.

    2014-05-01

    Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). BVDV infection occurs in the target species of cattle and sheep herds worldwide and is therefore of economic importance. E2 is a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV and is an ideal candidate for the development of a subunit based nanovaccine using mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (termed HMSA) were characterised and assessed for adsorption and desorption of E2. A codon-optimised version of the E2 protein (termed Opti-E2) was produced in Escherichia coli. HMSA (120 nm) had an adsorption capacity of 80 μg Opti-E2 per mg HMSA and once bound E2 did not dissociate from the HMSA. Immunisation studies in mice with a 20 μg dose of E2 adsorbed to 250 μg HMSA was compared to immunisation with Opti-E2 (50 μg) together with the traditional adjuvant Quillaja saponaria Molina tree saponins (QuilA, 10 μg). The humoral responses with the Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine although slightly lower than those obtained for the Opti-E2 + QuilA group demonstrated that HMSA particles are an effective adjuvant that stimulated E2-specific antibody responses. Importantly the cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all mice immunised with Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation. Therefore we have shown the Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulation acts as an excellent adjuvant that gives both T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 mediated responses in a small animal model. This study has provided proof-of-concept towards the development of an E2 subunit nanoparticle based vaccine.Our work focuses on the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a combined delivery vehicle and adjuvant for vaccine applications. Here we present results using the viral protein, E2, from bovine viral

  8. Pathogenetic differences after experimental infection of calves with Korean non-cytopathic BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 isolates.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and virological differences between non-cytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1 and ncp BVDV-2 isolated from Korean field cases. Each five naïve calves were experimentally infected with Korean ncp BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 isolates. Two additional age-matched animals were used as uninfected controls. Leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts declined in all infected calves, but were significantly lower and remained decreased longer in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2 isolate. The number of monocytes was greater in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. Flow cytometric assay showed that lymphocyte apoptosis occurred with an increase of annexin-V positive cells in all infected calves by day 6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentration in all infected calves was lower than in control calves. In ncp BVDV-1 infected calves, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels in the serum were increased by day 6 compared to calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. These results demonstrated that the Korean ncp BVDV-2 isolate shows a reduced IFN-γ production, indicating prevention of the antiviral activity, and therefore promotes the development of pathological effects. PMID:24140265

  9. A review of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever pneumonia and viral-bacterial synergism in respiratory disease of cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W D

    1982-01-01

    Unanswered questions on the etiology and prevention of shipping fever pneumonia have allowed this disease to remain one of the most costly to the North American cattle industry. Research in this area has indirected that while Pasteurella haemolytica and, to a lesser extent, P. multocida are involved in most cases, they seem to require additional factors to help initiate the disease process. Bovine herpes virus 1 has been shown experimentally to be one such factor. This review examines in some detail the topics of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, shipping fever, and viral-bacterial interactions in the production of respiratory disease in various species. It deals with history, definitions, etiologies, clinical signs and lesions, and considers exposure levels, transmission and various pathogenetic mechanisms that are postulated or known to occur. PMID:6290011

  10. Expression and In Silico Analysis of the Recombinant Bovine Papillomavirus E6 Protein as a Model for Viral Oncoproteins Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J.; Carvalho, R. F.; Ruiz, R. M.; Melo, T. C.; Araldi, R. P.; Carvalho, E.; Thompson, C. E.; Sircili, M. P.; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins. PMID:23878806

  11. Quantifying the risk of spread of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) between contiguous herds in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Clegg, T A; Thulke, H-H; O'Sullivan, P; McGrath, G; More, S J

    2016-04-01

    The control of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) mainly focuses on the identification and restriction of persistently infected (PI) animals. However, other transmission pathways can also result in new breakdowns, including the movement of animals pregnant with PI calves (Trojan animals) and the spread of infection between contiguous farms. Contiguous spread is likely an important problem in the BVD eradication programme in Ireland, given the spatial distribution of residual infection, and the highly fragmented nature of land holdings on many Irish farms. In this study, we seek to quantify the risk of BVD spread between contiguous herds in Ireland. Multivariable logistic models were used to estimate the risk of a herd having BVD positive calves in January to June 2014 (the study period) when contiguous to a herd that had at least one BVD positive calf born in 2013. The models included risk factors relating to the study herd and to neighbouring herds. Separate multivariable models were built for each of four "PI-neighbour" factors relating to the presence of BVD+ animals and/or the presence of offspring of PI breeding animals. In total, 58,483 study herds were enrolled. The final model contained the province, the log of the number of calf births born during the study period, the number of cattle purchased between January 2013 and January 2014, and with a two-way interaction between the number of animals of unknown BVD status in the study herd and the PI-neighbour risk factor. When the number of PI-neighbour herds was used as the PI-neighbour risk factor, the odds ratio (OR) associated with the number of PI-neighbour herds ranged from 1.07 to 3.02, depending on the number of unknown animals present. To further explore the risk associated with PI-neighbour factors, the models were repeated using a subset of the study herds (n=7440) that contained no animals of unknown status. The best fitting model including "any PI-neighbour" as the PI-neighbour factor and also

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P < 0.01); farms that provided milk to other industries previously (OR = 4.13; CI 95% = 1.17-14.49; P = 0.02); and isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P < 0.01); isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations. PMID:24661884

  13. Acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial feedlot.

    PubMed

    Hessman, Bill E; Sjeklocha, David B; Fulton, Robert W; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; McElroy, Diana R

    2012-03-01

    In 2008, a northwest Texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causing high morbidity and mortality involving 2 lots of calves (lots A and B). Severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus. Mucosal lesions varied from small (1-3 mm) infrequent mucosal ulcerations to large (5 mm to 1 cm) and coalescing ulcerations. Necrotic debris was present in ulcerations of some mortalities with some having plaque-like debris, but other mortalities presented more proliferative lesions. A calf persistently infected with BVDV arrived with one lot and the isolated virus was genotyped as BVDV-1b. Identical BVDV-1b strains were isolated from 2 other mortalities. A BVDV-2a genotype was also isolated in this outbreak. This genotype was identical to all BVDV-2a strains isolated in both lots. Serum samples were collected from exposed and unexposed animals and tested for antibodies for multiple viral pathogens. Seropositivity ranged from zero percent for calicivirus to 100% positive to Pseudocowpox virusx. At the end of the feeding period, the morbidity and mortality for the 2 lots involved was 76.2% and 30.8%, respectively, for lot A, and 49.0% and 5.6%, respectively, for lot B. Differential diagnoses included vesicular stomatitis viruses, Bovine papular stomatitis virus, and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Based on the present case, acute BVDV should be considered when mucosal lesions are observed grossly. PMID:22379057

  14. Persistent infections after natural transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus from cattle to goats and among goats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle worldwide. Infection of a pregnant animal may lead to persistent infection of the foetus and birth of a persistently infected (PI) calf that sheds the virus throughout its life. However, BVD viruses are not strictly species specific. BVDV has been isolated from many domesticated and wild ruminants. This is of practical importance as virus reservoirs in non-bovine hosts may hamper BVDV control in cattle. A goat given as a social companion to a BVDV PI calf gave birth to a PI goat kid. In order to test if goat to goat infections were possible, seronegative pregnant goats were exposed to the PI goat. In parallel, seronegative pregnant goats were kept together with the PI calf. Only the goat to goat transmission resulted in the birth of a next generation of BVDV PI kids whereas all goats kept together with the PI calf aborted. To our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that a PI goat cannot only transmit BVD virus to other goats but that such transmission may indeed lead to the birth of a second generation of PI goats. Genetic analyses indicated that establishment in the new host species may be associated with step-wise adaptations in the viral genome. Thus, goats have the potential to be a reservoir for BVDV. However, the PI goats showed growth retardation and anaemia and their survival under natural conditions remains questionable. PMID:23675947

  15. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 genome in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Karikalan, M; Rajukumar, K; Mishra, N; Kumar, M; Kalaiyarasu, S; Rajesh, K; Gavade, V; Behera, S P; Dubey, S C

    2016-06-01

    In this study, cellular localization and the distribution pattern of BVDV genome in lymphoid tissues during the course of experimental acute BVDV-1 infection of sheep was investigated. Tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were collected on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post infection (dpi) from twenty 4-month-old lambs, experimentally inoculated intra-nasally with 5 × 10(5) TCID50 of a non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-1 isolate, Ind-17555. Tissues collected from ten mock-infected lambs served as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out in paraformaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections using digoxigenin labelled riboprobe targeting 5'-UTR of BVDV-1. BVDV genome was detected at all the intervals from 3 dpi to 15 dpi in the lymphoid tissues with variations between the intervals and also amongst the infected sheep. During the early phase of acute infection, presence of viral genome was more in tonsils than MLN and spleen, whereas the distribution was higher in MLN during later stages. BVDV-1 genome positive cells included lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, reticular cells and sometimes crypt epithelial cells. Genome distribution was frequently observed in the lymphoid follicles of tonsils, MLN and spleen, besides the crypt epithelium in tonsils, paracortex and medullary sinus and cords of MLN. Most abundant and widespread distribution of BVDV-1 genome was observed on 6 dpi while there was a reduction in number and intensity of positive signals by 15 dpi in most of the infected animals. This is the first attempt made to study the localisation of BVDV-1 in lymphoid tissues of acutely infected sheep by in situ hybridization. The results show that the kinetics of BVDV-1 distribution in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected non-pregnant sheep follows almost a similar pattern to that demonstrated in BVDV infected cattle. PMID:26996785

  16. Global transcriptomic profiling of bovine endometrial immune response in vitro. II. Effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus on the endometrial response to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Oguejiofor, Chike F; Cheng, Zhangrui; Abudureyimu, Ayimuguli; Anstaett, Olivia L; Brownlie, Joe; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Wathes, D Claire

    2015-10-01

    Infection with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) is associated with uterine disease and infertility. This study investigated the influence of ncpBVDV on immune functions of the bovine endometrium by testing the response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Primary cultures of mixed epithelial and stromal cells were divided into four treatment groups (control [CONT], BVDV, CONT+LPS, and BVDV+LPS) and infected with ncpBVDV for 4 days followed by treatment with LPS for 6 h. Whole-transcriptomic gene expression was measured followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Differential expression of 184 genes was found between CONT and BVDV treatments, showing interplay between induction and inhibition of responses. Up-regulation of TLR3, complement, and chemotactic and TRIM factors by ncpBVDV all suggested an ongoing immune response to viral infection. Down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, CXCR4, and serine proteinase inhibitors suggested mechanisms by which ncpBVDV may simultaneously counter the host response. Comparison between BVDV+LPS and CONT+LPS treatments showed 218 differentially expressed genes. Canonical pathway analysis identified the key importance of interferon signaling. Top down-regulated genes were RSAD2, ISG15, BST2, MX2, OAS1, USP18, IFIT3, IFI27, SAMD9, IFIT1, and DDX58, whereas TRIM56, C3, and OLFML1 were most up-regulated. Many of these genes are also regulated by IFNT during maternal recognition of pregnancy. Many innate immune genes that typically respond to LPS were inhibited by ncpBVDV, including those involved in pathogen recognition, inflammation, interferon response, chemokines, tissue remodeling, cell migration, and cell death/survival. Infection with ncpBVDV can thus compromise immune function and pregnancy recognition, thereby potentially predisposing infected cows to postpartum bacterial endometritis and reduced fertility. PMID:26353892

  17. Seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in maritime Canada dairy cattle.

    PubMed Central

    VanLeeuwen, J A; Keefe, G P; Tremblay, R; Power, C; Wichtel, J J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of infection with the agents of production-limiting diseases in dairy cattle in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. In 30 randomly selected herds per province, 30 cattle per herd were randomly selected and tested for antibodies to bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), while 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 months of age were tested for antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). For BLV, 20.8% (15.8% to 27.0%) of cows were positive, and 70.0% (60.3% to 79.7%) of herds had at least one positive cow. In BLV-positive herds, the average BLV prevalence was 30.9% (24.8% to 37.2%). For M. paratuberculosis, 2.6% (1.8% to 3.9%) of cows were positive, and 16.7% (8.8% to 24.5%) of herds had at least 2 M. paratuberculosis-positive cows. In M. paratuberculosis-positive herds, the average M. paratuberculosis prevalence was 8.5% (6.9% to 10.1%). For BVDV, 46.1% (35.5% to 56.7%) of herds had at least 1 BVDV-positive animal with a titer greater than or equal to 1:64. PMID:11265187

  18. Respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma bovis is enhanced by exposure to bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) but not to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2.

    PubMed

    Prysliak, Tracy; van der Merwe, Jacques; Lawman, Zoe; Wilson, Donald; Townsend, Hugh; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Perez-Casal, José

    2011-11-01

    To determine if previous exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) type 2 affects the onset of disease caused by Mycoplasma bovis, 6- to 8-month-old beef calves were exposed to BVDV or BHV-1 4 d prior to challenge with a suspension of 3 clinical isolates of M. bovis. Animals were observed for clinical signs of disease and at necropsy, percent abnormal lung tissue and presence of M. bovis were determined. Most animals pre-exposed to BHV-1 type 2 but not BVDV developed M. bovis-related respiratory illness. In a second trial, we determined that a 100-fold reduction in the number of M. bovis bacteria administered to BHV-1 exposed animals reduced the percentage of abnormal lung tissue but not the severity of clinical signs. We conclude that previous exposure to BHV-1 but not BVDV type 2 was a necessary cause of M. bovis-related respiratory diseases in our disease model. PMID:22547839

  19. Intraherd correlation coefficients and design effects for bovine viral diarrhoea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in cow-calf system herds in North-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura-Correa, J C; Domínguez-Díaz, D; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Argaez-Sosa, J

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the intraherd correlation coefficient (ICC) and design (D) effect for infectious diseases could be of interest in sample size calculation and to provide the correct standard errors of prevalence estimates in cluster or two-stage samplings surveys. Information on 813 animals from 48 non-vaccinated cow-calf herds from North-eastern Mexico was used. The ICC for the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), leptospirosis and neosporosis diseases were calculated using a Bayesian approach adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests. The ICC and D values for BVD, IBR, leptospirosis and neosporosis were 0.31 and 5.91, 0.18 and 3.88, 0.22 and 4.53, and 0.11 and 2.68, respectively. The ICC and D values were different from 0 and D greater than 1, therefore large sample sizes are required to obtain the same precision in prevalence estimates than for a random simple sampling design. The report of ICC and D values is of great help in planning and designing two-stage sampling studies. PMID:20691486

  20. Direct production losses and treatment costs from bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Chi, Junwook; VanLeeuwen, John A; Weersink, Alfons; Keefe, Gregory P

    2002-09-30

    Our purpose was to determine direct production losses (milk loss, premature voluntary culling and reduced slaughter value, mortaliy loss, and abortion and reproductive loss) and treatmetn costs (veterinary services, medication cost, and extra farm labour cost) due to four infectious diseases in the maritime provinces of Canada: bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), Johne's Disease (JD), and neosporosis. We used a partial-budget model, and incorporated risk and sensitivity analyses to identify the effects of uncertainty on costs. Total annual costs for an average, infected, 50 cow herd were: JD$ 2472; BVD$ 2421; neosporosis $ 2304; EBL$ 806. The stochastic nature of the proportion of infected herds and prevalence of infection within a herd were used to estimate probability distributions for these ex post costs. For all diseases, these distributions were right skewed. A sensitivity analysis showed the largest effect on costs was due to milk yield effects. For example, changing milk production loss from 0 to 5% for BVD increased the costs for the disease by 266%. PMID:12350317

  1. Comparative evaluation of the fluorescent antibody test and microtiter immunoperoxidase assay for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from bull semen.

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Dubuc, C; Howard, T H

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase staining technique (IP) is described for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in bovine semen. The performance of the IP was compared to the reference immunofluorescent staining test in its ability to detect BVDV in 23 coded field semen samples. The IP assay which can be applied with ease to a large number of samples and does not require expensive fluorescence microscope equipment, appears to be an alternative method for BVDV detection. The IP assay can be strongly recommended for certification of BVDV-free bovine semen for artificial insemination and trading purposes and for laboratories which are not equipped for performing the immunofluorescent test. PMID:1653102

  2. Fine Mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The objective of this study was to refine the loci associated with BVD-PI and linked with BRD. Association testing for BVD-PI was performed on a population of 65 BVD-PI calves, 51 of their dams, and 60 unaffected calves (controls) with 142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BTA2 and 173 SNPs on BTA26. Comparisons were made between BVD-PI calves and controls calves and the dams of BVD-PI calves and controls calves. For the linkage analysis of BRD, the same markers were used to genotype two half-sib families consisting of the sires and 72 BRD positive and 148 BRD negative offspring. Using an allelic chi-square test, 11 loci on BTA2 and 8 loci on BTA26 were associated with the dams of the BVD-PI calves (P < 0.05) and 4 loci on BTA2 and 11 loci on BTA26 were associated with BVD-PI calves. This demonstrates that although some of the loci on BTA2 and BTA26 are jointly involved in the fetal and dam response to BVD-PI infection, there are loci that are solely associated with the maternal or fetal susceptibility to disease. One locus on BTA2 and two loci on BTA26 were found to be linked (P < 0.05) with BRD. The regions linked with BRD were also associated with BVD-PI demonstrating that both the broad (BRD) and narrow (BVD-PI) definition of disease identified shared genomic regions as important in disease susceptibility. These results further refined the loci associated with BVD-PI and linked with BRD. PMID:22303376

  3. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from field cattle immune to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are permissive in vitro to BVDV.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Mishra, N; Pateriya, A; Behera, S P; Rajukumar, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro permissivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-immune field cattle to homologous and heterologous BVDVs. PBMCs from seventeen BVDV-naïve and sixteen BVDV-immune animals were infected with noncytopathic BVDV-1 or BVDV-2. The immune status of cattle was indicated by the presence of virus neutralizing antibodies, while viral load of PBMCs was determined by real-time RT-PCR. The results revealed that the PBMCs from naïve or immune animals were permissive to either BVDV-1 or BVDV-2, but the viral load was significantly higher for the naïve than for the immune animals. Furthermore, the load of homologous virus in PBMCs from immune animals was lower than that of heterologous virus. Our results provide evidence that the PBMCs from BVDV-immune cattle in field are susceptible to reinfection with homologous or heterologous BVDV, albeit to a lower extent in the former case. PMID:24957715

  4. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  5. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Kubiça, Thaís F.; Alves, Sydney H.; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T.

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL−1) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL−1) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  6. An Outbreak of Late-Term Abortions, Premature Births, and Congenital Deformities Associated with a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Subtype b that Induces Thrombocytopenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 subtype b caused an outbreak of premature births, late term abortions, brachygnathism, growth retardation, brain deformities and rare other skeletal deformities in Holstein calves born to first calf heifers on one dairy. Experimental challenge of three,...

  7. CHALLENGE WITH BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS BY EXPOSURE TO PERSISTENTLY INFECTED CALVES: PROTECTION BY VACCINATION AND NEGATIVE RESULTS OF ANTIGEN TESTING IN NONVACCINATED ACUTELY INFECTED CALVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves persistently infected (PI) with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) represent an important source of infection for susceptible cattle. We evaluated vaccine efficacy using calves PI with noncytopathic BVDV2a for the challenge and compared tests to detect BVDV in acutely or transiently infected ...

  8. Full-length coding sequence for 12 bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates from persistently infected cattle in a feedyard in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report here the full-length coding sequence of 12 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from persistently infected cattle from a feedyard in southwest Kansas, USA. These 12 genomes represent the three major genotypes (BVDV 1a, 1b, and 2a) of BVDV currently circulating in the United States....

  9. HoBi-like virus challenge of pregnant cows that had previously given birth to calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to establish persistent infection (PI) following fetal infection is central to keeping these viruses circulating. Similarly, an emerging species of pestivirus, HoBi-like viruses, is also able to establish PIs. Dams that are not PI, but carrying PI ...

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) and their cousins the HoBi-like viruses: Multi symptom, multi host, multi tasking pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) has come to refer to a diverse collection of clinical presentations that include respiratory, enteric and reproductive symptoms accompanied by immunosuppression. While the majority of cases are subclinical in nature two forms exist, mucosal disease and hemorrhag...

  11. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) may result in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections are the consequence of in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. The resulting persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the virus. Clinical presen...

  12. Correlation between circulating white blood cell counts and level of protective immune response against bovine viral diarrhea virus elicited by a modified live vaccine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials (T1 and T2) were conducted to examine the range of responses elicited against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by vaccination with modified live vaccine and to determine the level of response required for prevention of clinical disease. For T1, BVDV neutralizing (BVDV VN) titers were de...

  13. Utilization of multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with bovine viral diarrhea virus infections and persistence of positive tests in persistently infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections have a significant impact on the cattle population and production. Persistently infected (PI) cattle represent the principal reservoir of infection. Identification and removal of PI animals are critical to the control of BVDV. There are numerous assays f...

  14. Prevalence and Antigenic Differences Observed between Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subgenotypes Isolated from Cattle in Australia and Feedlots in the Southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are divided into two different species within the pestivirus genus, BVDV type 1 (BVDV1) and BVDV type 2 (BVDV2). Further phylogenetic analysis has revealed subgenotype groupings within the BVDV1 and BVDV2 species. Thus far twelve BVDV1 subgenotypes (BVDV1a throu...

  15. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  16. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: Life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was detected in 2009-10 during a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 ...

  17. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Experimental Live Virus (BVDV1b and BVDV2b) Vaccines in Cattle: Immunogenicity Studies with Antibody Response to Multiple BVDV Subgenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are a diverse group of viruses causing infection and diseases in cattle worldwide. There are two major types of BVDV, BVDV1 and BVDV2. There are currently reported 12 different BVDV1 subgenotypes (BVDV1a-BVDV1l) and two BVDV2 subgenotypes (BVDV2a and BVDV2b)....

  18. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains circulating in domestic livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucle...

  19. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  20. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated Myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...

  1. Functional Characterization of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Nonstructural Protein 5A by Reverse Genetic Analysis and Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Isken, Olaf; Langerwisch, Ulrike; Schönherr, Robert; Lamp, Benjamin; Schröder, Kristin; Duden, Rainer; Rümenapf, Tillmann H.

    2014-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a hydrophilic phosphoprotein with RNA binding activity and a critical component of the viral replicase. In silico analysis suggests that NS5A encompasses three domains interconnected by two low-complexity sequences (LCSs). While domain I harbors two functional determinants, an N-terminal amphipathic helix important for membrane association, and a Zn-binding site essential for RNA replication, the structure and function of the C-terminal half of NS5A are still ill defined. In this study, we introduced a panel of 10 amino acid deletions covering the C-terminal half of NS5A. In the context of a highly efficient monocistronic replicon, deletions in LCS I and the N-terminal part of domain II, as well as in domain III, were tolerated with regard to RNA replication. When introduced into a bicistronic replicon, only deletions in LCS I and the N-terminal part of domain II were tolerated. In the context of the viral full-length genome, these mutations allowed residual virion morphogenesis. Based on these data, a functional monocistronic BVDV replicon coding for an NS5A variant with an insertion of the fluorescent protein mCherry was constructed. Live cell imaging demonstrated that a fraction of NS5A-mCherry localizes to the surface of lipid droplets. Taken together, this study provides novel insights into the functions of BVDV NS5A. Moreover, we established the first pestiviral replicon expressing fluorescent NS5A-mCherry to directly visualize functional viral replication complexes by live cell imaging. PMID:24131714

  2. The bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 protein formulated with a novel adjuvant induces strong, balanced immune responses and provides protection from viral challenge in cattle.

    PubMed

    Snider, Marlene; Garg, Ravendra; Brownlie, Robert; van den Hurk, Jan V; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2014-11-28

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is still one of the most serious pathogens in cattle, meriting the development of improved vaccines. Recently, we developed a new adjuvant consisting of poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP), either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), and an immune defense regulator (IDR) peptide. As this adjuvant has been shown to mediate the induction of robust, balanced immune responses, it was evaluated in an E2 subunit vaccine against BVDV in lambs and calves. The BVDV type 2 E2 protein was produced at high levels in a mammalian expression system and purified. When formulated with either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), together with IDR and PCEP, the E2 protein elicited high antibody titers and production of IFN-γ secreting cells in lambs. As the immune responses were stronger when poly(I:C) was used, the E2 protein with poly(I:C), IDR and PCEP was subsequently tested in cattle. Robust virus neutralizing antibodies as well as cell-mediated immune responses, including CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, were induced. The fact that CTL responses were demonstrated in calves vaccinated with an E2 protein subunit vaccine indicates that this adjuvant formulation promotes cross-presentation. Furthermore, upon challenge with a high dose of virulent BVDV-2, the vaccinated calves showed almost no temperature response, weight loss, leukopenia or virus replication, in contrast to the control animals, which had severe clinical disease. These data suggest that this E2 subunit formulation induces significant protection from BVDV-2 challenge, and thus is a promising BVDV vaccine candidate; in addition, the adjuvant platform has applications in bovine vaccines in general. PMID:25454860

  3. Development of a novel diagnostic test for detection of bovine viral diarrhea persistently infected animals using hair.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuldeep; Miller, Myrna M; Kohrt, Laura J; Scherba, Gail; Garrett, Edgar F; Fredrickson, Richard L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether manually plucked hairs might serve as an alternative sample for a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) testing. Twenty three, 1~3 week old, non-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccinated calves, found to be positive for BVDV by immunohistochemical staining, were selected and hairs were manually plucked from the ear. qRT-PCR was performed on samples consisting of more than 30 hairs (30~100) and whole blood. All 23 animals were positive for the virus by qRT-PCR performed on the whole blood and when samples of more than 30 hairs were assayed. Additionally, qRT-PCR was performed on groups of 10 and 20 hairs harvested from 7 out of 23 immunohistochemical staining-positive calves. When groups of 20 and 10 hairs were tested, 6 and 4 animals, respectively, were positive for the virus. PMID:21897105

  4. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  5. Production of Monoclonal Antibody Against Recombinant Polypeptide From the Erns Coding Region of the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

    PubMed Central

    Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Masood Reza; Ekhtelat, Maryam; Ghorbanpoor Najaf Abadi, Masood; Mahmoodi Koohi, Pezhman; Lotfi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is an economically important cattle disease with a worldwide distribution. Detection and elimination of animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is essential for the control of BVD and eradication of BVDV. There are usually no pathognomonic clinical signs of BVDV infection. Diagnostic investigations therefore rely on laboratory-based detection of the virus, or virus-induced antigens or antibodies. Objectives: Erns as an immunogenic protein of BVDV, is genetically and antigenically conserved among different isolates and therefore, is a candidate antigen for development of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serological studies or identification of PI animals. The aim of this study was to produce a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against recombinant Erns. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, recombinant maltose-binding protein (MBP)-Erns protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using amylose resin chromatography column and used as an antigen in MAb production. Spleen cells of the immunized mice with the recombinant antigen were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. Next, culture supernatants of primary clones of fused cells were screened by indirect ELISA. After three rounds of cloning, the reactivity of the MAbs with recombinant and natural antigen was established by Western blotting. Results: Based on our results, MAb against recombinant Erns was produced and reacted successfully with recombinant and natural antigens. Conclusions: With regards to the role of Erns in the identification of PI animals, it appears that Erns recombinant antigen and the specific monoclonal antibodies produced against it may be suitable for developing BVDV laboratory diagnostic assays. PMID:26870309

  6. Clinical response and immunomodulation following experimental challenge of calves with type 2 noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Archambault, D; Béliveau, C; Couture, Y; Carman, S

    2000-01-01

    Eight calves between 16 and 18 weeks of age that were seronegative to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine leucosis virus and bovine immunodeficiency-like virus were infected (day 0) intranasally with the type 2 noncytopathogenic Canadian 24515 field isolate of BVDV in order to evaluate the effect of BVDV infection on certain clinical, hematological and immunological parameters. All virus-exposed animals developed fever and showed a significant (P < 0.05, 0.01 or 0.001) drop in the number of circulating leucocytes (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) by day 3 or 5 post-exposure (PE), which continued to the end of the experiment at day 12 PE. BVDV was consistently isolated from the peripheral blood buffy coat cells from day 5 PE, and also from selected tissues (spleen, thymus, mesenteric and submaxillary lymph nodes, small intestine, lungs and thyroid gland) that were collected at the time of euthanasia of the animals at day 12 PE. Diminished significant (P < 0.05) percentages of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) expressing at their surface either B7 and MHC II molecules were observed in virus-exposed calves at days 7, 10 and/or 12 PE, when compared to virus-nonexposed control calves (n = 5). However, no changes in the percentages of PBMCs expressing either B4 or MHC I molecules were observed throughout the experiment. Finally, a significant (P < 0.05 or 0.01) enhanced phagocytic capability of the PBMCs, as analyzed by flow cytometry, was observed in virus-exposed animals at days 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 PE, when compared to control calves. These results demonstrated the virulence of the 24515 isolate of BVDV in 4 to 4.5 month-old calves, and suggest that type 2 BVDV infection in calves is associated with dysregulation of certain immunological functions. PMID:10779200

  7. Genetic change in the open reading frame of bovine viral diarrhea virus is introduced more rapidly during the establishment of a single persistent infection than by multiple acute infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are ubiquitous viral pathogens of cattle. There is a high degree of sequence diversity between strains circulating in livestock herds. The driving force behind change in sequence is not known but the inaccurate replication of the genomic RNA by a viral RNA polyme...

  8. An evaluation of circulating bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 maternal antibody level and response to vaccination in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Downey, E D; Tait, R G; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against viruses has been shown to help prevent bovine respiratory disease in cattle. However, both passively acquired maternal antibody concentration and calf age have been shown to impact the ability of the immune system of a calf to respond to vaccination. The objectives of this study were to identify and evaluate environmental and management factors that affect 1) passively acquired bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2 antibody level, 2) decay rate of passively acquired BVDV type 2 antibody level, and 3) responses to BVDV type 2 vaccinations. A 2-shot modified live vaccine was administered to 1,004 Angus calves that were weaned at either the initial vaccination (n = 508) or the booster vaccination (n = 496). Calves weaned at the initial vaccination averaged 139 d whereas calves weaned at booster vaccination averaged 128 d of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 antibodies were measured in 3 approximately 21-d intervals, serially collected serum samples to quantify antibody levels at initiation and end of vaccination protocol in addition to responses to initial, booster, and overall vaccination protocol. Amount of passively transferred antibody in the calf increased as dam age increased from 2 to 6 yr (P < 0.05) with no differences after dams reached 6 yr (P > 0.05). Calf age nested within birth year-season and dam age affected both initial and final antibody level, initial response, booster response, and overall antibody response to vaccination. The level of circulating, passively acquired maternal antibodies present at the time of vaccination had a significant (P < 0.05) negative effect on antibody responses to vaccination (initial response, booster response, and overall response). Calves that were weaned at the time of initial vaccination had significantly (P < 0.05) greater final antibody level, initial response, and overall response to vaccination than animals weaned at booster vaccination. In order for a calf to mount an overall antibody

  9. Host response to bovine viral diarrhea virus and interactions with infectious agents in the feedlot and breeding herd.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) have significant impact on beef and dairy production worldwide. The infections are widespread in the cattle populations, and in many production systems, vaccinations are utilized. BVDV strains have the hallmark of adversely affecting the immune system's many components, both the innate and acquired systems. While BVDV do cause primary infections and disease, their role in the pathogenesis of other agents underscores the complexity of viral-bacterial synergy. A greater understanding of the role of the persistently infected (PI) animal resulting from susceptible females infected at a critical stage of pregnancy has permitted acknowledgment of a major source of infection to susceptible animals. Not only do we understand the role of the PI in transmitting infections and complicating other infections, but we now focus attempts to better diagnose and remove the PI animal. Vaccinations now address the need to have an immune population, especially the breeding females in the herd. Biosecurity, detection and removal of the PI, and effective vaccinations are tools for potential successful BVDV control. PMID:22890128

  10. Laboratory diagnosis and transmissibility of bovine viral diarrhea virus from a bull with a persistent testicular infection.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy; Zhang, Yan; Brodersen, Bruce W; Marley, M Shonda; Joiner, Kellye S; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Riddell, Kay P; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Recently, in the United States, a dairy bull was diagnosed as the second confirmed case of persistent testicular infection (PTI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The first objective of this study was to evaluate the testing methodologies currently used by the artificial insemination industry in order to improve the detection of bulls with PTI. This study evaluated the impact of multiple factors ([1] sample tested, [2] sample handling, [3] assay used, and [4] assay methodology) on the sensitivity of detection of BVDV. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the transmissibility of BVDV from the bull through casual or sexual contact. Results from this study indicate that straws of semen should be transported to the diagnostic laboratory in liquid nitrogen dry shippers. PCR proved to be a more sensitive assay than virus isolation; however, certain PCR protocols exhibited greater diagnostic sensitivity than others. Insemination with cryopreserved semen from this infected bull caused viral transmission to a seronegative heifer resulting in viremia and seroconversion. After 42 months of age, the bull appeared to clear the infection. In conclusion, this bull validates that natural exposure to a 1a strain of BVDV can result in a unique PTI causing contamination of semen with detectable infectious virus. Appropriate handling and testing of samples is necessary in order to detect bulls exhibiting PTI. Additionally, PTI with BVDV may potentially be cleared after an extended duration. PMID:24656648